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Sample records for rn nas cavernas

  1. {sup 222} Rn exposure assessment in the caves of Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (PETAR); Avaliacao da exposicao ao {sup 222} Rn nas cavernas do Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (PETAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberigi, Simone

    2006-07-01

    In the present work, radon concentrations in six caves of PETAR - Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (High Ribeira River Touristic State Park) were carried out with Makrofol E solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) and used to assess the annual effective dose received by regional tour guides. The park has four visitation centers: Santana, Ouro Grosso, Caboclos e Casa de Pedra and receives nearly 40,000 people annually. The caves evaluated were Couto, Agua Suja, Laje Branca, Morro Preto and Santana, from Santana center and Alambari de Baixo from Ouro Grosso center, for being the most frequently visited caves. The exposure period of the SSNTD was, at least, three months, over a period of 26 months, from October 2003 to November 2005.The {sup 222}Rn concentrations lay in a range from 153 Bq.m{sup -3} to 6607 Bq.m{sup -3} and we observed that, in general, for chilly weather, the radon levels decrease. The annual effective dose, considering the most realistic scenario, with geometric mean concentrations, an equilibrium factor of 0.5 and annual exposure time for each cave, varied from 0.2 mSv.a{sup -1} for the Couto cave, strongly ventilated, to 4.0 mSv.a{sup -1} for the Santana cave, the most frequently visited and no external communication. For the worst scenario, with arithmetic mean concentrations, equilibrium factor 1 and annual exposure time for all caves, the annual effective dose was 16.1 mSv.a{sup -1}. All assessed effective doses received by the tour guides are bellow 20 mSv.a{sup -1} suggested as an annual effective dose limit for occupational exposure by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP 60, 1990). (author)

  2. CONTROLE GERENCIAL: UMA ANÁLISE NAS EMPRESAS CONTÁBEIS DA CIDADE DE CAICÓ/RN.

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    Hugo Azevedo Rangel de Morais

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available O controle gerencial de uma empresa é necessário para um eficiente desenvolvimento interno. Com as mudanças constantes das legislações e a evolução da tecnologia de informação nas empresas contábeis, é essencial o controle gerencial eficiente, através dele será possível identificar como está a vida da empresa no seu dia a dia. Neste trabalho é mostrada a importância do controle gerencial para as empresas contábeis, situada na cidade de Caicó/RN, demonstrando a sua importância para auxiliar nas tomadas de decisões. O presente estudo tem como objetivo geral de analisar se nas empresas contábeis da cidade de Caicó existe um controle gerencial que os auxiliem nas tomadas de decisões, verificando se existem a prestação de serviço de contabilidade gerencial e analisando a importância do controle gerencial para os empresários. A contextualização do tema trata-se de pesquisas bibliográficas. A metodologia desenvolvida na pesquisa é classificada como descritiva, do ponto de vista de sua natureza é uma pesquisa aplicada, tendo uma abordagem qualitativa por ter caráter exploratório, já no que se refere aos procedimentos técnicos trata-se de um levantamento. Observou que os empresários tem conhecimento em relação à importância do controle gerencial, a maioria coloca em pratica obtendo uma boa classificação dos controles com confiabilidade para auxiliar nas tomadas de decisões, foi detectado que a maioria das empresas faz um planejamento dos objetivos a serem controlados.

  3. Information literacy: uma análise nas bibliotecas escolares da rede privada em Natal/RN Information literacy: an analysis of the school library of the private schools network in Natal/RN p. 110-133

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    Gabriela Farias

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta a information literacy, como competência em informação, relata, de forma geral, seu surgimento, desenvolvimento e importância de sua prática na biblioteca escolar. Aborda-se os principais focos da competência em informação: tecnologia da informação, processos cognitivos, e aprendizado ao longo da vida. Relata-se a análise dos dados dos questionários aplicados nas bibliotecas escolares da rede de escolas privadas da cidade de Natal RN com fins de identificar e analisar a competência em informação neste ambiente. Apresenta-se a necessidade de integração entre escola-biblioteca, e a inserção do bibliotecário na comunidade educacional para criação de programas educacionais voltados para a competência em informação. Palavras-chave Competência em informação; Habilidades informativas; Biblioteca escolar; Educação e aprendizagem Abstract It presents information literacy as information competence, as well as reporting, in a general way its appearance, development and the importance of its practice in the school library. Focuses on the main information competences: information technology, cognitive processes and life long learning. It reports on the analysis of data obtained from the questionnaire applied in school libraries of the private schools network in the city of Natal RN, as a means to identify and analyze information competence in this environment. The need for school-library integration is presented, as is the need for the insertion of the librarian in the educational community for the creation of educational programs directed towards information competence. Key words Information competence; Informative skills; School library; Education and learning

  4. Complete genome sequence of Beutenbergia cavernae type strain (HKI 0122T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Land, Miriam; Pukall, Rudiger; Abt, Birte; Goker, Markus; Rohde, Manfred; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Tice, Hope; Copeland, Alex; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Lucas, Susan; Chen, Feng; Nolan, Matt; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Hauser, Loren; Chang, Yun-Juan; Jefferies, Cynthia C.; Saunders, Elizabeth; Brettin, Thomas; Detter, John C.; Han, Cliff; Chain, Patrick; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Lapidus, Alla

    2009-05-20

    Beutenbergia cavernae (Groth et al. 1999) is the type species of the genus and is of phylogenetic interest because of its isolated location in the actinobacterial suborder Micrococcineae. B. cavernae HKI 0122T is a Gram-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming bacterium isolated from a cave in Guangxi (China). B. cavernae grows best under aerobic conditions and shows a rod-coccus growth cycle. Its cell wall peptidoglycan contains the diagnostic L-lysine - L-glutamate interpeptide bridge. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first completed genome sequence from the poorly populated micrococcineal family Beutenbergiaceae, and this 4,669,183 bp long single replicon genome with its 4225 protein-coding and 53 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  5. Sample size clay kaolin of primary in pegmatites regions Junco Serido - PB and Equador - RN; Granulometria de argila caulim primario dos pegmatitos nas regioes do Junco do Serido - PB e Equador - RN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.F.; Sousa, J.B.M.; Sales, L.R.; Silva, P.A.S.; Lima, A.D.D., E-mail: mauro.meyer@ifrn.edu.br [Instituto Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (IFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Kaolin is a clay formed mainly of kaolinite resulting from feldspar weathering or hydrothermal. This study aims to investigate the way of occurrence, kaolin particle size of the pegmatites of the Borborema Province Pegmatitic in the regions of Junco do Serido-PB and Ecuador-RN. These variables were analyzed considering granulometric intervals obtained from wet sieving of samples of pegmatite mines in the region. Kaolin was received using sieves of 200, 325, 400 and 500 mesh and the sieve fractions retained by generating statistical parameters histograms. kaolin particles are extremely fine and pass in its entirety through 500 mesh sieve. The characterization of minerals in fine fractions by diffraction of X-rays showed that the relative amount of sericite in fractions retained in sieves 400 and 500 mesh impairing the whiteness and mineralogical texture kaolin production. (author)

  6. Carbon-14 dating of a mummy from 'Caverna da Babilonia', Rio Novo Country, south of Minas Gerais (MG, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltrao, M. da C.M.C.; Danon, J.; Poupeau, G.

    1985-01-01

    The vegetable fibers of a cloth wrapping a mummy of a woman, found in 'Caverna da Babilonia' (MG, Brazil), were dated with carbon-14. There is strong evidence that it is a pre-colombian mummym since the age of the sample is 600 + - 80 years (1σ). (C.L.B.) [pt

  7. A PRÁTICA PEDAGÓGICA DO ENSINO DE EDUCAÇÃO AMBIENTAL NAS ESCOLAS PÚBLICAS DE JOÃO CÂMARA – RN

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    Vanda Maria Saraiva

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente projeto de pesquisa foi desenvolvido em três escolas públicas (Cenecista João XXIII, Francisco de Assis Bittencourt e Antônio Gomes da cidade de João Câmara-RN, com o objetivo geral de conhecer a realidade dessas escolas, no sentido de saber se existe uma prática permanente das questões ambientais nos currículos escolares e se estes são passados aos alunos de forma multidisciplinar, como determina os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais – PCNs, que dá evidência necessária a preservação do meio ambiente, contemplando as realidades locais e sugere formas de introdução de Educação Ambiental (EA nos currículos. A Constituição Federal também estabelece como competência do poder público, promover a EA em todos os níveis de ensino. Considerando que a degradação ambiental é hoje uma das maiores preocupações dos governos e da sociedade, faz-se necessário desenvolver ações de caráter educativo, para o desenvolvimento sustentável garantindo assim, a permanência dos recursos naturais em condições que assegure às gerações futuras sobrevivência na Terra. A metodologia utilizada foi a pesquisa exploratória, pois levantamos informações sobre o nosso objeto de estudo, e do tipo explicativa uma vez que analisamos o fenômeno estudado, os seus “porquês” e seus determinantes. Visitamos as escolas para buscarmos os dados “in loco”, onde foram feitos levantamentos através de perguntas a respeito do assunto abordado. Aplicamos um questionário com os docentes, com perguntas objetivas e subjetivas, respondidos por 35 professores de um total de 55, representando assim 64% da amostra. Os resultados obtidos nas três escolas foram analisados conjuntamente. Após a aplicação do questionário, seguiu-se a fase da análise de todos os dados obtidos durante a pesquisa. Buscou-se dessa forma, distribuir graficamente em termos quantitativos os resultados das respostas do questionário, as quais foram

  8. Dating stalagmite from Caverna do Diabo (Devil´S Cave by TL and EPR techniques

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    SHIGUEO WATANABE

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A cylindrical fragment of stalagmite from Caverna do Diabo, State of São Paulo, Brazil, has been studied and dated by thermoluminescence and electron paramagnetic resonance techniques. The thermoluminescence glow curves of stalagmite samples and subsequently gamma irradiated, have shown rise of three peaks at 135, 180 and 265 °C. From electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of stalagmite was possible to clearly identify three paramagnetic centers in the g = 2.0 region: Centers I, II and III are due to , and , respectively. The additive method was applied to calculate the accumulated dose using thermoluminescence peak at 265 °C and the electron paramagnetic resonance signal at g = 1.9973 of CO- 2 radical. The ages of the different slices of stalagmite were determined from the Dac- values and Dan- value, obtaining an average of 86410 for central slice, 53421 for second slice, 31490 for third slice and 46390 years B.P. for the central region of upper end.

  9. Comparação da percepção e necessidade estética de tratamento ortodôntico entre pacientes e ortodontistas nas cidades de Natal/RN e João Pessoa/PB Comparing the perception and esthetic need of orthodontic treatment between patients and orthodontists from Natal/RN and João Pessoa/PB

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    Fábio Henrique de Sá Leitão Pinheiro

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de comparar a perspectiva estética e a necessidade de tratamento dos ortodontistas e de seus respectivos pacientes, nas cidades de Natal/RN e João Pessoa/PB, distribuíram-se questionários aos pacientes e profissionais locais que, por meio de ilustrações de algumas características das más oclusões, que possibilitaram uma comparação do grau de valorização da estética dentofacial entre ambos os grupos. Por meio de tabelas e testes estatísticos, conclui-se que o padrão braquifacial, o desvio da linha média e o apinhamento ântero-inferior são mais perceptíveis aos profissionais do que aos pacientes e que os profissionais apontaram uma maior necessidade de tratamento da Classe II mandibular e do padrão dolicofacial do que seus respectivos pacientes, na cidade de Natal. Enquanto que em João Pessoa o desvio de linha média é mais perceptível aos profissionais do que aos pacientes; o tratamento da Classe II mandibular, Classe II com AFAI aumentada e sorriso gengival são mais exigidos pelos pacientes do que pelos profissionais e o tratamento do apinhamento ântero-inferior mais solicitado pelos profissionais. Demonstrando que essas diferenças constituem informações valiosas para que cada profissional conheça as expectativas de seus pacientes e, assim, proceda de forma mais esclarecedora durante seus procedimentos clínicos.This work aimed to compare the sense of esthetics, and the capacity to deem the need of orthodontic treatment, between orthodontists and their respective patients in the cities of Natal-RN and João Pessoa-PB, Brazil. Questionnaires containing illustrations of certain aspects of malocclusions (facial patterns, facial asymmetries, unbalanced profiles, smiles and intraoral views were handed out to patients and local professionals in order to ease a comparision of the esthetic valorization degree between both of these groups. Tables and statistic tests demonstrated the existing differences and

  10. GERAÇÃO E DESTINO DOS RESÍDUOS ELETRÔNICOS DE INFORMÁTICA NAS INSTITUIÇÕES DE ENSINO SUPERIOR DE NATAL-RN

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    Ricardo Teixeira Gregório Andrade

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Os produtos eletrônicos, hodiernamente tão imiscuídos em nosso cotidiano e cultura, e confeccionados para nos trazerem comodidade e conforto, são responsáveis por gerar severos prejuízos (econômicos, sociais, ambientais, desde a produção ao descarte, a despeito de sua aparente inofensibilidade. A expansividade do uso de equipamentos e as constantes trocas de versões, motivados pela febre de consumo imposta e obsolescência programada, geram um montante de resíduos colossal e praticamente imensurável. A destinação final incorreta destes materiais, os resíduos eletroeletrônicos (ou chamados ‘lixo digital’, pode em pouco tempo se agravar em grandes desastres ambientais, caso não sejam tomadas as providências necessárias. Na cidade de Natal, em similaridade ao contexto nacional, não existe ainda uma política de tratamento do lixo digital. O presente estudo objetiva traçar um breve e inicial panorama da geração e destinação dos resíduos eletrônicos de informática de algumas das principais instituições de ensino superior de Natal–RN. Os dados levantados, através de entrevistas e bancos de dados institucionais, evidenciam a parca consciência quanto ao lixo digital e quão incipiente ainda é a gestão desses resíduos, apesar de serem as instituições de ensino superior os grandes pólos geradores e distribuidores de conhecimentos científicos que possam criar/aplicar as soluções devidas à fiel execução sustentável dos processos produtivos.

  11. Microlunatus cavernae sp. nov., a novel actinobacterium isolated from Alu ancient cave, Yunnan, South-West China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Juan; Chen, Wei; Huo-Zhang, Bing; Nimaichand, Salam; Zhou, En-Min; Lu, Xin-Hua; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Li, Wen-Jun

    2013-07-01

    A Gram-positive, coccoid, non-endospore-forming actinobacterium, designated YIM C01117(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from Alu ancient cave, Yunnan province, south-west China. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain YIM C01117(T) was shown to belong to the genus Microlunatus, with highest sequence similarity of 97.4 % to Microlunatus soli DSM 21800(T). The whole genomic DNA relatedness as shown by the DNA-DNA hybridization study between YIM C01117(T) and M. soli DSM 21800(T) had a low value (47 ± 2 %). Strain YIM C01117(T) was determined to contain LL-diaminopimelic acid with Gly, Glu and Ala amino acids (A3γ' type) in the cell wall. Whole-cell hydrolysates were found to contain glucose, galactose, mannose and ribose. The major polar lipids were determined to be phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The predominant menaquinone system present is MK-9(H4), while the major fatty acids were identified to be anteiso-C15:0 (24.1 %), iso-C16:0 (22.3 %) and iso-C15:0 (11.4 %). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was determined to be 65.9 mol%. The chemotaxonomic and genotypic data support the affiliation of the strain YIM C01117(T) to the genus Microlunatus. The results of physiological and biochemical tests allow strain YIM C01117(T) to be differentiated phenotypically from recognized Microlunatus species. Strain YIM C01117(T) is therefore considered to represent a novel species of the genus Microlunatus, for which the name Microlunatus cavernae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM C01117(T) (= DSM 26248(T) = JCM 18536(T)).

  12. Multiplication on Rn -A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    topology can be used to prove the results in the first article. While the discussion ... {O}) x (JRn \\ {O}) ~ JRn \\ {O} with an element e E ]Rn \\ {O} such that m(e, ... in 1966, using sophisticated methods from topology. To state this ... If G is a finite group then G is a ... (Topology on Sn is of course the induced topology from. JRn+1.) ...

  13. Spectroscopy of 212Rn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuchbery, A.E.; Dracoulis, G.D.; Byrne, A.P.; Poletti, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    Excited states of 212 Rn have been studied using γ-ray and electron spectroscopy following the reactions 208 Pb( 9 Be, 5n) and 204 Hg( 13 C,5n). With the exception of the energy of the yrast 8 + → 6 + transition, the previously proposed level scheme has been verified. New transitions have been placed in the level scheme and new lifetime and g-factor results obtained. The level scheme and electromagnetic properties of selected isomeric states are compared with the results of shell model and semi-empirical shell-model calculations, including coupling to octupole vibrations. (orig.)

  14. Spectroscopy of 212Rn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuchbery, A.E.; Dracoulis, G.D.; Byrne, A.P.; Poletti, A.R.

    1988-06-01

    Excited states of 212 Rn have been studied using γ-ray and electron spectroscopy following the reactions 208 Pb ( 9 Be,5n) and 204 Hg( 13 C,5n). With the exception of the energy of the yrast 8 + → 6 + transition, the previously proposed level scheme has been verified. New transitions have been placed in the level scheme and new lifetime and g-factor results obtained. The level scheme and electromagnetic properties of selected isomeric states are compared with the results of shell model and semi-empirical shell-model calculations, including coupling to octupole vibrations

  15. Stressede børn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonseberg, Signe

    2016-01-01

    Stressede børn får det bedre, når deres krop får lov at tale. Fysioterapeut Pernille Thomsen lærer børn at bruge kroppen, så de trives bedre. Og der er ingen hokuspokus, for det hele bygger på naturvidenskabelig forskning i kroppens hormoner og stress....

  16. Assessing RN-to-RN peer review on clinical units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Judith A; Wickline, Mary A; Deetz, Jill; Berry, Elise S

    2012-04-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to measure informal registered nurse (RN)-to-RN peer review (defined as collegial communication about the quality of nursing care) at the work-unit level. Survey design with cluster sampling of 28 hospital or ambulatory care units (n = 541 respondents). Results were compared with existing patient safety and satisfaction data. A chi-squared test was used to compare responses against nurse characteristics. Nurses agreed that RN-to-RN peer review takes place on their units, but no correlation with patient safety and satisfaction data was found. Misunderstandings about the meaning of peer review were evident. Open-ended comments revealed barriers to peer review: fear of retribution, language barriers and lack of professionalism. Nurses need clarification of peer review. Issues with common language in a professional environment need to be addressed and nurses can learn collaboration from each other's cultures. Managers should support RN-to-RN peer review on clinical units. Methods used here may be useful to assess current departmental nurse peer review. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. rn Utzon

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    Jaime J. Ferrer Forés

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza el proyecto del arquitecto danés Jørn Utzon (1918-2008 para la construcción de la Escuela de la Unión de trabajadores daneses en Højstrup, Helsingør (1958-1962, desde las dos propuestas presentadas al concurso, que obtienen el primer y segundo premio, a las versiones del proyecto que desarrolla simultáneamente al proyecto de la Ópera de Sídney (1956-1973. El análisis de la evolucióndel proyecto de Højstrup permite aproximarse al talento plástico y al universo de extraordinario lirismo del arquitecto, a través de la exploración formal que desarrolla en torno a las plataformas y los recintos, a la relación entre los dos elementos de la escala tipológica, la torre y el cuerpo bajo, al estudio de los mecanismos de acceso mediante la porte-cochère, al sistema de agregación de las casas patio o el papel que desempeña la estructura en el proyecto, en un ejercicio de exploración arquitectónica que fluye desde los concursos, entendidos como laboratorios de experiencias formales, al desarrollo lento y gradual de los proyectos sucesivos atendiendo a la vez el sitio y la pieza tipológica, en una cuidada innovación plástica que reivindica la experimentación constructiva y la integración en el paisaje.

  18. Matérn thinned Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ina Trolle; Hahn, Ute

    2016-01-01

    and hard core behaviour can be achieved by applying a dependent Matérn thinning to a Cox process. An exact formula for the intensity of a Matérn thinned shot noise Cox process is derived from the Palm distribution. For the more general class of Matérn thinned Cox processes, formulae for the intensity...

  19. Matérn thinned Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ina Trolle; Hahn, Ute

    of clustering and hard core behaviour can be achieved by applying a dependent Matérn thinning to a Cox process. An exact formula for the intensity of a Matérn thinned shot noise Cox process is derived from the Palm distribution. For the more general class of Matérn thinned Cox processes, formulae...

  20. La población de oso de las cavernas (Ursus spelaeus parvilatipedis n. ssp. de Troskaeta'ko-Kobea (Ataun - Gipuzkoa (Campañas de excavación de 1987 y 1988.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinidad de Torres Perezhidalgo

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia una abundante colección de restos óseos de oso de las cavernas (Ursus spelaeus parvilatipedis n.ssp. procedente de dos campañas de excavación paleontológica (1987 y 1988 llevadas a cabo en la cueva de Troskaeta (Gipuzkoa. El material es analizado métrica, taxonómica, morfológica y tafonómicamente. El trabajo incluye datos geomorfológicos sobre la cavidad.

  1. rn af veteraner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Signe; Lausten, Mette

    Siden starten af 1990’erne har Danmark sendt over 30.000 soldater og andet personel på internationale missioner – langt de fleste til Eks-Jugoslavien, Afghanistan og Irak. Denne undersøgelse handler om de børn, hvis fædre har været udsendt på militære missioner i udlandet. For hvordan håndterer...... spørgsmål er fokus for undersøgelsen. Undersøgelsen bygger på en spørgeskemaundersøgelse blandt børn af veteraner på henholdsvis 7, 11 og 15 år. Undersøgelsen er gennemført for og i samarbejde med Veterancentrets Videncenter, som er en del af Forsvarsministeriets Personalestyrelse....

  2. Retirement Financial Planning and the RN: An Integrative Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keele, Shanna; Alpert, Patricia T

    2015-10-01

    This integrative literature review examined the current research on RN retirement. The review identified 3 critical gaps in knowledge: (a) minimal knowledge regarding the economic impact on RN retirement, (b) incomplete information regarding the demographics of RN retirement, and (c) a scarcity of prospective longitudinal RN workforce studies. Future research must address these gaps to better address RN workforce sustainability.

  3. Do Liceu à bat-caverna. Batman um super-herói aristotélico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelson Vanderlei Weschenfelder

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2178-4582.2014v48n1p94 Um dos ícones da cultura pop da atualidade é o ressurgimento das aventuras dos super-heróis dos quadrinhos, as quais não trazem apenas entretenimento aos nossos olhos. Tais histórias abordam questões enfrentadas por todo ser humano comum. Questões como justiça, moral, ética e tantas outras. Estas questões são temas usados nas discussões filosóficas de muitos filósofos durante anos. Um dos grandes personagens das histórias em quadrinhos de super-aventuras, Batman, traz em seu enredo, tramas com várias questões filosóficas. Tais questões encontramos na filosofia do filósofo grego Aristóteles, principalmente em sua obra ‘Ética a Nicômaco’. Batman é um personagem sem super-poderes, porém treina seu corpo e alma para combater o crime em sua cidade. Este ‘treinar’, é para Aristóteles, uma das características para chegar à virtude, pois segundo ele, somente com treinamento poderíamos chegar ao hábito, o hábito de fazer as coisas certas.

  4. Primary measuring of equipment factor of 222Rn/220Rn indoor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yanyang; Liu Fudong; Wang Chunhong; Sheng Mingwei

    2010-01-01

    The activity concentration of 222 Rn, 220 Rn and their progenies of certain working places and dwellings in Baotou city were measured simultaneously. Based on these results, the equipment factor of 222 Rn is 0.35 for working places and 0.43 for dwellings, while equipment factor of 220 Rn measured at 20 cm distance from wall is 0.030 for both working places and dwellings. Preliminary results show that the temporal change of 220 Rn equilibrium equivalent concentration is same as 222 Rn which is high in midnight and low in afternoon,and significant difference between instant and accumulated measure result of 222 Rn, 220 Rn activity concentration is found, with the factor of 2.1 and 1.7. (authors)

  5. Mere Musik til Byens Børn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Finn

    Førsteårsrapport på København Kommunes treårige projekt Mere Musik til Byens Børn - et pilotprojekt med henblik på at sikre, at flere børn i København får mulighed for at deltage i forskellige former for frivillig musikundervisning. Særligt fokuseres der på at fremme, at alle børn i hele byen...

  6. Delebørn i tal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Mai Heide; Mathilde Hansen Stage, Sofie

    Hvordan påvirker samværsordninger børns hverdagsliv? Fungerer forældresamarbejdet anderledes, når der er en deleordning, og trives børn med udstrakt samvær bedre eller dårligere end andre skilsmissebørn? Med udgangspunkt i SFI’s Børneforløbsundersøgelse, som følger 6000 børn fra 1995, bliver der ...

  7. Minoritetsdanske børn i dagtilbud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tireli, Üzeyir

    2015-01-01

    Dagtilbud skal fremme børns trivsel, sundhed, udvikling og læring, Dette er et lovmæssig krav, som gælder for alle børn i Danmark. Minoritetsdanske børn anderledes grundvilkår giver dog store udfordringer for dagtilbuddene - for hvordan sikrer man, at også børn fra kulturelle minoriteter får opti...

  8. Interview med børn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Interview med børn handler om børneinterview i forbindelse med forskning. Bogen er tænkt som inspiration til og afsæt for metodiske refleksioner i forbindelse med inddragelse af børn som informanter.......Interview med børn handler om børneinterview i forbindelse med forskning. Bogen er tænkt som inspiration til og afsæt for metodiske refleksioner i forbindelse med inddragelse af børn som informanter....

  9. Environmental thoron (220Rn): a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, T.V.

    2013-01-01

    Ever since studies on uranium miners established the presence of a positive risk coefficient for the occurrence of lung cancer in miners exposed to elevated levels of 222 Rn and its progeny, there was a great upsurge of interest in the measurement of 222 Rn in the environment and considerable data is generated on the levels of 222 Rn in the environment across the worlds and is periodically reported by UNSCEAR. In contrast to this, data pertaining to 220 Rn in indoors and workplace environment is scare due to the general perception that its levels are negligible due to its shorter half life, and subsequently its contribution to the total inhalation dose is ignored, in the presence of other significant sources of natural radiation. Many locations have higher levels of natural background radiation due to elevated levels of primordial radio nuclides in the soil and their decay products like radon ( 222 Rn), and thoron ( 220 Rn) in the environment. It is estimated inhalation of 222 Rn, 220 Rn and their short lived progenies contribute more than 54 % of the total natural background radiation dose received by the general population. This component is not adequately estimated for any country so far on a national level. 220 Rn problem will also be a problem in industries which uses thorium nitrate. Including India lamps using thoriated gas mantles are being still used for indoor and outdoor lighting and hawkers in rural as well as urban areas. Considering the fact that large amount of thorium nitrate is being handled by these industries, contribution to the inhalation dose of workers from 220 Rn gas emanated and build up of the progeny in ambient air may also be quite significant. In this article current status of 220 Rn levels in the indoor environment workplaces as well as in other industries where large amount of 232 Th is being handled are being summarized. (author)

  10. Geodesics in (Rn, d1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet KILIÇ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The notion of geodesic, which may be regarded as an extension of the line segment in Euclidean geometry to the space we study in, has an important place in many branches of geometry, such as Riemannian geometry, Metric geometry, to name but a few. In this article, the concept of geodesic in a metric space will be introduced, then geodesics in the space (Rn, d1 will be characterized. Furthermore, some examples will be presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the main result.

  11. Relationship of 220Rn and 222Rn progeny levels in Canadian underground U mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.

    1988-01-01

    Radon-222 and 220 Rn progeny are found in some Canadian underground U mines. Because both can contribute to lung dose, their experimental determinations are important. The relationship between 222 Rn progeny Working Level [WL(Rn)] and 220 Rn progeny Working Level [WL(Tn)] has been investigated in U mines. Experimental measurements extended from 1981 to 1986 and consisted of about 700 measurements of each WL(Rn) and WL(Tn). The data were analyzed by standard linear and power-function regression analysis. A power-function relationship between WL(Rn) and WL(Tn) seemed to fit the experimental data best. The relationship obtained permits the calculation of WL(Tn) from experimental values of WL(Rn). The relationship is useful for lung-dose-calculation purposes and in mine-ventilation-engineering calculations

  12. Fremtidens biblioteksbetjening af børn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Helene

    2008-01-01

    Rapporten er resultatet af et tværministerielt udvalgsarbejde nedsat af Kulturministeriet.  Kommissoriet har været at nytænke biblioteksbetjeningen af børn, så den passer til vidensamfundet.  Udvalgsarbejdet munder ud i ti bud for fremtidens biblioteksbetjening af børn....

  13. Valence configurations in 214Rn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracoulis, G.D.; Byrne, A.P.; Stuchbery, A.E.; Bark, R.A.; Poletti, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    Excited states of 214 Rn, up to spins of ≅ 24 ℎ have been studied using γ-ray and electron spectroscopy following the 208 Pb( 9 Be,3n) 214 Rn reaction. The level scheme (which differs substantially from earlier work) is compared with the results of a semi-empirical shell model calculation. The availability of high-spin orbitals for the four valence protons and two valence neutrons, and the effect of the attractive proton-neutron interaction, leads to the prediction of high-spin states at an unusually low excitation energy. Experimentally, the high level density leads to difficulties in the level scheme assignments at high spin. Nevertheless, configuration assignments, supported by transition strengths deduced from the measured lifetimes (in the nanosecond region) are suggested for the main yrast states. The decay properties also suggest that configuration mixing is important. The possibility of a gradual transition to octupole deformation, implied by the decay properties of the 11 - and 10 + yrast states is also discussed. (orig.)

  14. Radiological risk of actinon (/sup 219/Rn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, D.J.

    1981-12-01

    The research reported was designed to provide information on the following subjects: (1) development of the functional relations between exposure to the /sup 219/Rn decay chain and pertinent health effects; (2) specification of the circumstances under which a significant concentration of the decay chain may occur; (3) recommendation of an exposure standard which will provide protection of the public from significant elevation of health effects; and (4) an assessment of the impact of /sup 219/Rn on determinations of the concentration of the /sup 222/Rn decay chain and/or its precursors.

  15. Radiological risk of actinon (219Rn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, D.J.

    1981-12-01

    The research reported was designed to provide information on the following subjects: (1) development of the functional relations between exposure to the 219 Rn decay chain and pertinent health effects; (2) specification of the circumstances under which a significant concentration of the decay chain may occur; (3) recommendation of an exposure standard which will provide protection of the public from significant elevation of health effects; and (4) an assessment of the impact of 219 Rn on determinations of the concentration of the 222 Rn decay chain and/or its precursors

  16. Numerical aerodynamic simulation (NAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, V.L.; Ballhaus, W.F. Jr.; Bailey, F.R.

    1984-01-01

    The Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Program is designed to provide a leading-edge computational capability to the aerospace community. It was recognized early in the program that, in addition to more advanced computers, the entire computational process ranging from problem formulation to publication of results needed to be improved to realize the full impact of computational aerodynamics. Therefore, the NAS Program has been structured to focus on the development of a complete system that can be upgraded periodically with minimum impact on the user and on the inventory of applications software. The implementation phase of the program is now under way. It is based upon nearly 8 yr of study and should culminate in an initial operational capability before 1986. The objective of this paper is fivefold: 1) to discuss the factors motivating the NAS program, 2) to provide a history of the activity, 3) to describe each of the elements of the processing-system network, 4) to outline the proposed allocation of time to users of the facility, and 5) to describe some of the candidate problems being considered for the first benchmark codes

  17. Measurement of 222Rn and 220Rn exhalation rate from soil samples of Kumaun Hills, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semwal, Poonam; Singh, Kuldeep; Agarwal, T. K.; Joshi, Manish; Pant, Preeti; Kandari, Tushar; Ramola, R. C.

    2018-03-01

    The source terms, i.e., exhalation and emanation from soil and building materials are the primary contributors to the radon (222Rn)/thoron (220Rn) concentration levels in the dwellings, while the ecological constraints like ventilation rate, temperature, pressure, humidity, etc., are the influencing factors. The present study is focused on Almora District of Kumaun, located in Himalayan belt of Uttarakhand, India. For the measurement of 222Rn and 220Rn exhalation rates, 24 soil samples were collected from different locations. Gamma radiation level was measured at each of these locations. Chamber technique associated with Smart Rn Duo portable monitor was employed for the estimation of 222Rn and 220Rn exhalation rates. Radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) concentrations were also measured in soil samples using NaI(Tl) scintillation based gamma ray spectrometry. The mass exhalation rate for 222Rn was varying between 16 and 54 mBq/kg/h, while the 220Rn surface exhalation rate was in the range of 0.65-6.43 Bq/m2/s. Measured gamma dose rate for the same region varied from 0.10 to 0.31 µSv/h. Inter-correlation of exhalation rates and intra-correlation with background gamma levels were studied.

  18. High-spin yrast isomers in 211Rn and 212Rn with enhanced E3 decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracoulis, G.D.; Byrne, A.P.; Fabricius, B.

    1990-01-01

    New isomeric states with J π =69/2 + ,τ m = 13 (1) ns in 211 Rn and J π =33 - ,τ m = 7(1) ns in 212 Rn have been identified. They decay by enchanced E3 transitions with strengths of 33(3) and 43(6) single particle units to the known 63/2 - and 30 + isomers 211 Rn and 212 Rn, respectively. The excitation energies and transition strengths agree well with predictions of the multi-particle, octupole-vibration coupled model. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  19. Intercomparison of Rn-222 determination from groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterbacka, P.; Pettersson, H.; Hanste, U.-M.

    2010-01-01

    An intercomparison exercise on Rn-222 determination in groundwater was organized between eight Nordic laboratories. The individual laboratory results were in most cases within 20% of the median value and within reported uncertainties. Considering the particular difficulties in preparing, transpor......An intercomparison exercise on Rn-222 determination in groundwater was organized between eight Nordic laboratories. The individual laboratory results were in most cases within 20% of the median value and within reported uncertainties. Considering the particular difficulties in preparing...

  20. Dependence of indoor 222Rn level on building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tso, M.W.; Ng, C.; Leung, J.K.C.

    1993-01-01

    The radionuclide contents of typical building materials used in Hong Kong were studied by γ spectroscopic analysis. The physical properties of these building materials affecting the production and transportation of 222 Rn to the surrounding air were examined; these include the emanation coefficient of 2 '2 2 Rn of the material, the diffusion coefficient of 222 Rn in the material and the effect of surface coating and temperature on the rate of 222 Rn exhalation. Results obtained in this study explain the indoor 222 Rn concentration observed in our previous surveys and also suggest that the main source of indoor 222 Rn in Hong Kong is building material. (3 figs., 4 tabs.)

  1. Environmental thoron (220Rn): a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, T.V.

    2008-01-01

    Studies on natural background radiation is a topic, which evoked curiosity and concern between the scientist and layman alike in recent years due to the shift in focus of health effects due to exposure of radiation from acute high level to chronic low level. Ever since studies on uranium miners established the presence of a positive risk coefficient for the occurrence of lung cancer in miners exposed to elevated levels of 222 Rn and its progeny, there was a great upsurge of interest in the measurement of 222 Rn in the environment. Subsequently, considerable data is being generated on the levels of 222 Rn in the environment across the worlds and is being periodically reported by UNSCEAR reports. In contrast to this, data pertaining to 220 Rn in indoors and workplace environment is scare due to the general perception that its levels are negligible due to its shorter half life, and subsequently its contribution to the total inhalation dose is ignored, in the presence of other significant sources of natural radiation. This may not be true from the recent studies resulted in observing high 220 Rn levels in living environments and work places in various countries and it is increasingly felt that it may be necessary to have data on 220 Rn levels in environment for obtaining a complete picture of inhalation dose. Globally many locations have higher levels of natural background radiation due to elevated levels of primordial radio nuclides in the soil and their decay products, like radon ( 222 Rn), and thoron ( 220 Rn) in the environment. Of late, technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material has also contributed to the burden of background radiation. It is estimated inhalation of 222 Rn, 220 Rn and their short lived progenies contribute more than 54 % of the total natural background radiation dose received by the general population. Due to this it was necessary to supplement the external component with inhalation component. This component is not

  2. 222Rn in wine cellars in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csige, I.; Hunyadi, I.; Szerbin, P.; Juhasz, L.

    2004-01-01

    We measured seasonal average 222 Rn activity concentrations in the air of 60 wine cellars in the Tokajhegyalja and Villany wine regions of Hungary using Radamon type etched track radon detectors. The exposure period was 3 months, matching the seasons of 2003-2004. We also used an ionization chamber-type continuous 222 Rn-monitor (AlphaGUARD PQ222, Genitron Instruments, Germany) to study temporal variations of 222 Rn activity concentration in a selected wine cellar in the Tokajhegyalja wine region. This instruments also recorded temperature, atmospheric pressure and relative humidity data. The etched track detector data revealed that the 222 Rn activity concentrations in the air of wine cellars spread over a wide range, from the ambient outdoor concentration of 6 Bq.m -3 up to 6 kBq.m -3 characteristic of natural caves. The temporal variation of 222 Rn activity concentration in the air of the selected cellar varied inversely with the variation of the atmospheric pressure. Earlier we observed similar phenomena in natural karstic caves connected to the surface with vertical shafts only. This suggests that relatively large volume of pore space of the embedding rock communicates with the volume of the cellar induced by the variation of the atmospheric pressure

  3. Recent Swedish experiences in 222Rn control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedjemark, G.A.; Maekitalo, A.

    1990-01-01

    Swedish local authorities are responsible for decreasing 222 Rn progeny concentrations in homes in their municipalities. To obtain an overall view of their experiences, concerned national authorities sent a questionnaire in 1986 to local authorities. The results were intended to form one basis for decisions by the government regarding revised statements on financial contributions, limits, etc. The results were also intended to be of use to national authorities in determining limits and recommendations and to local authorities in their field work. One result of the survey was an enhanced interest in the Rn problem among Swedish politicians and the mass media. This increased attention resulted in new plans for continued work to decrease Rn levels indoors during 1987-1989, on both a national and a local level. The experiences of the local authorities show that Rn progeny concentrations decreased to below the design level in 95% of newly built houses investigated. It was also found that Rn progeny concentrations were below the limit for reconstruction in 53% of existing homes that previously had levels exceeding the limit

  4. Rn 222 in the Black Sea waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuzova, A.P.; Batrakov, G.F.; Eremeev, V.N.; Zemlyanoj, A.D.; Ivanova, T.M.

    1988-01-01

    Results of Rn 222 concentration measurements in the Black Sea waters obtained in the summer of 1986 during the expedition of the Akademik Vernadskij research ship are presented. It is ascertained that the intensity of vertical turbulent exchange produces the main effect on Rn 222 distribution in the sea surface waters. The vertical distribution in a 200 m layer is characterized by the growth of concentration with depth, which is caused by the presence of Ra 226 increased concentration region, that coincides with the boundary layer between oxygen and hydrogen sulfide

  5. rn Utzon -Influences and Reinterpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    The Paper presents a study of Jørn Utzon's architecture, in terms of its response to both local context and transcultural influences. The paper shows Utzon to have been a precursor and direct influence upon subsequent developments within contemporary regional architecture.......The Paper presents a study of Jørn Utzon's architecture, in terms of its response to both local context and transcultural influences. The paper shows Utzon to have been a precursor and direct influence upon subsequent developments within contemporary regional architecture....

  6. Determination of Rn concentration in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Shigeru; Handa, Madoka; Okano, Yasuhiro; Saito, Masaaki; Suzuki, Takashi

    1984-01-01

    The method of prediction of earthquakes by the change of concentration of Rn in groundwater was developed by U.S.S.R. and People's Republic of China, and was not known clearly. Since 1975, the research works on this subject were commenced by University of Tokyo, Geological Survey of Agency of Industrial Science and Technology and Tokyo Metropolitan Isotopic Research Center. Along with the development of an automatic continuous measuring apparatus with high reliability, the systems for the measurement of the Rn concentration in groundwater were established. At the time of the earthquake off Izu-Oshima on January 14, 1978, clear precursor was found in an artesian flowing well in Nakaizu 0f Izu Peninsula, and the unusual phenomena which seemed be the precursor of an earthquake were recognized in other districts of Izu and Tokai. On August 8, 1983, an earthquake of magnitude 6 occurred in the boundary region of Yamanashi and Kanagawa Prefectures. Preceding the earthquake, the unusual change of the concentration of Rn was recognized at several observation wells in Tokyo, and the unusual change was observed after the earthquake also. The possibility that the unusual change of the Rn concentration in groundwater is the precursor of earthquakes is high, and this phenomenon is expected to make contribution for the prediction of earthquakes, though there remain many problems to be solved. Further works are scheduled to establish the practical method of predicting earthquakes. (Isimitsu, A.)

  7. Dynamical Symmetry Breaking in RN Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Kotvytskiy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that in the RN gravitation model, there is no dynamical symmetry breaking effect in the formalism of the Schwinger-Dyson equation (in flat background space-time. A general formula for the second variation of the gravitational action is obtained from the quantum corrections hμν (in arbitrary background metrics.

  8. Vold mod børn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Else; Agerlund Sloth Larsen, Dorthe

    er der gennemført en interviewundersøgelse, hvor i alt 14 sagsbehandlere fra fire forskellige store kommuner er interviewet om deres erfaringer fra sager med (mistanke om) fysisk vold mod børn, om hvordan sådanne sager sædvanligvis starter i socialforvaltningen, om undersøgelsesforløbet, om...

  9. Thoron (RN-220) interference in the determination of RN-222 exhalation rate of soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Déric S.; Farias, Emerson E.G.; Santos, Mariana L.O.; Silva, Karolayne E.M.; Hazin, Clovis A.; França, Elvis J., E-mail: emersonemiliano@yahoo.com [Centro Regional de Ciências Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Souza Neto, João A., E-mail: adauto@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Geologia

    2017-07-01

    The transport of Rn-222 from the soil to the atmosphere known as exhalation is influenced by meteorological conditions and soil geophysical parameters. In closed and poorly ventilated rooms, this radioactive gas can reach high activity concentrations, in which the energy of alpha particles released by this radionuclide and its progeny is the second leading cause of lung cancer. Soil exhalation rate is an important parameter for assessing human health risks associated with radon. For radon determination using an exhalation chamber, an ionization chamber detector is used to count the electrical pulses generated by the interaction between the alpha particles produced by Rn-222 and its progeny and the air inside the chamber. In this work, the interference of thoron (Rn-220) in the determination of soil exhalation rate of Rn-222 was studied. For this, the RadonBOX exhalation chamber and the AlphaGuard ionization chamber detector were utilized for analyzing the same soil during two hours on different days under similar meteorological conditions. From zero up to approximately 2,400 s, the radon activity concentrations decreased. After 40 minutes, the radon concentrations started to increase, thereby allowing the calculation of soil exhalation rate. This initial decreasing could be explained by a high Rn-220 than Rn-222 presence in the soil, in which, because of its short half-life, after 40 minutes, most thoron present in the chamber has undergone so that the main alpha emitter become Rn-222. In order to confirm this, Rn-220 activity was estimated by the Ra-228 concentration in the soil determined after 30 days using High Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometry with HPGe detectors. Therefore, the thoron interference in the determination of soil radon exhalation rate was considered negligible after 40 minutes of measurement time for the analyzed soil. (author)

  10. Variations of Rn-222 concentration in the Bratislava air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, K.; Bohm, R.; Polaskova, A.

    1996-01-01

    222 Rn is produced by alpha decay of 222 Ra in roil. A small fraction of totally produced 222 Rn escapes from coil particles into soil air. Then 222 Rn is transported predominantly by molecular diffusion into outdoor atmosphere. The radon concentration in the outdoor atmosphere is not stable. It varies irregularly depending on meteorological conditions. However there were found out regular daily and remand variations of 222 Rn concentration in outdoor atmosphere. These variations were measured in numerous works and results are summarized f.e. in work of Gesell. A simple model described the annual variations of 222 Rn concentration war published by Minato. A mathematical analysis of daily course of 222 Rn concentration in outdoor atmosphere was realized by Garzon et al. Some results of our study of 222 Rn variations in outdoor atmosphere of Bratislava are shown in this report. (author)

  11. Seasonal and spatial variations in Rn-222 and Rn-220 in soil gas, and implications for indoor radon levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharman, G.

    1992-01-01

    Rn-222 enters dwellings as a component of soil gas drawn from the soil by mass flow driven by the pressure difference between the house and soil beneath. In a site on Northampton Sand Ironstone (Aalenian), a preferred path of emanation (hotspot) was found. A difference of 63 Bq L -1 Rn-222 was recorded in July between this point and another 3 m away. Rn-222 in this hotspot shows 12% less variation annually than the surrounding rock. During winter, Rn-222 values within 1.6 m of the house were 44% lower than those at more than 4 m away. Rn-222 showed a 99.5% negative correlation with wind run, showing that on this soil wind pressure can significantly reduce radon in the soil at 500 mm depth. Rn-220 in soil gas correlated positively at the 99.5% level with grass and air temperatures. Rn-220 was not associated with the hotspot. (Author)

  12. Effects of air conditioning, dehumidification and natural ventilation on indoor concentrations of 222Rn and 220Rn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Thomas K.C.; Yu, K.N.

    2000-01-01

    A bedroom was selected for detailed measurements on 220 Rn and 222 Rn concentrations and environmental parameters including CO 2 concentration, temperature and relative humidity. To simulate different sealing conditions, five conditions were artificially created in the sampling period of 25 consecutive days. It was concluded that natural ventilation is the most efficient way to lower the 222 Rn levels, while air conditioning is the next. Dehumidification provides only a marginal reduction of 222 Rn levels. The 220 Rn concentrations are not affected by natural ventilation, air conditioner or dehumidification, and were all around 10 Bq m -3 . There are no significant correlations between the 220 Rn and 222 Rn concentrations and environmental conditions such as CO 2 concentrations, temperature, relative humidity and pressure

  13. Attached, unattached fraction of progeny concentrations and equilibrium factor for dose assessments from {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Parminder; Saini, Komal; Bajwa, Bikramjit Singh [Guru Nanak Dev University, Department of Physics, Amritsar, Punjab (India); Mishra, Rosaline; Sahoo, Bijay Kumar [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Radiological Physics and Advisory Division, Mumbai (India)

    2016-08-15

    In this study, measurements of indoor radon ({sup 222}Rn), thoron ({sup 220}Rn) and their equilibrium equivalent concentration (EEC) were carried out in 96 dwellings from 22 different villages situated in Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh, India, by using LR-115 type II-based pinhole twin cup dosimeters and deposition-based progeny sensors (DRPS/DTPS). The annual average indoor {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn concentrations observed in these dwellings were 63.82 and 89.59 Bq/m{sup 3}, respectively, while the average EEC (attached + unattached) for {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn was 29.28 and 2.74 Bq/m{sup 3}. For {sup 222}Rn (f{sub Rn}) and {sup 220}Rn (f{sub Tn}), the average values of unattached fraction were 0.11 and 0.09, respectively. The equilibrium factors for radon (F{sub Rn}) and thoron (F{sub Tn}) varied from 0.12 to 0.77 with an average of 0.50, and from 0.01 to 0.34 with an average of 0.05, respectively. The annual inhalation dose due to mouth and nasal breathing was calculated using dose conversion factors and unattached fractions. The indoor annual effective doses for {sup 222}Rn (AEDR) and {sup 220}Rn (AEDT) were found to be 1.92 and 0.83 mSv a{sup -1}, respectively. The values of {sup 222}Rn/{sup 220}Rn concentrations and annual effective doses obtained in the present study are within the safe limits as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for indoor dwelling exposure conditions. (orig.)

