A probabilistic model of RNA conformational space
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frellsen, Jes; Moltke, Ida; Thiim, Martin
2009-01-01
efficient sampling of RNA conformations in continuous space, and with associated probabilities. We show that the model captures several key features of RNA structure, such as its rotameric nature and the distribution of the helix lengths. Furthermore, the model readily generates native-like 3-D......, the discrete nature of the fragments necessitates the use of carefully tuned, unphysical energy functions, and their non-probabilistic nature impairs unbiased sampling. We offer a solution to the sampling problem that removes these important limitations: a probabilistic model of RNA structure that allows......The increasing importance of non-coding RNA in biology and medicine has led to a growing interest in the problem of RNA 3-D structure prediction. As is the case for proteins, RNA 3-D structure prediction methods require two key ingredients: an accurate energy function and a conformational sampling...
A probabilistic model of RNA conformational space
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frellsen, Jes; Moltke, Ida; Thiim, Martin
2009-01-01
, the discrete nature of the fragments necessitates the use of carefully tuned, unphysical energy functions, and their non-probabilistic nature impairs unbiased sampling. We offer a solution to the sampling problem that removes these important limitations: a probabilistic model of RNA structure that allows...... conformations for 9 out of 10 test structures, solely using coarse-grained base-pairing information. In conclusion, the method provides a theoretical and practical solution for a major bottleneck on the way to routine prediction and simulation of RNA structure and dynamics in atomic detail.......The increasing importance of non-coding RNA in biology and medicine has led to a growing interest in the problem of RNA 3-D structure prediction. As is the case for proteins, RNA 3-D structure prediction methods require two key ingredients: an accurate energy function and a conformational sampling...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kozameh, C.N.; Newman, E.T.; Tod, K.P.
1985-01-01
Conformal transformations in four-dimensional. In particular, a new set of two necessary and sufficient conditions for a space to be conformal to an Einstein space is presented. The first condition defines the class of spaces conformal to C spaces, whereas the last one (the vanishing of the Bach tensor) gives the particular subclass of C spaces which are conformally related to Einstein spaces. (author)
Conformal field theory in conformal space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Preitschopf, C.R.; Vasiliev, M.A.
1999-01-01
We present a new framework for a Lagrangian description of conformal field theories in various dimensions based on a local version of d + 2-dimensional conformal space. The results include a true gauge theory of conformal gravity in d = (1, 3) and any standard matter coupled to it. An important feature is the automatic derivation of the conformal gravity constraints, which are necessary for the analysis of the matter systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jonathan W Stone
Full Text Available We present new modifications to the Wuchty algorithm in order to better define and explore possible conformations for an RNA sequence. The new features, including parallelization, energy-independent lonely pair constraints, context-dependent chemical probing constraints, helix filters, and optional multibranch loops, provide useful tools for exploring the landscape of RNA folding. Chemical probing alone may not necessarily define a single unique structure. The helix filters and optional multibranch loops are global constraints on RNA structure that are an especially useful tool for generating models of encapsidated viral RNA for which cryoelectron microscopy or crystallography data may be available. The computations generate a combinatorially complete set of structures near a free energy minimum and thus provide data on the density and diversity of structures near the bottom of a folding funnel for an RNA sequence. The conformational landscapes for some RNA sequences may resemble a low, wide basin rather than a steep funnel that converges to a single structure.
Probing RNA native conformational ensembles with structural constraints
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fonseca, Rasmus; van den Bedem, Henry; Bernauer, Julie
2016-01-01
substates, which are difficult to characterize experimentally and computationally. Here, we present an innovative, entirely kinematic computational procedure to efficiently explore the native ensemble of RNA molecules. Our procedure projects degrees of freedom onto a subspace of conformation space defined...
Fast, clash-free RNA conformational morphing using molecular junctions.
Héliou, Amélie; Budday, Dominik; Fonseca, Rasmus; van den Bedem, Henry
2017-07-15
Non-coding ribonucleic acids (ncRNA) are functional RNA molecules that are not translated into protein. They are extremely dynamic, adopting diverse conformational substates, which enables them to modulate their interaction with a large number of other molecules. The flexibility of ncRNA provides a challenge for probing their complex 3D conformational landscape, both experimentally and computationally. Despite their conformational diversity, ncRNAs mostly preserve their secondary structure throughout the dynamic ensemble. Here we present a kinematics-based procedure to morph an RNA molecule between conformational substates, while avoiding inter-atomic clashes. We represent an RNA as a kinematic linkage, with fixed groups of atoms as rigid bodies and rotatable bonds as degrees of freedom. Our procedure maintains RNA secondary structure by treating hydrogen bonds between base pairs as constraints. The constraints define a lower-dimensional, secondary-structure constraint manifold in conformation space, where motions are largely governed by molecular junctions of unpaired nucleotides. On a large benchmark set, we show that our morphing procedure compares favorably to peer algorithms, and can approach goal conformations to within a low all-atom RMSD by directing fewer than 1% of its atoms. Our results suggest that molecular junctions can modulate 3D structural rearrangements, while secondary structure elements guide large parts of the molecule along the transition to the correct final conformation. The source code, binaries and data are available at https://simtk.org/home/kgs . amelie.heliou@polytechnique.edu or vdbedem@stanford.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com
Quantifying polypeptide conformational space: sensitivity to conformation and ensemble definition.
Sullivan, David C; Lim, Carmay
2006-08-24
Quantifying the density of conformations over phase space (the conformational distribution) is needed to model important macromolecular processes such as protein folding. In this work, we quantify the conformational distribution for a simple polypeptide (N-mer polyalanine) using the cumulative distribution function (CDF), which gives the probability that two randomly selected conformations are separated by less than a "conformational" distance and whose inverse gives conformation counts as a function of conformational radius. An important finding is that the conformation counts obtained by the CDF inverse depend critically on the assignment of a conformation's distance span and the ensemble (e.g., unfolded state model): varying ensemble and conformation definition (1 --> 2 A) varies the CDF-based conformation counts for Ala(50) from 10(11) to 10(69). In particular, relatively short molecular dynamics (MD) relaxation of Ala(50)'s random-walk ensemble reduces the number of conformers from 10(55) to 10(14) (using a 1 A root-mean-square-deviation radius conformation definition) pointing to potential disconnections in comparing the results from simplified models of unfolded proteins with those from all-atom MD simulations. Explicit waters are found to roughen the landscape considerably. Under some common conformation definitions, the results herein provide (i) an upper limit to the number of accessible conformations that compose unfolded states of proteins, (ii) the optimal clustering radius/conformation radius for counting conformations for a given energy and solvent model, (iii) a means of comparing various studies, and (iv) an assessment of the applicability of random search in protein folding.
Twistor space, Minkowski space and the conformal group
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Broek, P.M. van den
1983-01-01
It is shown that the conformal group of compactified Minkowski space is isomorphic to a group of rays of semilinear transformations of twistor space. The action of the conformal group on twistor space is given by an explicit realisation of this isomorphism. In this way we determine the transformation of twistor space under space inversion and time inversion. (orig.)
Conformal maps between pseudo-Finsler spaces
Voicu, Nicoleta
The paper aims to initiate a systematic study of conformal mappings between Finsler spacetimes and, more generally, between pseudo-Finsler spaces. This is done by extending several results in pseudo-Riemannian geometry which are necessary for field-theoretical applications and by proposing a technique that reduces some problems involving pseudo-Finslerian conformal vector fields to their pseudo-Riemannian counterparts. Also, we point out, by constructing classes of examples, that conformal groups of flat (locally Minkowskian) pseudo-Finsler spaces can be much richer than both flat Finslerian and pseudo-Euclidean conformal groups.
Twistor space, Minkowski space and the conformal group
van den Broek, P.M.
1983-01-01
It is shown that the conformal group of compactified Minkowski space is isomorphic to a group of rays of semilinear transformations of twistor space. The action of the conformal group on twistor space is given by an explicit realisation of this isomorphism. In this way we determine the
Conformal deformation of Riemann space and torsion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pyzh, V.M.
1981-01-01
Method for investigating conformal deformations of Riemann spaces using torsion tensor, which permits to reduce the second ' order equations for Killing vectors to the system of the first order equations, is presented. The method is illustrated using conformal deformations of dimer sphere as an example. A possibility of its use when studying more complex deformations is discussed [ru
Conformally compactified homogeneous spaces (Possible Observable Consequences)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Budinich, P.
1995-01-01
Some arguments based on the possible spontaneous violation of the Cosmological Principles (represented by the observed large-scale structures of galaxies), the Cartan-geometry of simple spinors and on the Fock-formulation of hydrogen-atom wave-equation in momentum-space, are presented in favour of the hypothesis that space-time and momentum-space should be both conformally compactified and represented by the two four-dimensional homogeneous spaces of the conformal group, both isomorphic to (S 3 X S 1 )/Z 2 and correlated by conformal inversion. Within this framework, the possible common origin for the S0(4) symmetry underlying the geometrical structure of the Universe, of Kepler orbits and of the H-atom is discussed. On of the consequences of the proposed hypothesis could be that any quantum field theory should be naturally free from both infrared and ultraviolet divergences. But then physical spaces defined as those where physical phenomena may be best described, could be different from those homogeneous spaces. A simple, exactly soluble, toy model, valid for a two-dimensional space-time is presented where the conjecture conformally compactified space-time and momentum-space are both isomorphic to (S 1 X S 1 )/Z 2 , while the physical spaces are two finite lattice which are dual since Fourier transforms, represented by finite, discrete, sums may be well defined on them. Furthermore, a q-deformed SU q (1,1) may be represented on them if q is a root of unity. (author). 22 refs, 3 figs
Moduli spaces of unitary conformal field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wendland, K.
2000-08-01
We investigate various features of moduli spaces of unitary conformal field theories. A geometric characterization of rational toroidal conformal field theories in arbitrary dimensions is presented and discussed in relation to singular tori and those with complex multiplication. We study the moduli space M 2 of unitary two-dimensional conformal field theories with central charge c = 2. All the 26 non-exceptional non-isolated irreducible components of M 2 are constructed that may be obtained by an orbifold procedure from toroidal theories. The parameter spaces and partition functions are calculated explicitly. All multicritical points and lines are determined, such that all but three of these 26 components are directly or indirectly connected to the space of toroidal theories in M 2 . Relating our results to those by Dixon, Ginsparg, Harvey on the classification of c = 3/2 superconformal field theories, we give geometric interpretations to all non-isolated orbifolds discussed by them and correct their statements on multicritical points within the moduli space of c = 3/2 superconformal field theories. In the main part of this work, we investigate the moduli space M of N = (4, 4) superconformal field theories with central charge c = 6. After a slight emendation of its global description we give generic partition functions for models contained in M. We explicitly determine the locations of various known models in the component of M associated to K3 surfaces
Application of Conformational Space Search in Drug Action | Adikwu ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The role of conformational space in drug action is presented. Two examples of molecules in different therapeutic groups are presented. Conformational space search will lead to isolating the exact conformation with the desired medicinal properties. Many conformations of a plant isolate may exist which are active, weakly ...
Building the library of RNA 3D nucleotide conformations using the clustering approach
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Zok Tomasz
2015-09-01
Full Text Available An increasing number of known RNA 3D structures contributes to the recognition of various RNA families and identification of their features. These tasks are based on an analysis of RNA conformations conducted at different levels of detail. On the other hand, the knowledge of native nucleotide conformations is crucial for structure prediction and understanding of RNA folding. However, this knowledge is stored in structural databases in a rather distributed form. Therefore, only automated methods for sampling the space of RNA structures can reveal plausible conformational representatives useful for further analysis. Here, we present a machine learning-based approach to inspect the dataset of RNA three-dimensional structures and to create a library of nucleotide conformers. A median neural gas algorithm is applied to cluster nucleotide structures upon their trigonometric description. The clustering procedure is two-stage: (i backbone- and (ii ribose-driven. We show the resulting library that contains RNA nucleotide representatives over the entire data, and we evaluate its quality by computing normal distribution measures and average RMSD between data points as well as the prototype within each cluster.
Implications of conformal invariance in momentum space
Bzowski, Adam; McFadden, Paul; Skenderis, Kostas
2014-03-01
We present a comprehensive analysis of the implications of conformal invariance for 3-point functions of the stress-energy tensor, conserved currents and scalar operators in general dimension and in momentum space. Our starting point is a novel and very effective decomposition of tensor correlators which reduces their computation to that of a number of scalar form factors. For example, the most general 3-point function of a conserved and traceless stress-energy tensor is determined by only five form factors. Dilatations and special conformal Ward identities then impose additional conditions on these form factors. The special conformal Ward identities become a set of first and second order differential equations, whose general solution is given in terms of integrals involving a product of three Bessel functions (`triple- K integrals'). All in all, the correlators are completely determined up to a number of constants, in agreement with well-known position space results. In odd dimensions 3-point functions are finite without renormalisation while in even dimensions non-trivial renormalisation in required. In this paper we restrict ourselves to odd dimensions. A comprehensive analysis of renormalisation will be discussed elsewhere. This paper contains two parts that can be read independently of each other. In the first part, we explain the method that leads to the solution for the correlators in terms of triple- K integrals while the second part contains a self-contained presentation of all results. Readers interested only in results may directly consult the second part of the paper.
Conformal symmetry in two-dimensional space: recursion representation of conformal block
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zamolodchikov, A.B.
1988-01-01
The four-point conformal block plays an important part in the analysis of the conformally invariant operator algebra in two-dimensional space. The behavior of the conformal block is calculated in the present paper in the limit in which the dimension Δ of the intermediate operator tends to infinity. This makes it possible to construct a recursion relation for this function that connects the conformal block at arbitrary Δ to the blocks corresponding to the dimensions of the zero vectors in the degenerate representations of the Virasoro algebra. The relation is convenient for calculating the expansion of the conformal block in powers of the uniformizing parameters q = i π tau
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Haifeng eChen
2015-11-01
Full Text Available RNA polymerase catalyzes transcription with a high fidelity. If DNA/RNA mismatch or DNA damage occurs downstream, a backtracked RNA polymerase can proofread this situation. However, the backtracked mechanism is still poorly understood. Here we have performed multiple explicit-solvent molecular dynamics (MD simulations on bound and apo DNA/RNA hybrid to study backtracked recognition. MD simulations at room temperature suggest that specific electrostatic interactions play key roles in the backtracked recognition between the polymerase and DNA/RNA hybrid. Kinetics analysis at high temperature shows that bound and apo DNA/RNA hybrid unfold via a two-state process. Both kinetics and free energy landscape analyses indicate that bound DNA/RNA hybrid folds in the order of DNA/RNA contracting, the tertiary folding and polymerase binding. The predicted Φ-values suggest that C7, G9, dC12, dC15 and dT16 are key bases for the backtracked recognition of DNA/RNA hybrid. The average RMSD values between the bound structures and the corresponding apo ones and Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS P test analyses indicate that the recognition between DNA/RNA hybrid and polymerase might follow an induced fit mechanism for DNA/RNA hybrid and conformation selection for polymerase. Furthermore, this method could be used to relative studies of specific recognition between nucleic acid and protein.
Truncated conformal space approach to scaling Lee-Yang model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yurov, V.P.; Zamolodchikov, Al.B.
1989-01-01
A numerical approach to 2D relativstic field theories is suggested. Considering a field theory model as an ultraviolet conformal field theory perturbed by suitable relevant scalar operator one studies it in finite volume (on a circle). The perturbed Hamiltonian acts in the conformal field theory space of states and its matrix elements can be extracted from the conformal field theory. Truncation of the space at reasonable level results in a finite dimensional problem for numerical analyses. The nonunitary field theory with the ultraviolet region controlled by the minimal conformal theory μ(2/5) is studied in detail. 9 refs.; 17 figs
Conformal anomalies in curved space--time
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duncan, A.
1976-11-01
The general form of the conformal anomaly in a dimensionally regularized theory of massless fermions in a background metric is shown to be determined by the first few terms of weak field perturbation theory.
Conformal higher spin scattering amplitudes from twistor space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adamo, Tim [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Hähnel, Philipp; McLoughlin, Tristan [School of Mathematics, Trinity College Dublin, College Green, Dublin 2 (Ireland)
2017-04-04
We use the formulation of conformal higher spin (CHS) theories in twistor space to study their tree-level scattering amplitudes, finding expressions for all three-point (MHV)-bar amplitudes and all MHV amplitudes involving positive helicity conformal gravity particles and two negative helicity higher spins. This provides the on-shell analogue for the covariant coupling of CHS fields to a conformal gravity background. We discuss the restriction of the theory to a ghost-free unitary subsector, analogous to restricting conformal gravity to general relativity with a cosmological constant. We study the flat-space limit and show that the restricted amplitudes vanish, supporting the conjecture that in the unitary sector the S-matrix of CHS theories is trivial. However, by appropriately rescaling the amplitudes we find non-vanishing results which we compare with chiral flat-space higher spin theories.
Conformal higher spin scattering amplitudes from twistor space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adamo, Tim; Hähnel, Philipp; McLoughlin, Tristan
2017-01-01
We use the formulation of conformal higher spin (CHS) theories in twistor space to study their tree-level scattering amplitudes, finding expressions for all three-point (MHV)-bar amplitudes and all MHV amplitudes involving positive helicity conformal gravity particles and two negative helicity higher spins. This provides the on-shell analogue for the covariant coupling of CHS fields to a conformal gravity background. We discuss the restriction of the theory to a ghost-free unitary subsector, analogous to restricting conformal gravity to general relativity with a cosmological constant. We study the flat-space limit and show that the restricted amplitudes vanish, supporting the conjecture that in the unitary sector the S-matrix of CHS theories is trivial. However, by appropriately rescaling the amplitudes we find non-vanishing results which we compare with chiral flat-space higher spin theories.
Characterization of conformational dynamics of bistable RNA by equilibrium and non-equilibrium NMR.
Fürtig, Boris; Reining, Anke; Sochor, Florian; Oberhauser, Eva Marie; Heckel, Alexander; Schwalbe, Harald
2014-12-19
Unlike proteins, a given RNA sequence can adopt more than a single conformation. The two (or more) conformations are long-lived and have similar stabilities, but interconvert only slowly. Such bi- or multistability is often linked to the biological functions of the RNA. This unit describes how nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy can be used to characterize the conformational dynamics of bistable RNAs. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Projective invariants in a conformal finsler space - I
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mishra, C.K.; Singh, M.P.
1989-12-01
The projective invariants in a conformal Finsler space have been studied in regard to certain tensor and scalar which are invariant under projective transformation in a Finsler space. They have been the subject of further investigation by the present authors. (author). 8 refs
Exploring perturbative conformal field theory in Mellin space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nizami, Amin A. [International Centre for Theoretical Sciences, TIFR,Hesaraghatta, Hubli, Bengaluru-560089 (India); Rudra, Arnab [Center for Quantum Mathematics and Physics (QMAP), Department of Physics,University of California, Davis, 1 Shields Ave, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Sarkar, Sourav [Institut für Mathematik und Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, IRIS-Adlershof,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut,Am Mühlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Verma, Mritunjay [International Centre for Theoretical Sciences, TIFR,Hesaraghatta, Hubli, Bengaluru-560089 (India); Harish-Chandra Research Institute,Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad-211019 (India)
2017-01-24
We explore the Mellin representation of correlation functions in conformal field theories in the weak coupling regime. We provide a complete proof for a set of Feynman rules to write the Mellin amplitude for a general tree level Feynman diagram involving only scalar operators. We find a factorised form involving beta functions associated to the propagators, similar to tree level Feynman rules in momentum space for ordinary QFTs. We also briefly consider the case where a generic scalar perturbation of the free CFT breaks conformal invariance. Mellin space still has some utility and one can consider non-conformal Mellin representations. In this context, we find that the beta function corresponding to conformal propagator uplifts to a hypergeometric function.
Entanglement entropy from the truncated conformal space
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Palmai
2016-08-01
Full Text Available A new numerical approach to entanglement entropies of the Rényi type is proposed for one-dimensional quantum field theories. The method extends the truncated conformal spectrum approach and we will demonstrate that it is especially suited to study the crossover from massless to massive behavior when the subsystem size is comparable to the correlation length. We apply it to different deformations of massless free fermions, corresponding to the scaling limit of the Ising model in transverse and longitudinal fields. For massive free fermions the exactly known crossover function is reproduced already in very small system sizes. The new method treats ground states and excited states on the same footing, and the applicability for excited states is illustrated by reproducing Rényi entropies of low-lying states in the transverse field Ising model.
Massless fields in curved space-time: The conformal formalism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castagnino, M.A.; Sztrajman, J.B.
1986-01-01
A conformally invariant theory for massless quantum fields in curved space-time is formulated. We analyze the cases of spin-0, - 1/2 , and -1. The theory is developed in the important case of an ''expanding universe,'' generalizing the particle model of ''conformal transplantation'' known for spin-0 to spins- 1/2 and -1. For the spin-1 case two methods introducing new conformally invariant gauge conditions are stated, and a problem of inconsistency that was stated for spin-1 is overcome
Revisiting the conformal invariance of the scalar field: From Minkowski space to de Sitter space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huguet, E.; Queva, J.; Renaud, J.
2008-01-01
In this article, we clarify the link between the conformal (i.e. Weyl) correspondence from the Minkowski space to the de Sitter space and the conformal [i.e. SO(2,d)] invariance of the conformal scalar field on both spaces. We exhibit the realization on de Sitter space of the massless scalar representation of SO(2,d). It is obtained from the corresponding representation in Minkowski space through an intertwining operator inherited from the Weyl relation between the two spaces. The de Sitter representation is written in a form which allows one to take the point of view of a Minkowskian observer who sees the effect of curvature through additional terms
The RNA Exosome Channeling and Direct Access Conformations Have Distinct In Vivo Functions
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Jaeil Han
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The RNA exosome is a 3′–5′ ribonuclease complex that is composed of nine core subunits and an essential catalytic subunit, Rrp44. Two distinct conformations of Rrp44 were revealed in previous structural studies, suggesting that Rrp44 may change its conformation to exert its function. In the channeling conformation, (Rrp44ch, RNA accesses the active site after traversing the central channel of the RNA exosome, whereas in the other conformation, (Rrp44da, RNA gains direct access to the active site. Here, we show that the Rrp44da exosome is important for nuclear function of the RNA exosome. Defects caused by disrupting the direct access conformation are distinct from those caused by channel-occluding mutations, indicating specific functions for each conformation. Our genetic analyses provide in vivo evidence that the RNA exosome employs a direct-access route to recruit specific substrates, indicating that the RNA exosome uses alternative conformations to act on different RNA substrates.
Theoretical investigation of the conformational space of baicalin.
Martínez Medina, Juan J; Ferrer, Evelina G; Williams, Patricia A M; Okulik, Nora B
2017-09-01
Flavonoids are a large group of polyphenolic compounds ubiquitously present in plants. They are important components of human diet. They are recognized as potential drug candidates to be used in the treatment and prevention of a lot of pathological disorders, due to their protective effects. Baicalin (7-glucuronic acid 5, 6-dihydroxyflavone) is one of the main single active constituents isolated from the dried roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. The great interest on this flavonoid is due to its various pharmacological properties, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and so on, and its high accumulation in the roots of S. baicalensis. The aim of our work was to analyze the geometric and electronic properties of baicalin conformers (BCL), thus performing a complete search on the conformational space of this flavonoid in gas phase and in aqueous solution. The results indicate that the conformational space of baicalin is formed by eight conformers in gas phase and five conformers in aqueous solution optimized at B3LYP/6-311++G** theory level. BCLa2 TT and BCLa1 TT conformers have low stability in gas phase and very high stability in aqueous solution. This variation is related to a modification in the τ 1 angle that represents the relative position of the glucuronide unit respect to the central rings of the flavan nucleus (A and C). This modification was successfully explained by examining the changes in the hydrogen bond (HB) interactions that occur in the region around the hydroxyl group located in position 6 of ring A. Besides, the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and frontier molecular orbital (FMO) analyses indicate that BCLa2 TT and BCLa1 TT conformers are the most favorable conformers for interacting with positively charged species (such as metal ions) in aqueous media (such as biological fluids). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Structural alphabets derived from attractors in conformational space
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Kleinjung Jens
2010-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The hierarchical and partially redundant nature of protein structures justifies the definition of frequently occurring conformations of short fragments as 'states'. Collections of selected representatives for these states define Structural Alphabets, describing the most typical local conformations within protein structures. These alphabets form a bridge between the string-oriented methods of sequence analysis and the coordinate-oriented methods of protein structure analysis. Results A Structural Alphabet has been derived by clustering all four-residue fragments of a high-resolution subset of the protein data bank and extracting the high-density states as representative conformational states. Each fragment is uniquely defined by a set of three independent angles corresponding to its degrees of freedom, capturing in simple and intuitive terms the properties of the conformational space. The fragments of the Structural Alphabet are equivalent to the conformational attractors and therefore yield a most informative encoding of proteins. Proteins can be reconstructed within the experimental uncertainty in structure determination and ensembles of structures can be encoded with accuracy and robustness. Conclusions The density-based Structural Alphabet provides a novel tool to describe local conformations and it is specifically suitable for application in studies of protein dynamics.
QCD-instantons and conformal space-time inversion symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klammer, D.
2008-04-01
In this paper, we explore the appealing possibility that the strong suppression of large-size QCD instantons - as evident from lattice data - is due to a surviving conformal space-time inversion symmetry. This symmetry is both suggested from the striking invariance of highquality lattice data for the instanton size distribution under inversion of the instanton size ρ→(left angle ρ right angle 2 )/(ρ) and from the known validity of space-time inversion symmetry in the classical instanton sector. We project the instanton calculus onto the four-dimensional surface of a five-dimensional sphere via conformal stereographic mapping, before investigating conformal inversion. This projection to a compact, curved geometry is both to avoid the occurence of divergences and to introduce the average instanton size left angle ρ right angle from the lattice data as a new length scale. The average instanton size is identified with the radius b of this 5d-sphere and acts as the conformal inversion radius. For b= left angle ρ right angle, our corresponding results are almost perfectly symmetric under space-time inversion and in good qualitative agreement with the lattice data. For (ρ)/(b)→0 we recover the familiar results of instanton perturbation theory in flat 4d-space. Moreover, we illustrate that a (weakly broken) conformal inversion symmetry would have significant consequences for QCD beyond instantons. As a further successful test for inversion symmetry, we present striking implications for another instanton dominated lattice observable, the chirality-flip ratio in the QCD vacuum. (orig.)
Conformal higher spin theory and twistor space actions
Hähnel, Philipp; McLoughlin, Tristan
2017-12-01
We consider the twistor description of conformal higher spin theories and give twistor space actions for the self-dual sector of theories with spin greater than two that produce the correct flat space-time spectrum. We identify a ghost-free subsector, analogous to the embedding of Einstein gravity with cosmological constant in Weyl gravity, which generates the unique spin-s three-point anti-MHV amplitude consistent with Poincaré invariance and helicity constraints. By including interactions between the infinite tower of higher-spin fields we give a geometric interpretation to the twistor equations of motion as the integrability condition for a holomorphic structure on an infinite jet bundle. Finally, we conjecture anti-self-dual interaction terms which give an implicit definition of a twistor action for the full conformal higher spin theory.
Conformally flat spaces and solutions to Yang-Mills equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaohao, G.
1980-01-01
Using the conformal invariance of Yang-Mills equations in four-dimensional manifolds, it is proved that in a simply connected space of negative constant curvature Yang-Mills equations admit solutions with any real number as their Pontryagin number. It is also shown that the space S 3 x S 1 which is the regular counterpart of the meron solution is one example of a class of solutions to Yang-Mills equations on compact manifolds that are neither self-dual nor anti-self-dual
Null geodesic deviation II. Conformally flat space--times
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peters, P.C.
1975-01-01
The equation of geodesic deviation is solved in conformally flat space--time in a covariant manner. The solution is given as an integral equation for general geodesics. The solution is then used to evaluate second derivatives of the world function and derivatives of the parallel propagator, which need to be known in order to find the Green's function for wave equations in curved space--time. A method of null geodesic limits of two-point functions is discussed, and used to find the scalar Green's function as an iterative series
Protein Loop Structure Prediction Using Conformational Space Annealing.
Heo, Seungryong; Lee, Juyong; Joo, Keehyoung; Shin, Hang-Cheol; Lee, Jooyoung
2017-05-22
We have developed a protein loop structure prediction method by combining a new energy function, which we call E PLM (energy for protein loop modeling), with the conformational space annealing (CSA) global optimization algorithm. The energy function includes stereochemistry, dynamic fragment assembly, distance-scaled finite ideal gas reference (DFIRE), and generalized orientation- and distance-dependent terms. For the conformational search of loop structures, we used the CSA algorithm, which has been quite successful in dealing with various hard global optimization problems. We assessed the performance of E PLM with two widely used loop-decoy sets, Jacobson and RAPPER, and compared the results against the DFIRE potential. The accuracy of model selection from a pool of loop decoys as well as de novo loop modeling starting from randomly generated structures was examined separately. For the selection of a nativelike structure from a decoy set, E PLM was more accurate than DFIRE in the case of the Jacobson set and had similar accuracy in the case of the RAPPER set. In terms of sampling more nativelike loop structures, E PLM outperformed E DFIRE for both decoy sets. This new approach equipped with E PLM and CSA can serve as the state-of-the-art de novo loop modeling method.
Thach, Trung Thanh; Shin, Donghyuk; Han, Seungsu; Lee, Sangho
2016-04-01
The conformational flexibility of linkage-specific polyubiquitin chains enables ubiquitylated proteins and their receptors to be involved in a variety of cellular processes. Linear or Met1-linked polyubiquitin chains, associated with nondegradational cellular signalling pathways, have been known to adopt multiple conformations from compact to extended conformations. However, the extent of such conformational flexibility remains open. Here, the crystal structure of linear Ub2 was determined in a more compact conformation than that of the previously known structure (PDB entry 3axc). The two structures differ significantly from each other, as shown by an r.m.s.d. between C(α) atoms of 3.1 Å. The compactness of the linear Ub2 structure in comparison with PDB entry 3axc is supported by smaller values of the radius of gyration (Rg; 18 versus 18.9 Å) and the maximum interatomic distance (Dmax; 55.5 versus 57.8 Å). Extra intramolecular hydrogen bonds formed among polar residues between the distal and proximal ubiquitin moieties seem to contribute to stabilization of the compact conformation of linear Ub2. An ensemble of three semi-extended and extended conformations of linear Ub2 was also observed by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis in solution. In addition, the conformational heterogeneity in linear polyubiquitin chains is clearly manifested by SAXS analyses of linear Ub3 and Ub4: at least three distinct solution conformations are observed in each chain, with the linear Ub3 conformations being compact. The results expand the extent of conformational space of linear polyubiquitin chains and suggest that changes in the conformational ensemble may be pivotal in mediating multiple signalling pathways.
Field theories on conformally related space-times: Some global considerations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Candelas, P.; Dowker, J.S.
1979-01-01
The nature of the vacua appearing in the relation between the vacuum expectation value of stress tensors in conformally flat spaces is clarified. The simple but essential point is that the relevant spaces should have conformally related global Cauchy surfaces. Some commonly occurring conformally flat space-times are divided into two families according to whether they are conformally equivalent to Minkowski space or to the Rindler wedge. Expressions, some new, are obtained for the vacuum expectation value of the stress tensor for a number of illustrative cases. It is noted that thermalization relates the Green's functions of these two families
Connections on the state-space over conformal field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ranganathan, K.; Sonoda, H.; Zwiebach, B.
1994-01-01
Motivated by the problem of background independence of closed string field theory we study geometry on the infinite vector bundle of local fields over the space of conformal field theories (CFTs). With any connection we can associate an excluded domain D for the integral of marginal operators, and an operator one-form ω μ . The pair (D, ω μ ) determines the covariant derivative of any correlator of local fields. We obtain interesting classes of connections in which ω μ 's can be written in terms of CFT data. For these connections we compute their curvatures in terms of four-point correlators, D, and ω μ . Among these connections three are of particular interest. A flat, metric compatible connection Γ, and connections c and c with non-vanishing curvature, with the latter metric compatible. The flat connection cannot be used to do parallel transport over a finite distance. Parallel transport with either c or c, however, allows us to construct a CFT in the state-space of another CFT a finite distance away. The construction is given in the form of perturbation theory manifestly free of divergences. (orig.)
A Mellin space approach to the conformal bootstrap
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gopakumar, Rajesh [International Centre for Theoretical Sciences (ICTS-TIFR),Survey No. 151, Shivakote, Hesaraghatta Hobli, Bangalore North 560 089 (India); Kaviraj, Apratim [Centre for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science,C.V. Raman Avenue, Bangalore 560012 (India); Sen, Kallol [Centre for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science,C.V. Raman Avenue, Bangalore 560012 (India); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI),The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Sinha, Aninda [Centre for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science,C.V. Raman Avenue, Bangalore 560012 (India)
2017-05-05
We describe in more detail our approach to the conformal bootstrap which uses the Mellin representation of CFT{sub d} four point functions and expands them in terms of crossing symmetric combinations of AdS{sub d+1} Witten exchange functions. We consider arbitrary external scalar operators and set up the conditions for consistency with the operator product expansion. Namely, we demand cancellation of spurious powers (of the cross ratios, in position space) which translate into spurious poles in Mellin space. We discuss two contexts in which we can immediately apply this method by imposing the simplest set of constraint equations. The first is the epsilon expansion. We mostly focus on the Wilson-Fisher fixed point as studied in an epsilon expansion about d=4. We reproduce Feynman diagram results for operator dimensions to O(ϵ{sup 3}) rather straightforwardly. This approach also yields new analytic predictions for OPE coefficients to the same order which fit nicely with recent numerical estimates for the Ising model (at ϵ=1). We will also mention some leading order results for scalar theories near three and six dimensions. The second context is a large spin expansion, in any dimension, where we are able to reproduce and go a bit beyond some of the results recently obtained using the (double) light cone expansion. We also have a preliminary discussion about numerical implementation of the above bootstrap scheme in the absence of a small parameter.
Infinitesimal conformal closed transformations of de Sitter and Robertson-Walker cosmological spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakoto, Moussa
1976-01-01
The infinitesimal conformal closed transfromations of de Sitter and Robertson-Walker cosmological spaces are determined and an interesting property of the current lines for Robertson-Walker spaces is given [fr
Conformal quantum mechanics and holography in noncommutative space-time
Gupta, Kumar S.; Harikumar, E.; Zuhair, N. S.
2017-09-01
We analyze the effects of noncommutativity in conformal quantum mechanics (CQM) using the κ-deformed space-time as a prototype. Up to the first order in the deformation parameter, the symmetry structure of the CQM algebra is preserved but the coupling in a canonical model of the CQM gets deformed. We show that the boundary conditions that ensure a unitary time evolution in the noncommutative CQM can break the scale invariance, leading to a quantum mechanical scaling anomaly. We calculate the scaling dimensions of the two and three point functions in the noncommutative CQM which are shown to be deformed. The AdS2 / CFT1 duality for the CQM suggests that the corresponding correlation functions in the holographic duals are modified. In addition, the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound also picks up a noncommutative correction. The strongly attractive regime of a canonical model of the CQM exhibit quantum instability. We show that the noncommutativity softens this singular behaviour and its implications for the corresponding holographic duals are discussed.
Micropolar Fluids Using B-spline Divergence Conforming Spaces
Sarmiento, Adel
2014-06-06
We discretized the two-dimensional linear momentum, microrotation, energy and mass conservation equations from micropolar fluids theory, with the finite element method, creating divergence conforming spaces based on B-spline basis functions to obtain pointwise divergence free solutions [8]. Weak boundary conditions were imposed using Nitsche\\'s method for tangential conditions, while normal conditions were imposed strongly. Once the exact mass conservation was provided by the divergence free formulation, we focused on evaluating the differences between micropolar fluids and conventional fluids, to show the advantages of using the micropolar fluid model to capture the features of complex fluids. A square and an arc heat driven cavities were solved as test cases. A variation of the parameters of the model, along with the variation of Rayleigh number were performed for a better understanding of the system. The divergence free formulation was used to guarantee an accurate solution of the flow. This formulation was implemented using the framework PetIGA as a basis, using its parallel stuctures to achieve high scalability. The results of the square heat driven cavity test case are in good agreement with those reported earlier.
Abbink, Truus E. M.; Ooms, Marcel; Haasnoot, P. C. Joost; Berkhout, Ben
2005-01-01
The untranslated leader RNA is the most conserved part of the human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) genome. It contains many regulatory motifs that mediate a variety of steps in the viral life cycle. Previous work showed that the full-length leader RNA can adopt two alternative structures: a
Kniss, Andreas; Schuetz, Denise; Kazemi, Sina; Pluska, Lukas; Spindler, Philipp E; Rogov, Vladimir V; Husnjak, Koraljka; Dikic, Ivan; Güntert, Peter; Sommer, Thomas; Prisner, Thomas F; Dötsch, Volker
2018-02-06
Ubiquitination is the most versatile posttranslational modification. The information is encoded by linkage type as well as chain length, which are translated by ubiquitin binding domains into specific signaling events. Chain topology determines the conformational space of a ubiquitin chain and adds an additional regulatory layer to this ubiquitin code. In particular, processes that modify chain length will be affected by chain conformations as they require access to the elongation or cleavage sites. We investigated conformational distributions in the context of chain elongation and disassembly using pulsed electron-electron double resonance spectroscopy in combination with molecular modeling. Analysis of the conformational space of diubiquitin revealed conformational selection or remodeling as mechanisms for chain recognition during elongation or hydrolysis, respectively. Chain elongation to tetraubiquitin increases the sampled conformational space, suggesting that a high intrinsic flexibility of K48-linked chains may contribute to efficient proteasomal degradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
q-conformally covariant q-Minkowski space-time and invariant equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dobrev, V.K.
1997-09-01
We present explicitly the covariant action of the q-conformal algebra on the q-Minkowski space we proposed earlier. We also present some q-conformally invariant equations, namely a hierarchy of q-Maxwell equations, and also a q-d'Alembert equation, proposed earlier by us, in a form different from the original . (author). 19 refs
Al-Hashimi, Hashim M; Gosser, Yuying; Gorin, Andrey; Hu, Weidong; Majumdar, Ananya; Patel, Dinshaw J
2002-01-11
Ground-state dynamics in RNA is a critical precursor for structural adaptation observed ubiquitously in protein-RNA recognition. A tertiary conformational analysis of the stem-loop structural element in the transactivation response element (TAR) from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-I) RNA is presented using recently introduced NMR methods that rely on the measurement of residual dipolar couplings (RDC) in partially oriented systems. Order matrix analysis of RDC data provides evidence for inter-helical motions that are of amplitude 46(+/-4) degrees, of random directional character, and that are executed about an average conformation with an inter-helical angle between 44 degrees and 54 degrees. The generated ensemble of TAR conformations have different organizations of functional groups responsible for interaction with the trans-activator protein Tat, including conformations similar to the previously characterized bound-state conformation. These results demonstrate the utility of RDC-NMR for simultaneously characterizing RNA tertiary dynamics and average conformation, and indicate an avenue for TAR complex formation involving tertiary structure capture. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
Solution of the stationary vacuum equations of relativity for conformally flat 3-spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perjes, Z.; Lukacs, B.; Sebestyen, A.; Valentini, A.; Sparling, G.A.J.
1983-08-01
The solution of Einstein's vacuum gravitational equations for stationary space-times with a conformally flat 3-space is presented. There is no other solution of this problem than the Ehlers-rotation generalizations of the three conformastat space-times including the Schwarzschild metric. (author)
Local differential geometry of null curves in conformally flat space-time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Urbantke, H.
1989-01-01
The conformally invariant differential geometry of null curves in conformally flat space-times is given, using the six-vector formalism which has generalizations to higher dimensions. This is then paralleled by a twistor description, with a twofold merit: firstly, sometimes the description is easier in twistor terms, sometimes in six-vector terms, which leads to a mutual enlightenment of both; and secondly, the case of null curves in timelike pseudospheres or 2+1 Minkowski space we were only able to treat twistorially, making use of an invariant differential found by Fubini and Cech. The result is the expected one: apart from stated exceptional cases there is a conformally invariant parameter and two conformally invariant curvatures which, when specified in terms of this parameter, serve to characterize the curve up to conformal transformations. 12 refs. (Author)
Hao, Xiaohu; Zhang, Guijun; Zhou, Xiaogen
2018-04-01
Computing conformations which are essential to associate structural and functional information with gene sequences, is challenging due to the high dimensionality and rugged energy surface of the protein conformational space. Consequently, the dimension of the protein conformational space should be reduced to a proper level, and an effective exploring algorithm should be proposed. In this paper, a plug-in method for guiding exploration in conformational feature space with Lipschitz underestimation (LUE) for ab-initio protein structure prediction is proposed. The conformational space is converted into ultrafast shape recognition (USR) feature space firstly. Based on the USR feature space, the conformational space can be further converted into Underestimation space according to Lipschitz estimation theory for guiding exploration. As a consequence of the use of underestimation model, the tight lower bound estimate information can be used for exploration guidance, the invalid sampling areas can be eliminated in advance, and the number of energy function evaluations can be reduced. The proposed method provides a novel technique to solve the exploring problem of protein conformational space. LUE is applied to differential evolution (DE) algorithm, and metropolis Monte Carlo(MMC) algorithm which is available in the Rosetta; When LUE is applied to DE and MMC, it will be screened by the underestimation method prior to energy calculation and selection. Further, LUE is compared with DE and MMC by testing on 15 small-to-medium structurally diverse proteins. Test results show that near-native protein structures with higher accuracy can be obtained more rapidly and efficiently with the use of LUE. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tan, Cheng; Li, Wenfei; Wang, Wei
2013-12-19
Protein TFIIIA is composed of nine tandemly arranged Cys2His2 zinc fingers. It can bind either to the 5S RNA gene as a transcription factor or to the 5S RNA transcript as a chaperone. Although structural and biochemical data provided valuable information on the recognition between the TFIIIIA and the 5S DNA/RNA, the involved conformational motions and energetic factors contributing to the binding affinity and specificity remain unclear. In this work, we conducted MD simulations and MM/GBSA calculations to investigate the binding-induced conformational changes in the recognition of the 5S RNA by the central three zinc fingers of TFIIIA and the energetic factors that influence the binding affinity and specificity at an atomistic level. Our results revealed drastic interdomain conformational changes between these three zinc fingers, involving the exposure/burial of several crucial DNA/RNA binding residues, which can be related to the competition between DNA and RNA for the binding of TFIIIA. We also showed that the specific recognition between finger 4/finger 6 and the 5S RNA introduces frustrations to the nonspecific interactions between finger 5 and the 5S RNA, which may be important to achieve optimal binding affinity and specificity.
The Chevreton tensor and Einstein-Maxwell spacetimes conformal to Einstein spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergqvist, Goeran; Eriksson, Ingemar
2007-01-01
In this paper, we characterize the source-free Einstein-Maxwell spacetimes which have a trace-free Chevreton tensor. We show that this is equivalent to the Chevreton tensor being of pure radiation type and that it restricts the spacetimes to Petrov type N or O. We prove that the trace of the Chevreton tensor is related to the Bach tensor and use this to find all Einstein-Maxwell spacetimes with a zero cosmological constant that have a vanishing Bach tensor. Among these spacetimes we then look for those which are conformal to Einstein spaces. We find that the electromagnetic field and the Weyl tensor must be aligned, and in the case that the electromagnetic field is null, the spacetime must be conformally Ricci-flat and all such solutions are known. In the non-null case, since the general solution is not known on a closed form, we settle by giving the integrability conditions in the general case, but we do give new explicit examples of Einstein-Maxwell spacetimes that are conformal to Einstein spaces, and we also find examples where the vanishing of the Bach tensor does not imply that the spacetime is conformal to a C-space. The non-aligned Einstein-Maxwell spacetimes with vanishing Bach tensor are conformally C-spaces, but none of them are conformal to Einstein spaces
Towse, Clare-Louise; Akke, Mikael; Daggett, Valerie
2017-04-27
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations contain considerable information with regard to the motions and fluctuations of a protein, the magnitude of which can be used to estimate conformational entropy. Here we survey conformational entropy across protein fold space using the Dynameomics database, which represents the largest existing data set of protein MD simulations for representatives of essentially all known protein folds. We provide an overview of MD-derived entropies accounting for all possible degrees of dihedral freedom on an unprecedented scale. Although different side chains might be expected to impose varying restrictions on the conformational space that the backbone can sample, we found that the backbone entropy and side chain size are not strictly coupled. An outcome of these analyses is the Dynameomics Entropy Dictionary, the contents of which have been compared with entropies derived by other theoretical approaches and experiment. As might be expected, the conformational entropies scale linearly with the number of residues, demonstrating that conformational entropy is an extensive property of proteins. The calculated conformational entropies of folding agree well with previous estimates. Detailed analysis of specific cases identifies deviations in conformational entropy from the average values that highlight how conformational entropy varies with sequence, secondary structure, and tertiary fold. Notably, α-helices have lower entropy on average than do β-sheets, and both are lower than coil regions.
Conformal use of retarded Green's functions for the Maxwell field in de Sitter space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faci, S.; Huguet, E.; Renaud, J.
2011-01-01
We propose a new propagation formula for the Maxwell field in de Sitter space which exploits the conformal invariance of this field together with a conformal gauge condition. This formula allows to determine the classical electromagnetic field in the de Sitter space from given currents and initial data. It only uses the Green's function of the massless Minkowskian scalar field. This leads to drastic simplifications in practical calculations. We apply this formula to the classical problem of the two charges of opposite signs at rest at the North and South Poles of the de Sitter space.
Metamaterial-Backed Conformal Antennas for Space Exploration
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this experiment is to demonstrate a successful X-band antenna array fabricated on a high-permittivity substrate together with bandgap metamaterials...
Quantum effects and elimination of the conformal anomaly in anisotropic space-time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grib, A.A.; Nesteruk, A.V.
1988-01-01
In homogeneous anisotropic space-time the connection between the problem of the elimination of infrared divergences and the conformal anomaly of the regularized energy-momentum tensor is studied. It is shown that removal of the infrared divergence by means of a cutoff leads to the absence of a conformal anomaly. A physical interpretation of the infrared cutoff as a shift in the particle-energy spectrum by an amount equal to the effective temperature of the gravitational field is proposed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hawking, S.W.; King, A.R.; McCarthy, P.J.
1976-01-01
A new topology is proposed for strongly causal space--times. Unlike the standard manifold topology (which merely characterizes continuity properties), the new topology determines the causal, differential, and conformal structures of space--time. The topology is more appealing, physical, and manageable than the topology previously proposed by Zeeman for Minkowski space. It thus seems that many calculations involving the above structures may be made purely topological
Aparicio, Frederic; Vilar, Marçal; Perez-Payá, Enrique; Pallás, Vicente
2003-08-15
Binding of coat protein (CP) to the 3' nontranslated region (3'-NTR) of viral RNAs is a crucial requirement to establish the infection of Alfamo- and Ilarviruses. In vitro binding properties of the Prunus necrotic ringspot ilarvirus (PNRSV) CP to the 3'-NTR of its genomic RNA using purified E. coli- expressed CP and different synthetic peptides corresponding to a 26-residue sequence near the N-terminus were investigated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. PNRSV CP bound to, at least, three different sites existing on the 3'-NTR. Moreover, the N-terminal region between amino acid residues 25 to 50 of the protein could function as an independent RNA-binding domain. Single exchange of some arginine residues by alanine eliminated the RNA-interaction capacity of the synthetic peptides, consistent with a crucial role for Arg residues common to many RNA-binding proteins possessing Arg-rich domains. Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed that the RNA conformation is altered when amino-terminal CP peptides bind to the viral RNA. Finally, mutational analysis of the 3'-NTR suggested the presence of a pseudoknotted structure at this region on the PNRSV RNA that, when stabilized by the presence of Mg(2+), lost its capability to bind the coat protein. The existence of two mutually exclusive conformations for the 3'-NTR of PNRSV strongly suggests a similar regulatory mechanism at the 3'-NTR level in Alfamo- and Ilarvirus genera.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aparicio, Frederic; Vilar, Marcal; Perez-Paya, Enrique; Pallas, Vicente
2003-01-01
Binding of coat protein (CP) to the 3' nontranslated region (3'-NTR) of viral RNAs is a crucial requirement to establish the infection of Alfamo- and Ilarviruses. In vitro binding properties of the Prunus necrotic ringspot ilarvirus (PNRSV) CP to the 3'-NTR of its genomic RNA using purified E. coli- expressed CP and different synthetic peptides corresponding to a 26-residue sequence near the N-terminus were investigated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. PNRSV CP bound to, at least, three different sites existing on the 3'-NTR. Moreover, the N-terminal region between amino acid residues 25 to 50 of the protein could function as an independent RNA-binding domain. Single exchange of some arginine residues by alanine eliminated the RNA-interaction capacity of the synthetic peptides, consistent with a crucial role for Arg residues common to many RNA-binding proteins possessing Arg-rich domains. Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed that the RNA conformation is altered when amino-terminal CP peptides bind to the viral RNA. Finally, mutational analysis of the 3'-NTR suggested the presence of a pseudoknotted structure at this region on the PNRSV RNA that, when stabilized by the presence of Mg 2+ , lost its capability to bind the coat protein. The existence of two mutually exclusive conformations for the 3'-NTR of PNRSV strongly suggests a similar regulatory mechanism at the 3'-NTR level in Alfamo- and Ilarvirus genera
Conformally invariant amplitudes and field theory in a space-time of constant curvature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drummond, I.T.
1977-02-01
The problem of calculating the ultra violet divergences of a field theory in a spherical space-time is reduced to analysing the pole structure of conformally invariant integrals which are analogous to amplitudes which occur in the theory of dual models. The calculations are illustrated with phi 3 -theory in six-dimensions. (author)
Stationary vacuum fields with a conformally flat three-space Pt. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lukacs, B.; Perjes, Z.; Sebestyen, A.; Sparling, G.A.J.
1982-01-01
A generalized notion of conformastat space-times is introduced in relativity theory. In this sense, the conformastat space-time is stationary with the three-space of time-like Killing trajectories being conformally flat. A 3+1 decomposition of the field equations is given, and two classes of nonstatic conformastat vacuum fields are exhaustively investigated. The resulting three metrics form a NUT-type extension of the solution of the static conformastat vacuum problem. The authors conjecture that all conformastat vacuum space-times are axially symmetric. (author)
Infinite-parametric extension of the conformal algebra in D>2 space-time dimension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fradkin, E.S.; Linetsky, V.Ya.
1990-09-01
On the basis of the analytic continuations of semisimple Lie algebras discovered recently by us we construct manifestly quasiconformal infinite-dimensional algebras AC(so(4,1)) and PAC(so(3,2)) extending the conformal algebras in three-dimensional Euclidean and Minkowski space-time like the Virasoro algebra extends so(2,1). Their higher spin generalizations are also constructed. A counterpart of the central extension for D>2 and possible applications in exactly solvable conformal quantum field models in D>2 are discussed. (author). 31 refs, 2 figs
On the existence of conformal Killing vectors for ST-homogeneous Godel type space-times
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parra, Y.; Patino, A.; Percoco, U. [Laboratorio de Fisica Teorica, Facultad de Ciencias Universidad de los Andes, Merida 5101 (Venezuela); Tsamparlis, M. [seccion de Astronomia-Astrofisica-Mecanica, Universidad de Atenas, Atenas 157 83 (Greece)
2006-07-01
Tsamparlis with another authors have developed a systematic method for computing of the conformal algebra of 1+3 space-times. The proper CKV's are found in terms of gradient CKVs of the 3-space. In this paper we apply Tsamparlis' results to the study CKVs of the Godel ST-Homogeneous type spacetimes. We find that the only space-time admitting proper CKV's is the ST-Homogeneous Godel type with m{sup 2} = 4{omega}{sup 2} (RT). (Author)
Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks
Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André
2017-08-01
Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kumar, Amit; Park, HaJeung; Fang, Pengfei; Parkesh, Raman; Guo, Min; Nettles, Kendall W.; Disney, Matthew D. (Scripps)
2012-03-27
RNA internal loops often display a variety of conformations in solution. Herein, we visualize conformational heterogeneity in the context of the 5'CUG/3'GUC repeat motif present in the RNA that causes myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). Specifically, two crystal structures of a model DM1 triplet repeating construct, 5'r[{und UU}GGGC(C{und U}G){sub 3}GUCC]{sub 2}, refined to 2.20 and 1.52 {angstrom} resolution are disclosed. Here, differences in the orientation of the 5' dangling UU end between the two structures induce changes in the backbone groove width, which reveals that noncanonical 1 x 1 nucleotide UU internal loops can display an ensemble of pairing conformations. In the 2.20 {angstrom} structure, CUGa, the 5' UU forms a one hydrogen-bonded pair with a 5' UU of a neighboring helix in the unit cell to form a pseudoinfinite helix. The central 1 x 1 nucleotide UU internal loop has no hydrogen bonds, while the terminal 1 x 1 nucleotide UU internal loops each form a one-hydrogen bond pair. In the 1.52 {angstrom} structure, CUGb, the 5' UU dangling end is tucked into the major groove of the duplex. While the canonically paired bases show no change in base pairing, in CUGb the terminal 1 x 1 nucleotide UU internal loops now form two hydrogen-bonded pairs. Thus, the shift in the major groove induced by the 5' UU dangling end alters noncanonical base patterns. Collectively, these structures indicate that 1 x 1 nucleotide UU internal loops in DM1 may sample multiple conformations in vivo. This observation has implications for the recognition of this RNA, and other repeating transcripts, by protein and small molecule ligands.