  14. Configurations and level structure of 219Rn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheline, R.K.; Liang, C.F.; Paris, P.

    1998-01-01

    The level structure of 219 Rn has been studied using the alpha decay of 223 Ra and coincident gamma rays. While only modest changes are required in the level structure, and only above 342.8 keV, severe changes are required throughout the level scheme in the spin assigments. These changes allow the assignment of two sets of anomalous bands with K=5/2 ± and K=3/2 ± . The K=5/2 ± bands have configurations intermediate between the reflection asymmetric configuration and the g 9/2 shell model configuration, while the K=3/2 ± bands have configurations intermediate between the mixed reflection asymmetric configuration and the i 11/2 shell model configuration. Comparison of the systematics of 219 Rn with neighboring isotones, isobars, and isotopes shows clearly the collapse of the quadrupole-octupole-type configurations into the less degenerate shell model configurations. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  15. Simultaneous determination of Rn-220 and Rn-222 concentrations in atmospheres by cellulose nitrate ionographic detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobao, N.

    1977-01-01

    A method for the indoor determination of airborne radon and radon daughters is described, based in the utilization of cellulose nitrate (CN) ionographic detectors (LR-115-Kodak-Pathe) These track-etching detectors are coupled to an air sample and to a difusion chamber respectively. In the first system ambient air is pulled through a fiber glass filter for collection of airborne radon daughters (Flow: 230 ml/min). In the second system, the cellulose nitrate detectors is coupled/min). In the second system, the cellulose nitrate detectors is coupled to a difusion chamber electrostatic precipitator arrangement. Here the CN detector will register only the alpha particles given off by the decay products of Rn-222 formed within the sensitive volume of electrostatic precipitator. The construction of calibration curves for the two systems using adequate steady-state concentrations of Rn-220 and Rn-222 in an exposure chamber (1 cubic meter), will allow the use of the system for measurement of measurement of averaged integrated radon concentrations. The CN attached to the CN attached to the air sampler is exposed in the reference atmosphere with and without a mylar filter for discrimination of alpha particles with different energies Field sampling indicated however, that efficiency of the two systems are still low for the measurement of environmental levels of Rn-220 and Rn-222 within houses of the AENR, recommendations for efficienty improvement of the system are proposed [pt

  16. Martin Pärn Kunstihoone salongis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    15. 03 Martin Pärna mööbligrupi "Martin" presentatsioon. 1998. a. pälvis M. Pärn Euroopa disainipreemia Best in the Best Rote Punkt, mida jagab Design Zentrum Nordrhein Westfalen. 1999. a. parim on M. Pärna Martela OY-le projekteeritud klapplaud. Aasta Design Team - Philipsi disaini meeskond. Äramärgitud tooted on näitusel Nordrhein Westfaleni Design Zentrumis

  17. RN students need to tell their stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecke, J; Flatt, M M

    1993-04-01

    Finally, what is it about RN students' experiences in the transition process in nursing education that makes their stories need to be told? Actually this question is asked from both the side of the RN students who are the learners and need to tell the stories, and the side of the educator/advisor who needs to have the stories told. In short, the answer to both is that these stories reveal very graphically and meaningfully what is happening in the learning and professional development processes and, simultaneously, they facilitate the progression of those processes. The RN students seem to have an innate sense about what telling their stories will do for them in relation to their learning and professional development processes. They require very little encouragement to prompt their story telling. For the educators/advisors, no other strategy is as adaptable and achieves as much in relation to facilitating the learning and development processes. For both parties, the graphic revelations in stories paint a picture of how past, present, and future blend together to form a meaningful, coherent view of a position in the world. According to Antonovsky's (1979) work on stress and coping, such a view is necessary if stress is to be resisted and health maintained.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  18. On the 221 Rn → 221 Fr decay scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gromov, K.Ya.; Norseev, Yu.V.; Samatov, Zh.K.; Fominykh, V.I.; Chumin, V.G.; Kudrya, S.A.; Sergienko, V.A.

    2002-01-01

    The results of investigating the 221 Rnβ - - decay and the 225 Ac α-decay are compared. It is shown that 221 Fr levels at 145.9 and 393.2 keV are excited at the 221 Rn decay. Intensities and reduced probabilities of the β - - decay to the 221 Fr levels are determined. A conclusion is drawn that the parity of the 221 Rn ground state is positive

  19. Blinde børn - integration eller isolation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Steen; Cayuelas Mateu, Nuria; Høst, Anders

    Blinde børn har i de senere årtier været integreret i den almindelige skole. Men betyder det, at de bliver bedre forberedt til et integreret liv som voksne? Det er langt fra sikkert, viser denne undersøgelse af blinde børn. Skolen sørger for, at de blinde børn har en støttelærer, så de får det he...

  20. Transitioning the RN to Ambulatory Care: An Investment in Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Juliet Walshe

    2016-01-01

    Registered nurses (RNs) struggle when transitioning from the inpatient setting to the outpatient clinical environment because it results in a diverse skill-set shift. The RN, considered an outpatient revenue source, experiences a decrease in peer-to-peer relationships, changes in leadership responsibilities, and changes in workgroup dynamics (supervision of unlicensed clinical personnel who function under the direction of the physician, not the RN). Ambulatory organizations find themselves implementing clinical orientation programs that may not delineate the attributes of the RN. This diminishes their value while emphasizing the unlicensed technical skill set. Creating a core RN orientation program template is paramount for the transition of the RN to the ambulatory setting. The literature reveals several areas where improving the value of the RN will ultimately enhance recruitment and retention, patient care outcomes, and leverage the RN role within any organization. Eleven 30-minute in-depth telephone interviews were conducted in addition to 4 nurse observations to explore the lived experience of the RN in ambulatory care. The findings disclosed an overarching theme of nurse isolation and offered insightful underpinnings for the nurse leader as ambulatory growth continues and nurse leaders further endorse the RN presence in the ambulatory setting.

  1. Soil as a source of indoor 220Rn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.; Schery, S.D.; Turk, B.

    1992-01-01

    Two suggestions for sources of indoor 220Rn (thoron) have appeared in the literature: (1) building materials and outside air, and (2) soil beneath the house. Due to the difficulty of 220Rn measurement and limited data, both suggestions lack sufficient supporting evidence. We have investigated sources of indoor 220Rn in seven occupied houses in northern New Mexico, U.S. A two-filter system was used to measure indoor 220Rn levels continuously, and 220Rn progeny were measured with single filters and specialized alpha-track detectors. The amount of 220Rn entry from soil was curtailed by cutting off soil gas flow to the indoor air with subfloor depressurization mitigation systems. Four of the houses showed significant reductions in 220Rn with mitigation systems on. The average effect for these houses was to reduce indoor 220Rn levels by 70%. The other three houses had no clear reductions but in one of these houses, the mitigation system was not effective for stopping soil gas flow. Our results provide some of the most clear evidence to date supporting soil as an important source of indoor 220Rn

  2. Improved automated analysis of radon (222Rn) and thoron (220Rn) in natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova, Natasha; Burnett, William C; Lane-Smith, Derek

    2009-11-15

    Natural radon ((222)Rn) and thoron ((220)Rn) can be used as tracers of various chemical and physical processes in the environment. We present here results from an extended series of laboratory experiments intended to improve the automated analysis of (222)Rn and (220)Rn in water using a modified RAD AQUA (Durridge Inc.) system. Previous experience with similar equipment showed that it takes about 30-40 min for the system to equilibrate to radon-in-water concentration increases and even longer for the response to return to baseline after a sharp spike. While the original water/gas exchanger setup was built only for radon-in-water measurement, our goal here is to provide an automated system capable of high resolution and good sensitivity for both radon- and thoron-in-water detections. We found that faster water flow rates substantially improved the response for both isotopes while thoron is detected most efficiently at airflow rates of 3 L/min. Our results show that the optimum conditions for fastest response and sensitivity for both isotopes are at water flow rates up to 17 L/min and an airflow rate of 3 L/min through the detector. Applications for such measurements include prospecting for naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in pipelines and locating points of groundwater/surface water interaction.

  3. An assessment method of dose equivalent due to indoor 220Rn progeny by using 220Rn concentration measured at a 20 cm distance from wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, T.; Ikebe, Y.; Okamoto, K.; Guo, Q.; Yamasaki, T.

    1996-01-01

    A pair of passive cup monitors with a different air exchange openings was developed for measuring simultaneously 222 Rn and 220 Rn concentrations. Indoor 220 Rn concentrations were very high in traditional Japanese dwellings with soil walls. The 220 Rn concentration decreases exponentially with the distance from wall. The effective diffusion coefficient of 220 Rn in dwelling and the exhalation rate of 220 Rn from wall were evaluated from the distribution of the 220 Rn concentrations. Then, indoor 220 Rn progeny concentration could be estimated from the 220 Rn concentration at a 20 cm distance from wall. From the results of the surveys. the average annual effective dose equivalent due to 220 Rn progeny was expected to be 0.67 mSv/year in the traditional Japanese dwellings. (author)

  4. rnävaaran koiraurheilukeskuksen markkinatutkimus

    OpenAIRE

    Primetta, Jaana

    2017-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön aiheena oli Pärnävaaran koiraurheilukeskuksen markkinatutkimus, jonka tavoitteena oli saada tietoa pohjoiskarjalaisten koiraharrastajien aktiivisuudesta ja kiinnostuksesta käyttää maakunnan alueella sijaitsevia koiraharrastushalleja. Lisäksi haluttiin selvittää, mitkä tekijät vaikuttavat harrastajien päätöksiin harrastustilaa valittaessa ja mitä toiveita ja odotuksia harrastajilla on koiraharrastushalleja kohtaan. Opinnäytetyössä toteutettiin kaksi erillistä kvantitati...

  5. Extremal RN/CFT in both hands revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, En-Jui; Yang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    We study RN/CFT correspondence for four dimensional extremal Reissner–Nordstrom black hole. We uplift the 4d RN black hole to a 5d rotating black hole and make a geometric regularization of the 5d space–time. Both hands central charges are obtained correctly at the same time by Brown–Henneaux technique.

  6. Factors affecting radon removal from Rn-222 enriched water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abulfaraj, W.H.; Mamoon, A.

    1994-01-01

    Continued use of potable well water that has elevated levels of Rn-222 is harmful to human health. activated carbon, aeration and heating can remove radon from treated water. Water artificially enriched with Rn-222 using a pitchblende source was studied in a laboratory scale model under controlled conditions. (author), 3 figs., 3 refs

  7. Atuação dos psicólogos nos CRAS do interior do RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Fernandes de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analisa-se a atuação do psicólogo em Centros de Referência da Assistência Social (CRAS localizados em municípios do interior do estado do Rio Grande do Norte (RN. Quinze psicólogos de CRAS distribuídos nas microrregiões do RN foram entrevistados, a partir de um roteiro semiestruturado sobre perfil sociodemográfico, formação profissional, serviços ofertados nos CRAS e atividades desenvolvidas pelos psicólogos. Identificou-se que esses profissionais realizam um conjunto de atividades, que tanto atende aos ditames oficiais no escopo da política de Assistência Social, quanto, concomitantemente, se serve do modelo historicamente hegemônico de formação e atuação do psicólogo. Considera-se que o trabalho na política de Assistência Social colocou os psicólogos diante de uma classe trabalhadora ainda mais pauperizada, com demandas diversas daquelas tradicionalmente consideradas pela Psicologia. Discutem-se as possibilidades e os limites da atuação profissional no âmbito dessa política pública, bem como os entraves estruturais da própria política no modo de produção capitalista.

  8. Aprendizagem organizacional e sustentabilidade ambiental: um estudo com as empresas associadas à REDEPETRO-RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcione da Costa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa consistiu em verificar como as empresas associadas à REDEPETRO-RN estão desenvolvendo competências em sustentabilidade ambiental. A metodologia empregada neste trabalho foi do tipo quantitativo em relação ao processo, exploratório e descritivo quanto aos objetivos, básica no que concerne aos resultados e um estudo de campo quanto a sua modalidade. Os resultados apontaram que as empresas estão se esforçando para desenvolver competências relacionadas à sustentabilidade, tendo como grande influência no processo de desenvolvimento o porte e o número de colaboradores das empresas. A pesquisa ainda mostrou que as principais justificativas para o desenvolvimento de competências em sustentabilidade ambiental são aquelas que afetam em algum momento as questões financeiras das empresas. E, quanto às dificuldades, verificou-se que as questões relacionadas à falta de tempo e o nível de educação/escolaridade dos funcionários são os principais fatores negativos para a aprendizagem organizacional em sustentabilidade ambiental nas empresas associadas à REDEPETRO-RN.

  9. A long range transport model of Rn-222

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikebe, Y.; Kojima, S.; Shimo, M.

    1993-01-01

    In this report, we propose an analytical treatment about temporal variation of 222 Rn concentration in the atmosphere with an aim to clarify origin and transport of 222 Rn. Based on the results of numerical simulation of radon, we separate the 222 Re concentration measured at Nagoya into the following two components : (1) 222 Rn atom originated near from the measuring site, which is denoted by 'diurnal variation component'. From numerical simulation of radon, it has been shown that the measured diurnal variation can be explained by this component. (2) 222 Rn atoms originated far from the measuring site (including Chinese Continent), which is denoted by 'background component'. For this component, we propose here a one layer transport model using air mass trajectory technique. By this model we can explain the temporal variation of background component and seasonal variation of 222 Rn at Nagoya. (3 figs.)

  10. Transforming RN education: clinical learning and clinical knowledge development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, P

    1993-04-01

    Transforming RN education has the potential for transforming clinical teaching and learning for all students. The returning RN student offers possibilities for clinical learning that the generic student does not have, but this should not cause us to limit the returning RN student to the generic level. Where possible innovative programs should be developed to move the RN student from baccalaureate level to the Master's level. As educators, we should take the opportunity to increase the numbers of nurses who are educationally prepared to move into advanced levels of practice. The returning RN student offers a rich human resource for the profession, and a rich resource for improving our clinical teaching as well as our practice.

  11. Measurement of 222Rn in soil concentrations in interstitial air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duenas, C.; Fernandez, M.C.; Carretero, J.; Liger, E.

    1996-01-01

    Measurements of 222 Rn soil concentrations were made by inserting stainless-steel sampling tubes into the soil. The samples of the soil interstitial air were taken in to pre-evacuated 1 L glass flasks. The glass flasks are cylindrical and coated with a film of ZnS(Ag). 222 Rn was measured by counting the alpha particles emitted by 222 Rn and its daughter products, 218 Po and 214 Bi, when they reached radioactive equilibrium. Measurements of 222 Rn gas concentrations in the soil air interstices by the method at different depths were used to calculate the diffusion coefficient of the 222 Rn in the soil air. This study has been carried out for diverse soils. (Author)

  12. nas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modesto Varas

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: pancreatic endocrine tumors (PET are difficult to diagnose. Their accurate localization using imaging techniques is intended to provide a definite cure. The goal of this retrospective study was to review a PET series from a private institution. Patients and methods: the medical records of 19 patients with PETs were reviewed, including 4 cases of MEN-1, for a period of 17 years (1994-2010. A database was set up with ten parameters: age, sex, symptoms, imaging techniques, size and location in the pancreas, metastasis, surgery, complications, adjuvant therapies, definite diagnosis, and survival or death. Results: a total of 19 cases were analyzed. Mean age at presentation was 51 years (range: 26-67 y (14 males, 5 females, and tumor size was 5 to 80 mm (X: 20 mm. Metastatic disease was present in 37% (7/19. Most underwent the following imaging techniques: ultrasounds, computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Fine needle aspiration punction (FNA was performed for the primary tumor in 4 cases. Non-functioning: 7 cases (37%, insulinoma: 2 cases [1 with possible multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN], Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES from gastrinoma: 5 (3 with MEN-1, glucagonoma: 2 cases, 2 somatostatinomas; carcinoid: 1 case with carcinoide-like syndrome. Most patients were operated upon: 14/19 (73%. Four (4/14: 28% has postoperative complications following pancreatectomy: pancreatitis, pseudocyst, and abdominal collections. Some patients received chemotherapy (4, somatostatin (3 and interferon (2 before or after surgery. Median follow-up was 48 months. Actuarial survival during the study was 73.6% (14/19. Conclusions: age was similar to that described in the literature. Males were predominant. Most cases were non-functioning (37%. Most patients underwent surgery (73% with little morbidity (28% and an actuarial survival of 73.6% at the time of the study.

  13. A preliminary investigation of 222Rn and 220Rn levels in non-uranium mines in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Bing; Cui Hongxing; Wu Yunyun; Zhang Qingzhao; Su Xu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To measure levels of 222 Rn and 220 Rn in typical non-uranium mines, China, and to estimate dose from the occupational radon exposure in the miners. Methods: Using typical sampling scheme, 44 mines were selected in 12 provinces, which can be classified into 4 categories and 17 types of mines. The radon-thoron discriminative detectors were used to measure 222 Rn and 220 Rn concentrations in mines. Result: The concentration of 222 Rn or 220 Rn was log-normally distributed. The arithmetic mean (AM) concentration and geometric mean (GM) concentration of 222 Rn and 220 Rn in 25 metal mines (n=147) were estimated to be (1211 ±2359) Bq/m 3 (AM) and (311 ± 5.5) Bq/m 3 (GM), and (269 ±700) Bq/m 3 (AM) and (71 ± 4.4)Bq/m 3 (GM), respectively. The mean concentrations of 222 Rn and 220 Rn in 18 non-metal mines (n=118) were (98 ± 207) Bq/m 3 (AM) and(55 ± 2.5) Bq/m 3 (GM), and (60 ± 76) Bq/m 3 (AM) and (38 ± 2.4) Bq/m 3 (GM) respectively. In total, we measured 222 Rn concentration in 44 underground mines, 6 of them, accounted for 15%, with the mean radon concentration exceeding 1000 Bqm -3 (limit of workplace in China). Approximately 7% of radon concentration in mines measured were higher than 3700 Bq/m 3 (current limit in uranium mine in China), some points even exceeded 10 000 Bq/m 3 . Based on this typical measurements, the equilibrium factor for 222 Rn was estimated to be 0.33 ± 0.15 in underground mines and 0.47 ±0.18 in nearby houses. Equilibrium factor for 220 Rn ranged from 0.001 to 0.032. Using the data obtained in this typical survey, the average annual effective dose of underground miners exposed to radon and thoron was estimated to be 8.15 mSv/a. Conclusions: High levels of 222 Rn exists in metal mines, such as copper, tin, lead and zinc, gold, and aluminum mines among others. More study and administrative measures are needed to address the radiation protection of workers occupationally exposed to high radon in mines. (authors)

  14. Comparison of methods and instruments for 222Rn/220Rn progeny measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yanyang; Shang Bing; Wu Yunyun; Zhou Qingzhi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, comparisons were made among three methods of measurement (grab measurement, continuous measurement and integrating measurement) and also measurement of different instruments for a radon/thoron mixed chamber. Taking the optimized five-segment method as a comparison criterion, for the equilibrium-equivalent concentration of 222 Rn, measured results of Balm and 24 h integrating detectors are 31% and 29% higher than the criterion, the results of Wl x, however, is 20% lower; and for 220 Rn progeny, the results of Fiji-142, Kf-602D, BWLM and 24 h integrating detector are 86%, 18%, 28% and 36% higher than the criterion respectively, except that of WLx, which is 5% lower. For the differences shown, further research is needed. (authors)

  15. Ontologies in a project by Jørn Utzon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lars Botin

    2003-01-01

    The paper has an overall theoretical and philosophical view on the actual topic: the architecture of Jørn Utzon, whereas Utzon himself often has stated that theories and hermeneutic approaches does not interest him at all. It is the aim of this paper to inscribe Jørn Utzon in a theoretical...... tradition where nature and the real is in the core of everything and furthermore to throw a light on the paradoxical non-modern and non-Cartesian aspect of the architectural practice of Jørn Utzon....

  16. Measurement of 222Rn, 220Rn and their decay products in high background radiation area in Yangjiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Yongling

    2000-01-01

    The investigators have measured concentrations of Rn-222, rn-220 and their decay products in high background radiation area (HBRA) and the neighboring control area (CA), as well as the equilibrium factor F for Rn-222. The average concentrations of Rn-222 in the air indoors and outdoors in the HBRA are 42.6 and 17.3 Bq/m 3 respectively, and CA, 13.2 and 11.7 Bq/m 3 , respectively. The average α-potential energy concentrations for daughters of Rn-222 indoors and outdoors in HBRA are 0.109 and 0.051 μJ/m 3 , CA, 0.045 and 0.041 μJ/m 3 , respectively. The average α-potential energy values for daughters of Rn-220 indoor and outdoor in HBRA are 0.249 and 0.053 μJ/m 3 , CA, 0.051 and 0.025 μJ/m 3 , respectively. With regard to equilibrium factor F for Rn-222, the authors have also measured 52 points of 10 hamlets in HBRA (indoor 31, outdoor 21), 9 points of 2 hamlets in CA (indoor 5, outdoor 4), respectively. These figures are 0.46, 0.53, 0.62 and 0.64, respectively

  17. RADIOATIVIDADE DAS AREIAS UTILIZADAS NA CONSTRUÇÃO CIVIL DA CIDADE DO NATAL/RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Lira de Oliveria

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem por desígnio identificar os minerais pesados encontrados nos aluviões que abastecem o mercado da construção civil da grande Natal, bem como medir a radioatividade provinda dessas areias, nas quais as pessoas estão em constante contato, a fim de alertá-las aos possíveis perigos. Para tal, escolheu-se a localidade de Jacobina, no município de Macaíba/RN pelo fato da existência de exploração de areia nas margens do rio Potengi, onde foram realizadas medições gamaespectométricas no solo e em afloramentos com o Cintilômetro RS-125 Super-SPEC, adquirido pelo CNPq (Processo nº 550307/2010-9. A partir dos resultados obtidos, foram criadas superfícies modeladas (em meio digital através de mapas temáticos que proporcionaram uma simples interpretação das doses radioativas absorvidas.

  18. Estimation of 222Rn flux and its effect on the atmospheric 222Rn concentration at Hachijo-jima Island, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkura, Takehisa; Yamazawa, Hiromi; Moriizumi, Jun; Hirao, Shigekazu; Iida, Takao

    2010-01-01

    222 Rn fluxes from the ground surface and 226 Ra contents in soil were measured on Hachijo-jima Island, which is a solitary island in the Pacific Ocean located about 200 km to the south of the main island of Japan, to evaluate fractional contributions of the locally exhaled 222 Rn and the long-range transported one to the surface air concentration measured on this island. Averages of 222 Rn flux and 226 Ra content in dry soil were evaluated to be 0.9±0.4 mBq m -2 s -1 and 6.8±0.2 Bq kg -1 , respectively. These are considerably smaller than the respective values of 9.7±0.8 mBq m -2 s -1 and 23.2±0.4 Bq kg -1 measured at Nagoya as a reference. The lower value of the 226 Ra content and the even lower 222 Rn flux on this island can be attributed to the basaltic geology and the soil's coarse texture moisture, respectively. A simple model calculation assuming a typical nocturnal condition showed that the measured 222 Rn flux would cause only a small increase in the surface air concentration by 0.035 to 0.072 Bq m -3 (relative contribution of 1 to 12%) in addition to the long-range transported 222 Rn under a typical nocturnal condition. The contribution of the local flux would be smaller than that under nocturnal condition. This local 222 Rn component is negligible as compared with the concentration of the long-range transported 222 Rn (0.6 to 3.6 Bq m -3 ). It is, therefore, concluded that Hachijo-jima Island is suitable for measuring the long-range transported atmospheric 222 Rn in East Asia region. (author)

  19. Inferring 222Rn soil fluxes from ambient 222Rn activity and eddy covariance measurements of CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. van der Laan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a new methodology, which we call Single Pair of Observations Technique with Eddy Covariance (SPOT-EC, to estimate regional-scale surface fluxes of 222Rn from tower-based observations of 222Rn activity concentration, CO2 mole fractions and direct CO2 flux measurements from eddy covariance. For specific events, the regional (222Rn surface flux is calculated from short-term changes in ambient (222Rn activity concentration scaled by the ratio of the mean CO2 surface flux for the specific event to the change in its observed mole fraction. The resulting 222Rn surface emissions are integrated in time (between the moment of observation and the last prior background levels and space (i.e. over the footprint of the observations. The measurement uncertainty obtained is about ±15 % for diurnal events and about ±10 % for longer-term (e.g. seasonal or annual means. The method does not provide continuous observations, but reliable daily averages can be obtained. We applied our method to in situ observations from two sites in the Netherlands: Cabauw station (CBW and Lutjewad station (LUT. For LUT, which is an intensive agricultural site, we estimated a mean 222Rn surface flux of (0.29 ± 0.02 atoms cm−2 s−1 with values  > 0.5 atoms cm−2 s−1 to the south and south-east. For CBW we estimated a mean 222Rn surface flux of (0.63 ± 0.04 atoms cm−2 s−1. The highest values were observed to the south-west, where the soil type is mainly river clay. For both stations good agreement was found between our results and those from measurements with soil chambers and two recently published 222Rn soil flux maps for Europe. At both sites, large spatial and temporal variability of 222Rn surface fluxes were observed which would be impractical to measure with a soil chamber. SPOT-EC, therefore, offers an important new tool for estimating regional-scale 222Rn surface fluxes. Practical applications furthermore include

  20. Limited Data Problems for the Generalized Radon Transform in Rn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frikel, Jürgen; Quinto, Eric Todd

    2016-01-01

    We consider the generalized Radon transform (defined in terms of smooth weight functions) on hyperplanes in Rn. We analyze general filtered backprojection type reconstruction methods for limited data with filters given by general pseudodifferential operators. We provide microlocal characterizations...

  1. Thoron (220Rn) in the indoor environment and work places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, T. V.; Sahoo, B. K.

    2009-08-01

    Ever since studies on uranium miners established the presence of a positive risk coefficient for the occurrence of lung cancer in miners exposed to elevated levels of 222Rn and its progeny, there was a great upsurge of interest in the measurement of 222Rn in the environment. Subsequently, considerable data is being generated on the levels of 222Rn in the environment across the worlds and is being periodically reported by UNSCEAR reports. In contrast to this, data pertaining to 220Rn in indoors and workplace environment is scaree due to the genral perception that its levels are negligible due to its shorter half life, and subsequently its contribution to the total inhalation dose is ignored, in the presence of other significant sources of natural radiation. This may not be true. Globally many locations have higher levels of natural background radiation due to elevated levels of primordial radio nuclides in the soil and their decay products like radon (222Rn), and thoron (220Rn) in the environment. Of late, technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material has also contributed to the burden of background radiation. It is estimated that inhalation of 222Rn, 220Rn and their short lived progenies contribute more than 54% of the total natural background radiation dose received by the general population. 220Rn problem exists in industries which use thorium nitrate. Including India, lamps using thoriated gas mantles are still being used for indoor and outdoor lighting and by hawkers in rural as well as urban areas. Considering the fact that large amount of thorium nitrate is being handled by these industries, contribution to the inhalation dose of workers from 220Rn gas emanated and build up of the progeny in ambient air may also be quite significant. In this paper current status of 220Rn levels in the indoor environment and workplaces as well as in other industries where large amount of 232Th is being handled is being summarized. Methods of measurement and

  2. Thoron (220Rn) in the indoor environment and work places

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramchandran, T.V.; Sahoo, B.K.

    2009-01-01

    Ever since studies on uranium miners established the presence of a positive risk coefficient for the occurrence of lung cancer in miners exposed to elevated levels of 222 Rn and its progeny, there was a great upsurge of interest in the measurement of 222 Rn in the environment. Subsequently, considerable data is being generated on the levels of 222 Rn in the environment across the worlds and is being periodically reported by UNSCEAR reports. In contrast to this, data pertaining to 220 Rn in indoors and workplace environment is scaree due to the general perception that its levels are negligible due to its shorter half life, and subsequently its contribution to the total inhalation dose is ignored, in the presence of other significant sources of natural radiation. This may not be true. Globally many locations have higher levels of natural background radiation due to elevated levels of primordial radio nuclides in the soil and their decay products like radon ( 222 Rn), and thoron ( 220 Rn) in the environment. Of late, technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material has also contributed to the burden of background radiation. It is estimated that inhalation of 222 Rn, 220 Rn and their short lived progenies contribute more than 54% of the total natural background radiation dose received by the general population. 220 Rn problem exists in industries which use thorium nitrate. Including India, lamps using thoriated gas mantles are still being used for indoor and outdoor lighting and by hawkers in rural as well as urban areas. Considering the fact that large amount of thorium nitrate is being handled by these industries, contribution to the inhalation dose of workers from 220 Rn gas emanated and build up of the progeny in ambient air may also be quite significant. In this paper current status of 220 Rn levels in the indoor environment and workplaces as well as in other industries where large amount of 232 Th is being handled is being summarized. Methods of

  3. Margus Pärn : turuliidri koht on Maximale jõukohane 4-5 aastaga / Margus Pärn ; interv. Viljar Rääsk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pärn, Margus

    2008-01-01

    Leedu jaekaubandusketi Maxima Eesti juht Margus Pärn vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad Eesti jaekaubandusturgu ja Maxima positsiooni selles, ettevõtte laienemist ning turuliidri rolli saavutamise võimalust. Lisa: Margus Pärn. Tabel: Maxima

  4. rn Utzon’s Maritime Origins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Thomas Arvid

    2014-01-01

    Article about Jørn Utzons and the influence on his architecture comming from his early years with sailing, and learning about boat construction and the design principles from his father - the yacht designer Aage Utzon.......Article about Jørn Utzons and the influence on his architecture comming from his early years with sailing, and learning about boat construction and the design principles from his father - the yacht designer Aage Utzon....

  5. UAS-NAS Stakeholder Feedback Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Debra; Murphy, Jim; Grindle, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    The need to fly UAS in the NAS to perform missions of vital importance to national security and defense, emergency management, science, and to enable commercial applications has been continually increasing over the past few years. To address this need, the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) Integrated Aviation Systems Program (IASP) formulated and funded the Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project (hereafter referred to as UAS-NAS Project) from 2011 to 2016. The UAS-NAS Project identified the following need statement: The UAS community needs routine access to the global airspace for all classes of UAS. The Project identified the following goal: To provide research findings to reduce technical barriers associated with integrating UAS into the NAS utilizing integrated system level tests in a relevant environment. This report provides a summary of the collaborations between the UAS-NAS Project and its primary stakeholders and how the Project applied and incorporated the feedback.

  6. Measurements of Rn-222, Rn-220 and their decay products in the environmental air of the high background radiation areas in Yangjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Yongling; Shen Tong; Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko; Wei Luxin; Sugahara, Tsutomu

    2000-01-01

    For the renewal of dose estimation from internal irradiation in the high background radiation areas (HBRA) of Yangjiang, the measurements of radon, thoron and their decay products in the environmental air were conducted, including: integrating measurements of Rn-222 and Rn-220 concentrations; equilibrium factor F for Rn-222 and alpha-potential energy value of Rn-220; external gamma radiation in places where radon measurements were undertaken; cumulative exposure to indoor radon for each family in a case-control study on lung cancer. The Rn-Tn cup monitor method was used for the integrating measurement of Rn-222 and Rn-220 concentration. An alpha track detector was used for the integration measurement of Rn-222 concentration in the case-control study on lung cancer. The results of measurements show that although the investigated areas are located between the Equator and the Tropic of Cancer, and that people live in well-ventilated dwellings, the concentrations of radon, especially of Rn-220 are significantly higher in the indoor air of HBRA than those in the control area. The value of equilibrium factors for Rn-222, the alpha potential energy of decay products from Rn-222 and Rn-220 are determined. (author)

  7. RN-BSN Students' Perceptions of the Differences in Practice of the ADN- and BSN-Prepared RN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthias, April D; Kim-Godwin, Yeoun Soo

    2016-01-01

    This study explored RN-BSN students' perceptions of practice differences between nurses prepared with an ADN and BSN. Five themes were identified in 20 students' discussion posts: "a nurse is a nurse" at the bedside, beyond the bedside, BSN wanted, digging deeper, and appraisal. Results illustrate the need for educators to assist nurses in translating the differentiated educational competencies to the practice role of the bedside RN.

  8. Fra anbringelse til efterværn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer Espersen, Laila

    Når anbragte børn fylder 18 år, ophører deres anbringelse formelt set. Det betyder, at den unge som udgangspunkt skal klare sig selv. Men den nye efterværnsparagraf (§ 62a) i serviceloven giver mulighed for fortsat at støtte de unge, indtil de fylder 23 år. Det benytter man sig af på forskellig...... måde og i varierende omfang i danske kommuner. I denne rapport fremhæves gennem interview med 16 sagsbehandlere, en kommunalt ansat kontaktperson og en medarbejder ved en privat plejehjemsforening fra 10 kommuner nogle af de aspekter af efterværnsindsatsen, som kan være afgørende for, om den unge...... kommer godt ud af anbringelsen. Der er især fokuseret på de positive erfaringer, som sagsbehandlerne har haft i deres daglige arbejde med de unge i efterværnsforløb....

  9. Contribution of 222Rn in domestic water supplies to 222Rn in indoor air in Colorado homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, E.P.; Wanty, R.B.; Nyberg, P.

    1992-01-01

    The contribution of 222Rn from domestic water wells to indoor air was investigated in a study of 28 houses near Conifer, CO. Air concentrations determined by alpha-track detectors (ATDs) and continuous radon monitors were compared with the predictions of a single-cell model. In many of the houses, the water supply was shown to contribute significantly to levels of indoor 222Rn. The data from the ATD study were augmented with a continuous monitoring study of a house near Lyons, CO. The well water in that house has the highest known concentration of 222Rn in water yet reported (93 MBq m-3). The temporal pattern in the indoor 222Rn concentration corresponds to water-use records. In general, it is difficult to quantify the proportion of indoor radon attributable to water use. Several lines of evidence suggest that the single-cell model underestimates this proportion. Continuous-monitoring data, although useful, are impractical due to the cost of the equipment. We propose a protocol for 222Rn measurement based on three simultaneous integrating radon detectors that may help estimate the proportion of indoor 222Rn derived from the water supply

  10. Exposure of burrowing mammals to {sup 222}Rn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresford, N.A., E-mail: nab@ceh.ac.uk [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Av. Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Barnett, C.L. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Av. Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Vives i Batlle, J. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Potter, E.D. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Av. Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Ibrahimi, Z.-F. [Health Protection Agency, Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0RQ (United Kingdom); Barlow, T.S.; Schieb, C.; Jones, D.G. [British Geological Survey, Environmental Science Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Copplestone, D. [School of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-01

    Estimates of absorbed dose rates to wildlife from exposure to natural background radionuclides are required to put estimates of dose rates arising from regulated releases of radioactivity and proposed benchmarks into context. Recent review papers have estimated dose rates to wildlife from {sup 40}K, and {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series radionuclides. However, only one study previous has considered the potential dose rates to burrowing animals from inhaled {sup 222}Rn and its daughter products. In this paper we describe a study conducted at seven sites in northwest England. Passive track etch detectors were used to measure the {sup 222}Rn concentrations in artificial burrows over a period of approximately one year. Results suggest that absorbed dose rates to burrowing mammals as a consequence of exposure to {sup 222}Rn are likely to be at least an order of magnitude higher than those suggested in previous evaluations of natural background exposure rates which had omitted this radionuclide and exposure pathway. Dose rates in some areas of Great Britain will be considerably in excess of incremental no-effects benchmark dose rates suggested for use as screening levels. Such advised benchmark dose rates need to be better put into context with background dose rates, including exposure to {sup 222}Rn, to ensure credibility; although the context will be determined by the purpose of the benchmark and the assessment level. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determined {sup 222}Rn concentrations in artificial burrows. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estimated dose rates to burrowing mammals from inhaled {sup 222}Rn and daughter products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 222}Rn likely to dominate exposure of burrowing mammals due to natural radionuclides.

  11. Preliminary experiences with 222Rn gas in Arizona homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearfott, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    Results of a survey of 222Rn gas using four-day charcoal canister tests in 759 Arizona homes are reported. Although the study was not random with respect to population or land area, it was useful in identifying areas at risk and locating several homes having elevated indoor 222Rn air concentrations. Approximately 18% of the homes tested exceeded 150 Bq m-3 (4 pCi L-1), with 7% exceeding 300 Bq m-3 (8 pCi L-1). Several Arizona cities had larger fractions of homes exceeding 150 Bq m-3 (4 pCi L-1), such as Carefree and Cave Creek (23%), Paradise Valley (30%), Payson (33%), and Prescott (31%). The Granite Dells and Groom Creek areas of Prescott had in excess of 40-60% of the houses tested exceeding 150 Bq m-3 (4 pCi L-1). Elevated 222Rn concentrations were measured for a variety of home types having different construction materials. Private well water was identified as a potentially significant source of 222Rn gas in Prescott homes, with water from one well testing over 3.5 MBq m-3 (94,000 pCi L-1). A 222Rn concentration in air exceeding 410,000 Bq m-3 (11,000 pCi L-1) was measured using a four-day charcoal canister test in a house in Prescott which had a well opening into a living space. Additional measurements in this 150-m3 dwelling revealed a strikingly heterogeneous 222Rn concentration. The excessive 222Rn level in the dwelling was reduced to less than 190 Bq m-3 (5.2 pCi L-1) by sealing the well head with caulking and providing passive ventilation through a pipe

  12. 222Rn Measurements in Dwellings of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnoni, G.; Canoba, A.; Czerniczyniec, M.

    2011-01-01

    Radon gas ( 222 Rn) is responsible of about fifty per cent of the world population dose due to natural sources, being the most important pathway the inhalation of radon progeny, specially indoors. Radon concentration has been measured in dwellings at different locations in Argentina. The places selected to be evaluated are representative of the different geologic zones of the country. Near 3000 dwellings have been analyzed since 1983 up today. The measuring methods used in this case were track etched detectors, electrets and detectors based on activated charcoal adsorption. Two different methods with track etched detectors were used: a simple one, which determines only the average radon concentration, and a second one that measures both radon concentration and the equilibrium factor (F) between radon and its daughters. The last one is a method that uses two Makrofol passive track detectors in the same device. The average radon concentration value obtained from all the dwellings evaluated was 44.2 Bq.m-3. The annual effective dose calculated from this average concentration, using a dosimetric factor of 25 μSv.a- 1. (Bq.m -3 ) -1 , which assumes an equilibrium factor of 0.4, was 1.11 mSv. The average value obtained from the 222 dwellings evaluated by the second method was 49.3 Bq.m -3 and 0,37 the equilibrium factor, resulting the annual effective dose estimated 1,44 mSv. The measured equilibrium factor of 0,37 allows us to verify the assumed equilibrium factor of 0,4. Finally, radon levels in dwellings of Argentina are within the acceptable values for population, not being necessary to implement remedial actions, except in isolate cases that are still under study. (authors)

  13. 222Rn flux and soil air concentration profiles in West-Germany. Soil 222Rn as tracer for gas transport in the unsaturated soil zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerr, H.; Muennich, K.O.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of the 222 Rn activity concentration profile in the soil and the 222 Rn flux in West-Germany are presented. The spatial pattern of the 222 Rn flux depends more on soil type than on the 226 Ra activity of the soil material. The average 222 Rn flux from sandy soils is 1000-2000 dpm m -2 h -1 and 4000-6000 dpm m -2 h -1 froam loamy and clayey soils. Weekly 222 Rn flux measurements during a period of 1 year at a sandy site show no significant temporal variations. At a clayey site, the 222 Rn flux tends to be higher in summer than in winter. The permeability coefficient P Rn , obtained from simultaneous 222 Rn flux and concentration profile measurements in various soils, can be expressed as a function of the soil parameters total porosity ε 0 , soil moisture F, tortuosity k and the molecular diffusion coefficient D 0 of 222 Rn in air: P = D 0 ((ε 0 -F)/k-const.). The flux of any other gas into or out of the soil can thus be calculated from its measured concentration profile in the soil and from the 222 Rn permeability coefficient, replacing the molecular diffusion coefficient of 222 Rn by that of the specific gas under consideration. As an example, this method of flux determination is demonstrated for the soil CO 2 flux to the atmosphere and for the flux of atmospheric CH 4 into the soil. (author) 14 refs

  14. Correlation among the terrestrial gamma radiation, the indoor air 222Rn, and the tap water 222Rn in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchli, R.; Burkart, W.

    1989-01-01

    The external gamma radiation and the indoor air Rn (222Rn) concentration were measured in 55 houses of the South East Grisons, the Urseren valley, and the Upper Rhine valley (crystalline subsoils) and in 39 houses of the Molasse basin and the Helvetic nappes (sedimentary subsoils). In homes located on a crystalline subsoil, a mean cellar gamma level of 1.40 mGy y-1 was measured, which is twice the mean gamma level of 0.70 mGy y-1 found in homes built on a sedimentary subsoil. The cellar 222Rn gas concentration is about six times higher in houses with a crystalline subsoil (1232 Bq m-3) than in houses with a sedimentary subsoil (201 Bq m-3). Although a weak correlation is observed between the mean gamma radiation levels and mean cellar 222Rn gas concentrations for the five subregions investigated, the gamma levels and the 222Rn gas concentrations do not correlate for single homes. For the population living on the ground floor of a house with a crystalline subsoil, the gamma radiation and the indoor air 222Rn lead to estimated mean exposures of 1.16 mSv and 9.44 mSv effective dose equivalent per year, respectively. In houses with a sedimentary subsoil, these mean exposures lead to 0.68 mSv y-1 and 3.22 mSv y-1, respectively. A mean tap water 222Rn content of 38.3 Bq L-1 and 10.4 Bq L-1 was measured in 31 villages with a crystalline subsoil and 73 villages with a sedimentary subsoil, respectively. Radon-222 degasing from the tap water into the indoor air leads to an additional exposure of about 0.11 mSv y-1 and 0.03 mSv y-1 in homes with a crystalline subsoil and homes with a sedimentary subsoil, respectively

  15. NAS Decadal Review Town Hall

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine is seeking community input for a study on the future of materials research (MR). Frontiers of Materials Research: A Decadal Survey will look at defining the frontiers of materials research ranging from traditional materials science and engineering to condensed matter physics. Please join members of the study committee for a town hall to discuss future directions for materials research in the United States in the context of worldwide efforts. In particular, input on the following topics will be of great value: progress, achievements, and principal changes in the R&D landscape over the past decade; identification of key MR areas that have major scientific gaps or offer promising investment opportunities from 2020-2030; and the challenges that MR may face over the next decade and how those challenges might be addressed. This study was requested by the Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation. The National Academies will issue a report in 2018 that will offer guidance to federal agencies that support materials research, science policymakers, and researchers in materials research and other adjoining fields. Learn more about the study at http://nas.edu/materials.

  16. Unit type differences in RN workgroup job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Diane K; Miller, Peggy A; Gajewski, Byron J; Hart, Sara E; Dunton, Nancy

    2006-10-01

    Using cross-sectional data from the 2004 National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators (NDNQI) RN Satisfaction Survey, differences in RN workgroup job satisfaction were examined among 10 unit types--medical-surgical, step-down, critical care, pediatric, maternal-newborn, psychiatric, emergency department, rehabilitation, surgical services, and outpatient clinics and labs. The national sample included RN workgroups in 2,900 patient care units (55,516 RNs; 206 hospitals in 44 states). Workgroup satisfaction across all unit types was moderate. RN workgroups in pediatric units were the most satisfied, whereas those in surgical services and emergency department unit types were least satisfied. A consistent finding across all unit types was high satisfaction with the specific domains of nurse-to-nurse interaction, professional status, and professional development versus much lower satisfaction with task, decision making, and pay. Findings can be used to inform and develop investigations that examine specific aspects of the work environment for RN workgroups in various unit types.

  17. Diesel oil removal by immobilized Pseudoxanthomonas sp. RN402.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nopcharoenkul, Wannarak; Netsakulnee, Parichat; Pinyakong, Onruthai

    2013-06-01

    Pseudoxanthomonas sp. RN402 was capable of degrading diesel, crude oil, n-tetradecane and n-hexadecane. The RN402 cells were immobilized on the surface of high-density polyethylene plastic pellets at a maximum cell density of 10(8) most probable number (MPN) g(-1) of plastic pellets. The immobilized cells not only showed a higher efficacy of diesel oil removal than free cells but could also degrade higher concentrations of diesel oil. The rate of diesel oil removal by immobilized RN402 cells in liquid culture was 1,050 mg l(-1) day(-1). Moreover, the immobilized cells could maintain high efficacy and viability throughout 70 cycles of bioremedial treatment of diesel-contaminated water. The stability of diesel oil degradation in the immobilized cells resulted from the ability of living RN402 cells to attach to material surfaces by biofilm formation, as was shown by CLSM imaging. These characteristics of the immobilized RN402 cells, including high degradative efficacy, stability and flotation, make them suitable for the purpose of continuous wastewater bioremediation.

  18. COOMET.RI(II)-S1.Rn-222 (169/UA/98): Rn-222 volume activity comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skliarov, V.; Rottger, A.; Honig, A.; Korostin, S.; Kuznetsov, S.; Lapenas, A.; Milevsky, V.; Ivaniukovich, A.; Kharitonov, I.; Sepman, S.