Stochastic sampling of the RNA structural alignment space.
Harmanci, Arif Ozgun; Sharma, Gaurav; Mathews, David H
2009-07-01
A novel method is presented for predicting the common secondary structures and alignment of two homologous RNA sequences by sampling the 'structural alignment' space, i.e. the joint space of their alignments and common secondary structures. The structural alignment space is sampled according to a pseudo-Boltzmann distribution based on a pseudo-free energy change that combines base pairing probabilities from a thermodynamic model and alignment probabilities from a hidden Markov model. By virtue of the implicit comparative analysis between the two sequences, the method offers an improvement over single sequence sampling of the Boltzmann ensemble. A cluster analysis shows that the samples obtained from joint sampling of the structural alignment space cluster more closely than samples generated by the single sequence method. On average, the representative (centroid) structure and alignment of the most populated cluster in the sample of structures and alignments generated by joint sampling are more accurate than single sequence sampling and alignment based on sequence alone, respectively. The 'best' centroid structure that is closest to the known structure among all the centroids is, on average, more accurate than structure predictions of other methods. Additionally, cluster analysis identifies, on average, a few clusters, whose centroids can be presented as alternative candidates. The source code for the proposed method can be downloaded at http://rna.urmc.rochester.edu.
Deformed conformal and super-Poincare symmetries in the non- (anti-) commutative spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banerjee, R.; Lee, C.; Siwach, S.
2006-01-01
Generators of the super-Poincare algebra in the non- (anti-) commutative superspace are represented using appropriate higher derivative operators defined in this quantum superspace. Also discussed are the analogous representations of the conformal and superconformal symmetry generators in the deformed spaces. This construction is obtained by generalizing the recent work of Wess et al. on the Poincare generators in the θ-deformed Minkowski space, or by using the substitution rules we derived on the basis of the phase-space structures of non- (anti-) commutative-space variables. Even with the non-zero deformation parameters the algebras remain unchanged although the comultiplication rules are deformed. The transformation of the fields under deformed symmetry is also discussed. Our construction can be used for systematic development of field theories in the deformed spaces. (orig.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vester, B; Hansen, L H; Douthwaite, S
1995-01-01
the effects of mutations around position A2058 on methylation. Mutagenizing A2058 (to G or U) completely abolishes methylation of 23S rRNA by ErmE. No methylation occurred at other sites in the rRNA, demonstrating the fidelity of ErmE for A2058. Breaking the neighboring G2057-C2611 Watson-Crick base pair...... by introducing either an A2057 or a U2611 mutation, greatly reduces the rate of methylation at A2058. Methylation remains impaired after these mutations have been combined to create a new A2057-U2611 Watson-Crick base interaction. The conformation of this region in 23S rRNA was probed with chemical reagents...
The incidence of the criminal policy in the conformation of the public space
Monroy, Carla
2016-01-01
Mexican Criminal Policy is distinguished by its historical repression, the strategies implemented by the current government affected directly the violence and crime index. These facts beat and modified the conformation of the public space. Recreational places, parks, streets, squares, etc., stopped having the dynamism that used to have. On the other hand, the global postmodern speech changes the conception of the city, nowadays is privileged the consumption, so the city has transform in order...
Agarwal, Shweta; Tyagi, Gunjan; Chadha, Deepti; Mehrotra, Ranjana
2017-01-01
Chloroethyl nitrosourea derivatives (CENUs) represent an important family of anticancer chemotherapeutic agents, which are used in the treatment of different types of cancer such as brain tumors, resistant or relapsed Hodgkin's disease, small cell lung cancer and malignant melanoma. This work focuses towards understanding the interaction of chloroethyl nitrosourea derivatives; lomustine, nimustine and semustine with tRNA using spectroscopic approach in order to elucidate their auxiliary anticancer action mechanism inside the cell. Attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), Fourier transform infrared difference spectroscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy and UV-visible spectroscopy were employed to investigate the binding parameters of tRNA-CENUs complexation. Results of present study demonstrate that all CENUs, studied here, interact with tRNA through guanine nitrogenous base residues and possibly further crosslink cytosine residues in paired region of tRNA. Moreover, spectral data collected for nimustine-tRNA and semustine-tRNA complex formation indicates towards the groove-directed-alkylation as their anti-malignant action, which involves the participation of uracil moiety located in major groove of tRNA. Besides this, tRNA-CENUs adduct formation did not alter the native conformation of biopolymer and tRNA remains in A-form after its interaction with all three nitrosourea derivatives studied. The binding constants (K a ) estimated for tRNA complexation with lomustine, nimustine and semustine are 2.55×10 2 M -1 , 4.923×10 2 M -1 and 4.223×10 2 M -1 respectively, which specify weak type of CENU's binding with tRNA. Moreover, molecular modeling simulations were also performed to predict preferential binding orientation of CENUs with tRNA that corroborates well with spectral outcomes. The findings, presented here, recognize tRNA binding properties of CENUs that can further help in rational designing of more specific and
A conformation-induced fluorescence method for microRNA detection
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aw, Sherry S; Tang, Melissa Xm; Teo, Yin Nah
2016-01-01
and quantify microRNAs may aid research into novel aspects of microRNA biology and contribute to the development of diagnostics. By introducing an additional stem loop into the fluorescent RNA Spinach and altering its 3' and 5' ends, we have generated a new RNA, Pandan, that functions as the basis for a micro......MicroRNAs play important roles in a large variety of biological systems and processes through their regulation of target mRNA expression, and show promise as clinical biomarkers. However, their small size presents challenges for tagging or direct detection. Innovation in techniques to sense......RNA sensor. Pandan contains two sequence-variable stem loops that encode complementary sequence for a target microRNA of interest. In its sensor form, it requires the binding of a target microRNA in order to reconstitute the RNA scaffold for fluorophore binding and fluorescence. Binding of the target micro...
On integral formulation of the Mach principle in a conformally flat space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mal'tsev, V.K.
1976-01-01
The integral formulation of the Mach principle represents a rather complicated mathematical formalism in which many aspects of the physical content of theory are not clear. Below an attempt is made to consider the integral representation for the most simple case of conformally flat spaces. The fact that this formalism there is only one scalar function makes it possible to analyse in more detail many physical peculiarities of this representation of the Mach principle: the absence of asymptotically flat spaces, problems of inertia and gravity, constraints on state equations, etc
Lu, Chao; Li, Xubin; Wu, Dongsheng; Zheng, Lianqing; Yang, Wei
2016-01-12
In aqueous solution, solute conformational transitions are governed by intimate interplays of the fluctuations of solute-solute, solute-water, and water-water interactions. To promote molecular fluctuations to enhance sampling of essential conformational changes, a common strategy is to construct an expanded Hamiltonian through a series of Hamiltonian perturbations and thereby broaden the distribution of certain interactions of focus. Due to a lack of active sampling of configuration response to Hamiltonian transitions, it is challenging for common expanded Hamiltonian methods to robustly explore solvent mediated rare conformational events. The orthogonal space sampling (OSS) scheme, as exemplified by the orthogonal space random walk and orthogonal space tempering methods, provides a general framework for synchronous acceleration of slow configuration responses. To more effectively sample conformational transitions in aqueous solution, in this work, we devised a generalized orthogonal space tempering (gOST) algorithm. Specifically, in the Hamiltonian perturbation part, a solvent-accessible-surface-area-dependent term is introduced to implicitly perturb near-solute water-water fluctuations; more importantly in the orthogonal space response part, the generalized force order parameter is generalized as a two-dimension order parameter set, in which essential solute-solvent and solute-solute components are separately treated. The gOST algorithm is evaluated through a molecular dynamics simulation study on the explicitly solvated deca-alanine (Ala10) peptide. On the basis of a fully automated sampling protocol, the gOST simulation enabled repetitive folding and unfolding of the solvated peptide within a single continuous trajectory and allowed for detailed constructions of Ala10 folding/unfolding free energy surfaces. The gOST result reveals that solvent cooperative fluctuations play a pivotal role in Ala10 folding/unfolding transitions. In addition, our assessment
Lee, Juyong; Lee, Jinhyuk; Sasaki, Takeshi N; Sasai, Masaki; Seok, Chaok; Lee, Jooyoung
2011-08-01
Ab initio protein structure prediction is a challenging problem that requires both an accurate energetic representation of a protein structure and an efficient conformational sampling method for successful protein modeling. In this article, we present an ab initio structure prediction method which combines a recently suggested novel way of fragment assembly, dynamic fragment assembly (DFA) and conformational space annealing (CSA) algorithm. In DFA, model structures are scored by continuous functions constructed based on short- and long-range structural restraint information from a fragment library. Here, DFA is represented by the full-atom model by CHARMM with the addition of the empirical potential of DFIRE. The relative contributions between various energy terms are optimized using linear programming. The conformational sampling was carried out with CSA algorithm, which can find low energy conformations more efficiently than simulated annealing used in the existing DFA study. The newly introduced DFA energy function and CSA sampling algorithm are implemented into CHARMM. Test results on 30 small single-domain proteins and 13 template-free modeling targets of the 8th Critical Assessment of protein Structure Prediction show that the current method provides comparable and complementary prediction results to existing top methods. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Conformal gravity, the Einstein equations and spaces of complex null geodesics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baston, R.J.; Mason, L.J.
1987-07-01
The aim of the paper is to give a twistorial characterisation of the field equations of conformal gravity and of Einstein spacetimes. Strong evidence is provided for a particularly concise characterisation of these equations in terms of 'formal neighbourhoods'of the space of complex null geodesics. Second-order perturbations of the metric of complexified Minkowski space are considered. These correspond to certain infinitesimal deformations of its space of complex null geodesics, PN. PN has a natural codimension one embedding into a larger space. It is shown that deformations extend automatically to the fourth-order embedding (that is, the fourth formal neighbourhood). They extend to the fifth formal neighbourhood if and only if the corresponding perturbation in the metric has vanishing Bach tensor. Finally, deformations which extend to the sixth formal neighbourhood correspond to perturbations in the metric that are conformally related to ones satisfying the Einstein equations. The authors present arguments which suggest that the results will also hold when spacetime is fully curved.
Conformal gravity, the Einstein equations and spaces of complex null geodesics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baston, R.J.; Mason, L.J.
1987-01-01
The aim of the paper is to give a twistorial characterisation of the field equations of conformal gravity and of Einstein spacetimes. Strong evidence is provided for a particularly concise characterisation of these equations in terms of 'formal neighbourhoods'of the space of complex null geodesics. Second-order perturbations of the metric of complexified Minkowski space are considered. These correspond to certain infinitesimal deformations of its space of complex null geodesics, PN. PN has a natural codimension one embedding into a larger space. It is shown that deformations extend automatically to the fourth-order embedding (that is, the fourth formal neighbourhood). They extend to the fifth formal neighbourhood if and only if the corresponding perturbation in the metric has vanishing Bach tensor. Finally, deformations which extend to the sixth formal neighbourhood correspond to perturbations in the metric that are conformally related to ones satisfying the Einstein equations. The authors present arguments which suggest that the results will also hold when spacetime is fully curved. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chu, Wally; Weerasekera, Akila; Kim, Chul-Hyun
2017-01-01
Two identical 5′GACG3′ tetra-loop motifs with different stem sequences (called H2 and H3) are found in the 5′ end region of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (MMLV) genomic RNA. They play important roles in RNA dimerization and encapsidation through two identical tetra-loops (5′GACG3′) forming a loop-to-loop kissing complex, the smallest RNA kissing complex ever found in nature. We examined the effects of a loop-closing base pair as well as a stem sequence on the conformational stability of the kissing complex. UV melting analysis and gel electrophoresis were performed on eight RNA sequences mimicking the H2 and H3 hairpin tetra-loops with variation in loop-closing base pairs. Our results show that changing the loop-closing base pair from the wildtype (5′A·U3′ for H3, 5′U·A3′ for H2) to 5′G·C3’/5′C·G3′ has significant effect on the stability of the kissing complexes: the substitution to 5′C·G3′ significantly decreases both thermal and mechanical stability, while switching to the 5′G·C3′ significantly increases the mechanical stability only. The kissing complexes with the wildtype loop-closing base pairs (5′A·U3′ for H3 and 5′U·A3′ for H2) show different stability when attached to a different stem sequence (H2 stem vs. H3 stem). This suggests that not only the loop-closing base pair itself, but also the stem sequence, affects the conformational stability of the RNA kissing complex. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic parameters of the smallest RNA kissing interactions were measured. • The effects of loop-closing base pairs on the RNA kissing complex was investigated. • Changing the base pair to 5′CG3′ decreases the stability of the kissing complex. • Changing it to 5′GC3′ increases the mechanical resilience of the kissing complex. • Difference in its stem sequence also affects the stability of the kissing complex.
Study of spontaneously broken conformal symmetry in curved space-times
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Janson, M.M.
1977-05-01
Spontaneous breakdown of Weyl invariance (local scale invariance) in a conformally-invariant extension of a gauge model for weak and electromagnetic interactions is considered. The existence of an asymmetric vacuum for the Higgs field, phi, is seen to depend on the space-time structure via the Gursey-Penrose term, approximately phi + phi R, in the action. (R denotes the scalar curvature.) The effects of a prescribed space-time structure on spontaneously broken Weyl invariance is investigated. In a cosmological space-time, it is found that initially, in the primordial fireball, the symmetry must hold exactly. Spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) develops as the universe expands and cools. Consequences of this model include a dependence of G/sub F/, the effective weak interaction coupling strength, on ''cosmic time.'' It is seen to decrease monotonically; in the present epoch (G/sub F//G/sub F/)/sub TODAY/ approximately less than 10 -10 (year) -1 . The effects of the Schwarzschild geometry on SSB are explored. In the interior of a neutron star the Higgs vacuum expectation value, and consequently G/sub F/, is found to have a radial dependence. The magnitude of this variation does not warrant revision of present models of neutron star structures. Another perspective on the problem considered a theory of gravitation (conformal relativity) to be incorporated in the conformally invariant gauge model of weak and electromagnetic interactions. If SSB develops, the vacuum gravitational field equations are the Einstein field equations with a cosmological constant. The stability of the asymmetric vacuum solution is investigated to ascertain whether SSB can occur
Method of solving conformal models in D-dimensional space I
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fradkin, E.S.; Palchik, M.Y.
1996-01-01
We study the Hilbert space of conformal field theory in D-dimensional space. The latter is shown to have model-independent structure. The states of matter fields and gauge fields form orthogonal subspaces. The dynamical principle fixing the choice of model may be formulated either in each of these subspaces or in their direct sum. In the latter case, gauge interactions are necessarily present in the model. We formulate the conditions specifying the class of models where gauge interactions are being neglected. The anomalous Ward identities are derived. Different values of anomalous parameters (D-dimensional analogs of a central charge, including operator ones) correspond to different models. The structure of these models is analogous to that of 2-dimensional conformal theories. Each model is specified by D-dimensional analog of null vector. The exact solutions of the simplest models of this type are examined. It is shown that these models are equivalent to Lagrangian models of scalar fields with a triple interaction. The values of dimensions of such fields are calculated, and the closed sets of differential equations for higher Green functions are derived. Copyright copyright 1996 Academic Press, Inc
2011-01-01
Background The performance of 3D-based virtual screening similarity functions is affected by the applied conformations of compounds. Therefore, the results of 3D approaches are often less robust than 2D approaches. The application of 3D methods on multiple conformer data sets normally reduces this weakness, but entails a significant computational overhead. Therefore, we developed a special conformational space encoding by means of Gaussian mixture models and a similarity function that operates on these models. The application of a model-based encoding allows an efficient comparison of the conformational space of compounds. Results Comparisons of our 4D flexible atom-pair approach with over 15 state-of-the-art 2D- and 3D-based virtual screening similarity functions on the 40 data sets of the Directory of Useful Decoys show a robust performance of our approach. Even 3D-based approaches that operate on multiple conformers yield inferior results. The 4D flexible atom-pair method achieves an averaged AUC value of 0.78 on the filtered Directory of Useful Decoys data sets. The best 2D- and 3D-based approaches of this study yield an AUC value of 0.74 and 0.72, respectively. As a result, the 4D flexible atom-pair approach achieves an average rank of 1.25 with respect to 15 other state-of-the-art similarity functions and four different evaluation metrics. Conclusions Our 4D method yields a robust performance on 40 pharmaceutically relevant targets. The conformational space encoding enables an efficient comparison of the conformational space. Therefore, the weakness of the 3D-based approaches on single conformations is circumvented. With over 100,000 similarity calculations on a single desktop CPU, the utilization of the 4D flexible atom-pair in real-world applications is feasible. PMID:21733172
An RNA aptamer specific to Hsp70-ATP conformation inhibits its ATPase activity independent of Hsp40.
Thirunavukarasu, Deepak; Shi, Hua
2015-04-01
The highly conserved and ubiquitous molecular chaperone heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) plays a critical role in protein homeostasis (proteostasis). Controlled by its ATPase activity, Hsp70 cycles between two conformations, Hsp70-ATP and Hsp70-ADP, to bind and release its substrate. Chemical tools with distinct modes of action, especially those capable of modulating the ATPase activity of Hsp70, are being actively sought after in the mechanistic dissection of this system. Here, we report a conformation-specific RNA aptamer that binds only to Hsp70-ATP but not to Hsp70-ADP. We have refined this aptamer and demonstrated its inhibitory effect on Hsp70's ATPase activity. We have also shown that this inhibitory effect on Hsp70 is independent of its interaction with the Hsp40 co-chaperone. As Hsp70 is increasingly being recognized as a drug target in a number of age related diseases such as neurodegenerative, protein misfolding diseases and cancer, this aptamer is potentially useful in therapeutic applications. Moreover, this work also demonstrates the feasibility of using aptamers to target ATPase activity as a general therapeutic strategy.
Thomson, J B; Lilley, D M
1999-01-01
In the natural form of the hairpin ribozyme the two loop-carrying duplexes that comprise the majority of essential bases for activity form two adjacent helical arms of a four-way RNA junction. In the present work we have manipulated the sequence around the junction in a way known to perturb the global folding properties. We find that replacement of the junction by a different sequence that has the same conformational properties as the natural sequence gives closely similar reaction rate and Arrhenius activation energy for the substrate cleavage reaction. By comparison, rotation of the natural sequence in order to alter the three-dimensional folding of the ribozyme leads to a tenfold reduction in the kinetics of cleavage. Replacement with the U1 four-way junction that is resistant to rotation into the antiparallel structure required to allow interaction between the loops also gives a tenfold reduction in cleavage rate. The results indicate that the conformation of the junction has a major influence on the catalytic activity of the ribozyme. The results are all consistent with a role for the junction in the provision of a framework by which the loops are presented for interaction in order to create the active form of the ribozyme. PMID:10024170
Processing of nuclear viroids in vivo: an interplay between RNA conformations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
María-Eugenia Gas
2007-11-01
Full Text Available Replication of viroids, small non-protein-coding plant pathogenic RNAs, entails reiterative transcription of their incoming single-stranded circular genomes, to which the (+ polarity is arbitrarily assigned, cleavage of the oligomeric strands of one or both polarities to unit-length, and ligation to circular RNAs. While cleavage in chloroplastic viroids (family Avsunviroidae is mediated by hammerhead ribozymes, where and how cleavage of oligomeric (+ RNAs of nuclear viroids (family Pospiviroidae occurs in vivo remains controversial. Previous in vitro data indicated that a hairpin capped by a GAAA tetraloop is the RNA motif directing cleavage and a loop E motif ligation. Here we have re-examined this question in vivo, taking advantage of earlier findings showing that dimeric viroid (+ RNAs of the family Pospiviroidae transgenically expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana are processed correctly. Using this methodology, we have mapped the processing site of three members of this family at equivalent positions of the hairpin I/double-stranded structure that the upper strand and flanking nucleotides of the central conserved region (CCR can form. More specifically, from the effects of 16 mutations on Citrus exocortis viroid expressed transgenically in A. thaliana, we conclude that the substrate for in vivo cleavage is the conserved double-stranded structure, with hairpin I potentially facilitating the adoption of this structure, whereas ligation is determined by loop E and flanking nucleotides of the two CCR strands. These results have deep implications on the underlying mechanism of both processing reactions, which are most likely catalyzed by enzymes different from those generally assumed: cleavage by a member of the RNase III family, and ligation by an RNA ligase distinct from the only one characterized so far in plants, thus predicting the existence of at least a second plant RNA ligase.
Conformations of flanking bases in HIV-1 RNA DIS kissing complexes studied by molecular dynamics
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Réblová, Kamila; Fadrná, E.; Sarzynska, J.; Kulinski, T.; Kulhánek, P.; Ennifar, E.; Koča, J.; Šponer, Jiří
2007-01-01
Roč. 93, č. 11 (2007), s. 3932-3949 ISSN 0006-3495 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06030; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/05/0009; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/05/0388; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500040581 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : molecular dynamics * RNA * virus Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.627, year: 2007
Hao, Xiao-Hu; Zhang, Gui-Jun; Zhou, Xiao-Gen; Yu, Xu-Feng
2016-01-01
To address the searching problem of protein conformational space in ab-initio protein structure prediction, a novel method using abstract convex underestimation (ACUE) based on the framework of evolutionary algorithm was proposed. Computing such conformations, essential to associate structural and functional information with gene sequences, is challenging due to the high-dimensionality and rugged energy surface of the protein conformational space. As a consequence, the dimension of protein conformational space should be reduced to a proper level. In this paper, the high-dimensionality original conformational space was converted into feature space whose dimension is considerably reduced by feature extraction technique. And, the underestimate space could be constructed according to abstract convex theory. Thus, the entropy effect caused by searching in the high-dimensionality conformational space could be avoided through such conversion. The tight lower bound estimate information was obtained to guide the searching direction, and the invalid searching area in which the global optimal solution is not located could be eliminated in advance. Moreover, instead of expensively calculating the energy of conformations in the original conformational space, the estimate value is employed to judge if the conformation is worth exploring to reduce the evaluation time, thereby making computational cost lower and the searching process more efficient. Additionally, fragment assembly and the Monte Carlo method are combined to generate a series of metastable conformations by sampling in the conformational space. The proposed method provides a novel technique to solve the searching problem of protein conformational space. Twenty small-to-medium structurally diverse proteins were tested, and the proposed ACUE method was compared with It Fix, HEA, Rosetta and the developed method LEDE without underestimate information. Test results show that the ACUE method can more rapidly and more
SL1 revisited: functional analysis of the structure and conformation of HIV-1 genome RNA.
Sakuragi, Sayuri; Yokoyama, Masaru; Shioda, Tatsuo; Sato, Hironori; Sakuragi, Jun-Ichi
2016-11-11
The dimer initiation site/dimer linkage sequence (DIS/DLS) region of HIV is located on the 5' end of the viral genome and suggested to form complex secondary/tertiary structures. Within this structure, stem-loop 1 (SL1) is believed to be most important and an essential key to dimerization, since the sequence and predicted secondary structure of SL1 are highly stable and conserved among various virus subtypes. In particular, a six-base palindromic sequence is always present at the hairpin loop of SL1 and the formation of kissing-loop structure at this position between the two strands of genomic RNA is suggested to trigger dimerization. Although the higher-order structure model of SL1 is well accepted and perhaps even undoubted lately, there could be stillroom for consideration to depict the functional SL1 structure while in vivo (in virion or cell). In this study, we performed several analyses to identify the nucleotides and/or basepairing within SL1 which are necessary for HIV-1 genome dimerization, encapsidation, recombination and infectivity. We unexpectedly found that some nucleotides that are believed to contribute the formation of the stem do not impact dimerization or infectivity. On the other hand, we found that one G-C basepair involved in stem formation may serve as an alternative dimer interactive site. We also report on our further investigation of the roles of the palindromic sequences on viral replication. Collectively, we aim to assemble a more-comprehensive functional map of SL1 on the HIV-1 viral life cycle. We discovered several possibilities for a novel structure of SL1 in HIV-1 DLS. The newly proposed structure model suggested that the hairpin loop of SL1 appeared larger, and genome dimerization process might consist of more complicated mechanism than previously understood. Further investigations would be still required to fully understand the genome packaging and dimerization of HIV.
Bianchi like classification of cosmologies in conformally flat space-times
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tauber, G.E.
1989-01-01
Solutions of Killing's equations for a conformally flat line element have been found, which are seen to correspond to the conformal group of transformations consisting of the pure conformal group, the Lorentz group, translation and dilation. A classification of the line element has been carried out, singly and combining several of them. Upon comparison with expanding universes it has been found that the Friedmann universes are a subclass with other cosmologies resulting in wider subclasses. (orig.)
Pechlaner, Maria; Sigel, Roland K O; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F; Dolenc, Jožica
2013-10-08
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) data obtained for a 35-nucleotide RNA segment of a bacterial group II intron indicate a helical hairpin structure in which three parts, a terminal pentaloop, a bulge, and a G-A mismatch, display no Watson-Crick base pairing. The 668 NOE upper distance bounds for atom pairs are insufficient to uniquely determine the conformation of these segments. Therefore, molecular dynamics simulations including time-averaged distance restraints have been used to obtain a conformational ensemble compatible with the observed NMR data. The ensemble shows alternating hydrogen bonding patterns for the mentioned segments. In particular, in the pentaloop and in the bulge, the hydrogen bonding networks correspond to distinct conformational clusters that could not be captured by using conventional single-structure refinement techniques. This implies that, to obtain a realistic picture of the conformational ensemble of such flexible biomolecules, it is necessary to properly account for the conformational variability in the structure refinement of RNA fragments.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oono, Y.; Ohta, T.; Freed, K.F.
1981-01-01
A dimensional regularization approach to the renormalization group treatment of polymer excluded volume is formulated in chain conformation space where monomers are specified by their spatial positions and their positions along the chain and the polymers may be taken to be monodisperse. The method utilizes basic scale invariance considerations. First, it is recognized that long wavelength macroscopic descriptions must be well defined in the limit that the minimum atomic or molecular scale L is set to zero. Secondly, the microscopic theory is independent of the conveniently chosen macroscopic scale of length k. The freedom of choice of k is exploited along with the assumed renormalizability of the theory to provide the renormalization group equations which directly imply the universal scaling laws for macroscopic properties. The renormalizability of the model implies the existence of the general relations between the basic macroparameters, such as chain length, excluded volume, etc., and their microscopic counterparts in the microscopic model for the system. These macro--micro relations are defined through the condition that macroscopic quantities be well defined for polymer chains for any spatial dimensionality. The method is illustrated by calculating the end vector distribution function for all values of end vectors R. The evaluation of this distribution function currently requires the use of expansions in e = 4-d. In this case our distribution reduces to known limits for R→0 or infinity. Subsequent papers will present calculations of the polymer coherent scattering function, the monomer spatial distribution function, and concentration dependent properties
Joung, InSuk; Kim, Jong Yun; Gross, Steven P.; Joo, Keehyoung; Lee, Jooyoung
2018-02-01
Many problems in science and engineering can be formulated as optimization problems. One way to solve these problems is to develop tailored problem-specific approaches. As such development is challenging, an alternative is to develop good generally-applicable algorithms. Such algorithms are easy to apply, typically function robustly, and reduce development time. Here we provide a description for one such algorithm called Conformational Space Annealing (CSA) along with its python version, PyCSA. We previously applied it to many optimization problems including protein structure prediction and graph community detection. To demonstrate its utility, we have applied PyCSA to two continuous test functions, namely Ackley and Eggholder functions. In addition, in order to provide complete generality of PyCSA to any types of an objective function, we demonstrate the way PyCSA can be applied to a discrete objective function, namely a parameter optimization problem. Based on the benchmarking results of the three problems, the performance of CSA is shown to be better than or similar to the most popular optimization method, simulated annealing. For continuous objective functions, we found that, L-BFGS-B was the best performing local optimization method, while for a discrete objective function Nelder-Mead was the best. The current version of PyCSA can be run in parallel at the coarse grained level by calculating multiple independent local optimizations separately. The source code of PyCSA is available from http://lee.kias.re.kr.
Makam, Pandeeswar; Gazit, Ehud
2018-05-21
Molecular self-assembly is a ubiquitous process in nature and central to bottom-up nanotechnology. In particular, the organization of peptide building blocks into ordered supramolecular structures has gained much interest due to the unique properties of the products, including biocompatibility, chemical and structural diversity, robustness and ease of large-scale synthesis. In addition, peptides, as short as dipeptides, contain all the molecular information needed to spontaneously form well-ordered structures at both the nano- and the micro-scale. Therefore, peptide supramolecular assembly has been effectively utilized to produce novel materials with tailored properties for various applications in the fields of material science, engineering, medicine, and biology. To further expand the conformational space of peptide assemblies in terms of structural and functional complexity, multicomponent (two or more) peptide supramolecular co-assembly has recently evolved as a promising extended approach, similar to the structural diversity of natural sequence-defined biopolymers (proteins) as well as of synthetic covalent co-polymers. The use of this methodology was recently demonstrated in various applications, such as nanostructure physical dimension control, the creation of non-canonical complex topologies, mechanical strength modulation, the design of light harvesting soft materials, fabrication of electrically conducting devices, induced fluorescence, enzymatic catalysis and tissue engineering. In light of these significant advancements in the field of peptide supramolecular co-assembly in the last few years, in this tutorial review, we provide an updated overview and future prospects of this emerging subject.
Jo, Sunhwan; Lee, Hui Sun; Skolnick, Jeffrey; Im, Wonpil
2013-01-01
Understanding glycan structure and dynamics is central to understanding protein-carbohydrate recognition and its role in protein-protein interactions. Given the difficulties in obtaining the glycan's crystal structure in glycoconjugates due to its flexibility and heterogeneity, computational modeling could play an important role in providing glycosylated protein structure models. To address if glycan structures available in the PDB can be used as templates or fragments for glycan modeling, we present a survey of the N-glycan structures of 35 different sequences in the PDB. Our statistical analysis shows that the N-glycan structures found on homologous glycoproteins are significantly conserved compared to the random background, suggesting that N-glycan chains can be confidently modeled with template glycan structures whose parent glycoproteins share sequence similarity. On the other hand, N-glycan structures found on non-homologous glycoproteins do not show significant global structural similarity. Nonetheless, the internal substructures of these N-glycans, particularly, the substructures that are closer to the protein, show significantly similar structures, suggesting that such substructures can be used as fragments in glycan modeling. Increased interactions with protein might be responsible for the restricted conformational space of N-glycan chains. Our results suggest that structure prediction/modeling of N-glycans of glycoconjugates using structure database could be effective and different modeling approaches would be needed depending on the availability of template structures.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sunhwan Jo
Full Text Available Understanding glycan structure and dynamics is central to understanding protein-carbohydrate recognition and its role in protein-protein interactions. Given the difficulties in obtaining the glycan's crystal structure in glycoconjugates due to its flexibility and heterogeneity, computational modeling could play an important role in providing glycosylated protein structure models. To address if glycan structures available in the PDB can be used as templates or fragments for glycan modeling, we present a survey of the N-glycan structures of 35 different sequences in the PDB. Our statistical analysis shows that the N-glycan structures found on homologous glycoproteins are significantly conserved compared to the random background, suggesting that N-glycan chains can be confidently modeled with template glycan structures whose parent glycoproteins share sequence similarity. On the other hand, N-glycan structures found on non-homologous glycoproteins do not show significant global structural similarity. Nonetheless, the internal substructures of these N-glycans, particularly, the substructures that are closer to the protein, show significantly similar structures, suggesting that such substructures can be used as fragments in glycan modeling. Increased interactions with protein might be responsible for the restricted conformational space of N-glycan chains. Our results suggest that structure prediction/modeling of N-glycans of glycoconjugates using structure database could be effective and different modeling approaches would be needed depending on the availability of template structures.
Refinement of protein termini in template-based modeling using conformational space annealing.
Park, Hahnbeom; Ko, Junsu; Joo, Keehyoung; Lee, Julian; Seok, Chaok; Lee, Jooyoung
2011-09-01
The rapid increase in the number of experimentally determined protein structures in recent years enables us to obtain more reliable protein tertiary structure models than ever by template-based modeling. However, refinement of template-based models beyond the limit available from the best templates is still needed for understanding protein function in atomic detail. In this work, we develop a new method for protein terminus modeling that can be applied to refinement of models with unreliable terminus structures. The energy function for terminus modeling consists of both physics-based and knowledge-based potential terms with carefully optimized relative weights. Effective sampling of both the framework and terminus is performed using the conformational space annealing technique. This method has been tested on a set of termini derived from a nonredundant structure database and two sets of termini from the CASP8 targets. The performance of the terminus modeling method is significantly improved over our previous method that does not employ terminus refinement. It is also comparable or superior to the best server methods tested in CASP8. The success of the current approach suggests that similar strategy may be applied to other types of refinement problems such as loop modeling or secondary structure rearrangement. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Berman, Andrea J; Gooding, Anne R; Cech, Thomas R
2010-10-01
The biogenesis of the Tetrahymena telomerase ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP) is enhanced by p65, a La family protein. Single-molecule and biochemical studies have uncovered a hierarchical assembly of the RNP, wherein the binding of p65 to stems I and IV of telomerase RNA (TER) causes a conformational change that facilitates the subsequent binding of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) to TER. We used purified p65 and variants of TERT and TER to investigate the conformational rearrangements that occur during RNP assembly. Nuclease protection assays and mutational analysis revealed that p65 interacts with and stimulates conformational changes in regions of TER beyond stem IV. Several TER mutants exhibited telomerase activity only in the presence of p65, revealing the importance of p65 in promoting the correct RNP assembly pathway. In addition, p65 rescued TERT assembly mutants but not TERT activity mutants. Taken together, these results suggest that p65 stimulates telomerase assembly and activity in two ways. First, by sequestering stems I and IV, p65 limits the ensemble of structural conformations of TER, thereby presenting TERT with the active conformation of TER. Second, p65 acts as a molecular buttress within the assembled RNP, mutually stabilizing TER and TERT in catalytically active conformations.
Sparse RNA folding revisited: space-efficient minimum free energy structure prediction.
Will, Sebastian; Jabbari, Hosna
2016-01-01
RNA secondary structure prediction by energy minimization is the central computational tool for the analysis of structural non-coding RNAs and their interactions. Sparsification has been successfully applied to improve the time efficiency of various structure prediction algorithms while guaranteeing the same result; however, for many such folding problems, space efficiency is of even greater concern, particularly for long RNA sequences. So far, space-efficient sparsified RNA folding with fold reconstruction was solved only for simple base-pair-based pseudo-energy models. Here, we revisit the problem of space-efficient free energy minimization. Whereas the space-efficient minimization of the free energy has been sketched before, the reconstruction of the optimum structure has not even been discussed. We show that this reconstruction is not possible in trivial extension of the method for simple energy models. Then, we present the time- and space-efficient sparsified free energy minimization algorithm SparseMFEFold that guarantees MFE structure prediction. In particular, this novel algorithm provides efficient fold reconstruction based on dynamically garbage-collected trace arrows. The complexity of our algorithm depends on two parameters, the number of candidates Z and the number of trace arrows T; both are bounded by [Formula: see text], but are typically much smaller. The time complexity of RNA folding is reduced from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text]; the space complexity, from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text]. Our empirical results show more than 80 % space savings over RNAfold [Vienna RNA package] on the long RNAs from the RNA STRAND database (≥2500 bases). The presented technique is intentionally generalizable to complex prediction algorithms; due to their high space demands, algorithms like pseudoknot prediction and RNA-RNA-interaction prediction are expected to profit even stronger than "standard" MFE folding. SparseMFEFold is free
Probing the conformational dynamics of photosystem I in unconfined and confined spaces.
Das, Gaurav; Chattoraj, Shyamtanu; Nandi, Somen; Mondal, Prasenjit; Saha, Abhijit; Bhattacharyya, Kankan; Ghosh, Surajit
2017-12-20
The fluorescence dynamics of Photosystem I (PSI) in bulk water and inside a confined environment like a liposome have been investigated using time resolved confocal microscopy. In bulk water, PSI exhibits a major emission peak at ∼680 nm, while in the liposome it exhibits a markedly blue shifted emission maximum at ∼485 nm. This is indicative of conformational changes due to entrapment and emergence of a stressed conformation of PSI inside the liposome. The observed time constants for the fluorescence lifetime of PSI inside the liposome are significantly high as opposed to PSI in bulk water. More interestingly, the fluorescence intensity of PSI in bulk water exhibits strong fluctuations with many high intensity jumps and these are anti-correlated with the fluorescence lifetime of PSI. In contrast, inside the liposome, no such anti-correlated behaviour is observed. We further demonstrated that PSI exhibits at least two conformational states in bulk water, whereas a single conformation is observed inside the liposome, indicating the conformational rigidity and locking of the PSI complex inside a liposome.
Space- and time-like superselection rules in conformal quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schroer, Bert
2000-11-01
In conformally invariant quantum field theories one encounters besides the standard DHR superselection theory based on spacelike (Einstein-causal) commutation relations and their Haag duality another timelike (Huygens) based superselection structure. Whereas the DHR theory based on spacelike causality of observables confirmed the Lagrangian internal symmetry picture on the level of the physical principles of local quantum physics, the attempts to understand the timelike based superselection charges associated with the center of the conformal covering group in terms of timelike localized charges lead to a more dynamical role of charges outside the DR theorem and even outside the Coleman-Mandula setting. The ensuing plektonic timelike structure of conformal theories explains the spectrum of the anomalous scale dimensions in terms of admissible braid group representations, similar to the explanation of the possible anomalous spin spectrum expected from the extension of the DHR theory to stringlike d=1+2 plektonic fields. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rohit S Bavi
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Modified nucleic acid bases are most commonly found in tRNA. These may contain modifications from simple methylation to addition of bulky groups. Methylation of the four canonical nucleotide bases at a wide variety of positions is particularly prominent among the known modification. Methylation of N2 group of guanine is a relatively common modification in tRNA and rRNA. N2-methylguanosine (m2G is the second most often encountered nucleoside in E. coli tRNAs. N2, N2-dimethylguanosine (m22G is found in the majority of eukaryotic tRNAs and involved in forming base pair interactions with adjacent bases. Hence, in order to understand the structural significance of these methylated nucleic acid bases we have carried out molecular dynamics simulation to see the salvation effect. The results obtained shows iso-energetic conformational behaviors for m2G and m22G. The simulation trajectory of m2G shows regular periodical fluctuations suggesting that m2G is equally stable as either s-cis or s-trans rotamers. The two rotamers of m2G may interact canonically or non-canonically with opposite base as s-trans m2G26:C/A/U44 and s-cis m2G26:A/U44. The free rotations around the C-N bond could be the possible reason for these iso-energetic conformations. Dimethylation of G has almost no influence on base pairing with either A or U. Thus, these results reveal that modified nucleosides m2G and m22G may play an important role to prevent tRNA from adopting the unusual mitochondrial like conformation.
Akhtar, S. S.; Hussain, T.; Bokhari, A. H.; Khan, F.
2018-04-01
We provide a complete classification of static plane symmetric space-times according to conformal Ricci collineations (CRCs) and conformal matter collineations (CMCs) in both the degenerate and nondegenerate cases. In the case of a nondegenerate Ricci tensor, we find a general form of the vector field generating CRCs in terms of unknown functions of t and x subject to some integrability conditions. We then solve the integrability conditions in different cases depending upon the nature of the Ricci tensor and conclude that the static plane symmetric space-times have a 7-, 10- or 15-dimensional Lie algebra of CRCs. Moreover, we find that these space-times admit an infinite number of CRCs if the Ricci tensor is degenerate. We use a similar procedure to study CMCs in the case of a degenerate or nondegenerate matter tensor. We obtain the exact form of some static plane symmetric space-time metrics that admit nontrivial CRCs and CMCs. Finally, we present some physical applications of our obtained results by considering a perfect fluid as a source of the energy-momentum tensor.
Ververs, Patricia May
experimental findings. Attention was found to be more widely distributed in X-Y space when the pilots were flying with the conformal, tunnel-in-the-sky as compared to the partially conformal ILS (instrument landing system) symbology set. There was little evidence that the air-based navigation displays were supporting divided attention in three-dimensional space. The ground-based scene-linked (truly conformal) display indicated promising effects of dividing attention in depth without negative consequences to processing the near domain symbology. Event expectancy was found to modulate pilot performance in the detection of events both on the symbology and in the environment. The phenomenon known as cognitive tunneling is discussed as a possible cause of the inadequate response times in resolving the anomalous events.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fradkin, E.S.; Palchik, M.Ya.
1996-02-01
We study a family of exactly solvable models of conformally-invariant quantum field theory in D-dimensional space. We demonstrate the existence of D-dimensional analogs of primary and secondary fields. Under the action of energy-momentum tensor and conserved currents, the primary fields creates an infinite set of (tensor) secondary fields of different generations. The commutators of secondary fields with zero components of current and energy-momentum tensor include anomalous operator terms. We show that the Hilbert space of conformal theory has a special sector which structure is solely defined by the Ward identities independently on the choice of dynamical model. The states of this sector are constructed from secondary fields. Definite self-consistent conditions on the states of the latter sector fix the choice of the field model uniquely. In particular, Lagrangian models do belong to this class of models. The above self-consistent conditions are formulated as follows. Special superpositions Q s , s = 1,2,... of secondary fields are constructed. Each superposition is determined by the requirement that the form of its commutators with energy-momentum tensor and current (i.e. transformation properties) should be identical to that of a primary field. Each equation Q s (x) = 0 is consistent, and defines an exactly solvable model for D ≥ 3. The structure of these models are analogous to that of well-known two dimensional conformal models. The states Q s (x) modul 0> are analogous to the null-vectors of two dimensional theory. In each of these models one can obtain a closed set of differential equations for all the higher Green functions, as well as algebraic equations relating the scale dimension of fundamental field to the D-dimensional analog of a central charge. As an example, we present a detailed discussion of a pair of exactly solvable models in even-dimensional space D ≥ 4. (author). 28 refs
Radiatively induced symmetry breaking and the conformally coupled magnetic monopole in AdS space
Edery, Ariel; Graham, Noah
2013-11-01
We implement quantum corrections for a magnetic monopole in a classically conformally invariant theory containing gravity. This yields the trace (conformal) anomaly and introduces a length scale in a natural fashion via the process of renormalization. We evaluate the one-loop effective potential and extract the vacuum expectation value (VEV) from it; spontaneous symmetry breaking is radiatively induced. The VEV is set at the renormalization scale M and we exchange the dimensionless scalar coupling constant for the dimensionful VEV via dimensional transmutation. The asymptotic (background) spacetime is anti-de Sitter (AdS) and its Ricci scalar is determined entirely by the VEV. We obtain analytical asymptotic solutions to the coupled set of equations governing gravitational, gauge and scalar fields that yield the magnetic monopole in an AdS spacetime.
Yaşar, Elif; Yıldırım, Yakup; Yaşar, Emrullah
2018-06-01
This paper devotes to conformable fractional space-time perturbed Gerdjikov-Ivanov (GI) equation which appears in nonlinear fiber optics and photonic crystal fibers (PCF). We consider the model with full nonlinearity in order to give a generalized flavor. The sine-Gordon equation approach is carried out to model equation for retrieving the dark, bright, dark-bright, singular and combined singular optical solitons. The constraint conditions are also reported for guaranteeing the existence of these solitons. We also present some graphical simulations of the solutions for better understanding the physical phenomena of the behind the considered model.
A global conformal extension theorem for perfect fluid Bianchi space-times
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luebbe, Christian; Tod, Paul
2008-01-01
A global extension theorem is established for isotropic singularities in polytropic perfect fluid Bianchi space-times. When an extension is possible, the limiting behaviour of the physical space-time near the singularity is analysed
Darnell, James E., Jr.
1985-01-01
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) converts genetic information into protein and usually must be processed to serve its function. RNA types, chemical structure, protein synthesis, translation, manufacture, and processing are discussed. Concludes that the first genes might have been spliced RNA and that humans might be closer than bacteria to primitive…
Hosseini, Kamyar; Mayeli, Peyman; Bekir, Ahmet; Guner, Ozkan
2018-01-01
In this article, a special type of fractional differential equations (FDEs) named the density-dependent conformable fractional diffusion-reaction (DDCFDR) equation is studied. Aforementioned equation has a significant role in the modelling of some phenomena arising in the applied science. The well-organized methods, including the \\exp (-φ (\\varepsilon )) -expansion and modified Kudryashov methods are exerted to generate the exact solutions of this equation such that some of the solutions are new and have been reported for the first time. Results illustrate that both methods have a great performance in handling the DDCFDR equation.
Biasetti, Jacopo; Sampath, Kaushik; Cortez, Angel; Azhir, Alaleh; Gilad, Assaf A; Kickler, Thomas S; Obser, Tobias; Ruggeri, Zaverio M; Katz, Joseph
2017-01-01
Tracking cells and proteins' phenotypic changes in deep suspensions is critical for the direct imaging of blood-related phenomena in in vitro replica of cardiovascular systems and blood-handling devices. This paper introduces fluorescence imaging techniques for space and time resolved detection of platelet activation, von Willebrand factor (VWF) conformational changes, and VWF-platelet interaction in deep suspensions. Labeled VWF, platelets, and VWF-platelet strands are suspended in deep cuvettes, illuminated, and imaged with a high-sensitivity EM-CCD camera, allowing detection using an exposure time of 1 ms. In-house postprocessing algorithms identify and track the moving signals. Recombinant VWF-eGFP (rVWF-eGFP) and VWF labeled with an FITC-conjugated polyclonal antibody are employed. Anti-P-Selectin FITC-conjugated antibodies and the calcium-sensitive probe Indo-1 are used to detect activated platelets. A positive correlation between the mean number of platelets detected per image and the percentage of activated platelets determined through flow cytometry is obtained, validating the technique. An increase in the number of rVWF-eGFP signals upon exposure to shear stress demonstrates the technique's ability to detect breakup of self-aggregates. VWF globular and unfolded conformations and self-aggregation are also observed. The ability to track the size and shape of VWF-platelet strands in space and time provides means to detect pro- and antithrombotic processes.
Radiation from a moving mirror in two dimensional space-time: conformal anomaly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fulling, S.A.; Davies, P.C.W.
1976-01-01
The energy-momentum tensor is calculated in the two dimensional quantum theory of a massless scalar field influenced by the motion of a perfectly reflecting boundary (mirror). The simple model system evidently can provide insight into more sophisticated processes, such as particle production in cosmological models and exploding black holes. In spite of the conformally static nature of the problem, the vacuum expectation value of the tensor for an arbitrary mirror trajectory exhibits a non-vanishing radiation flux (which may be readily computed). The expectation value of the instantaneous energy flux is negative when the proper acceleration of the mirror is increasing, but the total energy radiated during a bounded mirror motion is positive. A uniformly accelerating mirror does not radiate; however, the quantization does not coincide with the treatment of that system as a 'static universe'. The calculation of the expectation value requires a regularization procedure of covariant separation of points (in products of field operators) along time-like geodesics; more naive methods do not yield the same answers. A striking example involving two mirrors clarifies the significance of the conformal anomaly. (author)
Transient Gene and miRNA Expression Profile Changes of Confluent Human Fibroblast Cells in Space
Zhang, Ye; Lu, Tao; Wong, Michael; Feiveson, Alan; Stodieck, Louis; Karouia, Fathi; Wang, Xiaoyu; Wu, Honglu
2015-01-01
Microgravity or an altered gravity environment from the static 1 gravitational constant has been shown to influence global gene expression patterns and protein levels in cultured cells. However, most of the reported studies conducted in space or using simulated microgravity on the ground have focused on the growth or differentiation of the cells. Whether non-dividing cultured cells will sense the presence of microgravity in space has not been specifically addressed. In an experiment conducted on the International Space Station, confluent human fibroblast cells were fixed after being cultured in space for 3 and 14 days for investigations of gene and miRNA (microRNA) expression profile changes in these cells. A fibroblast is a type of cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen, the structural framework for tissues, and plays a critical role in wound healing and other functions. Results of the experiment showed that on Day 3, both the flown and ground cells were still proliferating slowly even though they were confluent, as measured by the expression of the protein Ki-67 positive cells, and the cells in space grew slightly faster. Gene and miRNA expression data indicated activation of NF(sub kappa)B (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) and other growth related pathways involving HGF and VEGF in the flown cells. On Day 14 when the cells were mostly non-dividing, the gene and miRNA expression profiles between the flight and ground samples were indistinguishable. Comparison of gene and miRNA expressions in the Day 3 samples in respect to Day 14 revealed that most of the changes observed on Day 3 were related to cell growth for both the flown and ground cells. Analysis of cytoskeleton changes by immunohistochemistry staining of the cells with antibodies for alpha-tubulin showed no difference between the flight and ground samples. Results of our study suggest that in true non-dividing human fibroblast cells, microgravity in
Schenk, Emily R; Nau, Frederic; Fernandez-Lima, Francisco
2015-06-01
The ability to correlate experimental ion mobility data with candidate structures from theoretical modeling provides a powerful analytical and structural tool for the characterization of biomolecules. In the present paper, a theoretical workflow is described to generate and assign candidate structures for experimental trapped ion mobility and H/D exchange (HDX-TIMS-MS) data following molecular dynamics simulations and statistical filtering. The applicability of the theoretical predictor is illustrated for a peptide and protein example with multiple conformations and kinetic intermediates. The described methodology yields a low computational cost and a simple workflow by incorporating statistical filtering and molecular dynamics simulations. The workflow can be adapted to different IMS scenarios and CCS calculators for a more accurate description of the IMS experimental conditions. For the case of the HDX-TIMS-MS experiments, molecular dynamics in the "TIMS box" accounts for a better sampling of the molecular intermediates and local energy minima.
Tsuruoka, H; Shohda, K; Wada, T; Sekine, M
2000-11-03
To synthesize oligonucleotides containing 2'-O-phosphate groups, four kinds of ribonucleoside 3'-phosphoramidite building blocks 6a-d having the bis(2-cyano-1,1-dimethylethoxy)thiophosphoryl (BCMETP) group were prepared according to our previous phosphorylation procedure. These phosphoramidite units 6a-d were not contaminated with 3'-regioisomers and were successfully applied to solid-phase synthesis to give oligodeoxyuridylates 15, 16 and oligouridylates 21, 22. Self-complementary Drew-Dickerson DNA 12mers 24-28 replaced by a 2'-O-phosphorylated ribonucleotide at various positions were similarly synthesized. In these syntheses, it turned out that KI(3) was the most effective reagent for oxidative desulfurization of the initially generated thiophosphate group to the phosphate group on polymer supports. Without using this conversion step, a tridecadeoxyuridylate 17 incorporating a 2'-O-thiophosphorylated uridine derivative was also synthesized. To investigate the effect of the 2'-phosphate group on the thermal stability and 3D-structure of DNA(RNA) duplexes, T(m) measurement of the self-complementary oligonucleotides obtained and MD simulation of heptamer duplexes 33-36 were carried out. According to these analyses, it was suggested that the nucleoside ribose moiety phosphorylated at the 2'-hydroxyl function predominantly preferred C2'-endo to C3'-endo conformation in DNA duplexes so that it did not significantly affect the stability of the DNA duplex. On the other hand, the 2'-modified ribose moiety was expelled to give a C3'-endo conformation in RNA duplexes so that the RNA duplexes were extremely destabilized.
Rayevsky, A V; Sharifi, M; Tukalo, M A
2017-09-01
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) play important roles in maintaining the accuracy of protein synthesis. Some aaRSs accomplish this via editing mechanisms, among which leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS) edits non-cognate amino acid norvaline mainly by post-transfer editing. However, the molecular basis for this pathway for eukaryotic and archaeal LeuRS remain unclear. In this study, a complex of archaeal P. horikoshii LeuRS (PhLeuRS) with misacylated tRNA Leu was modeled wherever tRNA's acceptor stem was oriented directly into the editing site. To understand the distinctive features of organization we reconstructed a complex of PhLeuRS with tRNA and visualize post-transfer editing interactions mode by performing molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies. To study molecular basis for substrate selectivity by PhLeuRS's editing site we utilized MD simulation of the entire LeuRS complexes using a diverse charged form of tRNAs, namely norvalyl-tRNA Leu and isoleucyl-tRNA Leu . In general, the editing site organization of LeuRS from P.horikoshii has much in common with bacterial LeuRS. The MD simulation results revealed that the post-transfer editing substrate norvalyl-A76, binds more strongly than isoleucyl-A76. Moreover, the branched side chain of isoleucine prevents water molecules from being closer and hence the hydrolysis reaction slows significantly. To investigate a possible mechanism of the post-transfer editing reaction, by PhLeuRS we have determined that two water molecules (the attacking and assisting water molecules) are localized near the carbonyl group of the amino acid to be cleaved off. These water molecules approach the substrate from the opposite side to that observed for Thermus thermophilus LeuRS (TtLeuRS). Based on the results obtained, it was suggested that the post-transfer editing mechanism of PhLeuRS differs from that of prokaryotic TtLeuRS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Topological structure of the space of phenotypes: the case of RNA neutral networks.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jacobo Aguirre
Full Text Available The evolution and adaptation of molecular populations is constrained by the diversity accessible through mutational processes. RNA is a paradigmatic example of biopolymer where genotype (sequence and phenotype (approximated by the secondary structure fold are identified in a single molecule. The extreme redundancy of the genotype-phenotype map leads to large ensembles of RNA sequences that fold into the same secondary structure and can be connected through single-point mutations. These ensembles define neutral networks of phenotypes in sequence space. Here we analyze the topological properties of neutral networks formed by 12-nucleotides RNA sequences, obtained through the exhaustive folding of sequence space. A total of 4(12 sequences fragments into 645 subnetworks that correspond to 57 different secondary structures. The topological analysis reveals that each subnetwork is far from being random: it has a degree distribution with a well-defined average and a small dispersion, a high clustering coefficient, and an average shortest path between nodes close to its minimum possible value, i.e. the Hamming distance between sequences. RNA neutral networks are assortative due to the correlation in the composition of neighboring sequences, a feature that together with the symmetries inherent to the folding process explains the existence of communities. Several topological relationships can be analytically derived attending to structural restrictions and generic properties of the folding process. The average degree of these phenotypic networks grows logarithmically with their size, such that abundant phenotypes have the additional advantage of being more robust to mutations. This property prevents fragmentation of neutral networks and thus enhances the navigability of sequence space. In summary, RNA neutral networks show unique topological properties, unknown to other networks previously described.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Zgarbová, M.; Jurečka, P.; Banáš, P.; Havrila, Marek; Šponer, Jiří; Otyepka, M.
2017-01-01
Roč. 121, č. 11 (2017), s. 2420-2433 ISSN 1520-6106 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : molecular-dynamics simulations * sugar-phosphate backbone * free-energy landscape * ribosomal-rna Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 3.177, year: 2016
MicroRNA Expression Profiles in Cultured Human Fibroblasts in Space
Wu, Honglu; Lu, Tao; Jeevarajan, John; Rohde, Larry; Zhang, Ye
2014-01-01
Microgravity, or an altered gravity environment from the static 1g, has been shown to influence global gene expression patterns and protein levels in living organisms. However, it is unclear how these changes in gene and protein expressions are related to each other or are related to other factors regulating such changes. A different class of RNA, the small non-coding microRNA (miRNA), can have a broad effect on gene expression networks by mainly inhibiting the translation process. Previously, we investigated changes in the expression of miRNA and related genes under simulated microgravity conditions on the ground using the NASA invented bioreactor. In comparison to static 1 g, simulated microgravity altered a number of miRNAs in human lymphoblastoid cells. Pathway analysis with the altered miRNAs and RNA expressions revealed differential involvement of cell communication and catalytic activity, as well as immune response signaling and NGF activation of NF-kB pathways under simulated microgravity condition. The network analysis also identified several projected networks with c- Rel, ETS1 and Ubiquitin C as key factors. In a flight experiment on the International Space Station (ISS), we will investigate the effects of actual spaceflight on miRNA expressions in nondividing human fibroblast cells in mostly G1 phase of the cell cycle. A fibroblast is a type of cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen, the structural framework for tissues, and plays a critical role in wound healing and other functions. In addition to miRNA expressions, we will investigate the effects of spaceflight on the cellular response to DNA damages from bleomycin treatment.
Maury, Carl Peter J
2015-10-07
The question of the origin of life on Earth can largely be reduced to the question of what was the first molecular replicator system that was able to replicate and evolve under the presumably very harsh conditions on the early Earth. It is unlikely that a functional RNA could have existed under such conditions and it is generally assumed that some other kind of information system preceded the RNA world. Here, I present an informational molecular system that is stable, self-replicative, environmentally responsive, and evolvable under conditions characterized by high temperatures, ultraviolet and cosmic radiation. This postulated pregenetic system is based on the amyloid fold, a functionally unique polypeptide fold characterized by a cross beta-sheet structure in which the beta strands are arranged perpendicular to the fiber axis. Beside an extraordinary structural robustness, the amyloid fold possesses a unique ability to transmit information by a three-dimensional templating mechanism. In amyloidogenesis short peptide monomers are added one by one to the growing end of the fiber. From the same monomeric subunits several structural variants of amyloid may be formed. Then, in a self-replicative mode, a specific amyloid conformer can act as a template and confer its spatially encoded information to daughter molecular entities in a repetitive way. In this process, the specific conformational information, the spatially changed organization, is transmitted; the coding element is the steric zipper structure, and recognition occurs by amino acid side chain complementarity. The amyloid information system fulfills several basic requirements of a primordial evolvable replicator system: (i) it is stable under the presumed primitive Earth conditions, (ii) the monomeric building blocks of the informational polymer can be formed from available prebiotic compounds, (iii) the system is self-assembling and self-replicative and (iv) it is adaptive to changes in the environment and
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rudy Clausen
2015-09-01
Full Text Available An important goal in molecular biology is to understand functional changes upon single-point mutations in proteins. Doing so through a detailed characterization of structure spaces and underlying energy landscapes is desirable but continues to challenge methods based on Molecular Dynamics. In this paper we propose a novel algorithm, SIfTER, which is based instead on stochastic optimization to circumvent the computational challenge of exploring the breadth of a protein's structure space. SIfTER is a data-driven evolutionary algorithm, leveraging experimentally-available structures of wildtype and variant sequences of a protein to define a reduced search space from where to efficiently draw samples corresponding to novel structures not directly observed in the wet laboratory. The main advantage of SIfTER is its ability to rapidly generate conformational ensembles, thus allowing mapping and juxtaposing landscapes of variant sequences and relating observed differences to functional changes. We apply SIfTER to variant sequences of the H-Ras catalytic domain, due to the prominent role of the Ras protein in signaling pathways that control cell proliferation, its well-studied conformational switching, and abundance of documented mutations in several human tumors. Many Ras mutations are oncogenic, but detailed energy landscapes have not been reported until now. Analysis of SIfTER-computed energy landscapes for the wildtype and two oncogenic variants, G12V and Q61L, suggests that these mutations cause constitutive activation through two different mechanisms. G12V directly affects binding specificity while leaving the energy landscape largely unchanged, whereas Q61L has pronounced, starker effects on the landscape. An implementation of SIfTER is made available at http://www.cs.gmu.edu/~ashehu/?q=OurTools. We believe SIfTER is useful to the community to answer the question of how sequence mutations affect the function of a protein, when there is an
Tuning iteration space slicing based tiled multi-core code implementing Nussinov's RNA folding.
Palkowski, Marek; Bielecki, Wlodzimierz
2018-01-15
RNA folding is an ongoing compute-intensive task of bioinformatics. Parallelization and improving code locality for this kind of algorithms is one of the most relevant areas in computational biology. Fortunately, RNA secondary structure approaches, such as Nussinov's recurrence, involve mathematical operations over affine control loops whose iteration space can be represented by the polyhedral model. This allows us to apply powerful polyhedral compilation techniques based on the transitive closure of dependence graphs to generate parallel tiled code implementing Nussinov's RNA folding. Such techniques are within the iteration space slicing framework - the transitive dependences are applied to the statement instances of interest to produce valid tiles. The main problem at generating parallel tiled code is defining a proper tile size and tile dimension which impact parallelism degree and code locality. To choose the best tile size and tile dimension, we first construct parallel parametric tiled code (parameters are variables defining tile size). With this purpose, we first generate two nonparametric tiled codes with different fixed tile sizes but with the same code structure and then derive a general affine model, which describes all integer factors available in expressions of those codes. Using this model and known integer factors present in the mentioned expressions (they define the left-hand side of the model), we find unknown integers in this model for each integer factor available in the same fixed tiled code position and replace in this code expressions, including integer factors, with those including parameters. Then we use this parallel parametric tiled code to implement the well-known tile size selection (TSS) technique, which allows us to discover in a given search space the best tile size and tile dimension maximizing target code performance. For a given search space, the presented approach allows us to choose the best tile size and tile dimension in
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marek-Crnjac, L.
2006-01-01
In the present work we show the connections between the topology of four-manifolds, conformal field theory, the mathematical probability theory and Cantorian space-time. In all these different mathematical fields, we find as the main connection the appearance of the golden mean
Liu, Z.; Ensing, B.; Moore, P.B.
2011-01-01
The free energy surfaces (FESs) of alanine dipeptide are studied to illustrate a new strategy to assess the performance of classical molecular mechanics force field on the full range of the (phi-psi) conformational space. The FES is obtained from metadynamics simulations with five commonly used
The functional half-life of an mRNA depends on the ribosome spacing in an early coding region
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Margit; Nissen, Søren; Mitarai, Namiko
2011-01-01
Bacterial mRNAs are translated by closely spaced ribosomes and degraded from the 5'-end, with half-lives of around 2 min at 37 °C in most cases. Ribosome-free or "naked" mRNA is known to be readily degraded, but the initial event that inactivates the mRNA functionally has not been fully described...
Topological recursion for chord diagrams, RNA complexes, and cells in moduli spaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Chekhov, Leonid O.; Penner, Robert
2013-01-01
and free energies are convergent for small t and all s as a perturbation of the Gaussian potential, which arises for st=0. This perturbation is computed using the formalism of the topological recursion. The corresponding enumeration of chord diagrams gives at once the number of RNA complexes of a given...... topology as well as the number of cells in Riemann's moduli spaces for bordered surfaces. The free energies are computed here in principle for all genera and explicitly for genera less than four....
Killing tensors and conformal Killing tensors from conformal Killing vectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rani, Raffaele; Edgar, S Brian; Barnes, Alan
2003-01-01
Koutras has proposed some methods to construct reducible proper conformal Killing tensors and Killing tensors (which are, in general, irreducible) when a pair of orthogonal conformal Killing vectors exist in a given space. We give the completely general result demonstrating that this severe restriction of orthogonality is unnecessary. In addition, we correct and extend some results concerning Killing tensors constructed from a single conformal Killing vector. A number of examples demonstrate that it is possible to construct a much larger class of reducible proper conformal Killing tensors and Killing tensors than permitted by the Koutras algorithms. In particular, by showing that all conformal Killing tensors are reducible in conformally flat spaces, we have a method of constructing all conformal Killing tensors, and hence all the Killing tensors (which will in general be irreducible) of conformally flat spaces using their conformal Killing vectors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yanning Wang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Using conformable fractional calculus on time scales, we first introduce fractional Sobolev spaces on time scales, characterize them, and define weak conformable fractional derivatives. Second, we prove the equivalence of some norms in the introduced spaces and derive their completeness, reflexivity, uniform convexity, and compactness of some imbeddings, which can be regarded as a novelty item. Then, as an application, we present a recent approach via variational methods and critical point theory to obtain the existence of solutions for a p-Laplacian conformable fractional differential equation boundary value problem on time scale T: Tα(Tαup-2Tα(u(t=∇F(σ(t,u(σ(t, Δ-a.e. t∈a,bTκ2, u(a-u(b=0, Tα(u(a-Tα(u(b=0, where Tα(u(t denotes the conformable fractional derivative of u of order α at t, σ is the forward jump operator, a,b∈T, 01, and F:[0,T]T×RN→R. By establishing a proper variational setting, we obtain three existence results. Finally, we present two examples to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the existence results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coleman, R.A.; Korte, H.
1984-01-01
According to the principle of the universality of free fall, the motions of all neutral monopole particles are governed by one common path structure. This principle does not, however, require the path structure to be geodesic; that is, the path structure need not be a projective structure. It is shown that any equation of motion structure (either a curve or a path structure) that has sufficient microisotropy to be compatible with the conformal causal structure of space-time must be geodesic and must be unique. Hence, the empirically well-supported principles of conformal causality and of the universality of free fall together require the existence of a unique Weyl structure on space-time
Conformal description of spinning particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Todorov, I.T.
1986-01-01
This book is an introduction to the application of the conformal group to quantum field theory of particles with spin. After an introduction to the twistor representations of the conformal group of a conformally flat space-time and twistor flag manifolds with Su(2,2) orbits the classical phase space of conformal spinning particles is described. Thereafter the twistor description of classical zero mass fields is considered together with the quantization. (HSI)
Conformal boundaries of warped products
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kokkendorff, Simon Lyngby
2006-01-01
In this note we prove a result on how to determine the conformal boundary of a type of warped product of two length spaces in terms of the individual conformal boundaries. In the situation, that we treat, the warping and conformal distortion functions are functions of distance to a base point....... The result is applied to produce examples of CAT(0)-spaces, where the conformal and ideal boundaries differ in interesting ways....
Thickenings and conformal gravity
Lebrun, Claude
1991-07-01
A twistor correspondence is given for complex conformal space-times with vanishing Bach and Eastwood-Dighton tensors; when the Weyl curvature is algebraically general, these equations are precisely the conformal version of Einstein's vacuum equations with cosmological constant. This gives a fully curved version of the linearized correspondence of Baston and Mason [B-M].
Thickenings and conformal gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
LeBrun, C. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (USA). Dept. of Mathematics)
1991-07-01
A twistor correspondence is given for complex conformal space-times with vanishing Bach and Eastwood-Dighton tensors; when the Weyl curvature is algebraically general, these equations are precisely the conformal version of Einstein's vacuum equations with cosmological constant. This gives a fully curved version of the linearized correspondence of Baston and Mason (B-M). (orig.).
Thickenings and conformal gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
LeBrun, C.
1991-01-01
A twistor correspondence is given for complex conformal space-times with vanishing Bach and Eastwood-Dighton tensors; when the Weyl curvature is algebraically general, these equations are precisely the conformal version of Einstein's vacuum equations with cosmological constant. This gives a fully curved version of the linearized correspondence of Baston and Mason [B-M]. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henke, Paul S.; Mak, Chi H.
2014-01-01
The thermodynamic stability of a folded RNA is intricately tied to the counterions and the free energy of this interaction must be accounted for in any realistic RNA simulations. Extending a tight-binding model published previously, in this paper we investigate the fundamental structure of charges arising from the interaction between small functional RNA molecules and divalent ions such as Mg 2+ that are especially conducive to stabilizing folded conformations. The characteristic nature of these charges is utilized to construct a discretely connected energy landscape that is then traversed via a novel application of a deterministic graph search technique. This search method can be incorporated into larger simulations of small RNA molecules and provides a fast and accurate way to calculate the free energy arising from the interactions between an RNA and divalent counterions. The utility of this algorithm is demonstrated within a fully atomistic Monte Carlo simulation of the P4-P6 domain of the Tetrahymena group I intron, in which it is shown that the counterion-mediated free energy conclusively directs folding into a compact structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Henke, Paul S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Mak, Chi H., E-mail: cmak@usc.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Center of Applied Mathematical Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)
2014-08-14
The thermodynamic stability of a folded RNA is intricately tied to the counterions and the free energy of this interaction must be accounted for in any realistic RNA simulations. Extending a tight-binding model published previously, in this paper we investigate the fundamental structure of charges arising from the interaction between small functional RNA molecules and divalent ions such as Mg{sup 2+} that are especially conducive to stabilizing folded conformations. The characteristic nature of these charges is utilized to construct a discretely connected energy landscape that is then traversed via a novel application of a deterministic graph search technique. This search method can be incorporated into larger simulations of small RNA molecules and provides a fast and accurate way to calculate the free energy arising from the interactions between an RNA and divalent counterions. The utility of this algorithm is demonstrated within a fully atomistic Monte Carlo simulation of the P4-P6 domain of the Tetrahymena group I intron, in which it is shown that the counterion-mediated free energy conclusively directs folding into a compact structure.
Development of a Novel Self-Enclosed Sample Preparation Device for DNA/RNA Isolation in Space
Zhang, Ye; Mehta, Satish K.; Pensinger, Stuart J.; Pickering, Karen D.
2011-01-01
Modern biology techniques present potentials for a wide range of molecular, cellular, and biochemistry applications in space, including detection of infectious pathogens and environmental contaminations, monitoring of drug-resistant microbial and dangerous mutations, identification of new phenotypes of microbial and new life species. However, one of the major technological blockades in enabling these technologies in space is a lack of devices for sample preparation in the space environment. To overcome such an obstacle, we constructed a prototype of a DNA/RNA isolation device based on our novel designs documented in the NASA New Technology Reporting System (MSC-24811-1/3-1). This device is self-enclosed and pipette free, purposely designed for use in the absence of gravity. Our design can also be modified easily for preparing samples in space for other applications, such as flowcytometry, immunostaining, cell separation, sample purification and separation according to its size and charges, sample chemical labeling, and sample purification. The prototype of our DNA/RNA isolation device was tested for efficiencies of DNA and RNA isolation from various cell types for PCR analysis. The purity and integrity of purified DNA and RNA were determined as well. Results showed that our developed DNA/RNA isolation device offers similar efficiency and quality in comparison to the samples prepared using the standard protocol in the laboratory.
Changes in miRNA expression profile of space-flown Caenorhabditis elegans during Shenzhou-8 mission
Xu, Dan; Gao, Ying; Huang, Lei; Sun, Yeqing
2014-04-01
Recent advances in the field of molecular biology have demonstrated that small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) have a broad effect on gene expression networks and play a key role in biological responses to environmental stressors. However, little is known about how space radiation exposure and altered gravity affect miRNA expression. The "International Space Biological Experiments" project was carried out in November 2011 by an international collaboration between China and Germany during the Shenzhou-8 (SZ-8) mission. To study the effects of spaceflight on Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), we explored the expression profile miRNA changes in space-flown C. elegans. Dauer C. elegans larvae were taken by SZ-8 spacecraft and experienced the 16.5-day shuttle spaceflight. We performed miRNA microarray analysis, and the results showed that 23 miRNAs were altered in a complex space environment and different expression patterns were observed in the space synthetic and radiation environments. Most putative target genes of the altered miRNAs in the space synthetic environment were predicted to be involved in developmental processes instead of in the regulation of transcription, and the enrichment of these genes was due to space radiation. Furthermore, integration analysis of the miRNA and mRNA expression profiles confirmed that twelve genes were differently regulated by seven miRNAs. These genes may be involved in embryonic development, reproduction, transcription factor activity, oviposition in a space synthetic environment, positive regulation of growth and body morphogenesis in a space radiation environment. Specifically, we found that cel-miR-52, -55, and -56 of the miR-51 family were sensitive to space environmental stressors and could regulate biological behavioural responses and neprilysin activity through the different isoforms of T01C4.1 and F18A12.8. These findings suggest that C. elegans responded to spaceflight by altering the expression of miRNAs and some target
Conformational analysis by intersection: CONAN.
Smellie, Andrew; Stanton, Robert; Henne, Randy; Teig, Steve
2003-01-15
As high throughput techniques in chemical synthesis and screening improve, more demands are placed on computer assisted design and virtual screening. Many of these computational methods require one or more three-dimensional conformations for molecules, creating a demand for a conformational analysis tool that can rapidly and robustly cover the low-energy conformational spaces of small molecules. A new algorithm of intersection is presented here, which quickly generates (on average heuristics are applied after intersection to generate a small representative collection of conformations that span the conformational space. In a study of approximately 97,000 randomly selected molecules from the MDDR, results are presented that explore these conformations and their ability to cover low-energy conformational space. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem 24: 10-20, 2003
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ryttov, Thomas Aaby; Sannino, Francesco
2010-01-01
fixed point. As a consistency check we recover the previously investigated bounds of the conformal windows when restricting to a single matter representation. The earlier conformal windows can be imagined to be part now of the new conformal house. We predict the nonperturbative anomalous dimensions...... at the infrared fixed points. We further investigate the effects of adding mass terms to the condensates on the conformal house chiral dynamics and construct the simplest instanton induced effective Lagrangian terms...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rahman, M.S.
1991-10-01
A birecurrent space is defined with its classification and studied with involvement of Einstein, conformally flat, conformally symmetric and conformally recurrent spaces. A necessary and sufficient condition that a birecurrent space be recurrent is found. (author). 6 refs
GARN: Sampling RNA 3D Structure Space with Game Theory and Knowledge-Based Scoring Strategies.
Boudard, Mélanie; Bernauer, Julie; Barth, Dominique; Cohen, Johanne; Denise, Alain
2015-01-01
Cellular processes involve large numbers of RNA molecules. The functions of these RNA molecules and their binding to molecular machines are highly dependent on their 3D structures. One of the key challenges in RNA structure prediction and modeling is predicting the spatial arrangement of the various structural elements of RNA. As RNA folding is generally hierarchical, methods involving coarse-grained models hold great promise for this purpose. We present here a novel coarse-grained method for sampling, based on game theory and knowledge-based potentials. This strategy, GARN (Game Algorithm for RNa sampling), is often much faster than previously described techniques and generates large sets of solutions closely resembling the native structure. GARN is thus a suitable starting point for the molecular modeling of large RNAs, particularly those with experimental constraints. GARN is available from: http://garn.lri.fr/.
Zheng, Lianqing; Chen, Mengen; Yang, Wei
2009-06-21
To overcome the pseudoergodicity problem, conformational sampling can be accelerated via generalized ensemble methods, e.g., through the realization of random walks along prechosen collective variables, such as spatial order parameters, energy scaling parameters, or even system temperatures or pressures, etc. As usually observed, in generalized ensemble simulations, hidden barriers are likely to exist in the space perpendicular to the collective variable direction and these residual free energy barriers could greatly abolish the sampling efficiency. This sampling issue is particularly severe when the collective variable is defined in a low-dimension subset of the target system; then the "Hamiltonian lagging" problem, which reveals the fact that necessary structural relaxation falls behind the move of the collective variable, may be likely to occur. To overcome this problem in equilibrium conformational sampling, we adopted the orthogonal space random walk (OSRW) strategy, which was originally developed in the context of free energy simulation [L. Zheng, M. Chen, and W. Yang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 20227 (2008)]. Thereby, generalized ensemble simulations can simultaneously escape both the explicit barriers along the collective variable direction and the hidden barriers that are strongly coupled with the collective variable move. As demonstrated in our model studies, the present OSRW based generalized ensemble treatments show improved sampling capability over the corresponding classical generalized ensemble treatments.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carre, D.S.; Thomas, G.; Favre, A.
1974-01-01
The behavior of mixed E. coli tRNAs ''cross-linked'' by irradiation with near ultraviolet light (310-400 nm) has been compared to that of the intact molecules in two enzymatic processes. No change in the rate and extent of the repair of the pCpCpA 3' terminus of tRNA by purified E. coli tRNA nucleotidyltransferase can be detected. In contrast, complex data were obtained in the acylation reaction. They can be understood using other tRNA specific modifications as well as our present knowledge of E. coli tRNA sequences and rare base content [fr
Conformal superalgebras via tractor calculus
Lischewski, Andree
2015-01-01
We use the manifestly conformally invariant description of a Lorentzian conformal structure in terms of a parabolic Cartan geometry in order to introduce a superalgebra structure on the space of twistor spinors and normal conformal vector fields formulated in purely algebraic terms on parallel sections in tractor bundles. Via a fixed metric in the conformal class, one reproduces a conformal superalgebra structure that has been considered in the literature before. The tractor approach, however, makes clear that the failure of this object to be a Lie superalgebra in certain cases is due to purely algebraic identities on the spinor module and to special properties of the conformal holonomy representation. Moreover, it naturally generalizes to higher signatures. This yields new formulas for constructing new twistor spinors and higher order normal conformal Killing forms out of existing ones, generalizing the well-known spinorial Lie derivative. Moreover, we derive restrictions on the possible dimension of the space of twistor spinors in any metric signature.
This section provides information on: current laws, regulations and guidance, policy and technical guidance, project-level conformity, general information, contacts and training, adequacy review of SIP submissions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikolay Ivantchev
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Conformism was studied among 46 workers with different kinds of occupations by means of two modified scales measuring conformity by Santor, Messervey, and Kusumakar (2000 – scale for perceived peer pressure and scale for conformism in antisocial situations. The hypothesis of the study that workers’ conformism is expressed in a medium degree was confirmed partly. More than a half of the workers conform in a medium degree for taking risk, and for the use of alcohol and drugs, and for sexual relationships. More than a half of the respondents conform in a small degree for anti-social activities (like a theft. The workers were more inclined to conform for risk taking (10.9%, then – for the use of alcohol, drugs and for sexual relationships (8.7%, and in the lowest degree – for anti-social activities (6.5%. The workers who were inclined for the use of alcohol and drugs tended also to conform for anti-social activities.
Xu, Xue; Wang, Xia; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua; Yang, Ling
2012-09-01
Nano-scale particles have attracted a lot of attention for its potential use in medical studies, in particular for the diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. However, the toxicity and other side effects caused by the undesired interaction between nanoparticles and DNA/RNA are not clear. To address this problem, a model to evaluate the general rules governing how nanoparticles interact with DNA/RNA is demanded. Here by, use of an examination of 2254 native nucleotides with molecular dynamics simulation and thermodynamic analysis, we demonstrate how the DNA/RNA native structures are disrupted by the fullerene (C60) in a physiological condition. The nanoparticle was found to bind with the minor grooves of double-stranded DNA and trigger unwinding and disrupting of the DNA helix, which indicates C60 can potentially inhibit the DNA replication and induce potential side effects. In contrast to that of DNA, C60 only binds to the major grooves of RNA helix, which stabilizes the RNA structure or transforms the configuration from stretch to curl. This finding sheds new light on how C60 inhibits reverse transcription as HIV replicates. In addition, the binding of C60 stabilizes the structures of RNA riboswitch, indicating that C60 might regulate the gene expression. The binding energies of C60 with different genomic fragments varies in the range of -56 to -10 kcal mol(-1), which further verifies the role of nanoparticle in DNA/RNA damage. Our findings reveal a general mode by which C60 causes DNA/RNA damage or other toxic effects at a systematic level, suggesting it should be cautious to handle these nanomaterials in various medical applications.
Banner, David W; Gsell, Bernard; Benz, Jörg; Bertschinger, Julian; Burger, Dominique; Brack, Simon; Cuppuleri, Simon; Debulpaep, Maja; Gast, Alain; Grabulovski, Dragan; Hennig, Michael; Hilpert, Hans; Huber, Walter; Kuglstatter, Andreas; Kusznir, Eric; Laeremans, Toon; Matile, Hugues; Miscenic, Christian; Rufer, Arne C; Schlatter, Daniel; Steyaert, Jan; Stihle, Martine; Thoma, Ralf; Weber, Martin; Ruf, Armin
2013-06-01
The aspartic protease BACE2 is responsible for the shedding of the transmembrane protein Tmem27 from the surface of pancreatic β-cells, which leads to inactivation of the β-cell proliferating activity of Tmem27. This role of BACE2 in the control of β-cell maintenance suggests BACE2 as a drug target for diabetes. Inhibition of BACE2 has recently been shown to lead to improved control of glucose homeostasis and to increased insulin levels in insulin-resistant mice. BACE2 has 52% sequence identity to the well studied Alzheimer's disease target enzyme β-secretase (BACE1). High-resolution BACE2 structures would contribute significantly to the investigation of this enzyme as either a drug target or anti-target. Surface mutagenesis, BACE2-binding antibody Fab fragments, single-domain camelid antibody VHH fragments (Xaperones) and Fyn-kinase-derived SH3 domains (Fynomers) were used as crystallization helpers to obtain the first high-resolution structures of BACE2. Eight crystal structures in six different packing environments define an ensemble of low-energy conformations available to the enzyme. Here, the different strategies used for raising and selecting BACE2 binders for cocrystallization are described and the crystallization success, crystal quality and the time and resources needed to obtain suitable crystals are compared.
Noronha, Jorge; Gyulassy, Miklos; Torrieri, Giorgio
2009-03-13
We show that far zone Mach and diffusion wake "holograms" produced by supersonic strings in anti-de Sitter space/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence do not lead to observable conical angular correlations in the strict N_{c}-->infinity supergravity limit if Cooper-Frye hadronization is assumed. However, a special nonequilibrium "neck" zone near the jet is shown to produce an apparent sonic boom azimuthal angle distribution that is roughly independent of the heavy quark's velocity. Our results indicate that a measurement of the dependence of the away-side correlations on the velocity of associated identified heavy quark jets at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and CERN LHC will provide a direct test of the nonperturbative dynamics involved in the coupling between jets and the strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma implied by AdS/CFT correspondence.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noronha, Jorge; Gyulassy, Miklos; Torrieri, Giorgio
2009-01-01
We show that far zone Mach and diffusion wake 'holograms' produced by supersonic strings in anti-de Sitter space/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence do not lead to observable conical angular correlations in the strict N c →∞ supergravity limit if Cooper-Frye hadronization is assumed. However, a special nonequilibrium 'neck' zone near the jet is shown to produce an apparent sonic boom azimuthal angle distribution that is roughly independent of the heavy quark's velocity. Our results indicate that a measurement of the dependence of the away-side correlations on the velocity of associated identified heavy quark jets at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and CERN LHC will provide a direct test of the nonperturbative dynamics involved in the coupling between jets and the strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma implied by AdS/CFT correspondence
Conformal hyperbolicity of Lorentzian warped products
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Markowitz, M.J.
1982-01-01
A space-time M is said to be conformally hyperbolic if the intrinsic conformal Lorentz pseudodistance dsub(M) is a true distance. In this paper criteria are derived which insure the conformal hyperbolicity of certain space-times which are generalizations of the Robertson-Walker spaces. Then dsub(M) is determined explicitly for Einstein-de Sitter space, and important cosmological model. (author)
Conformal hyperbolicity of Lorentzian warped products
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Markowitz, M.J. (Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Dept. of Mathematics)
1982-12-01
A space-time M is said to be conformally hyperbolic if the intrinsic conformal Lorentz pseudodistance dsub(M) is a true distance. In this paper criteria are derived which insure the conformal hyperbolicity of certain space-times which are generalizations of the Robertson-Walker spaces. Then dsub(M) is determined explicitly for Einstein-de Sitter space, and important cosmological model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Frauendiener Jörg
2000-08-01
Full Text Available The notion of conformal infinity has a long history within the research in Einstein's theory of gravity. Today, ``conformal infinity'' is related with almost all other branches of research in general relativity, from quantisation procedures to abstract mathematical issues to numerical applications. This review article attempts to show how this concept gradually and inevitably evolved out of physical issues, namely the need to understand gravitational radiation and isolated systems within the theory of gravitation and how it lends itself very naturally to solve radiation problems in numerical relativity. The fundamental concept of null-infinity is introduced. Friedrich's regular conformal field equations are presented and various initial value problems for them are discussed. Finally, it is shown that the conformal field equations provide a very powerful method within numerical relativity to study global problems such as gravitational wave propagation and detection.
Frauendiener, Jörg
2004-01-01
The notion of conformal infinity has a long history within the research in Einstein's theory of gravity. Today, "conformal infinity" is related to almost all other branches of research in general relativity, from quantisation procedures to abstract mathematical issues to numerical applications. This review article attempts to show how this concept gradually and inevitably evolved from physical issues, namely the need to understand gravitational radiation and isolated systems within the theory of gravitation, and how it lends itself very naturally to the solution of radiation problems in numerical relativity. The fundamental concept of null-infinity is introduced. Friedrich's regular conformal field equations are presented and various initial value problems for them are discussed. Finally, it is shown that the conformal field equations provide a very powerful method within numerical relativity to study global problems such as gravitational wave propagation and detection.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Frauendiener Jörg
2004-01-01
Full Text Available The notion of conformal infinity has a long history within the research in Einstein's theory of gravity. Today, 'conformal infinity' is related to almost all other branches of research in general relativity, from quantisation procedures to abstract mathematical issues to numerical applications. This review article attempts to show how this concept gradually and inevitably evolved from physical issues, namely the need to understand gravitational radiation and isolated systems within the theory of gravitation, and how it lends itself very naturally to the solution of radiation problems in numerical relativity. The fundamental concept of null-infinity is introduced. Friedrich's regular conformal field equations are presented and various initial value problems for them are discussed. Finally, it is shown that the conformal field equations provide a very powerful method within numerical relativity to study global problems such as gravitational wave propagation and detection.
The General Conformity requirements ensure that the actions taken by federal agencies in nonattainment and maintenance areas do not interfere with a state’s plans to meet national standards for air quality.
Frauendiener, J?rg
2000-01-01
The notion of conformal infinity has a long history within the research in Einstein's theory of gravity. Today, 'conformal infinity' is related to almost all other branches of research in general relativity, from quantisation procedures to abstract mathematical issues to numerical applications. This review article attempts to show how this concept gradually and inevitably evolved from physical issues, namely the need to understand gravitational radiation and isolated systems within the theory...
Robb, Nicole C.; Cordes, Thorben; Hwang, Ling Chin; Gryte, Kristofer; Duchi, Diego; Craggs, Timothy D.; Santoso, Yusdi; Weiss, Shimon; Ebright, Richard H.; Kapanidis, Achillefs N.
2013-01-01
Bacterial transcription is initiated after RNA polymerase (RNAP) binds to promoter DNA, melts similar to 14 bp around the transcription start site and forms a single-stranded "transcription bubble" within a catalytically active RNAP-DNA open complex (RPo). There is significant flexibility in the
Families and degenerations of conformal field theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roggenkamp, D.
2004-09-01
In this work, moduli spaces of conformal field theories are investigated. In the first part, moduli spaces corresponding to current-current deformation of conformal field theories are constructed explicitly. For WZW models, they are described in detail, and sigma model realizations of the deformed WZW models are presented. The second part is devoted to the study of boundaries of moduli spaces of conformal field theories. For this purpose a notion of convergence of families of conformal field theories is introduced, which admits certain degenerated conformal field theories to occur as limits. To such a degeneration of conformal field theories, a degeneration of metric spaces together with additional geometric structures can be associated, which give rise to a geometric interpretation. Boundaries of moduli spaces of toroidal conformal field theories, orbifolds thereof and WZW models are analyzed. Furthermore, also the limit of the discrete family of Virasoro minimal models is investigated. (orig.)
Conformation radiotherapy and conformal radiotherapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morita, Kozo
1999-01-01
In order to coincide the high dose region to the target volume, the 'Conformation Radiotherapy Technique' using the multileaf collimator and the device for 'hollow-out technique' was developed by Prof. S. Takahashi in 1960. This technique can be classified a type of 2D-dynamic conformal RT techniques. By the clinical application of this technique, the late complications of the lens, the intestine and the urinary bladder after radiotherapy for the maxillary cancer and the cervical cancer decreased. Since 1980's the exact position and shape of the tumor and the surrounding normal tissues can be easily obtained by the tremendous development of the CT/MRI imaging technique. As a result, various kinds of new conformal techniques such as the 3D-CRT, the dose intensity modulation, the tomotherapy have been developed since the beginning of 1990'. Several 'dose escalation study with 2D-/3D conformal RT' is now under way to improve the treatment results. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hooft, G.
2012-01-01
The dynamical degree of freedom for the gravitational force is the metric tensor, having 10 locally independent degrees of freedom (of which 4 can be used to fix the coordinate choice). In conformal gravity, we split this field into an overall scalar factor and a nine-component remainder. All unrenormalizable infinities are in this remainder, while the scalar component can be handled like any other scalar field such as the Higgs field. In this formalism, conformal symmetry is spontaneously broken. An imperative demand on any healthy quantum gravity theory is that black holes should be described as quantum systems with micro-states as dictated by the Hawking-Bekenstein theory. This requires conformal symmetry that may be broken spontaneously but not explicitly, and this means that all conformal anomalies must cancel out. Cancellation of conformal anomalies yields constraints on the matter sector as described by some universal field theory. Thus black hole physics may eventually be of help in the construction of unified field theories. (author)
Two dimensional infinite conformal symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohanta, N.N.; Tripathy, K.C.
1993-01-01
The invariant discontinuous (discrete) conformal transformation groups, namely the Kleinian and Fuchsian groups Gamma (with an arbitrary signature) of H (the Poincare upper half-plane l) and the unit disc Delta are explicitly constructed from the fundamental domain D. The Riemann surface with signatures of Gamma and conformally invariant automorphic forms (functions) with Peterson scalar product are discussed. The functor, where the category of complex Hilbert spaces spanned by the space of cusp forms constitutes the two dimensional conformal field theory. (Author) 7 refs
Towards conformal loop quantum gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Charles H-T
2006-01-01
A discussion is given of recent developments in canonical gravity that assimilates the conformal analysis of gravitational degrees of freedom. The work is motivated by the problem of time in quantum gravity and is carried out at the metric and the triad levels. At the metric level, it is shown that by extending the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) phase space of general relativity (GR), a conformal form of geometrodynamics can be constructed. In addition to the Hamiltonian and Diffeomorphism constraints, an extra first class constraint is introduced to generate conformal transformations. This phase space consists of York's mean extrinsic curvature time, conformal three-metric and their momenta. At the triad level, the phase space of GR is further enlarged by incorporating spin-gauge as well as conformal symmetries. This leads to a canonical formulation of GR using a new set of real spin connection variables. The resulting gravitational constraints are first class, consisting of the Hamiltonian constraint and the canonical generators for spin-gauge and conformorphism transformations. The formulation has a remarkable feature of being parameter-free. Indeed, it is shown that a conformal parameter of the Barbero-Immirzi type can be absorbed by the conformal symmetry of the extended phase space. This gives rise to an alternative approach to loop quantum gravity that addresses both the conceptual problem of time and the technical problem of functional calculus in quantum gravity
Conformity and statistical tolerancing
Leblond, Laurent; Pillet, Maurice
2018-02-01
Statistical tolerancing was first proposed by Shewhart (Economic Control of Quality of Manufactured Product, (1931) reprinted 1980 by ASQC), in spite of this long history, its use remains moderate. One of the probable reasons for this low utilization is undoubtedly the difficulty for designers to anticipate the risks of this approach. The arithmetic tolerance (worst case) allows a simple interpretation: conformity is defined by the presence of the characteristic in an interval. Statistical tolerancing is more complex in its definition. An interval is not sufficient to define the conformance. To justify the statistical tolerancing formula used by designers, a tolerance interval should be interpreted as the interval where most of the parts produced should probably be located. This tolerance is justified by considering a conformity criterion of the parts guaranteeing low offsets on the latter characteristics. Unlike traditional arithmetic tolerancing, statistical tolerancing requires a sustained exchange of information between design and manufacture to be used safely. This paper proposes a formal definition of the conformity, which we apply successively to the quadratic and arithmetic tolerancing. We introduce a concept of concavity, which helps us to demonstrate the link between tolerancing approach and conformity. We use this concept to demonstrate the various acceptable propositions of statistical tolerancing (in the space decentring, dispersion).
Axiomatic conformal field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaberdiel, M.R.; Goddard, P.
2000-01-01
A new rigourous approach to conformal field theory is presented. The basic objects are families of complex-valued amplitudes, which define a meromorphic conformal field theory (or chiral algebra) and which lead naturally to the definition of topological vector spaces, between which vertex operators act as continuous operators. In fact, in order to develop the theory, Moebius invariance rather than full conformal invariance is required but it is shown that every Moebius theory can be extended to a conformal theory by the construction of a Virasoro field. In this approach, a representation of a conformal field theory is naturally defined in terms of a family of amplitudes with appropriate analytic properties. It is shown that these amplitudes can also be derived from a suitable collection of states in the meromorphic theory. Zhu's algebra then appears naturally as the algebra of conditions which states defining highest weight representations must satisfy. The relationship of the representations of Zhu's algebra to the classification of highest weight representations is explained. (orig.)
Conformal group actions and Segal's cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Werth, J.-E.
1984-01-01
A mathematical description of Segal's cosmological model in the framework of conformal group actions is presented. The relation between conformal and causal group actions on time-orientable Lorentzian manifolds is analysed and several examples are discussed. A criterion for the conformality of a map between Lorentzian manifolds is given. The results are applied to Segal's 'conformal compactification' of Minkowski space. Furthermore, the 'unitary formulation' of Segal's cosmology is regarded. (Author) [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaplan, David B.; Lee, Jong-Wan; Son, Dam T.; Stephanov, Mikhail A.
2009-01-01
We consider zero-temperature transitions from conformal to nonconformal phases in quantum theories. We argue that there are three generic mechanisms for the loss of conformality in any number of dimensions: (i) fixed point goes to zero coupling, (ii) fixed point runs off to infinite coupling, or (iii) an IR fixed point annihilates with a UV fixed point and they both disappear into the complex plane. We give both relativistic and nonrelativistic examples of the last case in various dimensions and show that the critical behavior of the mass gap behaves similarly to the correlation length in the finite temperature Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) phase transition in two dimensions, ξ∼exp(c/|T-T c | 1/2 ). We speculate that the chiral phase transition in QCD at large number of fermion flavors belongs to this universality class, and attempt to identify the UV fixed point that annihilates with the Banks-Zaks fixed point at the lower end of the conformal window.
SimRNA: a coarse-grained method for RNA folding simulations and 3D structure prediction.
Boniecki, Michal J; Lach, Grzegorz; Dawson, Wayne K; Tomala, Konrad; Lukasz, Pawel; Soltysinski, Tomasz; Rother, Kristian M; Bujnicki, Janusz M
2016-04-20
RNA molecules play fundamental roles in cellular processes. Their function and interactions with other biomolecules are dependent on the ability to form complex three-dimensional (3D) structures. However, experimental determination of RNA 3D structures is laborious and challenging, and therefore, the majority of known RNAs remain structurally uncharacterized. Here, we present SimRNA: a new method for computational RNA 3D structure prediction, which uses a coarse-grained representation, relies on the Monte Carlo method for sampling the conformational space, and employs a statistical potential to approximate the energy and identify conformations that correspond to biologically relevant structures. SimRNA can fold RNA molecules using only sequence information, and, on established test sequences, it recapitulates secondary structure with high accuracy, including correct prediction of pseudoknots. For modeling of complex 3D structures, it can use additional restraints, derived from experimental or computational analyses, including information about secondary structure and/or long-range contacts. SimRNA also can be used to analyze conformational landscapes and identify potential alternative structures. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
Recursion Relations for Conformal Blocks
Penedones, João; Yamazaki, Masahito
2016-09-12
In the context of conformal field theories in general space-time dimension, we find all the possible singularities of the conformal blocks as functions of the scaling dimension $\\Delta$ of the exchanged operator. In particular, we argue, using representation theory of parabolic Verma modules, that in odd spacetime dimension the singularities are only simple poles. We discuss how to use this information to write recursion relations that determine the conformal blocks. We first recover the recursion relation introduced in 1307.6856 for conformal blocks of external scalar operators. We then generalize this recursion relation for the conformal blocks associated to the four point function of three scalar and one vector operator. Finally we specialize to the case in which the vector operator is a conserved current.
Recent advancements in conformal gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
O’Brien, James G.; Chaykov, Spasen S.; Moss, Robert J.; Dentico, Jeremy; Stulge, Modestas; Stefanski, Brian
2017-01-01
In recent years, due to the lack of direct observed evidence of cold dark matter, coupled with the shrinking parameter space to search for new dark matter particles, there has been increased interest in Alternative Gravitational theories. This paper, addresses three recent advances in conformal gravity, a fourth order renormalizable metric theory of gravitation originally formulated by Weyl, and later advanced by Mannheim and Kazanas. The first section of the paper applies conformal gravity to the rotation curves of the LITTLE THINGS survey, extending the total number of rotation curves successfully fit by conformal gravity to well over 200 individual data sets without the need for additional dark matter. Further, in this rotation curve study, we show how MOND and conformal gravity compare for each galaxy in the sample. Second, we look at the original Zwicky problem of applying the virial theorem to the Coma cluster in order to get an estimate for the cluster mass. However, instead of using the standard Newtonian potential, here we use the weak field approximation of conformal gravity. We show that in the conformal case we can get a much smaller mass estimate and thus there is no apparent need to include dark matter. We then show that this calculation is in agreement with the observational data from other well studied clusters. Last, we explore the calculation of the deflection of starlight through conformal gravity, as a first step towards applying conformal gravity to gravitaitonal lensing. (paper)
Conformal dimension theory and application
Mackay, John M
2010-01-01
Conformal dimension measures the extent to which the Hausdorff dimension of a metric space can be lowered by quasisymmetric deformations. Introduced by Pansu in 1989, this concept has proved extremely fruitful in a diverse range of areas, including geometric function theory, conformal dynamics, and geometric group theory. This survey leads the reader from the definitions and basic theory through to active research applications in geometric function theory, Gromov hyperbolic geometry, and the dynamics of rational maps, amongst other areas. It reviews the theory of dimension in metric spaces and of deformations of metric spaces. It summarizes the basic tools for estimating conformal dimension and illustrates their application to concrete problems of independent interest. Numerous examples and proofs are provided. Working from basic definitions through to current research areas, this book can be used as a guide for graduate students interested in this field, or as a helpful survey for experts. Background needed ...
Inverse bootstrapping conformal field theories
Li, Wenliang
2018-01-01
We propose a novel approach to study conformal field theories (CFTs) in general dimensions. In the conformal bootstrap program, one usually searches for consistent CFT data that satisfy crossing symmetry. In the new method, we reverse the logic and interpret manifestly crossing-symmetric functions as generating functions of conformal data. Physical CFTs can be obtained by scanning the space of crossing-symmetric functions. By truncating the fusion rules, we are able to concentrate on the low-lying operators and derive some approximate relations for their conformal data. It turns out that the free scalar theory, the 2d minimal model CFTs, the ϕ 4 Wilson-Fisher CFT, the Lee-Yang CFTs and the Ising CFTs are consistent with the universal relations from the minimal fusion rule ϕ 1 × ϕ 1 = I + ϕ 2 + T , where ϕ 1 , ϕ 2 are scalar operators, I is the identity operator and T is the stress tensor.
Tomaschitz, R
2000-01-01
We study tachyons conformally coupled to the background geometry of a Milne universe. The causality of superluminal signal transfer is scrutinized in this context. The cosmic time of the comoving frame determines a distinguished time order for events connected by superluminal signals. An observer can relate his rest frame to the galaxy frame, and compare so the time order of events in his proper time to the cosmic time order. All observers can in this way arrive at identical conclusions on the causality of events connected by superluminal signals. An unambiguous energy concept for tachyonic rays is defined by means of the cosmic time of the comoving reference frame, without resorting to an antiparticle interpretation. On that basis we give an explicit proof that no signals can be sent into the past of observers. Causality violating signals are energetically forbidden, as they would have negative energy in the rest frame of the emitting observer. If an observer emits a superluminal signal, the tachyonic respon...
Instantons in conformal gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strominger, A.; Horowitz, G.T.; Perry, M.J.
1984-01-01
Fe study extrema of the general conformally invariant action: Ssub(c)=∫1/sub(α) 2 Csup(abcd)Csub(abcd)+γRsup(abcd*)Rsup(*)sub(abcd)+iTHETARsup(abcd)*Rsub(abcd). We find the first examples in four dimensions of asymptotically euclidean gravitational instantons. These have arbitrary Euler number and Hirzebruch signature. Some of these instantons represent tunneling between zero-curvature vacua that are not related by small gauge transformations. Others represent tunneling between flat space and topologically non-trivial zero-energy initial data. A general formula for the one-loop determinant is derived in terms of the renormalization group invariant masses, the volume of space-time, the Euler number and the Hirzebruch signature. (orig.)
Alakent, Burak; Doruker, Pemra; Camurdan, Mehmet C
2004-09-08
Time series analysis is applied on the collective coordinates obtained from principal component analysis of independent molecular dynamics simulations of alpha-amylase inhibitor tendamistat and immunity protein of colicin E7 based on the Calpha coordinates history. Even though the principal component directions obtained for each run are considerably different, the dynamics information obtained from these runs are surprisingly similar in terms of time series models and parameters. There are two main differences in the dynamics of the two proteins: the higher density of low frequencies and the larger step sizes for the interminima motions of colicin E7 than those of alpha-amylase inhibitor, which may be attributed to the higher number of residues of colicin E7 and/or the structural differences of the two proteins. The cumulative density function of the low frequencies in each run conforms to the expectations from the normal mode analysis. When different runs of alpha-amylase inhibitor are projected on the same set of eigenvectors, it is found that principal components obtained from a certain conformational region of a protein has a moderate explanation power in other conformational regions and the local minima are similar to a certain extent, while the height of the energy barriers in between the minima significantly change. As a final remark, time series analysis tools are further exploited in this study with the motive of explaining the equilibrium fluctuations of proteins. Copyright 2004 American Institute of Physics
Supertwistor connection and conformal supergravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Merkulov, S.A.
1985-01-01
Supersymmetry expansion of the geometry of local twistors is suggested. Definition of the space of local supertwistors is given and its differential geometry is formulated. Variational principles are discussed, and it is shown that corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations also coincide and result in superzero equations of N=1 conformal supergravitation, which generalize Bach equations
Supergravitational conformal Galileons
Deen, Rehan; Ovrut, Burt
2017-08-01
The worldvolume actions of 3+1 dimensional bosonic branes embedded in a five-dimensional bulk space can lead to important effective field theories, such as the DBI conformal Galileons, and may, when the Null Energy Condition is violated, play an essential role in cosmological theories of the early universe. These include Galileon Genesis and "bouncing" cosmology, where a pre-Big Bang contracting phase bounces smoothly to the presently observed expanding universe. Perhaps the most natural arena for such branes to arise is within the context of superstring and M -theory vacua. Here, not only are branes required for the consistency of the theory, but, in many cases, the exact spectrum of particle physics occurs at low energy. However, such theories have the additional constraint that they must be N = 1 supersymmetric. This motivates us to compute the worldvolume actions of N = 1 supersymmetric three-branes, first in flat superspace and then to generalize them to N = 1 supergravitation. In this paper, for simplicity, we begin the process, not within the context of a superstring vacuum but, rather, for the conformal Galileons arising on a co-dimension one brane embedded in a maximally symmetric AdS 5 bulk space. We proceed to N = 1 supersymmetrize the associated worldvolume theory and then generalize the results to N = 1 supergravity, opening the door to possible new cosmological scenarios
Säwén, Elin; Massad, Tariq; Landersjö, Clas; Damberg, Peter; Widmalm, Göran
2010-08-21
The conformational space available to the flexible molecule α-D-Manp-(1-->2)-α-D-Manp-OMe, a model for the α-(1-->2)-linked mannose disaccharide in N- or O-linked glycoproteins, is determined using experimental data and molecular simulation combined with a maximum entropy approach that leads to a converged population distribution utilizing different input information. A database survey of the Protein Data Bank where structures having the constituent disaccharide were retrieved resulted in an ensemble with >200 structures. Subsequent filtering removed erroneous structures and gave the database (DB) ensemble having three classes of mannose-containing compounds, viz., N- and O-linked structures, and ligands to proteins. A molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of the disaccharide revealed a two-state equilibrium with a major and a minor conformational state, i.e., the MD ensemble. These two different conformation ensembles of the disaccharide were compared to measured experimental spectroscopic data for the molecule in water solution. However, neither of the two populations were compatible with experimental data from optical rotation, NMR (1)H,(1)H cross-relaxation rates as well as homo- and heteronuclear (3)J couplings. The conformational distributions were subsequently used as background information to generate priors that were used in a maximum entropy analysis. The resulting posteriors, i.e., the population distributions after the application of the maximum entropy analysis, still showed notable deviations that were not anticipated based on the prior information. Therefore, reparameterization of homo- and heteronuclear Karplus relationships for the glycosidic torsion angles Φ and Ψ were carried out in which the importance of electronegative substituents on the coupling pathway was deemed essential resulting in four derived equations, two (3)J(COCC) and two (3)J(COCH) being different for the Φ and Ψ torsions, respectively. These Karplus relationships are denoted
Closed forms for conformally flat Green's functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, M.R.; Grove, P.G.; Ottewill, A.C.
1981-01-01
A closed form is obtained for the massless scalar Green's function on Rindler space. This is related by conformal transformation to the Green's function for a massless, conformally coupled scalar field on the open Einstein universe. A closed form is also obtained for the corresponding Green's function on the Einstein static universe. (author)
Geometrical formulation of the conformal Ward identity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kachkachi, M.