    2009-01-01

    According to a first program, a supplementary comparison of Rn-222 volume activity was drawn up as a bilateral supplementary comparison between NSC 'Institute of Metrology', Ukraine, and VNIIFTRI, Russia. It took place in March 2005. In April 2005, at the 5. meeting of COOMET held in Braunschweig (Germany), representatives of these institutes exchanged data which showed the comparability of the national standards of Ukraine and Russia for the check points. During the discussion of the procedure some other institutes decided to join the comparison program, which was extended to BelGIM (Belarus), PTB (Germany), VNIIM (Russia) and RMTC (Latvia). The national standards of volume activity of radon-222 were thus calibrated using one standard radon radiometer as the transfer standard. Results are shown in the Final Report of the comparison. (authors)

  19. COOMET.RI(II)-S1.Rn-222 (169/UA/98): Rn-222 volume activity comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skliarov, V. [National Scientific Centre, Institute of Metrology (NSC IM), Kharkiv (Ukraine); Rottger, A.; Honig, A. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany); Korostin, S.; Kuznetsov, S. [All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Physical, Technical and Radio Measurements (VNIIFTRI), Moscow Region, Mendeleyevo (Russian Federation); Lapenas, A. [Latvian National Metrology Centre Ltd, Radiation Metrology and Testing Centre (RMTC), Salaspils (Latvia); Milevsky, V.; Ivaniukovich, A. [Belarussian State Institute of Metrology (BelGIM), Minsk (Belarus); Kharitonov, I.; Sepman, S. [D I Mendeleyev Institute of metrology (VNIIM), Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2009-06-15

    According to a first program, a supplementary comparison of Rn-222 volume activity was drawn up as a bilateral supplementary comparison between NSC 'Institute of Metrology', Ukraine, and VNIIFTRI, Russia. It took place in March 2005. In April 2005, at the 5. meeting of COOMET held in Braunschweig (Germany), representatives of these institutes exchanged data which showed the comparability of the national standards of Ukraine and Russia for the check points. During the discussion of the procedure some other institutes decided to join the comparison program, which was extended to BelGIM (Belarus), PTB (Germany), VNIIM (Russia) and RMTC (Latvia). The national standards of volume activity of radon-222 were thus calibrated using one standard radon radiometer as the transfer standard. Results are shown in the Final Report of the comparison. (authors)

  20. Thoron (220Rn) in the indoor atmospheric environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, T.V.

    2006-01-01

    Naturally occurring background radiation is a topic, which has evoked curiosity and concern between the scientist and layman alike in recent years due to the shift in focus of health effects due to exposure of radiation from acute high level to chronic low level. Many locations around the world have higher levels of natural background radiation due to elevated levels of primordial radio nuclides in the soil and their decay products like radon ( 222 Rn), and thoron ( 220 Rn) in the environment. Of late, technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material has also contributed to the burden of background radiation. It has been estimated that inhalation of 222 Rn, 2 20 Rn and their short lived progenies contribute more than 54% of the total natural background radiation dose received by the general population. In the Indian context, in an earlier national survey, the external gamma radiation dose rates have been more or less well mapped using thermo luminescent dosimeters covering more than 214 locations, which has yielded a national average of 775 mGy/y. Of this, nearly 48.7% contribution of the dose rate is from 40 K and the rest from the uranium (33.6%) and thorium (17.7%) series. A good database pertaining to the country wide levels of uranium, thorium and potassium in geological materials also exists. Thus, there exists a good database on the total external gamma radiation level across the country. Since the contribution from inhalation of 222 Rn, 220 Rn and their short lived progenies contributes more than 54% of the total background radiation dose, it was necessary to supplement the external component with inhalation component. This component is not adequately estimated for the country so far on national level. With this in mind, a national survey has been executed by this center involving a large number of universities and other allied research institutions from different parts of the country for the estimation of inhalation component of the dose

  1. A micromegas detector for {sup 222}Rn emanations measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García, J. A.; Garza, J. G.; Irastorza, I. G.; Mirallas, H. [Laboratorio de Física Nuclear y Altas Energías, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2013-08-08

    The {sup 222}Rn emanation has significant contribution in the overall background for rare event searches experiments. In order to measure this emanations a high sensitivity detector has been designed. The detection method is based on the electrostatic collection of the {sup 222}Rn daughters on a Micromegas detector. Using a chamber with a volume of 21.2 l for the collection of {sup 218}Po and {sup 214}Po progeny of {sup 222}Rn and a 12 × 12cm{sup 2} pixelized Micromegas for the α detection. The advantages of the Micromegas detectors are the low intrinsic radioactivity and the track reconstruction of the α’s, having excellent capabilities for event discrimination.

  2. Spectroscopy of 211Rn approaching the valence limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, P.M.; Dracoulis, G.D.; Kibedi, T.; Fabricius, B.; Baxter, A.M.; Stuchbery, A.E.; Poletti, A.R.; Schiffer, K.J.

    1993-02-01

    High spin states in 211 Rn were populated using the reaction 198 Pt( 18 O,5n) at 96 MeV. The decay was studied using γ-ray and electron spectroscopy. The known level scheme is extended up to a spin of greater than 69/2 and many non-yrast states are added. Semi-empirical shell model calculations and the properties of related states in 210 Rn and 212 Rn are used to assign configurations to some of the non-yrast states. The properties of the high spin states observed are compared to the predictions of the Multi-Particle Octupole Coupling model and the semi-empirical shell model. The maximum reasonable spin available from the valence particles and holes is 77/2 and states are observed to near this limit. 12 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs

  3. RN Job Satisfaction and Retention After an Interprofessional Team Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Dawon; Zierler, Brenda

    2018-04-01

    Despite continuing interest in interprofessional teamwork to improve nurse outcomes and quality of care, there is little research that focuses on nurse job satisfaction and retention after an interprofessional team intervention. This study explored registered nurse (RN) job satisfaction and retention after a purposeful interprofessional team training and structured interprofessional bedside rounds were implemented. As part of a larger study, in this comparative cross-sectional study, pre- and post-intervention data on RN job satisfaction and turnover rate were collected and analyzed. It was found that RNs had significantly higher job satisfaction after the interprofessional team intervention. The 6-month period turnover rate in the post-intervention period was slightly lower than the 6-month period turnover rate in pre-intervention period; however, the rate was too low to provide statistical evidence. Ongoing coaching and supportive work environments to improve RN outcomes should be considered to enhance quality of care and patient safety in healthcare.

  4. Mineral water 222 Rn activity decrease due to consumption habits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cipriani, Moacir; Taddei, Maria Helena Tirollo; Silva, Nivaldo Carlos da

    2001-01-01

    Mineral waters from the Pocos de Caldas Plateau springs, an elevated region with high natural radioactivity, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, have significant 222 Rn concentration on site. The highest concentration in the waters are from: Fonte Villela - Aguas da Prata (∼ 1000 Bql -1 ); Fonte Grande Hotel - Pocinhos do Rio Verde (∼ 400 Brq -1 ) and Fonte CNEN Lab - Pocos de Caldas (∼ 290 Bql -1 ). These waters are used by the population as drinking water and due to consumption habits, can lead to internal doses above accepted limits for the public. This work deals with the decrease of 222 Rn activity in mineral waters fro two different popular consumption habits, and with the adult effective dose equivalent reduction due to water consumption habits. It has been found that the estimated dose based on the biokinetic Crawford-Brown model, can be one fourth of dose based on 222 Rn activity on site. (author)

  5. 222Rn alpha dose to organs other than lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, N.H.; Robbins, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    The alpha dose to cells in tissues or organs other theft the lung has been calculated using the solubility coefficients for 222 Rn measured in human tissue. The annual alpha dose equivalent f rom 222 Rn and decay products in most tissues is a maximum of 30% of the annual average natural background dose equivalent (1 mSv) for external and internally deposited nuclides. The dose to the small population of lymphocytes located in or under the bronchial epithelium is a special case and their annual dose equivalent is essentially the same as that to basal cells in bronchial epithelium (200 mSv) for continuous exposure to 200 Bq M -3 . The significance of this dose is uncertain because the only excess cancer observed in follow up studies of underground miners with high 222 Rn exposure is bronchogenic carcinoma

  6. Spectroscopy of 211Rn approaching the valence limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, P.M.; Dracoulis, G.D.; Byrne, A.P.; Kibedi, T.; Fabricus, B.; Baxter, A.M.; Stuchbery, A.E.; Poletti, A.R.; Schiffer, K.J.

    1993-01-01

    High-spin states in 211 Rn were populated using the reaction 198 Pt( 18 O, 5n) at 96 MeV. Their decay was studied using γ-ray and electron spectroscopy. The known level scheme is extended up to a spin of greater than 69/2 and many non-yrast states are added. Semi-empirical shell-model calculations and the properties of related states in 210 Rn and 212 Rn are used to assign configurations to some of the non-yrast states. The properties of the high-spin states observed are compared to the predictions of the multi-particle octupole-coupling model and the semi-empirical shell model. The maximum reasonable spin available from the valence particles and holes in 77/2 and states are observed to near this limit. (orig.)

  7. Estimating Rn-induced lung cancer in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubin, J.H.; Boice, J.D. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The proportion of lung cancer deaths attributable to Rn among residents of single-family homes in the U.S. (approximately 70% of the housing stock) is estimated using the log-normal distribution of Rn concentrations proposed by Nero et al. (1986) and the risk model developed by the National Academy of Sciences' BEIR IV Committee. The risk model, together with the exposure distribution, predicts that approximately 14% of lung cancer deaths among such residents (about 13,300 deaths per year, or 10% of all U.S. lung cancer deaths) may be due to indoor Rn exposure. The 95% confidence interval is 7%-25%, or approximately 6600 to 24,000 lung cancer deaths. These estimated attributable risks due to Rn are similar for males and females and for smokers and nonsmokers, but higher baseline risks of lung cancer result in much larger absolute numbers of Rn-attributable cancers among males (approximately 9000) and among smokers (approximately 11,000). Because of the apparent skewness of the exposure distribution, most of the contribution to the attributable risks arises from exposure rates below 148 Bq m-3 (4 pCi L-1), i.e., below the EPA action level. As a result, if all exposure rates that exceed 148 Bq m-3 (approximately 8% of homes) were eliminated, the models predict that the total annual lung cancer burden in the U.S. would drop by 4-5%, or by about 3800 lung cancer deaths, in contrast to a maximum reduction of 14% if all indoor Rn exposure above the 1st percentile were eliminated

  8. Matérn-based nonstationary cross-covariance models for global processes

    KAUST Repository

    Jun, Mikyoung

    2014-01-01

    -covariance models, based on the Matérn covariance model class, that are suitable for describing prominent nonstationary characteristics of the global processes. In particular, we seek nonstationary versions of Matérn covariance models whose smoothness parameters

  9. Characteristics of the Nursing Practice Environment Associated With Lower Unit-Level RN Turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Brantley, Heather V; Park, Shin Hye; Bergquist-Beringer, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine characteristics of the nursing practice environment associated with lower RN turnover. Identifying characteristics of the practice environment that contribute to lower RN turnover is important for meeting the national quality strategy priority of reducing healthcare costs. Data from 1002 adult care units in 162 National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators participating hospitals were analyzed using multivariate linear regression. The Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index was used to measure practice environment characteristics. RN turnover was measured at the unit level. Nursing units with higher overall ratings of the nursing practice environment had lower rates of RN turnover. Units with higher RN perceived staffing and resource adequacy experienced significantly lower RN turnover. Unit managers and hospital administrators should consider RN perception of staffing and resource adequacy and the overall practice environment when developing targeted strategies for decreasing RN turnover.

  10. Til julefrokost med Bjørn & Okay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith-Sivertsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    I denne artikel vises med udgangspunkt i en beskrivelse af et specifikt arrangement med det danske danseorkester Bjørn & Okay, hvordan man optræder inden for denne særlige musiktradition. Bjørn & Okays performative udgangspunkt er, at de, trods en status som landskendt orkester med mange hits, i ...... the audience and constantly telling them what to do. At the same time he and the other musicians actively bond with the audience, both onstage and offstage, which helps building the spirit of community, which is the clear goal of the musical performance....

  11. Ole Bjørn Kraft 1893-1980

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian Houlberg

    2010-01-01

    Ole Bjørn Kraft (1893-1980) var en central konservativ politiker i årene før og efter anden verdenskrig. Han markerede sig som udpræget idépolitiker og opnåede ad flere omgange at blive minister.......Ole Bjørn Kraft (1893-1980) var en central konservativ politiker i årene før og efter anden verdenskrig. Han markerede sig som udpræget idépolitiker og opnåede ad flere omgange at blive minister....

  12. Locating karst depressed columns by means of Rn measurement on the surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Daimao; Liu Hongfu; Duan Hongjie; Duan Lindi; Sui Haichen

    1999-01-01

    The coal mining and the related surface projects are extremely harassed by the underground karst depressed columns. The author discussed the surface Rn concentration's abnormality caused by the karst depressed columns. It is concluded that different kinds of karst depressed column can cause different Rn concentration's abnormality. The α-cup Rn measuring instrument was used for detecting Rn abnormality on the surface in order to locate the underground karst depressed columns

  13. Simultaneous Estimation of Hydrochlorothiazide, Hydralazine Hydrochloride, and Reserpine Using PCA, NAS, and NAS-PCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chetan; Badyal, Pragya Nand; Rawal, Ravindra K

    2015-01-01

    In this study, new and feasible UV-visible spectrophotometric and multivariate spectrophotometric methods were described for the simultaneous determination of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), hydralazine hydrochloride (H.HCl), and reserpine (RES) in combined pharmaceutical tablets. Methanol was used as a solvent for analysis and the whole UV region was scanned from 200-400 nm. The resolution was obtained by using multivariate methods such as the net analyte signal method (NAS), principal component analysis (PCA), and net analyte signal-principal component analysis (NAS-PCA) applied to the UV spectra of the mixture. The results obtained from all of the three methods were compared. NAS-PCA showed a lot of resolved data as compared to NAS and PCA. Thus, the NAS-PCA technique is a combination of NAS and PCA methods which is advantageous to obtain the information from overlapping results.

  14. Energy-dependent etching-related impacts on CR-39 alpha detection efficiency for the Rn-222 and Rn-220 decay chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Y.; Yuan, H.; Kearfott, K. J.

    2018-04-01

    CR-39 detectors are widely used to measure environmental levels of Rn-222, Rn-220 and their progeny. Prior research reported the CR-39 detection efficiency for alpha particles from Rn-222, Rn-220 and their progeny under a variety of etching conditions. This paper provides an explanation for interesting observations included in that work, namely that the critical incidence angle decreases with the increasing particle energy and the detection efficiency for 8.78 MeV alpha particles is zero. This paper explains these phenomena from a consideration of the interaction of alpha particles with the CR-39 detectors and the physics of etching dynamics. The proposed theory provides a rationale for an approach to optimizing the etching conditions of CR-39 detector for measuring Rn-222, Rn-220 and their progenies.

  15. Etched track technique to measure sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn and sup 2 sup 2 sup 0 Rn fluxes on soil surface

    CERN Document Server

    Csige, I

    2003-01-01

    sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn and sup 2 sup 2 sup 0 Rn in the human environment are considered to be a risk factor because of the radiation dose due to the inhalation of their short-lived daughters. Main source of radon is usually the soil; therefore the measurement of fluxes of sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn and sup 2 sup 2 sup 0 Rn on soil surfaces is often a relevant parameter to characterise building site radon potential. An etched track detector technique was developed to measure long-time average sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn and sup 2 sup 2 sup 0 Rn fluxes. (R.P.)

  16. Two remarks on normality preserving Borel automorphisms of Rn

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For any θ ∈ Rn and any real n × n positive definite matrix. , let. N(θ, ) denote the n-variate ... nonsingular matrices, positive definite matrices and diagonal matrices with entries ±1. For any matrix A, denote by A ..... In other words, the quadratic form on the right-hand side is a constant on a set of positive. Lebesgue measure.

  17. Vold mod førskolebørn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oldrup, Helene; Lindstrøm, Maia; Korzen, Sara

    Denne rapport handler om praksis og barrierer for opsporing af og underretning om vold mod førskolebørn. Rapporten er baseret på 22 kvalitative interviews med fagfolk inden for dagpasning, sundhedsvæsen og det sociale system. Undersøgelsen viser bl.a., at en del af fagfolkene ofte tøver med at un...

  18. Musikterapi med kontakt- og kommunikationssvage børn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Britta Vinkler

    2009-01-01

    I artiklen beskrives, hvordan musikterapi er med til at støtte en målrettet udviklingsproces hos børn, med diagnoser som Asperger syndrom, autisme, opmærksomhedsforstyrrelser, ADHD o.lign. Musikkens kvaliteter beskrives og illustreres gennem vignetter fra terapiforløb, der alle er foregået i Klinik...

  19. Effects of RN Age and Experience on Transformational Leadership Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Susan; Gish, Mary; Rosenblum, Ruth; Herman, Michael

    2017-06-01

    This study reported the evolution of transformational leadership (TL) practices and behaviors across years of age, management experience, and professional nursing practice within a professional nursing leadership organization. Recent studies of CNO TL found valuations peak near age 60 years. This study reported on a wider range of management positions, correlating years of RN practice and management experience and age to TL metrics. This study used Kouzes and Posner's Leadership Practices Inventory-Self-Assessment (LPI-S) to survey a nursing leadership organization, the Association of California Nurse Leaders (ACNL). Anonymous responses were analyzed to identify leadership trends in age and years of professional service. On average, LPI-S metrics of leadership skills advance through years of management, RN experience, and age. The TL scores are statistically higher in most LPI-S categories for those with more than 30 years of RN or management experience. Decade-averaged LPI-S TL metrics in the ACNL survey evolve linearly throughout age before peaking in the decade from age 60 to 69 years. A similar evolution of TL metrics is seen in decades of either years of management experience or years of RN experience. Transformational leadership increased with nursing maturity particularly for LPI-S categories of "inspire a shared vision," "challenge the process," and "enable others to act." In the ACNL population studied, decade-averaged leadership metrics advanced. Leadership evolution with age in the broader RN population peaked in age bracket 60 to 69 years. The LPI-S averages declined when older than 70 years, coinciding with a shift from full-time work toward retirement and part-time employment.

  20. Levels of Rn and its daughters in houses in the northern part of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yulin; Wang Gongpeng; Yu Shui; Wang Yuping; Li Weina.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we described the levels of Rn and Rn daughters and their diurnal variation in spring and autumn in 18 typical houses in Harbin, Changchun and Jinxi. The results showed that there was no difference in levels of Rn and Rn daughters inside and outside the new and old houses in spring. The Rn concentration was 7.4∼12.5 Bq m -3 . The level of Rn daughters was 1.0-1.3 mWL. Both of them generally increased in winter and the Rn concentration was 15.1-95.1 Bq m -3 . The potential energy of Rn daughters was 4.6-21.3 mWL. The potential energy of Rn daughters in new houses were 20 and 10 times those in spring in Changchun and Harbin respectively and Rn concentrations were 10 and 4 times those in spring respectively. Rn concentrations in a few houses exceeded 200 Bq m -3 . It was lower from 12:00 to 20:00 and slightly higher from 20:00 to the next morning, and the high concentration peak can be found at morning from 4:00 to 6:00 after 24 hours continuous observation. The results was in agreement with those reported in UNSCEAR 1982 Report

  1. COMPOSIÇÃO CENTESIMAL E DE MINERAIS DE MARISCOS CRUS E COZIDOS DA CIDADE DE NATAL/RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEDROSA Lucia de Fátima Campos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar a composição centesimal e os teores de zinco, cobre e ferro de cinco tipos de mariscos crus e cozidos: Camarão (Penaeus brasiliensis, Caranguejo (Ucides cordatus, Lagosta (Panulirus argus, Ostra (Crassostrea rhizophorae e Mexilhão (Anomalocardia brasiliana, crus e cozidos, provenientes da cidade de Natal/RN. As amostras da parte comestível de cada alimento foram adquiridas em peixaria do cais do porto. Os mariscos foram considerados fontes expressivas de proteínas e minerais, enquanto as quantidades de lipídeos e calorias foram baixas. Observou-se na maioria das amostras teores de proteínas e de cinzas aumentados após a cocção. A concentração de zinco foi variada, apresentando-se a ostra como a maior fonte dentre as espécies estudadas. Os maiores teores de ferro e cobre foram verificados no mexilhão e na ostra. A cocção provocou perdas de 50% de cobre no mexilhão e praticamente não alterou as concentrações do referido nutriente no caranguejo. Esperamos que estes resultados contribuam para bancos de dados que auxiliarão na melhor estimativa de consumo de nutrientes em inquéritos dietéticos.

  2. Lie. kū́nas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simas Karaliūnas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available LIТН. kū́nas “BODY”SummaryThe cognates of Lith. kū́nas “body” and Latv. kûnis (kи̃пе, kũņа “body; chrysalis; caterpil­lar of a butterfly; bee pupae” are supposed to be Lith. kūпа “carrion”, pa-kū́nė “sore, furuncle; upper lamella, a layer under the roots”, Latv. kипа “wart, excrescence”, kunis “bottom of a sheaf” and others. Lith. kū́nas, kūпа may represent substantivized forms of the adjective Latv. kûns“round, obese, stout”, while Latv. kûnis, kũņа, kūne seem to be derivatives of the suffixes *-o-*-ā-, *-ē-.

  3. Adolescentes e policiais na orla marítima de Natal/RN: um estudo sobre representações sociais a propósito do turismo sexual

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Eduardo Franco Correia

    2009-01-01

    Esta dissertação aborda o turismo sexual de adolescentes na orla marítima de Natal/RN, na perspectiva juvenil e policial militar. Analisa o turismo sexual como fonte de desenvolvimento e de exploração, analisando suas dimensões na realidade de Natal/RN, tomando como universo empírico a sua orla marítima urbana e a Companhia Independente de Proteção Turística, através do efetivo policial militar. Essa discussão contempla elementos teóricos, pautados principalmente nas análises teóricas de P...

  4. Analytical FcRn affinity chromatography for functional characterization of monoclonal antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlothauer, Tilman; Rueger, Petra; Stracke, Jan Olaf; Hertenberger, Hubert; Fingas, Felix; Kling, Lothar; Emrich, Thomas; Drabner, Georg; Seeber, Stefan; Auer, Johannes; Koch, Stefan; Papadimitriou, Apollon

    2013-01-01

    The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is important for the metabolic fate of IgG antibodies in vivo. Analysis of the interaction between FcRn and IgG in vitro might provide insight into the structural and functional integrity of therapeutic IgG that may affect pharmacokinetics (PK) in vivo. We developed a standardized pH gradient FcRn affinity liquid chromatography method with conditions closely resembling the physiological mechanism of interaction between IgG and FcRn. This method allows the separation of molecular IgG isoforms, degradation products and engineered molecules based on their affinity to FcRn. Human FcRn was immobilized on the column and a linear pH gradient from pH 5.5 to 8.8 was applied. FcRn chromatography was used in comparison to surface plasmon resonance to characterize different monoclonal IgG preparations, e.g., oxidized or aggregated species. Wild-type and engineered IgGs were compared in vitro by FcRn chromatography and in vivo by PK studies in huFcRn transgenic mice. Analytical FcRn chromatography allows differentiation of IgG samples and variants by peak pattern and retention time profile. The method can distinguish: 1) IgGs with different Fabs, 2) oxidized from native IgG, 3) aggregates from monomer and 4) antibodies with mutations in the Fc part from wild-type IgGs. Changes in the FcRn chromatographic behavior of mutant IgGs relative to the wild-type IgG correlate to changes in the PK profile in the FcRn transgenic mice. These results demonstrate that FcRn affinity chromatography is a useful new method for the assessment of IgG integrity. PMID:23765230

  5. High spin states and Yrast isomers in 211Rn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletti, A.R.; Dracoulis, G.D.; Fahlander, C.; Morrison, I.

    1981-01-01

    Excited states in 211 Rn with spins up to 53/2 have been identified using (HI,xn) reactions and γ-ray techniques. A shell model calculation can reproduce the ordering of the yrast sequence up to spin 41/2 - . Several yrast isomers have been identified. Enhanced E3 transitions are observed and their systematic occurrence in this region discussed. The influence of the neutron hole, and possible core excitations on the effective moment of inertia are also pointed out

  6. High spin states and yrast isomers in 211Rn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletti, A.R.; Dracoulis, G.D.; Fahlander, C.; Morrison, I.

    1980-12-01

    Excited states in 211 Rn with spins up to 53/2 have been identified using (HI,xn) reactions and γ-ray techniques. A shell model calculation can reproduce the ordering of the yrast sequence up to spin 41/2. Several yrast isomers have been identified. Enhanced E3 transitions are observed and their systematic occurrence in this region discussed. The influence of the neutron hole, and possible core excitations on the effective moment of inertia are also pointed out

  7. Læringsmodstand hos børn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig

    2017-01-01

    I dette kapitel beskrives dimensioner ved børns læring og med særligt fokus på Illeris’ begreb læringsmodstand. Det tages udgangspunkt i den kulturhistoriske skoles læringsteori med reference til bl.a. Vygotsky og Leontjev. Børn i såvel dagtilbud som skolen vil løbende vise modstand mod læring. D...

  8. Spilleregler i musikterapi med børn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla

    2005-01-01

    Artiklen gennemgår udvalgte eksempler på anvendelse af spilleregler i musikterapi med børneklientgrupper. Efter en kort introduktion af Priestleys syn på analytisk musikterapi med børn, præsenteres læseren således for en række caseeksempler fra faglitteraturen, der giver indblik i udformning og a...

  9. Detection system for continuous 222Rn monitoring in waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, K.; Patschova, E.; Bosa, I.; Polaskova, A.; Hola, O.

    2001-01-01

    This contribution presents one of the high-sensitive systems of continuous radon monitoring in waters. The device can be used for the continual control of 222 Rn activity concentration in water sources, for a study of the daily and seasonal variations of radon activity concentration in water systems, for the determination of the infiltration time of surface water into the ground water and for the next untraditional applications. (authors)

  10. Priit Pärn ohjab Turus festivali / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2001-01-01

    Turu Kunstiakadeemia animatsiooniosakonda juhatav Priit Pärn lükkas eile käima I Turu animafestivali Tough Eye, kus võistleb ka kolm eesti filmi. Toimub ka Eesti päev, kus näidatakse uute tööde kõrval ka Elbert Tuganovi jt. klassikaks saanud animafilme, kaasaarvatud säilinud lõik esimesest eesti joonisfilmist "Kutsu-Juku seiklused" (1931)

  11. A restructuring of RN1 package for MIDAS computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. H.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, K. R.

    2003-01-01

    RN1 package, which is one of two fission product-related packages in MELCOR, has been restructured for the MIDAS computer code. MIDAS is being developed as an integrated severe accident analysis code with a user-friendly graphical user interface and modernized data structure. To do this, data transferring methods of current MELCOR code are modified and adopted into the RN1 package. The data structure of the current MELCOR code using FORTRAN77 causes a difficult grasping of meaning of the variables as well as waste of memory. New features of FORTRAN90 make it possible to allocate the storage dynamically and to use the user-defined data type, which lead to an efficient memory treatment and an easy understanding of the code. Restructuring of the RN1 package addressed in this paper includes module development, subroutine modification, and treats MELGEN, which generates data file, as well as MELCOR, which is processing a calculation. The verification has been done by comparing the results of the modified code with those from the existing code. As the trends are similar to each other, it hints that the same approach could be extended to the entire code package. It is expected that code restructuring will accelerate the code domestication thanks to direct understanding of each variable and easy implementation of modified or newly developed models

  12. A restructuring of RN2 package for MIDAS computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. H.; Kim, D. H.

    2003-01-01

    RN2 package, which is one of two fission product-related package in MELCOR, has been restructured for the MIDAS computer code. MIDAS is being developed as an integrated severe accident analysis code with a user-friendly graphical user interface and data structure. To do this, data transferring methods of current MELCOR code are modified and adopted into the RN2 package. The data structure of the current MELCOR code using FORTRAN77 causes a difficult grasping of meaning of the variables as well as waste of memory. New features of FORTRAN90 make it possible to allocate the storage dynamically and to use the user-defined data type, which lead to an efficient memory treatment and an easy understanding of the code. Restructuring of the RN2 package addressed in this paper includes module development, subroutine modification, and treats MELGEN, which generates data file, as well as MELCOR, which is processing a calculation. The validation has been done by comparing the results of the modified code with those from the existing code. As the trends are the similar to each other, it hints that the same approach could be extended to the entire code package. It is expected that code restructuring will accelerate the code domestication thanks to direct understanding of each variable and easy implementation of modified or newly developed models

  13. Proteínas: redefiniendo algunos conceptos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Camilo Calderon Vélez

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento sobre las estructuras primarias, secundarias y terciarias de las proteínas crece cada día; la terminología y su adecuado uso, incluso para los conocedores, pueden resultar confusos. Se propone en esta comunicación una forma sencilla y práctica de abordar el tema.

  14. Design of real-time monitoring and control system of 222Rn/220Rn sampling for radon chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Rongyan; Zhao Xiuliang; Zhang Meiqin; Yu Hong

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the design of 222 Rn/ 220 Rn sampling monitoring and control system based on single-chip microcomputer of series Intel51. The hardware design involves the choosing and usage of sensors-chips, A/D conversion-chip, USB interface-chip, keyboard-chip, digital display-chip, photoelectric coupling isolation-chips and drive circuit-chips of the direct current pump. Software design is composed by software of Personal Computer (PC) and software of Single Chip Microcomputer (SCM). The data acquisition and conversion and the flux control of direct current pump are realized by using soft of Visual Basic and assemble language. The program flow charts are given. Furthermore, we improved the stability of the direct current pump by means of PID Control Algorithms. (authors)

  15. Toprak Radon (222Rn Gazı Anomalilerinin ARIMA Analizi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miraç KAMIŞLIOĞLU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Özet: Zaman serileri analizi, istatistik, ekonomi, fizik ve mühendislik gibi bilim dallarında geniş uygulama alanına sahiptir. Zaman serisi analizi, değişkenlerin gelecekteki değerlerinin doğru bir şekilde tahmin edilmesi için kullanılan bir yöntemdir. Bu çalışmada, bir deprem öncüsü olarak bilinen toprak radon gazı (222Rn ölçümleri ile bir zaman serisi oluşturulmuştur. Bu veriler kullanılarak, otoregresif süreçler (ARIMA yardımıyla dinamik sistem modellemesi yapılmıştır. ARIMA; zaman serileri analizinde, zaman içerisinde rastgele gerçekleşen bir stokastik (olasılıksal sürecin veya hatalarının modellenmesidir. ARIMA modeli, temelde Box-Jenkins modeline dayanmaktadır. Box-Jenkins modeli, tek değişkenli zaman serilerinin ileriye dönük tahmin ve kontrolünde kullanılan istatistiksel tabanlı bir yöntemdir. Elde edilen sonuçlar, ARIMA modellerinin tahmin konusundaki başarısını göstermektedir. Anahtar kelimeler: Zaman Serileri Analizi, Radon Gazı (222Rn, ARIMA ARIMA Analysis of Soil Radon (222Rn Gas Anomalies Abstract: Time series analysis, has wide applications in statistics, economics, physics and engineering such disciplines. This method used for estimate correctly future values of the variables. In this study, is formed a time series with soil radon gas (222Rn measurements known as a pioneer of an earthquake. Dynamic system modelling was performed with autoregressive (ARIMA modelling process by used these measurements. ARIMA; time series analysis is modelled of the recoverable over time a random stochastic (probabilistic process or its errors. ARIMA model is based on Box-Jenkins model. Box-Jenkins model is a statistically based method which is used forward-looking forecasting and control of univariate time series. The obtained results, ARIMA model is indicating success in predict subject. Key words: Time Series Analysis, Radon Gas (222Rn, ARIMA

  16. Measurement of Rn-222 concentration in underground water in Osaka stratum group in Sennan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Masami; Katsurayama, Kosuke

    1977-01-01

    The Rn-222 concentration in underground water is reported as follows, which is the result obtained when the ground inspection was carried out in the Research Reactor Institute of Kyoto University located at Kumatori area in Osaka stratum group. Underground water, at different depth, well water and rain water were taken, and the contained Rn-222 was extracted with toluene to measure by liquid scintillation technique. Rn-222 concentration in rain water was 3.5 - 8.0 pCi/l, while the concentration in well water was 130 - 250 pCi/l, and that in underground water was 240 - 313 pCi/l. The seasonal change, geographical difference and variation according to depth of Rn-222 concentration were examined. Rn-222 behavior in soil should be investigated more in detail in reference to Rn-222 dispersion, transport and equilibrium problems in soil-water system in the future. (Kobatake, H.)

  17. Investigations into the long-distance atmospheric transport in Central Europe using Rn-222

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volpp, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    An measuring network was used to determine the atmospheric Rn-222 content in Central Europe (Northern and Southern Germany, Poland). Rn-222 is to serve as tracer for the long-distance atmospheric transport in central Europe. For several areas, an average Rn-222 flux density was found. The radon source 'continent' and the soil as radon source have been taken into account. (DG) [de

  18. Rn-222 release to the environment: comparison between different granite sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamoon, M.; Kamal, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this work three different types of granites were studied, namely: pure granite, alkali granite and altered (hydrated) alkali granite. General radioactivity of the granites was studied along with the potential for 222 Rn emanation. The study indicated that altered alkali granite releases, relatively, the highest 222 Rn emanation to the surrounding air while alkali granite emits the more intense gamma radiation of the three granites. Hence, altered alkali granite can be used as a laboratory source for 222 Rn.

  19. Absolute measurement of the activity of 222Rn using a proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Ingo; Greupner, Heinz; Keyser, Uwe

    2002-01-01

    A measuring set-up comprising a proportional counter of calculable 222 Rn efficiency and quantifiable active volume (δ V 222 Rn efficiency is determined by computer simulation of the measured α-spectra. The procedures necessary for absolute measurements by means of the counter are described, and the suitability of the counter for absolute measurements of the 222 Rn activity is proved by experiments. Thus, a new method for the realization of the unit of activity of 222 Rn is obtained, which is independent of the unit of activity of 226 Ra

  20. Perfect simulation and moment properties for the Matérn type III process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Huber, Mark L.; Wolpert, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    In a seminal work, Bertil Matérn introduced several types of processes for modeling repulsive point processes. In this paper an algorithm is presented for the perfect simulation of the Matérn III process within a bounded window in , fully accounting for edge effects. A simple upper bound on the m......In a seminal work, Bertil Matérn introduced several types of processes for modeling repulsive point processes. In this paper an algorithm is presented for the perfect simulation of the Matérn III process within a bounded window in , fully accounting for edge effects. A simple upper bound...

  1. FERRAMENTAS DE BENCHMARKING COMO DIFERENCIAL COMPETITIVO EM EMPRESAS DE FASTFOOD NA CIDADE DE NATAL-RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pires de Souza

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available É notório, na contemporaneidade, o aumento da procura pelos produtos disponibilizados pelas redes de fastfood, gerando consequentemente o crescimento econômico das organizações do setor. Logo esse trabalho objetiva demonstrar o sistema de monitoramento de arranjos produtivos – SIMAP as empresas estudadas para que estas possam vislumbrar novas atividades de gestão com o intuito de ter um diferencial competitivo. Para alcançar esse objetivo utilizou-se a metodologia exploratoria explicativa, com estudo de caso nas empresas Pittsburg e McDonald´s na cidade de Natal-RN, obtendo-se as informações através de questionário semi-estruturado. Analisando-se os dados, percebeu-se que as empresas estudadas, encontram-se acima da média das empresas dos setor cadastradas no SIMAP. Em comparação cruzada entre as empresas estudadas, observou-se que a empresa Pittsburg possui pontos a aperfeiçoar, nos diversos indicadores de gestão, em especial no indicador sistema de gestão integrada, no qual essa empresa ficou abaixo de 25%. Observou-se também que em relação a gestão financeira, a empresa Pittsburg esta melhor qualificada perante sua concorrente McDonald´s. Ficou evidenciado que as empresas estudadas estão em conformidade com os requisitos mínimos exigidos pelos seus clientes.

  2. A SMART NAS Toolkit for Optimality Metrics Overlay, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation proposed is a plug-and-play module for NASA's proposed SMART NAS (Shadow Mode Assessment using Realistic Technologies for the NAS) system that...

  3. Notas sobre o fantasma nas toxicomanias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Firmo de Oliveira Cruz

    Full Text Available O presente artigo foi apresentado na Jornada Clínica da Associação Psicanalítica de Porto Alegre - "A direção da cura nas toxicomanias: o sujeito em questão em outubro de 2003. Através da discussão de um caso clínico, busca evidenciar a importância da relação existente entre a fantasmática do sujeito e a escolha do objeto nas toxicomanias. Aborda ainda a toxicomania como sintoma da contemporaneidade, bem como traços da estética que a compõe.

  4. 222Rn and decay products in outdoor and indoor environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuelsson, C.

    1984-05-01

    Radon-222 (radon) and radon daughter (RnD) measurement methodologies are analysed from both theoretical and experimental points of view. It is shown that exhalation from enclosed porous materials can be described in terms of the time-dependent diffusion theory. Deficiencies in the established accumulator method of radon exhalation measurement are shown. By the existing methods, the true free exhalation rate of thin samples may be underestimated by a factor of (1+α- 1 ), in radon-tight accumulators (α is the outer to inner volume ratio of the sample). The term back-diffusion is clarified and shown applicable to steady-state conditions only. The wire-screen technique is utilized to separate aerosol-attached and unattached RnD in a 3 m 3 radon cell. The effect of air-filtration on the RnDs is expressed as individual activity concentrations as well as in terms of effective dose equivalent rate, H. H has been reduced by a factor between 1.3 and 2.5 for the small-sized areosol particles used (surface area median less than 100 nm), at the filtration rate constant 5 h- 1 . The exact reduction value is dependent on initial aerosol load, type of filter, and dose model (Jacobi-Eisfeld and James-Birchall in this investigation). The concentration of radon and Pb-210 in the Arctic summer air averaged 75+-21 and 0.075+-0.028 mBq m- 3 , during the Swedish Ymer-80 expedition. It is shown that steadystate equilibrium models are unsuitable for estimation of the mean aerosol residence time in ocean air. A good qualitative agreement between radon-levels and the time since the air mass left larger land areas was found. The radon-222 and long-lived daughter (Pb-210, Po-210) measurements are insensitive to ship- and local contaminations. (author)

  5. Factors controlling temporal variability of near-ground atmospheric 222Rn concentration over central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimnoch, M.; Wach, P.; Chmura, L.; Gorczyca, Z.; Rozanski, K.; Godlowska, J.; Mazur, J.; Kozak, K.; Jeričević, A.

    2014-09-01

    Concentration of radon (222Rn) in the near-ground atmosphere has been measured quasi-continuously from January 2005 to December 2009 at two continental sites in Europe: Heidelberg (south-west Germany) and Krakow (southern Poland). The atmosphere was sampled at ca. 30 and 20 m above the local ground. Both stations were equipped with identical instruments. Regular observations of 222Rn were supplemented by measurements of surface fluxes of this gas in the Krakow urban area, using two different approaches. The measured concentrations of 222Rn varied at both sites in a wide range, from less than 2.0 Bq m-3 to approximately 40 Bq m-3 in Krakow and 35 Bq m-3 in Heidelberg. The mean 222Rn content in Krakow, when averaged over the entire observation period, was 30% higher than in Heidelberg (5.86 ± 0.09 and 4.50 ± 0.07 Bq m-3, respectively). Distinct seasonality of 222Rn signal is visible in the obtained time series of 222Rn concentration, with higher values recorded generally during late summer and autumn. The surface 222Rn fluxes measured in Krakow also revealed a distinct seasonality, with broad maximum observed during summer and early autumn and minimum during the winter. When averaged over a 5-year observation period, the night-time surface 222Rn flux was equal to 46.8 ± 2.4 Bq m-2 h-1. Although the atmospheric 222Rn levels at Heidelberg and Krakow appeared to be controlled primarily by local factors, it was possible to evaluate the "continental effect" in atmospheric 222Rn content between both sites, related to gradual build-up of 222Rn concentration in the air masses travelling between Heidelberg and Krakow. The mean value of this build-up was equal to 0.78 ± 0.12 Bq m-3. The measured minimum 222Rn concentrations at both sites and the difference between them was interpreted in the framework of a simple box model coupled with HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) analysis of air mass trajectories. The best fit of experimental data was

  6. Design issues in epidemiologic studies of indoor exposure to Rn and risk of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubin, J.H.; Samet, J.M.; Weinberg, C.

    1990-01-01

    Recent data on indoor air quality have indicated that Rn (222Rn) and its decay products are frequently present in domestic environments. Their presence in indoor air raises concerns about an increase in lung cancer risk for the general population. To directly evaluate lung cancer risk from domestic exposure to Rn and its decay products, as well as to evaluate risk assessments derived from studies of Rn-exposed underground miners, several epidemiologic studies of indoor Rn exposure have been initiated or are planned. This paper calculates sample sizes required for a hypothetical case-control study to address several important hypotheses and shows the impact of difficult problems associated with estimating a subject's Rn exposure. We consider the effects of subject mobility, choice of the exposure response trend which is used to characterize an alternative hypothesis, and errors in the estimation of exposure. Imprecise estimation of Rn exposure arises from errors in the measurement device, exposure to Rn decay products from sources outside the home, inability to measure exposures over time in current as well as previous residences, and the unknown relationship between measured concentration and lung dose of alpha energy from the decay of Rn and its progeny. These methodological problems can result in large discrepancies between computed and actual study power. Failure to anticipate these problems in the design of a study can result in inaccurate estimates of power. We conclude that case-control studies of indoor Rn and lung cancer may require substantial numbers of subjects in order to address the many questions of importance that burden current risk assessments with uncertainty. We suggest pooling data from studies with the largest numbers of cases and with the most precise estimates of Rn exposure as the best approach for meeting present research needs

  7. Integrative genomic analysis of interleukin-36RN and its prognostic value in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zhilei; Fan, Jinshuo; Zhang, Xiuxiu; Huang, Qi; Han, Jieli; Wu, Feng; Hu, Guorong; Guo, Mengfei; Jin, Yang

    2016-02-01

    Interleukin (IL)-36RN, previously known as IL1-F5 and IL-1δ, shares a 360-kb region of chromosome 2q13 with members of IL-1 systems. IL-36RN encodes an anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-36 receptor antagonist (IL-36Ra). In spite of IL-36Ra showing the highest homology to IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) antagonist, it differs from the latter in aspects including its binding to IL-lRrp2 but not to IL-1R1. IL-36RN is mainly expressed in epithelial cells and has important roles in inflammatory diseases. In the present study, IL-36RN was identified in the genomes of 27 species, including human, chimpanzee, mouse, horse and dolphin. Human IL-36RN was mainly expressed in the eye, head and neck, fetal heart, lung, testis, cervix and placenta; furthermore, it was highly expressed in bladder and parathyroid tumors. Furthermore, a total of 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms causing missense mutations were determined, which are considered to be the causes of various diseases, such as generalized pustular psoriasis. In addition, the link between IL-36RN and the prognosis of certain cancer types was revealed through meta-analysis. Tumor-associated transcriptional factors c-Fos, activator protein-1, c-Jun and nuclear factor κB were found to bind to the upstream region in the IL-36RN gene. This may indicate that IL-36RN is involved in tumorigenesis and tumor progression through the regulation of tumor-associated transcriptional factors. The present study identified IL-36RN in various species and investigated the associations between IL-36RN and cancer prognosis, which would determine whether IL-36RN drove the evolution of the various species with regard to tumorigenesis.

  8. 222Rn in the Antarctic Peninsula during 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, E.B.; Setzer, A.W.; Cavalcanti, I.F.A.

    1988-01-01

    222 Rn was continuously measured at the Brazilian Antarctic Station (62 0 S, 58 0 W) during the year of 1986. Baseline radon concentration averaged 0.02 Bq.m -3 with surges peaking 0.4 Bq.m -3 . The data exhibited a characteristic periodicity of about 25 days and a strong positive association with short term fluctuations of atmospheric temperature. No seasonal variations of radon were observed. Interpretation of the radon surges with reference to synoptic charts and weather satellite pictures showed that the continental influence of radon at the Antarctic Peninsula is very small and comes only from the tip of the South American cone. (author)

  9. Vitali systems in R^n with irregular sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlbro, Leif; Topsøe, Flemming

    1996-01-01

    Vitali type theorems are results stating that out of a given family of sets one can select pairwise disjoint sets which fill out a "large" region. Usually one works with "regular" sets such as balls. We shall establish results with sets of a more complicated geometrical structure, e.g., Cantor......-like sets are allowed. The results are related to a generalisation of the classical notion of a differentiation basis.l They concern real n-space R^n and Lebesgue measure....

  10. Oplæsning for børn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Nygaard

    2004-01-01

    Mål og Mæle 27(4):16-19. 2004 Kort beskrivelse: Om dialogisk oplæsning, børns ordforråd og sproglige opmærksomhed Abstract: Det er på mange måder godt at læse op for børn. Men hvad skal der til i oplæsningen, for at børnene lærer nye ord? I denne artikel beskrives et projekt, der har vist, at bør...

  11. Research management: the case of RN4CAST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikos, Dimitrios; Mantas, John

    2011-01-01

    Successful research management requires multifunctional, equal teamwork and efficient coordination, aiming to increase the impact of the research outcomes. Aim of this paper is to present the strategies that have been followed to successfully manage the RN4CAST study, one of the largest multi country research projects ever conducted. The paper focuses on the core research strategies rather than on the administrative management activities also required for the success of this case report. Management of a multi-country nursing survey requires the use of common data collection tools, applicable to every context, research protocols supporting the scope of the research, data models for multi-country analyses and global dissemination strategies.

  12. Development of a PIN diode based on-line measurement system for Radon (222Rn) and Thoron (220Rn) in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashokkumar, P.; Chaudhury, Probal; Sumesh, C.G.; Sahoo, B.K.; Gaware, J.J.; Mayya, Y.S.

    2014-01-01

    Radon, thoron and their progenies are universally present in outdoor air, and can reach higher levels in indoor air due to poor ventilation. Several instruments have been developed for accurate measurement of radon and thoron in the environment. Semiconductor detector based system employing spectroscopic method has been proved to be the best among them. A PIN diode based electrostatic collection type online real-time instrument has been developed in Bhabha Atomic Research Centre for simultaneous measurement of radon and thoron in an environment while both 222 Rn and 220 Rn are present. This system can be used for determination of radon and thoron concentrations at residence or workplace. Furthermore, since the 222 Rn and 220 Rn are differentiated from each other through spectroscopy, this monitor can be used even in a mixed radon/thoron environment

  13. Average daily and annual courses of 222Rn concentration in some natural medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, K.; Bohm, R.; Polaskova, A.; Stelina, J.; Sykora, I.; Hola, O.

    1996-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of the 222 Rn concentration in the outdoor atmosphere of Bratislava and in the soil air over one year period have been made. Daily and seasonal variations of the 222 Rn concentration in both media were found. Some attributes of these variations as well as methods of measurements are presented in this work. (author). 17 refs., 6 figs

  14. High-spin isomer in 211Rn, and the shape of the yrast line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracoulis, G.D.; Fahlander, C.; Poletti, A.R.