2002-08-01
In this paper we use deep ideas in complex geometry that proved to be very powerful in unveiling the Polyakov measure on the moduli space of Riemann surfaces and lead to obtain the partition function of perturbative string theory for 2, 3, 4 loops. Indeed, a geometrical interpretation of the conformal Ward identity in two dimensional conformal field theory is proposed: the conformal anomaly is interpreted as a deformation of the complex structure of the basic Riemann surface. This point of view is in line with the modern trend of geometric quantizations that are based on deformations of classical structures. Then, we solve the conformal Ward identity by using this geometrical formalism. (author)
Gluon amplitudes as 2 d conformal correlators
Pasterski, Sabrina; Shao, Shu-Heng; Strominger, Andrew
2017-10-01
Recently, spin-one wave functions in four dimensions that are conformal primaries of the Lorentz group S L (2 ,C ) were constructed. We compute low-point, tree-level gluon scattering amplitudes in the space of these conformal primary wave functions. The answers have the same conformal covariance as correlators of spin-one primaries in a 2 d CFT. The Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten (BCFW) recursion relation between three- and four-point gluon amplitudes is recast into this conformal basis.
A Novel, Low-Cost Conformable Lander
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary focus of this activity will be to outline a preliminary mechanical design for this conforming lander. Salient issues to be worked include (1) determining...
Conformation Generation: The State of the Art.
Hawkins, Paul C D
2017-08-28
The generation of conformations for small molecules is a problem of continuing interest in cheminformatics and computational drug discovery. This review will present an overview of methods used to sample conformational space, focusing on those methods designed for organic molecules commonly of interest in drug discovery. Different approaches to both the sampling of conformational space and the scoring of conformational stability will be compared and contrasted, with an emphasis on those methods suitable for conformer sampling of large numbers of drug-like molecules. Particular attention will be devoted to the appropriate utilization of information from experimental solid-state structures in validating and evaluating the performance of these tools. The review will conclude with some areas worthy of further investigation.
Conformal Symmetry Patterns in Baryon Spectra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirchbach, Mariana; Compean, Cliffor B
2011-01-01
Attention is drawn to the fact that the spectra of the baryons of the lightest flavors, the nucleon and the Δ, carry quantum numbers characteristic for an unitary representation of the conformal group. We show that the above phenomenon is well explained for baryons whose internal structure is dominated by a quark-diquark configuration that resides in a conformally compactified Minkowski space time, R 1 x S 3 , and is described by means of the conformal scale equation there. The R 1 x S 3 space-time represents the boundary of the conformally compactified AdS 5 , on which one expects to encounter a conformal theory in accord with the gauge-gravity duality. Within this context, our model is congruent with AdS 5 /CFT 4 .
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brodsky, S
2003-11-19
Theoretical and phenomenological evidence is now accumulating that the QCD coupling becomes constant at small virtuality; i.e., {alpha}{sub s}(Q{sup 2}) develops an infrared fixed point in contradiction to the usual assumption of singular growth in the infrared. For example, the hadronic decays of the {tau} lepton can be used to determine the effective charge {alpha}{sub {tau}}(m{sub {tau}{prime}}{sup 2}) for a hypothetical {tau}-lepton with mass in the range 0 < m{sub {tau}{prime}} < m{sub {tau}}. The {tau} decay data at low mass scales indicates that the effective charge freezes at a value of s = m{sub {tau}{prime}}{sup 2} of order 1 GeV{sup 2} with a magnitude {alpha}{sub {tau}} {approx} 0.9 {+-} 0.1. The near-constant behavior of effective couplings suggests that QCD can be approximated as a conformal theory even at relatively small momentum transfer and why there are no significant running coupling corrections to quark counting rules for exclusive processes. The AdS/CFT correspondence of large N{sub c} supergravity theory in higher-dimensional anti-de Sitter space with supersymmetric QCD in 4-dimensional space-time also has interesting implications for hadron phenomenology in the conformal limit, including an all-orders demonstration of counting rules for exclusive processes and light-front wavefunctions. The utility of light-front quantization and light-front Fock wavefunctions for analyzing nonperturbative QCD and representing the dynamics of QCD bound states is also discussed.
14 CFR 21.130 - Statement of conformity.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Statement of conformity. 21.130 Section 21... conformity. Each holder or licensee of a type certificate only, for a product manufactured in the United... Administrator a statement of conformity (FAA Form 317). This statement must be signed by an authorized person...
14 CFR 21.53 - Statement of conformity.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Statement of conformity. 21.53 Section 21... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.53 Statement of conformity. Link to an... conformity (FAA Form 317) to the Administrator for each aircraft engine and propeller presented to the...
Frank, Martin
2015-01-01
Complex carbohydrates usually have a large number of rotatable bonds and consequently a large number of theoretically possible conformations can be generated (combinatorial explosion). The application of systematic search methods for conformational analysis of carbohydrates is therefore limited to disaccharides and trisaccharides in a routine analysis. An alternative approach is to use Monte-Carlo methods or (high-temperature) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to explore the conformational space of complex carbohydrates. This chapter describes how to use MD simulation data to perform a conformational analysis (conformational maps, hydrogen bonds) of oligosaccharides and how to build realistic 3D structures of large polysaccharides using Conformational Analysis Tools (CAT).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zarling, D.A.; Calhoun, C.J.; Hardin, C.C.; Zarling, A.H.
1987-01-01
Specific immunochemical probes for Z-RNA were generated and characterized to search for possible Z-RNA-like double helices in cells. Z-RNA was detected in the cytoplasm of fixed protozoan cells by immunofluorescence microscopy using these anti-Z-RNA IgCs. In contrast, autoimmune or experimentally elicited anti-DNA antibodies, specifically reactive with B-DNA or Z-DNA, stained the nuclei. Pre-or nonimmune IgGs did not bind to the cells. RNase A or T1 digestion eliminated anti-Z-RNA IgG binding to cytoplasmic determinants; however, DNase I or mung bean nuclease had no effect. Doxorubicin and ethidium bromide prevented anti-Z-RNA antibody binding; however, actinomycin D, which does not bind double-stranded RNA, did not. Anti-Z-RNA immunofluorescence was specifically blocked in competition assays by synthetic Z-RNA but not Z-DNA, A-RNA, or single-stranded RNAs. Thus, some cytoplasmic sequences in fixed cells exist in the left-handed Z-RNA conformation
Conformal invariance from nonconformal gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meissner, Krzysztof A.; Nicolai, Hermann
2009-01-01
We discuss the conditions under which classically conformally invariant models in four dimensions can arise out of nonconformal (Einstein) gravity. As an 'existence proof' that this is indeed possible we show how to derive N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with any compact gauge group G from nonconformal gauged N=4 supergravity as a special flat space limit. We stress the role that the anticipated UV finiteness of the (so far unknown) underlying theory of quantum gravity would have to play in such a scheme, as well as the fact that the masses of elementary particles would have to arise via quantum gravitational effects which mimic the conformal anomalies of standard (flat space) UV divergent quantum field theory.
Viscous conformal gauge theories
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Toniato, Arianna; Sannino, Francesco; Rischke, Dirk H.
2017-01-01
We present the conformal behavior of the shear viscosity-to-entropy density ratio and the fermion-number diffusion coefficient within the perturbative regime of the conformal window for gauge-fermion theories.......We present the conformal behavior of the shear viscosity-to-entropy density ratio and the fermion-number diffusion coefficient within the perturbative regime of the conformal window for gauge-fermion theories....
Superspace conformal field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Quella, Thomas [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Schomerus, Volker [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2013-07-15
Conformal sigma models and WZW models on coset superspaces provide important examples of logarithmic conformal field theories. They possess many applications to problems in string and condensed matter theory. We review recent results and developments, including the general construction of WZW models on type I supergroups, the classification of conformal sigma models and their embedding into string theory.
Superspace conformal field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quella, Thomas
2013-07-01
Conformal sigma models and WZW models on coset superspaces provide important examples of logarithmic conformal field theories. They possess many applications to problems in string and condensed matter theory. We review recent results and developments, including the general construction of WZW models on type I supergroups, the classification of conformal sigma models and their embedding into string theory.
Non-conformable, partial and conformable transposition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
König, Thomas; Mäder, Lars Kai
2013-01-01
and the Commission regarding a directive’s outcome, play a much more strategic role than has to date acknowledged in the transposition literature. Whereas disagreement of a member state delays conformable transposition, it speeds up non-conformable transposition. Disagreement of the Commission only prolongs...... the transposition process. We therefore conclude that a stronger focus on an effective sanctioning mechanism is warranted for safeguarding compliance with directives....
Inversion theory and conformal mapping
Blair, David E
2000-01-01
It is rarely taught in an undergraduate or even graduate curriculum that the only conformal maps in Euclidean space of dimension greater than two are those generated by similarities and inversions in spheres. This is in stark contrast to the wealth of conformal maps in the plane. The principal aim of this text is to give a treatment of this paucity of conformal maps in higher dimensions. The exposition includes both an analytic proof in general dimension and a differential-geometric proof in dimension three. For completeness, enough complex analysis is developed to prove the abundance of conformal maps in the plane. In addition, the book develops inversion theory as a subject, along with the auxiliary theme of circle-preserving maps. A particular feature is the inclusion of a paper by Carath�odory with the remarkable result that any circle-preserving transformation is necessarily a M�bius transformation, not even the continuity of the transformation is assumed. The text is at the level of advanced undergr...
Prediction of RNA secondary structures: from theory to models and real molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schuster, Peter
2006-01-01
RNA secondary structures are derived from RNA sequences, which are strings built form the natural four letter nucleotide alphabet, {AUGC}. These coarse-grained structures, in turn, are tantamount to constrained strings over a three letter alphabet. Hence, the secondary structures are discrete objects and the number of sequences always exceeds the number of structures. The sequences built from two letter alphabets form perfect structures when the nucleotides can form a base pair, as is the case with {GC} or {AU}, but the relation between the sequences and structures differs strongly from the four letter alphabet. A comprehensive theory of RNA structure is presented, which is based on the concepts of sequence space and shape space, being a space of structures. It sets the stage for modelling processes in ensembles of RNA molecules like evolutionary optimization or kinetic folding as dynamical phenomena guided by mappings between the two spaces. The number of minimum free energy (mfe) structures is always smaller than the number of sequences, even for two letter alphabets. Folding of RNA molecules into mfe energy structures constitutes a non-invertible mapping from sequence space onto shape space. The preimage of a structure in sequence space is defined as its neutral network. Similarly the set of suboptimal structures is the preimage of a sequence in shape space. This set represents the conformation space of a given sequence. The evolutionary optimization of structures in populations is a process taking place in sequence space, whereas kinetic folding occurs in molecular ensembles that optimize free energy in conformation space. Efficient folding algorithms based on dynamic programming are available for the prediction of secondary structures for given sequences. The inverse problem, the computation of sequences for predefined structures, is an important tool for the design of RNA molecules with tailored properties. Simultaneous folding or cofolding of two or more RNA
The decomposition of global conformal invariants
Alexakis, Spyros
2012-01-01
This book addresses a basic question in differential geometry that was first considered by physicists Stanley Deser and Adam Schwimmer in 1993 in their study of conformal anomalies. The question concerns conformally invariant functionals on the space of Riemannian metrics over a given manifold. These functionals act on a metric by first constructing a Riemannian scalar out of it, and then integrating this scalar over the manifold. Suppose this integral remains invariant under conformal re-scalings of the underlying metric. What information can one then deduce about the Riemannian scalar? Dese
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Macarena Parra
Full Text Available The International Space Station (ISS National Laboratory is dedicated to studying the effects of space on life and physical systems, and to developing new science and technologies for space exploration. A key aspect of achieving these goals is to operate the ISS National Lab more like an Earth-based laboratory, conducting complex end-to-end experimentation, not limited to simple microgravity exposure. Towards that end NASA developed a novel suite of molecular biology laboratory tools, reagents, and methods, named WetLab-2, uniquely designed to operate in microgravity, and to process biological samples for real-time gene expression analysis on-orbit. This includes a novel fluidic RNA Sample Preparation Module and fluid transfer devices, all-in-one lyophilized PCR assays, centrifuge, and a real-time PCR thermal cycler. Here we describe the results from the WetLab-2 validation experiments conducted in microgravity during ISS increment 47/SPX-8. Specifically, quantitative PCR was performed on a concentration series of DNA calibration standards, and Reverse Transcriptase-quantitative PCR was conducted on RNA extracted and purified on-orbit from frozen Escherichia coli and mouse liver tissue. Cycle threshold (Ct values and PCR efficiencies obtained on-orbit from DNA standards were similar to Earth (1 g controls. Also, on-orbit multiplex analysis of gene expression from bacterial cells and mammalian tissue RNA samples was successfully conducted in about 3 h, with data transmitted within 2 h of experiment completion. Thermal cycling in microgravity resulted in the trapping of gas bubbles inside septa cap assay tubes, causing small but measurable increases in Ct curve noise and variability. Bubble formation was successfully suppressed in a rapid follow-up on-orbit experiment using standard caps to pressurize PCR tubes and reduce gas release during heating cycles. The WetLab-2 facility now provides a novel operational on-orbit research capability for
Long, partial-short, and special conformal fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Metsaev, R.R. [Department of Theoretical Physics, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute,Leninsky prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)
2016-05-17
In the framework of metric-like approach, totally symmetric arbitrary spin bosonic conformal fields propagating in flat space-time are studied. Depending on the values of conformal dimension, spin, and dimension of space-time, we classify all conformal field as long, partial-short, short, and special conformal fields. An ordinary-derivative (second-derivative) Lagrangian formulation for such conformal fields is obtained. The ordinary-derivative Lagrangian formulation is realized by using double-traceless gauge fields, Stueckelberg fields, and auxiliary fields. Gauge-fixed Lagrangian invariant under global BRST transformations is obtained. The gauge-fixed BRST Lagrangian is used for the computation of partition functions for all conformal fields. Using the result for the partition functions, numbers of propagating D.o.F for the conformal fields are also found.
Anomalies, conformal manifolds, and spheres
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gomis, Jaume [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Hsin, Po-Shen [Department of Physics, Princeton University,Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Komargodski, Zohar; Schwimmer, Adam [Weizmann Institute of Science,Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Seiberg, Nathan [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Theisen, Stefan [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut,14476 Golm (Germany)
2016-03-04
The two-point function of exactly marginal operators leads to a universal contribution to the trace anomaly in even dimensions. We study aspects of this trace anomaly, emphasizing its interpretation as a sigma model, whose target space M is the space of conformal field theories (a.k.a. the conformal manifold). When the underlying quantum field theory is supersymmetric, this sigma model has to be appropriately supersymmetrized. As examples, we consider in some detail N=(2,2) and N=(0,2) supersymmetric theories in d=2 and N=2 supersymmetric theories in d=4. This reasoning leads to new information about the conformal manifolds of these theories, for example, we show that the manifold is Kähler-Hodge and we further argue that it has vanishing Kähler class. For N=(2,2) theories in d=2 and N=2 theories in d=4 we also show that the relation between the sphere partition function and the Kähler potential of M follows immediately from the appropriate sigma models that we construct. Along the way we find several examples of potential trace anomalies that obey the Wess-Zumino consistency conditions, but can be ruled out by a more detailed analysis.
Conformal manifolds: ODEs from OPEs
Behan, Connor
2018-03-01
The existence of an exactly marginal deformation in a conformal field theory is very special, but it is not well understood how this is reflected in the allowed dimensions and OPE coefficients of local operators. To shed light on this question, we compute perturbative corrections to several observables in an abstract CFT, starting with the beta function. This yields a sum rule that the theory must obey in order to be part of a conformal manifold. The set of constraints relating CFT data at different values of the coupling can in principle be written as a dynamical system that allows one to flow arbitrarily far. We begin the analysis of it by finding a simple form for the differential equations when the spacetime and theory space are both one-dimensional. A useful feature we can immediately observe is that our system makes it very difficult for level crossing to occur.
Conformal solids and holography
Esposito, A.; Garcia-Saenz, S.; Nicolis, A.; Penco, R.
2017-12-01
We argue that a SO( d) magnetic monopole in an asymptotically AdS space-time is dual to a d-dimensional strongly coupled system in a solid state. In light of this, it would be remiss of us not to dub such a field configuration solidon. In the presence of mixed boundary conditions, a solidon spontaneously breaks translations (among many other symmetries) and gives rise to Goldstone excitations on the boundary — the phonons of the solid. We derive the quadratic action for the boundary phonons in the probe limit and show that, when the mixed boundary conditions preserve conformal symmetry, the longitudinal and transverse sound speeds are related to each other as expected from effective field theory arguments. We then include backreaction and calculate the free energy of the solidon for a particular choice of mixed boundary conditions, corresponding to a relevant multi-trace deformation of the boundary theory. We find such free energy to be lower than that of thermal AdS. This suggests that our solidon undergoes a solid-to-liquid first order phase transition by melting into a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole as the temperature is raised.
Conformational Analysis of Contrast Media for X-Ray Diagnostic Radiology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solieman, A.H.M.
2010-01-01
The conformational analysis of iodinated non-ionic contrast agent, Iobitridol, was carried out using theoretical calculations to explore its conformational space, and to study different aspects connected with application of different search techniques. Monte Carlo (MC), random search (RS) and molecular dynamics (MD) based conformational search techniques were used to extract a reasonable-size sample that adequately represents and has an average behavior of the entire conformational ensemble.While MC is good for quick search for lowest energy conformer, RS is better in obtaining conformational sample that cover the whole conformational space and MD is the best for investigation of isomeric preferences inside the conformational ensemble at thermal equilibrium. Conformational analysis of the produced gas phase samples reveals that RS and MD methods could sufficiently present the 18 distinct isomeric classes that constitute the total conformational space of the Iobitridol. S samples of conformational space of Iobitridol are extensively studied, as it hypothetically cover the total conformational space. They are used to test the suitability of different methods (charge distribution methods, energy calculation methods) for Iobitridol molecular computations and internal structure forces (steric hindrance, resonance interaction), as well as dependences among the internal coordinates (dihedral angles correlations and coincidences). The atomic partial charge distribution is found to greatly affect the energy calculation for the molecular mechanics based conformational energy distributions. Further energy minimization of conformational sample by the quantum molecular orbital methods is crucial to obtain charge independent as well as energy balanced conformational sample.
Arbitrary spin conformal fields in (A)dS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Metsaev, R.R.
2014-01-01
Totally symmetric arbitrary spin conformal fields in (A)dS space of even dimension greater than or equal to four are studied. Ordinary-derivative and gauge invariant Lagrangian formulation for such fields is obtained. Gauge symmetries are realized by using auxiliary fields and Stueckelberg fields. We demonstrate that Lagrangian of conformal field is decomposed into a sum of gauge invariant Lagrangians for massless, partial-massless, and massive fields. We obtain a mass spectrum of the partial-massless and massive fields and confirm the conjecture about the mass spectrum made in the earlier literature. In contrast to conformal fields in flat space, the kinetic terms of conformal fields in (A)dS space turn out to be diagonal with respect to fields entering the Lagrangian. Explicit form of conformal transformation which maps conformal field in flat space to conformal field in (A)dS space is obtained. Covariant Lorentz-like and de-Donder like gauge conditions leading to simple gauge-fixed Lagrangian of conformal fields are proposed. Using such gauge-fixed Lagrangian, which is invariant under global BRST transformations, we explain how the partition function of conformal field is obtained in the framework of our approach
Difference between standard and quasi-conformal BFKL kernels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fadin, V.S.; Fiore, R.; Papa, A.
2012-01-01
As it was recently shown, the colour singlet BFKL kernel, taken in Möbius representation in the space of impact parameters, can be written in quasi-conformal shape, which is unbelievably simple compared with the conventional form of the BFKL kernel in momentum space. It was also proved that the total kernel is completely defined by its Möbius representation. In this paper we calculated the difference between standard and quasi-conformal BFKL kernels in momentum space and discovered that it is rather simple. Therefore we come to the conclusion that the simplicity of the quasi-conformal kernel is caused mainly by using the impact parameter space.
Induced quantum conformal gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novozhilov, Y.V.; Vassilevich, D.V.
1988-11-01
Quantum gravity is considered as induced by matter degrees of freedom and related to the symmetry breakdown in the low energy region of a non-Abelian gauge theory of fundamental fields. An effective action for quantum conformal gravity is derived where both the gravitational constant and conformal kinetic term are positive. Relation with induced classical gravity is established. (author). 15 refs
Conformal transformations in superspace
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dao Vong Duc
1977-01-01
The spinor extension of the conformal algebra is investigated. The transformation law of superfields under the conformal coordinate inversion R defined in the superspace is derived. Using R-technique, the superconformally covariant two-point and three-point correlation functions are found
Conformational stability of calreticulin
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, C.S.; Trandum, C.; Larsen, N.
2005-01-01
The conformational stability of calreticulin was investigated. Apparent unfolding temperatures (T-m) increased from 31 degrees C at pH 5 to 51 degrees C at pH 9, but electrophoretic analysis revealed that calreticulin oligomerized instead of unfolding. Structural analyses showed that the single C......-terminal a-helix was of major importance to the conformational stability of calreticulin....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feuvret, Loic; Noel, Georges; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques; Bey, Pierre
2006-01-01
We present a critical analysis of the conformity indices described in the literature and an evaluation of their field of application. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, with or without intensity modulation, is based on medical imaging techniques, three-dimensional dosimetry software, compression accessories, and verification procedures. It consists of delineating target volumes and critical healthy tissues to select the best combination of beams. This approach allows better adaptation of the isodose to the tumor volume, while limiting irradiation of healthy tissues. Tools must be developed to evaluate the quality of proposed treatment plans. Dosimetry software provides the dose distribution in each CT section and dose-volume histograms without really indicating the degree of conformity. The conformity index is a complementary tool that attributes a score to a treatment plan or that can compare several treatment plans for the same patient. The future of conformal index in everyday practice therefore remains unclear
Focused conformational sampling in proteins
Bacci, Marco; Langini, Cassiano; Vymětal, Jiří; Caflisch, Amedeo; Vitalis, Andreas
2017-11-01
A detailed understanding of the conformational dynamics of biological molecules is difficult to obtain by experimental techniques due to resolution limitations in both time and space. Computer simulations avoid these in theory but are often too short to sample rare events reliably. Here we show that the progress index-guided sampling (PIGS) protocol can be used to enhance the sampling of rare events in selected parts of biomolecules without perturbing the remainder of the system. The method is very easy to use as it only requires as essential input a set of several features representing the parts of interest sufficiently. In this feature space, new states are discovered by spontaneous fluctuations alone and in unsupervised fashion. Because there are no energetic biases acting on phase space variables or projections thereof, the trajectories PIGS generates can be analyzed directly in the framework of transition networks. We demonstrate the possibility and usefulness of such focused explorations of biomolecules with two loops that are part of the binding sites of bromodomains, a family of epigenetic "reader" modules. This real-life application uncovers states that are structurally and kinetically far away from the initial crystallographic structures and are also metastable. Representative conformations are intended to be used in future high-throughput virtual screening campaigns.
Conformal invariance in supergravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergshoeff, E.A.
1983-01-01
In this thesis the author explains the role of conformal invariance in supergravity. He presents the complete structure of extended conformal supergravity for N <= 4. The outline of this work is as follows. In chapter 2 he briefly summarizes the essential properties of supersymmetry and supergravity and indicates the use of conformal invariance in supergravity. The idea that the introduction of additional symmetry transformations can make clear the structure of a field theory is not reserved to supergravity only. By means of some simple examples it is shown in chapter 3 how one can always introduce additional gauge transformations in a theory of massive vector fields. Moreover it is shown how the gauge invariant formulation sometimes explains the quantum mechanical properties of the theory. In chapter 4 the author defines the conformal transformations and summarizes their main properties. He explains how these conformal transformations can be used to analyse the structure of gravity. The supersymmetric extension of these results is discussed in chapter 5. Here he describes as an example how N=1 supergravity can be reformulated in a conformally-invariant way. He also shows that beyond N=1 the gauge fields of the superconformal symmetries do not constitute an off-shell field representation of extended conformal supergravity. Therefore, in chapter 6, a systematic method to construct the off-shell formulation of all extended conformal supergravity theories with N <= 4 is developed. As an example he uses this method to construct N=1 conformal supergravity. Finally, in chapter 7 N=4 conformal supergravity is discussed. (Auth.)
The conformal method and the conformal thin-sandwich method are the same
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maxwell, David
2014-01-01
The conformal method developed in the 1970s and the more recent Lagrangian and Hamiltonian conformal thin-sandwich methods are techniques for finding solutions of the Einstein constraint equations. We show that they are manifestations of a single conformal method: there is a straightforward way to convert back and forth between the parameters for these methods so that the corresponding solutions of the Einstein constraint equations agree. The unifying idea is the need to clearly distinguish tangent and cotangent vectors to the space of conformal classes on a manifold, and we introduce a vocabulary for working with these objects without reference to a particular representative background metric. As a consequence of these conceptual advantages, we demonstrate how to strengthen previous near-CMC (constant mean curvature) existence and non-existence theorems for the original conformal method to include metrics with scalar curvatures that change sign. (paper)
Virtual and solution conformations of oligosaccharides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cumming, D.A.; Carver, J.P.
1987-01-01
The possibility that observed nuclear Overhauser enhancements and bulk longitudinal relaxation times, parameters measured by 1 H NMR and often employed in determining the preferred solution conformation of biologically important molecules, are the result of averaging over many conformational states is quantitatively evaluated. Of particular interest was to ascertain whether certain 1 H NMR determined conformations are virtual in nature; i.e., the fraction of the population of molecules actually found at any time within the subset of conformational space defined as the solution conformation is vanishingly small. A statistical mechanics approach was utilized to calculate an ensemble average relaxation matrix from which (NOE)'s and (T 1 )'s are calculated. Model glycosidic linkages in four oligosaccharides were studied. The nature of the resultant population distributions is such that 50% of the molecular population is found within 1% of available microstates, while 99% of the molecular population occupies about 10% of the ensemble microstates, a number roughly equal to that sterically allowed. From this analysis the authors conclude that in many cases quantitative interpretation of NMR relaxation data, which attempts to define a single set of allowable torsion angle values consistent with the observed data, will lead to solution conformations that are either virtual or reflect torsion angle values possessed by a minority of the molecular population. Observed values of NMR relaxation data are the result of the complex interdependence of the population distribution and NOE (or T 1 ) surfaces in conformational space. In conformational analyses, NMR data can therefore be used to test different population distributions calculated from empirical potential energy functions
Conformal expansions and renormalons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rathsman, J.
2000-02-07
The coefficients in perturbative expansions in gauge theories are factorially increasing, predominantly due to renormalons. This type of factorial increase is not expected in conformal theories. In QCD conformal relations between observables can be defined in the presence of a perturbative infrared fixed-point. Using the Banks-Zaks expansion the authors study the effect of the large-order behavior of the perturbative series on the conformal coefficients. The authors find that in general these coefficients become factorially increasing. However, when the factorial behavior genuinely originates in a renormalon integral, as implied by a postulated skeleton expansion, it does not affect the conformal coefficients. As a consequence, the conformal coefficients will indeed be free of renormalon divergence, in accordance with previous observations concerning the smallness of these coefficients for specific observables. The authors further show that the correspondence of the BLM method with the skeleton expansion implies a unique scale-setting procedure. The BLM coefficients can be interpreted as the conformal coefficients in the series relating the fixed-point value of the observable with that of the skeleton effective charge. Through the skeleton expansion the relevance of renormalon-free conformal coefficients extends to real-world QCD.
Conformal sequestering simplified
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmaltz, Martin; Sundrum, Raman
2006-01-01
Sequestering is important for obtaining flavor-universal soft masses in models where supersymmetry breaking is mediated at high scales. We construct a simple and robust class of hidden sector models which sequester themselves from the visible sector due to strong and conformally invariant hidden dynamics. Masses for hidden matter eventually break the conformal symmetry and lead to supersymmetry breaking by the mechanism recently discovered by Intriligator, Seiberg and Shih. We give a unified treatment of subtleties due to global symmetries of the CFT. There is enough review for the paper to constitute a self-contained account of conformal sequestering
Conformally connected universes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cantor, M.; Piran, T.
1983-01-01
A well-known difficulty associated with the conformal method for the solution of the general relativistic Hamiltonian constraint is the appearance of an aphysical ''bag of gold'' singularity at the nodal surface of the conformal factor. This happens whenever the background Ricci scalar is too large. Using a simple model, it is demonstrated that some of these singular solutions do have a physical meaning, and that these can be considered as initial data for Universe containing black holes, which are connected, in a conformally nonsingular way with each other. The relation between the ADM mass and the horizon area in this solution supports the cosmic censorship conjecture. (author)
Coadjoint orbits and conformal field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taylor, W. IV.
1993-08-01
This thesis is primarily a study of certain aspects of the geometric and algebraic structure of coadjoint orbit representations of infinite-dimensional Lie groups. The goal of this work is to use coadjoint orbit representations to construct conformal field theories, in a fashion analogous to the free-field constructions of conformal field theories. The new results which are presented in this thesis are as follows: First, an explicit set of formulae are derived giving an algebraic realization of coadjoint orbit representations in terms of differential operators acting on a polynomial Fock space. These representations are equivalent to dual Verma module representations. Next, intertwiners are explicitly constructed which allow the construction of resolutions for irreducible representations using these Fock space realizations. Finally, vertex operators between these irreducible representations are explicitly constructed as chain maps between the resolutions; these vertex operators allow the construction of rational conformal field theories according to an algebraic prescription
Very special conformal field theories and their holographic duals
Nakayama, Yu
2018-03-01
Cohen and Glashow introduced the notion of very special relativity as viable space-time symmetry of elementary particle physics. As a natural generalization of their idea, we study the subgroup of the conformal group, dubbed very special conformal symmetry, which is an extension of the very special relativity. We classify all of them and construct field theory examples as well as holographic realization of the very special conformal field theories.
From conformal Haag-Kastler nets to Wightman functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joerss, M.
1996-08-01
Starting from a chiral conformal Haag-Kastler net on 2 dimensional Minkowski space we present a canonical construction that leads to a complete set of conformally covariant N-point-functions fulfilling the Wightman axioms. Our method consists of an explicit use of the representation theory of the universal covering group of SL(2,R) combined with a generalization of the conformal cluster theorem to N-point-functions. (orig.)
Conformable variational iteration method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Omer Acan
2017-02-01
Full Text Available In this study, we introduce the conformable variational iteration method based on new defined fractional derivative called conformable fractional derivative. This new method is applied two fractional order ordinary differential equations. To see how the solutions of this method, linear homogeneous and non-linear non-homogeneous fractional ordinary differential equations are selected. Obtained results are compared the exact solutions and their graphics are plotted to demonstrate efficiency and accuracy of the method.
Delineating the conformal window
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frandsen, Mads Toudal; Pickup, Thomas; Teper, Michael
2011-01-01
We identify and characterise the conformal window in gauge theories relevant for beyond the standard model building, e.g. Technicolour, using the criteria of metric confinement and causal analytic couplings, which are known to be consistent with the phase diagram of supersymmetric QCD from Seiberg...... duality. Using these criteria we find perturbation theory to be consistent throughout the predicted conformal window for several of these gauge theories and we discuss recent lattice results in the light of our findings....
Conformable Pressurized Structures : Design and Analysis
Geuskens, F.J.J.M.M.
2012-01-01
There are many applications where volume needs to be pressurised within a geometrical space for which conventional pressure vessels do not provide suitable solutions. Applications are for example found in pressure cabins for Blended Wing Body Aircraft and conformable pressure vessels for an
Remarks on Multi-Dimensional Conformal Mechanics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cestmír Burdík
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Recently, Galajinsky, Lechtenfeld and Polovnikov proposed an elegant group-theoretical transformation of the generic conformal-invariant mechanics to the free one. Considering the classical counterpart of this transformation, we relate this transformation with the Weil model of Lobachewsky space.
Holographic applications of logarithmic conformal field theories
Grumiller, D.; Riedler, W.; Rosseel, J.; Zojer, T.
2013-01-01
We review the relations between Jordan cells in various branches of physics, ranging from quantum mechanics to massive gravity theories. Our main focus is on holographic correspondences between critically tuned gravity theories in anti-de Sitter space and logarithmic conformal field theories in
On holography for (pseudo-)conformal cosmology
Libanov, M.; Sibiryakov, S.
2015-01-01
We propose a holographic dual for (pseudo-)conformal cosmological scenario, with a scalar field that forms a moving domain wall in adS_5. The domain wall separates two vacua with unequal energy densities. Unlike in the existing construction, the 5d solution is regular in the relevant space-time domain.
NLO conformal symmetry in the Regge limit of QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coriano, C.; White, A.R.; Wuesthoff, M.
1996-01-01
The authors show that a scale invariant approximation to the next-to-leading order BFKL kernel, constructed via transverse momentum diagrams, has a simple conformally invariant representation in impact parameter space. That a conformally invariant representation exists is shown first by relating the kernel directly to Feynman diagrams contributing to two photon diffractive dissociation
Conformal transformation and symplectic structure of self-dual fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Kongqing; Luo Yan
1996-01-01
Considered two dimensional self-dual fields, the symplectic structure on the space of solutions is given. It is shown that this structure is Poincare invariant. The Lagrangian of two dimensional self-dual field is invariant under infinite one component conformal group, then this symplectic structure is also invariant under this conformal group. The conserved currents in geometrical formalism are also obtained
Logarithmic conformal field theory
Gainutdinov, Azat; Ridout, David; Runkel, Ingo
2013-12-01
Conformal field theory (CFT) has proven to be one of the richest and deepest subjects of modern theoretical and mathematical physics research, especially as regards statistical mechanics and string theory. It has also stimulated an enormous amount of activity in mathematics, shaping and building bridges between seemingly disparate fields through the study of vertex operator algebras, a (partial) axiomatisation of a chiral CFT. One can add to this that the successes of CFT, particularly when applied to statistical lattice models, have also served as an inspiration for mathematicians to develop entirely new fields: the Schramm-Loewner evolution and Smirnov's discrete complex analysis being notable examples. When the energy operator fails to be diagonalisable on the quantum state space, the CFT is said to be logarithmic. Consequently, a logarithmic CFT is one whose quantum space of states is constructed from a collection of representations which includes reducible but indecomposable ones. This qualifier arises because of the consequence that certain correlation functions will possess logarithmic singularities, something that contrasts with the familiar case of power law singularities. While such logarithmic singularities and reducible representations were noted by Rozansky and Saleur in their study of the U (1|1) Wess-Zumino-Witten model in 1992, the link between the non-diagonalisability of the energy operator and logarithmic singularities in correlators is usually ascribed to Gurarie's 1993 article (his paper also contains the first usage of the term 'logarithmic conformal field theory'). The class of CFTs that were under control at this time was quite small. In particular, an enormous amount of work from the statistical mechanics and string theory communities had produced a fairly detailed understanding of the (so-called) rational CFTs. However, physicists from both camps were well aware that applications from many diverse fields required significantly more
RNA Thermodynamic Structural Entropy.
Garcia-Martin, Juan Antonio; Clote, Peter
2015-01-01
Conformational entropy for atomic-level, three dimensional biomolecules is known experimentally to play an important role in protein-ligand discrimination, yet reliable computation of entropy remains a difficult problem. Here we describe the first two accurate and efficient algorithms to compute the conformational entropy for RNA secondary structures, with respect to the Turner energy model, where free energy parameters are determined from UV absorption experiments. An algorithm to compute the derivational entropy for RNA secondary structures had previously been introduced, using stochastic context free grammars (SCFGs). However, the numerical value of derivational entropy depends heavily on the chosen context free grammar and on the training set used to estimate rule probabilities. Using data from the Rfam database, we determine that both of our thermodynamic methods, which agree in numerical value, are substantially faster than the SCFG method. Thermodynamic structural entropy is much smaller than derivational entropy, and the correlation between length-normalized thermodynamic entropy and derivational entropy is moderately weak to poor. In applications, we plot the structural entropy as a function of temperature for known thermoswitches, such as the repression of heat shock gene expression (ROSE) element, we determine that the correlation between hammerhead ribozyme cleavage activity and total free energy is improved by including an additional free energy term arising from conformational entropy, and we plot the structural entropy of windows of the HIV-1 genome. Our software RNAentropy can compute structural entropy for any user-specified temperature, and supports both the Turner'99 and Turner'04 energy parameters. It follows that RNAentropy is state-of-the-art software to compute RNA secondary structure conformational entropy. Source code is available at https://github.com/clotelab/RNAentropy/; a full web server is available at http
RNA Thermodynamic Structural Entropy.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juan Antonio Garcia-Martin
Full Text Available Conformational entropy for atomic-level, three dimensional biomolecules is known experimentally to play an important role in protein-ligand discrimination, yet reliable computation of entropy remains a difficult problem. Here we describe the first two accurate and efficient algorithms to compute the conformational entropy for RNA secondary structures, with respect to the Turner energy model, where free energy parameters are determined from UV absorption experiments. An algorithm to compute the derivational entropy for RNA secondary structures had previously been introduced, using stochastic context free grammars (SCFGs. However, the numerical value of derivational entropy depends heavily on the chosen context free grammar and on the training set used to estimate rule probabilities. Using data from the Rfam database, we determine that both of our thermodynamic methods, which agree in numerical value, are substantially faster than the SCFG method. Thermodynamic structural entropy is much smaller than derivational entropy, and the correlation between length-normalized thermodynamic entropy and derivational entropy is moderately weak to poor. In applications, we plot the structural entropy as a function of temperature for known thermoswitches, such as the repression of heat shock gene expression (ROSE element, we determine that the correlation between hammerhead ribozyme cleavage activity and total free energy is improved by including an additional free energy term arising from conformational entropy, and we plot the structural entropy of windows of the HIV-1 genome. Our software RNAentropy can compute structural entropy for any user-specified temperature, and supports both the Turner'99 and Turner'04 energy parameters. It follows that RNAentropy is state-of-the-art software to compute RNA secondary structure conformational entropy. Source code is available at https://github.com/clotelab/RNAentropy/; a full web server is available at http
Conformal array design on arbitrary polygon surface with transformation optics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deng, Li, E-mail: dengl@bupt.edu.cn; Hong, Weijun, E-mail: hongwj@bupt.edu.cn; Zhu, Jianfeng; Peng, Biao; Li, Shufang [Beijing Key Laboratory of Network System Architecture and Convergence, School of Information and Communication Engineering, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, 100876 Beijing (China); Wu, Yongle, E-mail: wuyongle138@gmail.com [Beijing Key Laboratory of Work Safety Intelligent Monitoring, School of Electronic Engineering, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, 100876 Beijing (China)
2016-06-15
A transformation-optics based method to design a conformal antenna array on an arbitrary polygon surface is proposed and demonstrated in this paper. This conformal antenna array can be adjusted to behave equivalently as a uniformly spaced linear array by applying an appropriate transformation medium. An typical example of general arbitrary polygon conformal arrays, not limited to circular array, is presented, verifying the proposed approach. In summary, the novel arbitrary polygon surface conformal array can be utilized in array synthesis and beam-forming, maintaining all benefits of linear array.
Conformal array design on arbitrary polygon surface with transformation optics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deng, Li; Hong, Weijun; Zhu, Jianfeng; Peng, Biao; Li, Shufang; Wu, Yongle
2016-01-01
A transformation-optics based method to design a conformal antenna array on an arbitrary polygon surface is proposed and demonstrated in this paper. This conformal antenna array can be adjusted to behave equivalently as a uniformly spaced linear array by applying an appropriate transformation medium. An typical example of general arbitrary polygon conformal arrays, not limited to circular array, is presented, verifying the proposed approach. In summary, the novel arbitrary polygon surface conformal array can be utilized in array synthesis and beam-forming, maintaining all benefits of linear array.
An Efficient Null Model for Conformational Fluctuations in Proteins
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Harder, Tim Philipp; Borg, Mikael; Bottaro, Sandro
2012-01-01
Protein dynamics play a crucial role in function, catalytic activity, and pathogenesis. Consequently, there is great interest in computational methods that probe the conformational fluctuations of a protein. However, molecular dynamics simulations are computationally costly and therefore are often...... limited to comparatively short timescales. TYPHON is a probabilistic method to explore the conformational space of proteins under the guidance of a sophisticated probabilistic model of local structure and a given set of restraints that represent nonlocal interactions, such as hydrogen bonds or disulfide...... on conformational fluctuations that is in correspondence with experimental measurements. TYPHON provides a flexible, yet computationally efficient, method to explore possible conformational fluctuations in proteins....
Conformal invariance in quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grensing, G.
1978-01-01
We study the transformation law of interacting fields under the universal covering group of the conformal group. It is defined with respect to the representations of the discrete series. These representations are field representations in the sense that they act on finite component fields defined over Minkowski space. The conflict with Einstein causality is avoided as in the case of free fields with canonical dimension. Furthermore, we determine the conformal invariant two-point function of arbitrary spin. Our result coincides with that obtained by Ruehl. In particular, we investigate the two-point function of symmetric and traceless tensor fields and give the explicit form of the trace terms
Degenerate conformal theories on higher-genus surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerasimov, A.A.
1989-01-01
Two-dimensional degenerate field theories on higher-genus surfaces are investigated. Objects are built on the space of moduli, whose linear combinations are hypothetically conformal blocks in degenerate theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goddard, Peter
1990-01-01
The algebra of the group of conformal transformations in two dimensions consists of two commuting copies of the Virasoro algebra. In many mathematical and physical contexts, the representations of ν which are relevant satisfy two conditions: they are unitary and they have the ''positive energy'' property that L o is bounded below. In an irreducible unitary representation the central element c takes a fixed real value. In physical contexts, the value of c is a characteristic of a theory. If c < 1, it turns out that the conformal algebra is sufficient to ''solve'' the theory, in the sense of relating the calculation of the infinite set of physically interesting quantities to a finite subset which can be handled in principle. For c ≥ 1, this is no longer the case for the algebra alone and one needs some sort of extended conformal algebra, such as the superconformal algebra. It is these algebras that this paper aims at addressing. (author)
Algebraic conformal field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fuchs, J.; Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica
1991-11-01
Many conformal field theory features are special versions of structures which are present in arbitrary 2-dimensional quantum field theories. So it makes sense to describe 2-dimensional conformal field theories in context of algebraic theory of superselection sectors. While most of the results of the algebraic theory are rather abstract, conformal field theories offer the possibility to work out many formulae explicitly. In particular, one can construct the full algebra A-bar of global observables and the endomorphisms of A-bar which represent the superselection sectors. Some explicit results are presented for the level 1 so(N) WZW theories; the algebra A-bar is found to be the enveloping algebra of a Lie algebra L-bar which is an extension of the chiral symmetry algebra of the WZW theory. (author). 21 refs., 6 figs
Comments on conformal Killing vector fields and quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, M.R.; Ottewill, A.C.; Siklos, S.T.C.
1982-01-01
We give a comprehensive analysis of those vacuums for flat and conformally flat space-times which can be defined by timelike, hypersurface-orthogonal, conformal Killing vector fields. We obtain formulas for the difference in stress-energy density between any two such states and display the correspondence with the renormalized stress tensors. A brief discussion is given of the relevance of these results to quantum-mechanical measurements made by noninertial observers moving through flat space
Golden, Barbara L.; Kundrot, Craig E.
2003-01-01
RNA molecules may be crystallized using variations of the methods developed for protein crystallography. As the technology has become available to syntheisize and purify RNA molecules in the quantities and with the quality that is required for crystallography, the field of RNA structure has exploded. The first consideration when crystallizing an RNA is the sequence, which may be varied in a rational way to enhance crystallizability or prevent formation of alternate structures. Once a sequence has been designed, the RNA may be synthesized chemically by solid-state synthesis, or it may be produced enzymatically using RNA polymerase and an appropriate DNA template. Purification of milligram quantities of RNA can be accomplished by HPLC or gel electrophoresis. As with proteins, crystallization of RNA is usually accomplished by vapor diffusion techniques. There are several considerations that are either unique to RNA crystallization or more important for RNA crystallization. Techniques for design, synthesis, purification, and crystallization of RNAs will be reviewed here.
Conformal collineations and anisotropic fluids in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duggal, K.L.; Sharma, R.
1986-01-01
Recently, Herrera et al. [L. Herrera, J. Jimenez, L. Leal, J. Ponce de Leon, M. Esculpi, and V. Galino, J. Math. Phys. 25, 3274 (1984)] studied the consequences of the existence of a one-parameter group of conformal motions for anisotropic matter. They concluded that for special conformal motions, the stiff equation of state (p = μ) is singled out in a unique way, provided the generating conformal vector field is orthogonal to the four-velocity. In this paper, the same problem is studied by using conformal collineations (which include conformal motions as subgroups). It is shown that, for a special conformal collineation, the stiff equation of state is not singled out. Non-Einstein Ricci-recurrent spaces are considered as physical models for the fluid matter
Asymptotic mass degeneracies in conformal field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kani, I.; Vafa, C.
1990-01-01
By applying a method of Hardy and Ramanujan to characters of rational conformal field theories, we find an asymptotic expansion for degeneracy of states in the limit of large mass which is exact for strings propagating in more than two uncompactified space-time dimensions. Moreover we explore how the rationality of the conformal theory is reflected in the degeneracy of states. We also consider the one loop partition function for strings, restricted to physical states, for arbitrary (irrational) conformal theories, and obtain an asymptotic expansion for it in the limit that the torus degenerates. This expansion depends only on the spectrum of (physical and unphysical) relevant operators in the theory. We see how rationality is consistent with the smoothness of mass degeneracies as a function of moduli. (orig.)
Dual conformal transformations of smooth holographic Wilson loops
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dekel, Amit [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)
2017-01-19
We study dual conformal transformations of minimal area surfaces in AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5} corresponding to holographic smooth Wilson loops and some other related observables. To act with dual conformal transformations we map the string solutions to the dual space by means of T-duality, then we apply a conformal transformation and finally T-dualize back to the original space. The transformation maps between string solutions with different boundary contours. The boundary contours of the minimal surfaces are not mapped back to the AdS boundary, and the regularized area of the surface changes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faria, F. F.
2014-01-01
We construct a massive theory of gravity that is invariant under conformal transformations. The massive action of the theory depends on the metric tensor and a scalar field, which are considered the only field variables. We find the vacuum field equations of the theory and analyze its weak-field approximation and Newtonian limit.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moore, G.; Seiberg, N.
1989-01-01
All known rational conformal field theories may be obtained from (2+1)-dimensional Chern-Simons gauge theories by appropriate choice of gauge group. We conjecture that all rational field theories are classified by groups via (2+1)-dimensional Chern-Simons gauge theories. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maia, M.D.
2006-01-01
It is shown that the information loss/recovery theorem based on the ADS/CFT correspondence is not consistent with the stability of the Schwarzschild or Reissner-Nordstrom black holes. Nonetheless, the conformal invariance of Yang-Mills theory points to new relativity principle compatible with quantum unitarity near those black holes
Animal culture: chimpanzee conformity?
van Schaik, Carel P
2012-05-22
Culture-like phenomena in wild animals have received much attention, but how good is the evidence and how similar are they to human culture? New data on chimpanzees suggest their culture may even have an element of conformity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Parafermionic conformal field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurak, V.
1989-09-01
Conformal parafermionic field theories are reviewed with emphasis on the computation of their OPE estructure constants. It is presented a simple computational of these for the Z(N) parafermions, unveilling their Lie algebra content. (A.C.A.S.) [pt
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sparvath, Steffen Lynge
introducerede vores gruppe den enkeltstrengede RNA-origami metode, der giver mulighed for cotranscriptional foldning af veldefinerede nanostrukturer, og er en central del af arbejdet præsenteret heri. Denne ph.d.-afhandling udforsker potentielle anvendelser af RNA-origami nanostrukturer, som nanomedicin eller...... biosensorer. Afhandlingen består af en introduktion til RNA-nanoteknologi feltet, en introduktion af enkeltstrenget RNA-origami design, og fire studier, der beskriver design, produktion og karakterisering af både strukturelle og funktionelle RNA-origamier. Flere RNA-origami designs er blevet undersøgt, og...... projekterne, der indgår i denne afhandling, inkluderer de nyeste fremskridt indenfor strukturel RNA-nanoteknologi og udvikling af funktionelle RNA-baserede enheder. Det første studie beskriver konstruktion og karakterisering af en enkeltstrenget 6-helix RNA-origami stuktur, som er den første demonstration af...
Seed conformal blocks in 4D CFT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Echeverri, Alejandro Castedo; Elkhidir, Emtinan; Karateev, Denis [SISSA and INFN,Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); Serone, Marco [SISSA and INFN,Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); ICTP,Strada Costiera 11, I-34151 Trieste (Italy)
2016-02-29
We compute in closed analytical form the minimal set of “seed' conformal blocks associated to the exchange of generic mixed symmetry spinor/tensor operators in an arbitrary representation (ℓ,ℓ̄) of the Lorentz group in four dimensional conformal field theories. These blocks arise from 4-point functions involving two scalars, one (0,|ℓ−ℓ̄|) and one (|ℓ−ℓ̄|,0) spinors or tensors. We directly solve the set of Casimir equations, that can elegantly be written in a compact form for any (ℓ,ℓ̄), by using an educated ansatz and reducing the problem to an algebraic linear system. Various details on the form of the ansatz have been deduced by using the so called shadow formalism. The complexity of the conformal blocks depends on the value of p=|ℓ−ℓ̄| and grows with p, in analogy to what happens to scalar conformal blocks in d even space-time dimensions as d increases. These results open the way to bootstrap 4-point functions involving arbitrary spinor/tensor operators in four dimensional conformal field theories.
Deep Inelastic Scattering in Conformal QCD
Cornalba, Lorenzo; Penedones, Joao
2010-01-01
We consider the Regge limit of a CFT correlation function of two vector and two scalar operators, as appropriate to study small-x deep inelastic scattering in N=4 SYM or in QCD assuming approximate conformal symmetry. After clarifying the nature of the Regge limit for a CFT correlator, we use its conformal partial wave expansion to obtain an impact parameter representation encoding the exchange of a spin j Reggeon for any value of the coupling constant. The CFT impact parameter space is the three-dimensional hyperbolic space H3, which is the impact parameter space for high energy scattering in the dual AdS space. We determine the small-x structure functions associated to the exchange of a Reggeon. We discuss unitarization from the point of view of scattering in AdS and comment on the validity of the eikonal approximation. We then focus on the weak coupling limit of the theory where the amplitude is dominated by the exchange of the BFKL pomeron. Conformal invariance fixes the form of the vector impact factor a...
Representation theory of current algebra and conformal field theory on Riemann surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamada, Yasuhiko
1989-01-01
We study conformal field theories with current algebra (WZW-model) on general Riemann surfaces based on the integrable representation theory of current algebra. The space of chiral conformal blocks defined as solutions of current and conformal Ward identities is shown to be finite dimensional and satisfies the factorization properties. (author)
Structures of riboswitch RNA reaction states by mix-and-inject XFEL serial crystallography
Stagno, J. R.; Liu, Y.; Bhandari, Y. R.; Conrad, C. E.; Panja, S.; Swain, M.; Fan, L.; Nelson, G.; Li, C.; Wendel, D. R.; White, T. A.; Coe, J. D.; Wiedorn, M. O.; Knoska, J.; Oberthuer, D.; Tuckey, R. A.; Yu, P.; Dyba, M.; Tarasov, S. G.; Weierstall, U.; Grant, T. D.; Schwieters, C. D.; Zhang, J.; Ferré-D'Amaré, A. R.; Fromme, P.; Draper, D. E.; Liang, M.; Hunter, M. S.; Boutet, S.; Tan, K.; Zuo, X.; Ji, X.; Barty, A.; Zatsepin, N. A.; Chapman, H. N.; Spence, J. C. H.; Woodson, S. A.; Wang, Y.-X.
2017-01-01
Riboswitches are structural RNA elements that are generally located in the 5‧ untranslated region of messenger RNA. During regulation of gene expression, ligand binding to the aptamer domain of a riboswitch triggers a signal to the downstream expression platform. A complete understanding of the structural basis of this mechanism requires the ability to study structural changes over time. Here we use femtosecond X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) pulses to obtain structural measurements from crystals so small that diffusion of a ligand can be timed to initiate a reaction before diffraction. We demonstrate this approach by determining four structures of the adenine riboswitch aptamer domain during the course of a reaction, involving two unbound apo structures, one ligand-bound intermediate, and the final ligand-bound conformation. These structures support a reaction mechanism model with at least four states and illustrate the structural basis of signal transmission. The three-way junction and the P1 switch helix of the two apo conformers are notably different from those in the ligand-bound conformation. Our time-resolved crystallographic measurements with a 10-second delay captured the structure of an intermediate with changes in the binding pocket that accommodate the ligand. With at least a 10-minute delay, the RNA molecules were fully converted to the ligand-bound state, in which the substantial conformational changes resulted in conversion of the space group. Such notable changes in crystallo highlight the important opportunities that micro- and nanocrystals may offer in these and similar time-resolved diffraction studies. Together, these results demonstrate the potential of ‘mix-and-inject’ time-resolved serial crystallography to study biochemically important interactions between biomacromolecules and ligands, including those that involve large conformational changes.
Spatial and null infinity via advanced and retarded conformal factors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayward, Sean A.
2003-01-01
A new approach to space-time asymptotics is presented, refining Penrose's idea of conformal transformations with infinity represented by the conformal boundary of space-time. It is proposed that the Penrose conformal factor be a product of advanced and retarded conformal factors, which asymptotically relate physical and conformal null coordinates and vanish at future and past null infinity respectively. A refined definition of asymptotic flatness at both spatial and null infinity is given, including that the conformal boundary is locally a light cone, with spatial infinity as the vertex. It is shown how to choose the conformal factors so that this asymptotic light cone is locally a metric light cone. The theory is implemented in the spin-coefficient (or null-tetrad) formalism by a joint transformation of the spin-metric and spin-basis (or metric and tetrad). Asymptotic regularity conditions are proposed, based on the conformal boundary locally being a smoothly embedded metric light cone. These conditions ensure that the Bondi-Sachs energy-flux integrals of ingoing and outgoing gravitational radiation decay at spatial infinity such that the total radiated energy is finite, and that the Bondi-Sachs energy-momentum has a unique limit at spatial infinity, coinciding with the uniquely rendered ADM energy-momentum
Transportation Conformity Training and Presentations
EPA's OTAQ has provided multiple conformity training sessions in the past to assist state and local governments in implementing conformity requirements. As training information is prepared for other venues, it will be posted on this page.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mojaza, Matin; Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco
2010-01-01
of flavors. Surprisingly this number, if computed to the order g^2, agrees with previous predictions for the lower boundary of the conformal window for nonsupersymmetric gauge theories. The higher order results tend to predict a higher number of critical flavors. These are universal properties, i......We compute the nonzero temperature free energy up to the order g^6 \\ln(1/g) in the coupling constant for vector like SU(N) gauge theories featuring matter transforming according to different representations of the underlying gauge group. The number of matter fields, i.e. flavors, is arranged...... in such a way that the theory develops a perturbative stable infrared fixed point at zero temperature. Due to large distance conformality we trade the coupling constant with its fixed point value and define a reduced free energy which depends only on the number of flavors, colors and matter representation. We...
Conformational flexibility of aspartame.
Toniolo, Claudio; Temussi, Pierandrea
2016-05-01
L-Aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester, better known as aspartame, is not only one of the most used artificial sweeteners, but also a very interesting molecule with respect to the correlation between molecular structure and taste. The extreme conformational flexibility of this dipeptide posed a huge difficulty when researchers tried to use it as a lead compound to design new sweeteners. In particular, it was difficult to take advantage of its molecular model as a mold to infer the shape of the, then unknown, active site of the sweet taste receptor. Here, we follow the story of the 3D structural aspects of aspartame from early conformational studies to recent docking into homology models of the receptor. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 376-384, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Conformal radiotherapy: a glossary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dubray, B.; Giraud, P.; Beaudre, A.
1999-01-01
Most of the concepts and terms related to conformal radiotherapy were produced by English-speaking authors and eventually validated by international groups of experts, whose working language was also English. Therefore, a significant part of this literature is poorly accessible to the French-speaking radiation oncology community. The present paper gathers the 'official' definitions already published in French, along with propositions for the remaining terms which should be submitted to a more formal and representative validation process. (author)
Conformal potential in N dimensions (N>1)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barucchi, G [Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Istituto di Fisica Matematica dell' Universita, Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Turin (Italy))
1977-07-21
The conformal invariant model of de Alfaro, Fubini and Furlan is studied in the case of potential V(Q) = g/2Q/sup 2/(Q/sup 2/ = ..sigma..sub(i=1)sup(N) Qsub(i)sup(2), N>1). By means of the invariance under projective transformations and the rotation symmetry of the system in configuration space, explicit solutions are obtained.
Conformal mechanics in Newton-Hooke spacetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galajinsky, Anton
2010-01-01
Conformal many-body mechanics in Newton-Hooke spacetime is studied within the framework of the Lagrangian formalism. Global symmetries and Noether charges are given in a form convenient for analyzing the flat space limit. N=2 superconformal extension is built and a new class on N=2 models related to simple Lie algebras is presented. A decoupling similarity transformation on N=2 quantum mechanics in Newton-Hooke spacetime is discussed.
Conformal Transformations and Conformal Killing Fields
Definition 1.1 A semi-Riemannian manifold is a pair (M,g) consisting of a differentiate (i.e. C∞) manifold M and a differentiable tensor field g which assigns to each point a ∈ M a non-degenerate and symmetric bilinear form on the tangent space TaM: g_a :T_a M × T_a M to R.
Conformational plasticity of the Ebola virus matrix protein.
Radzimanowski, Jens; Effantin, Gregory; Weissenhorn, Winfried
2014-11-01
Filoviruses are the causative agents of a severe and often fatal hemorrhagic fever with repeated outbreaks in Africa. They are negative sense single stranded enveloped viruses that can cross species barriers from its natural host bats to primates including humans. The small size of the genome poses limits to viral adaption, which may be partially overcome by conformational plasticity. Here we review the different conformational states of the Ebola virus (EBOV) matrix protein VP40 that range from monomers, to dimers, hexamers, and RNA-bound octamers. This conformational plasticity that is required for the viral life cycle poses a unique opportunity for development of VP40 specific drugs. Furthermore, we compare the structure to homologous matrix protein structures from Paramyxoviruses and Bornaviruses and we predict that they do not only share the fold but also the conformational flexibility of EBOV VP40. © 2014 The Protein Society.
Enhanced conformational sampling using enveloping distribution sampling.
Lin, Zhixiong; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F
2013-10-14
To lessen the problem of insufficient conformational sampling in biomolecular simulations is still a major challenge in computational biochemistry. In this article, an application of the method of enveloping distribution sampling (EDS) is proposed that addresses this challenge and its sampling efficiency is demonstrated in simulations of a hexa-β-peptide whose conformational equilibrium encompasses two different helical folds, i.e., a right-handed 2.7(10∕12)-helix and a left-handed 3(14)-helix, separated by a high energy barrier. Standard MD simulations of this peptide using the GROMOS 53A6 force field did not reach convergence of the free enthalpy difference between the two helices even after 500 ns of simulation time. The use of soft-core non-bonded interactions in the centre of the peptide did enhance the number of transitions between the helices, but at the same time led to neglect of relevant helical configurations. In the simulations of a two-state EDS reference Hamiltonian that envelops both the physical peptide and the soft-core peptide, sampling of the conformational space of the physical peptide ensures that physically relevant conformations can be visited, and sampling of the conformational space of the soft-core peptide helps to enhance the transitions between the two helices. The EDS simulations sampled many more transitions between the two helices and showed much faster convergence of the relative free enthalpy of the two helices compared with the standard MD simulations with only a slightly larger computational effort to determine optimized EDS parameters. Combined with various methods to smoothen the potential energy surface, the proposed EDS application will be a powerful technique to enhance the sampling efficiency in biomolecular simulations.
Relating c 0 conformal field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guruswamy, S.; Ludwig, A.W.W.
1998-03-01
A 'canonical mapping' is established between the c = -1 system of bosonic ghosts at the c = 2 complex scalar theory and, a similar mapping between the c = -2 system of fermionic ghosts and the c = 1 Dirac theory. The existence of this mapping is suggested by the identity of the characters of the respective theories. The respective c 0 theories share the same space of states, whereas the spaces of conformal fields are different. Upon this mapping from their c 0) complex scalar and the Dirac theories inherit hidden nonlocal sl(2) symmetries. (author)
Conformal Invariance in the Long-Range Ising Model
Paulos, Miguel F; van Rees, Balt C; Zan, Bernardo
2016-01-01
We consider the question of conformal invariance of the long-range Ising model at the critical point. The continuum description is given in terms of a nonlocal field theory, and the absence of a stress tensor invalidates all of the standard arguments for the enhancement of scale invariance to conformal invariance. We however show that several correlation functions, computed to second order in the epsilon expansion, are nontrivially consistent with conformal invariance. We proceed to give a proof of conformal invariance to all orders in the epsilon expansion, based on the description of the long-range Ising model as a defect theory in an auxiliary higher-dimensional space. A detailed review of conformal invariance in the d-dimensional short-range Ising model is also included and may be of independent interest.
Conformal invariance in the long-range Ising model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miguel F. Paulos
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We consider the question of conformal invariance of the long-range Ising model at the critical point. The continuum description is given in terms of a nonlocal field theory, and the absence of a stress tensor invalidates all of the standard arguments for the enhancement of scale invariance to conformal invariance. We however show that several correlation functions, computed to second order in the epsilon expansion, are nontrivially consistent with conformal invariance. We proceed to give a proof of conformal invariance to all orders in the epsilon expansion, based on the description of the long-range Ising model as a defect theory in an auxiliary higher-dimensional space. A detailed review of conformal invariance in the d-dimensional short-range Ising model is also included and may be of independent interest.
Conformal invariance in the long-range Ising model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paulos, Miguel F. [CERN, Theory Group, Geneva (Switzerland); Rychkov, Slava, E-mail: slava.rychkov@lpt.ens.fr [CERN, Theory Group, Geneva (Switzerland); Laboratoire de Physique Théorique de l' École Normale Supérieure (LPTENS), Paris (France); Faculté de Physique, Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC), Paris (France); Rees, Balt C. van [CERN, Theory Group, Geneva (Switzerland); Zan, Bernardo [Institute of Physics, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
2016-01-15
We consider the question of conformal invariance of the long-range Ising model at the critical point. The continuum description is given in terms of a nonlocal field theory, and the absence of a stress tensor invalidates all of the standard arguments for the enhancement of scale invariance to conformal invariance. We however show that several correlation functions, computed to second order in the epsilon expansion, are nontrivially consistent with conformal invariance. We proceed to give a proof of conformal invariance to all orders in the epsilon expansion, based on the description of the long-range Ising model as a defect theory in an auxiliary higher-dimensional space. A detailed review of conformal invariance in the d-dimensional short-range Ising model is also included and may be of independent interest.
Spacelike conformal Killing vectors and spacelike congruences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mason, D.P.; Tsamparlis, M.
1985-01-01
Necessary and sufficient conditions are derived for space-time to admit a spacelike conformal motion with symmetry vector parallel to a unit spacelike vector field n/sup a/. These conditions are expressed in terms of the shear and expansion of the spacelike congruence generated by n/sup a/ and in terms of the four-velocity of the observer employed at any given point of the congruence. It is shown that either the expansion or the rotation of this spacelike congruence must vanish if Dn/sup a//dp = 0, where p denotes arc length measured along the integral curves of n/sup a/, and also that there exist no proper spacelike homothetic motions with constant expansion. Propagation equations for the projection tensor and the rotation tensor are derived and it is proved that every isometric spacelike congruence is rigid. Fluid space-times are studied in detail. A relation is established between spacelike conformal motions and material curves in the fluid: if a fluid space-time admits a spacelike conformal Killing vector parallel to n/sup a/ and n/sub a/u/sup a/ = 0, where u/sup a/ is the fluid four-velocity, then the integral curves of n/sup a/ are material curves in an irrotational fluid, while if the fluid vorticity is nonzero, then the integral curves of n/sup a/ are material curves if and only if they are vortex lines. An alternative derivation, based on the theory of spacelike congruences, of some of the results of Collins [J. Math. Phys. 25, 995 (1984)] on conformal Killing vectors parallel to the local vorticity vector in shear-free perfect fluids with zero magnetic Weyl tensor is given
Classical extended conformal symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Viswanathan, R.
1990-02-01
Extensions of the Virasoro algebra are constructed as Poisson brackets of higher spin fields which appear as coefficient fields in certain covariant derivative operators of order N. These differential operators are constructed so as to be covariant under reparametrizations on fields of definite conformal dimension. Factorization of such an N-th order operator in terms of first order operators, together with the inclusion of a spin one U(1) current, is shown to lead to a two-parameter W-algebra. One of these parameters plays the role of interpolating between W-algebras based on different Lie algebras of the same rank. (author). 11 refs
Conformal anomaly actions for dilaton interactions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rose Luigi Delle
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We discuss, in conformally invariant field theories such as QCD with massless fermions, a possible link between the perturbative signature of the conformal anomaly, in the form of anomaly poles of the 1-particle irreducible effective action, and its descrip- tion in terms of Wess-Zumino actions with a dilaton. The two descriptions are expected to capture the UV and IR behaviour of the conformal anomaly, in terms of fundamental and effective degrees of freedom respectively, with the dilaton effective state appearing in a nonlinear realization. As in the chiral case, conformal anomalies seem to be related to the appearance of these effective interactions in the 1PI action in all the gauge-invariant sectors of the Standard Model. We show that, as a consequence of the underlying anomalous symmetry, the infinite hierarchy of recurrence relations involving self-interactions of the dilaton is entirely determined only by the first four of them. This relation can be generalized to any even space-time dimension.
Liu, Xiaofeng; Bai, Fang; Ouyang, Sisheng; Wang, Xicheng; Li, Honglin; Jiang, Hualiang
2009-03-31
Conformation generation is a ubiquitous problem in molecule modelling. Many applications require sampling the broad molecular conformational space or perceiving the bioactive conformers to ensure success. Numerous in silico methods have been proposed in an attempt to resolve the problem, ranging from deterministic to non-deterministic and systemic to stochastic ones. In this work, we described an efficient conformation sampling method named Cyndi, which is based on multi-objective evolution algorithm. The conformational perturbation is subjected to evolutionary operation on the genome encoded with dihedral torsions. Various objectives are designated to render the generated Pareto optimal conformers to be energy-favoured as well as evenly scattered across the conformational space. An optional objective concerning the degree of molecular extension is added to achieve geometrically extended or compact conformations which have been observed to impact the molecular bioactivity (J Comput -Aided Mol Des 2002, 16: 105-112). Testing the performance of Cyndi against a test set consisting of 329 small molecules reveals an average minimum RMSD of 0.864 A to corresponding bioactive conformations, indicating Cyndi is highly competitive against other conformation generation methods. Meanwhile, the high-speed performance (0.49 +/- 0.18 seconds per molecule) renders Cyndi to be a practical toolkit for conformational database preparation and facilitates subsequent pharmacophore mapping or rigid docking. The copy of precompiled executable of Cyndi and the test set molecules in mol2 format are accessible in Additional file 1. On the basis of MOEA algorithm, we present a new, highly efficient conformation generation method, Cyndi, and report the results of validation and performance studies comparing with other four methods. The results reveal that Cyndi is capable of generating geometrically diverse conformers and outperforms other four multiple conformer generators in the case of
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Honglin
2009-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Conformation generation is a ubiquitous problem in molecule modelling. Many applications require sampling the broad molecular conformational space or perceiving the bioactive conformers to ensure success. Numerous in silico methods have been proposed in an attempt to resolve the problem, ranging from deterministic to non-deterministic and systemic to stochastic ones. In this work, we described an efficient conformation sampling method named Cyndi, which is based on multi-objective evolution algorithm. Results The conformational perturbation is subjected to evolutionary operation on the genome encoded with dihedral torsions. Various objectives are designated to render the generated Pareto optimal conformers to be energy-favoured as well as evenly scattered across the conformational space. An optional objective concerning the degree of molecular extension is added to achieve geometrically extended or compact conformations which have been observed to impact the molecular bioactivity (J Comput -Aided Mol Des 2002, 16: 105–112. Testing the performance of Cyndi against a test set consisting of 329 small molecules reveals an average minimum RMSD of 0.864 Å to corresponding bioactive conformations, indicating Cyndi is highly competitive against other conformation generation methods. Meanwhile, the high-speed performance (0.49 ± 0.18 seconds per molecule renders Cyndi to be a practical toolkit for conformational database preparation and facilitates subsequent pharmacophore mapping or rigid docking. The copy of precompiled executable of Cyndi and the test set molecules in mol2 format are accessible in Additional file 1. Conclusion On the basis of MOEA algorithm, we present a new, highly efficient conformation generation method, Cyndi, and report the results of validation and performance studies comparing with other four methods. The results reveal that Cyndi is capable of generating geometrically diverse conformers and outperforms
tRNA's wobble decoding of the genome: 40 years of modification.
Agris, Paul F; Vendeix, Franck A P; Graham, William D
2007-02-09
The genetic code is degenerate, in that 20 amino acids are encoded by 61 triplet codes. In 1966, Francis Crick hypothesized that the cell's limited number of tRNAs decoded the genome by recognizing more than one codon. The ambiguity of that recognition resided in the third base-pair, giving rise to the Wobble Hypothesis. Post-transcriptional modifications at tRNA's wobble position 34, especially modifications of uridine 34, enable wobble to occur. The Modified Wobble Hypothesis proposed in 1991 that specific modifications of a tRNA wobble nucleoside shape the anticodon architecture in such a manner that interactions were restricted to the complementary base plus a single wobble pairing for amino acids with twofold degenerate codons. However, chemically different modifications at position 34 would expand the ability of a tRNA to read three or even four of the fourfold degenerate codons. One foundation of Crick's Wobble Hypothesis was that a near-constant geometry of canonical base-pairing be maintained in forming all three base-pairs between the tRNA anticodon and mRNA codon on the ribosome. In accepting an aminoacyl-tRNA, the ribosome requires maintenance of a specific geometry for the anticodon-codon base-pairing. However, it is the post-transcriptional modifications at tRNA wobble position 34 and purine 37, 3'-adjacent to the anticodon, that pre-structure the anticodon domain to ensure the correct codon binding. The modifications create both the architecture and the stability needed for decoding through restraints on anticodon stereochemistry and conformational space, and through selective hydrogen bonding. A physicochemical understanding of modified nucleoside contributions to the tRNA anticodon domain architecture and its decoding of the genome has advanced RNA world evolutionary theory, the principles of RNA chemistry, and the application of this knowledge to the introduction of new amino acids to proteins.
14 CFR 314.3 - Conformity with subpart A of part 302.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conformity with subpart A of part 302. 314.3 Section 314.3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS EMPLOYEE PROTECTION PROGRAM General § 314.3 Conformity with...
14 CFR 325.14 - Conformity with subpart A of part 302.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conformity with subpart A of part 302. 325.14 Section 325.14 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE PROCEDURES § 325.14 Conformity with...
On the conformal transformations in the massless Thirring model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hadjiivanov, L.K.; Mikhov, S.G.; Stoyanov, D.T.
1977-01-01
On the basis of solutions for the massless scalar field in the two dimensional space-time the fields satisfying the renormalized Thirring equation are constructed. Both infinitesimal and global transformations with respect to the two-dimensional conformal group for these fields are obtained. The latter do not coincide with the standard ones. The renormalized Thirring equation is proved to be covariant under infinitesimal conformal group transformations as well as under the global transformations belonging to the universal covering of the conformal group
Conformally symmetric traversable wormholes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boehmer, Christian G.; Harko, Tiberiu; Lobo, Francisco S. N.
2007-01-01
Exact solutions of traversable wormholes are found under the assumption of spherical symmetry and the existence of a nonstatic conformal symmetry, which presents a more systematic approach in searching for exact wormhole solutions. In this work, a wide variety of solutions are deduced by considering choices for the form function, a specific linear equation of state relating the energy density and the pressure anisotropy, and various phantom wormhole geometries are explored. A large class of solutions impose that the spatial distribution of the exotic matter is restricted to the throat neighborhood, with a cutoff of the stress-energy tensor at a finite junction interface, although asymptotically flat exact solutions are also found. Using the 'volume integral quantifier', it is found that the conformally symmetric phantom wormhole geometries may, in principle, be constructed by infinitesimally small amounts of averaged null energy condition violating matter. Considering the tidal acceleration traversability conditions for the phantom wormhole geometry, specific wormhole dimensions and the traversal velocity are also deduced
Spectra of conformal sigma models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tlapak, Vaclav
2015-04-01
In this thesis the spectra of conformal sigma models defined on (generalized) symmetric spaces are analysed. The spaces where sigma models are conformal without the addition of a Wess-Zumino term are supermanifolds, in other words spaces that include fermionic directions. After a brief review of the general construction of vertex operators and the background field expansion, we compute the diagonal terms of the one-loop anomalous dimensions of sigma models on semi-symmetric spaces. We find that the results are formally identical to the symmetric case. However, unlike for sigma models on symmetric spaces, off diagonal terms that lead to operator mixing are also present. These are not computed here. We then present a detailed analysis of the one-loop spectrum of the supersphere S 3 vertical stroke 2 sigma model as one of the simplest examples. The analysis illustrates the power and simplicity of the construction. We use this data to revisit a duality with the OSP(4 vertical stroke 2) Gross-Neveu model that was proposed by Candu and Saleur. With the help of a recent all-loop result for the anomalous dimension of (1)/(2)BPS operators of Gross-Neveu models, we are able to recover the entire zero-mode spectrum of the supersphere model. We also argue that the sigma model constraints and its equations of motion are implemented correctly in the Gross-Neveu model, including the one-loop data. The duality is further supported by a new all-loop result for the anomalous dimension of the ground states of the sigma model. However, higher-gradient operators cannot be completely recovered. It is possible that this discrepancy is related to a known instability of the sigma model. The instability of sigma models is due to symmetry preserving high-gradient operators that become relevant at arbitrarily small values of the coupling. This feature has been observed long ago in one-loop calculations of the O(N)-vector model and soon been realized to be a generic property of sigma models
The pseudo-conformal universe: scale invariance from spontaneous breaking of conformal symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hinterbichler, Kurt; Khoury, Justin
2012-01-01
We present a novel theory of the very early universe which addresses the traditional horizon and flatness problems of big bang cosmology and predicts a scale invariant spectrum of perturbations. Unlike inflation, this scenario requires no exponential accelerated expansion of space-time. Instead, the early universe is described by a conformal field theory minimally coupled to gravity. The conformal fields develop a time-dependent expectation value which breaks the flat space so(4,2) conformal symmetry down to so(4,1), the symmetries of de Sitter, giving perturbations a scale invariant spectrum. The solution is an attractor, at least in the case of a single time-dependent field. Meanwhile, the metric background remains approximately flat but slowly contracts, which makes the universe increasingly flat, homogeneous and isotropic, akin to the smoothing mechanism of ekpyrotic cosmology. Our scenario is very general, requiring only a conformal field theory capable of developing the appropriate time-dependent expectation values, and encompasses existing incarnations of this idea, specifically the U(1) model of Rubakov and the Galileon Genesis scenario. Its essential features depend only on the symmetry breaking pattern and not on the details of the underlying lagrangian. It makes generic observational predictions that make it potentially distinguishable from standard inflation, in particular significant non-gaussianities and the absence of primordial gravitational waves
Ward identities for conformal models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lazzarini, S.; Stora, R.
1988-01-01
Ward identities which express the symmetry of conformal models are treated. Diffeomorphism invariance or locally holomorphic coordinate transformations are used. Diffeomorphism invariance is then understood in terms of Riemannian geometry. Two different sets of Ward identities expressing diffeomorphism invariance in a conformally invariant way are found for the free bosonic string. Using a geometrical argument, the correct invariance for a large class of conformal models is given
Conformational analysis of lignin models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santos, Helio F. dos
2001-01-01
The conformational equilibrium for two 5,5' biphenyl lignin models have been analyzed using a quantum mechanical semiempirical method. The gas phase and solution structures are discussed based on the NMR and X-ray experimental data. The results obtained showed that the observed conformations are solvent-dependent, being the geometries and the thermodynamic properties correlated with the experimental information. This study shows how a systematic theoretical conformational analysis can help to understand chemical processes at a molecular level. (author)
On the linear conformal gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pal'chik, M.Ya.; Fradkin, E.S.
1984-01-01
Conformal gravitation is analyzed under the assumption that its solution possesses the property of conformal symmetry. This assumption has sense in the case of small distances and only for definite types of matter fields, namely: at special choice of matter fields and their interactions, providing a lack of conformal anomalies; or at definite magnitudes of binding constants, coinciding with the zeroes of the Gell-Mann-Low function. The field equations, of the group-theoretical natura are obtained
Fermion-scalar conformal blocks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iliesiu, Luca [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Kos, Filip [Department of Physics, Yale University,217 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Poland, David [Department of Physics, Yale University,217 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Dr, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Pufu, Silviu S. [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Simmons-Duffin, David [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Dr, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Yacoby, Ran [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)
2016-04-13
We compute the conformal blocks associated with scalar-scalar-fermion-fermion 4-point functions in 3D CFTs. Together with the known scalar conformal blocks, our result completes the task of determining the so-called ‘seed blocks’ in three dimensions. Conformal blocks associated with 4-point functions of operators with arbitrary spins can now be determined from these seed blocks by using known differential operators.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Neergaard, Peter; Thusgaard Pedersen, Janni
2013-01-01
This paper analyses how large Danish companies are responding to new governmental regulation which requires them to report on corporate social responsibility (CSR). The paper is based on an analysis of 142 company annual reports required by the new Danish regulation regarding CSR reporting, plus 10...... interviews with first-time reporting companies and six interviews with companies that failed to comply with the new law. It is concluded that coercive pressures from government have an impact on CSR reporting practices. Further, the analysis finds traces of mimetic isomorphism which inspires a homogenisation...... in CSR reporting practices. Finally, it is argued that non-conformance with the new regulatory requirements is not solely about conscious resistance but may also be caused by, for example, lack of awareness, resource limitations, misinterpretations, and practical difficulties....
Reflections on Conformal Spectra
CERN. Geneva
2015-01-01
We use modular invariance and crossing symmetry of conformal field theory to reveal approximate reflection symmetries in the spectral decompositions of the partition function in two dimensions in the limit of large central charge and of the four-point function in any dimension in the limit of large scaling dimensions Δ0 of external operators. We use these symmetries to motivate universal upper bounds on the spectrum and the operator product expansion coefficients, which we then derive by independent techniques. Some of the bounds for four-point functions are valid for finite Δ0 as well as for large Δ0. We discuss a similar symmetry in a large spacetime dimension limit. Finally, we comment on the analogue of the Cardy formula and sparse light spectrum condition for the four-point function. (based on 1510.08772 with Kim & Ooguri). This seminar will be given via videolink
Trembach, Vera
2014-01-01
Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.
Conformal boundary loop models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacobsen, Jesper Lykke; Saleur, Hubert
2008-01-01
We study a model of densely packed self-avoiding loops on the annulus, related to the Temperley-Lieb algebra with an extra idempotent boundary generator. Four different weights are given to the loops, depending on their homotopy class and whether they touch the outer rim of the annulus. When the weight of a contractible bulk loop x≡q+q -1 element of (-2,2], this model is conformally invariant for any real weight of the remaining three parameters. We classify the conformal boundary conditions and give exact expressions for the corresponding boundary scaling dimensions. The amplitudes with which the sectors with any prescribed number and types of non-contractible loops appear in the full partition function Z are computed rigorously. Based on this, we write a number of identities involving Z which hold true for any finite size. When the weight of a contractible boundary loop y takes certain discrete values, y r ≡([r+1] q )/([r] q ) with r integer, other identities involving the standard characters K r,s of the Virasoro algebra are established. The connection with Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions in the O(n) model is discussed in detail, and new scaling dimensions are derived. When q is a root of unity and y=y r , exact connections with the A m type RSOS model are made. These involve precise relations between the spectra of the loop and RSOS model transfer matrices, valid in finite size. Finally, the results where y=y r are related to the theory of Temperley-Lieb cabling
Causality and symmetry in cosmology and the conformal group
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Segal, I.E.
1977-01-01
A new theoretic postulate in fundamental physics is considered which is called the chronometric principle because it deals primarily with the nature of time, or its dual or conjugate, energy. Conformality is equivalent to causality. Thus, the group of all local causality-preserving transformations in the vicinity of a point of Minkowski space is, as a local Lie group, identical with the conformal group. The same statement made globally on Minkowski space is: The set of all vector fields on Minkowski space which generate smooth local causality-preserving transformations is identical with the set of all conformal vector fields. The main validation for the chronometric principle is in cosmology or ultramacroscopic physics. Therefore this principle is illustrated along the lines of the red shift. This principle in combination with quantum field theory leads to a convergent and causal description of particle production in which nonlinearities are supplanted by more sophisticated and comprehensive actions for the fundamental symmetry groups. 11 references
Logarithmic conformal field theory through nilpotent conformal dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moghimi-Araghi, S.; Rouhani, S.; Saadat, M.
2001-01-01
We study logarithmic conformal field theories (LCFTs) through the introduction of nilpotent conformal weights. Using this device, we derive the properties of LCFTs such as the transformation laws, singular vectors and the structure of correlation functions. We discuss the emergence of an extra energy momentum tensor, which is the logarithmic partner of the energy momentum tensor
Replacement between conformity and counter-conformity in consumption decisions.
Chou, Ting-Jui; Chang, En-Chung; Dai, Qi; Wong, Veronica
2013-02-01
This study assessed, in a Chinese context, how self-esteem interacts with perceived similarity and uniqueness to yield cognitive dissonance, and whether the dissonance leads to self-reported conformity or counter-conformity behavior. Participants were 408 respondents from 4 major Chinese cities (M age = 33.0 yr., SD = 4.3; 48% men). Self-perceptions of uniqueness, similarity, cognitive dissonance, self-esteem and need to behave in conformity or counter-conformity were measured. A theoretical model was assessed in four situations, relating the ratings of self-esteem and perceived similarity/uniqueness to the way other people at a wedding were dressed, and the resultant cognitive dissonance and conformity/ counter-conformity behavior. Regardless of high or low self-esteem, all participants reported cognitive dissonance when they were told that they were dressed extremely similarly to or extremely differently from the other people attending the wedding. However, the conforming/counter-conforming strategies used by participants to resolve the cognitive dissonance differed. When encountering dissonance induced by the perceived extreme uniqueness of dress, participants with low self-esteem tended to say they would dress next time so as to conform with the way others were dressed, while those with high self-esteem indicated they would continue their counter-conformity in attire. When encountering dissonance induced by the perceived extreme similarity to others, both those with high and low self-esteem tended to say they would dress in an unorthodox manner to surprise other people in the future.
On Associative Conformal Algebras of Linear Growth
Retakh, Alexander
2000-01-01
Lie conformal algebras appear in the theory of vertex algebras. Their relation is similar to that of Lie algebras and their universal enveloping algebras. Associative conformal algebras play a role in conformal representation theory. We introduce the notions of conformal identity and unital associative conformal algebras and classify finitely generated simple unital associative conformal algebras of linear growth. These are precisely the complete algebras of conformal endomorphisms of finite ...
Cisplatin Targeting of Bacterial Ribosomal RNA Hairpins
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gayani N. P. Dedduwa-Mudalige
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Cisplatin is a clinically important chemotherapeutic agent known to target purine bases in nucleic acids. In addition to major deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA intrastrand cross-links, cisplatin also forms stable adducts with many types of ribonucleic acid (RNA including siRNA, spliceosomal RNAs, tRNA, and rRNA. All of these RNAs play vital roles in the cell, such as catalysis of protein synthesis by rRNA, and therefore serve as potential drug targets. This work focused on platination of two highly conserved RNA hairpins from E. coli ribosomes, namely pseudouridine-modified helix 69 from 23S rRNA and the 790 loop of helix 24 from 16S rRNA. RNase T1 probing, MALDI mass spectrometry, and dimethyl sulfate mapping revealed platination at GpG sites. Chemical probing results also showed platination-induced RNA structural changes. These findings reveal solvent and structural accessibility of sites within bacterial RNA secondary structures that are functionally significant and therefore viable targets for cisplatin as well as other classes of small molecules. Identifying target preferences at the nucleotide level, as well as determining cisplatin-induced RNA conformational changes, is important for the design of more potent drug molecules. Furthermore, the knowledge gained through studies of RNA-targeting by cisplatin is applicable to a broad range of organisms from bacteria to human.
Fragment-based modelling of single stranded RNA bound to RNA recognition motif containing proteins
de Beauchene, Isaure Chauvot; de Vries, Sjoerd J.; Zacharias, Martin
2016-01-01
Abstract Protein-RNA complexes are important for many biological processes. However, structural modeling of such complexes is hampered by the high flexibility of RNA. Particularly challenging is the docking of single-stranded RNA (ssRNA). We have developed a fragment-based approach to model the structure of ssRNA bound to a protein, based on only the protein structure, the RNA sequence and conserved contacts. The conformational diversity of each RNA fragment is sampled by an exhaustive library of trinucleotides extracted from all known experimental protein–RNA complexes. The method was applied to ssRNA with up to 12 nucleotides which bind to dimers of the RNA recognition motifs (RRMs), a highly abundant eukaryotic RNA-binding domain. The fragment based docking allows a precise de novo atomic modeling of protein-bound ssRNA chains. On a benchmark of seven experimental ssRNA–RRM complexes, near-native models (with a mean heavy-atom deviation of <3 Å from experiment) were generated for six out of seven bound RNA chains, and even more precise models (deviation < 2 Å) were obtained for five out of seven cases, a significant improvement compared to the state of the art. The method is not restricted to RRMs but was also successfully applied to Pumilio RNA binding proteins. PMID:27131381
Conformal invariance in harmonic superspace
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galperin, A.; Ivanov, E.; Ogievetsky, V.; Sokatchev, E.
1985-01-01
N=2 conformal supersymmetry is realized in harmonic superspace, its peculiarities are analyzed. The coordinate group and analytical prepotentials for N=2 conformal supergravity are found. A new version of the N=2 Einstein supergravity with infinite number of auxiliary fields is suggested. A hypermultiplet without central charges and constraints is used as a compensator
Counselor Identity: Conformity or Distinction?
McLaughlin, Jerry E.; Boettcher, Kathryn
2009-01-01
The authors explore 3 debates in other disciplines similar to counseling's identity debate in order to learn about common themes and outcomes. Conformity, distinction, and cohesion emerged as common themes. They conclude that counselors should retain their distinctive, humanistic approach rather than conforming to the dominant, medical approach.
Conformal algebra of Riemann surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vafa, C.
1988-01-01
It has become clear over the last few years that 2-dimensional conformal field theories are a crucial ingredient of string theory. Conformal field theories correspond to vacuum solutions of strings; or more precisely we know how to compute string spectrum and scattering amplitudes by starting from a formal theory (with a proper value of central charge of the Virasoro algebra). Certain non-linear sigma models do give rise to conformal theories. A lot of progress has been made in the understanding of conformal theories. The author discusses a different view of conformal theories which was motivated by the development of operator formalism on Riemann surfaces. The author discusses an interesting recent work from this point of view
The logarithmic conformal field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rahimi Tabar, M.R.; Aghamohammadi, A.; Khorrami, M.
1997-01-01
We study the correlation functions of logarithmic conformal field theories. First, assuming conformal invariance, we explicitly calculate two- and three-point functions. This calculation is done for the general case of more than one logarithmic field in a block, and more than one set of logarithmic fields. Then we show that one can regard the logarithmic field as a formal derivative of the ordinary field with respect to its conformal weight. This enables one to calculate any n-point function containing the logarithmic field in terms of ordinary n-point functions. Finally, we calculate the operator product expansion (OPE) coefficients of a logarithmic conformal field theory, and show that these can be obtained from the corresponding coefficients of ordinary conformal theory by a simple derivation. (orig.)
Dynamical realizations of l-conformal Newton–Hooke group
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galajinsky, Anton; Masterov, Ivan
2013-01-01
The method of nonlinear realizations and the technique previously developed in [A. Galajinsky, I. Masterov, Nucl. Phys. B 866 (2013) 212, (arXiv:1208.1403)] are used to construct a dynamical system without higher derivative terms, which holds invariant under the l-conformal Newton–Hooke group. A configuration space of the model involves coordinates, which parametrize a particle moving in d spatial dimensions and a conformal mode, which gives rise to an effective external field. The dynamical system describes a generalized multi-dimensional oscillator, which undergoes accelerated/decelerated motion in an ellipse in accord with evolution of the conformal mode. Higher derivative formulations are discussed as well. It is demonstrated that the multi-dimensional Pais–Uhlenbeck oscillator enjoys the l=3/2 -conformal Newton–Hooke symmetry for a particular choice of its frequencies
In silico Exploration of the Conformational Universe of GPCRs.
Rodríguez-Espigares, Ismael; Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Selent, Jana
2016-07-01
The structural plasticity of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) leads to a conformational universe going from inactive to active receptor states with several intermediate states. Many of them have not been captured yet and their role for GPCR activation is not well understood. The study of this conformational space and the transition dynamics between different receptor populations is a major challenge in molecular biophysics. The rational design of effector molecules that target such receptor populations allows fine-tuning receptor signalling with higher specificity to produce drugs with safer therapeutic profiles. In this minireview, we outline highly conserved receptor regions which are considered determinant for the establishment of distinct receptor states. We then discuss in-silico approaches such as dimensionality reduction methods and Markov State Models to explore the GPCR conformational universe and exploit the obtained conformations through structure-based drug design. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Conformal symmetry breaking operators for differential forms on spheres
Kobayashi, Toshiyuki; Pevzner, Michael
2016-01-01
This work is the first systematic study of all possible conformally covariant differential operators transforming differential forms on a Riemannian manifold X into those on a submanifold Y with focus on the model space (X, Y) = (Sn, Sn-1). The authors give a complete classification of all such conformally covariant differential operators, and find their explicit formulæ in the flat coordinates in terms of basic operators in differential geometry and classical hypergeometric polynomials. Resulting families of operators are natural generalizations of the Rankin–Cohen brackets for modular forms and Juhl's operators from conformal holography. The matrix-valued factorization identities among all possible combinations of conformally covariant differential operators are also established. The main machinery of the proof relies on the "F-method" recently introduced and developed by the authors. It is a general method to construct intertwining operators between C∞-induced representations or to find singular vecto...
Intensity modulated conformal radiotherapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noel, Georges; Moty-Monnereau, Celine; Meyer, Aurelia; David, Pauline; Pages, Frederique; Muller, Felix; Lee-Robin, Sun Hae; David, Denis Jean
2006-12-01
This publication reports the assessment of intensity-modulated conformal radiotherapy (IMCR). This assessment is based on a literature survey which focussed on indications, efficiency and safety on the short term, on the risk of radio-induced cancer on the long term, on the role in the therapeutic strategy, on the conditions of execution, on the impact on morbidity-mortality and life quality, on the impact on the health system and on public health policies and program. This assessment is also based on the opinion of a group of experts regarding the technical benefit of IMCR, its indications depending on the cancer type, safety in terms of radio-induced cancers, and conditions of execution. Before this assessment, the report thus indicates indications for which the use of IMCR can be considered as sufficient or not determined. It also proposes a technical description of IMCR and helical tomo-therapy, discusses the use of this technique for various pathologies or tumours, analyses the present situation of care in France, and comments the identification of this technique in foreign classifications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zotto, Michele Del; Heckman, Jonathan J.; Tomasiello, Alessandro; Vafa, Cumrun
2015-01-01
A single M5-brane probing G, an ADE-type singularity, leads to a system which has G×G global symmetry and can be viewed as “bifundamental” (G,G) matter. For the A N series, this leads to the usual notion of bifundamental matter. For the other cases it corresponds to a strongly interacting (1,0) superconformal system in six dimensions. Similarly, an ADE singularity intersecting the Hořava-Witten wall leads to a superconformal matter system with E 8 ×G global symmetry. Using the F-theory realization of these theories, we elucidate the Coulomb/tensor branch of (G,G ′ ) conformal matter. This leads to the notion of fractionalization of an M5-brane on an ADE singularity as well as fractionalization of the intersection point of the ADE singularity with the Hořava-Witten wall. Partial Higgsing of these theories leads to new 6d SCFTs in the infrared, which we also characterize. This generalizes the class of (1,0) theories which can be perturbatively realized by suspended branes in IIA string theory. By reducing on a circle, we arrive at novel duals for 5d affine quiver theories. Introducing many M5-branes leads to large N gravity duals.
Controllable molecular motors engineered from myosin and RNA
Omabegho, Tosan; Gurel, Pinar S.; Cheng, Clarence Y.; Kim, Laura Y.; Ruijgrok, Paul V.; Das, Rhiju; Alushin, Gregory M.; Bryant, Zev
2018-01-01
Engineering biomolecular motors can provide direct tests of structure-function relationships and customized components for controlling molecular transport in artificial systems1 or in living cells2. Previously, synthetic nucleic acid motors3-5 and modified natural protein motors6-10 have been developed in separate complementary strategies to achieve tunable and controllable motor function. Integrating protein and nucleic-acid components to form engineered nucleoprotein motors may enable additional sophisticated functionalities. However, this potential has only begun to be explored in pioneering work harnessing DNA scaffolds to dictate the spacing, number and composition of tethered protein motors11-15. Here, we describe myosin motors that incorporate RNA lever arms, forming hybrid assemblies in which conformational changes in the protein motor domain are amplified and redirected by nucleic acid structures. The RNA lever arm geometry determines the speed and direction of motor transport and can be dynamically controlled using programmed transitions in the lever arm structure7,9. We have characterized the hybrid motors using in vitro motility assays, single-molecule tracking, cryo-electron microscopy and structural probing16. Our designs include nucleoprotein motors that reversibly change direction in response to oligonucleotides that drive strand-displacement17 reactions. In multimeric assemblies, the controllable motors walk processively along actin filaments at speeds of 10-20 nm s-1. Finally, to illustrate the potential for multiplexed addressable control, we demonstrate sequence-specific responses of RNA variants to oligonucleotide signals.
Remarks on the quantization of conformal fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bakas, I.
1988-01-01
The quantization of a general (b,c) system in two dimensions is formulated in terms of an infinite hierarchy of modules for the Virasoro algebra that interpolate between the space of classical conformal fields of weight j and the Dirac sea of semi-infinite forms. This provides a natural framework in which to study the relation between algebraic geometry and representations of the Virasoro algebra with central charge c j = -2(6j 2 -6j+1). The importance of the construction is discussed in the context of string theory. (orig.)
2D conformal field theories and holography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Freidel, Laurent; Krasnov, Kirill
2004-01-01
It is known that the chiral part of any 2D conformal field theory defines a 3D topological quantum field theory: quantum states of this TQFT are the CFT conformal blocks. The main aim of this paper is to show that a similar CFT/TQFT relation exists also for the full CFT. The 3D topological theory that arises is a certain 'square' of the chiral TQFT. Such topological theories were studied by Turaev and Viro; they are related to 3D gravity. We establish an operator/state correspondence in which operators in the chiral TQFT correspond to states in the Turaev-Viro theory. We use this correspondence to interpret CFT correlation functions as particular quantum states of the Turaev-Viro theory. We compute the components of these states in the basis in the Turaev-Viro Hilbert space given by colored 3-valent graphs. The formula we obtain is a generalization of the Verlinde formula. The later is obtained from our expression for a zero colored graph. Our results give an interesting 'holographic' perspective on conformal field theories in two dimensions
Mapping the universe of RNA tetraloop folds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bottaro, Sandro; Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten
2017-01-01
We report a map of RNA tetraloop conformations constructed by calculating pairwise distances among all experimentally determined four-nucleotide hairpin loops. Tetraloops with similar structures are clustered together and, as expected, the two largest clusters are the canonical GNRA and UNCG fold...
Benchmarking Commercial Conformer Ensemble Generators.
Friedrich, Nils-Ole; de Bruyn Kops, Christina; Flachsenberg, Florian; Sommer, Kai; Rarey, Matthias; Kirchmair, Johannes
2017-11-27
We assess and compare the performance of eight commercial conformer ensemble generators (ConfGen, ConfGenX, cxcalc, iCon, MOE LowModeMD, MOE Stochastic, MOE Conformation Import, and OMEGA) and one leading free algorithm, the distance geometry algorithm implemented in RDKit. The comparative study is based on a new version of the Platinum Diverse Dataset, a high-quality benchmarking dataset of 2859 protein-bound ligand conformations extracted from the PDB. Differences in the performance of commercial algorithms are much smaller than those observed for free algorithms in our previous study (J. Chem. Inf. 2017, 57, 529-539). For commercial algorithms, the median minimum root-mean-square deviations measured between protein-bound ligand conformations and ensembles of a maximum of 250 conformers are between 0.46 and 0.61 Å. Commercial conformer ensemble generators are characterized by their high robustness, with at least 99% of all input molecules successfully processed and few or even no substantial geometrical errors detectable in their output conformations. The RDKit distance geometry algorithm (with minimization enabled) appears to be a good free alternative since its performance is comparable to that of the midranked commercial algorithms. Based on a statistical analysis, we elaborate on which algorithms to use and how to parametrize them for best performance in different application scenarios.
Complete probabilistic analysis of RNA shapes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Voß Björn
2006-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Soon after the first algorithms for RNA folding became available, it was recognised that the prediction of only one energetically optimal structure is insufficient to achieve reliable results. An in-depth analysis of the folding space as a whole appeared necessary to deduce the structural properties of a given RNA molecule reliably. Folding space analysis comprises various methods such as suboptimal folding, computation of base pair probabilities, sampling procedures and abstract shape analysis. Common to many approaches is the idea of partitioning the folding space into classes of structures, for which certain properties can be derived. Results In this paper we extend the approach of abstract shape analysis. We show how to compute the accumulated probabilities of all structures that share the same shape. While this implies a complete (non-heuristic analysis of the folding space, the computational effort depends only on the size of the shape space, which is much smaller. This approach has been integrated into the tool RNAshapes, and we apply it to various RNAs. Conclusion Analyses of conformational switches show the existence of two shapes with probabilities approximately 23 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafiart1ev1aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8akY=wiFfYdH8Gipec8Eeeu0xXdbba9frFj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqai=hGuQ8kuc9pgc9s8qqaq=dirpe0xb9q8qiLsFr0=vr0=vr0dc8meaabaqaciaacaGaaeqabaqabeGadaaakeaadaWcaaqaaiabikdaYaqaaiabiodaZaaaaaa@2EA2@ vs. 13 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafiart1ev1aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8akY=wiFfYdH8Gipec8Eeeu0xXdbba9frFj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqai=hGuQ8kuc9pgc9s8qqaq=dirpe0xb9q8qiLsFr0=vr0=vr0dc8meaabaqaciaacaGaaeqabaqabeGadaaakeaadaWcaaqaaiabigdaXaqaaiabiodaZaaaaaa@2EA0@, whereas the analysis of a microRNA precursor reveals one shape with a probability near to 1.0. Furthermore, it is shown that a shape can outperform an energetically more favourable one by
Conformal invariance in harmonic superspace
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galperin, A.; Ivanov, E.; Ogievetsky, V.; Sokatchev, E.
1987-01-01
In the present paper we show how the N = 2 superconformal group is realised in harmonic superspace and examine conformal invariance of N = 2 off-shell theories. We believe that the example of N = O self-dual Yang-Mills equations can serve as an instructive introduction to the subject of harmonic superspace and this is examined. The rigid N = 2 conformal supersymmetry and its local version, i.e. N = 2 conformal supergravity is also discussed. The paper is a contribution to the book commemorating the sixtieth birthday of E.S. Fradkin. (author)
Harmony of spinning conformal blocks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schomerus, Volker [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Sobko, Evgeny [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Nordita, Stockholm (Sweden); Isachenkov, Mikhail [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovoth (Israel). Dept. of Particle Physics and Astrophysics
2016-12-07
Conformal blocks for correlation functions of tensor operators play an increasingly important role for the conformal bootstrap programme. We develop a universal approach to such spinning blocks through the harmonic analysis of certain bundles over a coset of the conformal group. The resulting Casimir equations are given by a matrix version of the Calogero-Sutherland Hamiltonian that describes the scattering of interacting spinning particles in a 1-dimensional external potential. The approach is illustrated in several examples including fermionic seed blocks in 3D CFT where they take a very simple form.
Harmony of spinning conformal blocks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schomerus, Volker [DESY Hamburg, Theory Group,Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Sobko, Evgeny [Nordita and Stockholm University,Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Isachenkov, Mikhail [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science,Rehovot 7610001 (Israel)
2017-03-15
Conformal blocks for correlation functions of tensor operators play an increasingly important role for the conformal bootstrap programme. We develop a universal approach to such spinning blocks through the harmonic analysis of certain bundles over a coset of the conformal group. The resulting Casimir equations are given by a matrix version of the Calogero-Sutherland Hamiltonian that describes the scattering of interacting spinning particles in a 1-dimensional external potential. The approach is illustrated in several examples including fermionic seed blocks in 3D CFT where they take a very simple form.
EBV Latency Types Adopt Alternative Chromatin Conformations
Tempera, Italo; Klichinsky, Michael; Lieberman, Paul M.
2011-01-01
Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) can establish latent infections with distinct gene expression patterns referred to as latency types. These different latency types are epigenetically stable and correspond to different promoter utilization. Here we explore the three-dimensional conformations of the EBV genome in different latency types. We employed Chromosome Conformation Capture (3C) assay to investigate chromatin loop formation between the OriP enhancer and the promoters that determine type I (Qp) or type III (Cp) gene expression. We show that OriP is in close physical proximity to Qp in type I latency, and to Cp in type III latency. The cellular chromatin insulator and boundary factor CTCF was implicated in EBV chromatin loop formation. Combining 3C and ChIP assays we found that CTCF is physically associated with OriP-Qp loop formation in type I and OriP-Cp loop formation in type III latency. Mutations in the CTCF binding site located at Qp disrupt loop formation between Qp and OriP, and lead to the activation of Cp transcription. Mutation of the CTCF binding site at Cp, as well as siRNA depletion of CTCF eliminates both OriP-associated loops, indicating that CTCF plays an integral role in loop formation. These data indicate that epigenetically stable EBV latency types adopt distinct chromatin architectures that depend on CTCF and mediate alternative promoter targeting by the OriP enhancer. PMID:21829357
EBV latency types adopt alternative chromatin conformations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Italo Tempera
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV can establish latent infections with distinct gene expression patterns referred to as latency types. These different latency types are epigenetically stable and correspond to different promoter utilization. Here we explore the three-dimensional conformations of the EBV genome in different latency types. We employed Chromosome Conformation Capture (3C assay to investigate chromatin loop formation between the OriP enhancer and the promoters that determine type I (Qp or type III (Cp gene expression. We show that OriP is in close physical proximity to Qp in type I latency, and to Cp in type III latency. The cellular chromatin insulator and boundary factor CTCF was implicated in EBV chromatin loop formation. Combining 3C and ChIP assays we found that CTCF is physically associated with OriP-Qp loop formation in type I and OriP-Cp loop formation in type III latency. Mutations in the CTCF binding site located at Qp disrupt loop formation between Qp and OriP, and lead to the activation of Cp transcription. Mutation of the CTCF binding site at Cp, as well as siRNA depletion of CTCF eliminates both OriP-associated loops, indicating that CTCF plays an integral role in loop formation. These data indicate that epigenetically stable EBV latency types adopt distinct chromatin architectures that depend on CTCF and mediate alternative promoter targeting by the OriP enhancer.
Mass generation within conformal invariant theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Flato, M.; Guenin, M.
1981-01-01
The massless Yang-Mills theory is strongly conformally invariant and renormalizable; however, when masses are introduced the theory becomes nonrenormalizable and weakly conformally invariant. Conditions which recover strong conformal invariance are discussed in the letter. (author)
Hybridization Properties of RNA Containing 8-Methoxyguanosine and 8-Benzyloxyguanosine.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Sylwester Baranowski
Full Text Available Modified nucleobase analogues can serve as powerful tools for changing physicochemical and biological properties of DNA or RNA. Guanosine derivatives containing bulky substituents at 8 position are known to adopt syn conformation of N-glycoside bond. On the contrary, in RNA the anti conformation is predominant in Watson-Crick base pairing. In this paper two 8-substituted guanosine derivatives, 8-methoxyguanosine and 8-benzyloxyguanosine, were synthesized and incorporated into oligoribonucleotides to investigate their influence on the thermodynamic stability of RNA duplexes. The methoxy and benzyloxy substituents are electron-donating groups, decreasing the rate of depurination in the monomers, as confirmed by N-glycoside bond stability assessments. Thermodynamic stability studies indicated that substitution of guanosine by 8-methoxy- or 8-benzyloxyguanosine significantly decreased the thermodynamic stability of RNA duplexes. Moreover, the presence of 8-substituted guanosine derivatives decreased mismatch discrimination. Circular dichroism spectra of modified RNA duplexes exhibited patterns typical for A-RNA geometry.
Higher-derivative generalization of conformal mechanics
Baranovsky, Oleg
2017-08-01
Higher-derivative analogs of multidimensional conformal particle and many-body conformal mechanics are constructed. Their Newton-Hooke counterparts are derived by applying appropriate coordinate transformations.
Naturality in conformal field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moore, G.; Seiberg, N.
1989-01-01
We discuss constraints on the operator product coefficients in diagonal and nondiagonal rational conformal field theories. Nondiagonal modular invariants always arise from automorphisms of the fusion rule algebra or from extensions of the chiral algebra. Moreover, when the chiral algebra has been maximally extended a strong form of the naturality principle of field theory can be proven for rational conformal field theory: operator product coefficients vanish if and only if the corresponding fusion rules vanish; that is, if and only if the vanishing can be understood in terms of a symmetry. We illustrate these ideas with several examples. We also generalize our ideas about rational conformal field theories to a larger class of theories: 'quasi-rational conformal field theories' and we explore some of their properties. (orig.)