    1981-08-01

    High spin yrast states in 211 Rn have been identified. A 61/2 - , 380 ns isomer found at 8856 keV is characterised as a core-excited configuration. The average shape of the yrast line shows a smooth behaviour with spin, in contrast to its neighbour 212 Rn. This difference is attributed to the presence of the neutron hole

  15. Predictors of Success and Failure for ADN Students on the NCLEX-RN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benefiel, Diane

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to: 1) analyze the relationship of preprogram and nursing program variables on National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN) success and failure, and 2) develop a model to predict success and failure on the NCLEX-RN. The convenience sample was comprised of 245 spring, summer, and fall midterm…

  16. Forskning i musikterapi - børn med en Autisme Spektrum Forstyrrelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    Der er forskningsmæssig evidens for, at musikterapi med børn med en autisme spektrum forstyrrelse (ASF) har en signifikant effekt. Cochrane reviews påviser, at musikterapi fremmer verbal og navnlig nonverbal kommunikation hos børn med ASF. En RCT-undersøgelse viser endvidere en signifikant effekt...

  17. The Transition Experiences of Graduates of a Synchronous Online LPN to RN Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoag, Debra K.

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative case study included a review of the nursing shortage, nursing education, contemporary learners, the LPN and RN, the future of nursing education, online education, and transitions experiences. These topics defined this study by providing the underpinnings to understand the LPN to RN journey. According to the American Association of…

  18. Eksklusion og inklusion af minoritetsdanske børn i dagtilbud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tireli, Üzeyir

    2014-01-01

    Med udgangspunkt i minoritetsdanske børn som case, beskæftiger artiklen sig med inklusions- og eksklusionsprocesserne i dagtilbud. Den diskursive konstruktion af "os" og "dem" synes at være en af hovedårsagerne til eksklusion af disse børn. Forfatteren kommer med bud på og ideer til hvordan disse...

  19. Inhalation exposures due to radon and thoron ((222)Rn and (220)Rn): Do they differ in high and normal background radiation areas in India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rosaline; Sapra, B K; Prajith, R; Rout, R P; Jalaluddin, S; Mayya, Y S

    2015-09-01

    In India, High Background Radiation Areas (HBRAs) due to enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil (thorium and, to a lesser extent, uranium), are located along some parts of the coastal tracts viz. the coastal belt of Kerala, Tamilnadu and Odisha. It is conjectured that these deposits will result in higher emissions of radon isotopes ((222)Rn and (220)Rn) and their daughter products as compared to Normal Background Radiation Areas (NBRAs). While the annual external dose rates contributed by gamma radiations in these areas are about 5-10 times higher, the extent of increase in the inhalation dose rates attributable to (222)Rn and (220)Rn and their decay products is not well quantified. Towards this, systematic indoor surveys were conducted wherein simultaneous measurements of time integrated (222)Rn and (220)Rn gas and their decay product concentrations was carried out in around 800 houses in the HBRAs of Kerala and Odisha to estimate the inhalation doses. All gas measurements were carried out using pin-hole cup dosimeters while the progeny measurements were with samplers and systems based on the Direct radon/thoron Progeny sensors (DRPS/DTPS). To corroborate these passive measurements of decay products concentrations, active sampling was also carried out in a few houses. The results of the surveys provide a strong evidence to conclude that the inhalation doses due to (222)Rn and (220)Rn gas and their decay products in these HBRAs are in the same range as observed in the NBRAs in India. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Radioelement (U,Th,Rn) concentrations in Norwegian bedrock groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, D.; Roeyset, O.; Strand, T.; Skarphagen, H.

    1993-12-01

    Samples of groundwater from bedrock boreholes in three Norwegian geological provinces have been analysed for content of 222 Rn, U and Th. Median values of 290 Bq/l, 7.6 μg/l and 0.02 μg/l were obtained for Rn, U and Th, respectively, while maximum values were 8500 Bq/l, 170 μg/l and 2.2 μg/l. Commonly suggested drinking water limits range from 8 to 1000 Bq/l for radon and 14 to 160 μg/l for uranium. Radioelement content was closely related to lithology, the lowest concentrations being derived from the largely Caledonian rocks of the Troendelag area, and the highest from the Precambrian Iddefjord Granite of South East Norway where median values of 2500 Bq/l, 15 μg/l and 0.38 μg/l, respectively, were obtained. The Iddefjord Granite is not believed to be unique in Norway yielding high dissolved radionuclide contents in groundwaters, and several other granitic aquifers warrant further investigation in this respect. 63 refs., 13 figs., 8 tabs

  1. Measurements of indoor 222Rn concentration in two art galleries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Luana Gomes; Braz, Delson; Jesus, Edgar Francisco de; Cunha, Kenya Dias da; Medeiros, Geiza; Zouain, Felipe; Pitassi, Gabriel; Leite, Carlos Barros; Cardoso, Katia

    2009-01-01

    It is point out that radon and their decay products in environment give high dose to human lung. Studies indicate that the indoor radon inhalation by humans has been considered probably the second most important cause of lung cancer after of smoking. A passive-type radon detector was used for measuring indoor radon concentration in two art galleries at Rio de Janeiro city during 90 days January to March, 2009. The aim of this study is to evaluate the occupational and public radon exposure in art galleries and museums. This paper shows the preliminary results of samples collected at two art galleries located in Gavea, Rio de Janeiro city. 30 LEXAN (GE) track detectors were exposed in the air (indoor as well as outdoor). The samples were collected in the same building which is a construction of XIX century. The analysis of the results suggests that the 222 Rn concentration levels are different in both sampling site, in closed environmental, demonstrating that, although the construction materials are the same the absence of circulating air is a factor very important to increase the concentration of indoor Rn. (author)

  2. Observation and modeling of 222Rn daughters in liquid nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frodyma, N.; Pelczar, K.; Wójcik, M.

    2014-01-01

    The results of alpha spectrometric measurements of the activity of 222 Rn daughters dissolved in liquefied nitrogen are presented. A direct detection method of ionized alpha-emitters from the 222 Rn decay chain ( 214 Po and 218 Po) in a cryogenic liquid in the presence of an external electric field is shown. Properties of the radioactive ions are derived from a proposed model of ion production and transport in the cryogenic liquid. Ionic life-time of the ions was found to be on the order of 10 s in liquid nitrogen (4.0 purity class). The presence of positive and negative ions was observed. - Highlights: • A direct detection method of the alpha-emitters in a cryogenic liquid is shown. • We examine electrostatic drifting of the radioactive ions in liquid nitrogen. • The ions belong to the Radon-222 decay chain; Radon-222 is dissolved in the liquid. • The model of the ions production and behaviour in the liquid is proposed. • The ion production significantly depends on the nuclear decay type (alpha or beta)

  3. Une vie traversée : Unica Zürn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannine Paque

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Born in 1916 in Berlin, Unica Zürn committed suicide in Paris in 1970. During the last twenty years of her life, this artist, painter, and sentimental companion of Hans Bellmer, fought against schizophrenia. She spent many periods in psychiatric hospitals and has described her mental illness, her remissions from this illness and the psychiatric universe in El Hombre-Jazmín. This is an unusual autobiography, narrated in third person and in the present historic, and represents a direct and perturbed testimony of a lucid nature about her experiences. The book includes anagrams that sh developed over a long period of time. Née en 1916 à Berlin, Unica Zürn se suicide à Paris en 1970. Durant les quelque vingt dernières années de sa vie, cette artiste, peintre et écrivain, compagne de Hans Bellmer, luttera contre la schizophrénie. Elle fera de nombreux séjours en hôpital psychiatrique et décrira tant sa maladie mentale et ses rémissions que l’univers psychiatrique dans un texte majeur, L’Homme-Jasmin. Une étrange autobiographie à la troisième personne et au présent, troublant témoignage direct et lucide sur un vécu perturbé, qui inclut les textes anagrammatiques auxquels elle s’est longuement adonnée.

  4. Lipoproteínas: metabolismo y lipoproteínas aterogénicas

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Carvajal

    2014-01-01

    Los lípidos viajan en sangre en diferentes partículas conteniendo lípidos y proteínas llamadas lipoproteínas. Hay cuatro clases de lipoproteínas en sangre: quilomicrones, VLDL, LDL y HDL. Los quilomicrones transportan triglicéridos (TAG) a tejidos vitales (corazón, musculo esquelético y tejido adiposo). El hígado secreta VLDL que redistribuye TAG al tejido adiposo, corazón y músculo esquelético. LDL transporta colesterol hacia las células y HDL remueve colesterol de las células de vuelta al h...

  5. Extraction and purification of {sup 227}Ac and development of solid {sup 219}Rn source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Quan; Qiu, Shoukang; Xiao, Detao; Zhou, Yaohui; An, Xiaogang [University of South China, Hengyang (China). Radon Key Laboratory of Hunan Province/School of Nuclear Science and Technology

    2014-04-01

    The method of {sup 227}Ac extraction and purification from high-grade uranium ore and the test results of solid {sup 219}Rn source made from {sup 227}Ac are reported in this paper. With five years of follow-up monitoring, radiochemical purity of {sup 227}Ac and the emanation power of solid {sup 219}Rn source has been checked by emanation method and γ-spectrometry, the results showed that {sup 228}Th, {sup 231}Pa and {sup 226}Ra have been effectively removed and the emanation power of {sup 219}Rn source is about 80%. The long-term test results also showed that the {sup 219}Rn emanation rate remains stable in a wide air humidity range (40% ∝ 90%). Though the {sup 219}Rn source has not been accurately calibrated yet, it has been applied in the research for delay coincidence measurement of {sup 223}Ra. (orig.)

  6. The neonatal Fc receptor, FcRn, as a target for drug delivery and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockolosky, Jonathan T; Szoka, Francis C

    2015-08-30

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG)-based drugs are arguably the most successful class of protein therapeutics due in part to their remarkably long blood circulation. This arises from IgG interaction with the neonatal Fc receptor, FcRn. FcRn is the central regulator of IgG and albumin homeostasis throughout life and is increasingly being recognized as an important player in autoimmune disease, mucosal immunity, and tumor immune surveillance. Various engineering approaches that hijack or disrupt the FcRn-mediated transport pathway have been devised to develop long-lasting and non-invasive protein therapeutics, protein subunit vaccines, and therapeutics for treatment of autoimmune and infectious disease. In this review, we highlight the diverse biological functions of FcRn, emerging therapeutic opportunities, as well as the associated challenges of targeting FcRn for drug delivery and disease therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of 222Rn entry into a basement structure surrounded by low permeability soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental facility has been developed to monitor the entry rate and concentration of 222 Rn in two basement type structures surrounded by soil having a permeability on the order of 1- -12 m 2 . A data acquisition system recorded environmental conditions outside and inside the structures, including basement air exchange rates, every 15 min. Indoor 222 Rn concentrations ranged from 400 to 1400 Bq m -3 . The observed 222 Rn entry rate is highly variable and has two primary components; a constant input rate caused by diffusion of 222 Rn through the concrete walls and floor, and a variable rate that depends upon indoor-soil pressure differentials of only a few pascals. Pressure differentials are dependent upon wind speed and wind direction. Stack effect was not significant. During a two week period, with relatively calm winds, diffusion through the concrete walls and floor plus the floor-wall joint accounted for more than 80% of the total 222 Rn entry

  8. Regularity of random attractors for fractional stochastic reaction-diffusion equations on Rn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Anhui; Li, Dingshi; Wang, Bixiang; Yang, Han

    2018-06-01

    We investigate the regularity of random attractors for the non-autonomous non-local fractional stochastic reaction-diffusion equations in Hs (Rn) with s ∈ (0 , 1). We prove the existence and uniqueness of the tempered random attractor that is compact in Hs (Rn) and attracts all tempered random subsets of L2 (Rn) with respect to the norm of Hs (Rn). The main difficulty is to show the pullback asymptotic compactness of solutions in Hs (Rn) due to the noncompactness of Sobolev embeddings on unbounded domains and the almost sure nondifferentiability of the sample paths of the Wiener process. We establish such compactness by the ideas of uniform tail-estimates and the spectral decomposition of solutions in bounded domains.

  9. A pedagogia nas malhas de discursos legais

    OpenAIRE

    Jociane Rosa de Macedo Costa

    2002-01-01

    Esta dissertação se ocupa de discursos da legislação educacional brasileira e documentos correlatos de uma formação particular (em que aconteceram mudanças significativas na sociedade e na cultura)  a pedagogia. Seu objetivo é mostrar como esses discursos, ao prescreverem sobre a formação da pedagoga, produzem uma pedagogia que se constitui como prática de governo. Trata-se de uma pedagogia específica, fabricada nas malhas dos discursos legais e colocada a serviço da nação para a produção de...

  10. Monte Carlo simulation of semiconductor detector response to "2"2"2Rn and "2"2"0Rn environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irlinger, J.; Trinkl, S.; Wielunksi, M.; Tschiersch, J.; Rühm, W.

    2016-01-01

    A new electronic radon/thoron monitor employing semiconductor detectors based on a passive diffusion chamber design has been recently developed at the Helmholtz Zentrum München (HMGU). This device allows for acquisition of alpha particle energy spectra, in order to distinguish alpha particles originating from radon and radon progeny decays, as well as those originating from thoron and its progeny decays. A Monte-Carlo application is described which uses the Geant4 toolkit to simulate these alpha particle spectra. Reasonable agreement between measured and simulated spectra were obtained for both "2"2"0Rn and "2"2"2Rn, in the energy range between 1 and 10 MeV. Measured calibration factors could be reproduced by the simulation, given the uncertainties involved in the measurement and simulation. The simulated alpha particle spectra can now be used to interpret spectra measured in mixed radon/thoron atmospheres. The results agreed well with measurements performed in both radon and thoron gas environments. It is concluded that the developed simulation allows for an accurate prediction of calibration factors and alpha particle energy spectra. - Highlights: • A method was developed to simulate alpha particle spectra from radon/thoron decay. • New monitor features alpha-particle-spectroscopy based on silicon detectors. • A method is presented to quantify radon/thoron concentrations in mixed atmospheres. • The calibration factor can be simulated for various environmental parameters.

  11. Use of 222Rn for estimation of greenhouse gases emissions at Russian territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezina, E. V.; Elansky, N. F.

    2009-04-01

    It is well known that 222Rn is widely used as a tracer for studying different atmospheric processes including estimations of greenhouse gases emissions. Calculation of 222Rn fluxes from the soil into the atmosphere allows quantitative estimation of greenhouse gases emissions having the soil origin or sources of which are located near the surface. For accurate estimation of 222Rn fluxes detailed investigations of spatial and temporal variations of its concentrations are necessary. 222Rn concentrations data in the atmospheric surface layer over continental Russia from Moscow to Vladivostok obtained during the six TROICA (Transcontinental Observations Into the Chemistry of the Atmosphere) expeditions of the mobile laboratory along the Trans-Siberian railroad are analyzed. Spatial distribution, diurnal and seasonal variations of surface 222Rn concentrations along the Trans-Siberian railroad are investigated. According to the obtained data surface 222Rn concentration values above continental Russia vary from 0.5 to 75 Bq/m3 depending on meteorological conditions and geological features of the territory with the average value being 8.42 ± 0.10 Bq/m3. The average 222Rn concentration is maximum in the autumn expedition and minimum in the spring one. The factors mostly influencing 222Rn concentration variations are studied: surface temperature inversions, geological features of the territory, precipitations. 222Rn accumulation features in the atmospheric surface layer during night temperature inversions are analyzed. It was noted that during night temperature inversions the surface 222Rn concentration is 7 - 8 times more than the one during the nights without temperature inversions. Since atmospheric stratification determines accumulation and diurnal variations of many atmospheric pollutants as well as greenhouse gases its features are analyzed in detail. Surface temperature inversions were mainly observed from 18:00-19:00 to 06:00-07:00 in the warm season and from 16

  12. As consequência das segundas residências no mercado de hospedagem em Tibau do Sul-RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rita Oliveira Nunes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available O fenômeno das segundas residências é de abrangência mundial. No desenvolvimento de produtos como o turismo de sol e mar, as segundas habitações apresentam-se como uma forma de alojamento e investimento turístico. Compreender as repercussões desse fenômeno nas destinações e suas consequências é imperativo na gestão da atividade. O objetivo desse artigo é de verificar as características desse fenômeno e analisar em que medida as residências secundárias interferem na destinação de Tibau do Sul – RN, Brasil. O aumento do número de residências secundárias nessa destinação turística foi nocivo frente ao excesso de oferta de alojamentos a ocasionar uma competitividade desleal com a hotelaria, acrescido a isso a crise financeira mundial afetou o desenvolvimento dessa localidade e comprometeu a permanência competitiva desse destino no mercado turístico.

  13. Detection of carbon monoxide emissions from urban solid waste in Serrinha dos Pintos/RN: study case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelmo Artur de Aquino

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho consiste principalmente na elaboração de um estudo de caso focado na detecção da emissão de monóxido de carbono (CO causada pela incineração de resíduos sólidos urbanos do aterro público da cidade de Serrinha dos Pintos / RN, localizada em O semi-árido. O estudo visa analisar fatores possivelmente afetados pela emissão de gás tóxico, mas também fatores socioambientais, por exemplo. Assim, para uma análise significativa e coerente desses fatores a partir de resíduos sólidos urbanos, o estudo analisa as condições de trabalho encontradas nas questões ambientais, sociais e ambientais através de um questionário aplicado aos moradores da comunidade onde o aterro está localizado, Exposição ao monóxido de carbono. Assim, os resultados abrangem várias áreas que estão ligadas não só à emissão de CO,

  14. Annual effective dose equivalents arising from inhalation of 222Rn, 220Rn and their decay products in high background radiation area in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhonghou

    1985-01-01

    The author presents the data of on-the-sport investigations in the high background radiation area in Yangjiang County in 1975 and 1981. Monazite sand is contained in the soil of this area. The average concentrations of 222 Rn in the air indoors and out doors of the high background radiation area are 31.8 and 16.4 Bqm -3 respectively, which are equal to 2.9 and 1.5 times the average concentrations in the control area. The average concentrations of 220 Rn in the air indoors and outdoors of the high background area are 167.5 and 18.4 Bqm -3 , corresponding to 9.6 and 4.8 times those of the control area respectively. The average potential alpha energy concentrations for daughters of 222 Rn indoors and outdoors are 0.1 and 0.097 μJm -3 , which are equal to 2.6 and 2.2 times those of the control are respectively. The average potential alpha energy concentrations for daughters of 220 Rn indoors and outdoors are 0.255 and 0.053 μJm -3 , corresponding to 3.7 and 2.7 times those of the control area respectively. The average annual effective dose equivalents arising from inhalation of 222 Rn, 220 Rn and their decay products in high background radiation area are estimated to be 2.8 mSv per caput, in which 40.5% arise from 220 Rn and its decay products. This result is about 3 times that in the neighboring control area

  15. Theoretical study of the diffusion 222Rn gas on activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Fabio O.; Canoba, Analia C.

    2001-01-01

    The 222 Rn adsorption coefficient is the fundamental parameter characterizing activated carbon's ability to adsorb 222 Rn . In this work, it has been determined the 222 Rn coefficient adsorption for 222 Rn activated carbon detectors. Scintillation vials were used as detectors. The measurement of the 222 Rn activity adsorbed in activated carbon was made by a liquid scintillation measurement of its alpha-beta progeny decay. On the other hand, in this work a diffusion and adsorption model has been developed for the transport of 222 Rn in an activated carbon porous bed. The equation that describes these processes is a partial differential equation, of the second order with respect to axial coordinate, and the first order with respect to time. The equation was numerically solved using a finites differences method. With this model the 222 Rn activity adsorbed in the detector, for several situations, was calculated. The results were tested with the data obtained from series of experiences made in our laboratories. (author)

  16. Study of 222Rn variations in the soil air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, K.; Boehm, R.; Matos, M.; Polaskova, A.; Hola, O.

    1998-01-01

    A significant source of radon in the indoor atmosphere is represented by 222 Rn in the soil air, ie., by the fraction of radon atoms produced by alpha decay of 226 Ra in soil grains that escaped into soil pores. In the paper the results are presented of a three year monitoring of radon in soil air, using a 125 ml Lucas type scintillation cell. Radon concentration depth profiles in the soil in various seasons of the year were also measured, and saturated concentration of radon in soil air was found at a depth of about 2 m. Monthly variations in the radon concentration were observed over several months and the possible causes of the variations are discussed. Daily courses of radon concentration were also measured and the results are presented. (A.K.)

  17. Assessment pozzolanicity waste red ceramics produced in Valley Assu / RN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palhares, Rodolfo de Azevedo; Pereira, Arthur Ruan da Silva; Cabral, Kleber Cavalcanti; Nobrega, Andreza Kelly Costa

    2016-01-01

    It is known that both the cement industry as a ceramist contribute much to the generation of environmental impacts. Be the Co2 in the atmosphere, as well as the generation of excessive waste, reaching 20%. The objective of this study is to analyze the potential pozollanic of waste from the red ceramic industries Valley Assu / RN, in order that this material can be incorporated as alternative raw material in the manufacture of ecological and similar brick, replacing partially in its composition Portland cement. Thus contributing to reducing the environmental impact produced by both the ceramics industry, such as cement. To evaluate the efficiency of pozollanic material, it was made sample preparation and then the physico-chemical characterization. After performing tests, it was noticed that the material has the minimum requirements established in standard to be considered as pozollanic material. (author)

  18. Performance improvements on passive activated charcoal 222Rn samplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Suxia

    1996-01-01

    Improvements have been made on passive activated charcoal 222 Rn samplers with sintered metal filters. Based on the samplers of good adaptability to temperature and humidity developed before, better charcoal was selected to further improve their performance in radon absorption ability and moisture-resistance. And charcoal quantity in samplers was strictly controlled. The integration time constant of the improved samplers was about 4.3 days. As the sampler was combined with gamma spectrometer to measure radon concentration, the calibration factor was 0.518 min -1 ·Bq -1 ·m 3 for samplers of 7 days exposure time, and the minimum detectable concentration 0.28 Bq·m -3 if counting time for both background and sample is 1000 minutes. The improved samplers are suited to accurately determine the indoor and outdoor average radon concentration under conditions of great variation in temperature and humidity

  19. A source of ground water 222Rn around Tachikawa fault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Masaaki; Takata, Sigeru

    1994-01-01

    Radon ( 222 Rn) concentration in ground water was characteristically high on the south-western zone divided by the Tachikawa fault, Tokyo. (1) The concentration did not increase with depth, and alluvium is thick on the zone. The source of radon was not considered as the updraft from base rock through the fault. Comparing the south-western zone with its surrounding zone, the followings were found. (2) The distribution of tritium concentration was supported that water had easily permeated into ground on the zone. (3) As the zone is located beside the Tama River and its alluvial fan center, the river water had likely affected. The source of radon on the zone would be 226 Ra in the aquifer soil. It can be presumed that the water of the Tama River had permeated into ground on the zone and had accumulated 226 Ra. (author)

  20. A writing intensive introductory course for RN to BSN students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesh, Anita S; Hyde, Yolanda M; Kautz, Donald D

    2014-01-01

    This article describes learning strategies used with RN to BSN students in their 1st nursing course to successfully learn how to write formal papers using the American Psychological Association (APA) format. This 1st nursing course, a writing intensive, requires 4 short papers with self, peer, and teacher critiques and opportunities to rewrite. Students learn the style of professional nursing discourse, mastery of APA format, and development of additional skills in following directions and in critiquing their own work. An additional benefit is to enhance learning about professional nursing topics. By mastering writing skills in this initial course, students are able to successfully complete writing assignments in future courses and, in some cases, move on to publication.

  1. Radionuclide fistulogram (RnF) in hemodialysis patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, I.S.; Sy, W.M.; Heneghan, W.; Manoli, A.; Gozum, M.

    1984-01-01

    Prosthetic graft A-V fistulae (AVf) (10 adults) and internal AVf (14 adults) as avenues of hemodialysis were created surgically in the limbs of 24 renal failure patients. AVf can malfunction or become obstructed and to date only contrast fistulography (CnF) is used to document such problems. Thirty-three RnF's were performed in 24 patients and CnF's in seven patients. Eleven had clinical features of AVf malfunction and 13 were asymptomatic. 99mTc compounds, TcO/sup -//sub 4/ or MDP (20 mCi) were injected into the AVf through a 19-gauge butterfly. 2 sec. dynamic images (qualitative data) and simultaneous computer acquisition in 64 x 64 byte mode with 0.5 sec/frame for 120 frames (quantitative data) were obtained. Normal qualitative and quantitative criteria were established. 10/11 symptomatic and 2/13 asymptomatic patients showed abnormal scintigraphic features and time activity curves indicating AVf malfunction. All 12 patients demonstrated abnormal collateral formation; 8/12 had stenosis, 3/12 showed equivocal stenosis and in 1/12 no stenosis was shown. In these 12 patients the S/sub 2/ (second circulation)/S/sub 1/ (initial circulation) ratio was below 10%. In 5/12 whose S/sub 2//S/sub 1/ ratio was less than 1%, the CnF and surgical repair confirmed the presence of stenosis. RnF appears to be a simple, benign, and accurate imaging procedure in the evaluation of AVf malfunction.

  2. Vibrations in the urban environment controlling 222Rn migration in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegand, J.

    1998-01-01

    Comparable to investigations looking for a connection of 222 Rn and earthquakes, this study shows the influence of subsurface vibrations on the 222 Rn concentration of the soil-gas in urban environments. Generally, the 222 Rn concentration increases through vibrations induced by trains, street-traffic and activities at project sites. The spatial radius of the 222 Rn increase due to vibrations reach highest values at project sites where piled foundations or metal panels are rammed into the ground (> 60 m). Along railway tracks the radius is wider (> 30 m) than along heavy traffic roads ( 222 Rn concentrations in soil-gas due to vibrations is the highest at project sites (53%). Along heavy traffic roads the increase of 222 Rn concentrations by motor vehicle traffic is higher (37%) than that by railway traffic (11.5%). The maximum increase of 400% was observed in a distance of 1 m from a railway track. In the vicinity of railway tracks a difference of the vibration influence according to unconsolidated rock (11.1%) or solid rock (11.8%) was not noticed. Beside this vibration effect, the overall 222 Rn level decreases with increasing distance to the vibration source, but only at locations laying above solid rocks. The observation of the increase of 222 Rn concentrations can be explained by a 'pump effect': the mechanical vibration of soil and mineral particles leads to an upward motion of the whole volume of soil-gas. Therefore, 222 Rn is pumped out of the soil to the atmosphere and as a result the upward transport is increased. (author)

  3. Relationship between 222Rn concentration in soil water and degree of saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Hiromasa; Komae, Takami

    1996-01-01

    The object of the researches an analyzing downward flow to groundwater using 222 Rn concentration in water as an indicator has been saturated flow. However, when groundwater table is low, downward flow from surface is unsaturated flow. In this paper, the authors represented the relationship between 222 Rn concentration in soil water and degree of saturation, and measured the vertical distributions of 222 Rn concentrations in groundwater and 222 Rn concentration in water table in the fields. As the results, it was found that 222 Rn concentrations in the vicinity of groundwater table decreased by unsaturated downward flow. Moreover, from the variation of 222 Rn concentrations in groundwater table, it was possible to show the occurrence of the unsaturated downward flow by paddy fields irrigation, i.e., the downward flow of the soil water pushed out by irrigation water, the unsaturated percolation in the irrigation period, and the redistribution of the soil water after the release of ponding water. The degree of saturation in downward flow was calculated to be about 50% from 222 Rn concentrations in the irrigation period and in the non-irrigation period. It was deduced that the value was within reasonable range considering the difference of the hydraulic conductivities between of the upper layer and of the lower layer. These results proved that the relationship between 222 Rn concentrations in soil water and degree of saturation represented by the authors was reasonable and that the analytical method using 222 Rn concentrations in groundwater table as an indicator was useful 10 analyze the actual stale of unsaturated downward flow. (author)

  4. Assessing urban air quality and its relation with radon (222Rn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoran, Maria; Savastru, Dan; Dida, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the assessment of air quality and its relation with radon ( 222 Rn) for Bucharest metropolitan area in Romania. Specifically, daily mean concentrations of particle matter (PM2.5, PM10), ozone (O 3 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) and global air quality indices have been analyzed in relation with radon ( 222 Rn) concentrations measured in the air near the ground with AlphaGUARD Radon Monitoring System and CR-39 SSNTDs during 2012 year. Such new information is required by atmospheric sciences to prove suitability of 222 Rn as a tracer for atmospheric dynamics analysis as well as by epidemiological and radiological protection studies. (author)

  5. Online {sup 222}Rn removal by cryogenic distillation in the XENON100 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aprile, E.; Anthony, M.; De Perio, P.; Gao, F.; Goetzke, L.W.; Greene, Z.; Lin, Q.; Messina, M.; Plante, G.; Rizzo, A.; Zhang, Y. [Columbia University, Physics Department, New York, NY (United States); Aalbers, J.; Breur, P.A.; Brown, A.; Colijn, A.P.; Decowski, M.P.; Hogenbirk, E.; Tiseni, A. [Nikhef and the University of Amsterdam, Science Park, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Agostini, F. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); University of Bologna, Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Bologna (Italy); INFN-Bologna (Italy); Alfonsi, M.; Geis, C.; Grignon, C.; Oberlack, U.; Scheibelhut, M.; Schindler, S. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik and Exzellenzcluster PRISMA, Mainz (Germany); Amaro, F.D.; Cardoso, J.M.R.; Lopes, J.A.M.; Orrigo, S.E.A.; Santos, J.M.F. dos; Silva, M. [University of Coimbra, Department of Physics, Coimbra (Portugal); Arneodo, F.; Benabderrahmane, M.L.; Di Giovanni, A.; Maris, I. [New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Barrow, P.; Baudis, L.; Franco, D.; Galloway, M.; Kessler, G.; Kish, A.; Mayani, D.; Pakarha, P.; Piastra, F.; Wei, Y.; Wulf, J. [University of Zurich, Physik-Institut, Zurich (Switzerland); Bauermeister, B. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik and Exzellenzcluster PRISMA, Mainz (Germany); Stockholm University, AlbaNova, Department of Physics, Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm (Sweden); Berger, T.; Brown, E.; Piro, M.C. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Troy, NY (United States); Bruenner, S.; Cichon, D.; Eurin, G.; Hasterok, C.; Lindner, M.; Undagoitia, T.M.; Pizzella, V.; Rauch, L.; Rupp, N.; Schreiner, J.; Simgen, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Bruno, G.; Gallo Rosso, A.; Molinario, A. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Budnik, R.; Duchovni, E.; Itay, R.; Landsman, H.; Lellouch, D.; Levinson, L.; Manfredini, A.; Priel, N. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Rehovot (Israel); Buetikofer, L.; Coderre, D.; Kaminsky, B.; Schumann, M.; Sivers, M. v. [Universitaet Freiburg, Physikalisches Institut, Freiburg (Germany); Calven, J.; Conrad, J.; Ferella, A.D.; Pelssers, B. [Stockholm University, AlbaNova, Department of Physics, Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm (Sweden); Cervantes, M.; Lang, R.F.; Masson, D.; Pienaar, J.; Reichard, S.; Reuter, C. [Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Cussonneau, J.P.; Diglio, S.; Le Calloch, M.; Masbou, J.; Micheneau, K.; Persiani, R.; Thers, D. [Universite de Nantes, SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, CNRS/In2p3, Nantes (France); Di Gangi, P.; Garbini, M.; Massoli, F.V.; Sartorelli, G.; Selvi, M. [University of Bologna, Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Bologna (Italy); INFN, Bologna (Italy); Fei, J.; Ni, K.; Ye, J. [University of California, Department of Physics, San Diego, CA (United States); Fieguth, A.; Murra, M.; Rosendahl, S.; Weinheimer, C. [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Muenster (Germany); Fulgione, W. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); INFN-Torino (Italy); Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Turin (Italy); Grandi, L.; Saldanha, R.; Shockley, E.; Upole, N. [University of Chicago, Department of Physics and Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics, Chicago, IL (United States); Lindemann, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Universitaet Freiburg, Physikalisches Institut, Freiburg (Germany); Meng, Y.; Stein, A.; Wang, H. [University of California, Physics and Astronomy Department, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Miguez, B.; Trinchero, G. [INFN-Torino (Italy); Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Turin (Italy); Naganoma, J.; Shagin, P. [Rice University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Houston, TX (United States); Lavina, L.S. [LPNHE, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, Paris (France); Tunnell, C. [Nikhef and the University of Amsterdam, Science Park, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Chicago, Department of Physics and Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics, Chicago, IL (United States); Cristescu, I. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Collaboration: XENON Collaboration

    2017-06-15

    We describe the purification of xenon from traces of the radioactive noble gas radon using a cryogenic distillation column. The distillation column was integrated into the gas purification loop of the XENON100 detector for online radon removal. This enabled us to significantly reduce the constant {sup 222}Rn background originating from radon emanation. After inserting an auxiliary {sup 222}Rn emanation source in the gas loop, we determined a radon reduction factor of R > 27 (95% C.L.) for the distillation column by monitoring the {sup 222}Rn activity concentration inside the XENON100 detector. (orig.)

  6. Estado e controle nas prisões

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, Analía Soria

    2009-01-01

    Este artigo analisa o problema da produção do controle e da ordem em prisões brasileiras, utilizando as perspectivas histórica e sociológica, e levanta a hipóteses de que, no Brasil, convivem duas modalidades de construção da ordem e do controle nas prisões. Uma delas, minoritária, baseia-se na prerrogativa do Estado na gestão do dia a dia prisional. A outra é relativa à negociação da pacificação do presídio entre o Estado e as lideranças dos presos. Embora, no primeiro caso, a prerrogativa d...

  7. Natural 222Rn and 220Rn indicate the impact of the Water–Sediment Regulation Scheme (WSRS) on submarine groundwater discharge in the Yellow River estuary, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Bochao; Xia, Dong; Burnett, William C.; Dimova, Natasha T.; Wang, Houjie; Zhang, Longjun; Gao, Maosheng; Jiang, Xueyan; Yu, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 220 Rn and 222 Rn were combined to locate intensive SGD sites. • Influence of WSRS to SGD was found for the first time. • SGD was a dominant nutrient pathway in the Yellow River estuary. - Abstract: Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in estuaries brings important influences to coastal ecosystems. In this study, we observed significant SGD in the Yellow River estuary, including a fresh component, during the Water–Sediment Regulation Scheme (WSRS) period. We used the 222 Rn and 220 Rn isotope pair to locate sites of significant SGD within the study area. Three apparent SGD locations were found during a non-WSRS period, one of which became much more pronounced, according to the remarkably elevated radon levels, during the WSRS. Increased river discharge (from 245 m 3 s −1 to 3560 m 3 s −1 ) and the elevated river water level (from 11 m to 13 m) during the WSRS led to a higher hydraulic head, enhancing groundwater discharge in the estuary. Our results suggest that high river discharge (>3000 m 3 s −1 ) might be necessary for elevated fresh submarine groundwater discharging (FSGD). Vertical profiles of salinity, DO and turbidity anomalies along the benthic boundary layer also indicated significant FSGD in the estuary during the WSRS. Nutrient concentrations had positive correlations with 222 Rn during a 24-h observation, which indicates that SGD is a dominant nutrient pathway in this area

  8. Indoor {sup 22}Rn and {sup 222}Rn concentration measurements inside the Teotihuacan pyramids using NTD and E-PERM methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa, G. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: espinosa@fisica.unam.mx; Golzarri, J.I. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Martinez, T. [Facultad de Quimica, UNAM, Edificio D, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Navarrete, M. [Facultad de Quimica, UNAM, Edificio D, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Bogard, J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6480 (United States); Martinez, G. [Coordinacion Nacional de Conservacion del Patrimonio Cultural, Xicotencatl y General Anaya s/n, 04120 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Juarez, F. [Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-11-15

    Measurements of {sup 22}Rn (Thoron) and {sup 222}Rn (Radon) concentrations, inside the Sun and Moon pyramids of Teotihuacan's archeological zone in Mexico, are reported in this work. Two well-established methods, nuclear track detectors (NTDs), using open-close end cups with internal and external detectors of CR-39 polymer, and electret-passive environmental radon monitoring (E-PERM) were used for the measurements. This experiment had two objectives: to obtain better confidence in the {sup 22}Rn and {sup 222}Rn measurements inside the archeological tunnels, and to compare the data obtained in each one of the two methods. This experiment is specially interesting because of the very peculiar conditions where the measurements are made: high humidity, labyrinths with air currents, but almost constant temperature inside of the pyramid tunnels and galleries, notwithstanding of the temperature changes between the day and the night outside of the pyramid body. The {sup 222}Rn concentrations found in both the pyramids were lower than the action level proposed by the ICRP-65. These tunnels are not open to the public, but researchers from the Anthropology Institutions spend part of their time working there, in periods varying from 3 to 5 months.

  9. Comparison of outdoor activity size distributions of 220 Rn and 222 Rn progeny and their Influences on lung dosimetry distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.; El-Hussein, A.; Ahmed, A.

    2005-01-01

    In the case of internally deposited radionuclides, direct measurement of the energy absorbed from ionizing radiation emitted by the decaying radionuclides is rarely, if ever, possible. Therefore, one must rely on dosimetric models to obtain estimates of the spatial and temporal patterns of energy deposition in human lung. T These models always need some information about the parameters of activity size distributions of thoron and radon progeny. In the present work, the attached and unattached activity size distributions of thoron and radon progeny were measured in outdoor air of El-Minia, Egypt. The attached samples were collected using a low pressure Berner cascade impactor technique, while a constructed screen diffusion b attery was used for collecting the unattached samples. Most of the attached activities for 222 Rn and 220 Rn progeny were associated with the aerosol particles of the accumulation mode. The activity size distribution of thoron progeny was found to be shifted to slightly smaller particle size, compared to radon progeny. An analytical method has been developed to compute the local energy deposition of 2l2 Bi alpha particles in a target volume of 1 jam spheres located at different depths in bronchial epithelium. In order to reach the target, alpha particles travel either through tissue alone (near-wall dose) or through air and tissue (far-wall dose). It was found that the contribution of near-wall dose is higher than that of the far wall dose. While the depth-dose distributions for nuclides uniformly distributed within the epithelium are practically constant with

  10. DESENVOLVIMENTO LOCAL E MANEJO DA CAATINGA NO ASSENTAMENTO HIPÓLITO, EM MOSSORÓ/RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. G. Pereira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Nas últimas décadas tem havido uma preocupação muito grande com o tipo de desenvolvimento que vem sendo implementado pelos governos. A partir daí, criou-se a noção de desenvolvimento sustentável, o qual se baseia em um crescimento econômico que seja acompanhado por eqüidade social e prudência ecológica. Em muitos projetos de assentamentos têm sido desenvolvidos pesquisas com o objetivo de analisar como vem se processando tais experiências. Nossa investigação teve como meta verificar os impactos sócio-ambientais trazidos a partir do uso da caatinga no assentamento Hipólito, no município de Mossoró, no Oeste do RN. Preocupou-nos saber se naquele projeto de assentamento tem ocorrido um desenvolvimento local, baseado em critérios de sustentabilidade. A metodologia empregada foi a realização de entrevistas com 29 assentados, o que corresponde a 20% da população total do assentamento, além de leituras de outros trabalhos e artigos de jornais. O trabalho está em fase de conclusão, porém a partir de estudos de campo, realizados no mês de agosto de 2004, podemos apresentar os seguintes resultados: quanto ao aspecto sócio-econômico, os assentados têm na agricultura de sequeiro a atividade econômica principal; a produtividade é baixa e a renda é complementada com “bicos”, aposentadorias e/ou com o dinheiro advindo dos planos de assistência social do Governo Federal; a agricultura é realizada sem os devidos cuidados com o meio ambiente, e o desmatamento desordenado tem agravado ainda mais os problemas presentes no bioma caatinga, tais como salinização, a desertificação e o desaparecimento de espécies da fauna e da flora. Face ao exposto, podemos concluir que a realidade observada no assentamento aponta para a insustentabilidade sócio-econômica e ambiental naquela área. Palavras-chave: sustentabilidade; caatinga; assentamento; desenvolvimento rural; desenvolvimento local.

  11. Estimate of 50-year dose commitment to various organs and tissues of the body from inhalation of 222Rn free of its daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, S.R.; Ford, M.R.; Snyder, W.S.

    1976-01-01

    Some topics discussed are as follows: retention of 222 Rn in fat, bone, heart, muscle, skin, testes, and urinary bladder; retention equations for Rn; decay scheme for Rn and 226 Ra; metabolic models for Po, Pb, and Bi; dose estimates to target organs for 222 Rn and its daughters that are not inhaled but produced from decay of 222 Rn; and estimation of MPC for bone marrow, gonads, and total body

  12. Mapping of 222Rn and 4He in soil gas over a karstic limestone-granite boundary: correlation of high indoor 222Rn with zones of enhanced permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, P.J.; Gallagher, V.; Van den Boom, G.

    1992-01-01

    Recent indoor radon reconnaissance surveys in Ireland have identified buildings with high radon concentrations (up to 1700 Bq.m -3 ) overlying Carboniferous karstic limestone sequences in the western part of the country. A detailed investigation of indoor 222 Rn and soil gas 222 Rn and 4 He concentrations has been carried out over a karstic limestone-uraniferous granite boundary in County Galway. High indoor 222 Rn concentrations occur in dwellings over both lithologies. Radon migratory routes in bedrock and overburden appear to be controlled by zones of enhanced permeability, e.g. fractures, faults, etc. which are defined by linear arrays of elevated 4 He soil gas values. While the ultimate source of radon remains conjectural, the greatly enhanced permeability of karstified limestone is thought to be of fundamental importance in providing a means of rapid radon transport into overlying soils and buildings. (author)

  13. Postmortem Changes in Pork Muscle Protein Phosphorylation in Relation to the RN Genotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lametsch, René; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Essén-Gustavsson, Birgitta

    2011-01-01

    Postmortem changes in pork muscle protein phosphorylation in relation to the RN(-) genotype were investigated using one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and a phosphor specific staining. The phosphorylation levels of several protein bands were found to be affected by the RN(-) genotype and to change...... of phosphorylation of these key enzymes during the postmortem metabolism. The results illustrate that the protein phosphorylation level of the muscle proteins could be interpreted as a global metabolic fingerprint containing information about the activity status of the enzymes in the postmortem metabolism....... during postmortem development. Glycogen phosphorylase, phosphofructokinase, and pyruvate kinase were found in protein bands affected by the RN(-) genotype, and the phosphorylation profile indicates that part of the increased rate and extended pH decline of the RN(-) genotype could be a consequence...

  14. Measurements of 222Rn and 226Ra Levels in environmental samples by using liquid scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    The advantageous of liquid scintillation counting technique for 6 Ra determination compared with other methods are the high counting efficiency and the easier sample preparation, with no need for sample pre-concentration. In this work, liquid scintillation counting system was used to measure 222 Rn and 226 Ra levels in environmental samples. The liquid scintillation cocktail was prepared in the laboratory and was found efficient for measuring 222 Rn. Soil, sediment and TENORM samples were dried, grind, sieved and added to hydrochloric acid, in a standard scintillation vial, preloaded with the liquid scintillation cocktail. By measuring 222 Rn levels in the prepared vials, at different intervals of time after preparation, 222 Rn and 226 Ra levels were determined

  15. Characterization of the personal dosimeter Rn-disk for monitoring radon exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlando, P.; Arcovito, G.; Amici, M.; Orlando, C.; Cardellini, F.; Fiorentino, A.; Trevisi, R.

    2009-01-01

    Rn-disk is a new passive device for measuring occupational exposure to radon 222, are presented the results of tests for the characterization of the dosimeter as a tool for estimating the individual dose for workers. [it

  16. Reducing RN Vacancy Rate: A Nursing Recruitment Office Process Improvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisgen, Stephanie A; Page, Nancy E; Thornlow, Deirdre K; Merwin, Elizabeth I

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to reduce the RN vacancy rate at an academic medical center by improving the hiring process in the Nursing Recruitment Office. Inability to fill RN positions can lead to higher vacancy rates and negatively impact staff and patient satisfaction, quality outcomes, and the organization's bottom line. The Model for Improvement was used to design and implement a process improvement project to improve the hiring process from time of interview through the position being filled. Number of days to interview and check references decreased significantly, but no change in overall time to hire and time to fill positions was noted. RN vacancy rate also decreased significantly. Nurse manager satisfaction with the hiring process increased significantly. Redesigning the recruitment process supported operational efficiencies of the organization related to RN recruitment.

  17. Cape Point GAW Station Rn-222 detector: factors affecting sensitivity and accuracy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brunke, EG

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Specific factors of a baseline Rn-222 detector installed at Cape Point, South Africa, were studied with the aim of improving its performance. Direct sunlight caused air turbulence within the instrument, resulting in 13.6% variability...

  18. Results of Long-term Measurement of 222Rn Volume Activity in Soil Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, K.; Matos, M.; Boem, R.; Stanys, T.; Hola, O.; Polaskova, A.

    1999-01-01

    Radon in the soil air was continuously monitored for four years. The measured volume activities differ one from another even three times. On the basis of the measured data the annual and average daily courses of the 222 Rn volume activity were studied for individual months. In annual courses the winter and also summer maxima of the 222 Rn volume activity were found out. The study of the average daily courses revealed that the oscillation of the 222 Rn volume activity about its average value during a day is only a few percent. For dry summer months a linear relation was found out between the changes of the 222 Rn volume activity and the changes of the atmospheric pressure in their average daily courses (Authors)

  19. Expected indoor 222Rn levels in counties with very high and very low lung cancer rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1989-01-01

    Counties in the US with high lung cancer rates should have higher average 222 Rn levels than counties with low lung cancer rates, assuming the average 222 Rn level in a county is not correlated with other factors that cause lung cancer. The magnitude of this effect was calculated, using the absolute risk model, the relative risk model, and an intermediate model, for females who died in 1950-1969. The results were similar for all three models. We concluded that, ignoring migration, the average Rn level in the highest lung cancer counties should be about three times higher than in the lowest lung cancer counties according to the theory. Preliminary data are presented indicating that the situation is quite the opposite: The average Rn level in the highest lung cancer counties was only about one-half that in the lowest lung cancer counties

  20. Potable water as a source of airborne 222Rn in US dwellings: a review and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaroff, W.W.; Doyle, S.M.; Nero, A.V.; Sextro, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    Using a long-term-average, single-cell model and available data for U.S. housing, the concentration of 222 Rn in indoor air due to the use of potable water is assessed. The ratio of the airborne 222 Rn concentration to the concentration in water is represented by a lognormal distribution with geometric mean and geometric standard deviation of 0.65 X 10(-4) and 2.88, respectively, in fair agreement with the previously reported results of direct measurements of the ratio in 13 houses. By combining this result with data on 222 Rn concentrations in U.S. water supplies, potable water is estimated to contribute an average of 24, 1.3, and 0.1 Bq m-3 to the airborne 222 Rn concentration in residences served by private wells, public ground water, and surface water supplies, respectively

  1. Determining chance coincidence, survival factor and decay factor in 220Rn delayed coincidence measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Derong; Yan Yongjun; Zhou Jianliang; Qiu Shoukang

    2013-01-01

    The method and calculation formulas to determine the chance coincidence in the 220 Rn coincidence measurement are introduced in this paper. The poisson distribution is introduced to correct the chance coincidence. The relative deviation of the true coincidence between the method and the Giffin's is within 5% after the correction of the cohance coincidence. The measurement of 220 Rn is done by comparative measurement with RAD7. The results shows that 220 Rn can be measured by the method with a relative deviation of 14%. Mean while, for the 220 Rn flow regime is difficult to meet the condition of calculation formulas, a solution to solve the survival factor and decay factor is proposed and the error come from the useage of theoretical calculation formula is avoided. (authors)

  2. Indoor 222Rn measurements in the region of Beijing, People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, T.S.; Lin, L.Q.; Chen, Z.P.; Li, G.Y.; Chen, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    Passive integrating activated C detectors were used to study the regional distribution and temporal variation of 222 Rn in indoor air in dwellings in the Beijing region. Measurements were made in 537 dwellings, which were either detached houses or multi-family apartments. The city-wide study was completed in 1985. The distributions are approximately log-normal with 90% of the dwellings having 222 Rn levels less than 60 Bq m-3. The weighted average 222 Rn concentration has been found to be 22.4 Bq m-3. Averages for detached houses and multi-family dwellings are 25.9 and 15.2 Bq m-3, respectively. Assuming an equilibrium factor of 0.5 and an occupancy factor of 0.8, the average equilibrium equivalent concentration of 222 Rn progeny is 11.2 Bq m-3 and the annual average effective dose equivalent is 1.1 mSv

  3. Soil gas 222Rn and volcanic activity at El Hierro (Canary Islands) before and after the 2011 submarine eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, G.; Hernández, P. A.; Padrón, E.; Barrancos, J.; Melián, G.; Dionis, S.; Rodríguez, F.; Nolasco, D.; Calvo, D.; Hernández, I.; Pereza, M. D.; Pérez, N. M.