Steady states in conformal theories
CERN. Geneva
2015-01-01
A novel conjecture regarding the steady state behavior of conformal field theories placed between two heat baths will be presented. Some verification of the conjecture will be provided in the context of fluid dynamics and holography.
National Automated Conformity Inspection Process -
Department of Transportation — The National Automated Conformity Inspection Process (NACIP) Application is intended to expedite the workflow process as it pertains to the FAA Form 81 0-10 Request...
Aspect of the conformal invariance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bauer, M.
1990-11-01
This thesis is about the study of several physical and mathematical aspects of critical phenomena at two dimensions. These phenomena have remarkable symmetry properties in the coordonnates changes keeping the angles. They are named conformal theories
Some Progress in Conformal Geometry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sun-Yung A. Chang
2007-12-01
Full Text Available This is a survey paper of our current research on the theory of partial differential equations in conformal geometry. Our intention is to describe some of our current works in a rather brief and expository fashion. We are not giving a comprehensive survey on the subject and references cited here are not intended to be complete. We introduce a bubble tree structure to study the degeneration of a class of Yamabe metrics on Bach flat manifolds satisfying some global conformal bounds on compact manifolds of dimension 4. As applications, we establish a gap theorem, a finiteness theorem for diffeomorphism type for this class, and diameter bound of the $sigma_2$-metrics in a class of conformal 4-manifolds. For conformally compact Einstein metrics we introduce an eigenfunction compactification. As a consequence we obtain some topological constraints in terms of renormalized volumes.
Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 5
Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the conformity SIP adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 5 (IL, IN, MI, OH, WI) is provided here.
Conformal radiotherapy: principles and classification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosenwald, J.C.; Gaboriaud, G.; Pontvert, D.
1999-01-01
'Conformal radiotherapy' is the name fixed by usage and given to a new form of radiotherapy resulting from the technological improvements observed during the last ten years. While this terminology is now widely used, no precise definition can be found in the literature. Conformal radiotherapy refers to an approach in which the dose distribution is more closely 'conformed' or adapted to the actual shape of the target volume. However, the achievement of a consensus on a more specific definition is hampered by various difficulties, namely in characterizing the degree of 'conformality'. We have therefore suggested a classification scheme be established on the basis of the tools and the procedures actually used for all steps of the process, i.e., from prescription to treatment completion. Our classification consists of four levels: schematically, at level 0, there is no conformation (rectangular fields); at level 1, a simple conformation takes place, on the basis of conventional 2D imaging; at level 2, a 3D reconstruction of the structures is used for a more accurate conformation; and level 3 includes research and advanced dynamic techniques. We have used our personal experience, contacts with colleagues and data from the literature to analyze all the steps of the planning process, and to define the tools and procedures relevant to a given level. The corresponding tables have been discussed and approved at the European level within the Dynarad concerted action. It is proposed that the term 'conformal radiotherapy' be restricted to procedures where all steps are at least at level 2. (author)
Conformal Cosmology and Supernova Data
Behnke, Danilo; Blaschke, David; Pervushin, Victor; Proskurin, Denis
2000-01-01
We define the cosmological parameters $H_{c,0}$, $\\Omega_{m,c}$ and $\\Omega_{\\Lambda, c}$ within the Conformal Cosmology as obtained by the homogeneous approximation to the conformal-invariant generalization of Einstein's General Relativity theory. We present the definitions of the age of the universe and of the luminosity distance in the context of this approach. A possible explanation of the recent data from distant supernovae Ia without a cosmological constant is presented.
Scalar perturbations and conformal transformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fabris, J.C.; Tossa, J.
1995-11-01
The non-minimal coupling of gravity to a scalar field can be transformed into a minimal coupling through a conformal transformation. We show how to connect the results of a perturbation calculation, performed around a Friedman-Robertson-Walker background solution, before and after the conformal transformation. We work in the synchronous gauge, but we discuss the implications of employing other frames. (author). 16 refs
Conformal Phase Diagram of Complete Asymptotically Free Theories
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pica, Claudio; Ryttov, Thomas A.; Sannino, Francesco
2017-01-01
function. We provide the general conditions that the beta function coefficients must abide for the theory to be completely asymptotically free while simultaneously possessing an infrared stable fixed point. We also uncover special trajectories in coupling space along which some couplings are both...... asymptotically safe and infrared conformal....
New unified field theory based on the conformal group
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pessa, E [Rome Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Matematica
1980-10-01
Based on a six-dimensional generalization of Maxwell's equations, a new unified theory of the electromagnetic and gravitational field is developed. Additional space-time coordinates are interpreted only as mathematical tools in order to obtain a linear realization of the four-dimensional conformal group.
Conformally flat tilted Bianchi Type-V cosmological models in ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
the complete determination of these quantities, we assume two extra conditions. First we assume that the space-time is conformally flat which leads to. 1008 .... Discussions. The model starts expanding with a big-bang at М = 0 and the expansion in the model stops at М = ∞ and = -2(Т + 2)¬. The model in general represents.
Conformal coupling of gravitational wave field to curvature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grishchuk, L.P.; Yudin, V.
1980-01-01
Conformal properties of the equations for weak gravitational waves in a curved space--time are investigated. The basic equations are derived in the linear approximation from Einstein's equations. They represent, in fact, the equations for the second-rank tensor field h/sub alphabeta/, restricted by the auxiliary conditions h/sub α//sup β//sub ;/α =0, hequivalentγ/sub alphabeta/h/sup alphabeta/=0, and embedded into the background space--time with the metric tensor γ/sub alphabeta/. It is shown that the equations for h/sub alphabeta/ are not conformally invariant under the transformations gamma-circumflex/sub alphabeta/ =e/sup 2sigma/γ/sub alphabeta/ and h/sub alphabeta/ =e/sup sigma/h/sub alphabeta/, except for those metric rescalings which transform the Ricci scalar R of the original background space--time into e/sup -2sigma/R, where R is the Ricci scalar of the conformally related background space--time. The general form of the equations for h/sub alphabeta/ which are conformally invariant have been deduced. It is shown that these equations cannot be derived in the linear approximation from any tensor equations which generalize the Einstein equations
QCD-instantons and conformal inversion symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klammer, D.
2006-07-01
Instantons are an essential and non-perturbative part of Quantum Chromodynamics, the theory of strong interactions. One of the most relevant quantities in the instanton calculus is the instanton-size distribution, which can be described on the one hand within the framework of instanton perturbation theory and on the other hand investigated numerically by means of lattice computations. A rapid onset of a drastic discrepancy between these respective results indicates that the underlying physics is not yet well understood. In this work we investigate the appealing possibility of a symmetry under conformal inversion of space-time leading to this deviation. The motivation being that the lattice data seem to be invariant under an inversion of the instanton size. Since the instanton solution of a given size turns into an anti-instanton solution having an inverted size under conformal inversion of space-time, we ask in a first investigation, whether this property is transferred to the quantum level. In order to introduce a new scale, which is indicated by the lattice data and corresponds to the average instanton size as inversion radius, we project the instanton calculus onto the four-dimensional surface of a five-dimensional sphere via stereographic projection. The radius of this sphere is associated with the average instanton size. The result for the instanton size-distribution projected onto the sphere agrees surprisingly well with the lattice data at qualitative level. The resulting symmetry under an inversion of the instanton size is almost perfect. (orig.)
QCD-instantons and conformal inversion symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klammer, D.
2006-07-15
Instantons are an essential and non-perturbative part of Quantum Chromodynamics, the theory of strong interactions. One of the most relevant quantities in the instanton calculus is the instanton-size distribution, which can be described on the one hand within the framework of instanton perturbation theory and on the other hand investigated numerically by means of lattice computations. A rapid onset of a drastic discrepancy between these respective results indicates that the underlying physics is not yet well understood. In this work we investigate the appealing possibility of a symmetry under conformal inversion of space-time leading to this deviation. The motivation being that the lattice data seem to be invariant under an inversion of the instanton size. Since the instanton solution of a given size turns into an anti-instanton solution having an inverted size under conformal inversion of space-time, we ask in a first investigation, whether this property is transferred to the quantum level. In order to introduce a new scale, which is indicated by the lattice data and corresponds to the average instanton size as inversion radius, we project the instanton calculus onto the four-dimensional surface of a five-dimensional sphere via stereographic projection. The radius of this sphere is associated with the average instanton size. The result for the instanton size-distribution projected onto the sphere agrees surprisingly well with the lattice data at qualitative level. The resulting symmetry under an inversion of the instanton size is almost perfect. (orig.)
The solutions of affine and conformal affine Toda field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Papadopoulos, G.; Spence, B.
1994-02-01
We give new formulations of the solutions of the field equations of the affine Toda and conformal affine Toda theories on a cylinder and two-dimensional Minkowski space-time. These solutions are parameterised in terms of initial data and the resulting covariant phase spaces are diffeomorphic to the Hamiltonian ones. We derive the fundamental Poisson brackets of the parameters of the solutions and give the general static solutions for the affine theory. (authors). 10 refs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjaer, L. K.; Cejvanovic, V.; Henriken, T.
2015-01-01
.9 significant hazard ratio for death compared with the quartile with the lowest 8oxoGuo excretion when adjusted for age, sex, BMI, smoker status, s-HbA1c, urine protein excretion and s-cholesterol. We conclude that it is now established that RNA oxidation is an independent risk factor for death in type 2...
Increased conformity offers diminishing returns for reducing total knee replacement wear.
Fregly, Benjamin J; Marquez-Barrientos, Carlos; Banks, Scott A; DesJardins, John D
2010-02-01
Wear remains a significant problem limiting the lifespan of total knee replacements (TKRs). Though increased conformity between TKR components has the potential to decrease wear, the optimal amount and planes of conformity have not been investigated. Furthermore, differing conformities in the medial and lateral compartments may provide designers the opportunity to address both wear and kinematic design goals simultaneously. This study used a computational model of a Stanmore knee simulator machine and a previously validated wear model to investigate this issue for simulated gait. TKR geometries with different amounts and planes of conformity on the medial and lateral sides were created and tested in two phases. The first phase utilized a wide range of sagittal and coronal conformity combinations to blanket a physically realistic design space. The second phase performed a focused investigation of the conformity conditions from the first phase to which predicted wear volume was sensitive. For the first phase, sagittal but not coronal conformity was found to have a significant effect on predicted wear volume. For the second phase, increased sagittal conformity was found to decrease predicted wear volume in a nonlinear fashion, with reductions gradually diminishing as conformity increased. These results suggest that TKR geometric design efforts aimed at minimizing wear should focus on sagittal rather than coronal conformity and that at least moderate sagittal conformity is desirable in both compartments.
Quantum Conformal Algebras and Closed Conformal Field Theory
Anselmi, D
1999-01-01
We investigate the quantum conformal algebras of N=2 and N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories. Phenomena occurring at strong coupling are analysed using the Nachtmann theorem and very general, model-independent, arguments. The results lead us to introduce a novel class of conformal field theories, identified by a closed quantum conformal algebra. We conjecture that they are the exact solution to the strongly coupled large-N_c limit of the open conformal field theories. We study the basic properties of closed conformal field theory and work out the operator product expansion of the conserved current multiplet T. The OPE structure is uniquely determined by two central charges, c and a. The multiplet T does not contain just the stress-tensor, but also R-currents and finite mass operators. For this reason, the ratio c/a is different from 1. On the other hand, an open algebra contains an infinite tower of non-conserved currents, organized in pairs and singlets with respect to renormalization mixing. T mixes with a se...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stenger, Drake C., E-mail: drake.stenger@ars.usda.gov [USDA, Agricultural Research Service, San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, 9611 South Riverbend Ave., Parlier, CA 93648-9757 (United States); Krugner, Rodrigo [USDA, Agricultural Research Service, San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, 9611 South Riverbend Ave., Parlier, CA 93648-9757 (United States); Nouri, Shahideh; Ferriol, Inmaculada; Falk, Bryce W. [Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Sisterson, Mark S. [USDA, Agricultural Research Service, San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, 9611 South Riverbend Ave., Parlier, CA 93648-9757 (United States)
2016-11-15
Population structure of Homalodisca coagulata Virus-1 (HoCV-1) among and within field-collected insects sampled from a single point in space and time was examined. Polymorphism in complete consensus sequences among single-insect isolates was dominated by synonymous substitutions. The mutant spectrum of the C2 helicase region within each single-insect isolate was unique and dominated by nonsynonymous singletons. Bootstrapping was used to correct the within-isolate nonsynonymous:synonymous arithmetic ratio (N:S) for RT-PCR error, yielding an N:S value ~one log-unit greater than that of consensus sequences. Probability of all possible single-base substitutions for the C2 region predicted N:S values within 95% confidence limits of the corrected within-isolate N:S when the only constraint imposed was viral polymerase error bias for transitions over transversions. These results indicate that bottlenecks coupled with strong negative/purifying selection drive consensus sequences toward neutral sequence space, and that most polymorphism within single-insect isolates is composed of newly-minted mutations sampled prior to selection. -- Highlights: •Sampling protocol minimized differential selection/history among isolates. •Polymorphism among consensus sequences dominated by negative/purifying selection. •Within-isolate N:S ratio corrected for RT-PCR error by bootstrapping. •Within-isolate mutant spectrum dominated by new mutations yet to undergo selection.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hinterbichler, Kurt; Joyce, Austin; Khoury, Justin
2012-01-01
The pseudo-conformal scenario is an alternative to inflation in which the early universe is described by an approximate conformal field theory on flat, Minkowski space. Some fields acquire a time-dependent expectation value, which breaks the flat space so(4,2) conformal algebra to its so(4,1) de Sitter subalgebra. As a result, weight-0 fields acquire a scale invariant spectrum of perturbations. The scenario is very general, and its essential features are determined by the symmetry breaking pattern, irrespective of the details of the underlying microphysics. In this paper, we apply the well-known coset technique to derive the most general effective lagrangian describing the Goldstone field and matter fields, consistent with the assumed symmetries. The resulting action captures the low energy dynamics of any pseudo-conformal realization, including the U(1)-invariant quartic model and the Galilean Genesis scenario. We also derive this lagrangian using an alternative method of curvature invariants, consisting of writing down geometric scalars in terms of the conformal mode. Using this general effective action, we compute the two-point function for the Goldstone and a fiducial weight-0 field, as well as some sample three-point functions involving these fields
Gauge fixing problem in the conformal QED
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ichinose, Shoichi
1986-01-01
The gauge fixing problem in the conformal (spinor and scalar) QED is examined. For the analysis, we generalize Dirac's manifestly conformal-covariant formalism. It is shown that the (vector and matter) fields must obey a certain mixed (conformal and gauge) type of transformation law in order to fix the local gauge symmetry preserving the conformal invariance in the Lagrangian. (orig.)
40 CFR 93.154 - Conformity analysis.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conformity analysis. 93.154 Section 93...) DETERMINING CONFORMITY OF FEDERAL ACTIONS TO STATE OR FEDERAL IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Determining Conformity of General Federal Actions to State or Federal Implementation Plans § 93.154 Conformity analysis. Any Federal...
Conformational dynamics of ATP/Mg:ATP in motor proteins via data mining and molecular simulation
Bojovschi, A.; Liu, Ming S.; Sadus, Richard J.
2012-08-01
The conformational diversity of ATP/Mg:ATP in motor proteins was investigated using molecular dynamics and data mining. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) conformations were found to be constrained mostly by inter cavity motifs in the motor proteins. It is demonstrated that ATP favors extended conformations in the tight pockets of motor proteins such as F1-ATPase and actin whereas compact structures are favored in motor proteins such as RNA polymerase and DNA helicase. The incorporation of Mg2+ leads to increased flexibility of ATP molecules. The differences in the conformational dynamics of ATP/Mg:ATP in various motor proteins was quantified by the radius of gyration. The relationship between the simulation results and those obtained by data mining of motor proteins available in the protein data bank is analyzed. The data mining analysis of motor proteins supports the conformational diversity of the phosphate group of ATP obtained computationally.
Conformational Clusters of Phosphorylated Tyrosine.
Abdelrasoul, Maha; Ponniah, Komala; Mao, Alice; Warden, Meghan S; Elhefnawy, Wessam; Li, Yaohang; Pascal, Steven M
2017-12-06
Tyrosine phosphorylation plays an important role in many cellular and intercellular processes including signal transduction, subcellular localization, and regulation of enzymatic activity. In 1999, Blom et al., using the limited number of protein data bank (PDB) structures available at that time, reported that the side chain structures of phosphorylated tyrosine (pY) are partitioned into two conserved conformational clusters ( Blom, N.; Gammeltoft, S.; Brunak, S. J. Mol. Biol. 1999 , 294 , 1351 - 1362 ). We have used the spectral clustering algorithm to cluster the increasingly growing number of protein structures with pY sites, and have found that the pY residues cluster into three distinct side chain conformations. Two of these pY conformational clusters associate strongly with a narrow range of tyrosine backbone conformation. The novel cluster also highly correlates with the identity of the n + 1 residue, and is strongly associated with a sequential pYpY conformation which places two adjacent pY side chains in a specific relative orientation. Further analysis shows that the three pY clusters are associated with distinct distributions of cognate protein kinases.
The quantum symmetry of rational conformal field theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
César Gómez
1991-04-01
Full Text Available The quantum group symmetry of the c ˇ1 Rational Conformal Field Theory, in its Coulomb gas version, is formulated in terms of a new type of screened vertex operators, which define the representation spaces of a quantum group Q. The conformal properties of these operators show a deep interplay between the quantum group Q and the Virasoro algebra.The R-matrix, the comultiplication rules and the quantum Clebsch-Gordan coefficients of Q are obtained using contour deformation techniques. Finally, the relation between the chiral vertex operators and the quantum Clebsch-Gordan coefficients is shown.
A conformal gauge invariant functional for Weyl structures and the first variation formula
Ichiyama, Toshiyuki; Furuhata, Hitoshi; Urakawa, Hajime
1999-01-01
We consider a new conformal gauge invariant functional which is a natural curvature functional on the space of Weyl structures. We derive the first variation formula of its functional and characterize its critical points.
Madru, Clément; Lebaron, Simon; Blaud, Magali; Delbos, Lila; Pipoli, Juliana; Pasmant, Eric; Réty, Stéphane; Leulliot, Nicolas
2015-07-01
In eukaryotes, three of the four ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs)—the 5.8S, 18S, and 25S/28S rRNAs—are processed from a single pre-rRNA transcript and assembled into ribosomes. The fourth rRNA, the 5S rRNA, is transcribed by RNA polymerase III and is assembled into the 5S ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP), containing ribosomal proteins Rpl5/uL18 and Rpl11/uL5, prior to its incorporation into preribosomes. In mammals, the 5S RNP is also a central regulator of the homeostasis of the tumor suppressor p53. The nucleolar localization of the 5S RNP and its assembly into preribosomes are performed by a specialized complex composed of Rpf2 and Rrs1 in yeast or Bxdc1 and hRrs1 in humans. Here we report the structural and functional characterization of the Rpf2-Rrs1 complex alone, in complex with the 5S RNA, and within pre-60S ribosomes. We show that the Rpf2-Rrs1 complex contains a specialized 5S RNA E-loop-binding module, contacts the Rpl5 protein, and also contacts the ribosome assembly factor Rsa4 and the 25S RNA. We propose that the Rpf2-Rrs1 complex establishes a network of interactions that guide the incorporation of the 5S RNP in preribosomes in the initial conformation prior to its rotation to form the central protuberance found in the mature large ribosomal subunit. © 2015 Madru et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
Desulfurization of 2-thiouracil nucleosides: conformational studies of 4-pyrimidinone nucleosides.
Kraszewska, Karina; Kaczyńska, Iwona; Jankowski, Stefan; Karolak-Wojciechowska, Janina; Sochacka, Elzbieta
2011-04-01
4-Pyrimidinone ribofuranoside (H(2)o(4)U) and 4-pyrimidinone 2'-deoxyribofuranoside (dH(2)o(4)U) were synthesized by the oxidative desulfurization of parent 2-thiouracil nucleosides with m-chloroperbenzoic acid. The crystal structures of H(2)o(4)U and dH(2)o(4)U and their conformations in solution were determined and compared with corresponding 2-thiouracil and uracil nucleosides. The absence of a large 2-thiocarbonyl/2-carbonyl group in the nucleobase moiety results in C2'-endo puckering of the ribofuranose ring (S conformer) in the crystal structure of H(2)o(4)U, which is not typical of RNA nucleosides. Interestingly, the hydrogen bonding network in the crystals of dH(2)o(4)U stabilizes the sugar moiety conformation in the C3'-endo form (N conformer), rarely found in DNA nucleosides. In aqueous solution, dH(2)o(4)U reveals a similar population of the C2'-endo conformation (65%) to that of 2'-deoxy-2-thiouridine (62%), while the 62% population of the S conformer for H(2)o(4)U is significantly different from that of the parent 2-thiouridine, for which the N conformer is dominant (71%). Such a difference may be of biological importance, as the desulfurization process of natural tRNA 2-thiouridines may occur under conditions of oxidative stress in the cell and may influence the decoding process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Initiation of translation in bacteria by a structured eukaryotic IRES RNA.
Colussi, Timothy M; Costantino, David A; Zhu, Jianyu; Donohue, John Paul; Korostelev, Andrei A; Jaafar, Zane A; Plank, Terra-Dawn M; Noller, Harry F; Kieft, Jeffrey S
2015-03-05
The central dogma of gene expression (DNA to RNA to protein) is universal, but in different domains of life there are fundamental mechanistic differences within this pathway. For example, the canonical molecular signals used to initiate protein synthesis in bacteria and eukaryotes are mutually exclusive. However, the core structures and conformational dynamics of ribosomes that are responsible for the translation steps that take place after initiation are ancient and conserved across the domains of life. We wanted to explore whether an undiscovered RNA-based signal might be able to use these conserved features, bypassing mechanisms specific to each domain of life, and initiate protein synthesis in both bacteria and eukaryotes. Although structured internal ribosome entry site (IRES) RNAs can manipulate ribosomes to initiate translation in eukaryotic cells, an analogous RNA structure-based mechanism has not been observed in bacteria. Here we report our discovery that a eukaryotic viral IRES can initiate translation in live bacteria. We solved the crystal structure of this IRES bound to a bacterial ribosome to 3.8 Å resolution, revealing that despite differences between bacterial and eukaryotic ribosomes this IRES binds directly to both and occupies the space normally used by transfer RNAs. Initiation in both bacteria and eukaryotes depends on the structure of the IRES RNA, but in bacteria this RNA uses a different mechanism that includes a form of ribosome repositioning after initial recruitment. This IRES RNA bridges billions of years of evolutionary divergence and provides an example of an RNA structure-based translation initiation signal capable of operating in two domains of life.
Logarithmic conformal field theory: beyond an introduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Creutzig, Thomas; Ridout, David
2013-01-01
studied here by first determining its irreducible spectrum, which turns out to be continuous, as well as a selection of natural reducible, but indecomposable, modules. This is followed by a detailed description of how to obtain character formulae for each irreducible, a derivation of the action of the modular group on the characters, and an application of the Verlinde formula to compute the Grothendieck fusion rules. In each case, the (genuine) fusion rules are known, so comparisons can be made and favourable conclusions drawn. In addition, each example admits an infinite set of simple currents, hence extended symmetry algebras may be constructed and a series of bulk modular invariants computed. The spectrum of such an extended theory is typically discrete and this is how the triplet model W(1,2) arises, for example. Moreover, simple current technology admits a derivation of the extended algebra fusion rules from those of its continuous parent theory. Finally, each example is concluded by a brief description of the computation of some bulk correlators, a discussion of the structure of the bulk state space, and remarks concerning more advanced developments and generalizations. The final part gives a very short account of the theory of staggered modules, the (simplest class of) representations that are responsible for the logarithmic singularities that distinguish logarithmic theories from their rational cousins. These modules are discussed in a generality suitable to encompass all the examples met in this review and some of the very basic structure theory is proven. Then, the important quantities known as logarithmic couplings are reviewed for Virasoro staggered modules and their role as fundamentally important parameters, akin to the three-point constants of rational conformal field theory, is discussed. An appendix is also provided in order to introduce some of the necessary, but perhaps unfamiliar, language of homological algebra. (review)
Bootstrapping conformal field theories with the extremal functional method.
El-Showk, Sheer; Paulos, Miguel F
2013-12-13
The existence of a positive linear functional acting on the space of (differences between) conformal blocks has been shown to rule out regions in the parameter space of conformal field theories (CFTs). We argue that at the boundary of the allowed region the extremal functional contains, in principle, enough information to determine the dimensions and operator product expansion (OPE) coefficients of an infinite number of operators appearing in the correlator under analysis. Based on this idea we develop the extremal functional method (EFM), a numerical procedure for deriving the spectrum and OPE coefficients of CFTs lying on the boundary (of solution space). We test the EFM by using it to rederive the low lying spectrum and OPE coefficients of the two-dimensional Ising model based solely on the dimension of a single scalar quasiprimary--no Virasoro algebra required. Our work serves as a benchmark for applications to more interesting, less known CFTs in the near future.
Renyi entropy and conformal defects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bianchi, Lorenzo [Humboldt-Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Meineri, Marco [Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy); Myers, Robert C. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Smolkin, Michael [California Univ., Berkely, CA (United States). Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics
2016-04-18
We propose a field theoretic framework for calculating the dependence of Renyi entropies on the shape of the entangling surface in a conformal field theory. Our approach rests on regarding the corresponding twist operator as a conformal defect and in particular, we define the displacement operator which implements small local deformations of the entangling surface. We identify a simple constraint between the coefficient defining the two-point function of the displacement operator and the conformal weight of the twist operator, which consolidates a number of distinct conjectures on the shape dependence of the Renyi entropy. As an example, using this approach, we examine a conjecture regarding the universal coefficient associated with a conical singularity in the entangling surface for CFTs in any number of spacetime dimensions. We also provide a general formula for the second order variation of the Renyi entropy arising from small deformations of a spherical entangling surface, extending Mezei's results for the entanglement entropy.
Elementary introduction to conformal invariance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grandati, Y.
1992-01-01
These notes constitute an elementary introduction to the concept of conformal invariance and its applications to the study of bidimensional critical phenomena. The aim is to give an access as pedestrian as possible to this vast subject. After a brief account of the general properties of conformal transformation in D dimensions, we study more specifically the case D = 2. The center of the discussion is then the consequences of the action of this symmetry group on bidimensional field theories, and in particular the links between the representations of the Virasoro algebra and the structure of the correlation functions of conformal field theories. Finally after showing how the Ising model reduces to a Majorana fermionic field theory, we see how the general formalism previously discussed can be applied to the Ising case at the critical point. (orig.)
Conformal geometry and quasiregular mappings
Vuorinen, Matti
1988-01-01
This book is an introduction to the theory of spatial quasiregular mappings intended for the uninitiated reader. At the same time the book also addresses specialists in classical analysis and, in particular, geometric function theory. The text leads the reader to the frontier of current research and covers some most recent developments in the subject, previously scatterd through the literature. A major role in this monograph is played by certain conformal invariants which are solutions of extremal problems related to extremal lengths of curve families. These invariants are then applied to prove sharp distortion theorems for quasiregular mappings. One of these extremal problems of conformal geometry generalizes a classical two-dimensional problem of O. Teichmüller. The novel feature of the exposition is the way in which conformal invariants are applied and the sharp results obtained should be of considerable interest even in the two-dimensional particular case. This book combines the features of a textbook an...
Renyi entropy and conformal defects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bianchi, Lorenzo; Myers, Robert C.; Smolkin, Michael
2016-01-01
We propose a field theoretic framework for calculating the dependence of Renyi entropies on the shape of the entangling surface in a conformal field theory. Our approach rests on regarding the corresponding twist operator as a conformal defect and in particular, we define the displacement operator which implements small local deformations of the entangling surface. We identify a simple constraint between the coefficient defining the two-point function of the displacement operator and the conformal weight of the twist operator, which consolidates a number of distinct conjectures on the shape dependence of the Renyi entropy. As an example, using this approach, we examine a conjecture regarding the universal coefficient associated with a conical singularity in the entangling surface for CFTs in any number of spacetime dimensions. We also provide a general formula for the second order variation of the Renyi entropy arising from small deformations of a spherical entangling surface, extending Mezei's results for the entanglement entropy.
Geodesic deviation and Minikowski space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barraco, D.; Kozameh, C.; Newman, E.T.; Tod, P.
1990-01-01
The authors study the properties of the solution space of local surface-forming null sub-congruences in the neighborhood of a given null geodesic in a pseudo-Riemannian space-time. This solution space is a three-dimensional manifold, naturally endowed with a conformal Minkowski metric
Light-cone AdS/CFT-adapted approach to AdS fields/currents, shadows, and conformal fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Metsaev, R.R. [Department of Theoretical Physics, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninsky prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)
2015-10-16
Light-cone gauge formulation of fields in AdS space and conformal field theory in flat space adapted for the study of AdS/CFT correspondence is developed. Arbitrary spin mixed-symmetry fields in AdS space and arbitrary spin mixed-symmetry currents, shadows, and conformal fields in flat space are considered on an equal footing. For the massless and massive fields in AdS and the conformal fields in flat space, simple light-cone gauge actions leading to decoupled equations of motion are found. For the currents and shadows, simple expressions for all 2-point functions are also found. We demonstrate that representation of conformal algebra generators on space of currents, shadows, and conformal fields can be built in terms of spin operators entering the light-cone gauge formulation of AdS fields. This considerably simplifies the study of AdS/CFT correspondence. Light-cone gauge actions for totally symmetric arbitrary spin long conformal fields in flat space are presented. We apply our approach to the study of totally antisymmetric (one-column) and mixed-symmetry (two-column) fields in AdS space and currents, shadows, and conformal fields in flat space.
Conformal quantum field theory: From Haag-Kastler nets to Wightman fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joerss, M.
1996-07-01
Starting from a chiral conformal Haag-Kastler net of local observables on two-dimensional Minkowski space-time, we construct associated pointlike localizable charged fields which intertwine between the superselection sectors with finite statistics of the theory. This amounts to a proof of the spin-statistics theorem, the PCT theorem, the Bisognano-Wichmann identification of modular operators, Haag duality in the vacuum sector, and the existence of operator product expansions. Our method consists of the explicit use of the representation theory of the universal covering group of SL(2,R). A central role is played by a ''conformal cluster theorem'' for conformal two-point functions in algebraic quantum field theory. Generalizing this ''conformal cluster theorem'' to the n-point functions of Haag-Kastler theories, we can finally construct from a chiral conformal net of algebras a compelte set of conformal n-point functions fulfilling the Wightman axioms. (orig.)
SUSY Unparticle and Conformal Sequestering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nakayama, Yu; Nakayama, Yu
2007-07-17
We investigate unparticle physics with supersymmetry (SUSY). The SUSY breaking effects due to the gravity mediation induce soft masses for the SUSY unparticles and hence break the conformal invariance. The unparticle physics observable in near future experiments is only consistent if the SUSY breakingeffects from the hidden sector to the standard model sector are dominated by the gauge mediation, or if the SUSY breaking effects to the unparticle sector are sufficiently sequestered. We argue that the natural realization of the latter possibility is the conformal sequestering scenario.
Epigenetic dominance of prion conformers.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eri Saijo
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Although they share certain biological properties with nucleic acid based infectious agents, prions, the causative agents of invariably fatal, transmissible neurodegenerative disorders such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy, sheep scrapie, and human Creutzfeldt Jakob disease, propagate by conformational templating of host encoded proteins. Once thought to be unique to these diseases, this mechanism is now recognized as a ubiquitous means of information transfer in biological systems, including other protein misfolding disorders such as those causing Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. To address the poorly understood mechanism by which host prion protein (PrP primary structures interact with distinct prion conformations to influence pathogenesis, we produced transgenic (Tg mice expressing different sheep scrapie susceptibility alleles, varying only at a single amino acid at PrP residue 136. Tg mice expressing ovine PrP with alanine (A at (OvPrP-A136 infected with SSBP/1 scrapie prions propagated a relatively stable (S prion conformation, which accumulated as punctate aggregates in the brain, and produced prolonged incubation times. In contrast, Tg mice expressing OvPrP with valine (V at 136 (OvPrP-V136 infected with the same prions developed disease rapidly, and the converted prion was comprised of an unstable (U, diffusely distributed conformer. Infected Tg mice co-expressing both alleles manifested properties consistent with the U conformer, suggesting a dominant effect resulting from exclusive conversion of OvPrP-V136 but not OvPrP-A136. Surprisingly, however, studies with monoclonal antibody (mAb PRC5, which discriminates OvPrP-A136 from OvPrP-V136, revealed substantial conversion of OvPrP-A136. Moreover, the resulting OvPrP-A136 prion acquired the characteristics of the U conformer. These results, substantiated by in vitro analyses, indicated that co-expression of OvPrP-V136 altered the conversion potential of OvPrP-A136 from the S to
Topics in conformal field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiritsis, E.B.
1988-01-01
In this work two major topics in Conformal Field Theory are discussed. First a detailed investigation of N = 2 Superconformal theories is presented. The structure of the representations of the N = 2 superconformal algebras is investigated and the character formulae are calculated. The general structure of N = 2 superconformal theories is elucidated and the operator algebra of the minimal models is derived. The first minimal system is discussed in more detail. Second, applications of the conformal techniques are studied in the Ashkin-Teller model. The c = 1 as well as the c = 1/2 critical lines are discussed in detail
Borba, Ana; Gómez-Zavaglia, Andrea; Fausto, Rui
2014-10-01
The conformational space of α-phenylglycine (PG) have been investigated theoretically at both the DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) and MP2/6-311++G(d,p) levels of approximation. Seventeen different minima were found on the investigated potential energy surfaces, which are characterized by different dominant intramolecular interactions: type I conformers are stabilized by hydrogen bonds of the type N-H...O=C, type II by a strong O-H...N hydrogen bond, type III by weak N-H...O-H hydrogen bonds, and type IV by a C=O...H-C contact. The calculations indicate also that entropic effects are relevant in determining the equilibrium populations of the conformers of PG in the gas phase, in particular in the case of conformers of type II, where the strong intramolecular O-H...N hydrogen bond considerably diminishes entropy by reducing the conformational mobility of the molecule. In consonance with the relative energies of the conformers and barriers for conformational interconversion, only 3 conformers of PG were observed for the compound isolated in cryogenic Ar, Xe, and N2 matrices: the conformational ground state (ICa), and forms ICc and IITa. All other significantly populated conformers existing in the gas phase prior to deposition convert either to conformer ICa or to conformer ICc during matrix deposition. The experimental observation of ICc had never been achieved hitherto. Narrowband near-IR irradiation of the first overtone of νOH vibrational mode of ICa and ICc in nitrogen matrices (at 6910 and 6930 cm-1, respectively) led to selective generation of two additional conformers of high-energy, ITc and ITa, respectively, which were also observed experimentally for the first time. In addition, these experiments also provided the key information for the detailed vibrational characterization of the 3 conformers initially present in the matrices. On the other hand, UV irradiation (λ = 255 nm) of PG isolated in a xenon matrix revealed that PG undergoes facile photofragmentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borba, Ana; Fausto, Rui; Gómez-Zavaglia, Andrea
2014-01-01
The conformational space of α-phenylglycine (PG) have been investigated theoretically at both the DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) and MP2/6-311++G(d,p) levels of approximation. Seventeen different minima were found on the investigated potential energy surfaces, which are characterized by different dominant intramolecular interactions: type I conformers are stabilized by hydrogen bonds of the type N–H···O=C, type II by a strong O–H···N hydrogen bond, type III by weak N–H···O–H hydrogen bonds, and type IV by a C=O···H–C contact. The calculations indicate also that entropic effects are relevant in determining the equilibrium populations of the conformers of PG in the gas phase, in particular in the case of conformers of type II, where the strong intramolecular O–H···N hydrogen bond considerably diminishes entropy by reducing the conformational mobility of the molecule. In consonance with the relative energies of the conformers and barriers for conformational interconversion, only 3 conformers of PG were observed for the compound isolated in cryogenic Ar, Xe, and N 2 matrices: the conformational ground state (ICa), and forms ICc and IITa. All other significantly populated conformers existing in the gas phase prior to deposition convert either to conformer ICa or to conformer ICc during matrix deposition. The experimental observation of ICc had never been achieved hitherto. Narrowband near-IR irradiation of the first overtone of νOH vibrational mode of ICa and ICc in nitrogen matrices (at 6910 and 6930 cm −1 , respectively) led to selective generation of two additional conformers of high-energy, ITc and ITa, respectively, which were also observed experimentally for the first time. In addition, these experiments also provided the key information for the detailed vibrational characterization of the 3 conformers initially present in the matrices. On the other hand, UV irradiation (λ = 255 nm) of PG isolated in a xenon matrix revealed that PG
Renormalization, conformal ward identities and the origin of a conformal anomaly pole
Corianò, Claudio; Maglio, Matteo Maria
2018-06-01
We investigate the emergence of a conformal anomaly pole in conformal field theories in the case of the TJJ correlator. We show how it comes to be generated in dimensional renormalization, using a basis of 13 form factors (the F-basis), where only one of them requires renormalization (F13), extending previous studies. We then combine recent results on the structure of the non-perturbative solutions of the conformal Ward identities (CWI's) for the TJJ in momentum space, expressed in terms of a minimal set of 4 form factors (A-basis), with the properties of the F-basis, and show how the singular behaviour of the corresponding form factors in both basis can be related. The result proves the centrality of such massless effective interactions induced by the anomaly, which have recently found realization in solid state, in the theory of topological insulators and of Weyl semimetals. This pattern is confirmed in massless abelian and nonabelian theories (QED and QCD) investigated at one-loop.
Qiao, Qin; Zhang, Hou-Dao; Huang, Xuhui
2016-04-01
Simulated tempering (ST) is a widely used enhancing sampling method for Molecular Dynamics simulations. As one expanded ensemble method, ST is a combination of canonical ensembles at different temperatures and the acceptance probability of cross-temperature transitions is determined by both the temperature difference and the weights of each temperature. One popular way to obtain the weights is to adopt the free energy of each canonical ensemble, which achieves uniform sampling among temperature space. However, this uniform distribution in temperature space may not be optimal since high temperatures do not always speed up the conformational transitions of interest, as anti-Arrhenius kinetics are prevalent in protein and RNA folding. Here, we propose a new method: Enhancing Pairwise State-transition Weights (EPSW), to obtain the optimal weights by minimizing the round-trip time for transitions among different metastable states at the temperature of interest in ST. The novelty of the EPSW algorithm lies in explicitly considering the kinetics of conformation transitions when optimizing the weights of different temperatures. We further demonstrate the power of EPSW in three different systems: a simple two-temperature model, a two-dimensional model for protein folding with anti-Arrhenius kinetics, and the alanine dipeptide. The results from these three systems showed that the new algorithm can substantially accelerate the transitions between conformational states of interest in the ST expanded ensemble and further facilitate the convergence of thermodynamics compared to the widely used free energy weights. We anticipate that this algorithm is particularly useful for studying functional conformational changes of biological systems where the initial and final states are often known from structural biology experiments.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qiao, Qin; Zhang, Hou-Dao; Huang, Xuhui
2016-01-01
Simulated tempering (ST) is a widely used enhancing sampling method for Molecular Dynamics simulations. As one expanded ensemble method, ST is a combination of canonical ensembles at different temperatures and the acceptance probability of cross-temperature transitions is determined by both the temperature difference and the weights of each temperature. One popular way to obtain the weights is to adopt the free energy of each canonical ensemble, which achieves uniform sampling among temperature space. However, this uniform distribution in temperature space may not be optimal since high temperatures do not always speed up the conformational transitions of interest, as anti-Arrhenius kinetics are prevalent in protein and RNA folding. Here, we propose a new method: Enhancing Pairwise State-transition Weights (EPSW), to obtain the optimal weights by minimizing the round-trip time for transitions among different metastable states at the temperature of interest in ST. The novelty of the EPSW algorithm lies in explicitly considering the kinetics of conformation transitions when optimizing the weights of different temperatures. We further demonstrate the power of EPSW in three different systems: a simple two-temperature model, a two-dimensional model for protein folding with anti-Arrhenius kinetics, and the alanine dipeptide. The results from these three systems showed that the new algorithm can substantially accelerate the transitions between conformational states of interest in the ST expanded ensemble and further facilitate the convergence of thermodynamics compared to the widely used free energy weights. We anticipate that this algorithm is particularly useful for studying functional conformational changes of biological systems where the initial and final states are often known from structural biology experiments.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qiao, Qin, E-mail: qqiao@ust.hk; Zhang, Hou-Dao [Department of Chemistry, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Huang, Xuhui, E-mail: xuhuihuang@ust.hk [Department of Chemistry, Division of Biomedical Engineering, Center of Systems Biology and Human Health, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); The HKUST Shenzhen Research Institute, Shenzhen (China)
2016-04-21
Simulated tempering (ST) is a widely used enhancing sampling method for Molecular Dynamics simulations. As one expanded ensemble method, ST is a combination of canonical ensembles at different temperatures and the acceptance probability of cross-temperature transitions is determined by both the temperature difference and the weights of each temperature. One popular way to obtain the weights is to adopt the free energy of each canonical ensemble, which achieves uniform sampling among temperature space. However, this uniform distribution in temperature space may not be optimal since high temperatures do not always speed up the conformational transitions of interest, as anti-Arrhenius kinetics are prevalent in protein and RNA folding. Here, we propose a new method: Enhancing Pairwise State-transition Weights (EPSW), to obtain the optimal weights by minimizing the round-trip time for transitions among different metastable states at the temperature of interest in ST. The novelty of the EPSW algorithm lies in explicitly considering the kinetics of conformation transitions when optimizing the weights of different temperatures. We further demonstrate the power of EPSW in three different systems: a simple two-temperature model, a two-dimensional model for protein folding with anti-Arrhenius kinetics, and the alanine dipeptide. The results from these three systems showed that the new algorithm can substantially accelerate the transitions between conformational states of interest in the ST expanded ensemble and further facilitate the convergence of thermodynamics compared to the widely used free energy weights. We anticipate that this algorithm is particularly useful for studying functional conformational changes of biological systems where the initial and final states are often known from structural biology experiments.
Dynamics of the conformal factor in 4D gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antoniadis, I.
1993-01-01
We argue that 4D gravity is drastically modified at distances larger than the horizon scale, due to the large infrared quantum fluctuations of the conformal part of the metric. The infrared dynamics of the conformal factor is generated by an effective action, induced by the trace anomaly of matter in curved space, analogous to the Polyakov action in two dimensions. The resulting effective scalar theory is renormalizable, and possesses a non-trivial, infrared stable fixed point, characterized by an anomalous scaling dimension of the conformal factor. We argue that this theory describes a large distance scale invariant phase of 4D gravity and provides a framework for a dynamical solution of the cosmological constant problem (author). 12 refs
Sampling Realistic Protein Conformations Using Local Structural Bias
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hamelryck, Thomas Wim; Kent, John T.; Krogh, A.
2006-01-01
The prediction of protein structure from sequence remains a major unsolved problem in biology. The most successful protein structure prediction methods make use of a divide-and-conquer strategy to attack the problem: a conformational sampling method generates plausible candidate structures, which...... are subsequently accepted or rejected using an energy function. Conceptually, this often corresponds to separating local structural bias from the long-range interactions that stabilize the compact, native state. However, sampling protein conformations that are compatible with the local structural bias encoded...... in a given protein sequence is a long-standing open problem, especially in continuous space. We describe an elegant and mathematically rigorous method to do this, and show that it readily generates native-like protein conformations simply by enforcing compactness. Our results have far-reaching implications...
Conformal field theory between supersymmetry and indecomposable structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eberle, H.
2006-07-15
This thesis considers conformal field theory in its supersymmetric extension as well as in its relaxation to logarithmic conformal field theory. This thesis is concerned with the subspace of K3 compactifications which is not well known yet. In particular, we inspect the intersection point of the Z{sub 2} and Z{sub 4} orbifold subvarieties within the K3 moduli space, explicitly identify the two corresponding points on the subvarieties geometrically, and give an explicit isomorphism of the three conformal field theory models located at that point, a specific Z{sub 2} and Z{sub 4} orbifold model as well as the Gepner model (2){sup 4}. We also prove the orthogonality of the two subvarieties at the intersection point. This is the starting point for the programme to investigate generic points in K3 moduli space. We use the coordinate identification at the intersection point in order to relate the coordinates of both subvarieties and to explicitly calculate a geometric geodesic between the two subvarieties as well as its generator. A generic point in K3 moduli space can be reached by such a geodesic originating at a known model. We also present advances on the conformal field theoretic side of deformations along such a geodesic using conformal deformation theory. Moreover, we regard a relaxation of conformal field theory to logarithmic conformal field theory. In particular, we study general augmented c{sub p,q} minimal models which generalise the well-known (augmented) c{sub p,1} model series. We calculate logarithmic nullvectors in both types of models. But most importantly, we investigate the low lying Virasoro representation content and fusion algebra of two general augmented c{sub p,q} models, the augmented c{sub 2,3}=0 model as well as the augmented Yang-Lee model at c{sub 2,5}=-22/5. In particular, the true vacuum representation is rather given by a rank 1 indecomposable but not irreducible subrepresentation of a rank 2 representation. We generalise these generic
Conformal field theory between supersymmetry and indecomposable structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eberle, H.
2006-07-01
This thesis considers conformal field theory in its supersymmetric extension as well as in its relaxation to logarithmic conformal field theory. This thesis is concerned with the subspace of K3 compactifications which is not well known yet. In particular, we inspect the intersection point of the Z 2 and Z 4 orbifold subvarieties within the K3 moduli space, explicitly identify the two corresponding points on the subvarieties geometrically, and give an explicit isomorphism of the three conformal field theory models located at that point, a specific Z 2 and Z 4 orbifold model as well as the Gepner model (2) 4 . We also prove the orthogonality of the two subvarieties at the intersection point. This is the starting point for the programme to investigate generic points in K3 moduli space. We use the coordinate identification at the intersection point in order to relate the coordinates of both subvarieties and to explicitly calculate a geometric geodesic between the two subvarieties as well as its generator. A generic point in K3 moduli space can be reached by such a geodesic originating at a known model. We also present advances on the conformal field theoretic side of deformations along such a geodesic using conformal deformation theory. Moreover, we regard a relaxation of conformal field theory to logarithmic conformal field theory. In particular, we study general augmented c p,q minimal models which generalise the well-known (augmented) c p,1 model series. We calculate logarithmic nullvectors in both types of models. But most importantly, we investigate the low lying Virasoro representation content and fusion algebra of two general augmented c p,q models, the augmented c 2,3 =0 model as well as the augmented Yang-Lee model at c 2,5 =-22/5. In particular, the true vacuum representation is rather given by a rank 1 indecomposable but not irreducible subrepresentation of a rank 2 representation. We generalise these generic examples to give the representation content and
Moustafa, Ibrahim M; Gohara, David W; Uchida, Akira; Yennawar, Neela; Cameron, Craig E
2015-11-23
The genomes of RNA viruses are relatively small. To overcome the small-size limitation, RNA viruses assign distinct functions to the processed viral proteins and their precursors. This is exemplified by poliovirus 3CD protein. 3C protein is a protease and RNA-binding protein. 3D protein is an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). 3CD exhibits unique protease and RNA-binding activities relative to 3C and is devoid of RdRp activity. The origin of these differences is unclear, since crystal structure of 3CD revealed "beads-on-a-string" structure with no significant structural differences compared to the fully processed proteins. We performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on 3CD to investigate its conformational dynamics. A compact conformation of 3CD was observed that was substantially different from that shown crystallographically. This new conformation explained the unique properties of 3CD relative to the individual proteins. Interestingly, simulations of mutant 3CD showed altered interface. Additionally, accelerated MD simulations uncovered a conformational ensemble of 3CD. When we elucidated the 3CD conformations in solution using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments a range of conformations from extended to compact was revealed, validating the MD simulations. The existence of conformational ensemble of 3CD could be viewed as a way to expand the poliovirus proteome, an observation that may extend to other viruses.
Spin-4 extended conformal algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kakas, A.C.
1988-01-01
We construct spin-4 extended conformal algebras using the second hamiltonian structure of the KdV hierarchy. In the presence of a U(1) current a family of spin-4 algebras exists but the additional requirement that the spin-1 and spin-4 currents commute fixes the algebra uniquely. (orig.)
Defects in conformal field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Billò, Marco; Gonçalves, Vasco; Lauria, Edoardo; Meineri, Marco
2016-01-01
We discuss consequences of the breaking of conformal symmetry by a flat or spherical extended operator. We adapt the embedding formalism to the study of correlation functions of symmetric traceless tensors in the presence of the defect. Two-point functions of a bulk and a defect primary are fixed by conformal invariance up to a set of OPE coefficients, and we identify the allowed tensor structures. A correlator of two bulk primaries depends on two cross-ratios, and we study its conformal block decomposition in the case of external scalars. The Casimir equation in the defect channel reduces to a hypergeometric equation, while the bulk channel blocks are recursively determined in the light-cone limit. In the special case of a defect of codimension two, we map the Casimir equation in the bulk channel to the one of a four-point function without defect. Finally, we analyze the contact terms of the stress-tensor with the extended operator, and we deduce constraints on the CFT data. In two dimensions, we relate the displacement operator, which appears among the contact terms, to the reflection coefficient of a conformal interface, and we find unitarity bounds for the latter.
Conformal symmetry and holographic cosmology
Bzowski, A.W.
2013-01-01
This thesis presents a novel approach to cosmology using gauge/gravity duality. Analysis of the implications of conformal invariance in field theories leads to quantitative cosmological predictions which are in agreement with current data. Furthermore, holographic cosmology extends the theory of
Checking behavioral conformance of artifacts
Fahland, D.; Leoni, de M.; Dongen, van B.F.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.
2011-01-01
The usefulness of process models (e.g., for analysis, improvement, or execution) strongly depends on their ability to describe reality. Conformance checking is a technique to validate how good a given process model describes recorded executions of the actual process. Recently, artifacts have been
Conformation analysis of oligomeric flavanoids
Jan P. Steynberg; E. Vincent Brandt; Daneel Ferreira; Carin A. Helfer; Wayne L. Mattice; Dominika Gornik; Richard W. Hemingway
1995-01-01
The profisetinidins are the most important polyflavanoids of commerce, making up the major constituents of wattle and quebracho tannins. Within the dimeric profisetinidins, substantial complexity exists because of stereo-, regio, rotational and conformational isomers. Definition of the stereochemistry of the upper and lower flavan units, the location of the...
Conformational analysis of oligomeric flavanoids
Jan P. Steynberg; E. Vincent Brandt; Daneel Ferreira; Carin A. Helfer; Wayne L. Mattice; Dominika Gornik; Richard W. Hemingway
1995-01-01
The profisetinidins are the most important polyflavanoids of commerce, making up the major constituents of wattle and quebracho tannins. Even within the dimeric profisetinidins, substantial complexity exists because of stereo-, regio-, rotational and conformational isomers. Definition of the stereochemistry of the upper and lower flavan units, the location of the...
Defects in conformal field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Billò, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - sezione di Torino,Via P. Giuria 1 I-10125 Torino (Italy); Gonçalves, Vasco [Centro de Física do Porto,Departamento de Física e Astronomia Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); ICTP South American Institute for Fundamental Research Instituto de Física Teórica,UNESP - University Estadual Paulista,Rua Dr. Bento T. Ferraz 271, 01140-070, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lauria, Edoardo [Institute for Theoretical Physics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Meineri, Marco [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Scuola Normale Superiore, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - sezione di Pisa,Piazza dei Cavalieri 7 I-56126 Pisa (Italy)
2016-04-15
We discuss consequences of the breaking of conformal symmetry by a flat or spherical extended operator. We adapt the embedding formalism to the study of correlation functions of symmetric traceless tensors in the presence of the defect. Two-point functions of a bulk and a defect primary are fixed by conformal invariance up to a set of OPE coefficients, and we identify the allowed tensor structures. A correlator of two bulk primaries depends on two cross-ratios, and we study its conformal block decomposition in the case of external scalars. The Casimir equation in the defect channel reduces to a hypergeometric equation, while the bulk channel blocks are recursively determined in the light-cone limit. In the special case of a defect of codimension two, we map the Casimir equation in the bulk channel to the one of a four-point function without defect. Finally, we analyze the contact terms of the stress-tensor with the extended operator, and we deduce constraints on the CFT data. In two dimensions, we relate the displacement operator, which appears among the contact terms, to the reflection coefficient of a conformal interface, and we find unitarity bounds for the latter.
Conformal symmetry and string theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, A.
1987-01-01
This thesis is devoted to the study of various aspects of the 2-dimensional conformal field theory and its applications to strings. We make a short review of the conformal field theory and its supersymmetric extension, called superconformal field theory. We present an elegant superspace formulation of these theories and solve the condition for the closure of the superconformal algebra. The we go on to classify the superconformal field theories according to these solutions. We prove that N ≥ 5 superconformal algebra, with N being the number of supersymmetries, does not have central charge. We find the primary representations of all the interesting superconformal algebra. We study the quantization of the superconformal theories and derive the constraints on the central charge of the algebra that has to be satisfied for a consistent quantum theory. This quantization process also determines the ground state energy of the system and the spectrum of the model. We study the global aspects of the conformal symmetry and its role in the construction of consistent heterotic string theories. We prove the uniqueness of heterotic superstring theories in 10 dimensions in the fermionic constructions. We show how the vertex operators are closely associated with the primary field representation of the conformal algebra. We utilize these vertex operator constructions to obtain tree amplitudes in the 10-dimensional heterotic string theory. We show by explicit calculation at the 3-point level that the scattering amplitudes derived from the heterotic superstring are same as the ones obtained from 10-dimensional supergravity theories
Exceptional and Spinorial Conformal Windows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mojaza, Matin; Pica, Claudio; Ryttov, Thomas
2012-01-01
We study the conformal window of gauge theories containing fermionic matter fields, where the gauge group is any of the exceptional groups with the fermions transforming according to the fundamental and adjoint representations and the orthogonal groups where the fermions transform according...
Anomalous Dimensions of Conformal Baryons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco
2016-01-01
We determine the anomalous dimensions of baryon operators for the three color theory as function of the number of massless flavours within the conformal window to the maximum known order in perturbation theory. We show that the anomalous dimension of the baryon is controllably small, within...
Regulatory effects of cotranscriptional RNA structure formation and transitions.
Liu, Sheng-Rui; Hu, Chun-Gen; Zhang, Jin-Zhi
2016-09-01
RNAs, which play significant roles in many fundamental biological processes of life, fold into sophisticated and precise structures. RNA folding is a dynamic and intricate process, which conformation transition of coding and noncoding RNAs form the primary elements of genetic regulation. The cellular environment contains various intrinsic and extrinsic factors that potentially affect RNA folding in vivo, and experimental and theoretical evidence increasingly indicates that the highly flexible features of the RNA structure are affected by these factors, which include the flanking sequence context, physiochemical conditions, cis RNA-RNA interactions, and RNA interactions with other molecules. Furthermore, distinct RNA structures have been identified that govern almost all steps of biological processes in cells, including transcriptional activation and termination, transcriptional mutagenesis, 5'-capping, splicing, 3'-polyadenylation, mRNA export and localization, and translation. Here, we briefly summarize the dynamic and complex features of RNA folding along with a wide variety of intrinsic and extrinsic factors that affect RNA folding. We then provide several examples to elaborate RNA structure-mediated regulation at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Finally, we illustrate the regulatory roles of RNA structure and discuss advances pertaining to RNA structure in plants. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:562-574. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1350 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Spontaneous reverse movement of mRNA-bound tRNA through the ribosome.
Konevega, Andrey L; Fischer, Niels; Semenkov, Yuri P; Stark, Holger; Wintermeyer, Wolfgang; Rodnina, Marina V
2007-04-01
During the translocation step of protein synthesis, a complex of two transfer RNAs bound to messenger RNA (tRNA-mRNA) moves through the ribosome. The reaction is promoted by an elongation factor, called EF-G in bacteria, which, powered by GTP hydrolysis, induces an open, unlocked conformation of the ribosome that allows for spontaneous tRNA-mRNA movement. Here we show that, in the absence of EF-G, there is spontaneous backward movement, or retrotranslocation, of two tRNAs bound to mRNA. Retrotranslocation is driven by the gain in affinity when a cognate E-site tRNA moves into the P site, which compensates the affinity loss accompanying the movement of peptidyl-tRNA from the P to the A site. These results lend support to the diffusion model of tRNA movement during translocation. In the cell, tRNA movement is biased in the forward direction by EF-G, which acts as a Brownian ratchet and prevents backward movement.
A Method to Predict the Structure and Stability of RNA/RNA Complexes.
Xu, Xiaojun; Chen, Shi-Jie
2016-01-01
RNA/RNA interactions are essential for genomic RNA dimerization and regulation of gene expression. Intermolecular loop-loop base pairing is a widespread and functionally important tertiary structure motif in RNA machinery. However, computational prediction of intermolecular loop-loop base pairing is challenged by the entropy and free energy calculation due to the conformational constraint and the intermolecular interactions. In this chapter, we describe a recently developed statistical mechanics-based method for the prediction of RNA/RNA complex structures and stabilities. The method is based on the virtual bond RNA folding model (Vfold). The main emphasis in the method is placed on the evaluation of the entropy and free energy for the loops, especially tertiary kissing loops. The method also uses recursive partition function calculations and two-step screening algorithm for large, complicated structures of RNA/RNA complexes. As case studies, we use the HIV-1 Mal dimer and the siRNA/HIV-1 mutant (T4) to illustrate the method.
MysiRNA-designer: a workflow for efficient siRNA design.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohamed Mysara
Full Text Available The design of small interfering RNA (siRNA is a multi factorial problem that has gained the attention of many researchers in the area of therapeutic and functional genomics. MysiRNA score was previously introduced that improves the correlation of siRNA activity prediction considering state of the art algorithms. In this paper, a new program, MysiRNA-Designer, is described which integrates several factors in an automated work-flow considering mRNA transcripts variations, siRNA and mRNA target accessibility, and both near-perfect and partial off-target matches. It also features the MysiRNA score, a highly ranked correlated siRNA efficacy prediction score for ranking the designed siRNAs, in addition to top scoring models Biopredsi, DISR, Thermocomposition21 and i-Score, and integrates them in a unique siRNA score-filtration technique. This multi-score filtration layer filters siRNA that passes the 90% thresholds calculated from experimental dataset features. MysiRNA-Designer takes an accession, finds conserved regions among its transcript space, finds accessible regions within the mRNA, designs all possible siRNAs for these regions, filters them based on multi-scores thresholds, and then performs SNP and off-target filtration. These strict selection criteria were tested against human genes in which at least one active siRNA was designed from 95.7% of total genes. In addition, when tested against an experimental dataset, MysiRNA-Designer was found capable of rejecting 98% of the false positive siRNAs, showing superiority over three state of the art siRNA design programs. MysiRNA is a freely accessible (Microsoft Windows based desktop application that can be used to design siRNA with a high accuracy and specificity. We believe that MysiRNA-Designer has the potential to play an important role in this area.
Duality and modular invariance in rational conformal field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Miao.
1990-03-01
We investigate the polynomial equations which should be satisfied by the duality data for a rational conformal field theory. We show that by these duality data we can construct some vector spaces which are isomorphic to the spaces of conformal blocks. One can construct explicitly the inner product for the former if one deals with a unitary theory. These vector spaces endowed with an inner product are the algebraic reminiscences of the Hilbert spaces in a Chern-Simons theory. As by-products, we show that the polynomial equations involving the modular transformations for the one-point blocks on the torus are not independent. And along the way, we discuss the reconstruction of the quantum group in a rational conformal theory. Finally, we discuss the solution of structure constants for a physical theory. Making some assumption, we obtain a neat solution. And this solution in turn implies that the quantum groups of the left sector and of the right sector must be the same, although the chiral algebras need not to be the same. Some examples are given. (orig.)
Conformal Invariance, Dark Energy, and CMB Non-Gaussianity
Antoniadis, Ignatios; Mottola, Emil
2012-01-01
We show that in addition to simple scale invariance, a universe dominated by dark energy naturally gives rise to correlation functions possessing full conformal invariance. This is due to the mathematical isomorphism between the conformal group of certain three dimensional slices of de Sitter space and the de Sitter isometry group SO(4,1). In the standard homogeneous, isotropic cosmological model in which primordial density perturbations are generated during a long vacuum energy dominated de Sitter phase, the embedding of flat spatial R^3 sections in de Sitter space induces a conformal invariant perturbation spectrum and definite prediction for the shape of the non-Gaussian CMB bispectrum. In the case in which the density fluctuations are generated instead on the de Sitter horizon, conformal invariance of the S^2 horizon embedding implies a different but also quite definite prediction for the angular correlations of CMB non-Gaussianity on the sky. Each of these forms for the bispectrum is intrinsic to the sym...
Atomistic details of the molecular recognition of DNA-RNA hybrid ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
conformations corresponding to typical A- and B-type nucleic acids and the .... protein chains and five base pairs in DNA-RNA hybrid ... employed to treat the long range electrostatic interac- .... The solvent accessible surface areas (SASA) of.
Free-energy landscape of a hyperstable RNA tetraloop.
Miner, Jacob C; Chen, Alan A; García, Angel E
2016-06-14
We report the characterization of the energy landscape and the folding/unfolding thermodynamics of a hyperstable RNA tetraloop obtained through high-performance molecular dynamics simulations at microsecond timescales. Sampling of the configurational landscape is conducted using temperature replica exchange molecular dynamics over three isochores at high, ambient, and negative pressures to determine the thermodynamic stability and the free-energy landscape of the tetraloop. The simulations reveal reversible folding/unfolding transitions of the tetraloop into the canonical A-RNA conformation and the presence of two alternative configurations, including a left-handed Z-RNA conformation and a compact purine Triplet. Increasing hydrostatic pressure shows a stabilizing effect on the A-RNA conformation and a destabilization of the left-handed Z-RNA. Our results provide a comprehensive description of the folded free-energy landscape of a hyperstable RNA tetraloop and highlight the significant advances of all-atom molecular dynamics in describing the unbiased folding of a simple RNA secondary structure motif.
Conformal and Nearly Conformal Theories at Large N
Tarnoplskiy, Grigory M.
In this thesis we present new results in conformal and nearly conformal field theories in various dimensions. In chapter two, we study different properties of the conformal Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) in continuous dimension d. At first we study conformal QED using large Nf methods, where Nf is the number of massless fermions. We compute its sphere free energy as a function of d, ignoring the terms of order 1/Nf and higher. For finite Nf we use the epsilon-expansion. Next we use a large Nf diagrammatic approach to calculate the leading corrections to CT, the coefficient of the two-point function of the stress-energy tensor, and CJ, the coefficient of the two-point function of the global symmetry current. We present explicit formulae as a function of d and check them versus the expectations in 2 and 4 - epsilon dimensions. In chapter three, we discuss vacuum stability in 1 + 1 dimensional conformal field theories with external background fields. We show that the vacuum decay rate is given by a non-local two-form. This two-form is a boundary term that must be added to the effective in/out Lagrangian. The two-form is expressed in terms of a Riemann-Hilbert decomposition for background gauge fields, and is given by its novel "functional'' version in the gravitational case. In chapter four, we explore Tensor models. Such models possess the large N limit dominated by the melon diagrams. The quantum mechanics of a real anti-commuting rank-3 tensor has a large N limit similar to the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev (SYK) model. We also discuss the quantum mechanics of a complex 3-index anti-commuting tensor and argue that it is equivalent in the large N limit to a version of SYK model with complex fermions. Finally, we discuss models of a commuting tensor in dimension d. We study the spectrum of the large N quantum field theory of bosonic rank-3 tensors using the Schwinger-Dyson equations. We compare some of these results with the 4 - epsilon expansion, finding perfect agreement. We
Conformal invariance in the quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurak, V.
1975-09-01
Basic features concerning the present knowledge of conformal symmetry are illustrated in a simple model. Composite field dimensions of this model are computed and related to the conformal group. (author) [pt
The extensions of space-time. Physics in the 8-dimensional homogeneous space D = SU(2,2)/K
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barut, A.O.
1993-07-01
The Minkowski space-time is only a boundary of a bigger homogeneous space of the conformal group. The conformal group is the symmetry group of our most fundamental massless wave equations. These extended groups and spaces have many remarkable properties and physical implications. (author). 36 refs
Supersymmetric gauge theories, quantization of Mflat, and conformal field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Teschner, J.; Vartanov, G.S.
2013-02-01
We propose a derivation of the correspondence between certain gauge theories with N=2 supersymmetry and conformal field theory discovered by Alday, Gaiotto and Tachikawa in the spirit of Seiberg-Witten theory. Based on certain results from the literature we argue that the quantum theory of the moduli spaces of flat SL(2,R)-connections represents a nonperturbative ''skeleton'' of the gauge theory, protected by supersymmetry. It follows that instanton partition functions can be characterized as solutions to a Riemann-Hilbert type problem. In order to solve it, we describe the quantization of the moduli spaces of flat connections explicitly in terms of two natural sets of Darboux coordinates. The kernel describing the relation between the two pictures represents the solution to the Riemann Hilbert problem, and is naturally identified with the Liouville conformal blocks.
Moduli of families of curves for conformal and quasiconformal mappings
Vasil’ev, Alexander
2002-01-01
The monograph is concerned with the modulus of families of curves on Riemann surfaces and its applications to extremal problems for conformal, quasiconformal mappings, and the extension of the modulus onto Teichmüller spaces. The main part of the monograph deals with extremal problems for compact classes of univalent conformal and quasiconformal mappings. Many of them are grouped around two-point distortion theorems. Montel's functions and functions with fixed angular derivatives are also considered. The last portion of problems is directed to the extension of the modulus varying the complex structure of the underlying Riemann surface that sheds some new light on the metric problems of Teichmüller spaces.
DNA conformational analysis in solution by uranyl mediated photocleavage
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Peter E.; Møllegaard, N E; Jeppesen, C
1990-01-01
Uranyl mediated photocleavage of double stranded DNA is proposed as a general probing for DNA helix conformation in terms of minor groove width/electronegative potential. Specifically, it is found that A/T-tracts known to constitute strong distamycin binding sites are preferentially photocleaved ......, uranyl photocleavage of the internal control region (ICR) of the 5S-RNA gene yields a cleavage modulation pattern fully compatible with that obtained by DNase I which also--in a more complex way--senses DNA minor groove width....
The Conformational Behaviour of Glucosamine
Peña, Isabel; Kolesniková, Lucie; Cabezas, Carlos; Bermúdez, Celina; Berdakin, Matías; Simao, Alcides; Alonso, José L.
2014-06-01
A laser ablation method has been successfully used to vaporize the bioactive amino monosaccharide D-glucosamine. Three cyclic α-4C1 pyranose forms have been identified using a combination of CP-FTMW and LA-MB-FTMW spectroscopy. Stereoelectronic hyperconjugative factors, like those associated with anomeric or gauche effects, as well as the cooperative OH\\cdotsO, OH\\cdotsN and NH\\cdotsO chains, extended along the entire molecule, are the main factors driving the conformational behavior. All observed conformers exhibit a counter-clockwise arrangement (cc) of the network of intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The results are compared with those recently obtained for D-glucose. J. L. Alonso, M. A. Lozoya, I. Peña, J. C. López, C. Cabezas, S. Mata, S. Blanco, Chem. Sci. 2014, 5, 515.
Conformal methods in general relativity
Valiente Kroon, Juan A
2016-01-01
This book offers a systematic exposition of conformal methods and how they can be used to study the global properties of solutions to the equations of Einstein's theory of gravity. It shows that combining these ideas with differential geometry can elucidate the existence and stability of the basic solutions of the theory. Introducing the differential geometric, spinorial and PDE background required to gain a deep understanding of conformal methods, this text provides an accessible account of key results in mathematical relativity over the last thirty years, including the stability of de Sitter and Minkowski spacetimes. For graduate students and researchers, this self-contained account includes useful visual models to help the reader grasp abstract concepts and a list of further reading, making this the perfect reference companion on the topic.
Gel dosimetry for conformal radiotherapy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gambarini, G [Department of Physics of the University and INFN, Milan (Italy)
2005-07-01
With the continuum development of conformal radio therapies, aimed at delivering high dose to tumor tissue and low dose to the healthy tissue around, the necessities has appeared of suitable improvement of dosimetry techniques giving the possibility of obtaining dose images to be compared with diagnostic images. Also if wide software has been developed for calculating dose distributions in the fields of various radiotherapy units, experimental verifications are necessary, in particular in the case of complex geometries in conformal radiotherapy. Gel dosimetry is a promising method for imaging the absorbed dose in tissue-equivalent phantoms, with the possibility of 3D reconstruction of the spatial dose distribution, with milli metric resolution. Optical imaging of gel dosimeters, based on visible light absorbance analysis, has shown to be a reliable technique for achieving dose distributions. (Author)
Conformal FDTD modeling wake fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jurgens, T.; Harfoush, F.
1991-05-01
Many computer codes have been written to model wake fields. Here we describe the use of the Conformal Finite Difference Time Domain (CFDTD) method to model the wake fields generated by a rigid beam traveling through various accelerating structures. The non- cylindrical symmetry of some of the problems considered here requires the use of a three dimensional code. In traditional FDTD codes, curved surfaces are approximated by rectangular steps. The errors introduced in wake field calculations by such an approximation can be reduced by increasing the mesh size, therefore increasing the cost of computing. Another approach, validated here, deforms Ampere and Faraday contours near a media interface so as to conform to the interface. These improvements of the FDTD method result in better accuracy of the fields at asymptotically no computational cost. This method is also capable of modeling thin wires as found in beam profile monitors, and slots and cracks as found in resistive wall motions. 4 refs., 5 figs.
Conformal field theories and critical phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Bowei
1993-01-01
In this article we present a brief review of the conformal symmetry and the two dimensional conformal quantum field theories. As concrete applications of the conformal theories to the critical phenomena in statistical systems, we calculate the value of central charge and the anomalous scale dimensions of the Z 2 symmetric quantum chain with boundary condition. The results are compatible with the prediction of the conformal field theories
Generative Models of Conformational Dynamics
Langmead, Christopher James
2014-01-01
Atomistic simulations of the conformational dynamics of proteins can be performed using either Molecular Dynamics or Monte Carlo procedures. The ensembles of three-dimensional structures produced during simulation can be analyzed in a number of ways to elucidate the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the system. The goal of this chapter is to review both traditional and emerging methods for learning generative models from atomistic simulation data. Here, the term ‘generative’ refers to a...
Holographic multiverse and conformal invariance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garriga, Jaume [Departament de Física Fonamental i Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Vilenkin, Alexander, E-mail: jaume.garriga@ub.edu, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, 212 College Ave., Medford, MA 02155 (United States)
2009-11-01
We consider a holographic description of the inflationary multiverse, according to which the wave function of the universe is interpreted as the generating functional for a lower dimensional Euclidean theory. We analyze a simple model where transitions between inflationary vacua occur through bubble nucleation, and the inflating part of spacetime consists of de Sitter regions separated by thin bubble walls. In this model, we present some evidence that the dual theory is conformally invariant in the UV.
Holographic multiverse and conformal invariance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander
2009-01-01
We consider a holographic description of the inflationary multiverse, according to which the wave function of the universe is interpreted as the generating functional for a lower dimensional Euclidean theory. We analyze a simple model where transitions between inflationary vacua occur through bubble nucleation, and the inflating part of spacetime consists of de Sitter regions separated by thin bubble walls. In this model, we present some evidence that the dual theory is conformally invariant in the UV
Integrability of conformal fishnet theory
Gromov, Nikolay; Kazakov, Vladimir; Korchemsky, Gregory; Negro, Stefano; Sizov, Grigory
2018-01-01
We study integrability of fishnet-type Feynman graphs arising in planar four-dimensional bi-scalar chiral theory recently proposed in arXiv:1512.06704 as a special double scaling limit of gamma-deformed N = 4 SYM theory. We show that the transfer matrix "building" the fishnet graphs emerges from the R-matrix of non-compact conformal SU(2 , 2) Heisenberg spin chain with spins belonging to principal series representations of the four-dimensional conformal group. We demonstrate explicitly a relationship between this integrable spin chain and the Quantum Spectral Curve (QSC) of N = 4 SYM. Using QSC and spin chain methods, we construct Baxter equation for Q-functions of the conformal spin chain needed for computation of the anomalous dimensions of operators of the type tr( ϕ 1 J ) where ϕ 1 is one of the two scalars of the theory. For J = 3 we derive from QSC a quantization condition that fixes the relevant solution of Baxter equation. The scaling dimensions of the operators only receive contributions from wheel-like graphs. We develop integrability techniques to compute the divergent part of these graphs and use it to present the weak coupling expansion of dimensions to very high orders. Then we apply our exact equations to calculate the anomalous dimensions with J = 3 to practically unlimited precision at any coupling. These equations also describe an infinite tower of local conformal operators all carrying the same charge J = 3. The method should be applicable for any J and, in principle, to any local operators of bi-scalar theory. We show that at strong coupling the scaling dimensions can be derived from semiclassical quantization of finite gap solutions describing an integrable system of noncompact SU(2 , 2) spins. This bears similarities with the classical strings arising in the strongly coupled limit of N = 4 SYM.
Twistors and four-dimensional conformal field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singer, M.A.
1990-01-01
This is a report (with technical details omitted) on work concerned with generalizations to four dimensions of two-dimensional Conformed Field Theory. Accounts of this and related material are contained elsewhere. The Hilbert space of the four-dimensional theory has a natural interpretation in terms of massless spinor fields on real Minkowski space. From the twistor point of view this follows from the boundary CR-manifold P being precisely the space of light rays in real compactified Minkowski space. All the amplitudes can therefore be regarded as defined on Hilbert spaces built from Lorentzian spinor fields. Thus the twistor picture provides a kind of halfway house between the Lorentzian and Euclidean field theories. (author)
Objective interpretation as conforming interpretation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lidka Rodak
2011-12-01
Full Text Available The practical discourse willingly uses the formula of “objective interpretation”, with no regards to its controversial nature that has been discussed in literature.The main aim of the article is to investigate what “objective interpretation” could mean and how it could be understood in the practical discourse, focusing on the understanding offered by judicature.The thesis of the article is that objective interpretation, as identified with textualists’ position, is not possible to uphold, and should be rather linked with conforming interpretation. And what this actually implies is that it is not the virtue of certainty and predictability – which are usually associated with objectivity- but coherence that makes the foundation of applicability of objectivity in law.What could be observed from the analyses, is that both the phenomenon of conforming interpretation and objective interpretation play the role of arguments in the interpretive discourse, arguments that provide justification that interpretation is not arbitrary or subjective. With regards to the important part of the ideology of legal application which is the conviction that decisions should be taken on the basis of law in order to exclude arbitrariness, objective interpretation could be read as a question “what kind of authority “supports” certain interpretation”? that is almost never free of judicial creativity and judicial activism.One can say that, objective and conforming interpretation are just another arguments used in legal discourse.
Conformational kinetics of aliphatic tails
Ferrarini, Alberta; Moro, Giorgio; Nordio, Pier Luigi
The master equation describing the random walk between sites identified with the stable conformers of a chain molecule, represents the extension to the time domain of the Rotational Isomeric State model. The asymptotic analysis of the multidimensional diffusion equation in the continuous torsional variables subjected to the configurational potential, provides a rigorous justification for the discrete models, and it supplies, without resorting to phenomenological parameters, molecular definitions of the kinetic rates for the conformational transitions occurring at each segment of the chain. The coupling between the torsional variables is fully taken into account, giving rise to cooperative effects. A complete calculation of the specific correlation functions which describe the time evolution of the angular functions probed by N.M.R. and dielectric relaxation measurements, has been performed for alkyl chains attached to a massive core. The resulting behaviour has been compared with the decay of trans and gauche populations of specific bonds, expressed in terms of suitable correlation functions whose time integrals lead quite naturally to the definition of effective kinetic constants for the conformational transitions.
Electrophysiological precursors of social conformity
Rieskamp, Jörg; Tugin, Sergey; Ossadtchi, Alexey; Krutitskaya, Janina; Klucharev, Vasily
2013-01-01
Humans often change their beliefs or behavior due to the behavior or opinions of others. This study explored, with the use of human event-related potentials (ERPs), whether social conformity is based on a general performance-monitoring mechanism. We tested the hypothesis that conflicts with a normative group opinion evoke a feedback-related negativity (FRN) often associated with performance monitoring and subsequent adjustment of behavior. The experimental results show that individual judgments of facial attractiveness were adjusted in line with a normative group opinion. A mismatch between individual and group opinions triggered a frontocentral negative deflection with the maximum at 200 ms, similar to FRN. Overall, a conflict with a normative group opinion triggered a cascade of neuronal responses: from an earlier FRN response reflecting a conflict with the normative opinion to a later ERP component (peaking at 380 ms) reflecting a conforming behavioral adjustment. These results add to the growing literature on neuronal mechanisms of social influence by disentangling the conflict-monitoring signal in response to the perceived violation of social norms and the neural signal of a conforming behavioral adjustment. PMID:22683703
Irreducible integrable theories form tensor products of conformal models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mathur, S.D.; Warner, N.P.
1991-01-01
By using Toda field theories we show that there are perturbations of direct products of conformal theories that lead to irreducible integrable field theories. The same affine Toda theory can be truncated to different quantum integrable models for different choices of the charge at infinity and the coupling. The classification of integrable models that can be obtained in this fashion follows the classification of symmetric spaces of type G/H with rank H = rank G. (orig.)
CONFORMITY IN CHRIST 1. THE TRANSFORMATION PROCESS
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This essay investigates the notion of conformity in Christ as it is part of a compre- hensive, multilayered process of transformation. In the first part it focuses on the process of transformation in creation, re-creation, conformity, love and glory. In the second part it discusses transformation in Christ by looking at conformation and ...
40 CFR 52.938 - General conformity.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General conformity. 52.938 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.938 General conformity. The General Conformity regulations were submitted on November 10, 1995, and adopted into the Kentucky State...
40 CFR 51.854 - Conformity analysis.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conformity analysis. 51.854 Section 51... FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Determining Conformity of General Federal Actions to State or Federal Implementation Plans § 51.854 Conformity analysis. Link to an...
40 CFR 52.2133 - General conformity.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General conformity. 52.2133 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) South Carolina § 52.2133 General conformity. The General Conformity regulations adopted into the South Carolina State Implementation Plan which...
Conformity in Christ | Waaijman | Acta Theologica
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This essay investigates the notion of conformity in Christ as it is part of a comprehensive, multilayered process of transformation. In the first part it focuses on the process of transformation in creation, re-creation, conformity, love and glory. In the second part it discusses transformation in Christ by looking at conformation and ...
Locked nucleic acid (LNA): High affinity targeting of RNA for diagnostics and therapeutics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kauppinen, S.; Vester, Birte; Wengel, Jesper
2005-01-01
Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a nucleic acid analogue containing one or more LNA nucleotide monomers with a bicyclic furanose unit locked in an RNA mimicking sugar conformation. This conformational restriction results in unprecedented hybridization affinity towards complementary single stranded RN...
Conformal cryogenic tank trade study for reusable launch vehicles
Rivers, H. Kevin
1999-01-01
Future reusable launch vehicles may be lifting bodies with non-circular cross section like the proposed Lockheed-Martin VentureStar™. Current designs for the cryogenic tanks of these vehicles are dual-lobed and quad-lobed tanks which are packaged more efficiently than circular tanks, but still have low packaging efficiencies with large gaps existing between the vehicle outer mold line and the outer surfaces of the tanks. In this study, tanks that conform to the outer mold line of a non-circular vehicle were investigated. Four structural concepts for conformal cryogenic tanks and a quad-lobed tank concept were optimized for minimum weight designs. The conformal tank concepts included a sandwich tank stiffened with axial tension webs, a sandwich tank stiffened with transverse tension webs, a sandwich tank stiffened with rings and tension ties, and a sandwich tank stiffened with orthogrid stiffeners and tension ties. For each concept, geometric parameters (such as ring frame spacing, the number and spacing of tension ties or webs, and tank corner radius) and internal pressure loads were varied and the structure was optimized using a finite-element-based optimization procedure. Theoretical volumetric weights were calculated by dividing the weight of the barrel section of the tank concept and its associated frames, webs and tension ties by the volume it circumscribes. This paper describes the four conformal tank concepts and the design assumptions utilized in their optimization. The conformal tank optimization results included theoretical weights, trends and comparisons between the concepts, are also presented, along with results from the optimization of a quad-lobed tank. Also, the effects of minimum gauge values and non-optimum weights on the weight of the optimized structure are described in this paper.
Twisted conformal field theories and Morita equivalence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marotta, Vincenzo [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' and INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Compl. universitario M. Sant' Angelo, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Naddeo, Adele [CNISM, Unita di Ricerca di Salerno and Dipartimento di Fisica ' E.R. Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Salvador Allende, 84081 Baronissi (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Compl. universitario M. Sant' Angelo, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy)], E-mail: adelenaddeo@yahoo.it
2009-04-01
The Morita equivalence for field theories on noncommutative two-tori is analysed in detail for rational values of the noncommutativity parameter {theta} (in appropriate units): an isomorphism is established between an Abelian noncommutative field theory (NCFT) and a non-Abelian theory of twisted fields on ordinary space. We focus on a particular conformal field theory (CFT), the one obtained by means of the m-reduction procedure [V. Marotta, J. Phys. A 26 (1993) 3481; V. Marotta, Mod. Phys. Lett. A 13 (1998) 853; V. Marotta, Nucl. Phys. B 527 (1998) 717; V. Marotta, A. Sciarrino, Mod. Phys. Lett. A 13 (1998) 2863], and show that it is the Morita equivalent of a NCFT. Finally, the whole m-reduction procedure is shown to be the image in the ordinary space of the Morita duality. An application to the physics of a quantum Hall fluid at Jain fillings {nu}=m/(2pm+1) is explicitly discussed in order to further elucidate such a correspondence and to clarify its role in the physics of strongly correlated systems. A new picture emerges, which is very different from the existing relationships between noncommutativity and many body systems [A.P. Polychronakos, arXiv: 0706.1095].
Bosonic Liouville string theory in conformal gauge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schnittger, J.
1990-01-01
The object of the present thesis are the so-called Liouville theories as possibilities for the consistent formulation of string theories beyond the critical dimension. First we discuss the general framework for the quantum theory and explain common properties and differences of different approaches. These considerations lead us to the main demand of the thesis, the formulation of a unified quantum theory for open and closed strings. Of central importance is thereby the construction of the field operator for the Weyl degree of freedom on a suitably defined Hilbert space, so that also in the quantum theory locality and Hermiticity of the Energy-Momentum tensor are respected. In the study of the allowed ground states of the Hilbert space an interesting particularity in comparison to the structure of usual conformal field theories comes across, the importance and consequences of which we intensively study. In the last section we enter the consistence of the theory on the 1-loop level and come then to the final consideration, where we indicate some still open questions of the Liouville theory. (orig.) [de
w∞ algebras, conformal mechanics and black holes
Cacciatori, Sergio; Klemm, Dietmar; Zanon, Daniela
2000-04-01
We discuss BPS solitons in gauged icons/Journals/Common/calN" ALT="calN" ALIGN="TOP"/> = 2, D = 4 supergravity. The solitons represent extremal black holes interpolating between different vacua of anti-de Sitter spaces. The isometry superalgebras are determined and the motion of a superparticle in the extremal black hole background is studied and confronted with superconformal mechanics. We show that the Virasoro symmetry of conformal mechanics, which describes the dynamics of the superparticle near the horizon of the extremal black hole under consideration, extends to a symmetry under the wicons/Journals/Common/infty" ALT="infty" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> algebra of area-preserving diffeomorphisms. We find that a Virasoro subalgebra of wicons/Journals/Common/infty" ALT="infty" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> can be associated with the Virasoro algebra of the asymptotic symmetries of AdS 2 . In this way spacetime diffeomorphisms of AdS 2 translate into diffeomorphisms in phase space: our system offers an explicit realization of the AdS 2 /CFT 1 correspondence. Using the dimensionally reduced action, the central charge is computed. Finally, we also present generalizations of superconformal mechanics which are invariant under icons/Journals/Common/calN" ALT="calN" ALIGN="TOP"/> = 1 and icons/Journals/Common/calN" ALT="calN" ALIGN="TOP"/> = 2 superextensions of wicons/Journals/Common/infty" ALT="infty" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> .
Conformal symmetry inheritance in null fluid spacetimes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tupper, B O J; Keane, A J; Hall, G S; Coley, A A; Carot, J
2003-01-01
We define inheriting conformal Killing vectors for null fluid spacetimes and find the maximum dimension of the associated inheriting Lie algebra. We show that for non-conformally flat null fluid spacetimes, the maximum dimension of the inheriting algebra is seven and for conformally flat null fluid spacetimes the maximum dimension is eight. In addition, it is shown that there are two distinct classes of non-conformally flat generalized plane wave spacetimes which possess the maximum dimension, and one class in the conformally flat case
Quantum Hamiltonian reduction and conformal field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bershadsky, M.
1991-01-01
It is proved that irreducible representation of the Virasoro algebra can be extracted from an irreducible representation space of the SL (2, R) current algebra by putting a constraint on the latter using the BRST formalism. Thus there is a SL(2, R) symmetry in the Virasoro algebra which is gauged and hidden. This construction of the Virasoro algebra is the quantum analog of the Hamiltonian reduction. The author then naturally leads to consider an SL(2, R) Wess-Zumino-Witten model. This system is related to the quantum field theory of the coadjoint orbit of the Virasoro group. Based on this result he presents the canonical derivation of the SL(2, R) current algebra in Polyakov's theory of two dimensional gravity; it is manifestation of the SL(2, R) symmetry in the conformal field theory hidden by the quantum Hamiltonian reduction. He discusses the quantum Hamiltonian reduction of the SL(n, R) current algebra for the general type of constraints labeled by index 1 ≤ l ≤ (n - 1) and claim that it leads to the new extended conformal algebras W n l . For l = 1 he recovers the well known W n algebra introduced by A. Zamolodchikov. For SL(3, R) Wess-Zumino-Witten model there are two different possibilities of constraining it. The first possibility gives the W 3 algebra, while the second leads to the new chiral algebra W 3 2 generated by the stress-energy tensor, two bosonic supercurrents with spins 3/2 and the U(1) current. He conjectures a Kac formula that describes the highly reducible representation for this algebra. He also makes some speculations concerning the structure of W gravity
Extracellular RNA Communication (ExRNA)
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Until recently, scientists believed RNA worked mostly inside the cell that produced it. Some types of RNA help translate genes into proteins that are necessary for...
Second-Order Conformally Equivariant Quantization in Dimension 1|2
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Najla Mellouli
2009-12-01
Full Text Available This paper is the next step of an ambitious program to develop conformally equivariant quantization on supermanifolds. This problem was considered so far in (superdimensions 1 and 1|1. We will show that the case of several odd variables is much more difficult. We consider the supercircle S^{1|2} equipped with the standard contact structure. The conformal Lie superalgebra K(2 of contact vector fields on S^{1|2} contains the Lie superalgebra osp(2|2. We study the spaces of linear differential operators on the spaces of weighted densities as modules over osp(2|2. We prove that, in the non-resonant case, the spaces of second order differential operators are isomorphic to the corresponding spaces of symbols as osp(2|2-modules. We also prove that the conformal equivariant quantization map is unique and calculate its explicit formula.
The Biological Bases of Conformity
Morgan, T. J. H.; Laland, K. N.
2012-01-01
Humans are characterized by an extreme dependence on culturally transmitted information and recent formal theory predicts that natural selection should favor adaptive learning strategies that facilitate effective copying and decision making. One strategy that has attracted particular attention is conformist transmission, defined as the disproportionately likely adoption of the most common variant. Conformity has historically been emphasized as significant in the social psychology literature, and recently there have also been reports of conformist behavior in non-human animals. However, mathematical analyses differ in how important and widespread they expect conformity to be, and relevant experimental work is scarce, and generates findings that are both mutually contradictory and inconsistent with the predictions of the models. We review the relevant literature considering the causation, function, history, and ontogeny of conformity, and describe a computer-based experiment on human subjects that we carried out in order to resolve ambiguities. We found that only when many demonstrators were available and subjects were uncertain was subject behavior conformist. A further analysis found that the underlying response to social information alone was generally conformist. Thus, our data are consistent with a conformist use of social information, but as subjects’ behavior is the result of both social and asocial influences, the resultant behavior may not be conformist. We end by relating these findings to an embryonic cognitive neuroscience literature that has recently begun to explore the neural bases of social learning. Here conformist transmission may be a particularly useful case study, not only because there are well-defined and tractable opportunities to characterize the biological underpinnings of this form of social learning, but also because early findings imply that humans may possess specific cognitive adaptations for effective social learning. PMID:22712006
Conformance Testing: Measurement Decision Rules
Mimbs, Scott M.
2010-01-01
The goal of a Quality Management System (QMS) as specified in ISO 9001 and AS9100 is to provide assurance to the customer that end products meet specifications. Measuring devices, often called measuring and test equipment (MTE), are used to provide the evidence of product conformity to specified requirements. Unfortunately, processes that employ MTE can become a weak link to the overall QMS if proper attention is not given to the measurement process design, capability, and implementation. Documented "decision rules" establish the requirements to ensure measurement processes provide the measurement data that supports the needs of the QMS. Measurement data are used to make the decisions that impact all areas of technology. Whether measurements support research, design, production, or maintenance, ensuring the data supports the decision is crucial. Measurement data quality can be critical to the resulting consequences of measurement-based decisions. Historically, most industries required simplistic, one-size-fits-all decision rules for measurements. One-size-fits-all rules in some cases are not rigorous enough to provide adequate measurement results, while in other cases are overly conservative and too costly to implement. Ideally, decision rules should be rigorous enough to match the criticality of the parameter being measured, while being flexible enough to be cost effective. The goal of a decision rule is to ensure that measurement processes provide data with a sufficient level of quality to support the decisions being made - no more, no less. This paper discusses the basic concepts of providing measurement-based evidence that end products meet specifications. Although relevant to all measurement-based conformance tests, the target audience is the MTE end-user, which is anyone using MTE other than calibration service providers. Topics include measurement fundamentals, the associated decision risks, verifying conformance to specifications, and basic measurement
The Biological Bases of Conformity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thomas Joshau Henry Morgan
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Humans are characterized by an extreme dependence on culturally transmitted information and recent formal theory predicts that natural selection should favour adaptive learning strategies that facilitate effective use of social information in decision making. One strategy that has attracted particular attention is conformist transmission, defined as the disproportionately likely adoption of the most common variant. Conformity has historically been emphasized as significant in the social psychology literature, and recently there have also been reports of conformist behaviour in nonhuman animals. However, mathematical analyses differ in how important and widespread they expect conformity to be, and relevant experimental work is scarce, and generates findings that are both mutually contradictory and inconsistent with the predictions of the models. We review the relevant literature considering the causation, function, history and ontogeny of conformity and describe a computer-based experiment on human subjects that we carried out in order to resolve ambiguities. We found that only when many demonstrators were available and subjects were uncertain was subject behaviour conformist. A further analysis found that the underlying response to social information alone was generally conformist. Thus, our data are consistent with a conformist use of social information, but as subject’s behaviour is the result of both social and asocial influences, the resultant behaviour may not be conformist. We end by relating these findings to an embryonic cognitive neuroscience literature that has recently begun to explore the neural bases of social learning. Here conformist transmission may be a particularly useful case study, not only because there are well-defined and tractable opportunities to characterize the biological underpinnings of this form of social learning, but also because early findings imply that humans may possess specific cognitive adaptations for
Prediction of conformationally dependent atomic multipole moments in carbohydrates.
Cardamone, Salvatore; Popelier, Paul L A
2015-12-15
The conformational flexibility of carbohydrates is challenging within the field of computational chemistry. This flexibility causes the electron density to change, which leads to fluctuating atomic multipole moments. Quantum Chemical Topology (QCT) allows for the partitioning of an "atom in a molecule," thus localizing electron density to finite atomic domains, which permits the unambiguous evaluation of atomic multipole moments. By selecting an ensemble of physically realistic conformers of a chemical system, one evaluates the various multipole moments at defined points in configuration space. The subsequent implementation of the machine learning method kriging delivers the evaluation of an analytical function, which smoothly interpolates between these points. This allows for the prediction of atomic multipole moments at new points in conformational space, not trained for but within prediction range. In this work, we demonstrate that the carbohydrates erythrose and threose are amenable to the above methodology. We investigate how kriging models respond when the training ensemble incorporating multiple energy minima and their environment in conformational space. Additionally, we evaluate the gains in predictive capacity of our models as the size of the training ensemble increases. We believe this approach to be entirely novel within the field of carbohydrates. For a modest training set size of 600, more than 90% of the external test configurations have an error in the total (predicted) electrostatic energy (relative to ab initio) of maximum 1 kJ mol(-1) for open chains and just over 90% an error of maximum 4 kJ mol(-1) for rings. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Conformal covariance of general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ionescu-Pallas, N.; Gottlieb, I.
1980-01-01
The Einstein's equations of General Relativity are written in a conformal metric, resulting as a consequence of geometrizing the pressure forces. Accordingly, the trajectory of a test body pursues a geodetic line even inside the source of gravitational field. Moreover, the pressure, entering the perfect fluid scheme, may be replaced by a certain scalar interaction. This new manner of interpreting General Relativity is then applied to Cosmology, in order to build up a model of Universe whose static limit should coincide with that of Einstein. At the same time, the cosmological constant is connected to the scalar interaction acquiring a plausible explanation. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Appelquist, T.; Fleming, G. T.; Neil, E. T.; Avakian, A.; Babich, R.; Brower, R. C.; Cohen, S. D.; Rebbi, C.; Schaich, D.; Cheng, M.; Vranas, P.; Clark, M. A.; Kiskis, J.; Osborn, J. C.
2010-01-01
We study the chiral properties of an SU(3) gauge theory with N f massless Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation when N f is increased from 2 to 6. For N f =2, our lattice simulations lead to a value of /F 3 , where F is the Nambu-Goldstone-boson decay constant and is the chiral condensate, which agrees with the measured QCD value. For N f =6, this ratio shows significant enhancement, presaging an even larger enhancement anticipated as N f increases further, toward the critical value for transition from confinement to infrared conformality.
Introduction to twisted conformal fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kazama, Y.
1988-01-01
A pedagogical account is given of the recent developments in the theory of twisted conformal fields. Among other things, the main part of the lecture concerns the construction of the twist-emission vertex operator, which is a generalization of the fermion emission vertex in the superstring theory. Several different forms of the vertex are derived and their mutural relationships are clarified. In this paper, the authors include a brief survey of the history of the fermion emission vertex, as it offers a good perspective in which to appreciate the logical development
Experimental demonstration of conformal phased array antenna via transformation optics.
Lei, Juan; Yang, Juxing; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Zhiya; Fu, Guang; Hao, Yang
2018-02-28
Transformation Optics has been proven a versatile technique for designing novel electromagnetic devices and it has much wider applicability in many subject areas related to general wave equations. Among them, quasi-conformal transformation optics (QCTO) can be applied to minimize anisotropy of transformed media and has opened up the possibility to the design of broadband antennas with arbitrary geometries. In this work, a wide-angle scanning conformal phased array based on all-dielectric QCTO lens is designed and experimentally demonstrated. Excited by the same current distribution as such in a conventional planar array, the conformal system in presence of QCTO lens can preserve the same radiation characteristics of a planar array with wide-angle beam-scanning and low side lobe level (SLL). Laplace's equation subject to Dirichlet-Neumann boundary conditions is adopted to construct the mapping between the virtual and physical spaces. The isotropic lens with graded refractive index is realized by all-dielectric holey structure after an effective parameter approximation. The measurements of the fabricated system agree well with the simulated results, which demonstrate its excellent wide-angle beam scanning performance. Such demonstration paves the way to a robust but efficient array synthesis, as well as multi-beam and beam forming realization of conformal arrays via transformation optics.
Micropolar Fluids Using B-spline Divergence Conforming Spaces
Sarmiento, Adel; Garcia, Daniel; Dalcin, Lisandro; Collier, Nathan; Calo, Victor M.
2014-01-01
The divergence free formulation was used to guarantee an accurate solution of the flow. This formulation was implemented using the framework PetIGA as a basis, using its parallel stuctures to achieve high scalability. The results of the square heat driven cavity test case are in good agreement with those reported earlier.
Exploring conformational space using a mean field technique with ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
PRAKASH KUMAR
2007-06-21
Jun 21, 2007 ... In general the calculations identified all the folds determined by previous ..... R C 1954 Studies on the Gross Structure, Cross-Linkages, and Terminal ... 201–210. Arunachalam J, Kanagasabai K and Gautham N 2006 Protein ... 126–141. Clark M, Cramer III R D and van Opdenhosch N 1989 Validation.
Exploring conformational space using a mean field technique with ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
PRAKASH KUMAR
2007-06-21
Jun 21, 2007 ... structure of a peptide or protein have their fundamental theoretical ..... MOLS procedure has not considered such intermolecular interactions. ..... Takada S 2001 Protein Folding Simulation With Solvent-Induced. Force Field: ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fredenhagen, K.; Joerss, M.
1994-10-01
Starting from a chiral conformal Haag-Kastler net on 2 dimensional Minkowski space we construct associated pointlike localized fields. This amounts to a proof of the existence of operator product expansions. We derive the result in two ways. One is based on the geometrical identification of the modular structure, the other depends on a ''conformal cluster theorem'' of the conformal two-point-functions in algebraic quantum field theory. The existence of the fields then implies important structural properties of the theory, as PCT-invariance, the Bisognano-Wichmann identification of modular operators, Haag duality and additivity. (orig.)
Dimension shifting operators and null states in 2D conformally invariant field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gervais, J.L.
1986-01-01
We discuss the existence and properties of differential operators which transform covariant operators into covariant operators of different weights in two-dimensional conformally invariant field theories. We relate them to null states and the vanishing of the Kac determinant in representations of the conformal algebra, and to the existence of differential equations for Green functions of covariant operators. In this framework, we rederive the essential features of our earlier work on dual models with shifted intercept, which in euclidean space-time gives explicit solutions of the conformal bootstrap equations where all operators are marginal. (orig.)
Differential equation for genus-two characters in arbitrary rational conformal field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mathur, S.D.; Sen, A.
1989-01-01
We develop a general method for deriving ordinary differential equations for the genus-two ''characters'' of an arbitrary rational conformal field theory using the hyperelliptic representation of the genus-two moduli space. We illustrate our method by explicitly deriving the character differential equations for k=1 SU(2), G 2 , and F 4 WZW models. Our method provides an intrinsic definition of conformal field theories on higher genus Riemann surfaces. (orig.)
Properties of partial-wave amplitudes in conformal invariant field theories
Ferrara, Sergio; Grillo, A F
1975-01-01
Analyticity properties of partial-wave amplitudes of the conformal group O/sub D,2/ (D not necessarily integer) in configuration space are investigated. The presence of Euclidean singularities in the Wilson expansion in conformal invariant field theories is discussed, especially in connection with the program of formulating dynamical bootstrap conditions coming from the requirement of causality. The exceptional case of D-2 is discussed in detail. (18 refs).
RCrane: semi-automated RNA model building.
Keating, Kevin S; Pyle, Anna Marie
2012-08-01
RNA crystals typically diffract to much lower resolutions than protein crystals. This low-resolution diffraction results in unclear density maps, which cause considerable difficulties during the model-building process. These difficulties are exacerbated by the lack of computational tools for RNA modeling. Here, RCrane, a tool for the partially automated building of RNA into electron-density maps of low or intermediate resolution, is presented. This tool works within Coot, a common program for macromolecular model building. RCrane helps crystallographers to place phosphates and bases into electron density and then automatically predicts and builds the detailed all-atom structure of the traced nucleotides. RCrane then allows the crystallographer to review the newly built structure and select alternative backbone conformations where desired. This tool can also be used to automatically correct the backbone structure of previously built nucleotides. These automated corrections can fix incorrect sugar puckers, steric clashes and other structural problems.
Generative Models of Conformational Dynamics
Langmead, Christopher James
2014-01-01
Atomistic simulations of the conformational dynamics of proteins can be performed using either Molecular Dynamics or Monte Carlo procedures. The ensembles of three-dimensional structures produced during simulation can be analyzed in a number of ways to elucidate the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the system. The goal of this chapter is to review both traditional and emerging methods for learning generative models from atomistic simulation data. Here, the term ‘generative’ refers to a model of the joint probability distribution over the behaviors of the constituent atoms. In the context of molecular modeling, generative models reveal the correlation structure between the atoms, and may be used to predict how the system will respond to structural perturbations. We begin by discussing traditional methods, which produce multivariate Gaussian models. We then discuss GAMELAN (GrAphical Models of Energy LANdscapes), which produces generative models of complex, non-Gaussian conformational dynamics (e.g., allostery, binding, folding, etc) from long timescale simulation data. PMID:24446358
On bidimensional Lagrangian conformal models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lazzarini, S.
1990-04-01
The main topic of this thesis is the study of Conformal Field Theories defined on an arbitrary compact Riemann surface without boundary. The Beltrami parametrization of complexe structures endowing such a surface provides a local bidimensional diffeomorphism invariance of the theory and the holomorphic factorization. The perturbative quantization a la Feynman is then constrained by local factorized Ward identities. The renormalization is analysed in the Esptein-Glaser scheme. A first part deals with the simplest free field models where one checks the interesting conjecture that renormalized perturbative expansions could be resumed by a Polyakov's formula which is a Wess-Zumino action for the diffeomorphism anomaly. For a higher genus surface, only a differential version is proposed. The second part of this thesis is devoted to the characterization of some observables of the free bosonic string in the corresponding gauge theory with the aid of the nilpotent Slavnov s-operator. It is conjectured that part of the observables of this theory is labelled by the local cohomology of s modulo d and corresponds to the vertex operators, as it is verified for the tachyon vertex in the conformal gauge [fr
Strings in arbitrary space-time dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fabbrichesi, M.E.; Leviant, V.M.
1988-01-01
A modified approach to the theory of a quantum string is proposed. A discussion of the gauge fixing of conformal symmetry by means of Kac-Moody algebrae is presented. Virasoro-like operators are introduced to cancel the conformal anomaly in any number of space-time dimensions. The possibility of massless states in the spectrum is pointed out. 18 refs
Topologically massive gravity and its conformal limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ertl, S.
2012-01-01
Three dimensional gravity has been known for some time to be a playground for testing ideas and problems of higher dimensional gravitational theories. Nevertheless its status as a toy model for quantum gravity is still uncertain. Already in 1986 Brown and Henneaux discovered that three dimensional quantum gravity with negative cosmological constant is dual to a two dimensional conformal field theory (CFT) in the sense that the Hilbert space must fall into unitary representation of two copies of the Virasoro algebra. They obtained, in quantizing this theory, an asymptotic Virasoro algebra with central charges c L =c R =(3 l)/(2 G N ), where G N is Newton's constant and ℓ parameterizes the cosmological constant. Almost ten years later black hole solutions for this three dimensional theory were discovered by Banados, Teitelboim and Zanelli. In the same period of time further milestones of relevance for this work have been established: the AdS/CFT correspondence by Maldacena in 1997 and the proposal by Witten in 2007 to define three dimensional quantum gravity in terms of its dual CFT. Over the last few years many attempts have been made to construct gravitational theories in three dimensions that could serve as toy models for quantum gravity. Since a pure Einstein-Hilbert action with a negative cosmological constant lacks additional degrees of freedom one can remedy this by adding a gravitational Chern-Simons term. This results in a theory that exhibits black holes and gravitons and is called topologically massive gravity (TMG). The first part of this thesis deals with finding exact solutions of TMG. This is an interesting problem already at the classical level since non-trivial solutions to the equations of motion are hard to find and only few are known. An efficient way to find solutions is to dimensionally reduce the theory by using two commuting Killing vectors. This results in a (0+1)-dimensional model in which it is then possible to classify all stationary axi
Super-Galilean conformal algebra in AdS/CFT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakaguchi, Makoto
2010-01-01
Galilean conformal algebra (GCA) is an Inoenue-Wigner (IW) contraction of a conformal algebra, while Newton-Hooke string algebra is an IW contraction of an Anti-de Sitter (AdS) algebra, which is the isometry of an AdS space. It is shown that the GCA is a boundary realization of the Newton-Hooke string algebra in the bulk AdS. The string lies along the direction transverse to the boundary, and the worldsheet is AdS 2 . The one-dimensional conformal symmetry so(2,1) and rotational symmetry so(d) contained in the GCA are realized as the symmetry on the AdS 2 string worldsheet and rotational symmetry in the space transverse to the AdS 2 in AdS d+2 , respectively. It follows from this correspondence that 32 supersymmetric GCAs can be derived as IW contractions of superconformal algebras, psu(2,2|4), osp(8|4), and osp(8*|4). We also derive less supersymmetric GCAs from su(2,2|2), osp(4|4), osp(2|4), and osp(8*|2).