    2012-04-01

    El Hierro (278 km2) is the southwesternmost island of the Canarian archipelago. From June 19, 2011 to January 2012, more than 11,950 seismic events have been detected by the seismic network of IGN. On 10 October 2011 the earthquake swarm changed its behaviour and produced a harmonic tremor due to magma movement, indicating that a submarine eruption located at 2 km south of La Restinga had started which is still in progress. Since 2003, the ITER Environmental Research Division now integrated in the Instituto Volcanológico de Canarias, INVOLCAN, has regularly performed soil gas surveys at El Hierro as a geochemical tool for volcanic surveillance. Among the investigated gases, soil gas radon (222Rn) and thoron (220Rn) have played a special attention. Both gases are characterized to ascend towards the surface mainly through cracks or faults via diffusion or advection, mechanisms dependent of both soil porosity and permeability, which in turn vary as a function of the stress/strain changes at depth. Years before the starts of the volcanic-seismic crisis on July 17, 2011, a volcanic multidisciplinary surveillance program was implemented at El Hierro including discrete and continuous measurements of 222Rn and 220Rn. Two soil gas 222Rn surveys had been carried out at El Hierro in 2003 and 2011, and four continuous geochemical monitoring stations for 222Rn and 220Rn measurements had been installed (HIE02, HIE03, HIE04 and HIE08). Soil gas 222Rn surveys were carried out at the surface environment of El Hierro after selecting 600 sampling observation sites (about 40 cm depth). Geochemical stations measure 222Rn and 220Rn activities by pumping the gas from a PVC pipe inserted 1m in the ground and thermally isolated. The results of the 2003 and 2011 soil gas 222Rn surveys show clearly a relatively higher observed 222Rn activities in the surface environment on 2011 than those observed on 2003 when no anomalous seismicity were taking place beneath El Hierro. The observed

  4. Development of an integrated sampler based on direct 222Rn/220Rn progeny sensors in flow-mode for estimating unattached/attached progeny concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Rosaline; Sapra, B.K.; Mayya, Y.S.

    2009-01-01

    A flow-mode integrated sampler consisting of a wire-mesh and filter-paper array along with passive solid state nuclear track detectors has been developed for estimating unattached and attached fraction of 222 Rn/ 220 Rn progeny concentration. The essential element of this sampler is the direct 222 Rn/ 220 Rn progeny sensor (DRPS/DTPS), which is an absorber-mounted-LR115 type nuclear track detector that selectively registers the alpha particles emitted from the progeny deposited on its surface. During sampling at a specified flow-rate, the unattached progeny is captured on the wire-mesh; while the attached progeny gets transmitted and is captured on the filter-paper. The alpha particles emitted by the deposited progeny atoms are registered on the sensors placed at a specified distance facing the wire-mesh and the filter-paper, respectively. The various steps involved in the development of this flow-mode direct progeny sampler such as the optimization of the sampling rate and the distance between the sensor and the deposition substrate are discussed. The sensitivity factor of the DTPS-loaded sampler for 220 Rn progeny deposited on the wire-mesh and filter-paper is found to be 23.77 ± 0.64 (track cm -2 h -1 ) (Bq m -3 ) -1 and 22.30 ± 0.18 (track cm -2 h -1 ) (Bq m -3 ) -1 , respectively; while that of DRPS-loaded sampler for 222 Rn progeny deposition, is 3.03 ± 0.14 (track cm -2 h -1 ) (Bq m -3 ) -1 and 2.08 ± 0.07 (track cm -2 h -1 ) (Bq m -3 ) -1 , respectively. The highlight of this flow-mode sampler is its high sensitivity and that it utilizes the passive technique for estimating the unattached and attached progeny concentration, thus doing away with the alpha counting procedures.

  5. Dose by 222 Rn in houses of the Chihuahua city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colmenero S, L.H.; Talamantes F, C.; Villalba, M.L.; Dobson, P.F.; Ortalejo M, B.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The dose equivalent that the population of the Chihuahua city receives due to the radon in air that joined to values of uranium, thorium and potassium due to the floor and radon in water was determined, they give values very above the international and national norms. The state of Chihuahua contains near 56 locations distributed by the whole state. The city of Chihuahua, capital of the state, is surrounded of rocks with great content of uranium, for what their floor also contains to the 226 Ra that generates to the 222 Rn. The construction of the housings of the city of Chihuahua is mainly of brick, block and adobe; the material to elaborate them is take from the rocks and floor of the surroundings, this makes that the radon is presented in a great quantity of houses of this city. As the floor and water they also contain those natural radionuclides, the total dose equivalent that the inhabitants receive is bigger to other cities of the country. Diverse international organizations dedicated to the radioactivity, indicate that the level of the 222 Rn should not surpass the 148 Bq/m 3 , since this gas produces lung cancer. The state of Chihuahua has an index of deaths on the average by lung cancer of double the national average, the capital of the state also has a high index. The radon concentration in a house depends on the construction material with which was made, as well as of the existent climatic conditions. During the day, this concentration depends mainly on the interior temperature, so during the night and dawn increases the radon concentration. The radon is the biggest source of radioactive dose received by the human being and it can generate a problem of public health if the concentration is high during enough time, for what the city of Chihuahua has the geologic and climatic characteristics to have it. This study was carried out in 50 house-room of the city of Chihuahua. Built houses with brick, block and adobe were selected. The quantification

  6. Pædagoger og Perkere – etniske minoritetsbørn i det sociale system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitus, Kathrine

    : hvad gør mødet med en socialpædagogisk institution ved og for etniske minoritetsbørn? Hvilke praksisser, manøvremuligheder og handlerum har pædagoger? Hvorfor er mødet mellem danske velfærdsinstitutioner, deres professionelle og etniske minoritetsbørn, unge og deres familier tilsyneladende så svært? I...

  7. rn, unge og sociale netværkssider. Hvad ved vi?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Malene Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    været. Herefter skal vi se på, hvordan børn og unge selv begrunder deres brug af sociale netværkssider, og hvilke motiver der ligger bag deres mange timer foran skærmen. Dernæst sætter kapitlet fokus på børn og unges venskaber på sociale netværkssider, hvad der karakteriserer et venskab i dag, og...

  8. Some remarks on exact methods for WL and 222Rn-daughter determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groer, P.G.

    1977-01-01

    For an exact determination of the three 222 Rn-daughter concentrations (RaA, B and C) which properly weighted yield the Working Level, three equations relating observed counts (α or β) to these unknown concentrations have to be solved. The half-lives in the 222 Rn decay series, the type of decay and the counting errors, limit the suitable set of equations. Some aspects of two such exact methods are discussed

  9. Skolestøtte til børn i familiepleje – delrapport I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiberg, Misja; Andersen, Luna Kragh; Scavenius Sonne-Schmidt, Christoffer

    I denne rapport beskrives resultaterne af et randomiseret kontrolleret forsøg med to skolestøttende indsatser til familieplejeanbragte børn i den danske folkeskole i alderen 6-14 år. Gennem afprøvningen af de to indsatser har forskningsprojektet ”Skolestøtte til børn i familiepleje” undersøgt, hv...

  10. ON A PROLONGATION CONSTRUCTION FOR LOCAL NON-DIVERGENT VECTOR FIELDS ON Rn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Lukatsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of a prolongation of non-divergent vector field, defined in a vicinity of zero in Rn t, to a finite non-divergent vector field on Rn is considered. Explicit formulas for the elements of the simple Lie algebra of non-divergent vector from the well-known Cartan series are obtained. This construction allows to move from the Euler equations for the ideal incompressible fluid to the Euler equations on finite-dimensional Lie groups.

  11. Sårbare børn og unge i tandplejeregi i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldum, Birgitte; Christensen, Hanne Nødgaard; Haubek, Dorte

    2016-01-01

    Hvorledes identificeres sårbare børn og unge i tandplejeregi i Danmark? I denne artikel sættes fokus på danske sårbare børn og unge i tandplejeregi og på udviklingen I Danmark siden 2009. En dansk spørgeskemaundersøgelse om tandplejens erfaring fra 2008 omtales kort. Der lægges vægt på det odonto...

  12. Regulatory perspective on NAS recommendations for Yucca Mountain standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocoum, S.J.; Nesbit, S.P.; Duguid, J.A.; Lugo, M.A.; Krishna, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides a regulatory perspective from the viewpoint of the potential licensee, the US Department of Energy (DOE), on the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report on Yucca Mountain standards published in August 1995. The DOE agrees with some aspects of the NAS report; however, the DOE has serious concerns with the ability to implement some of the recommendations in a reasonable manner

  13. Estudo Bioquímico de Qualidade do Mel de Abelha Comercializado no Municipio de Caraúbas - RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas de Souza Barbosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O mel é uma substância que vem sendo utilizada pelo homem como alimento, é um produto natural elaborado pelas abelhas a partir do néctar das flores, possui propriedades nutritivas e terapêuticas. O mel de abelhas é um produto alimentício muito apreciado, porém pode ser facilmente adulterado com a adição de açúcares ou xaropes. Desta forma, é necessário fiscalizar sua qualidade através de análises físico-químicas com a finalidade de conhecer a composição química do mel de abelha comercializado além de contribuir para a identificação de fraudes e mudanças físico-químicas indesejáveis. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade físico-química do mel de abelha comercializado no município de Caraúbas – RN e sua adequação quanto aos padrões de identidade e qualidade estipulados pela legislação brasileira. As amostras de mel foram adquiridas no comércio do município de Caraubas – RN, sendo estas transportadas até o laboratório de Tecnologia de Alimentos, da UFERSA e UFCG, onde foram armazenadas para posteriores análises. Foram analisadas 6 amostras de diferentes produtores e marcas sendo os ensaios conduzidos com um numero mínimo de três repetições. No tocante às análises microscópicas, todas as amostras de mel estavam de acordo à legislação em vigor, não apresentando sujidades, fragmentos ou larvas de insetos, os testes bioquímicos demonstraram resultados de acordo com os índices estipulados pela legislação demonstrando uma boa qualidade dos méis analisados dentro dos Padrões de Identidade e Qualidade do mel de abelha, vigentes e estipulados pela legislação brasileira. Sugeri-se, portanto como forma de assegurar à qualidade do mel de abelha comercializado a adoção dos princípios das Boas Práticas Apícolas nas unidades produtoras.

  14. Update of the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Rn-222 comparison of activity measurements for the radionuclide {sup 222}Rn to include the LNE-LNHB, France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G. [Bureau International de Poids et Mesures, Pavillon de Breteuil, F-92312 Sevres cedex (France); Cassette, P. [Bureau International de Poids et Mesures, Pavillon de Breteuil, F-92312 Sevres cedex (France); Laboratoire national de metrologie et d' essais -Laboratoire national Henri Becquerel, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

    2012-02-15

    In 2007, the Laboratoire national de metrologie et d'essais - Laboratoire national Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), France submitted a sample of known activity of {sup 222}Rn to the International Reference System (SIR) for comparison. The value of the activity submitted was about 90 kBq. This key comparison result joins that of Switzerland and Germany in the key comparison database that now contains three results, identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Rn-222. Consequently, the KCRV has been updated and the degrees of equivalence with the KCRV have been evaluated. (authors)

  15. SUSTENTABILIDADE NAS CONSTRUÇÕES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Siqueira Manhães

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available O processo da área da construção civil é bastante heterogêneo, contemplando diferentes âmbitos de organização produtiva e de formas de comercialização de seus produtos finais, as construções. Nas construções, a complexidade e a indispensabilidade de planejamento e gerenciamento são agravadas pela crescente busca do mercado por maior qualidade em seu desenvolvimento e melhor desempenho do produto final. Isso pode não direcionar a comunicação entre os agentes envolvidos e racionalizar a construção e a edificação, mas também mostrar alternativas inteligentes e sustentáveis que respondam à necessidade de minimização dos impactos ambientais. A discussão que envolve os conceitos de construções inteligentes e sustentáveis, apesar de ser vista no meio acadêmico, parece ainda não encerrada e engloba os diferentes níveis de organização do indivíduo e dasociedade. O presente estudo tem como objetivo discutir o uso desses conceitos no processo construtivo e em seu resultado final, com a finalidade de identificar possíveis relações entre os mesmos e as suas contribuições no contexto da sustentabilidade da construção civil. Observou-se que as inovações tecnológicas dispostas nas várias etapas do processo (construção até o produto final, geraram soluções sustentáveis que deixam sua contribuição para amenizar os impactos no meio ambiente. O trabalho contribui para uma reflexão sobre conceitos de sustentabilidade dentro de uma visão mais integral para a arquitetura, abordando o processo e o produto da produção da arquitetura.

  16. Trends and reduction scenarios for Rn 222 concentrations in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaauboer, R.O.; Heling, R.

    1993-07-01

    In the title study the effects of possible measures on the average radon concentration in Dutch dwellings is evaluated. Attention is paid to the trends in building methods, the use of building materials and using the trends as a reference development (scenario 0). A total of seven scenarios has been evaluated. The model that was used was kept rather simple, because most of the parameter values are average values. The measures studied were selected on the basis of cost-effectiveness. All measures are based on reducing the infiltration of radon from the crawl space under the house to the living quarters and reducing the exhalation rates of building materials. The evaluation shows a rather good match with earlier measurements and projections as far as the average radon concentration is concerned. The trend, i.e. the development without taking measures directed at reducing the radon concentration, predicts a slow increase of about 15% until approximately the year 2025. The scenario that is directed at using concrete with low Ra-226 concentrations in new houses projects an end to this trend. Other scenarios reveal that taking measures solely in the existing housing stock would give a substantial decrease in radon concentrations in the near future. The spread sheet model that was developed to evaluate the consequences of the different scenarios projects a possible reduction of the average radon concentration in dwellings with 25% by the year 2025, compared to 1991, if measures, directed at Rn-reduction are applied. If in addition to that concrete with low Ra-226 concentrations is used in new buildings, a reduction of the average radon concentration is projected of about 30%. This would result in an average radon concentration in dwellings of about 23 Bq.m -3 in the future. These reduction percentages have to be handled with some care however, because the effect of the obviously occurring uncertainties in several parameters used, are not yet quite clear. Trends in and the

  17. Systematic Review: Bridging the Gap in RPN-to-RN Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suva, Grace; Sager, Shelley; Mina, Elaine Santa; Sinclair, Nancy; Lloyd, Monique; Bajnok, Irmajean; Xiao, Sarah

    2015-07-01

    To review the evidence examining the influences of successful education and professional role transition for registered practical nurses (RPNs) pursuing a baccalaureate degree in nursing (BScN) and registered nurse (RN) licensure through RPN-to-RN bridging programs. Systematic review of papers published between 1995 and 2014 that evaluated students' education and professional role transitions from RPN to RN. Thirty-nine papers were selected that observed or studied the change or transition in designation from RPN to RN, or its equivalent, through bridging programs and analyzed thematically according to Meleis, Sawyer, Im, Hilfinger Messias, and Schumacher's transition model. Personal, community, and social conditions related to preparation for entry, program enrolment, and postgraduate clinical integration influence successful education and professional role transitions for RPN-to-RN bridging students. Providing key transition supports may enhance the potential for successful student transition into and throughout a bridging program, but further research is necessary to enhance this understanding and to recommend best practices for optimizing students' success. The evidence from this review identifies facilitators and barriers to successful education and professional role transition for RPN-to-RN bridging students, and identifies important considerations for future research. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  18. Dynamics of Rn transport from the cellar to the living area in an unheated house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furrer, D.; Crameri, R.; Burkart, W.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental parameters such as temperature and wind, occupant activities, and house-specific parameters such as subsoil geology, leakiness of the substructure to soil gas, and air exchange rate are the main factors influencing Rn entry into a building and its subsequent indoor behavior. Experiments performed in an unheated, uninhabited house showed a reproducible diurnal fluctuation of the indoor concentration of Rn decay products. Strong, long-term correlations between temperature differences indoor-outdoor (indoor temperature minus outdoor temperature) and pressure differences outdoor-indoor (outdoor pressure minus indoor pressure) were found. At positive temperature differences inside-outside, an average airflow velocity of about 0.05 m s-1 between ground floor and first floor was detected. This air movement was able to vertically transport Rn at a rate of approximately 11 kBq h-1 in a volume of air of about 5.5 m3 through a cross-sectional area of only 0.03 m2. For this specific house, stack effects were identified as the main driving force for Rn migration from the cellular to higher floors. The diurnal fluctuation of Rn progeny concentrations in the living area can be explained by temporal variations in the amount of Rn-rich air transported vertically from the cellar into the building as a consequence of stack effects

  19. Determination and assessment of Rn in mineral springs of Shandong province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jia'ang; Li Fusheng; Chen Yingmin; Chen Yue; Deng Daping; Yuan Ming; Song Gang; Zhang Lianping

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The concentrations and its changes of 222 Rn in mineral springs of Shandong were determined in order to evaluate the committed equivalent dose for people drinking the water. Methods: Scintillation flask method is used for the measurement of 222 Rn concentrations in mineral springs. Results: The concentrations of 222 Rn in mineral springs of Shandong ranged from 0.51 Bq·L -1 to 807.20 Bq·L -1 , the geometric average of it was 22.09 Bq·L -1 . The relationship between the ratios of 222 Rn remains in the water under the natural conditions (P) and the period of time exposed in air (T) was discovered, which is fits for the following function relation: P = 46.666 T -0.517 (0.117 h≤T≤9 h). The committed equivalent dose resulting from 222 Rn concentrations was estimated to be 9.68 x 10 -2 mSv·a -1 , Which is due to drinking the water. Conclusion: The analyses of data indicate that there is no over-burden dose from 222 Rn for people who drink the water of mineral springs of Shandong

  20. Standards, calibration and quality assurance of 222Rn measurements in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, R.; Hagberg, N.; Mjoenes, L.; Moere, H.; Nyblom, L.; Swedjemark, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    Inhaled decay products of 222 Rn are the dominant components of the natural radiation exposure to the general population. Limits have been introduced in Sweden, and recommendations were made in 1980 for decreasing indoor 222 Rn concentration. The need for the coordinated calibration of measuring instruments as well as for quality assurance was obvious for both health and economic reasons. 222 Rn measurements in Sweden are based on standards traceable to the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) through the use of standard reference material 226 Ra. Standards for both 222 Rn and short-lived 222 Rn progeny are described together with the reference instrument adopted for these studies. The calibration of field instruments was performed in a ''radon room'', a climate chamber in which it is possible to vary and monitor the concentration of 222 Rn as well as other characteristics of the indoor air such as temperature, humidity, ventilation rate and aerosol concentration. The rules and regulations for field measurements imply a calibration of the instruments yearly, as well as accreditation and training for the companies that carry out the measurements. Examples are given of the official measurement protocols used for the different types of instruments. (orig.)

  1. Estimating the relation between groundwater and river water by measuring the concentration of Rn-222

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneda, Minoru; Morisawa, Shinsuke [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-02-01

    This study aimed to estimate the relationship between groundwater in shallow layer and river water by determining the concentrations of {sup 222}Rn and nitric nitrogen along with water temperature. The region around ca. 20 km along river A in a certain basin was chosen as a test area. The Rn concentration of groundwater was determined by Rn extracting with toluene and counting in liquid scintillation counter, whereas for river water, it was determined by activated charcoal passive collector method developed by the authors, by which the amount of Rn adsorbed on activated charcoal was estimated by Ge-solid state detector. In addition, water temperature and nitric nitrogen concentration were measured at various points in the test area. Thus, a distribution map of the three parameters was made on the basis of the data obtained in December, 1989. Since Rn concentration is generally higher in ground water than river water and the water temperature in December is higher in the former, it seems likely that the concentrations of Rn and nitric nitrogen would become higher in the area where ground water soaks into river water. Thus, the directions of ground water flow at the respective sites along river A were estimated from the data regarding the properties of ground water. (M.N.)

  2. Development of an aerosol chamber for calibration of 220Rn progeny detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes an aerosol chamber system that can be used for calibrations and performance experiments of passive 220Rn progeny detectors. For the purpose of this study, an aerosol generation system using carnauba wax as the aerosol material was mounted into the 220Rn chamber. We used the chamber to measure characteristics of the equilibrium factor (F) of 220Rn and unattached fraction (fp) of 220Rn progeny, which are important parameters for dose estimation. The first experiment showed that continuous and stable generation of the unattached and aerosol-attached 220Rn progeny concentrations was obtained. We observed that the spatial distributions in the chamber of the vertical profiles of the unattached and aerosol-attached 220Rn progeny concentrations were homogeneous, as were the particle number concentration and count median diameter. The values of F and fp and their characteristics observed in this study were in the same range as the values reported from indoor measurements. We found that the characteristics of F and fp were dependent on the aerosol conditions (particle diameter and particle number concentration).

  3. Calibration factor determination for solid nuclear track detectors CR-39 type exposed to Rn-222

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazula, Camila Dias; Campos, Marcia Pires de; Mazzilli, Barbara Paci

    2014-01-01

    In the detection method with solid nuclear track detector, when a heavy particle rests on the detector surface, causes a breakdown in their molecular structure forming a trace. One of the typical applications of these detectors is the measurement of the concentration of Rn -222 in air, a noble radioactive gas, part of the U-238 series, emitting alpha particles and important in epidemiological studies to protect individuals from natural radiation. To determine the concentration of Rn -222 in the air in a room is necessary to know the density of lines (traces / cm 2 ) on the detector surface, the exposure time and the calibration factor. The determination of the calibration factor for CR-39 detectors was taken from the exposure of these to a known concentration of Rn-222. Therefore, the detectors were placed inside a cell of Lucas adapted and subsequently exposed to a concentration of Rn-222 15 kBq / m 3 , by means of the apparatus RN-150 Pylon Electronics Incorporation, which has a source of Ra-226 and releases known concentrations of Rn-222. Six calibration factor determinations were performed, the average value obtained was 0.0534 ±0.0021 (traces / cm 2 per Bq / m 3 day). The results are consistent with literature values for the same type of detector and showed good reproducibility

  4. Detection of 222Rn and 226Ra in environmental samples by scintillation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafimanjato, J.L.R.; Raoelina Andriambololona; Mobius, S.

    2009-01-01

    222 Rn is considered as the major source of radiological exposure of natural radiations to the population. It represents about the half of exposures of natural radiation sources in the world (UNSCEAR, 1993). 222 Rn gets into human body with inhaled air and sometimes with drinking water. Then, the objective of this work is to know the 222 Rn concentrations in water and in indoor atmosphere, and the risk in order to set up a method of monitoring and to identify high radon level areas. A specific method of detection using liquid scintillation with special emphasis on α/β discrimination, the use of solvent extractive and enrichment of radionuclides have been developed for the determination of both 222 Rn and 226 Ra in water. The method is simple, rapid and sensitive. It was shown that the proposed method was suitable for a large scale monitoring and routine analysis. Considerable concentrations of 222 Rn were found in water and air samples from Vinaninkarena - Antsirabe. 222 Rn concentrations obtained by in situ and in laboratory measurements have been compared to the results of an international intercomparison campaigns organised by the German Society for Liquid Scintillation Spectrometry in 2001. An assesment model of the dose due to ingestion and liberation of radon from water is presented and compared with other models especially to the Crawford Brown's model.

  5. BOREAS TGB-12 Rn-222 Flux Data over the NSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Conrad, Sara K.; Trumbore, Susan; Sundquist, Eric; Winston, Greg

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TGB-12 team made measurements of soil carbon inventories, carbon concentration in soil gases, and rates of soil respiration at several sites to estimate the rates of carbon accumulation and turnover in each of the major vegetation types. Sampling strategies for soils were designed to take advantage of local fire chronosequences, so that the accumulation of carbon in new moss growth could be determined. All the data are used to 1) calculate the inventory of carbon and nitrogen in moss and mineral soil layers at NSA sites, 2) determine the rates of input and turnover (using both accumulation since the last stand-killing fire and radiocarbon data), and 3) link changes in soil respiration rate to shifts in the C-14 content of soil CO2 to determine the average "age" respired CO2. These Rn-222 flux data were collected from 15-Nov-1993 to 16-Aug-1994 over the NSA sites. The data in this data set are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  6. BOREAS TGB-12 Rn-222 Activity Data over the NSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbore, Susan; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Conrad, Sara K. (Editor); Sundquist, Eric; Winston, Greg

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TGB-12 team made measurements of soil carbon inventories, carbon concentration in soil gases, and rates of soil respiration at several sites to estimate the rates of carbon accumulation and turnover in each of the major vegetation types. Sampling strategies for soils were designed to take advantage of local fire chronosequences, so that the accumulation of carbon in regrowing mosses could be determined. All the data are used to: (1) calculate the inventory of carbon and nitrogen in moss and mineral soil layers at NSA sites, (2) determine the rates of input and turnover (using both accumulation since the last stand-killing fire and radiocarbon data), and (3) link changes in soil respiration rate to shifts in the C-14 content of soil CO2 to determine the average "age" respired CO2 . These Rn-222 activity data were collected from 15-Nov-1993 to 16-Aug-1994 over the NSA sites. They are useful for determining the rate of gas exchange between soil and the overlying atmosphere. The data in this data set are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  7. Effective removal of airborne 222Rn decay products inside buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maher, E.F.; Rudnick, S.N.; Moeller, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Comparisons were made of the effectiveness of various indoor air treatment methods in reducing the lung dose due to inhalation of 222 Rn decay products. The comparisons were based upon measurements of the total steady-state concentrations of 218 Po, 214 Pb and 214 Bi, and the concentrations of these nuclides not attached to particles. These measurements, which were made inside a 78-m3 room before and after air treatment, were used along with a state-of-the art lung dose model to predict reductions in the dose to the radiosensitive bronchial tissues. Results suggest that flow-through air-cleaning methods, such as filtration and electrostatic precipitation, although effective in reducing total potential alpha energy concentration, cause a greater quantity of airborne potential alpha energy to be unattached to particles. This may result in a substantial increase in the dose to bronchial tissues. The optimal form of air treatment appears to be a combination of nonuniform positive space charge generated by an ion generator and enhanced convection from a fan. This combination of air treatment gave reductions in the mean dose to the bronchial tissues of up to 87%

  8. Study on a charcoal-based monitor for Rn-220 in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yiqiao; Solomon, S.B.

    1993-01-01

    Activated charcoal has been used in both passive monitors (Cohen, Pondy et al. 1987) and active monitors (Solomon and Gan, 1989) for the measurements of 222 Rn in air. Cooled, charcoal-impregnated filters, viewed in-situ by a solid state alpha detector, have been used for 220 Rn-in-breath studies. In general, γ ray counting of 220 Rn samples collected on activated charcoal has not been used. This paper describes the development and calibration of a charcoal based monitor designed to measure 220 Rn levels down to a lower limit of 10 Bq m -3 over sampling periods of 4 to 15 h. The activity of 212 Pb (10.6 h) produced from 220 Rn (55.6 s) collected in an activated charcoal-based sampler is 1/700 the total 220 Rn activity. A typical Hp-Ge detector has a MDL for a two-hours count of approximately 0.1 Bq of 212 Pb for the 239 keV γ-ray. For a MDL of 10 Bq·m -3 of 220 Rn in air, a volume of at least 7 m 3 must be sampled, assuming no breakthrough. The present charcoal-based 220 Rn monitor is designed to maximize the path length through the activated charcoal while sufficient cross-sectional area is retained to allow flow rates up to 0.03 m 3 ·kg -1 is packed into a specially designed aluminum container. The container is modeled on a Marinelli beaker to maximize the counting efficiency, while the sample flow through the chambers of the monitor is optimized to maintain radial symmetry. experiments demonstrated that 94% of 220 Rn was adsorbed by the charcoal in the monitor under a flow rate of 0.03 m 3 ·min -1 at 25 degree C and 85%. RH in 15 h. The monitor is designed to fit over a 70 mm diameter Hp-Ge detector. Preliminary measurements of 220 Rn in two buildings and a cave, using the active monitors and 'grabing' samples under a flow rate of 0.03 m 3 ·min -1 and a period of 4 h, indicated concentrations of between 18.6 and 142.0 Bq·m 3

  9. Retrospective look at Rn-induced lung cancer mortality from the viewpoint of a relative risk model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puskin, J.S.; Yang, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The potential contribution to U.S. lung cancer deaths from 1930 to 1987 from indoor 222 Rn exposures is investigated from the standpoint of a constant relative risk model. Based on this model, which assumes a Rn risk proportional to the baseline lung cancer risk from other causes, the rate of Rn-induced lung cancer mortality has been increasing sharply since 1930. However, the estimated proportion of lung cancer deaths attributable to Rn has remained fairly constant. Applying the range of coefficients the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency employs in assessing the risk from indoor Rn, it is estimated that 8-25% of all current lung cancer deaths are attributable to past Rn exposures. The major sources of uncertainty in the estimates are discussed

  10. Unbiased stereological estimation of d-dimensional volume in Rn from an isotropic random slice through a fixed point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Eva B. Vedel; Kiêu, K

    1994-01-01

    Unbiased stereological estimators of d-dimensional volume in R(n) are derived, based on information from an isotropic random r-slice through a specified point. The content of the slice can be subsampled by means of a spatial grid. The estimators depend only on spatial distances. As a fundamental ...... lemma, an explicit formula for the probability that an isotropic random r-slice in R(n) through 0 hits a fixed point in R(n) is given....

  11. CRM NAS ORGANIZAÇÕES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Arruda Ribas

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Frente às forças impostas pela globalização, Internet e evolução tecnológica, aliadas a uma era de descontinuidade, tem-se como resultado um novo tipo de consumidor, mais questionador e exigente, que as organizações têm de conquistar, de forma a atingir sua fidelização. Várias são as empresas que trabalham para conhecer melhor os seus clientes, operando mudanças das culturais organizacionais, que passam a ter o foco nas necessidades do seu público. Nesse contexto, muitas organizações implementam o CRM (Customer relationship management, objetivando maior integração com os clientes, através da coleta de informações sobre as atividades e necessidades destes, para entender o seu comportamento, obter sua satisfação e, conseqüentemente, sua retenção. Este trabalho pretende esclarecer a experiência do CRM e de sua implantação no âmbito internacional e nacional. Verificou-se forte tendência não apenas mundial, mas também das organizações brasileiras, à implementação do CRM. Uma das exigências fundamentais para sua implementação de sucesso é o completo entendimento dessa filosofia de trabalho e sua absorção pela cultura da organização. Outro aspecto relevante é a contribuição do suporte eletrônico (softwares na integração entre as vendas, o marketing e as funções de apoio ao cliente.

  12. Estado e controle nas prisões

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analía Soria Batista

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa o problema da produção do controle e da ordem em prisões brasileiras, utilizando as perspectivas histórica e sociológica, e levanta a hipóteses de que, no Brasil, convivem duas modalidades de construção da ordem e do controle nas prisões. Uma delas, minoritária, baseia-se na prerrogativa do Estado na gestão do dia a dia prisional. A outra é relativa à negociação da pacificação do presídio entre o Estado e as lideranças dos presos. Embora, no primeiro caso, a prerrogativa do Estado possa ser vinculada às condições institucionais adequadas e, no segundo (negociação entre o estado e as lideranças dos presos às condições precárias dos presídios, como superlotação, número reduzido de agentes penitenciários, entre outros, a análise apontou que ambas as modalidades traduzem formas de relacionamentos e interações sociais historicamente produzidas entre o Estado e a sociedade, que remetem à fundação da República, recriadas através do habitus dos atores sociais, não se restringindo exclusivamente ao espaço social das prisões.

  13. Measurement of 222Rn flux, 222Rn emanation and 226Ra concentration from injection well pipe scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rood, A.S.; Kendrick, D.T.

    1996-01-01

    The presence of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) has been recognized since the early 1930s in petroleum reservoirs and in oil and gas production and processing facilities. NORM was typically observed in barite scale that accumulated on the interior of oil production tubing and in storage tank and heater-treater separation sludge. Recent concern has been expressed over the health impacts from the uncontrolled release of NORM to the public. There are several potential exposure pathways to humans from oil-field NORM. Among these is inhalation of radon gas and its daughter products. For this exposure pathway to be of any significance, radon must first be released from the NORM matrix and diffuse in free air. The radon emanation fraction refers to the fraction of radon atoms produced by the decay of radium, that migrate from the bulk material as free gaseous atoms. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the radon release rates from NORM-scale contaminated production tubing being stored above ground, characterize the radon emanation fraction of the bulk scale material when removed from the tubing, and characterize the radium concentrations of the scale. Accurate characterization of 222 Rn emanation fractions from pipe scale may dictate the type of disposal options available for this waste. Characterization of radon release from stored pipes will assist in determining if controls are needed for workers or members of the public downwind from the source. Due to the sensitive nature of this data, the location of this facility is not disclosed

  14. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON: COOMET.RI(II)-S1.Rn-222 (169/UA/98): Rn-222 volume activity comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skliarov, V.; Röttger, A.; Honig, A.; Korostin, S.; Kuznetsov, S.; Lapenas, A.; Milevsky, V.; Ivaniukovich, A.; Kharitonov, I.; Sepman, S.

    2009-01-01

    According to a first program, a supplementary comparison of Rn-222 volume activity was drawn up as a bilateral supplementary comparison between NSC 'Institute of Metrology', Ukraine, and VNIIFTRI, Russia. It took place in March 2005. In April 2005, at the 5th meeting of COOMET held in Braunschweig (Germany), representatives of these institutes exchanged data which showed the comparability of the national standards of Ukraine and Russia for the check points. During the discussion of the procedure some other institutes decided to join the comparison program, which was extended to BelGIM (Belarus), PTB (Germany), VNIIM (Russia) and RMTC (Latvia). The national standards of volume activity of radon-222 were thus calibrated using one standard radon radiometer as the transfer standard. Results are shown in the Final Report of the comparison. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by COOMET, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  15. IL1RN and KRT13 Expression in Bladder Cancer: Association with Pathologic Characteristics and Smoking Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S. Worst

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To validate microarray data on cytokeratin 13 (KRT13 and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN expression in urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder (UCB and to correlate our findings with pathologic characteristics and tobacco smoking. Methods. UCB tissue samples (n=109 and control samples (n=14 were obtained from transurethral resection and radical cystectomy specimens. Immunohistochemical staining of KRT13 and IL1RN was performed and semiquantitative expression scores were assessed. Smoking status was evaluated using a standardized questionnaire. Expression scores were correlated with pathologic characteristics (tumor stage and grade and with smoking status. Results. Loss of KRT13 and IL1RN expression was observed in UCB tissue samples when compared to controls (P=0.007, P=0.008 in which KRT13 and IL1RN expression were high. IL1RN expression was significantly reduced in muscle-invasive tumors (P=0.003. In tissue samples of current smokers, a significant downregulation of IL1RN was found when compared to never smokers (P=0.013. Conclusion. Decreased expressions of KRT13 and IL1RN are common features of UCB and are associated with aggressive disease. Tobacco smoking may enhance the loss of IL1RN, indicating an overweight of proinflammatory mediators involved in UCB progression. Further validation of the influence of smoking on IL1RN expression is warranted.

  16. Measurements of 222Rn flux with charcoal coanisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Countess, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    Methods used to measure the 222 Rn flux from the ground are discussed. The most common method is the direct accumulation of radon in a closed container resting on the soil surface. An aliquot of the air is transferred from the accumulator either to an ionization chamber or to an alpha scintillation flask for radon analysis. An alternate method consists of entraining the radon emanating from a small area of the ground in an airstream moving in a closed system through a charcoal trap or cold trap. At the end of the sampling period, the trap is sealed and returned to the laboratory where the radon is transferred into an evacuated scintillation flask for analysis. Still another method consists of adsorbing radon in a layer of granular, activated charcoal spread directly on the ground. For analysis, the charcoal is bagged and the 0.61-MeV gamma activity of 214 Bi (RaC) is measured in a gamma spectrometer. These last two methods have the disadvantage that some radon may be lost in transfer prior to analysis. In an improved method, which is simpler than the preceding methods and eliminates this transfer problem, a modified U.S. Army M11 gas mask canister containing activated charcoal is placed directly in contact with the emanating surface and after an exposure period from several hours to several days, depending on the anticipated flux density, the canister is removed from the surface and counted directly in a gamma spectrometer. In addition to precluding losses in sample transfer, a major advantage is that numerous measurements can be made inexpensively due to the low cost of the canisters and their ease of deployment and recovery

  17. QUALIDADE AMBIENTAL DO RESERVATÓRIO CAJÁ, TABOLEIRO GRANDE (RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ericardo do Nascimento

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available O reservatório Cajá é o manancial responsável por abastecer a cidade de Taboleiro Grande mas, atualmente, sofre com alguns problemas relacionados ao uso e ocupação do entorno, além da diminuição do volume em função da baixa precipitação pluviométrica na região do Alto Oeste Potiguar. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma análise da qualidade ambiental do reservatório Cajá, localizado no município de Taboleiro Grande (RN. A metodologia de abordagem consistiu em leitura de parâmetros de qualidade de água com aparelho multiparâmetro, levantamento pontuais de impactos ambientais, e entrevistas com a população local sobre questões relacionadas ao uso e qualidade das águas do reservatório, tendo como principal foco a percepção ambiental dos munícipes. Os parâmetros utilizados para analisar a qualidade das águas foram: Temperatura, pH, Oxigênio Dissolvido e Condutividade Elétrica. Estabeleceram-se dois pontos no reservatório, onde as leituras foram realizadas em dois períodos sazonais, isto é, na estação seca e chuvosa. O resultado das análises mostrou que o OD e CE não apresentaram os índices estabelecidos pelo CONAMA 357/2005 para o consumo da água para o ser humano. Foram identificadas também algumas fontes que contribuem para a degradação da qualidade da água do manancial

  18. A REESTRUTURAÇÃO PRODUTIVA E O CIRCUITO INFERIOR DO TURISMO NAS PRAIAS DE REDINHA NOVA, SANTA RITA E JENIPABU, EXTREMOZ – RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alexandre Berto de Almada

    2017-03-01

    Cette étude vise à analyser le processus de restructuration productive du tourisme à Rio Grande do Norte du territoire utilisée par le circuit inférieur du tourisme sur les plages appartenant à APAJ, Redinha Nova, Santa Rita et Jenipabu dans la municipalité de Extremoz, afin de comprendre la relation dialectique de l'interdépendance entre dépendante circuit inférieur du tourisme dans ces plages et le circuit supérieur fait du tourisme dans la Via Costeira et plage de Ponta Negra à Natal. L'analyse du circuit inférieur a été réalisée à partir du travail de terrain, effectué entre Janvier et Juin 2014 dans l’APAJ, qui a interviewé presque tous les commerçants locaux, à l'exception des dix entreprises ou des commerçants fermés qui ont refusé de participer à l'entrevue, totalisant quatre-vingt dix six établissements visités. Au cours du travail sur le terrain, nous avons également recueilli des données cartographiques via l'unité GPS dans laquelle ils ont été utilisés dans la préparation des cartes de répartition spatiale de l'urbanisation et territoire utilisés par le circuit inférieur dans l’APAJ. Lors de la visite de la ville de NatalLes touristes ne sont pas seulement dans cette ville. Il existe une variété de lieux à visiter, à la fois sur la côte nord et la côte sud de Rio Grande do Norte. L'un de ces lieux sont les plages de l’APAJ, Redinha Nova, Santa Rita et Jenipabu où le processus d'urbanisation dans la Via Costeira et Ponta Negra rendu possible la mise en place du circuit touristique inférieur cette apa. L'afflux de touristes à ces plages apporte avec elle un discours de développement économique pour le lieu et pour les habitants. La contradiction entre les deux circuits est plus mauvais pour ceux qui sont sur le côté inférieur de l'économie. Alors que les entreprises du circuit supérieur visent l'accumulation de capital ainsi que les dividendes peuvent être utilisés dans de nouveaux investissements dans divers secteurs de l'économie; le circuit inférieur, la réalité est la survie. Les Bonnes ventes permettent les ressources pour assurer l'alimentation quotidienne de la famille et de la capitale pour acheter les produits qui seront vendus le lendemain. Mots-clés: Circuit Inférieur; Tourisme; Redinha Nova; Santa Rita; Jenipabu.

  19. Ra-226 and Rn-222 in saline water compartments of the Aral Sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schettler, Georg; Oberhänsli, Hedi; Hahne, Knut

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 222 Rn and 226 Ra concentrations in different water compartments of the Aral Sea region. • 226 Ra-analysis based on 222 Rn-ingrowth versus MS-analysis after solid-phase extraction. • 226 Ra in different groundwater types of the Aral Sea Basin. • 222 Rn distribution in the Aral Sea, western basin. - Abstract: The Aral Sea has been shrinking since 1963 due to extensive irrigation and the corresponding decline in the river water inflow. Understanding of the current hydrological situation demands an improved understanding of the surface water/groundwater dynamics in the region. 222 Rn and 226 Ra measurements can be used to trace groundwater discharge into surface waters. Data of these radiometric parameters were not previously available for the study region. We determined 222 Rn activities after liquid phase extraction using Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) with peak-length discrimination and analyzed 226 Ra concentrations in different water compartments of the Amu Darya Delta (surface waters, unconfined groundwater, artesian water, and water profiles from the closed Large Aral Sea (western basin). The water samples comprise a salinity range between 1 and 263 g/l. The seasonal dynamics of solid/water interaction under an arid climate regime force the hydrochemical evolution of the unconfined groundwater in the Amu Darya Delta to high-salinity Na(Mg)Cl(SO 4 ) water types. The dissolved radium concentrations in the waters were mostly very low due to mineral over-saturation, extensive co-precipitation of radium and adsorption of radium on coexisting solid substrates. The analysis of very low 226 Ra concentrations (<10 ppq) at remote study sites is a challenge. We used the water samples to test and improve different analytical methods. In particular, we modified a procedure developed for the α-spectrometric determination of 226 Ra after solid phase extraction of radium using 3M Empore™ High Performance Extraction Disks (Purkl, 2002) for the

  20. 222Rn levels in Kingsville, Texas, and vicinity near an in situ uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGehee, T.L.; Martino, M.R.; Harr, T.L.; Samudio, A.

    1994-01-01

    An investigation of the 222 Rn levels in ground water, soils, and indoor air has disclosed two 222 Rn ground-water anomalies in the Kingsville, Texas, area from uranium-enriched sandstones of the Evangeline aquifer. Indoor air 222 Rn levels were measured in summer 1991 (from undetectable to 3.2 pCi/l) and winter 1991-1992 (0.01 to 3.98 pCi/l) to determine seasonal extremes and risk to the public. Soil 222 Rn concentration maps ranging from undetectable to 75.4 pCi/l correlate to the low levels found in homes. Results of this study are based on analyses of 218 water samples, 52 in situ soil samples, and 104 indoor air samples. Water samples were injected into a scintillation mix (EPA/EERF-Manual-78-1) and analyzed by liquid scintillation techniques. Indoor air and soil samples were collected using passive charcoal canisters and analyzed by gamma-ray detection techniques (EPA 520/5-87-005). One ground-water 222 Rn anomaly lies near the permitted boundary of a large uranium deposit that is being mined. Private wells near the ore body yielded, 1,023 to 23,256 pCi/l at the well head. A second anomaly is located 2.5 mi (4 km) north of the uranium ore body near Naval Air Station, Kingsville. Private water wells in this area yielded 442 to 1,950 pCi/l 222 Rn at the well head. The radon anomalies are related to subsurface mineralization, which is one of the known natural geologic hazards of this area. Indoor air 222 Rn levels are well below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US/EPA) action limit of 4 pCi/l. However, the high levels of 222 RN in ground water should be mitigated before entry into the home environment. High 222 Rn levels in ground water were reduced to background levels in household waters by use of a pre-introduction large-capacity holding tank

  1. From Vulnerability to Dignity: The RN Declaration of Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Katherine J; Mitchell, Maureen; Renton, Lesley J; Currie, Genevieve; Nordstrom, Pamela M

    2015-11-04

    Registered nurses (RNs) experience vulnerability from a variety of sources in today's healthcare organizations. While RN vulnerability can be associated with positive outcomes with patients and clients, vulnerability can also be dangerous to RNs as they struggle with outside forces that many feel they have no control over. The study aims to maintain and enhance the dignity of RNs and provide a beacon to RNs who may have become wounded in the healthcare setting and/or their own profession. The study was conducted in a conference entitled "Advancing Nursing Practice Through Change, Innovation and Creativity" held at a midsized university in western Canada. The participants were 115 administrators, members of RN regulatory bodies, nursing faculty, nurse educators, and staff nurses. An activity entitled "Wild Thinking" gave participants an opportunity to reflect upon the conference and their personal experiences of change, innovation, and creativity they wished to see within the workplace. All responses were collected at the end of the activity, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed for themes. Arising from 16 themes, the RN Declaration of Self-Esteem was created. The RN Declaration of Self-Esteem may be helpful in promoting empowerment at the individual RN level as well as in the collective professional level. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Eighty percent by 2020: the present and future of RN-to-BSN education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Melanie; Pullis, Bridgette R; White, Mary Joe; Krawtz, Susan

    2013-10-01

    More than 600 RN-to-BSN programs currently exist in the United States, and the numbers of programs and students are growing rapidly. This unprecedented growth is a result of several factors, including the Institute of Medicine's recommendation that 80% of RNs be BSN prepared by 2020. This survey was undertaken to explore key ideas and issues related to RN-to-BSN education to gather information on how RN-to-BSN programs are changing and to uncover concerns posited by program directors. The survey indicated that lack of standardization has resulted in significant variability in expectations and requirements among RN-to-BSN programs. Further, numerous questions need to be answered and concerns addressed to develop strategies to maintain growth, improve access, and remove barriers without sacrificing quality. Findings can be used to ensure that RN-to-BSN education prepares graduates for the future health care system and that the outcome is not just a piece of paper. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Optimizing measurement sensitivity to facilitate monitoring environmental levels of Rn-daughter concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.J.; McDowell, W.P.; Groer, P.G.; Witek, R.T.

    1977-01-01

    In the measurement of environmental levels of radioactivity, the primary problem is the accumulation of a statistically meaningful number of counts within a reasonable period of time. In the case of measurements of airborne 222 Rn-daughter concentrations, the problem is further complicated by the particularly short half-life, 3.05 minutes, of RaA (Po 218 ). Since the Rn-daughters, (RaA, RaB [Pb 214 ] and RaC [Bi 214 ]) are of interest, the equations interrelating these Rn-daughter concentrations were derived from the laws of radioactive-series decay. These equations, although straightforward, are cumbersome to solve. To facilitate the efficient use of these equations, a computer program has been written which permits the calculation of Rn-daughter concentrations or expected counts for a given set of measurement parameters (flow rate and detector efficiencies). A subroutine then calculates the optimum pumping and counting times required to provide the number of counts necessary for acceptable statistics at environmental levels of 222 Rn-daughter concentrations. This subroutine contains a set of parameters, flow rate and efficiencies, that are fixed using realistic restrictions. The use of these optimized pumping and counting times results in maximum measurement sensitivity under realistic constraints

  4. Calibration of a degassing-emanation line for 222Rn determination in seawater samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Luciana Aparecida

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to calibrate a degassing-emanation line and to determine 222 Rn and 226 Ra activity concentrations in seawater samples. This methodology, also called Lucas method, consists in the extraction of radon (originally dissolved in seawater), collection of the gas in a liquid nitrogen cold trap and transfer from the trap to an alpha scintillation cell. Total extraction efficiencies of the 4 degassing-emanation systems were determined by measuring 226 Ra reference solutions. The efficiencies obtained for these 4 systems varied from 21 % to 62%. This work also presents preliminary results of a study carried out in a series of small embayements of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo State-Brazil: Flamengo Bay, Fortaleza Bay, Mar Virado Bay and Ubatuba Bay. Concentration of Rn in excess varied from 0,011 to 0,317 Bq/L for Flamengo Bay, from 0,009 to 0,130 Bq/L for Fortaleza Bay, from 0,018 to 0,050 Bq/L for Mar Virado Bay and from 0,004 to 0,120 Bq/L for Ubatuba Bay. The results obtained for the concentration of 222 Rn in excess in a transect at Flamengo Bay varied from 0,002 to 0,036 Bq/L. Higher concentrations of 222 Rn in excess were obtained in Flamengo Bay, Fortaleza Bay and Ubatuba bay. It was also observed that the concentration of 222 Rn in excess increases with depth, as expected. (author)

  5. rn på YouTube – nydelse og nørderi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    2017-01-01

    Mange børn og unge bruger dagligt adskillige timer på videodelingsplatformen YouTube. Her kan de dyrke deres individuelle interesser, deres ’guilty pleasures’ og følge med i youtuberes dagligliv. For mange børn og unge er muligheden for selv at producere indhold ligeledes en relevant del af...... attraktionen ved YouTube. På baggrund af en igangværende, kvalitativ undersøgelse præsenteres i denne artikel en række relevante perspektiver ved børn og unges brug af YouTube. Et væsentligt aspekt er, at voksne sjældent involverer sig i børn og unges brug af YouTube. Men hvis man ønsker at tage aktivt del...... børn og unges (digitale) dannelsesprocesser kan det godt betale sig at holde øje med, hvad de laver på YouTube – og forsøge at forstå, hvad de får ud af det....

  6. Extreme levels of 222Rn and U in a private water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, J.D.; Hoxie, D.C.; Moreau, E.

    1987-01-01

    In 1985, the Maine Department of Human Services discovered a private water supply in Leeds, ME, that contains over 40,700 BqL -1 (1.1 x 10 +6 pCil -1 ) of 222 Rn on average, and ranges between 13,300 and 59,200 Bql -1 . The well water also contains a gross alpha concentration of approximately 10.0 BqL -1 (270 pCiL -1 ), of which more than 95 percent is U (403 ugL -1 ). The ratio of 234 U to 238 U averages 1.17, which compares closely to the sea water at 1.14. The Ra content comprises less than 2 percent of the gross alpha. The levels of 222 Rn and U are considered to be extremely high, with the 222 Rn being the highest known level the authors are aware of for a drinking water supply. This area of Maine has geologic features characteristic of those shown by others to have a high potential for elevated levels of 222 Rn and other radioisotopes. The purpose of this paper is to update the information presented previously about this site, in particular to the ramifications on treatment alternatives associated with the presence of both 222 Rn and U in a water supply

  7. 222Rn in private well water in the vicinity of uranium mines over ten years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunoki, Eiji; Kataoka, Toshio; Michihiro, Kenshu; Sugiyama, Hirokazu; Shimizu, Mitsuo; Mori, Tadashige

    1994-01-01

    There are many small uranium mines of the sedimentary type in Kamisaibara, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. As inhabitants in Kamisaibara consume water from privately-dug wells, it is important to investigate distributions of 222 Rn in privately-dug well water in the vicinity of the mines. The determination of 222 Rn in well water was carried out from April 1980 to October 1990. Though small in area (16 km 2 ), each well water has its own characteristic activity concentrations of 222 Rn. The activity concentrations of 222 Rn are almost constant for each specific well over a long period (about 10 years). In general, the correlation coefficients for several sampling points are small. As Akawase and Tennoh are situated in the same rock type, the correlation coefficient is the highest value in this area. The estimated dose equivalent for the human stomach is approximately 0.4-54 μSv/year. The type of distribution of 222 Rn in privately-dug well water is log normal. (author)

  8. Radium-226 body burden in U miners by measurement of Rn in exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, G K; Raghavayya, M; Kotrappa, P; Somasundaram, S

    1986-02-01

    Uranium miners were made to inhale Rn-free medical O2 and exhale through a 5.2-1 A1 chamber before reporting to work. The chamber was sealed and isolated from the sampling circuit. An electrostatic plate collected the freshly formed Rn-decay products. The subsequent programmed alpha counting of the plate yielded a Rn concentration in the exhaled breath. Assuming that the exhaled breath represents a certain fraction of the Rn produced inside the body, the body burden of 226Ra was calculated. Standardisation of this procedure and the data collected on 310 miners are discussed. The procedure is simple and applicable for routine measurements. The miner needs to be in the laboratory for only 10 min. The system is also portable for field application. For routine use, the minimum detectable concentration is 3.87 Bq X m-3 which corresponds to a body burden of 0.26 kBq in a typical miner, if one assumes the Rn release fraction from the body as 84%. The system offers a more convenient and sensitive alternative to whole-body counting of workers for 226Ra.

  9. 222Rn and 14CO2 concentrations in the surface layer of the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, K.; Chudy, M.; Sivo, A.; Richtarikova, M.; Boehm, R.; Polaskova, A.; Vojtyla, P.; Bosa, I.; Hola, O.

    2002-01-01

    Long-term monitoring of the Δ 14 C in the atmospheric near-ground CO 2 has been realized in Bratislava and Zlkovce, situated near the nuclear power plant Jaslovske Bohunice. Until 1993, the monthly mean Δ 14 C values showed a high variability. The annual means of Δ 14 C were about 30 per mille higher at Zlkovce than in highly industrialised Bratislava. An important change in the behaviour of the 14 C data has occurred since 1993. The records from both stations show the similar course, mainly due to the fact that there do not occur deep winter minima in Bratislava. This behaviour corresponds to the lower values of the total fossil fuel CO 2 emissions in the years after 1993 when compared to the previous years. At present, both sets of data show that the 14 C concentration is about 10% above the natural level. Since 1987 also the 222 Rn concentration in the surface layer of the atmosphere has been measured in Bratislava. These measurements provided an extensive set of the 222 Rn data characteristic for the inland environment with high level of atmospheric pollution. The seasonal and daily variations of the 222 Rn concentration were observed. The investigation of the relation between the monthly mean diurnal courses of the 222 Rn concentration and the atmospheric stability proved a high correlation between them. The 222 Rn data were used to interpret the anomalous Δ 14 C values in the surface layer of the atmosphere. (author)

  10. Uso de metodologia participativa na obtenção de indicadores da qualidade do solo em Mossoró-RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo Vieira de Arruda

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A metodologia participativa possibilita ao produtor rural de baixa renda a obtenção rápida e de forma confiável dos indicadores de qualidade do solo, auxiliando manter a sustentabilidade do agroecossistema. O presente trabalho tem por objetivo geral analisar a qualidade de solos preservados e degradados em Mossoró-RN utilizando metodologia participativa de baixo custo e fácil execução. Para tal, foram analisadas áreas degradas e preservadas do Parque Zoobotânico e Assentamento Mulunguzinho em Mossoró-RN. Foram escavadas trincheiras de 0,50 m x 0,50 m x 0,50 m de forma a visualizar a profundidade do horizonte A do solo de áreas degradas e preservadas. Um grupo com seis avaliadores aplicou a metodologia participativa com os seguintes indicadores: estrutura, compactação, erosão, microrganismos, matéria orgânica, organismos, retenção de água, cobertura e profundidade do horizonte A. Os indicadores foram obtidos da média de três repetições nas áreas degradas e preservadas, sendo posteriormente expressos em tabelas e gráficos tipo “teia”. De acordo com os resultados obtidos conclui-se que a metodologia participativa para avaliação da qualidade do solo é uma ferramenta de baixo custo e fácil aplicação que possibilita o fortalecimento do conhecimento do produtor rural e permite a troca de conhecimentos entre pesquisadores e agricultores; nas áreas degradadas avaliadas tanto do Parque Zoobotânico quanto no Assentamento Mulunguzinho os indicadores que mais penalizaram a média geral dos indicadores foram compactação e estrutura, indicando a necessidade de incorporação de matéria orgânica para atingir os limites aceitáveis de sustentabilidade em agroecossistemas; e os indicadores das áreas preservadas foram sempre superiores aos das áreas degradadas em maior presença de matéria orgânica que propicia melhoria da estrutura, compactação, biologia (macro e microrganismos e retenção de água no solo. Normal

  11. Indsats for forældre til børn med ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neubert, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Et nyt review, udarbejdet af forskergruppen omkring Morris Zwi, undersøger om interventionsprogrammer til forældre til børn med ADHD er effektive, når det gælder reducering af børnenes ADHD-relaterede adfærd og associerede problemer som eksempelvis indlæringsproblemer. Reviewet peger på, at en...... indsats til forældre til børn med ADHD kan have en gavnlig effekt på børnenes adfærd. Interventionen kan også være med til at sænke stressniveauet hos forældre til disse børn, og forbedre forældrenes selvtillid....

  12. Direct determination of 222Rn gas using the electret to remove daughters at formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, N.H.

    1981-01-01

    Five compact, portable, continuous 222 Rn monitors have been constructed inhouse. Printed data can be obtained from intervals ranging from 10 minutes to 990 minutes. One hour count interval provides a lower limit of detection of 0.03 pCi 222 Rn/l -1 which is sufficient for measurement of any environmental level encountered. Calibration of the units was accomplished in the EML radon calibration room and the typical calibration factor is 165 counts per hour per pCi 222 Rn/l. The units are now being field tested. Two indoor/outdoor pairs are located in a single family dwelling and in a high rise apartment. One unit is being used for special studies

  13. Tutoring for Success: Empowering Graduate Nurses After Failure on the NCLEX-RN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutter, Stacy L; Thompson, Cheryl W; Condon, Marian C

    2017-12-01

    Failure on the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN) is a devastating experience. Most research related to NCLEX-RN is focused on predicting and preventing failure. Despite these efforts, more than 20,000 nursing school graduates experience failure on the NCLEX-RN each year, and there is a paucity of literature regarding remediation after failure. The aim of this article is to describe an individualized tutoring approach centered on establishing a trusting relationship and incorporating two core strategies for remediation: the nugget method, and a six-step strategy for question analysis. This individualized tutoring method has been used by three nursing faculty with a 95% success rate on an NCLEX retake attempt. Further research is needed to identify the elements of this tutoring method that influence success. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(12):758-761.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Measurements of octupole collectivity in Rn and Ra nuclei using Coulomb excitation

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to exploit the unique capability of HIE-ISOLDE to provide post-accelerated $^{221,222}$Rn and $^{222,226,228}$Ra ion beams for the study of octupole collectivity in these nuclei. We will measure E3 transition moments in $^{222}$Rn and $^{222,226,228}$Ra in order to fully map out the variation in E3 strength in the octupole mass region with Z$\\thicksim$88 and N$\\thicksim$134. This will validate model calculations that predict different behaviour as a function of N. We will also locate the position of the parity doublet partner of the ground state in $^{221}$Rn, in order to test the suitability of odd-A radon isotopes for EDM searches.

  15. A Matérn model of the spatial covariance structure of point rain rates

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying

    2014-07-15

    It is challenging to model a precipitation field due to its intermittent and highly scale-dependent nature. Many models of point rain rates or areal rainfall observations have been proposed and studied for different time scales. Among them, the spectral model based on a stochastic dynamical equation for the instantaneous point rain rate field is attractive, since it naturally leads to a consistent space–time model. In this paper, we note that the spatial covariance structure of the spectral model is equivalent to the well-known Matérn covariance model. Using high-quality rain gauge data, we estimate the parameters of the Matérn model for different time scales and demonstrate that the Matérn model is superior to an exponential model, particularly at short time scales.

  16. Radon transport modelling: User's guide to RnMod3d

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Erik

    2000-01-01

    RnMod3d is a numerical computer model of soil-gas and radon transport in porous media. It can be used, for example, to study radon entry from soil into houses in response to indoor-outdoor pressure differences or changes in atmospheric pressure. It canalso be used for flux calculations of radon...... decay, diffusion and advection of radon can be solved. Moisture is included in the model, and partitioning ofradon between air, water and soil grains (adsorption) is taken into account. Most parameters can change in time and space, and transport parameters (diffusivity and permeability) may...... be anisotropic. This guide includes benchmark tests based on simpleproblems with known solutions. RnMod3d has also been part of an international model intercomparison exercise based on more complicated problems without known solutions. All tests show that RnMod3d gives results of good quality....

  17. The Beckman-Quarles theorem for continuous mappings from R^n to C^n

    OpenAIRE

    Tyszka, Apoloniusz

    2002-01-01

    Let \\phi((x_1,...,x_n),(y_1,...,y_n))=(x_1-y_1)^2+...+(x_n-y_n)^2. We say that f:R^n -> C^n preserves distance d>=0 if for each x,y \\in R^n \\phi(x,y)=d^2 implies \\phi(f(x),f(y))=d^2. We prove that if x,y \\in R^n (n>=3) and |x-y|=(\\sqrt{2+2/n})^k \\cdot (2/n)^l (k,l are non-negative integers) then there exists a finite set {x,y} \\subseteq S(x,y) \\subseteq R^n such that each unit-distance preserving mapping from S(x,y) to C^n preserves the distance between x and y. It implies that each continuou...

  18. A Matérn model of the spatial covariance structure of point rain rates

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying; Bowman, Kenneth P.; Genton, Marc G.; Tokay, Ali

    2014-01-01

    It is challenging to model a precipitation field due to its intermittent and highly scale-dependent nature. Many models of point rain rates or areal rainfall observations have been proposed and studied for different time scales. Among them, the spectral model based on a stochastic dynamical equation for the instantaneous point rain rate field is attractive, since it naturally leads to a consistent space–time model. In this paper, we note that the spatial covariance structure of the spectral model is equivalent to the well-known Matérn covariance model. Using high-quality rain gauge data, we estimate the parameters of the Matérn model for different time scales and demonstrate that the Matérn model is superior to an exponential model, particularly at short time scales.

  19. Occurrence of 222Rn and progeny in natural gas processing plants in western Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, I.; Boucher, P.; Bradford, B.; Evans, H.; McLean, J.; Reczek, E.; Thunem, H.

    1990-01-01

    In Western Canada, there are many plants that process natural gas to remove impurities (CO 2 , H 2 S, H 2 O) and recover natural gas liquids (propane, butane, etc.). Trace quantities of 222 Rn present in the inlet stream are concentrated in streams rich with propane. Potential hazards to plant operators include direct inhalation of 222 Rn and progeny; exposure to gamma radiation from short-lived progeny deposited inside equipment; or inhalation of 210 Pb when contaminated equipment is opened for repair. Twenty-four plants operated by seven companies cooperated to assess these potential hazards. The findings indicate a substantial flux of 222 Rn and progeny passing through the plants, but little accumulation of radionuclides. In no case was there evidence of significant exposure of plant operators or maintenance personnel to ionizing radiation. Further investigation of pipeline operations, and chemical operations using natural gas liquids as feed stock, is recommended

  20. An application of 222Rn alpha particle's tracks to uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar H, F.

    1981-01-01

    The uranium exploration method is based on the register of 222 Rn alpha particles; 222 Rn gas is generated in the chain 238 U desintegration. The detection of alpha particles was performed with cellulose nitrate films (NTC), located in a grid at the region in study. The alpha particles produce latent tracks in the NTC films; these tracks may be enlarged by chemical etching and are observed with an ordinary optic microscope, ninety seven NTC films were used, these were distributed in an area of approximately seventeen square kilometers, located in the municipalities of Granados and Huasabas in Sonora Mexico, the detectors remain in the ground for a thirty days mean period. The results obtained show an area with high 222 Rn concentration, this can be related with an underground uranium ore deposit. The more important conclusion is that the results obtained in this work can be used as preliminary results for other prospection methods in this particular area. (author)

  1. The correlation between exhalation from rocks and indoor concentration of 222Rn in the Sydney area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCKenzie, D.R.; Lenzen, M.; Solomon, S.B.

    2001-01-01

    The results of a survey of indoor 222 Rn concentrations of 350 dwellings in the Sydney area are combined with measurements of 222 Rn exhalation rates of principal rock types in the survey area. A linear regression is predicted which yields a positive regression coefficient of b=2.4±0.3, a constant of a=3.4±0.5, and a correlation coefficient of R 2 =0.15. This correlation was found to be highly significant by using three different statistical tests. The ratio of the indoor 222 Rn concentrations in dwellings built on the two dominant rock types, the Wianamatta Shale and the Hawkesbury Sandstone, was found to be about 1.6. Copyright (2001) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  2. Estuarine geochemistry of 224Ra, 226Ra, and 222Rn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsinger, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Desorption from river borne sediments is the most likely source of the excess 226 Ra. Laboratory mixing experiments on Pee Dee River sediments show an increase in 226 Ra desorption with increasing salinities with maximum desorption occurring at or above 20 0 /oo salinity. Desorption and diffusion are the sources for 226 Ra in the estuarine systems. In Winyah Bay the 228 Ra/ 226 Ra activity ratio does not change significantly with salinity, averaging around 1.4, indicating desorption as the major source of 228 Ra. In the Yangtze River the 228 Ra/ 226 Ra activity ratio is constant (approx.1.90) until increasing linearly above 16 0 /oo. A diffusive flux from regeneration by 232 Th decay in shelf sediments is the source of the increase. In Delaware Bay 228 Ra increases faster than 226 Ra in the less than or equal to22 0 /oo water, indicating a source in addition to desorption. The increase can be balanced by a 0.33 dpm/cm 2 -year flux over the upper part of the Bay where fine grained sediments predominate. 224 Ra behavior is controlled by its 3.64 day half-life. In Winyah Bay a flux of around 0.4 dpm/cm 2 -day is necessary to support the standing crop of non-desorbed 224 Ra in the water column. In Delaware Bay the nearly constant 224 Ra in concentration over the 2.5 0 /oo to 12 0 /oo salinity range are maintained by regeneration from 228 Th in the turbidity maximum zones and diffusion from bottom sediments. Water leaving on ebb tide from a salt marsh on Delaware Bay had increases in all three radium isotopes ( 224 Ra > 228 Ra > 226 Ra) compared to water coming in on the flood tide. Excess 222 Rn concentrations in a fresh water section of the Pee Dee River show a decreasing downstream gradient. Using these gradients to determine evasion rates, stagnant film thicknesses range from 21μ to 62μ

  3. 222Rn Determination In Drinking Waters - RAD7 And LSC Technique Comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorovic, N.; Stojkovic, I.; Nikolov, J.; Tenjovic, B.

    2015-01-01

    A procedure for the determination of 222Rn in environmental water samples using liquid scintillation counting (LSC) was applied and optimized. For radon determination in drinking water from groundwater and surface water sources by LSC, the EPA Method 913.0 was used. A minimum detectable activity of 0.029 Bq L-1 in a 20 mL glass vial (10 mL water sample mixed with 10 mL of liquid scintillation cocktail) has been achieved during 300 minutes of measurement time. The procedure was compared with RAD7 radon detector measurements. Factors that affect the measurement accuracy and precision of RAD7 radon detector are the sampling technique, sample concentration, sample size, counting time, temperature, relative humidity and background effects. The minimal detectable activity (MDA) for RAD7 technique was found to be 0.1 Bq/L. From obtained results of 222Rn measurements in 15 water samples with different 222Rn activities, correlation between the two techniques applied for measurements of 222Rn in water samples (A less than 400 Bq/L) was determined. There is reasonable agreement (within statistical uncertainties) between the various techniques in most cases, while disagreements most likely come from systematic uncertainties associated with sampling procedures. Discrepancy in determined activities between the two techniques becomes more evident with increased 222Rn activities in water. LSC technique gives in general higher activity concentrations for about 30 percent than RAD7 spectrometer. The interpretation of shown results could be that RAD7 is not properly calibrated for higher activities, since USA reference level of 222Rn concentrations in water is only 11.1 Bq/L (US EPA, Proposed Radon in Drinking Water Regulation). (author).

  4. 222Rn concentration in the outdoor atmosphere and its relation to the atmospheric stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, K.; Boehm, R.; Bosa, I.; Polaskova, A.; Hola, O.

    1998-01-01

    The radon in the outdoor atmosphere has been monitored continuously since 1991. On the basis of the measured data mainly the average daily and the average annual courses of the 222 Rn concentrations have been studied. The annual courses of 222 Rn concentration are similar for all years. They present the annual variations. The average course of the 222 Rn concentration calculated on the basis of all continual measurements in the years 1991-1997 reaches the maximum value in October and the minimum value in April. The average daily courses of the 222 Rn concentration for the individual months of the year. The average daily courses have a form of waves with a maximum in the morning hours and with a minimum in the afternoon. The maximal amplitudes of daily waves have been reached in the summer months, from June till August. The amplitudes of daily waves are very small at the end of an autumn and during the winter months. The analysis of the daily waves and annual courses of 222 Rn showed that the amplitudes of the daily waves are in proportion to the global solar radiation irradiating the Earth's surface. The day duration influence on the phase of the daily wave and the wind velocity influence mainly on the level of the radon concentration. For the study of the relation of the radon concentration in the outdoor atmosphere to the stability the data of the atmosphere were obtained and they were correlated with the radon concentration. The results indicate that the 222 Rn concentrations int he outdoor atmosphere could be used for determination of the vertical atmospheric stability and these ones could reflect the atmospheric stability more completely than the different classifications based on the knowledge pertinent to the meteorological parameters. (authors)

  5. IL-1RN VNTR polymorphism as a susceptibility marker for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Hugo; Breda, Eduardo; Santos, Alexandra M; Catarino, Raquel; Pinto, Daniela; Canedo, Paulo; Machado, José Carlos; Medeiros, Rui

    2013-08-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a rare malignancy in Western countries that is widely associated with the infection by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Several studies have showed that a common allele (allele 2) of the 86-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism within intron 2 of the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RN) gene is associated with several disorders, including viral-associated cancers. We have developed a hospital-based case-control study to characterise the role of the IL-1RN 86-bp VNTR polymorphism in the development of NPC with 112 patients with the disease and 433 healthy individuals from the northern region of Portugal. IL-1RN genotypes were combined according to the number of repeats: allele 2 (A2), the short allele that corresponds to two repeats, and L, the long allele that corresponds to three or more repeats. Our study revealed that 31.2% of NPC patients were IL-1RN A2*A2, compared with 9.7% observed in the control group. The statistical analysis revealed that IL-1RN*A2 homozygosity for the A2 allele was associated with a fourfold increased risk for NPC development (pVNTR in NPC development in Portugal. Our study indicates IL-1RN*A2 homozygosity as a significant risk marker in our population and that it should be further investigated for the potential role in the definition of a susceptibility profile for NPC onset. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Forord til den danske udgave af bogen rådgivning og terapi med børn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh-Müller, Grethe

    2007-01-01

    En bog om rådgivning og terapi med børn med en integrativ indfaldsvinkel. Der tages udgangspunkt i forskellige teorier og metoder.......En bog om rådgivning og terapi med børn med en integrativ indfaldsvinkel. Der tages udgangspunkt i forskellige teorier og metoder....

  7. Selection of design parameters of diffusion barrier in a passive 222Rn sampler based on activated charcoal adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Suxia

    1992-01-01

    A method concerning selection of design parameters of diffusion barrier in a passive 222 Rn sampler based on activated charcoal adsorption. The proper parameter value of diffusion barrier is obtained by means of linearization of 222 Rn adsorption versus the exposure time. Thus, the influence of temperature on measured results may be greatly decreased, and higher sensitivity of the detector may be maintained

  8. 222 Rn determination and physicochemical characteristic and biological in aquifers in the Toluca Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez A, A.

    1998-01-01

    Concentration levels of 222 Rn and 226 Rn have been analyzed in water samples from boreholes belonging to the drinking water supply system around Toluca, Mexico. The 222 Rn source is the decay of 226 Rn within the solid matrix of the aquifer. The study was performed during the dry and rainy seasons. 222 Rn concentration was determined by the liquid scintillation technique, 226 Rn was determined by gamma spectrometry, the physicochemical parameters and bacteriological analysis were performed by conventional chemical techniques. Solubilized trace elements were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (Icp-Ms). The radon level fluctuations at the boreholes in Toluca city and Almoloya spring indicated differences in the radon content. At borehole Lodos Prietos 2, the temperature and radon level were systematically the highest in comparison with the other boreholes and the spring indicating a contribution of a regional flow to the water of this particular borehole. The result for 226 Rn, the average 222 Rn observed during the sampling period, no correspondence occurs between the radium and the radon content indicating that, radon is not supported by radium, but is incorporated into the water through fissures in the rocks in contact with the water. The radon levels obtained in house faucets which water is supplied by boreholes decrease as a function of the distance from the source borehole to the house. With the chemical composition of each one of the studied boreholes and spring a Piper diagram was draw indicating the kind of water. The boreholes and spring can be classified as bicarbonate calcium/magnesium. Almost no fluctuation on time was observed in the chemical species and trace elements only a slight increase was observed at the end of the rain season. At Almoloya, spring pollution with coliform bacteria and nitrates showed an anthropogenic contribution to the water deterioration probable and fertilizers and detritus. Most of the studied water

  9. Concentrations of 222Rn in well and tap waters of North-Eastern Attiki (Central Greece)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kritidis, Panaiotis; Angelou, Panaiotis.

    1984-07-01

    An alpha-scintillation system for determination of low 222 Rn concentrations in water is described. The use of vacuum sampling, the avoidance of sample transfer and the corrections applied result in low systematical errors. The method has been used for a preliminary investigation of 222 Rn concentrations in well waters of NE Attiki, where values between 4 and 345 pCi/1 have been observed. The additional annual effective dose equivalent due to the systematic domestic use of water with the highest radon concentration measured is estimated not to exceed 5 mrem. (author)

  10. Gas exchange in the Pee Dee River based on 222Rn evasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, W.S.; Elsinger, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Excess 222 Rn concentrations decrease downstream in the fresh water section of the Pee Dee River. Ground water is the primary source of the excess 222 Rn to the River. Using the radon concentration gradients determined during four sampling periods, gas exchange rates based on the stagnant film model are calculated. Stagnant film thicknesses range from 19 μm to 48 μm and mass transfer coefficients range from 2.1 m/d to 4.1 m/d

  11. Environmental 222Rn as a background source in the solar neutrino experiment GALLEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcik, M.

    1996-01-01

    The radiochemical neutrino experiment GALLEX is described. Its aim is to measure the flux of low energy solar neutrinos. In this experiment it is essential to suppress strongly the background of environmental origin, like charged cosmic rays, neutrons and gamma rays. In low-level radioactivity measurements performed in deep underground laboratory where flux of charged comic rays is strongly reduced, radon (Rn) exhaled from rock or concrete walls forms a most important strong, time-dependent background component. In this work the impact of Rn on the GALLEX experiment has been discussed and attempts to recognize and minimize its influence on the counter background were described. 63 refs, 22 figs, 11 tabs

  12. The transport mechanisms of 222Rn in soil at Tateishi as an anomaly spot in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskandar, D.; Iida, T.; Yamazawa, H.; Moriizumi, J.; Koarashi, J.; Yamasoto, K.; Yamasaki, K.; Shimo, M.; Tsujimoto, T.; Ishikawa, S.; Fukuda, M.; Kojima, H.

    2005-01-01

    The 222 Rn concentration profiles in soil have been measured at an anomaly spot in Tateishi, Japan. In winter, the concentrations were low and showed a negative gradient with depth, but in other seasons, the concentration had both positive and negative gradients with depth, and dramatically changed by time. On the assumption that there was ventilation in deep layers and with driving forces of wind and temperatures, these phenomena were successfully explained. This finding would contribute to a numerical model for 222 Rn transport in soil

  13. The Multivariate Müntz-Szasz Problem in Weighted Banach Space on Rn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangdong Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to give an extension of Müntz-Szasz theorems to multivariable weighted Banach space. Denote by {λk=(λk1,λk2,...,λkn}k=1∞ a sequence of real numbers in R+n. The completeness of monomials {tλk} in Cα is investigated, where Cα is the weighted Banach spaces which consist of complex continuous functions f defined on Rn with f(t exp(-α(t vanishing at infinity in the uniform norm.

  14. Environmental {sup 222}Rn as a background source in the solar neutrino experiment GALLEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojcik, M. [Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland). Inst. Fizyki; BOREXINO

    1996-12-31

    The radiochemical neutrino experiment GALLEX is described. Its aim is to measure the flux of low energy solar neutrinos. In this experiment it is essential to suppress strongly the background of environmental origin, like charged cosmic rays, neutrons and gamma rays. In low-level radioactivity measurements performed in deep underground laboratory where flux of charged comic rays is strongly reduced, radon (Rn) exhaled from rock or concrete walls forms a most important strong, time-dependent background component. In this work the impact of Rn on the GALLEX experiment has been discussed and attempts to recognize and minimize its influence on the counter background were described. 63 refs, 22 figs, 11 tabs.

  15. Environmental {sup 222}Rn as a background source in the solar neutrino experiment GALLEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojcik, M [Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland). Inst. Fizyki; BOREXINO,

    1997-12-31

    The radiochemical neutrino experiment GALLEX is described. Its aim is to measure the flux of low energy solar neutrinos. In this experiment it is essential to suppress strongly the background of environmental origin, like charged cosmic rays, neutrons and gamma rays. In low-level radioactivity measurements performed in deep underground laboratory where flux of charged comic rays is strongly reduced, radon (Rn) exhaled from rock or concrete walls forms a most important strong, time-dependent background component. In this work the impact of Rn on the GALLEX experiment has been discussed and attempts to recognize and minimize its influence on the counter background were described. 63 refs, 22 figs, 11 tabs.

  16. Measurement of Rn-222 concentrations in building materials used in jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, A.M.; Abumyrad, K.M.; Kullab, M.K.; Albataina, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    In this work, the concentrations of the radiative inert gas Rn-222 emanated from the building materials that are commonly in jordan have been studied. For this purpose, samples of ten jordanian building materials of different masses were prepared in plastic cans sealed to passive integrated dosimeters containing CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors which are very sensitive to alpha-particles. The Rn-222 concentrations in these samples range from 137 Bq/m 3 to 267 Bq/m 3 with an average of 189 Bq/m 3 . These levels were found to be consistent with those measured by other workers in other countries. 4 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Design and operation of an automated beta-particle counting system for the measurement of 220Rn (and 222Rn) progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.

    1992-01-01

    A fully automated system of the continuous (active) type has been designed for the unattended quantification of 222 Rn progeny and 220 Rn progeny in calibration and test facilities, as well as working and living environments. The system uses a β-particle detector and associated electronic circuitry, in conjunction with an in-house microprocessor-based processing interface card and a personal computer, operated by specially developed in-house software. The system represents a significant improvement over systems using α-particle detectors because of its enhanced flexibility of design and virtual elimination of plate-out effects in the sampling head, and of self-absorption phenomena in the sampling filter. The β-particle system was tested and calibrated in a Radon and Thoron Test Facility of the walk-in type under a variety of experimental conditions. (author)

  18. A Concise Synthesis of Three Branches Derived from Polysaccharide RN1 and Anti-Pancreatic Cancer Activity Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deqin Cai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available RN1, a polysaccharide from flowers of Panax pseudo-ginsieng Wall. Var. notoginseng (Burkill Hoo & Tseng, is a potential multi-targeting drug candidate for pancreatic cancer treatment. However, the active targeting domain of RN1 is still unknown. Herein, three RN1 derived branches were synthesized via [3+2] or [2+2] strategies, efficiently. Two pentasaccharides, 18 and 27, showed similar inhibition effect on pancreatic cancer BxPC-3 cells to that of RN1 at same concentration. Interestingly, tetrasaccharide 21 potently inhibited gemcitabineresistant cell line Panc-1 at high concentration. These suggest that the branches of RN1 might be the active targeting domain and tetrasaccharide 21 might be a potential leading compound for pancreatic cancer with gemcitabine resistance.

  19. Comparing NET and ERI standardized exam scores between baccalaureate graduates who pass or fail the NCLEX-RN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondmass, Mary D; Moonie, Sheniz; Kowalski, Susan

    2008-01-01

    In the United States, nursing programs are commonly evaluated by their graduates success on the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN). The purpose of this paper is to describe a change in NCLEX-RN success rates following the addition of standardized exams throughout our program's curriculum, and to compare these exam scores between graduates who pass NCLEX-RN and those who do not. Our results indicate an 8.5% change (p pass rate from our previous 5-year mean pass rate, and significant differences in standardized test scores for those who pass the NCLEX-RN compared to those who do not (p pass NCLEX-RN than not.

  20. Activated charcoal adsorber bed as a 222Rn hold up system for application in uranium mining industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudeep Kumara, K.; Karunakara, N.; Sahoo, B.K.; Gaware, J.J.; Sapra, B.K.; Mayya, Y.S.

    2018-01-01

    222 Rn, produced due to the decay of 226 Ra, can accumulate to high concentrations, and if adequate ventilation is not provided the workers may inhale the 222 Rn laden air, which would result in elevated inhalation dose in Uranium mining and milling operations. Similarly, in thorium mining and processing plants, the 220 Rn generated during monazite processing and thorium handling facility is of concern. In a previous publication it has been shown that adsorption in a flow-through charcoal bed offers an excellent method of alleviating the release of 220 Rn into occupational and public domain. In this paper we examine the utility of TMS as a 222 Rn hold up/delay system by evaluating its performance parameters such as breakthrough time (τ) and adsorption coefficient (K) at different flow rates

  1. Measurements of 222Rn and its daughters and estimation of internal doses to workers in underground buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Jianping; Lu Zhizhao; Li Yuanshan

    1993-03-01

    The results of concentration measuring of 222 Ru and its daughters and estimation of internal doses to workers in the underground buildings at Nanjing city are presented. The double filtering membrane method and Thomas method were used in the monitoring of 222 Rn and its daughters, and the dose conversion factor was taken from the latest UNSCEAR report. Concentration distributions of 222 Rn and its daughters were approximately log-normal. The geometric means for 222 Rn was 40.5 Bq · m -3 and for its daughters was 1.4 x 10 -7 J · m -3 . The equilibrium factor was 0.63. The radioactive equilibrium ratio between short-lived 222 Rn daughters was 1:0.57:0.49. The estimation value of annual effective dose equivalent from 222 Rn daughters to workers working at underground sites was 1.3 mSv, which was 86% higher than that of those working on ground sites

  2. Sünteetiline lähenemine on edu pant / Tamara Luuk, Olga Pärn, Priit Pärn ; intervjueerinud Reet Varblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Luuk, Tamara, 1952-

    2011-01-01

    Brügges kuni jaanuari lõpuni 2011 eksponeeritud belgia kunstniku Luc Tuymansi kureeritud näitusest "Madalaima tasandi reaalsus. Visioon Kesk-Euroopast" ("The Reality of the Lowest Rank. A Vision of Central Europe"). Osalema oli kutsutud 43 kunstnikku üle maailma. Priit Pärn Eestist esines söejoonistuste ja filmilõikudega näitusel ning eraldi filmiprogrammiga

  3. Práticas profissionais e tratamento ofertado nos CAPSad do município de Natal-RN: com a palavra a família Prácticas profesionales y tratamiento ofrecido en los CAPSad en la ciudad de natal-rn: con la palabra la familia Professional practice and treatment offered in CAPSad in the city of natal-rn: with the word, the family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulcian Medeiros de Azevedo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O Centro de Atenção Psicossocial para tratamento de usuários de álcool e outras drogas (CAPSad representa a principal estratégia de atenção à saúde relacionada ao consumo de substâncias psicoativas. Objetivou-se investigar a percepção de familiares acerca do tratamento ofertado nos CAPSad Norte e Leste do município de Natal-RN. Foram entrevistados 14 familiares que participavam regularmente das atividades propostas. As entrevistas foram realizadas em agosto e setembro de 2007 e transcritas na íntegra para preparação do corpus e submissão ao ALCESTE. O material discursivo originou três categorias temáticas: Tratamento Melhoras e Expectativas; Convivência Usuário Antes e Depois; e Condições Terapêuticas Agradecimentos, Sugestões e Vulnerabilidade. Os familiares identificaram que o tratamento recebido nos CAPSad favorece melhoras substanciais nas condições de vida e de saúde de seu familiar usuário e nas relações familiares dentro e fora do lar, sendo detectada a necessidade de ajustes e do aumento da oferta das atividades terapêuticas.El Centro de Atención Psicosocial para el tratamiento de los usuarios de alcohol y de otras drogas (CAPSad representa la principal estrategia para la atención de la salud relacionada con el consumo de sustancias psicoactivas. El objetivo fue investigar la percepción que tienen los familiares sobre el tratamiento ofrecido en CAPSad norte y este de la ciudad de Natal-RN. Entrevistamos a 14 familiares que participaban regularmente las actividades propuestas. Las entrevistas fueron realizadas en agosto y septiembre de 2007, y transcritas en su totalidad para la preparación del corpus y para su presentación al ALCESTE. El material discursivo produjo tres temas: Tratamiento - Mejoras y Expectativas; Convivencia - Usuario Antes y Después; Condiciones Terapéuticas - Agradecimientos, Consejos y Vulnerabilidad. Los miembros de la familia identificaron que el trato recibido en CAPSad

  4. Effect of cigarette smoke on the measured equivalent volume activity of 222Rn in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuckova, S.; Tykva, R.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of cigarette smoke in air on the increase of the measured equivalent volume activity of 222 Rn is demonstrated. After introduction of the smoke from one cigarette into 1 m 3 of air, this value increased up to ten times as shown be the method of sucking air through a filter. (author) 5 refs.; 1 fig

  5. Professional Values of RN-to-BSN Students in an Online Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koomey, Cynthia L; Osteen, Kathryn; Gray, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Professional values are an important component of nursing education. This cross-sectional study assessed the professional values of 222 students in an online RN-to-BSN program. Higher scores were related to items reflecting direct patient care and accountability for nursing practice. Items focusing on nursing theory, cost of care, and professional nursing organization revealed lower scores.

  6. The fundamentals of integrating service in a post-licensure RN to BSN program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington-Brown, Linda; Ritchie, Arlene

    2014-01-01

    Integrating service in a post-licensure registered nurse to bachelor of science in nursing (RN to BSN) program provides licensed registered nurse (RN) students the opportunity to learn, develop, and experience different cultures while serving the community and populations in need (McKinnon & Fitzpatrick, 2012). Service to the community, integrated with academic learning can be applied in a wide variety of settings, including schools, universities, and community faith-based organizations. Academic service-learning (ASL) can involve a group of students, a classroom, or an entire school. In the RN to BSN program, the authors use a student-directed service learning approach that integrates service-learning throughout the curriculum. RN students are introduced to service-learning at program orientation prior to the start of classes and receive reinforcement and active engagement throughout the curriculum. The students and volunteer agencies receive and give benefits from the services provided and the life lessons gained through mentorship, education, and hands-on experiences.

  7. Udsatte børn og unge i den inkluderende skole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard-Sørensen, Lotte; Grumløse, Sine Penthin

    2017-01-01

    Denne artikel belyser, hvordan undervisningen i folkeskolen – mod de bedste politiske og pædagogiske (forskning og læ-reruddannelse) hensigter om inkludering – ekskluderer en gruppe udsatte børn og unge. Artiklen bygger på et forsk-ningsprojekt om inklusion og differentiering, som har haft fokus ...

  8. Osmá studentská literárněvědná konference

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kořínek, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 5 (2009), s. 767-769 ISSN 0009-0468. [Literární historie, sémiotika a fikce. Praha, 29.04.2009-30.04.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90560517 Keywords : Czech literature * literary theory * Macura, Vladimír Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  9. Multifilmionu on tehtuga rahul / Priit Pärn ; interv. Rünno Saaremäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pärn, Priit, 1946-

    2001-01-01

    Priit Pärn eesti animafilmi olukorrast, oma tööst, 2. nov. Rakvere Keslinna galeriis avatud isikunäitusest "Pärna maailm" (30. novembrini näidatakse Rakveres Virma Dragon House'is iga päev kell 16 tema animafilme). Ottawa filmifestivalil anti Priit Pärnale ASIFA Special Award elutöö eest

  10. A Survey of Former Nursing (RN and LVN) Students. Summary Findings of Respondents District-Wide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyer, Culver-Betty

    In fall 2001 staff of the Los Rios Community College District Office of Institutional Research collaborated with occupational deans, academic deans, and faculty to develop and administer a survey of former nursing (RN and LVN) students. The survey was designed to determine how well courses had met the needs of former nursing students who earned…

  11. Skolestøtte til børn i familiepleje – delrapport II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Luna Kragh; Eiberg, Misja

    Forskningsprojektet ”Skolestøtte til børn i familiepleje” har afprøvet to skolestøttende interventioner, som netop har til formål at forbedre de anbragtes faglige, sociale og kognitive evner. I denne rapport undersøges implementeringen af den ene af disse interventioner, kaldet ”LUKoP-modellen”. ...

  12. Skolestøtte til børn i familiepleje – delrapport III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiberg, Misja; Andersen, Luna Kragh

    Forskningsprojektet ”Skolestøtte til børn i familiepleje” har afprøvet to skolestøttende interventioner, som netop har til formål at forbedre de anbragtes faglige, sociale og kognitive evner. I denne rapport beskrives den mest succesfulde af de to afprøvede indsatser, kaldet ”LUKoP-modellen, som ...

  13. Dosimetry of Rn-222 in the air in environments located above and below ground level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazula, Camila Dias

    2015-01-01

    Exposure of the general population to ionizing radiation comes mainly from natural sources. The main contribution is due to inhalation of radon (Rn-222), a gas that occurs naturally (UNSCEAR, 2000). The Rn-222 concentration in the environment is controlled by factors such as soil permeability and water content, the weather variability, materials used in the foundation and the usual positive pressure differential between the soil and the internal environment. Studies indicate that the concentration of radon shows a wide variation in the basement, ground floor and upper floors of buildings. The objective of this study is to determine radon levels in basements, ground floor and floors above ground level, at a university in the city of Sao Paulo and in one residential building in the city of Peruibe. Rn-222 measurements were performed using the method with nuclear track of solid state detectors (CR-39). The studied environments present Rn-222 concentration well below the values recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, published in the 2009 document, of 300 Bq/m 3 for homes and 1000 Bq/m 3 for the workplace. In the residential building, the concentration of Ra-266, Th-232 and K-40 in the materials used in the building construction was also analyzed, by gamma spectrometry. The effective total dose for the resident due to external exposure was 0.8 mSv y -1 , lower than the annual dose limit for the general public of 1 mSv y -1 . (author)

  14. Priit Pärn ja tema kool olid võidukad

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Eesti Joonisfilmi "Karl ja Marilyn" : stsenarist, režissöör, kunstnik, värvikunstnik ja monteerija Priit Pärn ja Kaspar Jancise "Weitzenbergi tänav" võitsid Inglismaal Norwichis rahvusvahelisel animafilmide festivalil vastavalt esikoha rahvusvahelises ja diplomi tudengifilmide kategoorias. Ottawa tudengifilmide festivalil sai parima animatsioonikooli tiitli Priit Pärna juhitud Turu Kunstiakadeemia animatsiooniosakond

  15. Tracing submarine groundwater discharge in the NE Gulf of Mexico by 222Rn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.E.; Burnett, W.C.; Chanton, J.P.; Cable, P.H.; Corbett, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    Inputs of freshwater and dissolved components to the ocean by submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) have been largely neglected as source functions for biogeochemical budgets. In order to locate and quantify groundwater inputs, a tracing technique has been developed using 222 Rn, a member of the natural 238 U decay-series. Because 222 Rn has a short half-life (t 1/2 = 3.84 days), is an inert gas, is relatively easy to measure at low concentrations, and has concentrations in groundwater several orders of magnitude greater than seawater, it should make an excellent tracer. Excess 222 Rn concentrations far above ''normal'' ocean values were found in the bottom waters of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico, which suggests this region has significant groundwater discharge. After measuring high water column inventories of excess 222 Rn in this region, an advection/diffusion model was applied to evaluate potential benthic sources of radon. The model is designed to account for sediment diffusion of radon and includes a groundwater term for advective flow into the overlying water. Flow rates and concentrations are adjusted in the model to balance the large difference in the measured water column inventories and the inventory predicted by sediment diffusion alone. The vertical diffusive/advective transport determines the shape of the concentration gradient and fluxes at the sediment-water interface are calculate based on these terms. The authors work shows that SGD could account for as much as 95% of the radon inventory in these offshore waters

  16. Rn-222 concentrations in private well water and in river water around Ningyo Toge area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunoki, Eiji [Okayama, Prefectural Inst. for Environmental Science and Public Health (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    The Ningyo-Toge Works of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation have started the pilot plant for uranium refining and conversion in 1984 and thereafter been producing 6-uranium fluoride, which is a raw material for an uranium concentration plant. The operation of prototype reactor has started since 1989. In this study, radioactive contamination around the works under these circumstances has been monitored in the respects of Rn concentrations in well water and river one for more than 10 years. The radioactivities of well water sampled at 4 points in this area were in a range of 0.6-82.9 Bq/l. The differences in the activities seemed to be depending on petrological properties. For the river water, the Rn concentration was determined at 13 points in the area. Seasonal changes in the Rn concentrations were not significant (p<0.05) but there were significant changes among years during 1985-1995. Further, the radioactive levels of soils collected from riverbed at 5 points were significantly different both for {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra, but the ratios of {sup 238}U/{sup 226}Ra were consistent. Furthermore, there was no correlation between {sup 226}Ra and {sup 222}Rn concentrations in the river water. (M.N.)