The Conformational Dynamics of Cas9 Governing DNA Cleavage Are Revealed by Single-Molecule FRET
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mengyi Yang
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Summary: Off-target binding and cleavage by Cas9 pose major challenges in its application. How the conformational dynamics of Cas9 govern its nuclease activity under on- and off-target conditions remains largely unknown. Here, using intra-molecular single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements, we revealed that Cas9 in apo, sgRNA-bound, and dsDNA/sgRNA-bound forms spontaneously transits among three major conformational states, mainly reflecting significant conformational mobility of the catalytic HNH domain. We also uncovered surprising long-range allosteric communication between the HNH domain and the RNA/DNA heteroduplex at the PAM-distal end to ensure correct positioning of the catalytic site, which demonstrated that a unique proofreading mechanism served as the last checkpoint before DNA cleavage. Several Cas9 residues were likely to mediate the allosteric communication and proofreading step. Modulating interactions between Cas9 and heteroduplex at the PAM-distal end by introducing mutations on these sites provides an alternative route to improve and optimize the CRISPR/Cas9 toolbox. : Yang et al. revealed significant conformational dynamics of Cas9 at global and local scales using single-molecule FRET. They uncovered surprising long-range allosteric communication between the HNH nuclease domain and the RNA/DNA heteroduplex at the PAM-distal end that serves as a proofreading checkpoint to govern the nuclease activity and specificity of Cas9. Keywords: CRISPR, Cas9, single-molecule, FRET, conformational dynamics, proofreading, off-target, allosteric communication, genome editing
Conformal symmetries of FRW accelerating cosmologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kehagias, A.; Riotto, A.
2014-01-01
We show that any accelerating Friedmann–Robertson–Walker (FRW) cosmology with equation of state w<−1/3 (and therefore not only a de Sitter stage with w=−1) exhibits three-dimensional conformal symmetry on future constant-time hypersurfaces if the bulk theory is invariant under bulk conformal Killing vectors. We also offer an alternative derivation of this result in terms of conformal Killing vectors and show that long wavelength comoving curvature perturbations of the perturbed FRW metric are just conformal Killing motions of the FRW background. We then extend the boundary conformal symmetry to the bulk for accelerating cosmologies. Our findings indicate that one can easily generate perturbations of scalar fields which are not only scale invariant, but also fully conformally invariant on super-Hubble scales. Measuring a scale-invariant power spectrum for the cosmological perturbation does not automatically imply that the universe went through a de Sitter stage
Maxwell equations in conformal invariant electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fradkin, E.S.; AN SSSR, Novosibirsk. Inst. Avtomatiki i Ehlektrometrii); Kozhevnikov, A.A.; Palchik, M.Ya.; Pomeransky, A.A.
1983-01-01
We consider a conformal invariant formulation of quantum electrodynamics. Conformal invariance is achieved with a specific mathematical construction based on the indecomposable representations of the conformal group associated with the electromagnetic potential and current. As a corolary of this construction modified expressions for the 3-point Green functions are obtained which both contain transverse parts. They make it possible to formulate a conformal invariant skeleton perturbation theory. It is also shown that the Euclidean Maxwell equations in conformal electrodynamics are manifestations of its kinematical structure: in the case of the 3-point Green functions these equations follow (up to constants) from the conformal invariance while in the case of higher Green functions they are equivalent to the equality of the kernels of the partial wave expansions. This is the manifestation of the mathematical fast of a (partial) equivalence of the representations associated with the potential, current and the field tensor. (orig.)
Operator algebras and conformal field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gabbiani, F.; Froehlich, J.
1993-01-01
We define and study two-dimensional, chiral conformal field theory by the methods of algebraic field theory. We start by characterizing the vacuum sectors of such theories and show that, under very general hypotheses, their algebras of local observables are isomorphic to the unique hyperfinite type III 1 factor. The conformal net determined by the algebras of local observables is proven to satisfy Haag duality. The representation of the Moebius group (and presumably of the entire Virasoro algebra) on the vacuum sector of a conformal field theory is uniquely determined by the Tomita-Takesaki modular operators associated with its vacuum state and its conformal net. We then develop the theory of Mebius covariant representations of a conformal net, using methods of Doplicher, Haag and Roberts. We apply our results to the representation theory of loop groups. Our analysis is motivated by the desire to find a 'background-independent' formulation of conformal field theories. (orig.)
Measuring the mechanical properties of molecular conformers
Jarvis, S. P.; Taylor, S.; Baran, J. D.; Champness, N. R.; Larsson, J. A.; Moriarty, P.
2015-09-01
Scanning probe-actuated single molecule manipulation has proven to be an exceptionally powerful tool for the systematic atomic-scale interrogation of molecular adsorbates. To date, however, the extent to which molecular conformation affects the force required to push or pull a single molecule has not been explored. Here we probe the mechanochemical response of two tetra(4-bromophenyl)porphyrin conformers using non-contact atomic force microscopy where we find a large difference between the lateral forces required for manipulation. Remarkably, despite sharing very similar adsorption characteristics, variations in the potential energy surface are capable of prohibiting probe-induced positioning of one conformer, while simultaneously permitting manipulation of the alternative conformational form. Our results are interpreted in the context of dispersion-corrected density functional theory calculations which reveal significant differences in the diffusion barriers for each conformer. These results demonstrate that conformational variation significantly modifies the mechanical response of even simple porpyhrins, potentially affecting many other flexible molecules.
Saturating representation of loop conformational fragments in structure databanks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fiser András
2006-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Short fragments of proteins are fundamental starting points in various structure prediction applications, such as in fragment based loop modeling methods but also in various full structure build-up procedures. The applicability and performance of these approaches depend on the availability of short fragments in structure databanks. Results We studied the representation of protein loop fragments up to 14 residues in length. All possible query fragments found in sequence databases (Sequence Space were clustered and cross referenced with available structural fragments in Protein Data Bank (Structure Space. We found that the expansion of PDB in the last few years resulted in a dense coverage of loop conformational fragments. For each loops of length 8 in the current Sequence Space there is at least one loop in Structure Space with 50% or higher sequence identity. By correlating sequence and structure clusters of loops we found that a 50% sequence identity generally guarantees structural similarity. These percentages of coverage at 50% sequence cutoff drop to 96, 94, 68, 53, 33 and 13% for loops of length 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14, respectively. There is not a single loop in the current Sequence Space at any length up to 14 residues that is not matched with a conformational segment that shares at least 20% sequence identity. This minimum observed identity is 40% for loops of 12 residues or shorter and is as high as 50% for 10 residue or shorter loops. We also assessed the impact of rapidly growing sequence databanks on the estimated number of new loop conformations and found that while the number of sequentially unique sequence segments increased about six folds during the last five years there are almost no unique conformational segments among these up to 12 residues long fragments. Conclusion The results suggest that fragment based prediction approaches are not limited any more by the completeness of fragments in databanks but
Schrogl, K.-U.; Summerer, L.
2016-12-01
This article provides a comprehensive look at climate engineering and space. Its starting point is that the States are failing to slow down global warming. The consequences for the environment and the economic and societal burden are uncontested. The priority to maintain the use of fossil resources might soon lead to the implementation of deliberate engineering measures to alter the climate instead of reducing the greenhouse gases. The article describes these currently discussed measures for such climate engineering. It will particularly analyse the expected contributions from space to these concepts. Based on this it evaluates the economic and political implications and finally tests the conformity of these concepts with space law.
Fluorescent tag is not a reliable marker for small RNA transfection in ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2013-07-22
Jul 22, 2013 ... 2.1 Ethics statement. This investigation conformed to the Guide for Care and Use of. Laboratory Animals published by the US National Institutes of. Health. ... Left: Cy3; middle: transmitted light; right: merge. Scale bar: 50 μm. .... (A) The stability of siRNA (left) and miRNA (right) in FBS (top) and boiled-FBS ...
Lattice models and conformal field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saleur, H.
1988-01-01
Theoretical studies concerning the connection between critical physical systems and the conformal theories are reviewed. The conformal theory associated to a critical (integrable) lattice model is derived. The obtention of the central charge, critical exponents and torus partition function, using renormalization group arguments, is shown. The quantum group structure, in the integrable lattice models, and the theory of Visaro algebra representations are discussed. The relations between off-critical integrable models and conformal theories, in finite geometries, are studied
Multichannel conformal blocks for scattering amplitudes
Belitsky, A. V.
2018-05-01
By performing resummation of small fermion-antifermion pairs within the pentagon form factor program to scattering amplitudes in planar N = 4 superYang-Mills theory, we construct multichannel conformal blocks within the flux-tube picture for N-sided NMHV polygons. This procedure is equivalent to summation of descendants of conformal primaries in the OPE framework. The resulting conformal partial waves are determined by multivariable hypergeometric series of Lauricella-Saran type.
Conformational changes in glycine tri- and hexapeptide
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yakubovich, Alexander V.; Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.
2006-01-01
conformations and calculated the energy barriers for transitions between them. Using a thermodynamic approach, we have estimated the times of the characteristic transitions between these conformations. The results of our calculations have been compared with those obtained by other theoretical methods...... also investigated the influence of the secondary structure of polypeptide chains on the formation of the potential energy landscape. This analysis has been performed for the sheet and the helix conformations of chains of six amino acids....
Therapeutic miRNA and siRNA: Moving from Bench to Clinic as Next Generation Medicine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chiranjib Chakraborty
2017-09-01
Full Text Available In the past few years, therapeutic microRNA (miRNA and small interfering RNA (siRNA are some of the most important biopharmaceuticals that are in commercial space as future medicines. This review summarizes the patents of miRNA- and siRNA-based new drugs, and also provides a snapshot about significant biopharmaceutical companies that are investing for the therapeutic development of miRNA and siRNA molecules. An insightful view about individual siRNA and miRNA drugs has been depicted with their present status, which is gaining attention in the therapeutic landscape. The efforts of the biopharmaceuticals are discussed with the status of their preclinical and/or clinical trials. Here, some of the setbacks have been highlighted during the biopharmaceutical development of miRNA and siRNA as individual therapeutics. Finally, a snapshot is illustrated about pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics with absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME, which is the fundamental development process of these therapeutics, as well as the delivery system for miRNA- and siRNA-based drugs. Keywords: miRNA, siRNA, drug development
Conformational Transitions and Convergence of Absolute Binding Free Energy Calculations
Lapelosa, Mauro; Gallicchio, Emilio; Levy, Ronald M.
2011-01-01
The Binding Energy Distribution Analysis Method (BEDAM) is employed to compute the standard binding free energies of a series of ligands to a FK506 binding protein (FKBP12) with implicit solvation. Binding free energy estimates are in reasonably good agreement with experimental affinities. The conformations of the complexes identified by the simulations are in good agreement with crystallographic data, which was not used to restrain ligand orientations. The BEDAM method is based on λ -hopping Hamiltonian parallel Replica Exchange (HREM) molecular dynamics conformational sampling, the OPLS-AA/AGBNP2 effective potential, and multi-state free energy estimators (MBAR). Achieving converged and accurate results depends on all of these elements of the calculation. Convergence of the binding free energy is tied to the level of convergence of binding energy distributions at critical intermediate states where bound and unbound states are at equilibrium, and where the rate of binding/unbinding conformational transitions is maximal. This finding mirrors similar observations in the context of order/disorder transitions as for example in protein folding. Insights concerning the physical mechanism of ligand binding and unbinding are obtained. Convergence for the largest FK506 ligand is achieved only after imposing strict conformational restraints, which however require accurate prior structural knowledge of the structure of the complex. The analytical AGBNP2 model is found to underestimate the magnitude of the hydrophobic driving force towards binding in these systems characterized by loosely packed protein-ligand binding interfaces. Rescoring of the binding energies using a numerical surface area model corrects this deficiency. This study illustrates the complex interplay between energy models, exploration of conformational space, and free energy estimators needed to obtain robust estimates from binding free energy calculations. PMID:22368530
A high-precision system for conformal intracranial radiotherapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tome, Wolfgang A.; Meeks, Sanford L.; Buatti, John M.; Bova, Francis J.; Friedman, William A.; Li Zuofeng
2000-01-01
Purpose: Currently, optimally precise delivery of intracranial radiotherapy is possible with stereotactic radiosurgery and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. We report on an optimally precise optically guided system for three-dimensional (3D) conformal radiotherapy using multiple noncoplanar fixed fields. Methods and Materials: The optically guided system detects infrared light emitting diodes (IRLEDs) attached to a custom bite plate linked to the patient's maxillary dentition. The IRLEDs are monitored by a commercially available stereo camera system, which is interfaced to a personal computer. An IRLED reference is established with the patient at the selected stereotactic isocenter, and the computer reports the patient's current position based on the location of the IRLEDs relative to this reference position. Using this readout from the computer, the patient may be dialed directly to the desired position in stereotactic space. The patient is localized on the first day and a reference file is established for 5 different couch positions. The patient's image data are then imported into a commercial convolution-based 3D radiotherapy planning system. The previously established isocenter and couch positions are then used as a template upon which to design a conformal 3D plan with maximum beam separation. Results: The use of the optically guided system in conjunction with noncoplanar radiotherapy treatment planning using fixed fields allows the generation of highly conformal treatment plans that exhibit a high degree of dose homogeneity and a steep dose gradient. To date, this approach has been used to treat 28 patients. Conclusion: Because IRLED technology improves the accuracy of patient localization relative to the linac isocenter and allows real-time monitoring of patient position, one can choose treatment-field margins that only account for beam penumbra and image resolution without adding margin to account for larger and poorly defined setup uncertainty. This
Conformal bootstrap: non-perturbative QFT's under siege
CERN. Geneva
2016-01-01
[Exceptionally in Council Chamber] Originally formulated in the 70's, the conformal bootstrap is the ambitious idea that one can use internal consistency conditions to carve out, and eventually solve, the space of conformal field theories. In this talk I will review recent developments in the field which have boosted this program to a new level. I will present a method to extract quantitative informations in strongly-interacting theories, such as 3D Ising, O(N) vector model and even systems without a Lagrangian formulation. I will explain how these techniques have led to the world record determination of several critical exponents. Finally, I will review exact analytical results obtained using bootstrap techniques.
Globally conformal invariant gauge field theory with rational correlation functions
Nikolov, N M; Todorov, I T; CERN. Geneva; Todorov, Ivan T.
2003-01-01
Operator product expansions (OPE) for the product of a scalar field with its conjugate are presented as infinite sums of bilocal fields $V_{\\kappa} (x_1, x_2)$ of dimension $(\\kappa, \\kappa)$. For a {\\it globally conformal invariant} (GCI) theory we write down the OPE of $V_{\\kappa}$ into a series of {\\it twist} (dimension minus rank) $2\\kappa$ symmetric traceless tensor fields with coefficients computed from the (rational) 4-point function of the scalar field. We argue that the theory of a GCI hermitian scalar field ${\\cal L} (x)$ of dimension 4 in $D = 4$ Minkowski space such that the 3-point functions of a pair of ${\\cal L}$'s and a scalar field of dimension 2 or 4 vanish can be interpreted as the theory of local observables of a conformally invariant fixed point in a gauge theory with Lagrangian density ${\\cal L} (x)$.
Fabrication challenges associated with conformal optics
Schaefer, John; Eichholtz, Richard A.; Sulzbach, Frank C.
2001-09-01
A conformal optic is typically an optical window that conforms smoothly to the external shape of a system platform to improve aerodynamics. Conformal optics can be on-axis, such as an ogive missile dome, or off-axis, such as in a free form airplane wing. A common example of conformal optics is the automotive head light window that conforms to the body of the car aerodynamics and aesthetics. The unusual shape of conformal optics creates tremendous challenges for design, manufacturing, and testing. This paper will discuss fabrication methods that have been successfully demonstrated to produce conformal missile domes and associated wavefront corrector elements. It will identify challenges foreseen with more complex free-form configurations. Work presented in this paper was directed by the Precision Conformal Optics Consortium (PCOT). PCOT is comprised of both industrial and academic members who teamed to develop and demonstrate conformal optical systems suitable for insertion into future military programs. The consortium was funded under DARPA agreement number MDA972-96-9-08000.
Noncommutative geometry and twisted conformal symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matlock, Peter
2005-01-01
The twist-deformed conformal algebra is constructed as a Hopf algebra with twisted coproduct. This allows for the definition of conformal symmetry in a noncommutative background geometry. The twisted coproduct is reviewed for the Poincare algebra and the construction is then extended to the full conformal algebra. The case of Moyal-type noncommutativity of the coordinates is considered. It is demonstrated that conformal invariance need not be viewed as incompatible with noncommutative geometry; the noncommutativity of the coordinates appears as a consequence of the twisting, as has been shown in the literature in the case of the twisted Poincare algebra
Unconstrained multiplet in N=2 conformal supergravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayashi, Masahito; Uehara, Shozo.
1985-02-01
An unconstrained (general) multiplet was studied in N = 2 conformal supergravity. Transformation law, embedding formula and multiplication rule are explicitly presented at the linearized level. (author)
Superintegrability of d-dimensional conformal blocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isachenkov, Mikhail
2016-02-01
We observe that conformal blocks of scalar 4-point functions in a d-dimensional conformal field theory can mapped to eigenfunctions of a 2-particle hyperbolic Calogero-Sutherland Hamiltonian. The latter describes two coupled Poeschl-Teller particles. Their interaction, whose strength depends smoothly on the dimension d, is known to be superintegrable. Our observation enables us to exploit the rich mathematical literature on Calogero-Sutherland models in deriving various results for conformal field theory. These include an explicit construction of conformal blocks in terms of Heckman-Opdam hypergeometric functions and a remarkable duality that relates the blocks of theories in different dimensions.
Superintegrability of d-dimensional conformal blocks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Isachenkov, Mikhail [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Particle Physics and Astronomy; Schomerus, Volker [DESY Theory Group, Hamburg (Germany)
2016-02-15
We observe that conformal blocks of scalar 4-point functions in a d-dimensional conformal field theory can mapped to eigenfunctions of a 2-particle hyperbolic Calogero-Sutherland Hamiltonian. The latter describes two coupled Poeschl-Teller particles. Their interaction, whose strength depends smoothly on the dimension d, is known to be superintegrable. Our observation enables us to exploit the rich mathematical literature on Calogero-Sutherland models in deriving various results for conformal field theory. These include an explicit construction of conformal blocks in terms of Heckman-Opdam hypergeometric functions and a remarkable duality that relates the blocks of theories in different dimensions.
Riemann monodromy problem and conformal field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blok, B.
1989-01-01
A systematic analysis of the use of the Riemann monodromy problem for determining correlators (conformal blocks) on the sphere is presented. The monodromy data is constructed in terms of the braid matrices and gives a constraint on the noninteger part of the conformal dimensions of the primary fields. To determine the conformal blocks we need to know the order of singularities. We establish a criterion which tells us when the knowledge of the conformal dimensions of primary fields suffice to determine the blocks. When zero modes of the extended algebra are present the analysis is more difficult. In this case we give a conjecture that works for the SU(2) WZW case. (orig.)
Rotational Spectroscopy Unveils Eleven Conformers of Adrenaline
Cabezas, C.; Cortijo, V.; Mata, S.; Lopez, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.
2013-06-01
Recent improvements in our LA-MB-FTMW instrumentation have allowed the characterization of eleven and eight conformers for the neurotransmitters adrenaline and noradrenaline respectively. The observation of this rich conformational behavior is in accordance with the recent observation of seven conformers for dopamine and in sharp contrast with the conformational reduction proposed for catecholamines. C. Cabezas, I. Peña, J. C. López, J. L. Alonso J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2013, 4, 486. H. Mitsuda, M. Miyazaki, I. B. Nielsen, P. Carcabal,C. Dedonder, C. Jouvet, S. Ishiuchi, M. Fujii J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2010, 1, 1130.
Conformal Dimensions via Large Charge Expansion.
Banerjee, Debasish; Chandrasekharan, Shailesh; Orlando, Domenico
2018-02-09
We construct an efficient Monte Carlo algorithm that overcomes the severe signal-to-noise ratio problems and helps us to accurately compute the conformal dimensions of large-Q fields at the Wilson-Fisher fixed point in the O(2) universality class. Using it, we verify a recent proposal that conformal dimensions of strongly coupled conformal field theories with a global U(1) charge can be obtained via a series expansion in the inverse charge 1/Q. We find that the conformal dimensions of the lowest operator with a fixed charge Q are almost entirely determined by the first few terms in the series.
Conformal frame dependence of inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Domènech, Guillem; Sasaki, Misao
2015-01-01
Physical equivalence between different conformal frames in scalar-tensor theory of gravity is a known fact. However, assuming that matter minimally couples to the metric of a particular frame, which we call the matter Jordan frame, the matter point of view of the universe may vary from frame to frame. Thus, there is a clear distinction between gravitational sector (curvature and scalar field) and matter sector. In this paper, focusing on a simple power-law inflation model in the Einstein frame, two examples are considered; a super-inflationary and a bouncing universe Jordan frames. Then we consider a spectator curvaton minimally coupled to a Jordan frame, and compute its contribution to the curvature perturbation power spectrum. In these specific examples, we find a blue tilt at short scales for the super-inflationary case, and a blue tilt at large scales for the bouncing case
Conformable eddy current array delivery
Summan, Rahul; Pierce, Gareth; Macleod, Charles; Mineo, Carmelo; Riise, Jonathan; Morozov, Maxim; Dobie, Gordon; Bolton, Gary; Raude, Angélique; Dalpé, Colombe; Braumann, Johannes
2016-02-01
The external surface of stainless steel containers used for the interim storage of nuclear material may be subject to Atmospherically Induced Stress Corrosion Cracking (AISCC). The inspection of such containers poses a significant challenge due to the large quantities involved; therefore, automating the inspection process is of considerable interest. This paper reports upon a proof-of-concept project concerning the automated NDT of a set of test containers containing artificially generated AISCCs. An Eddy current array probe with a conformable padded surface from Eddyfi was used as the NDT sensor and end effector on a KUKA KR5 arc HW robot. A kinematically valid cylindrical raster scan path was designed using the KUKA|PRC path planning software. Custom software was then written to interface measurement acquisition from the Eddyfi hardware with the motion control of the robot. Preliminary results and analysis are presented from scanning two canisters.
Conformal frame dependence of inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Domènech, Guillem; Sasaki, Misao, E-mail: guillem.domenech@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)
2015-04-01
Physical equivalence between different conformal frames in scalar-tensor theory of gravity is a known fact. However, assuming that matter minimally couples to the metric of a particular frame, which we call the matter Jordan frame, the matter point of view of the universe may vary from frame to frame. Thus, there is a clear distinction between gravitational sector (curvature and scalar field) and matter sector. In this paper, focusing on a simple power-law inflation model in the Einstein frame, two examples are considered; a super-inflationary and a bouncing universe Jordan frames. Then we consider a spectator curvaton minimally coupled to a Jordan frame, and compute its contribution to the curvature perturbation power spectrum. In these specific examples, we find a blue tilt at short scales for the super-inflationary case, and a blue tilt at large scales for the bouncing case.
Strings, conformal fields and topology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaku, Michio
1991-01-01
String Theory has advanced at an astonishing pace in the last few years, and this book aims to acquaint the reader with the most active topics of research in the field. Building on the foundations laid in his Introduction to Superstrings, Professor Kaku discusses such topics as the classification of conformal string theories, knot theory, the Yang-Baxter relation, quantum groups, the non-polynominal closed string field theory, matrix models, and topological field theory. Several chapters review the fundamentals of string theory, making the presentation of the material self-contained while keeping overlap with the earlier book to a minimum. The book conveys the vitality of current research in string theory and places readers at its forefront. (orig.) With 40 figs. in 50 parts
Light gauginos and conformal sequestering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanaki, Kentaro; Ookouchi, Yutaka
2011-01-01
In a wide class of direct and semidirect gauge mediation models, it has been observed that the gaugino masses vanish at leading order. It implies that there is a hierarchy between the gaugino and sfermion masses, invoking a fine-tuning problem in the Higgs sector via radiative corrections. In this paper, we explore the possibility of solving this anomalously light gaugino problem exploiting strong conformal dynamics in the hidden sector. With a mild assumption on the anomalous dimensions of the hidden sector operators, we show that the next-to-leading order contributions to the gaugino masses can naturally be in the same order as the sfermion masses. The μ/B μ problem is also discussed.
Conformational and functional analysis of molecular dynamics trajectories by Self-Organising Maps
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stella Fabio
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular dynamics (MD simulations are powerful tools to investigate the conformational dynamics of proteins that is often a critical element of their function. Identification of functionally relevant conformations is generally done clustering the large ensemble of structures that are generated. Recently, Self-Organising Maps (SOMs were reported performing more accurately and providing more consistent results than traditional clustering algorithms in various data mining problems. We present a novel strategy to analyse and compare conformational ensembles of protein domains using a two-level approach that combines SOMs and hierarchical clustering. Results The conformational dynamics of the α-spectrin SH3 protein domain and six single mutants were analysed by MD simulations. The Cα's Cartesian coordinates of conformations sampled in the essential space were used as input data vectors for SOM training, then complete linkage clustering was performed on the SOM prototype vectors. A specific protocol to optimize a SOM for structural ensembles was proposed: the optimal SOM was selected by means of a Taguchi experimental design plan applied to different data sets, and the optimal sampling rate of the MD trajectory was selected. The proposed two-level approach was applied to single trajectories of the SH3 domain independently as well as to groups of them at the same time. The results demonstrated the potential of this approach in the analysis of large ensembles of molecular structures: the possibility of producing a topological mapping of the conformational space in a simple 2D visualisation, as well as of effectively highlighting differences in the conformational dynamics directly related to biological functions. Conclusions The use of a two-level approach combining SOMs and hierarchical clustering for conformational analysis of structural ensembles of proteins was proposed. It can easily be extended to other study cases and to
The hypersurfaces with conformal normal Gauss map in Hn+1 and S1n+1
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shuguo Shi
2008-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce the fourth fundamental forms for hypersurfaces in Hn+1 and space-like hypersurfaces in S1n+1, and discuss the conformality of the normal Gauss map of the hypersurfaces in Hn+1 and S1n+1. Particularly, we discuss the surfaces with conformal normal Gauss map in H³ and S³1, and prove a duality property. We give a Weierstrass representation formula for space-like surfaces in S³1 with conformal normal Gauss map. We also state the similar results for time-like surfaces in S³1. Some examples of surfaces in S³1 with conformal normal Gauss map are given and a fully nonlinear equation of Monge-Ampère type for the graphs in S³1 with conformal normal Gauss map is derived.Neste artigo, introduzimos a quarta forma fundamental de uma hipersuperfície em Hn+1 de uma hipersuperfície tipo-espaço em S1n+1, e discutimos a conformalidade da aplicação normal de Gauss de tais hipersuperfícies. Em particular, investigamos o caso de superfícies com aplicação normal de Gauss conforme em H³ e S³1, e provamos um teorema de dualidade. Apresentamos uma representação de Weierstrass para superfícies tipo-espaço em S³1 com aplicação de Gauss conforme. Enunciamos também resultados semelhantes para superfícies tipo-tempo em S³1. São dados alguns exemplos de superfícies em S³1 com aplicações de Gauss conformes, e é deduzida uma equação totalmente não-linear do tipo Monge-Ampère para gráficos em S³1 com aplicações de Gauss conformes.
Conformational and functional analysis of molecular dynamics trajectories by Self-Organising Maps
2011-01-01
Background Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are powerful tools to investigate the conformational dynamics of proteins that is often a critical element of their function. Identification of functionally relevant conformations is generally done clustering the large ensemble of structures that are generated. Recently, Self-Organising Maps (SOMs) were reported performing more accurately and providing more consistent results than traditional clustering algorithms in various data mining problems. We present a novel strategy to analyse and compare conformational ensembles of protein domains using a two-level approach that combines SOMs and hierarchical clustering. Results The conformational dynamics of the α-spectrin SH3 protein domain and six single mutants were analysed by MD simulations. The Cα's Cartesian coordinates of conformations sampled in the essential space were used as input data vectors for SOM training, then complete linkage clustering was performed on the SOM prototype vectors. A specific protocol to optimize a SOM for structural ensembles was proposed: the optimal SOM was selected by means of a Taguchi experimental design plan applied to different data sets, and the optimal sampling rate of the MD trajectory was selected. The proposed two-level approach was applied to single trajectories of the SH3 domain independently as well as to groups of them at the same time. The results demonstrated the potential of this approach in the analysis of large ensembles of molecular structures: the possibility of producing a topological mapping of the conformational space in a simple 2D visualisation, as well as of effectively highlighting differences in the conformational dynamics directly related to biological functions. Conclusions The use of a two-level approach combining SOMs and hierarchical clustering for conformational analysis of structural ensembles of proteins was proposed. It can easily be extended to other study cases and to conformational ensembles from
RNA inverse folding using Monte Carlo tree search.
Yang, Xiufeng; Yoshizoe, Kazuki; Taneda, Akito; Tsuda, Koji
2017-11-06
Artificially synthesized RNA molecules provide important ways for creating a variety of novel functional molecules. State-of-the-art RNA inverse folding algorithms can design simple and short RNA sequences of specific GC content, that fold into the target RNA structure. However, their performance is not satisfactory in complicated cases. We present a new inverse folding algorithm called MCTS-RNA, which uses Monte Carlo tree search (MCTS), a technique that has shown exceptional performance in Computer Go recently, to represent and discover the essential part of the sequence space. To obtain high accuracy, initial sequences generated by MCTS are further improved by a series of local updates. Our algorithm has an ability to control the GC content precisely and can deal with pseudoknot structures. Using common benchmark datasets for evaluation, MCTS-RNA showed a lot of promise as a standard method of RNA inverse folding. MCTS-RNA is available at https://github.com/tsudalab/MCTS-RNA .
Rapid NMR screening of RNA secondary structure and binding
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Helmling, Christina; Keyhani, Sara; Sochor, Florian; Fürtig, Boris; Hengesbach, Martin; Schwalbe, Harald
2015-01-01
Determination of RNA secondary structures by NMR spectroscopy is a useful tool e.g. to elucidate RNA folding space or functional aspects of regulatory RNA elements. However, current approaches of RNA synthesis and preparation are usually time-consuming and do not provide analysis with single nucleotide precision when applied for a large number of different RNA sequences. Here, we significantly improve the yield and 3′ end homogeneity of RNA preparation by in vitro transcription. Further, by establishing a native purification procedure with increased throughput, we provide a shortcut to study several RNA constructs simultaneously. We show that this approach yields μmol quantities of RNA with purities comparable to PAGE purification, while avoiding denaturation of the RNA
Rapid NMR screening of RNA secondary structure and binding
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Helmling, Christina; Keyhani, Sara; Sochor, Florian; Fürtig, Boris; Hengesbach, Martin; Schwalbe, Harald, E-mail: schwalbe@nmr.uni-frankfurt.de [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, Institut für Organische Chemie und Chemische Biologie, Center for Biomolecular Magnetic Resonance (BMRZ) (Germany)
2015-09-15
Determination of RNA secondary structures by NMR spectroscopy is a useful tool e.g. to elucidate RNA folding space or functional aspects of regulatory RNA elements. However, current approaches of RNA synthesis and preparation are usually time-consuming and do not provide analysis with single nucleotide precision when applied for a large number of different RNA sequences. Here, we significantly improve the yield and 3′ end homogeneity of RNA preparation by in vitro transcription. Further, by establishing a native purification procedure with increased throughput, we provide a shortcut to study several RNA constructs simultaneously. We show that this approach yields μmol quantities of RNA with purities comparable to PAGE purification, while avoiding denaturation of the RNA.
Combinatorics of RNA-RNA interaction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Thomas J X; Reidys, Christian
2012-01-01
RNA-RNA binding is an important phenomenon observed for many classes of non-coding RNAs and plays a crucial role in a number of regulatory processes. Recently several MFE folding algorithms for predicting the joint structure of two interacting RNA molecules have been proposed. Here joint structure...... means that in a diagram representation the intramolecular bonds of each partner are pseudoknot-free, that the intermolecular binding pairs are noncrossing, and that there is no so-called "zigzag" configuration. This paper presents the combinatorics of RNA interaction structures including...
RNA structure and scalar coupling constants
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tinoco, I. Jr.; Cai, Z.; Hines, J.V.; Landry, S.M.; SantaLucia, J. Jr.; Shen, L.X.; Varani, G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
1994-12-01
Signs and magnitudes of scalar coupling constants-spin-spin splittings-comprise a very large amount of data that can be used to establish the conformations of RNA molecules. Proton-proton and proton-phosphorus splittings have been used the most, but the availability of {sup 13}C-and {sup 15}N-labeled molecules allow many more coupling constants to be used for determining conformation. We will systematically consider the torsion angles that characterize a nucleotide unit and the coupling constants that depend on the values of these torsion angles. Karplus-type equations have been established relating many three-bond coupling constants to torsion angles. However, one- and two-bond coupling constants can also depend on conformation. Serianni and coworkers measured carbon-proton coupling constants in ribonucleosides and have calculated their values as a function of conformation. The signs of two-bond coupling can be very useful because it is easier to measure a sign than an accurate magnitude.
Moduli space of Chern-Simons gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soda, Jiro; Yamanaka, Yuki
1990-09-01
Conformally invariant (2+1)-dimensional gravity, Chern-Shimons gravity, is studied. Its solution space, moduli space, is investigated using the linearization method. The dimension of moduli space is determined as 18g - 18 for g > 1,6 for g = 1 and 0 for g = 0. We discuss the geometrical meaning of our investigation. (author)
On the instability of Minkowski space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castagnino, M.A.; Paz, J.P.
1985-01-01
We study the stability of Minkowski space under global conformal fluctuations in the framework of QFT in curved space. We obtain that when a scalar massive free field is present, Minkowski space is an unstable solution of the semiclassical cosmological problem. We also study the consequences of considering a nonlinear gravitational action. (orig.)
On ''conformal spinor geometry'': An attempt to ''understand'' internal symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Budinich, P.
1982-01-01
The natural homomorphism of pure spinors corresponding to a given Clifford algebra Csub(2n) to polarized isotropic n-planes of complex Euclidean space Esub(2n)sup(c) is taken as a starting point for the construction of a geometry called spinor geometry where pure spinors are the only elements out of which all tensors have to be constructed (analytically as bilinear polynomials of the components of a pure spinor). C 4 and C 6 spinor geometry are analyzed, but it seems that C 8 spinor geometry is necessary to construct Minkowski space Msup(3,1). C 6 spinor field equations give rise in Minkowski space to a pair of Dirac equations (for conformal semispinors) presenting an su(2) internal symmetry algebra. Mass is generated by breaking spontaneously the original O(4,2) symmetry of the spinor equation. (author)
On ''conformal spinor geometry'': An attempt to ''understand'' internal symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Budinich, P.
1981-09-01
The natural homomorphism of pure spinors corresponding to a given Clifford algebra Csub(2n) to polarized isotropic n-planes of complex Euclidean space Esub(2n)sup(c) is taken as a starting point for the construction of a geometry called spinor geometry where pure spinors are the only elements out of which all tensors have to be constructed (analytically as bilinear polynomia of the components of a pure spinor). C 4 and C 6 spinor geometry are analyzed but it seems that C 8 spinor geometry is necessary to construct Minkowski space Msup(3,1). C 6 spinor field equations give rise in Minkowski space to a pair of Dirac equations (for conformal semispinors) presenting an SU(2) internal symmetry algebra. Mass is generated by spontaneously breaking the original O(4,2) symmetry of the spinor equation. (author)
The Building Game: From Enumerative Combinatorics to Conformational Diffusion
Johnson-Chyzhykov, Daniel; Menon, Govind
2016-08-01
We study a discrete attachment model for the self-assembly of polyhedra called the building game. We investigate two distinct aspects of the model: (i) enumerative combinatorics of the intermediate states and (ii) a notion of Brownian motion for the polyhedral linkage defined by each intermediate that we term conformational diffusion. The combinatorial configuration space of the model is computed for the Platonic, Archimedean, and Catalan solids of up to 30 faces, and several novel enumerative results are generated. These represent the most exhaustive computations of this nature to date. We further extend the building game to include geometric information. The combinatorial structure of each intermediate yields a systems of constraints specifying a polyhedral linkage and its moduli space. We use a random walk to simulate a reflected Brownian motion in each moduli space. Empirical statistics of the random walk may be used to define the rates of transition for a Markov process modeling the process of self-assembly.
RNA Packing Specificity and Folding during Assembly of the Bacteriophage MS2
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ottar Rolfsson
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Using a combination of biochemistry, mass spectrometry, NMR spectroscopy and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM, we have been able to show that quasi-equivalent conformer switching in the coat protein (CP of an RNA bacteriophage (MS2 is controlled by a sequence-specific RNA–protein interaction. The RNA component of this complex is an RNA stem-loop encompassing just 19 nts from the phage genomic RNA, which is 3569 nts in length. This binding results in the conversion of a CP dimer from a symmetrical conformation to an asymmetric one. Only when both symmetrical and asymmetrical dimers are present in solution is assembly of the T = 3 phage capsid efficient. This implies that the conformers, we have characterized by NMR correspond to the two distinct quasi-equivalent conformers seen in the 3D structure of the virion. An icosahedrally-averaged single particle cryo-EM reconstruction of the wild-type phage (to ∼9 Å resolution has revealed icosahedrally ordered density encompassing up to 90% of the single-stranded RNA genome. The RNA is seen with a novel arrangement of two concentric shells, with connections between them along the 5-fold symmetry axes. RNA in the outer shell interacts with each of the 90 CP dimers in the T = 3 capsid and although the density is icosahedrally averaged, there appears to be a different average contact at the different quasi-equivalent protein dimers: precisely the result that would be expected if protein conformer switching is RNA-mediated throughout the assembly pathway. This unprecedented RNA structure provides new constraints for models of viral assembly and we describe experiments aimed at probing these. Together, these results suggest that viral genomic RNA folding is an important factor in efficient assembly, and further suggest that RNAs that could sequester viral CPs but not fold appropriately could act as potent inhibitors of viral assembly.
Functional Advantages of Conserved Intrinsic Disorder in RNA-Binding Proteins
Varadi, Mihaly; Zsolyomi, Fruzsina; Guharoy, Mainak; Tompa, Peter
2015-01-01
Proteins form large macromolecular assemblies with RNA that govern essential molecular processes. RNA-binding proteins have often been associated with conformational flexibility, yet the extent and functional implications of their intrinsic disorder have never been fully assessed. Here, through large-scale analysis of comprehensive protein sequence and structure datasets we demonstrate the prevalence of intrinsic structural disorder in RNA-binding proteins and domains. We addressed their func...
q-deformed conformal and Poincare algebras on quantum 4-spinors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Uematsu, Tsuneo
1993-01-01
We investigate quantum deformation of conformal algebras by constructing the quantum space for sl q (4). The differential calculus on the quantum space and the action of the quantum generators are studied. We derive deformed su(2, 2) algebra from the deformed sl(4) algebra using the quantum 4-spinor and its conjugate spinor. The quantum 6-vector in so q (4, 2) is constructed as a tensor product of two sets of 4-spinors. We obtain the q-deformed conformal algebra with the suitable assignment of the generators which satisfy the reality condition. The deformed Poincare algebra is derived through a contraction procedure. (orig.)
Sharma, Monika; Anirudh, C R
2017-10-03
STAR proteins are evolutionary conserved mRNA-binding proteins that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression at all stages of RNA metabolism. These proteins possess conserved STAR domain that recognizes identical RNA regulatory elements as YUAAY. Recently reported crystal structures show that STAR domain is composed of N-terminal QUA1, K-homology domain (KH) and C-terminal QUA2, and mRNA binding is mediated by KH-QUA2 domain. Here, we present simulation studies done to investigate binding of mRNA to STAR protein, mammalian Quaking protein (QKI). We carried out conventional MD simulations of STAR domain in presence and absence of mRNA, and studied the impact of mRNA on the stability, dynamics and underlying allosteric mechanism of STAR domain. Our unbiased simulations results show that presence of mRNA stabilizes the overall STAR domain by reducing the structural deviations, correlating the 'within-domain' motions, and maintaining the native contacts information. Absence of mRNA not only influenced the essential modes of motion of STAR domain, but also affected the connectivity of networks within STAR domain. We further explored the dissociation of mRNA from STAR domain using umbrella sampling simulations, and the results suggest that mRNA binding to STAR domain occurs in multi-step: first conformational selection of mRNA backbone conformations, followed by induced fit mechanism as nucleobases interact with STAR domain.
The snakelike chain character of unstructured RNA.
Jacobson, David R; McIntosh, Dustin B; Saleh, Omar A
2013-12-03
In the absence of base-pairing and tertiary structure, ribonucleic acid (RNA) assumes a random-walk conformation, modulated by the electrostatic self-repulsion of the charged, flexible backbone. This behavior is often modeled as a Kratky-Porod "wormlike chain" (WLC) with a Barrat-Joanny scale-dependent persistence length. In this study we report measurements of the end-to-end extension of poly(U) RNA under 0.1 to 10 pN applied force and observe two distinct elastic-response regimes: a low-force, power-law regime characteristic of a chain of swollen blobs on long length scales and a high-force, salt-valence-dependent regime consistent with ion-stabilized crumpling on short length scales. This short-scale structure is additionally supported by force- and salt-dependent quantification of the RNA ion atmosphere composition, which shows that ions are liberated under stretching; the number of ions liberated increases with increasing bulk salt concentration. Both this result and the observation of two elastic-response regimes directly contradict the WLC model, which predicts a single elastic regime across all forces and, when accounting for scale-dependent persistence length, the opposite trend in ion release with salt concentration. We conclude that RNA is better described as a "snakelike chain," characterized by smooth bending on long length scales and ion-stabilized crumpling on short length scales. In monovalent salt, these two regimes are separated by a characteristic length that scales with the Debye screening length, highlighting the determining importance of electrostatics in RNA conformation. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The butane condensed matter conformational problem
Weber, A.C.J.; de Lange, C.A.; Meerts, W.L.; Burnell, E.E.
2010-01-01
From the dipolar couplings of orientationally ordered n-butane obtained by NMR spectroscopy we have calculated conformer probabilities using the modified Chord (Cd) and Size-and-Shape (CI) models to estimate the conformational dependence of the order matrix. All calculation methods make use of
Conformity to Peer Pressure in Preschool Children
Haun, Daniel B. M.; Tomasello, Michael
2011-01-01
Both adults and adolescents often conform their behavior and opinions to peer groups, even when they themselves know better. The current study investigated this phenomenon in 24 groups of 4 children between 4;2 and 4;9 years of age. Children often made their judgments conform to those of 3 peers, who had made obviously erroneous but unanimous…
Dissecting the large-scale galactic conformity
Seo, Seongu
2018-01-01
Galactic conformity is an observed phenomenon that galaxies located in the same region have similar properties such as star formation rate, color, gas fraction, and so on. The conformity was first observed among galaxies within in the same halos (“one-halo conformity”). The one-halo conformity can be readily explained by mutual interactions among galaxies within a halo. Recent observations however further witnessed a puzzling connection among galaxies with no direct interaction. In particular, galaxies located within a sphere of ~5 Mpc radius tend to show similarities, even though the galaxies do not share common halos with each other ("two-halo conformity" or “large-scale conformity”). Using a cosmological hydrodynamic simulation, Illustris, we investigate the physical origin of the two-halo conformity and put forward two scenarios. First, back-splash galaxies are likely responsible for the large-scale conformity. They have evolved into red galaxies due to ram-pressure stripping in a given galaxy cluster and happen to reside now within a ~5 Mpc sphere. Second, galaxies in strong tidal field induced by large-scale structure also seem to give rise to the large-scale conformity. The strong tides suppress star formation in the galaxies. We discuss the importance of the large-scale conformity in the context of galaxy evolution.
Conformal invariance and two-dimensional physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zuber, J.B.
1993-01-01
Actually, physicists and mathematicians are very interested in conformal invariance: geometric transformations which keep angles. This symmetry is very important for two-dimensional systems as phase transitions, string theory or node mathematics. In this article, the author presents the conformal invariance and explains its usefulness
Fusion rules in conformal field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fuchs, J.
1993-06-01
Several aspects of fusion rings and fusion rule algebras, and of their manifestations in two-dimensional (conformal) field theory, are described: diagonalization and the connection with modular invariance; the presentation in terms of quotients of polynomial rings; fusion graphs; various strategies that allow for a partial classification; and the role of the fusion rules in the conformal bootstrap programme. (orig.)
A viewpoint on nearly conformally symmetric manifold
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rahman, M.S.
1990-06-01
Some observations, with definition, on Nearly Conformally Symmetric (NCS) manifold are made. A number of theorems concerning conformal change of metric and parallel tensors on NCS manifolds are presented. It is illustrated that a manifold M = R n-1 x R + 1 , endowed with a special metric, is NCS but not of harmonic curvature. (author). 8 refs
Disease-associated mutations that alter the RNA structural ensemble.
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Matthew Halvorsen
2010-08-01
Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS often identify disease-associated mutations in intergenic and non-coding regions of the genome. Given the high percentage of the human genome that is transcribed, we postulate that for some observed associations the disease phenotype is caused by a structural rearrangement in a regulatory region of the RNA transcript. To identify such mutations, we have performed a genome-wide analysis of all known disease-associated Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD that map to the untranslated regions (UTRs of a gene. Rather than using minimum free energy approaches (e.g. mFold, we use a partition function calculation that takes into consideration the ensemble of possible RNA conformations for a given sequence. We identified in the human genome disease-associated SNPs that significantly alter the global conformation of the UTR to which they map. For six disease-states (Hyperferritinemia Cataract Syndrome, beta-Thalassemia, Cartilage-Hair Hypoplasia, Retinoblastoma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD, and Hypertension, we identified multiple SNPs in UTRs that alter the mRNA structural ensemble of the associated genes. Using a Boltzmann sampling procedure for sub-optimal RNA structures, we are able to characterize and visualize the nature of the conformational changes induced by the disease-associated mutations in the structural ensemble. We observe in several cases (specifically the 5' UTRs of FTL and RB1 SNP-induced conformational changes analogous to those observed in bacterial regulatory Riboswitches when specific ligands bind. We propose that the UTR and SNP combinations we identify constitute a "RiboSNitch," that is a regulatory RNA in which a specific SNP has a structural consequence that results in a disease phenotype. Our SNPfold algorithm can help identify RiboSNitches by leveraging GWAS data and an analysis of the mRNA structural ensemble.
Vertex operator algebras and conformal field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, Y.Z.
1992-01-01
This paper discusses conformal field theory, an important physical theory, describing both two-dimensional critical phenomena in condensed matter physics and classical motions of strings in string theory. The study of conformal field theory will deepen the understanding of these theories and will help to understand string theory conceptually. Besides its importance in physics, the beautiful and rich mathematical structure of conformal field theory has interested many mathematicians. New relations between different branches of mathematics, such as representations of infinite-dimensional Lie algebras and Lie groups, Riemann surfaces and algebraic curves, the Monster sporadic group, modular functions and modular forms, elliptic genera and elliptic cohomology, Calabi-Yau manifolds, tensor categories, and knot theory, are revealed in the study of conformal field theory. It is therefore believed that the study of the mathematics involved in conformal field theory will ultimately lead to new mathematical structures which would be important to both mathematics and physics
Conformally covariant massless spin-two field equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drew, M.S.; Gegenberg, J.D.
1980-01-01
An explicit proof is constructed to show that the field equations for a symmetric tensor field hsub(ab) describing massless spin-2 particles in Minkowski space-time are not covariant under the 15-parameter group SOsub(4,2); this group is usually associated with conformal transformations on flat space, and here it will be considered as a global gauge group which acts upon matter fields defined on space-time. Notwithstanding the above noncovariance, the equations governing the rank-4 tensor Ssub(abcd) constructed from hsub(ab) are shown to be covariant provided the contraction Ssub(ab) vanishes. Conformal covariance is proved by demonstrating the covariance of the equations for the equivalent 5-component complex field; in fact, covariance is proved for a general field equation applicable to massless particles of any spin >0. It is shown that the noncovariance of the hsub(ab) equations may be ascribed to the fact that the transformation behaviour of hsub(ab) is not the same as that of a field consisting of a gauge only. Since this is in contradistinction to the situation for the electromagnetic-field equations, the vector form of the electromagnetic equations is cast into a form which can be duplicated for the hsub(ab)-field. This procedure results in an alternative, covariant, field equation for hsub(ab). (author)
Interaction of sulforaphane with DNA and RNA.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farzaneh Abassi Joozdani
Full Text Available Sulforaphane (SFN is an isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables with anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer activities. However, the antioxidant and anticancer mechanism of sulforaphane is not well understood. In the present research, we reported binding modes, binding constants and stability of SFN-DNA and -RNA complexes by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR and UV-Visible spectroscopic methods. Spectroscopic evidence showed DNA intercalation with some degree of groove binding. SFN binds minor and major grooves of DNA and backbone phosphate (PO2, while RNA binding is through G, U, A bases with some degree of SFN-phosphate (PO2 interaction. Overall binding constants were estimated to be K(SFN-DNA=3.01 (± 0.035×10(4 M(-1 and K(SFN-RNA= 6.63 (±0.042×10(3 M(-1. At high SFN concentration (SFN/RNA = 1/1, DNA conformation changed from B to A occurred, while RNA remained in A-family structure.
Superstrings, conformal field theories and holographic duality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benichou, R.
2009-06-01
The first half of this work is dedicated to the study of non-compact Gepner models.The Landau-Ginzburg description provides an easy and direct access to the geometry of the singularity associated to the non-compact Gepner models. Using these tools, we are able to give an intuitive account of the chiral rings of the models, and of the massless moduli in particular. By studying orbifolds of the singular linear dilaton models, we describe mirror pairs of non-compact Gepner models by suitably adapting the Greene-Plesser construction of mirror pairs for the compact case. For particular models, we take a large level, low curvature limit in which we can analyze corrections to a flat space orbifold approximation of the non-compact Gepner models. We have also studied bound states in N=2 Liouville theory with boundary and deep throat D-branes. We have shown that the bound states can give rise to massless vector and hyper multiplets in a low-energy gauge theory on D-branes deep inside the throat. The second half of this work deals with the issue of the quantization of the string in the presence of Ramond-Ramond backgrounds. Using the pure spinor formalism on the world-sheet, we derive the T-duality rules for all target space couplings in an efficient manner. The world-sheet path integral derivation is a proof of the equivalence of the T-dual Ramond-Ramond backgrounds which is valid non-perturbatively in the string length over the curvature radius and to all orders in perturbation theory in the string coupling. Sigma models on supergroup manifolds are relevant for quantifying string in various Anti-de-Sitter space-time with Ramond-Ramond backgrounds. We show that the conformal current algebra is realized in non-linear sigma models on supergroup manifolds with vanishing dual Coxeter number, with or without a Wess-Zumino term. The current algebra is computed. We also prove that these models realize a non-chiral Kac-Moody algebra and construct an infinite set of commuting
Real-space and real-time dynamics of CRISPR-Cas9 visualized by high-speed atomic force microscopy.
Shibata, Mikihiro; Nishimasu, Hiroshi; Kodera, Noriyuki; Hirano, Seiichi; Ando, Toshio; Uchihashi, Takayuki; Nureki, Osamu
2017-11-10
The CRISPR-associated endonuclease Cas9 binds to a guide RNA and cleaves double-stranded DNA with a sequence complementary to the RNA guide. The Cas9-RNA system has been harnessed for numerous applications, such as genome editing. Here we use high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) to visualize the real-space and real-time dynamics of CRISPR-Cas9 in action. HS-AFM movies indicate that, whereas apo-Cas9 adopts unexpected flexible conformations, Cas9-RNA forms a stable bilobed structure and interrogates target sites on the DNA by three-dimensional diffusion. These movies also provide real-time visualization of the Cas9-mediated DNA cleavage process. Notably, the Cas9 HNH nuclease domain fluctuates upon DNA binding, and subsequently adopts an active conformation, where the HNH active site is docked at the cleavage site in the target DNA. Collectively, our HS-AFM data extend our understanding of the action mechanism of CRISPR-Cas9.
Veluchamy, Alaguraj; Jé gu, Teddy; Ariel, Federico; Latrasse, David; Mariappan, Kiruthiga Gayathri; Kim, SoonKap; Crespi, Martin; Hirt, Heribert; Bergounioux, Catherine; Raynaud, Cé cile; Benhamed, Moussa
2016-01-01
Precise expression patterns of genes in time and space are essential for proper development of multicellular organisms. Dynamic chromatin conformation and spatial organization of the genome constitute a major step in this regulation to modulate developmental outputs. Polycomb repressive complexes (PRCs) mediate stable or flexible gene repression in response to internal and environmental cues. In Arabidopsis thaliana, LHP1 co-localizes with H3K27me3 epigenetic marks throughout the genome and interacts with PRC1 and PRC2 members as well as with a long noncoding RNA. Here, we show that LHP1 is responsible for the spreading of H3K27me3 towards the 3’ end of the gene body. We also identified a subset of LHP1-activated genes and demonstrated that LHP1 shapes local chromatin topology in order to control transcriptional co-regulation. Our work reveals a general role of LHP1 from local to higher conformation levels of chromatin configuration to determine its accessibility to define gene expression patterns.