  17. Tur-samspil i musikterapi med børn med svære kommunikationsvanskeligheder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla

    2006-01-01

    Tur-samspil udgør en vigtig grundsten i den tidlige sociale og kommunikative udvikling, og optræder ofte i musikterapeutiske samspil med kommunikationssvage børn. Artiklen præsenterer relevante begreber fra faglitteraturen om tur-samspil i voksendialoger (de såkaldte Konversationsanalyser), som k...

  18. Nurse forecasting in Europe (RN4CAST): Rationale, design and methodology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sermeus, W.; Aiken, L.H.; Heede, K. Van den; Rafferty, A.M.; Griffiths, P.; Moreno-Casbas, M.T.; Busse, R.; Lindqvist, R.; Scott, A.P.; Bruyneel, L.; Brzostek, T.; Kinnunen, J.; Schubert, M.; Schoonhoven, L.; Zikos, D.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current human resources planning models in nursing are unreliable and ineffective as they consider volumes, but ignore effects on quality in patient care. The project RN4CAST aims innovative forecasting methods by addressing not only volumes, but quality of nursing staff as well as

  19. Health effects assessment in population exposed to 222Rn in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhardt, R.; Mocsy, I.; Muntean, N.

    1996-01-01

    The carcinogenetic effect produce by ionizing radiation upon human health, mainly by drinking water consumption with an elevated 222 Rn content is well documented. The objective of the paper was to demonstrated the possible relationship between the incidence of pulmonary and gastric cancer and 222 Rn presence in water and indoor air. The 222 Rn content was assessed by the standard method in drinking water sampled in two sources in Transylvania area from located in Tirgu Mures and Miercurea Ciuc towns. The 222 Rn concentration in indoor air was indirectly determined. On the basis of the registered values the pulmonary and gastric internal dose received by the residents of the towns was calculated. In parallel was performed a retrospective epidemiological study (1980-1992) regarding the incidence of gastric and pulmonary cancer in two towns in terms of morbidity, mortality and lethality indices. By comparing the estimated carcinogenic risk for this type of cancer with the specific mortality rate registered in our study, we estimate the contribution of 222 R to the cancer mortality percentage in the two towns, as follows: 0.47% for Tirgu Mures and 0.01% for Miercurea Ciuc town for pulmonary cancer and 0.23% and 0.015% for gastric cancer. (author)

  20. Biodecolorization of Reactive Yellow-2 by Serratia sp. RN34 Isolated from Textile Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najme, Rabia; Hussain, Sabir; Maqbool, Zahid; Imran, Muhammad; Mahmood, Faisal; Manzoor, Hamid; Yasmeen, Tahira; Shehzad, Tanvir

    2015-12-01

    Remediation of colored textile wastewaters is a matter of interest. In this study, 49 bacteria were isolated from the textile wastewater and tested for their ability to decolorize reactive yellow-2 (RY2) dye. The most efficient isolate, RN34, was identified through amplification, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis of its 16S rDNA and was designated as Serratia sp. RN34. This bacterium was also found capable of decolorizing other related reactive azo-dyes, including reactive black-5, reactive red-120, and reactive orange-16 but at varying rates. The optimum pH for decolorization of RY2 by the strain RN34 was 7.5 using yeast extract as cosubstrate under static incubation at 30 °C. The strain RN34 also showed potential to decolorize RY2 in the presence of considerable amounts of hexavalent chromium and sodium chloride. A phytotoxicity study demonstrated relatively reduced toxicity of RY2 decolorized products on Vigna radiata plant as compared to the uninoculated RY2 solution.

  1. Forskning i musikterapi - børn med fysiske og psykiske funktionsnedsættelser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    samspil. Samtidig er det muligt at udtrykke frustration, vrede og sorg gennem musik, så børn og unge med fysiske og psykiske funktionsnedsættelser, der har svært ved at udtrykke og bearbejde følelsesmæssige og relationelle problemer, kan opbygge positive relationserfaringer og styrke selvfølelsen vha...

  2. Perfect simulation and moment properties for the Matérn type III process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Huber, Mark L.; Wolpert, Robert L.

    In a seminal work, Bertil Matérn introduced several types of processes for modeling repulsive point processes. In this paper an algorithm is presented for the perfect simulation of the Mat´ern III process within a bounded window in Rd fully accounting for edge effects. A simple upper bound...

  3. NCLEX-RN Examination Performance by BSN Graduates of Four Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesney, Anita M.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative multiple-case study research explored and described differences as well as NCLEX-RN preparation strategies used by Historically Black College and University (HBCU) baccalaureate nursing programs with consistent NCLEX pass rates versus those with inconsistent pass rates. Two of the four selected programs had a history of consistent…

  4. Distribution Log Normal of 222 Rn in the state of Zacatecas, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.L.; Mireles, F.; Quirino, L.; Davila, I.; Rios, C.; Pinedo, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    In this work the evaluation of the concentration of 222 Rn in air for Zacatecas is shown. The Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors were used as the technique for the realization of the measurements in large scale with cellulose nitrate LR-115, type 2, in open chambers of 222 Rn. The measurements were carried out during three months in different times of the year. In the results it is presented the log normal distribution, arithmetic mean and geometric media for the concentration at indoor and outdoor of residence constructions, the concentration at indoor of occupational constructions and in the 57 municipal heads of the state of Zacatecas. The statistics of the values in the concentration showed variation according to the time of the year, obtaining high quantities in winter seasons for both cases. The distribution of the concentration of 222 Rn is presented in the state map for each one of the municipalities, representing the measurement places in the entire state of Zacatecas. Finally the places where the values in the concentration of 222 Rn in air are near to the one limit settled down by the EPA of 148 Bq/m 3 are presented. (Author)

  5. Using Adobe Connect to Deliver Online Library Instruction to the RN to BSN Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    This paper takes a look at how one academic health sciences librarian brought mediated literature searching to the distance RN to BSN nursing students. It takes a look at why Adobe Connect was the webinar software that was selected to deliver online instruction to the students. The article explains how students participated in a pre-class survey…

  6. The measurement of 222Rn in drinking water by low-level liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, J.M.; McKlveen, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    Radon-222 (Rn) has universally been found in well water. Non-stagnant ground water is collected at the well head while the well is pumping. The water is adjusted to a slow, non-aerated, steady flow through a clear tube, and a 500 ml glass bottle is filled. The sample is tightly capped after a high meniscus has developed. In the laboratory, standard 22 ml glass vials are filled with 10 ml of a toluene based mineral oil LS cocktail. Then, two 5 ml sample aliquots are pipetted into the vial. Vials are capped tightly, shaken vigorously, and placed in the liquid scintillation (LS) counter. Secular equilibrium is established in approximately 4 hours, after which samples are counted for 100 minutes each. The counting efficiency for Rn and progeny ranges between 315 to 345 percent depending on the chosen spectral window. The average background is about 6 cpm. A total of 28 wells were tested for Rn in the Carefree-Cave Creek, Arizone, USA area. The area's geometric average Rn concentration was found to be 46.5 Bq*1 -1 . The associated estimated lung dose is 0.51 mSv*y -1 . (author) 8 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  7. Relation between 222Rn concentration in outdoor air and lower atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, Toshio; Mori, Tadashige; Yunoki, Eiji; Michihiro, Kenshuh; Sugiyama, Hirokazu; Shimizu, Mitsuo; Tsukamoto, Osamu; Sahashi, Ken.

    1991-01-01

    Using the height of the surface-based inversion layer obtained by the acoustic sounder returns and the variation of the 222 Rn concentration in the outdoor air during the presence of the surface-based inversion layer, the exhalation rate of 222 Rn is estimated to be 0.020 Bq·m -2 ·s -1 , which is observed elsewhere on land. Furthermore, the exposure rate at 1 m above the air-ground interface due to the short-lived 222 Rn daughters in the outdoor air during the presence of the surface-based inversion layer can be estimated using the height of the surface-based inversion layer and the 222 Rn concentrations in the outdoor air at the ground level before and after the onset of the surface-based inversion layer. From these treatment, it is clearly demonstrated that the monostatic acoustic sounder is useful as a supplementary method for a weather survey which forms a part of monitoring around the nuclear facilities. (author)

  8. Nas dobras do legal e do ilegal: Ilegalismos e jogos de poder nas tramas da cidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera da Silva Telles

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute as relações redefinidas entre o informal, o ilegal e o ilícito que acompanham as formas contemporâneas de produção e circulação de riquezas. Interroga-se o modo como essas redefinições afetam ordenamentos sociais e jogos de poder em três categorias encontradas na cidade de São Paulo: os ilegalismos difusos inscritos nas “mobilidades laterais” do trabalhador urbano; os ilegalismos que passam pelos circuitos do comercio informal no centro nervoso da economia urbana da cidade; e a periferia paulista onde todos esses fios se enredam em torno do varejo da droga. This article discusses the redefined relationships between the informal, the illegal and the illicit which follow contemporary forms of production and circulation of wealth. The paper explores how these redefinitions affect social orders and power struggles in relation to three situations in Sao Paulo: the illegalisms diffused from “lateral mobility” of the urban worker; the illegalisms of informal commerce in the nerve centre of the urban economy; and the poor São Paulo outskirts where all these strands intertwine around drug dealing.

  9. SINTESE DA FASE SODALITA COM O USO DO CAULIM DA REGIÃO BORBOREMA-SERIDÓ (RN/PB ATIVADO TERMICAMENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Guerra Marques Santos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A fase mineral sodalita foi obtida com sucesso a partir de reações hidrotérmicas com o uso de caulim proveniente da região Borborema-Seridó (RN/PB, hidróxido e carbonato de sódio. Desse modo, o caulim, com granulometria menor que 37 μm, foi tratado inicialmente em diferentes temperaturas. A calcinação foi realizada nas temperaturas de 500, 700 e 900°C com o objetivo de formar a metacaulinita. Os produtos calcinados foram submetidos à síntese hidrotermal por 1 e 4h, no qual foram utilizados Na2CO3 e NaOH. De acordo com os resultados, nos caulins calcinados a 700 e 900°C ocorreu a completa transição de fase da caulinita para a metacaulinita e, para a síntese no qual utilizou o caulim calcinado a 700°C ocorreu a formação da fase zeolítica sodalita básica caracterizada por difração de raios X e espectroscopia vibracional no infravermelho que mostrara picos e bandas intensas e definidas indicando maior cristalinidade do material.

  10. DESAFIO DAS MICROS E PEQUENAS EMPRESAS DO RN: COMO A TECNOLOGIA DA INFORMAÇÃO CRIA VALOR DE NEGÓCIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Medeiros

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o crescimento da Internet e a globalização do comércio, a Tecnologia da Informação (TI passou a ter um papel essencial nos negócios e na administração empresarial. A TI está servindo de base a novos modelos organizacionais, novos processos de negócio e novos modos de compartilhar conhecimento. Embora figure como fator de grande importância competitiva e com toda a disseminação dos benefícios consolidados, a TI continua ainda não alcançando plenamente as micros e pequenas empresas (MPE’s que, no geral, não possuem sistemas informatizados. Neste trabalho, iremos identificar os resultados da TI nas MPEs do RN, dando ênfase nos processos, e sua repercussão no resultado da empresa para criar valor ao negócio. A metodologia utilizada será por levantamento bibliográfico sobre teorias dos impactos da TI e um levantamento em estudos realizados pelo SEBRAE junto às micros e pequenas empresas. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: tecnologia da informação; micro e pequenas empresas; competitividade; valor de negócio

  11. Dry soil diurnal quasi-periodic oscillations in soil 222Rn concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tommasone Pascale, F.; De Francesco, S.; Carbone, P.; Cuoco, E.; Tedesco, D.

    2014-01-01

    222 Rn concentrations have been monitored during the dry season in August 2009 and August 2010, in a reworked alluvial-pyroclastic soil of the Pietramelara Plain, in Southern Italy, with the aim of determining the role of atmospheric factors in producing the quasi-periodic oscillations in soil 222 Rn concentrations reported in the literature. In this study we present the results of a detailed analysis and matching of soil 222 Rn concentrations, meteorological and solar parameters where the observed oscillations feature a characteristic behavior with second order build-up and depletion limbs, separated by a daily maximum and minimum. All these features are clearly shown to be tied to sunrise and sunset timings and environmental radiative flux regimes. Furthermore, a significant, and previously unreported, second order correlation (r 2  = 0.73) between daily maximum hourly global radiation and the daily range of soil 222 Rn concentrations has been detected, allowing estimates of the amplitude of these oscillations to be made from estimated or measured solar radiation data. The correlation has been found to be valid even in the presence of persistent patchy daytime cloudiness. In this case a daytime prolongation of the night-time build up stage and an attenuation or even suppression of daytime depletion is observed (a previously unreported effect). Neither soil cracking, nor precipitation, both suggested in some studies as causative factors for these oscillations, during the dry season appear to be necessary in explaining their occurrence. We also report the results of an artificial shading experiment, conducted in August 2009, that further support this conclusion. As soil 222 Rn concentrations during the dry season show a characteristic daily cycle, radon monitoring in soils under these conditions necessarily has to be gauged to the timings of the daily maximum and minimum, as well as to the eventual occurrence of cloudiness and to its related effects, in order to

  12. Fresh Versus Marine Submarine Groundwater Discharge: How 222Rn Might Help Distinguish These Two Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C. G.; Cable, J. E.; Martin, J. B.; Roy, M.

    2008-05-01

    Pore water distributions of 222Rn (t1/2 = 3.83 d), obtained during two sampling trips 9-12 May 2005 and 6-8 May 2006, are used to determine spatial and temporal variations of fluid discharge from a seepage face located along the mainland shoreline of Indian River Lagoon, Florida. Porewater samples were collected from a 30 m transect of multi-level piezometers and analyzed for 222Rn via liquid scintillation counting; the mean of triplicate measurements was used to represent the porewater 222Rn activities. Sediment samples were collected from five vibracores (0, 10, 17.5, 20, and 30 m offshore) and emanation rates of 222Rn (sediment supported) were determined using a standard cryogenic extraction technique. A conceptual 222Rn transport model and subsequent numerical model were developed based on the vertical distribution of dissolved and sediment-supported 222Rn and applicable processes occurring along the seepage face (e.g. advection, diffusion, and nonlocal exchange). The model was solved inversely with the addition of two Monte Carlo (MC) simulations to increase the statistical reliability of three parameters: fresh groundwater seepage velocity (v), irrigation intensity (α0), and irrigation attenuation (α1). The first MC simulation ensures that the Nelder-Mead minimization algorithm converges on a global minimum of the merit function and that the parameters estimates are consistent within this global minimum. The second MC simulation provides 90% confidence intervals on the parameter estimates using the measured 222Rn activity variance. Fresh groundwater seepage velocities obtained from the model decrease linearly with distance from the shoreline; seepage velocities range between 0.6 and 42.2 cm d-1. Based on this linear relationship, the terminus of the fresh groundwater seepage is approximately 25 m offshore and total fresh groundwater discharge for the May-2005 and May-2006 sampling trips are 1.16 and 1.45 m3 d-1 m-1 of shoreline, respectively. We hypothesize

  13. UAS Integration in the NAS: Detect and Avoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Jay

    2018-01-01

    This presentation will cover the structure of the unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) integration into the national airspace system (NAS) project (UAS-NAS Project). The talk also details the motivation of the project to help develop standards for a detect-and-avoid (DAA) system, which is required in order to comply with requirements in manned aviation to see-and-avoid other traffic so as to maintain well clear. The presentation covers accomplishments reached by the project in Phase 1 of the research, and touches on the work to be done in Phase 2. The discussion ends with examples of the display work developed as a result of the Phase 1 research.

  14. UAS-NAS Flight Test Series 3: Test Environment Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Ty; Murphy, Jim; Otto, Neil

    2016-01-01

    The desire and ability to fly Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) is of increasing urgency. The application of unmanned aircraft to perform national security, defense, scientific, and emergency management are driving the critical need for less restrictive access by UAS to the NAS. UAS represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the NAS. NASA's UAS Integration in the NAS Project is conducting research in the areas of Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability (SSI), Human Systems Integration (HSI), and Communications (Comm), and Certification to support reducing the barriers of UAS access to the NAS. This research is broken into two research themes namely, UAS Integration and Test Infrastructure. UAS Integration focuses on airspace integration procedures and performance standards to enable UAS integration in the air transportation system, covering Detect and Avoid (DAA) performance standards, command and control performance standards, and human systems integration. The focus of Test Infrastructure is to enable development and validation of airspace integration procedures and performance standards, including integrated test and evaluation. In support of the integrated test and evaluation efforts, the Project will develop an adaptable, scalable, and schedulable relevant test environment capable of evaluating concepts and technologies for unmanned aircraft systems to safely operate in the NAS. To accomplish this task, the Project is conducting a series of human-in-the-loop (HITL) and flight test activities that integrate key concepts, technologies and/or procedures in a relevant air traffic environment. Each of the integrated events will build on the technical achievements, fidelity, and

  15. Upgrades to the Probabilistic NAS Platform Air Traffic Simulation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, George; Boisvert, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    This document is the final report for the project entitled "Upgrades to the Probabilistic NAS Platform Air Traffic Simulation Software." This report consists of 17 sections which document the results of the several subtasks of this effort. The Probabilistic NAS Platform (PNP) is an air operations simulation platform developed and maintained by the Saab Sensis Corporation. The improvements made to the PNP simulation include the following: an airborne distributed separation assurance capability, a required time of arrival assignment and conformance capability, and a tactical and strategic weather avoidance capability.

  16. Assessing the risks of Rn exposure: the influence of cigarette smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginevan, M.E.; Mills, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    The principal hazard associated with exposure to Rn progeny is lung cancer. However, most lung cancer is caused by smoking, which raises a dual problem of deriving Rn-progeny cancer risk estimates from miner populations who, in large part, are smokers and applying these estimates to the general population whose lung cancer risk, in large part, is determined by smoking habits. We examine current risk estimates for Rn-progeny-induced lung cancer using a cohort life table methodology. Estimates of lifetime probability of dying of lung cancer, average loss in life expectancy due to premature lung cancer death, and loss in life expectancy per premature lung cancer death are calculated for the general population for 1969 and 1978, nonsmokers, and smokers. These calculations demonstrate that such risk estimates are affected by smoking, and by trends in smoking habits, in several ways. Major smoking-related factors in this interaction are the proportion of smokers in the mining population used to derive lung cancer risk estimates, the proportion of smokers in the ''general'' population, and the assumed interaction (additive or multiplicative) between lung cancer risk, Rn-progeny exposure, and smoking history. At this time the data are not sufficient to recommend one particular modeling approach. However, our evaluation demonstrates that broad statements about Rn-progeny lung cancer risk such as x cancers/10(6) person working level month, while informative, are incomplete without further specification. Any risk assessment must clearly state the population assumed to be at risk and the risk model assumed to be operating. Finally, the caveats appropriate to these assumptions should also be enunciated

  17. The exposure assessment of Rn-222 gas in the atmosphere(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Chung Wo; Chang, Si Young; Seo, Kyung Won; Yoon, Yeo Chang; Kim, Jang Lyul; Yoon, Suk Chul; Chung, Rae Ik; Kim, Jong Soo; Park, Young Woong

    1991-01-01

    Dose assessment to inhalation exposure of indoor 222 Rn daughters in 12 residential areas in Korea has been performed by long term averaged radon concentrations measured with passive CR-39 radon cups. A simple mathematical lung dosimetry model based on the ICRP-30 was derived to estimate the indoor radon daughters exposure. The long term average indoor 222 Rn concentrations and corresponding equilibrium equivalent radon concentrations (EEC Rn ) in 12 areas showed a range of 33.82 ∼ 61.42 Bq.m -3 (median : 48.90 Bq.m -3 ) and of 13.53 ∼ 24.57 Bq.m -3 (median: 19.55 Bq.m -3 ), respectively. Reference dose conversion functions for evaluation of regional lung dose and effective dose equivalent for unit exposure to EEC Rn have been derived for an adult. The effective dose equivalent conversion factor was estimated to be 1.07 x 10 -5 mSv/Bq.h.m -3 and this conversion factor agreed well with that recommended by the ICRP and UNSCEAR report. The annual average dose equivalents(H) to Tracheo-Bronchial and Pulmonary region of the lung, and total lung from exposure to measured EEC Rn were estimated to be 17.52 mSv.y -l , 3.35 mSv.y -l and 20.90 mSv.y -1 , respectively, and the resulting effective dose equivalent(H E ) was estimated to be 1.25 mSv.y -l , which is almost 50% of the natural radiation exposure of 2.40 mSv.y -l reported by the UNSCEAR. (Author)

  18. A novel design of a personal nuclear track detector for ambient Rn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margaliot, M.; Even, O.; Herman, R.

    1997-01-01

    In some occupations, workers spend a part of their time underground, in closed and unventilated spaces, while most of their time is spent in the open air. The case in hand is a group of the 'Bezek' telephone technicians, whose work includes spending a few hours daily in small, coarsely finished and unventilated tunnels in which telephone branching boxes are located. The rest of their time they work outdoors, and a small part of it is spent in offices. The Rn levels in a few telephone branching tunnels were measured and were found to be rather high (levels of 3000 - 5000 Bq/m 3 are common). The average exposure of the workers is however much lower, due to short time spent in the tunnels, versus the longer time spent outdoors, and the low Rn level there. To obtain a well founded estimation of their actual commutative Rn exposure, a new integrative Rn detector was designed, which is attached to the workers clothing during the whole working day, and serves as a personal Rn detector, rather than as the a conventional area monitor. The detector element itself consists of a Nuclear Track Detector made of dosimetry grade CR-39. The function of the detector is how ever dependent mainly on the geometrical design of the housing of the detector. The properties of these detectors are, however, highly dependent on the design of the detectors housing.The design itself, it's theoretical efficiency, it's actual calibration process and it's calibration factor are presented. Mechanical reliability has been established in some 3 years of operation both as a fixed area monitor and as a personal portable detector. (authors)

  19. Levan-type fructooligosaccharide production using Bacillus licheniformis RN-01 levansucrase Y246S immobilized on chitosan beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surawut Sangmanee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus licheniformis RN-01 levansucrase Y246S (LsRN-Y246S was immobilized by covalently linking onto chitosan, Sepabead EC-EP, and Sepabead EC-HFA, beads. The stability of immobilized LsRN-Y246S was found to be the highest with chitosan beads, retaining more than 70% activity after 13 weeks storage at 4 oC, and 68% activity after 12 hours incubation at 40°C. LsRN-Y246S immobilized on chitosan beads withstands sucrose concentrations up to 70% (w/v, retaining over 85% of its activity, significantly better than LsRN-Y246S immobilized on others supporting matrices. LsRN-Y246S immobilized on chitosan showed a 2.4 fold increase in activity in the presence of Mn2+, and gave slight protection against deactivation by of Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe3+, SDS and EDTA. A maximum of 8.36 g and an average of 7.35 g LFOS yield at least up to DP 11 can be produced from 25 g of sucrose, during five production cycles. We have demonstrated that LFOS can be effectively produced by chitosan immobilized LsRN-Y246S and purified.

  20. (222)Rn activity in groundwater of the St. Lawrence Lowlands, Quebec, eastern Canada: relation with local geology and health hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinti, Daniele L; Retailleau, Sophie; Barnetche, Diogo; Moreira, Floriane; Moritz, Anja M; Larocque, Marie; Gélinas, Yves; Lefebvre, René; Hélie, Jean-François; Valadez, Arisai

    2014-10-01

    One hundred ninety-eight groundwater wells were sampled to measure the (222)Rn activity in the region between Montreal and Quebec City, eastern Canada. The aim of this study was to relate the spatial distribution of (222)Rn activity to the geology and the hydrogeology of the study area and to estimate the potential health risks associated with (222)Rn in the most populated area of the Province of Quebec. Most of the groundwater samples show low (222)Rn activities with a median value of 8.6 Bq/L. Ninety percent of samples show (222)Rn activity lower than 100 Bq/L, the exposure limit in groundwater recommended by the World Health Organization. A few higher (222)Rn activities (up to 310 Bq/L) have been measured in wells from the Appalachian Mountains and from the magmatic intrusion of Mont-Saint-Hilaire, known for its high level of indoor radon. The spatial distribution of (222)Rn activity seems to be related mainly to lithology differences between U-richer metasediments of the Appalachian Mountains and magmatic intrusions and the carbonaceous silty shales of the St. Lawrence Platform. Radon is slightly enriched in sodium-chlorine waters that evolved at contact with clay-rich formations. (226)Ra, the parent element of (222)Rn could be easily adsorbed on clays, creating a favorable environment for the production and release of (222)Rn into groundwater. The contribution of groundwater radon to indoor radon or by ingestion is minimal except for specific areas near Mont-Saint-Hilaire or in the Appalachian Mountains where this contribution could reach 45% of the total radioactive annual dose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Concentration of 222Rn in drinking water of the Zacatecas City, measured by liquid scintillation and associated dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arevalo B, C. A.; Lopez del R, H.; Davila R, J. I.; Mireles G, F.; Pinedo V, J. L.; Rios M, C.; Saucedo A, S. A.

    2017-09-01

    A study was carried out to determine the concentration of 222 Rn in samples of drinking water collected from different homes in the Zacatecas city, Mexico, whose main source of supply is groundwater. The 222 Rn radioactive gas is a product of the decay series of 238 U and is considered one of the main sources of natural radiation, since it contributes almost half of the radiation dose that a person will receive throughout his life. The 222 Rn originates in the rocks of the aquifers and dissolves in the water, which is later integrated into the distribution network of the public supply that supplies the entire population. Exposure to ionizing radiation that 222 Rn and its offspring emit can damage the DNA molecule, inducing the possible appearance of cancer. Has been demonstrated by various epidemiological studies carried out in uranium mines workers in different parts of the world, that this exposure increases the incidence of lung cancer, placing 222 Rn and their offspring as the second main cause of this type of cancer, after smoking habit. Using the technique of solvent extraction of 222 Rn in water and liquid scintillation spectrometry, water collected from 14 different households was sampled and analyzed. The average of the measured activity of 222 Rn was 2.09 Bq/L and the annual effective dose per water intake attributable to that concentration of 6.07 mSv/a. The concentration of 222 Rn in water and the annual effective dose are below 11 Bq/L and 50 mSv/a, such concentrations are the maximum limits established by the Unites States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the ICRP, respectively. The concentration of 222 Rn that is transferred from the water to the air inside a house was also calculated and the radiation dose that this concentration causes by inhalation, being 0.209 Bq/m 3 and 1,463 μ Sv a, respectively. (Author)

  2. Influence of IL-1RN intron 2 variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism on bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiei, A; Hosseini, S H; Taheri, M; Hosseni-khah, Z; Hajilooi, M; Mazaheri, Z

    2013-01-01

    Several lines of evidence point to the role of neurobiological mechanisms and genetic background in bipolar disorder (BD). The interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is the principal regulator of IL-1α and IL-1β bioactivities. This study aimed to investigate the potential role of the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphisms of the IL-1Ra gene (IL1RN) in conferring susceptibility to BD. In total, 217 patients meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for BD and 212 controls were recruited for the study. Genotyping of IL1RN was determined by polymerase chain reaction amplification of VNTR of 86 base pairs in intron 2 of IL1RN. The genotype distribution of IL1RN polymorphism was significantly different between BD patients and controls. The IL1RN*1/2 genotype was more prevalent in BD patients than in controls (44.2 vs. 30.2%, p = 0.003). Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that IL1RN*1/2 heterozygotes had a significantly higher risk for BD (OR 1.83 and 95% CI 1.22-2.74, p = 0.003). Further stratification of the BD patients into IL1RN*2 allele carrier and noncarrier subgroups revealed a strong association between IL1RN*2 carriage and prolongation of the disease (p = 0.02). These findings suggest a positive association between VNTR polymorphism in IL1RN and BD. Additional studies, particularly with a prospective approach, are necessary to clarify the precise role of the VNTR polymorphism on the disease in different ethnic populations. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Development of a preclinical 211Rn/211At generator system for targeted alpha therapy research with 211At.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jason R; Yang, Hua; Kunz, Peter; Wilbur, D Scott; Schaffer, Paul; Ruth, Thomas J

    2017-05-01

    The availability of 211 At for targeted alpha therapy research can be increased by the 211 Rn/ 211 At generator system, whereby 211 At is produced by 211 Rn electron capture decay. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using generator-produced 211 At to label monoclonal antibody (BC8, anti-human CD45) for preclinical use, following isolation from the 207 Po contamination also produced by these generators (by 211 Rn α-decay). 211 Rn was produced by 211 Fr electron capture decay following mass separated ion beam implantation and chemically isolated in liquid alkane hydrocarbon (dodecane). 211 At produced by the resulting 211 Rn source was extracted in strong base (2N NaOH) and purified by granular Te columns. BC8-B10 (antibody conjugated with closo-decaborate(2-)) was labeled with generator-produced 211 At and purified by PD-10 columns. Aqueous solutions extracted from the generator were found to contain 211 At and 207 Po, isolated from 211 Rn. High radionuclidic purity was obtained for 211 At eluted from Te columns, from which BC8-B10 monoclonal antibody was successfully labeled. If not removed, 207 Po was found to significantly contaminate the final 211 At-BC8-B10 product. High yield efficiencies (decay-corrected, n=3) were achieved for 211 At extraction from the generator (86%±7%), Te column purification (70%±10%), and antibody labeling (76%±2%). The experimental 211 Rn/ 211 At generator was shown to be well-suited for preclinical 211 At-based research. We believe that these experiments have furthered the knowledge-base for expanding accessibility to 211 At using the 211 Rn/ 211 At generator system. As established by this work, the 211 Rn/ 211 At generator has the capability of facilitating preclinical evaluations of 211 At-based therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluate transport processes in MERRA driven chemical transport models using updated 222Rn emission inventories and global observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Liu, H.; Crawford, J. H.; Fairlie, T. D.; Chen, G.; Chambers, S. D.; Kang, C. H.; Williams, A. G.; Zhang, K.; Considine, D. B.; Payer Sulprizio, M.; Yantosca, R.

    2015-12-01

    Convective and synoptic processes play a major role in determining the transport and distribution of trace gases and aerosols in the troposphere. The representation of these processes in global models (at ~100-1000 km horizontal resolution) is challenging, because convection is a sub-grid process and needs to be parameterized, while synoptic processes are close to the grid scale. Depending on the parameterization schemes used in climate models, the role of convection in transporting trace gases and aerosols may vary from model to model. 222Rn is a chemically inert and radioactive gas constantly emitted from soil and has a half-life (3.8 days) comparable to synoptic timescale, which makes it an effective tracer for convective and synoptic transport. In this study, we evaluate the convective and synoptic transport in two chemical transport models (GMI and GEOS-Chem), both driven by the NASA's MERRA reanalysis. Considering the uncertainties in 222Rn emissions, we incorporate two more recent scenarios with regionally varying 222Rn emissions into GEOS-Chem/MERRA and compare the simulation results with those using the relatively uniform 222Rn emissions in the standard model. We evaluate the global distribution and seasonality of 222Rn concentrations simulated by the two models against an extended collection of 222Rn observations from 1970s to 2010s. The intercomparison will improve our understanding of the spatial variability in global 222Rn emissions, including the suspected excessive 222Rn emissions in East Asia, and provide useful feedbacks on 222Rn emission models. We will assess 222Rn vertical distributions at different latitudes in the models using observations at surface sites and in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Results will be compared with previous models driven by other meteorological fields (e.g., fvGCM and GEOS4). Since the decay of 222Rn is the source of 210Pb, a useful radionuclide tracer attached to submicron aerosols, improved

  5. Emprego dos gangliosidos do cortex cerebral nas neuropatias perifericas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Pitagoras De Mattos

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores registram a experiência pessoal com o emprego de gangliosídios do cortex cerebral nas neuropatias periféricas. O ensaio clínico e eletromiográfico revelou-se eficaz em 30 dos 40 casos tratados. Enfatizam os melhores resultados em casos de paralisias faciais periféricas.

  6. Depósito legal nas bibliotecas portuguesas

    OpenAIRE

    Fiolhais, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    O modelo de depósito legal nas bibliotecas portuguesas é questionado face às dificuldades financeiras e de vária ordem com que as mesmas se deparam, defende-se uma racionalização do depósito legal e uma tomada de posição pela Biblioteca Nacional entidade gestora do sistema.

  7. Obituary: Jörn Rossa (1969-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, Dimitri

    2009-12-01

    rn Rossa (often spelled Joern Rossa) passed away on September 19, 2009 at the young age of 40 in Mainz, Germany from a virulent fast-acting blood cancer. He was born in that same city on March 17, 1969 to Alfred and Gudrun Rossa, who survive their only child. Joern had a deep, lifelong love of astronomy, as evidenced by the handwritten letters he wrote in his youth to prominent astronomers and astronauts for their perspectives, signatures and reprints, the popular astronomy magazines which he collected for decades, the decision to abandon a career as a locomotive driver and relearn the math and physics required to pursue his passion, the many papers he published himself, and the numerous space shuttle launches he made a point to personally attend at Kennedy Space Center. Since High School, Joern carried out observations using his own telescope, traveled with friends to remote locations to practice "serious" astrophotography, and lectured at a local amateur club. After attaining his undergraduate degree at the University of Heidelberg (Germany) in 1996, Joern continued his education at the Ruhr-University Bochum in Germany, where he worked under the guidance of Ralf-Juergen Dettmar. He received his Ph.D. degree in 2001 with a thesis focusing on extraplanar diffuse ionized gas and dust in the halos of edge-on spiral galaxies. He performed the largest-to-this-day ground-based H-alpha survey of a large number of galaxies, quantified their extraplanar ISM, and correlated its properties with the starburst activity in the galaxy disk. After his graduation, Joern stayed in Bochum for another year as a Postdoctoral Associate. During this time he expanded his interests in the same general subject area through the use of X-ray (XMM, Chandra) and radio observations. His interest in the ISM of nearby galaxies continued through his subsequent postdoctoral career. He analyzed high-spatial resolution Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFPC2 H-alpha data of the edge-on non

  8. Study of natural radioactivity and 222Rn exhalation rate in soil samples for the assessment of average effective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangotra, P.; Mehra, R.; Jakhu, R.; Sahoo, B.K

    2016-01-01

    The natural radioactivity in soil is usually determined from the 226 Ra (Radium), 232 Th (Thorium) and 40 K (potassium). 222 Rn and 220 Rn are produced in soil as a result of the presence of these radionuclides. As 226 Ra decay, the newly created 222 Rn radionuclide recoil from the parent grain and then exhale through the soil. Since 98.5% of radiological effects of 238 U series are produced by 226 Ra and its daughter products. The assessment of gamma radiation dose from natural sources is of particular importance as natural radiation is the largest contributor to the external dose of the world population. Authors are advised to maximize the information content utilizing the full space available. The main objective of the present study is to measure the level of natural radioactivity 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 222 Rn exhalation rate in the soil samples for health risk assessment

  9. 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations measured in various natural honey samples by using nuclear track detectors and resulting radiation doses to the members of the rural populations in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misdaq, M. A.; Mortassim, A.

    2008-01-01

    Radon ( 222 Rn) and thoron ( 220 Rn) concentrations were measured in sixteen natural honey material samples collected from different regions in Morocco by using CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). The concentrations of these radionuclides were also measured in nectar solutions corresponding to the studied honey samples. The measured concentrations of 222 Rn and 220 Rn in honey samples ranged from (2.3 ± 0.2) to (8.1 ± 0.6) Bq.l -1 and (1.8 ± 0.1) to (3.9 ± 0.3) Bq.l -1 , respectively. Committed equivalent doses due to annual intakes of 222 Rn were evaluated in the human gastrointestinal tract compartments of adult members of the Moroccan populations from the ingestion of studied honey samples. The influence of the target tissue mass and activities due to 222 Rn on the annual committed equivalent doses in the compartments of the human gastrointestinal tract was investigated. (authors)

  10. Applications Performance on NAS Intel Paragon XP/S - 15#

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Subhash; Simon, Horst D.; Copper, D. M. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Systems Division received an Intel Touchstone Sigma prototype model Paragon XP/S- 15 in February, 1993. The i860 XP microprocessor with an integrated floating point unit and operating in dual -instruction mode gives peak performance of 75 million floating point operations (NIFLOPS) per second for 64 bit floating point arithmetic. It is used in the Paragon XP/S-15 which has been installed at NAS, NASA Ames Research Center. The NAS Paragon has 208 nodes and its peak performance is 15.6 GFLOPS. Here, we will report on early experience using the Paragon XP/S- 15. We have tested its performance using both kernels and applications of interest to NAS. We have measured the performance of BLAS 1, 2 and 3 both assembly-coded and Fortran coded on NAS Paragon XP/S- 15. Furthermore, we have investigated the performance of a single node one-dimensional FFT, a distributed two-dimensional FFT and a distributed three-dimensional FFT Finally, we measured the performance of NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) on the Paragon and compare it with the performance obtained on other highly parallel machines, such as CM-5, CRAY T3D, IBM SP I, etc. In particular, we investigated the following issues, which can strongly affect the performance of the Paragon: a. Impact of the operating system: Intel currently uses as a default an operating system OSF/1 AD from the Open Software Foundation. The paging of Open Software Foundation (OSF) server at 22 MB to make more memory available for the application degrades the performance. We found that when the limit of 26 NIB per node out of 32 MB available is reached, the application is paged out of main memory using virtual memory. When the application starts paging, the performance is considerably reduced. We found that dynamic memory allocation can help applications performance under certain circumstances. b. Impact of data cache on the i860/XP: We measured the performance of the BLAS both assembly coded and Fortran

  11. A sub-nationwide survey of outdoor and indoor 222Rn concentrations in China by passive method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Yihe; Ikebe, Y.; Iida, T.

    1996-01-01

    From Nov. 1988 to Mar. 1993, cooperated by China and Japan, a survey of outdoor and indoor 222 Rn concentrations in 10 cities which were highly populated in China was carried out by means of passive method. the annual mean of outdoor 222 Rn concentration in 10 cities was 8.8 Bq·m -3 . The highest of 13.5 Bq·m -3 was in Wuhan, the lowest of 3.3 Bq·m -3 was in Chongming Island of Shanghai; and there were no significant differences among the different years in the same areas. During the northwest wind seasons, about 50% of outdoor 222 Rn concentration in Taiwan was contributed by the airflow from the mainland. Typical apartment houses and offices built of brick and concrete were also surveyed for indoor 222 Rn concentration. The annual mean of indoor 222 Rn concentration in the 10 cities was 19.5 Bq·m - 3. The highest of 33.9 Bq·m -3 was observed in Guiyang, the lowest of 9.0 Bq·m -3 was observed in Chongming Island of Shanghai. The outdoor and indoor 222 Rn concentrations showed a clear seasonal pattern with the minimum in summer and the maximum in winter. And they also showed a clear geographic distribution tendency; they were higher in inland than in seashores, and higher in the south than in the north. The ratios of indoor to outdoor 222 Rn concentrations were from 1.1 to 4.6. The annual effective dose equivalents resulting from outdoor and indoor 222 Rn concentrations amounted to about 0.64 mSv·a -1 . The highest was in Guiyang, and the lowest was in Nantong, being 1.12 and 0.39 mSv·a -1 , respectively

  12. Determination of 222Rn in water samples from wells and springs in Tokyo by a modified integral counting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, Y.; Murase, Y.; Handa, K.; Murakami, I.

    1997-01-01

    222 Rn in 2L-water samples was extracted with 30 mL toluene, and 21 mL of the toluene solution was transferred into a liquid scintillation vial, in which PPO - 2,5-diphenyloxazole was placed in advance. The total activity of 222 Rn in the water sample was calculated based on the Ostwald's coefficient of solubilities of 222 Rn in toluene and water at the temperature of the sample water and the volume of water and toluene. About 40% of 222 Rn dissolved in 2L-water sample can be collected. After allowing to stand for 3.5 h, the equilibrium mixture of 222 Rn and its daughters was measured with an Aloka liquid scintillation spectrometer using a modified integral counting method which extrapolates the integral counting curve not to the zero pulse-height, but to the zero detection threshold, an average energy required to produce a measurable pulse, of the liquid scintillation spectrometer. The general method which agitates water sample (usually about 10 mL) with a liquid scintillation cocktail is practical when the activity of 222 Rn is high. By adding 10 mL of water sample, however, it is possible also to add variable amounts of quencher. In some cases water sample is preserved with nitric acid. The slope of the integral counting rate curve increases as quench level of the sample increases. Therefore, it is clear that the modified integral counting method gives more accurate 222 Rn concentrations for water samples of strong quench than the conventional integral counting method. 222 Rn sample of 0.2 Bq/L can be determined within an overall uncertainty of 3.1%

  13. Tværprofessionelt samarbejde om udsathed hos børn og unge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Anne Marie Anker; Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Lund, Jens Hansen

    2015-01-01

    begreb og fænomen, som ikke lader sig indfange i en absolut og statisk definition. Potentialet for både praksis og uddannelser ligger derfor i en erkendelse heraf. Samtidig synes der at være potentiale i, at man i hver enkelt samarbejdskonstellation og kontekst operationaliserer og præciserer......, at tværprofessionelt samarbejde er meget udbredt indenfor socialt arbejde med udsathed hos børn og unge, og det er tydeligt, at der er mange måder, hvorpå man kan samarbejde tværprofessionelt. Samtidig er både tværprofessionelt samarbejde såvel som udsathed hos børn og unge begge vanskelige og upræcise begreber og...

  14. GUM approach to uncertainty estimations for online 220Rn concentration measurements using Lucas scintillation cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyabama, N.

    2014-01-01

    It is now widely recognized that, when all of the known or suspected components of errors have been evaluated and corrected, there still remains an uncertainty, that is, a doubt about how well the result of the measurement represents the value of the quantity being measured. Evaluation of measurement data - Guide to the expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) is a guidance document, the purpose of which is to promote full information on how uncertainty statements are arrived at and to provide a basis for the international comparison of measurement results. In this paper, uncertainty estimations following GUM guidelines have been made for the measured values of online thoron concentrations using Lucas scintillation cell to prove that the correction for disequilibrium between 220 Rn and 216 Po is significant in online 220 Rn measurements

  15. Some remarks on the topology of hyperbolic actions of Rn on n-manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouloc, Damien

    2017-11-01

    This paper contains some results on the topology of a nondegenerate action of Rn on a compact connected n-manifold M when the action is totally hyperbolic (i.e. its toric degree is zero). We study the R-action generated by a fixed vector of Rn, that provides some results on the number of hyperbolic domains and the number of fixed points of the action. We study with more details the case of the 2-sphere, in particular we investigate some combinatorial properties of the associated 4-valent graph embedded in S2. We also construct hyperbolic actions in dimension 3, on the sphere S3 and on the projective space RP3.

  16. Assessment of Effective Dose Equivalent of Indoor 222Rn Daughters in Inchass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, E.M.; Taha, T.M.; Gomaa, M.A.; El-Hussein, A.M.; Ahmad, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    The dominant component of natural radiation dose for the general population comes from the radon gas 222 Rn and its short-lived decay products, Ra A ( 214 Po), Ra B ( 214 Pb), Ra C ( 214 Bi), Ra C( 214 Po) in the breathing air. The objective of the present work is to assess the affective dose equivalent of the inhalation exposure of indoor 222 Rn for occupational workers. Average indon concentrations (Bqm -3 ) were monitored in several departments in Nuclear Research Center by radon monitor. We have calculated the lung dose equivalent and the effective dose equivalent for the Egyptian workers due to inhalation exposure of an equilibrium equivalent concentrations of radon daughters which varies from 0.27 to 2.5 mSvy -1 and 0.016 to 0.152mSvy -1 respectively. The annual effective doses obtained are within the accepted range of ICRP recommendations

  17. Evaluation of the external exposure to Rn-222 progeny in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, E.M.; Taha, T.M.; Gomaa, M.A.; El-Hussein, A.M.; Ahmed, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the Rn-222 progeny annual effective dose, skin dose and effective doses to different organs such as Gonad, Lung, Red Marrow, Bone surface, Thyroid, and the Remainder. Dose Coefficients of external exposure to Rn-222 in air was used in mSv s/Bqm -3 to calculate the organ doses. The study was monitored for two places, Nuclear Research Center and Al-Minia University. We have confirmed that the inhalation modes, sleep, sitting, light and heavy exercise influence the activity inhalation rate Bq/hr. It varies from 0.3 to 39.6 Bq/hr., the organ doses of Pb-214 is higher than Bi-214/Po-214 and Po-218 respectively in the case of the organ dose relative to environmental media

  18. The effects of covering materials on indoor Rn concentrations in offices in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, K.N.; Cheung, T.; Young, E.C.M.; Mui, W.N.; Tang, K.K.

    2000-01-01

    The variation of Rn concentrations in 134 offices with different covering materials cladded on internal building surfaces, including walls, ceilings and floors, were measured. The three commonest combinations (87 sites) of covering materials for the walls, ceilings and floors in Hong Kong are (A): wall paper, fibre board, carpet; (B): paint, paint and plastic tile and (C): paint, fibre board, plastic tile. The average Rn concentrations for combinations (A) and (B) were about the same, while that for combination (C) was significantly lower than those for (A) and (B). A person working in an office with combination (C) can receive an average annual tracheobronchial equivalent dose smaller than one working in an office with combinations (A) and (B) by an amount as large as 0.8 mSv

  19. Estimation of groundwater flow rate using the decay of 222Rn in a well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Hiromasa

    1999-01-01

    A method of estimating groundwater flow rate using the decay of 222 Rn in a well was investigated. Field application revealed that infiltrated water (i.e., precipitation, pond water and irrigation water) accelerated groundwater flow. In addition, the depth at which groundwater was influenced by surface water was determined. The velocity of groundwater in a test well was estimated to be of the order of 10 -6 cm s -1 , based on the ratio of 222 Rn concentration in groundwater before and after it flowed into the well. This method is applicable for monitoring of groundwater flow rate where the velocity in a well is from 10 -5 to 10 -6 cm s -1

  20. High-spin isomers in 212Rn in the region of triple neutron core-excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dracoulis, G. D.; Lane, G. J.; Byrne, A. P.; Davidson, P. M.; Kibédi, T.; Nieminen, P.; Watanabe, H.; Wilson, A. N.

    2008-04-01

    The level scheme of 212Rn has been extended to spins of ∼ 38 ℏ and excitation energies of about 13 MeV using the 204Hg(13C, 5n)212Rn reaction and γ-ray spectroscopy. Time correlated techniques have been used to obtain sensitivity to weak transitions and channel selectivity. The excitation energy of the 22+ core-excited isomer has been established at 6174 keV. Two isomers with τ = 25 (2) ns and τ = 12 (2) ns are identified at 12211 and 12548 keV, respectively. These are the highest-spin nuclear isomers now known, and are attributed to configurations involving triple neutron core-excitations coupled to the aligned valence protons. Semi-empirical shell-model calculations can account for most states observed, but with significant energy discrepancies for some configurations.

  1. High-spin isomers in 212Rn in the region of triple neutron core-excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracoulis, G.D.; Lane, G.J.; Byrne, A.P.; Davidson, P.M.; Kibedi, T.; Nieminen, P.; Watanabe, H.; Wilson, A.N.

    2008-01-01

    The level scheme of 212 Rn has been extended to spins of ∼38h and excitation energies of about 13 MeV using the 204 Hg( 13 C, 5n) 212 Rn reaction and γ-ray spectroscopy. Time correlated techniques have been used to obtain sensitivity to weak transitions and channel selectivity. The excitation energy of the 22 + core-excited isomer has been established at 6174 keV. Two isomers with τ=25(2) ns and τ=12(2) ns are identified at 12211 and 12548 keV, respectively. These are the highest-spin nuclear isomers now known, and are attributed to configurations involving triple neutron core-excitations coupled to the aligned valence protons. Semi-empirical shell-model calculations can account for most states observed, but with significant energy discrepancies for some configurations

  2. Measurement of Rn-222 concentrations in building materials used in jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, A M; Abumyrad, K M; Kullab, M K; Albataina, B A [Physics Dept., Yarmouk University, 219-10 Irbid, (Jordan)

    1995-10-01

    In this work, the concentrations of the radiative inert gas Rn-222 emanated from the building materials that are commonly in jordan have been studied. For this purpose, samples of ten jordanian building materials of different masses were prepared in plastic cans sealed to passive integrated dosimeters containing CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors which are very sensitive to alpha-particles. The Rn-222 concentrations in these samples range from 137 Bq/m{sup 3} to 267 Bq/m{sup 3} with an average of 189 Bq/m{sup 3}. These levels were found to be consistent with those measured by other workers in other countries. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Medication reconciliation in nursing homes: thematic differences between RN and LPN staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelsmeier, Amy A; Scott-Cawiezell, Jill R; Pepper, Ginette A

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to describe medication reconciliation practices in nursing homes with a specific focus on nursing staff involvement in the process. The study was conducted in eight Midwestern nursing homes and included 46 onsite observations of resident transfers to the nursing home. Informal interviews of nursing staff performing medication reconciliation were conducted during each observation. Findings suggest nursing home nursing staff, including both RN and licensed practical nurse (LPN) staff, were primarily responsible for performing medication reconciliation; however, these staff often varied in how they processed resident transfer information to identify medication order discrepancies. Patterns of differences were found related to their perceptions about medication reconciliation, as well as their actions when performing the process. RN staff were more often focused on resident safety and putting the "big picture" together, whereas LPN staff were more often focused on the administrative assignment and "completing the task." Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Non-occupational radiation exposures from 222Rn and daughters to residents of Grand Junction, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitz, H.B.; Cohen, N.; Wrenn, M.E.

    1975-01-01

    Six individuals from GRAND Junction, Colorado were examined for 210 Pb body burdens as a result of living in homes where concentrations of 222 Rn were elevated due to the presence of uranium mill tailings beneath the building foundation. In vivo detection for 210 Pb using three NaI--CsI (Tl) thin crystals in the standard NYU head geometry identified two persons with estimaed body burdens above 1.1 nCi. Bioassay for 210 Pb was also performed to compare with the in vivo analysis and to further substantiate the relationship between 210 Pb in bone, blood, and urine. estimates of exposure in cumulative working level months (CWLM), range 85 to 566 CWLM, were used to calculate expected body burdens of 210 Pb. The NYU continuous readout radon monitor provided diurnal measurements of 222 Rn in the homes of the volunteer subjects so that, considering assumptions about ventilation and residence times, actual exposures could be determined. (U.S.)

  5. A multi-detector continuous monitor for assessment of 222Rn in the coastal ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulaiova, H.; Peterson, R.; Burnett, W.C.

    2005-01-01

    Radon-222 is a good natural tracer of groundwater discharge and other physical processes in the coastal ocean. Unfortunately, its usefulness is limited by the time consuming nature of collecting individual samples and traditional analysis schemes. An automated multi-detector system is demonstrated that can be used in a continuous survey basis to assess radon activities in coastal ocean waters. The system analyses 222 Rn from a constant stream of water delivered by a submersible pump to an air-water exchanger where radon in the water phase equilibrates with radon in a closed air loop. The air stream is fed to 3 commercial radon-in-air monitors connected in parallel to determine the activity of 222 Rn. By running the detectors out of phase, it is possible to obtain as many as 6 readings per hour with a precision of approximately ±5-15% for typical coastal seawater concentrations. (author)

  6. Preliminary evaluation of 222Rn levels in homes and offices in two different regions in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Hushari, M.A.; Raja, G.

    1993-01-01

    Evaluation of Rn levels was carried out in homes and offices in Damascus and phosphate mining areas near Palmyra city in Syria. The AEOI radon diffusion dosimeters were used in this study. Electrochemical etching of polycarbonate detectors was used to develop the tracks. A standard source of radon was used for calibration. Radon levels were measured in 98 homes of workers in the phosphate mining areas and 29 homes in the Damascus region. The radon diffusion chambers were placed in offices and laboratories of AEC for about four months in average. The results gave an indication of Rn level in Damascus dwellings in spite of the necessity for further comprehensive studies for the city. The radon levels were high in some offices and laboratories where phosphate analyses are carried out or buildings near phosphate storage areas or near surface phosphate rocks occurrence, in comparison with homes. (author). 7 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  7. Overview of Hazard Assessment and Emergency Planning Software of Use to RN First Responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waller, E; Millage, K; Blakely, W F; Ross, J A; Mercier, J R; Sandgren, D J; Levine, I H; Dickerson, W E; Nemhauser, J B; Nasstrom, J S; Sugiyama, G; Homann, S; Buddemeier, B R; Curling, C A; Disraelly, D S

    2008-08-26

    There are numerous software tools available for field deployment, reach-back, training and planning use in the event of a radiological or nuclear (RN) terrorist event. Specialized software tools used by CBRNe responders can increase information available and the speed and accuracy of the response, thereby ensuring that radiation doses to responders, receivers, and the general public are kept as low as reasonably achievable. Software designed to provide health care providers with assistance in selecting appropriate countermeasures or therapeutic interventions in a timely fashion can improve the potential for positive patient outcome. This paper reviews various software applications of relevance to radiological and nuclear (RN) events that are currently in use by first responders, emergency planners, medical receivers, and criminal investigators.

  8. Intrinsic backgrounds from Rn and Kr in the XENON100 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aprile, E.; Anthony, M.; Perio, P. de; Gao, F.; Goetzke, L.W.; Greene, Z.; Lin, Q.; Plante, G.; Rizzo, A.; Zhang, Y. [Columbia University, Physics Department, New York, NY (United States); Aalbers, J.; Breur, P.A.; Brown, A.; Colijn, A.P.; Decowski, M.P.; Hogenbirk, E.; Tiseni, A. [Nikhef and the University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Agostini, F. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); University of Bologna, Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Bologna (Italy); INFN-Bologna (Italy); Alfonsi, M.; Geis, C.; Grignon, C.; Oberlack, U.; Scheibelhut, M.; Schindler, S. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik and Exzellenzcluster PRISMA, Mainz (Germany); Amaro, F.D.; Cardoso, J.M.R.; Lopes, J.A.M.; Santos, J.M.F. dos; Silva, M. [University of Coimbra, LIBPhys, Department of Physics, Coimbra (Portugal); Arneodo, F.; Benabderrahmane, M.L.; Di Giovanni, A.; Maris, I. [New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Barrow, P.; Baudis, L.; Galloway, M.; Kazama, S.; Kessler, G.; Kish, A.; Mayani, D.; Pakarha, P.; Piastra, F.; Wulf, J. [University of Zurich, Physik-Institut, Zurich (Switzerland); Bauermeister, B.; Calven, J.; Conrad, J.; Ferella, A.D.; Moraa, K.; Pelssers, B. [Stockholm University, AlbaNova, Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden); Berger, T.; Brown, E.; Piro, M.C. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Troy, NY (United States); Bruenner, S.; Cichon, D.; Eurin, G.; Hasterok, C.; Lindner, M.; Marrodan Undagoitia, T.; Pizzella, V.; Rauch, L.; Rupp, N.; Schreiner, J.; Simgen, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Bruno, G.; Rosso, A.G.; Molinario, A.; Wang, Z. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Budnik, R.; Itay, R.; Landsman, H.; Lellouch, D.; Levinson, L.; Manfredini, A.; Priel, N. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Rehovot (Israel); Buetikofer, L.; Coderre, D.; Kaminsky, B.; Schumann, M.; Sivers, M. von [Universitaet Freiburg, Physikalisches Institut, Freiburg (Germany); Cervantes, M.; Lang, R.F.; Masson, D.; Reichard, S. [Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Cussonneau, J.P.; Diglio, S.; Masbou, J.; Micheneau, K.; Persiani, R.; Thers, D. [CNRS/IN2P3, Universite de Nantes, SUBATECH, IMT Atlantique, Nantes (France); Di Gangi, P.; Garbini, M.; Massoli, F.V.; Sartorelli, G.; Selvi, M. [University of Bologna, Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Bologna (Italy); INFN-Bologna (Italy); Fei, J.; Lombardi, F.; Ni, K.; Ye, J. [University of California, Department of Physics, San Diego, CA (United States); Fieguth, A.; Murra, M.; Vargas, M.; Weinheimer, C.; Wittweg, C. [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Muenster (Germany); Fulgione, W. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); INFN-Torino (Italy); Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Torino (Italy); Lindemann, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Universitaet Freiburg, Physikalisches Institut, Freiburg (Germany); Messina, M. [Columbia University, Physics Department, New York, NY (United States); New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Naganoma, J.; Shagin, P. [Rice University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Houston, TX (United States); Pienaar, J. [Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN (United States); University of Chicago, Department of Physics, Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics, Chicago, IL (United States); Ramirez Garcia, D. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik and Exzellenzcluster PRISMA, Mainz (Germany); Universitaet Freiburg, Physikalisches Institut, Freiburg (Germany); Reuter, C. [University of Zurich, Physik-Institut, Zurich (Switzerland); Purdue University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Lavina, L.S. [Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, LPNHE, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Stein, A.; Wang, H. [University of California, Physics and Astronomy Department, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Trinchero, G. [INFN-Torino (Italy); Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Torino (Italy); Tunnell, C. [Nikhef and the University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Chicago, Department of Physics, Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics, Chicago, IL (United States); Weber, M. [Columbia University, Physics Department, New York, NY (United States); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Wei, Y. [University of Zurich, Physik-Institut, Zurich (Switzerland); University of California, Department of Physics, San Diego, CA (United States); Collaboration: XENON Collaboration

    2018-02-15

    In this paper, we describe the XENON100 data analyses used to assess the target-intrinsic background sources radon ({sup 222}Rn), thoron ({sup 220}Rn) and krypton ({sup 85}Kr). We detail the event selections of high-energy alpha particles and decay-specific delayed coincidences. We derive distributions of the individual radionuclides inside the detector and quantify their abundances during the main three science runs of the experiment over a period of ∝ 4 years, from January 2010 to January 2014. We compare our results to external measurements of radon emanation and krypton concentrations where we find good agreement. We report an observed reduction in concentrations of radon daughters that we attribute to the plating-out of charged ions on the negatively biased cathode. (orig.)

  9. Integrating evidence-based practice into RN-to-BSN clinical nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Eui Geum; Kim, Sunah; Kim, So Sun; Kim, Sue; Cho, Eun Yong; Yoo, Ji-Soo; Kim, Hee Soon; Lee, Ju Hee; You, Mi Ae; Lee, Hyejung

    2010-07-01

    This study examines the effects of integrating evidence-based practice (EBP) into clinical practicum on EBP efficacy and barriers to research utilization among Korean RN-to-BSN students. A one-group pretest-posttest design was used. Eighty-one students were recruited from a school of nursing in Korea. Evidence-based practice clinical practicum was composed of two consecutive programs during one semester. Lectures, individual mentoring on EBP practicum, small group, and wrap-up conferences were provided. Outcomes of EBP efficacy and barriers to research utilization were analyzed using paired t tests for 74 final participants. Evidence-based practice efficacy scores increased significantly (p effectiveness of EBP education among RN-to-BSN students. These results may help health educators develop effective educational strategies to integrate EBP concepts into a clinical practicum. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Udvikling af dialogisk kompetence hos børn med CI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammeyer, Jesper Herup; Carstensen, Susanne; Karlshøj, Bente

    2011-01-01

    Der er relativ god viden om børn med CI’s sproglige udvikling, hvad angår sproglyde og ord. Derimod er der i den internationale forskning kun beskrevet meget lidt om den del af den sproglige udvikling, som ligger ud over sætningsniveauet. Denne artikel beskriver nogle af de resultater, der er...... fremkommet ved et fire år langt følgestudie af tre førskolebørn med CI. Børnenes sproglige udvikling er observeret og analyseret i forhold til dialogiske kompetencer. Resultaterne peger på, at børnene udvikler gode talesproglige kompetencer i løbet af den fireårige periode, men at børnene har brug for støtte...

  11. A 'delayed' counting method to determine indoor Rn-222 levels indirectly

    CERN Document Server

    Iannopollo, V; Trimarchi, M; Tripepi, M G; Vermiglio, G

    2001-01-01

    A new indirect and 'delayed' way is presented to determine indoor concentration of Rn-222 by best-fitting methods. If a rapid knowledge of Rn-222 levels is required and if a detection system is not available in situ, it is possible to obtain concentration of radioactive gas by determining of 'delayed' counts of Po-214. The 'delay' time consists of two or three hours. The method is based on the use of cellulose filters for particulate collection and on the analysis of samples by alpha spectroscopy. It is also possible to obtain concentrations of short-lived radon daughters Po-218, Pb-214, Bi-214, which are very important quantities in a medical framework.

  12. Commuting to work: RN travel time to employment in rural and urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Marie-Claire; Corcoran, Sean P; Kovner, Christine; Brewer, Carol

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the variation in average daily travel time to work among registered nurses (RNs) living in urban, suburban, and rural areas. We examine how travel time varies across RN characteristics, job setting, and availability of local employment opportunities. Descriptive statistics and linear regression using a 5% sample from the 2000 Census and a longitudinal survey of newly licensed RNs (NLRN). Travel time for NLRN respondents was estimated using geographic information systems (GIS) software. In the NLRN, rural nurses and those living in small towns had significantly longer average commute times. Young married RNs and RNs with children also tended to have longer commute times, as did RNs employed by hospitals. The findings indicate that travel time to work varies significantly across locale types. Further research is needed to understand whether and to what extent lengthy commute times impact RN workforce needs in rural and urban areas.

  13. Kan adoption hjælpe de glemte børn?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    2008-01-01

    Er adoption bedre end opvækst på en moderne døgninstitution eller hos en plejefamilie? I et velfærdssamfund som det danske med lang tradition for fokus på, hvordan det går de anbragte børn, er dette et centralt spørgsmål.......Er adoption bedre end opvækst på en moderne døgninstitution eller hos en plejefamilie? I et velfærdssamfund som det danske med lang tradition for fokus på, hvordan det går de anbragte børn, er dette et centralt spørgsmål....

  14. Intrinsic backgrounds from Rn and Kr in the XENON100 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aprile, E.; Anthony, M.; Perio, P. de; Gao, F.; Goetzke, L.W.; Greene, Z.; Lin, Q.; Plante, G.; Rizzo, A.; Zhang, Y.; Aalbers, J.; Breur, P.A.; Brown, A.; Colijn, A.P.; Decowski, M.P.; Hogenbirk, E.; Tiseni, A.; Agostini, F.; Alfonsi, M.; Geis, C.; Grignon, C.; Oberlack, U.; Scheibelhut, M.; Schindler, S.; Amaro, F.D.; Cardoso, J.M.R.; Lopes, J.A.M.; Santos, J.M.F. dos; Silva, M.; Arneodo, F.; Benabderrahmane, M.L.; Di Giovanni, A.; Maris, I.; Barrow, P.; Baudis, L.; Galloway, M.; Kazama, S.; Kessler, G.; Kish, A.; Mayani, D.; Pakarha, P.; Piastra, F.; Wulf, J.; Bauermeister, B.; Calven, J.; Conrad, J.; Ferella, A.D.; Moraa, K.; Pelssers, B.; Berger, T.; Brown, E.; Piro, M.C.; Bruenner, S.; Cichon, D.; Eurin, G.; Hasterok, C.; Lindner, M.; Marrodan Undagoitia, T.; Pizzella, V.; Rauch, L.; Rupp, N.; Schreiner, J.; Simgen, H.; Bruno, G.; Rosso, A.G.; Molinario, A.; Wang, Z.; Budnik, R.; Itay, R.; Landsman, H.; Lellouch, D.; Levinson, L.; Manfredini, A.; Priel, N.; Buetikofer, L.; Coderre, D.; Kaminsky, B.; Schumann, M.; Sivers, M. von; Cervantes, M.; Lang, R.F.; Masson, D.; Reichard, S.; Cussonneau, J.P.; Diglio, S.; Masbou, J.; Micheneau, K.; Persiani, R.; Thers, D.; Di Gangi, P.; Garbini, M.; Massoli, F.V.; Sartorelli, G.; Selvi, M.; Fei, J.; Lombardi, F.; Ni, K.; Ye, J.; Fieguth, A.; Murra, M.; Vargas, M.; Weinheimer, C.; Wittweg, C.; Fulgione, W.; Lindemann, S.; Messina, M.; Naganoma, J.; Shagin, P.; Pienaar, J.; Ramirez Garcia, D.; Reuter, C.; Lavina, L.S.; Stein, A.; Wang, H.; Trinchero, G.; Tunnell, C.; Weber, M.; Wei, Y.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the XENON100 data analyses used to assess the target-intrinsic background sources radon ( 222 Rn), thoron ( 220 Rn) and krypton ( 85 Kr). We detail the event selections of high-energy alpha particles and decay-specific delayed coincidences. We derive distributions of the individual radionuclides inside the detector and quantify their abundances during the main three science runs of the experiment over a period of ∝ 4 years, from January 2010 to January 2014. We compare our results to external measurements of radon emanation and krypton concentrations where we find good agreement. We report an observed reduction in concentrations of radon daughters that we attribute to the plating-out of charged ions on the negatively biased cathode. (orig.)

  15. RN Diabetes Virtual Case Management: A New Model for Providing Chronic Care Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nancy N; Carrara, Barbara E; Watts, Sharon A; Lucatorto, Michelle A

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. chronic disease health care system has substantial gaps in delivery of services. New models of care change traditional delivery of care and explore new settings for care. This article describes a new model of diabetes chronic care delivery: nurse-delivered care that includes protocol-based insulin titration and patient education delivered solely in a virtual environment. In phase 1, the clinical outcome of time to achievement of glycated hemoglobin (A(1C)) goals (P managed insulin titration protocol with individualized A(1C) goals had a significant (P Safety was demonstrated by the absence of hypoglycemia related to RN protocol adjustment. There were no admissions or emergency room (ER) visits for hypoglycemia. This study demonstrates safety and efficacy of RN virtual chronic disease management for an older population of patients with long-standing diabetes.

  16. Rn3D: A finite element code for simulating gas flow and radon transport in variably saturated, nonisothermal porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holford, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a user's manual for the Rn3D finite element code. Rn3D was developed to simulate gas flow and radon transport in variably saturated, nonisothermal porous media. The Rn3D model is applicable to a wide range of problems involving radon transport in soil because it can simulate either steady-state or transient flow and transport in one-, two- or three-dimensions (including radially symmetric two-dimensional problems). The porous materials may be heterogeneous and anisotropic. This manual describes all pertinent mathematics related to the governing, boundary, and constitutive equations of the model, as well as the development of the finite element equations used in the code. Instructions are given for constructing Rn3D input files and executing the code, as well as a description of all output files generated by the code. Five verification problems are given that test various aspects of code operation, complete with example input files, FORTRAN programs for the respective analytical solutions, and plots of model results. An example simulation is presented to illustrate the type of problem Rn3D is designed to solve. Finally, instructions are given on how to convert Rn3D to simulate systems other than radon, air, and water

  17. Equal Area Laws and Latent Heat for d-Dimensional RN-AdS Black Hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Meng-Sen; Zhao, Ren; Zhang, Li-Chun; Zhao, Hui-Hua

    2014-01-01

    We study the equal area laws of d-dimensional RN-AdS black hole. We choose two kinds of phase diagrams, P-V and T-S. We employ the equal area laws to find an isobar which is the real two-phase coexistence line. Our calculation is much simpler to derive the critical value of the thermodynamic quantities. According to the thermodynamic quantities, we also study the latent heat of the black hole

  18. Effect of source and environmental factors on Rn-222 air concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamoon, A.

    2005-01-01

    Rn-222(radon) air concentration depends on several factors. Some of the factors are source related and other factors are environmentally related. Because high levels of radon concentrations in air have potential health effects, it is important to study the impact of the various factors affecting radon air concentration. Laboratory scale investigations of the various factors affecting radon air concentration were carried out under controlled conditions that allow variation of the various variables

  19. Drænbehandling af recidiverende otitis media hos børn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lous, Jørgen; Trankjær, Christina Ryborg; Thomsen, Janus Laust

    2010-01-01

    I et nyligt publiceret Cochrane-review om effekten af indsættelse af trommehindedræn hos børn med recidiverende akut otitis media (RAOM) fandt man kun to studier, som opfyldte inklusionskriterierne. De inkluderede studier påviste en absolut risikoreduktion for at få AOM på 0,34 på seks måneder. Ved...

  20. Matérn's hard core models of types I and II with arbitrary compact grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiderlen, Markus; Hörig, Mario

    Matérn's classical hard core models can be interpreted as models obtained from a stationary marked Poisson process by dependent thinning. The marks are balls of fixed radius, and a point is retained when its associated ball does not hit any other balls (type I) or when its random birth time is st...... of this model with the process of intact grains of the dead leaves model and the Stienen model leads to analogous results for the latter....

  1. Skolestøtte til børn i familiepleje – Delrapport IV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Luna Kragh; Eiberg, Misja; Blomqvist, Emma Karolina

    2018-01-01

    Fra forskningen ved vi, at anbragte børn både har flere og mere alvorlige skoleproblemer end ikke-anbragte i forhold til indlæring, adfærd og sociale relationer, og at de ofte ikke kommer lige så langt i uddannelsessystemet som deres jævnaldrende. Derfor er der brug for ekstra skolestøtte til anb...

  2. Når børn lærer sprog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bleses, Dorthe; Højen, Anders

    Når børn lærer sprog, bryder de verdens måske mest komplicerede kode. De ligger lige så stille i vuggen eller sidder på bagsædet af bilen og lytter opmærksomt til de lyde der dannes når andre mennesker sender en luftstrøm forbi taleorganerne. Blot ved at analysere disse lyde udleder de hele sprog...

  3. Measurements of indoor 222RN activity in dwellings and workplaces of Curitiba (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrêa, Janine N.; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Del Claro, Flávia; Kappke, Jaqueline; Perna, Allan F.N.; Schelin, Hugo R.; Denyak, Valeriy

    2014-01-01

    The present work describes the results of systematic measurements of radon ( 222 Rn) in residential environments and workplaces in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba (Paraná State, Brazil) during the period 2004–2012. For radon in air activity measurements, polycarbonate Track Etch Detectors CR-39, mounted in diffusion chambers protected by borosilicate glass fiber filters, were used. After being exposed in air, the CR-39 detectors were submitted to a chemical etching in a 6.25 M NaOH solution at 70 °C for 14 h. The alpha particle tracks were identified and manually counted with an optical microscope, and with the results of previously performed calibrations, the indoor activity concentration of 222 Rn was calculated. The calibration of CR-39 and the alpha particle tracks chemical development procedures were performed in collaboration the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS, Japan). The major part of indoor 222 Rn concentration in residences was found to be below 100 Bq/m 3 . In the case of working places, all measurements of 222 Rn concentrations were below 100 Bq/m 3 . These values are considered within the limits set by international regulatory agencies, such as the US EPA and ICRP, which adopt up to 148 and 300 Bq/m 3 as upper values for the reference levels for radon gas activity in dwellings, respectively. The latest value of 300 Bq/m 3 for radon activity in air is proposed by ICRP considering the upper value for the individual dose reference level for radon exposure of 10 mSv/yr. - Highlights: • Radon activity in air of dwellings was measured. • Radon activity in air of workplaces was measured. • Obtained experimental results are compared with International Norms and Regulations

  4. Behaviour of charged collapsing fluids after hydrostatic equilibrium in R^n gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausar, Hafiza Rizwana

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the transport equation and its coupling with the Maxwell equation in the framework of R^n gravity. Using Müller-Israel-Stewart theory for the conduction of dissipative fluids, we analyze the temperature, heat flux, viscosity and thermal conductivity in the scenario of relaxation time. All these thermodynamical variables appear in the form of a single factor whose influence is discussed on the evolution of relativistic model for the heat conducting collapsing star.

  5. Diffusion of a nursing education innovation: nursing workforce development through promotion of RN/BSN education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Swearingen, Connie; Clarke, Pamela N; Gatua, Mary Wairimu; Sumner, Christa Cooper

    2013-01-01

    Despite state, national, and organizational objectives to increase the proportion of nurses with a bachelor's degree or higher, a majority of nurses hold an associate's degree in nursing. To address the need for a better-prepared nursing workforce in this rural state, an RN/BSN recruitment and retention project was implemented. The authors discuss the Leadership Education to Advance Practice project and its outcomes.

  6. Volume activity of 222Rn in the atmosphere of the nearby localities with the different orography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulko, M.; Holy, K.; Polaskova, A.; Simon, J.; Hola, O.

    2006-01-01

    The monitoring of the volume activity of 222 Rn in the outdoor atmosphere was carried out in two areas - on the Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University (FMPI CU) and on the Slovak Metrological Institute (SMI) in Bratislava. The most significant differences were found out in the average daily courses of the 222 Rn volume activity for summer months, which show the different amplitudes and a relative displacement of a couple of hours. A possible reason for this can be that while on the FMPI CU there the solar radiation flux is not shielded by the terrain obstacles, the SMI measurement area is exposed to the solar radiation due to the shielding of the hills from the west only until 3 p.m. in summer and until 12 a.m. in winter. This produces the conditions for an earlier decrease of an intensity of the vertical exchange processes and therefore an earlier increase of the radon volume activity in 'SMI air', always in a couple of hours earlier than a similar observed increase in F MPI CU air . The daily course analysis also showed that the equivalent mixing height in the SMI area is about 30% lower than that one in the FMPI CU area. The analyses presented in this paper show that the daily courses of the 222 Rn volume activity can differ significantly even for two nearby areas with the different orography and that 222 Rn concentration is sensitive to these differences. It was also found out that if the long-term radon data should be collected in order to obtain the representative data for a larger area, an adequate attention should be paid to the selection of the measurement area. (authors)

  7. Eesti Disaini muna BRUNO said Martin Pärn ja Annike Laigo / Urve Eslas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eslas, Urve

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Disainerite Liidu auhinnad parima tootedisaini ja parima disainiprojekti eest pälvisid Martin Pärn büroomööbli seeria "Krog" eest ning Annike Laigo isehelenduva vaiba "Jaaniuss" eest. Samal teemal ka lk. 1 "Büroomööbel ja helendav vaip võitsid disaini-BRUNO". Eesti Disaini auhinna nominentide näitus on avatud Disaini- ja Arhitektuurigaleriis

  8. Operational implications and proposed infrastructure changes for NAS integration of remotely piloted aircraft (RPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The intent of this report is to provide (1) an initial assessment of National Airspace System (NAS) infrastructure affected by continuing development and deployment of unmanned aircraft systems into the NAS, and (2) a description of process challenge...

  9. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project FY17 Annual Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakahara, Robert; Hackenberg, Davis; Johnson, William

    2017-01-01

    This presentation was presented to the Integrated Aviation Systems Program at the FY17 Annual Review of the UAS-NAS project. The presentation captures the overview of the work completed by the UAS-NAS project and its subprojects.

  10. Auto-Suggest Capability via Machine Learning in SMART NAS, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We build machine learning capabilities that enables the Shadow Mode Assessment using Realistic Technologies for the NAS (SMART NAS) system to synthesize, optimize,...

  11. Qualidade nutricional de cenoura e alface cultivadas em Mossoró-RN em função da densidade populacional Nutritional quality of carrot and lettuce grown in Mossoró-RN, Brazil, as affected by plant densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Bezerra Neto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado durante o período de junho a setembro de 2003, na área experimental do departamento de Ciências Vegetais da Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido (UFERSA, em Mossoró-RN, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de densidades populacionais de cenoura e de alface, em segundo, cultivo na qualidade nutricional desses cultivos em sistema de consorciação em faixa. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial 4 x 4, com três repetições. As populações de referência para o cultivo solteiro (PRCS foram de 500.000 plantas.ha-1 para a cenoura e de 250.000 plantas.ha-1 para a alface, que corresponderam à densidade populacional de 100%. Os tratamentos foram resultantes da combinação de quatro populações de cenoura (40%, 60%, 80% e 100% da PRCS com quatro populações de alface (40%, 60%, 80% e 100% da PRCS. As características avaliadas nas raízes da cenoura foram firmeza, conteúdo de vitamina C, carotenóides totais e beta-caroteno, e nas folhas da alface firmeza, conteúdo de vitamina C, carotenóides totais e clorofila total. Foram utilizadas a cv Brasília (cenoura e a cv. Tainá (alface. As associações de densidades populacionais de cenoura e alface não afetaram qualquer característica de ambas as culturas. Porém, as densidades populacionais da cenoura influenciaram as características da cenoura, e as densidades de alface afetaram as características da folha de alface. A firmeza, conteúdo de vitamina C e de beta-caroteno nas raízes da cenoura diminuíram com o aumento da densidade deste cultivo, enquanto que o conteúdo de carotenóides totais aumentou com o incremento na densidade populacional desta cultura. Mesmo comportamento decrescente também foi observado no conteúdo de vitamina C, carotenóides totais e de clorofila total nas folhas de alface com o aumento da densidade populacional de alface.The experiment was carried

  12. Measurement uncertainties of long-term 222Rn averages at environmental levels using alpha track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    More than 250 replicate measurements of outdoor Rn concentration integrated over quarterly periods were made to estimate the random component of the measurement uncertainty of Track Etch detectors (type F) under outdoor conditions. The measurements were performed around three U mill tailings piles to provide a range of environmental concentrations. The measurement uncertainty was typically greater than could be accounted for by Poisson counting statistics. Average coefficients of variation of the order of 20% for all measured concentrations were found. It is concluded that alpha track detectors can be successfully used to determine annual average outdoor Rn concentrations through the use of careful quality control procedures. These include rapid deployment and collection of detectors to minimize unintended Rn exposure, careful packaging and shipping to and from the manufacturer, use of direct sunlight shields for all detectors and careful and secure mounting of all detectors in as similar a manner as possible. The use of multiple (at least duplicate) detectors at each monitoring location and an exposure period of no less than one quarter are suggested

  13. Seasonal variations of 222Rn and SGD fluxes to Ubatuba embayments, Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, J.; Costa, P.; Braga, E.S.

    2006-01-01

    We describe here an application of excess 222 Rn to estimate submarine groundwater discharge in a series of small embayments of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Excess 222 Rn inventories obtained in 11 vertical profiles varied from (3.3±1.1) x 10 3 to (19±5) x 10 3 dpm x m -2 . The estimated total fluxes required to support the inventories varied from (0.6±0.2) x 10 3 to (3.4±0.9) x 10 3 dpm x m -2 x d -1 . Considering these results, the submarine groundwater discharge advective rates necessary to balance the sub-pycnocline fluxes calculated in Ubatuba embayments ranged from 0.06 to 1.9 cm x d -1 . During the period of this investigation (from March/03 to May/2004), the highest 222 Rn in excess inventories were observed late in the summer season (March). Taking into account all vertical profiles established, the relative variability was 67%. Although, if we consider only the fluxes determined in both Flamengo and Fortaleza embayments, the relative variation was 21%. (author)

  14. Prediction of 222 Rn exhalation rates from phosphogypsum based stacks. Part I: parametric mathematical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabi, Jose A.; Mohamad, Abdulmajeed A.

    2004-01-01

    Radon-222 is a radionuclide exhaled from phosphogypsum by-produced at phosphate fertilizer industries. Alternative large-scale application of this waste may indicate a material substitute for civil engineering provided that environmental issues concerning its disposal and management are overcome. The first part of this paper outlines a steady-state two-dimensional model for 222 Rn transport through porous media, inside which emanation (source term) and decay (sink term) exist. Boussinesq approach is evoked for the laminar buoyancy-driven interstitial air flow, which is also modeled according to Darcy-Brinkman formulation. In order to account for simultaneous effects of entailed physical parameters, governing equations are cast into dimensionless form. Apart from usual controlling parameters like Reynolds, Prandtl, Schmidt, Grashof and Darcy numbers, three unconventional dimensionless groups are put forward. Having in mind 222 Rn transport in phosphogypsum-bearing porous media, the physical meaning of those newly introduced parameters and representative values for the involved physical parameters are presented. A limiting diffusion-dominated scenario is addressed, for which an analytical solution is deduced for boundary conditions including an impermeable phosphogypsum stack base and a non-zero fixed concentration activity at the stack top. Accordingly, an expression for the average Sherwood number corresponding to the normalized 222 Rn exhalation rate is presented

  15. RN-to-BSN Students' Quality Improvement Knowledge, Skills, Confidence, and Systems Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Peggy; Dolansky, Mary A; DeBrew, Jacqueline Kayler; Petty, Gayle M

    2017-12-01

    Little evidence demonstrates that RN-to-baccalaureate nursing (BSN) graduates have met The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice-specifically, evidence of the graduates' organizational and systems leadership related to quality care and patient safety. This BSN Essentials reflects the QSEN quality improvement (QI) competency. The purpose of this pilot study was to develop and test an assessment strategy to measure RN-to BSN students' QI competence and their perception of QI knowledge and skills. Students (N = 59) from six RN-to-BSN programs participated in a Qualtrics survey e-mailed during the last semester of their program. The majority of students (60%) reported that they did not experience QI content in their program. Scores on QI knowledge, skills, and systems thinking were low, yet the students self-reported that they were confident in their ability to perform QI. This pilot study provides an assessment strategy to measure students' competence related to QI. Nursing education has an opportunity to integrate and measure QI competence to ensure that nurses have the knowledge and skills to continually improve patient care. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(12):737-740.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Mr Bjørn Haugstad, State Secretary, Ministry of Education and Research, Norway

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Photos 01,02: Mr Bjørn Haugstad, State Secretary, Ministry of Education and Research, Norway signing the guest book; standing, Dr Carlo Wyss Photo 03: Luncheon in honour of Mr Bjørn Haugstad, State Secretary, Ministry of Education and Research, Norway, April 2003. Around the table, from left to right: State Secretary Haugstad (standing); Prof. Cecilia Jarlskog, Adviser to the Director-General for Member State Relations; Mr Morten Knutsen, CERN staff - Purchase; Mr Jens Vigen, CERN staff, Library and Norwegian Contact; Prof. Steinar Stapnes, Prof. Univ. of Oslo and Physicist in the ATLAS experiment (in profile), Dr Carlo Wyss, Director for Accelerators (standing), Dr Leif Westgaard, Senior Adviser, Research Council of Norway, CERN Delegate. Photo 04: Luncheon in honour of Mr Bjørn Haugstad, State Secretary, Ministry of Education and Research, Norway, April 2003. Around the table, from left to right: State Secretary Haugstad (standing); Mr Jens Vigen, CERN staff, Library and Norwegian Contact; Prof. Steinar ...

  17. A class of Matérn-like covariance functions for smooth processes on a sphere

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Jaehong

    2015-02-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. There have been noticeable advancements in developing parametric covariance models for spatial and spatio-temporal data with various applications to environmental problems. However, literature on covariance models for processes defined on the surface of a sphere with great circle distance as a distance metric is still sparse, due to its mathematical difficulties. It is known that the popular Matérn covariance function, with smoothness parameter greater than 0.5, is not valid for processes on the surface of a sphere with great circle distance. We introduce an approach to produce Matérn-like covariance functions for smooth processes on the surface of a sphere that are valid with great circle distance. The resulting model is isotropic and positive definite on the surface of a sphere with great circle distance, with a natural extension for nonstationarity case. We present extensive numerical comparisons of our model, with a Matérn covariance model using great circle distance as well as chordal distance. We apply our new covariance model class to sea level pressure data, known to be smooth compared to other climate variables, from the CMIP5 climate model outputs.

  18. Prediction of 222 Rn exhalation rates from phosphogypsum based stacks. Part II: preliminary numerical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabi, Jose A.; Mohamad, Abdulmajeed A.

    2004-01-01

    The first part of this paper proposes a steady-state 2-D model for 222 Rn transport in phosphogypsum stacks. In this second part, the dimensionless model equations are solved numerically with the help of an existing finite-volume simulator that has been successfully used to solve heat and mass transfer problems in porous media. As a test case, a rectangular shaped stack is considered in order to verify the ability of the proposed parametric approach to account for concurrent effects on the 222 Rn exhalation into the local atmosphere. Air flow is supposed to be strictly buoyancy driven and the ground is assumed to be impermeable to 222 Rn and at a higher temperature under the stack base. Dimensionless controlling parameters are set to representative values and results are presented for Grashof number in the range 10 6 ≤Gr≤ 10 8 , corresponding to very small to small temperature differences between incoming air and ground underneath the stack base. For the particular set of parameters and inasmuch as Gr increases, streamlines presented basically the same pattern while internal isotherms and iso concentration lines remained almost unchanged. Total average Sherwood number proved to be rather insensitive to Gr while total average Nusselt increased slightly with Gr. (author)

  19. A class of Matérn-like covariance functions for smooth processes on a sphere

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Jaehong; Jun, Mikyoung

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. There have been noticeable advancements in developing parametric covariance models for spatial and spatio-temporal data with various applications to environmental problems. However, literature on covariance models for processes defined on the surface of a sphere with great circle distance as a distance metric is still sparse, due to its mathematical difficulties. It is known that the popular Matérn covariance function, with smoothness parameter greater than 0.5, is not valid for processes on the surface of a sphere with great circle distance. We introduce an approach to produce Matérn-like covariance functions for smooth processes on the surface of a sphere that are valid with great circle distance. The resulting model is isotropic and positive definite on the surface of a sphere with great circle distance, with a natural extension for nonstationarity case. We present extensive numerical comparisons of our model, with a Matérn covariance model using great circle distance as well as chordal distance. We apply our new covariance model class to sea level pressure data, known to be smooth compared to other climate variables, from the CMIP5 climate model outputs.

  20. Adult student satisfaction in an accelerated RN-to-BSN program: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylston, Mary T; Jackson, Christina

    2008-01-01

    This mixed-method study revealed accelerated RN-to-BSN (bachelor of science in nursing) students' levels of satisfaction with a wide range of college services in a small university. Building on seminal research on the topic [Boylston, M. T., Peters, M. A., & Lacey, M. (2004). Adult student satisfaction in traditional and accelerated RN-to-BSN programs. Journal of Professional Nursing, 20, 23-32.], the Noel-Levitz Adult Student Priorities Survey (ASPS) and qualitative interview data revealed primary factors involved in nontraditional (adult) accelerated RN-to-BSN student satisfaction. The ASPS assesses both satisfaction with and importance of the following factors: academic advising effectiveness, academic services, admissions and financial aid effectiveness, campus climate, instructional effectiveness, registration effectiveness, safety and security, and service excellence. Of these factors, participants considered instructional effectiveness and academic advising effectiveness as most important and concomitantly gave high satisfaction ratings to each. In contrast, convenience of the bookstore, counseling services, vending machines, and computer laboratories were given low importance ratings. The participants cited convenience as a strong marketing factor. Loss of financial aid or family crisis was given as a reason for withdrawal and, for most students, would be the only reason for not completing the BSN program. Outcomes of this investigation may guide faculty, staff, and administrators in proactively creating an educational environment in which a nontraditional student can succeed.

  1. Determination of {sup 222}Rn in groundwater - Recent applications for the investigation of river bank infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freyer, K.; Treutler, H.C. [Leipzig-Halle Ltd, Permoserstr, Leipzig (Germany). Centre for Environmental Research; Dehnert, J.; Nestler, W. [Hochschule fuer Technik und Wirtschaft Dresrden, Dresden (Germany)

    1997-10-01

    With a half life of 3.8 days, the {sup 222}Rn found in all groundwater makes an excellent tracer for solving several problems in the field of environmental research and hydrology. In Germany alluvial aquifers connected to rivers are used for drinking water extraction. Consequently importance is attached to studying the exchange processes between surface water and groundwater in order to determine infiltration velocities and infiltrate retention times in the aquifer. However, such investigations require a reliable, reproducible method for determining radon activity concentrations in groundwater samples, as well as a suitable sampling technique. This paper reports on just such a method, containing detailed instructions for sampling, transportation and activity determination using liquid scintillation spectrometry following toluene extraction. Spectral analysis and {alpha}/{beta} separation improve the accuracy of measurement. The detection limit is about 0.05 Bq/1; the total error is <{+-}10%. Infiltration processes are studied with {sup 222}Rn by employing the effect that surface water infiltrating an aquifer absorbs {sup 222}Rn along the infiltration pathway. As the degree of uptake is a function of the retention time, flow paths and flow velocities can all be determined by measuring the radon activity concentrations at the various groundwater gauging stations along measuring profiles. Corresponding investigations were carried out into a pleistocene aquifer below the River Elbe near a waterworks extracting bank-filtered water. The findings are presented and the technique`s possibilities and limitations are discussed 12 refs., 3 figs.

  2. [Aquatic Ecological Index based on freshwater (ICE(RN-MAE)) for the Rio Negro watershed, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero, Laura Cristina; Longo, Magnolia; John Jairo, Ramirez; Guillermo, Chalar

    2014-04-01

    Aquatic Ecological Index based on freshwater (ICE(RN-MAE)) for the Rio Negro watershed, Colombia. Available indices to assess the ecological status of rivers in Colombia are mostly based on subjective hypotheses about macroinvertebrate tolerance to pollution, which have important limitations. Here we present the application of a method to establish an index of ecological quality for lotic systems in Colombia. The index, based on macroinvertebrate abundance and physicochemical variables, was developed as an alternative to the BMWP-Col index. The method consists on determining an environmental gradient from correlations between physicochemical variables and abundance. The scores obtained in each sampling point are used in a standardized correlation for a model of weighted averages (WA). In the WA model abundances are also weighted to estimate the optimum and tolerance values of each taxon; using this information we estimated the index of ecological quality based also on macroinvertebrate (ICE(RN-MAE)) abundance in each sampling site. Subsequently, we classified all sites using the index and concentrations of total phosphorus (TP) in a cluster analysis. Using TP and ICE(RN-MAE), mean, maximum, minimum and standard deviation, we defined threshold values corresponding to three categories of ecological status: good, fair and critical.

  3. Radon transport modelling: User's guide to RnMod3d

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, C.E.

    2000-08-01

    RnMod3d is a numerical computer model of soil-gas and radon transport in porous media. It can be used, for example, to study radon entry from soil into houses in response to indoor-outdoor pressure differences or changes in atmospheric pressure. It can also be used for flux calculations of radon from the soil surface or to model radon exhalation from building materials such as concrete. The finite-volume model is a technical research tool, and it cannot be used meaningfully without good understanding of the involved physical equations. Some understanding of numerical mathematics and the programming language Pascal is also required. Originally, the code was developed for internal use at Risoe only. With this guide, however, it should be possible for others to use the model. Three-dimensional steady-state or transient problems with Darcy flow of soil gas and combined generation, radioactive decay, diffusion and advection of radon can be solved. Moisture is included in the model, and partitioning of radon between air, water and soil grains (adsorption) is taken into account. Most parameters can change in time and space, and transport parameters (diffusivity and permeability) may be anisotropic. This guide includes benchmark tests based on simple problems with known solutions. RnMod3d has also been part of an international model intercomparison exercise based on more complicated problems without known solutions. All tests show that RnMod3d gives results of good quality. (au)

  4. Radon transport modelling: User's guide to RnMod3d

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, C.E

    2000-08-01

    RnMod3d is a numerical computer model of soil-gas and radon transport in porous media. It can be used, for example, to study radon entry from soil into houses in response to indoor-outdoor pressure differences or changes in atmospheric pressure. It can also be used for flux calculations of radon from the soil surface or to model radon exhalation from building materials such as concrete. The finite-volume model is a technical research tool, and it cannot be used meaningfully without good understanding of the involved physical equations. Some understanding of numerical mathematics and the programming language Pascal is also required. Originally, the code was developed for internal use at Risoe only. With this guide, however, it should be possible for others to use the model. Three-dimensional steady-state or transient problems with Darcy flow of soil gas and combined generation, radioactive decay, diffusion and advection of radon can be solved. Moisture is included in the model, and partitioning of radon between air, water and soil grains (adsorption) is taken into account. Most parameters can change in time and space, and transport parameters (diffusivity and permeability) may be anisotropic. This guide includes benchmark tests based on simple problems with known solutions. RnMod3d has also been part of an international model intercomparison exercise based on more complicated problems without known solutions. All tests show that RnMod3d gives results of good quality. (au)

  5. Nurses' impact on quality of care: lessons from RN4CAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Sermeus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The RN4CAST - study (acronym for Nurse Forecasting in Europe was launched in 2009 and ended in 2011 under the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme. The aim of the RN4CAST-study was to study how features of work environments and qualifications of the nurse workforce impact nurse retention, burnout among nurses and patient outcomes. Methods: The study was conducted in twelve European countries and was conducting a cross-sectional survey in 500 hospitals in which more than 33,000 nurses and more than 11,000 patients were involved. These data were linked to patient outcome data from administrative databases. Results: The study showed that patient outcomes such as patient mortality and patient satisfaction is highly related to nurse staffing characteristics such as patient-to-nurse ratios, nurse qualification and nursing work environment. Also nurse outcomes such as burnout, intention-to-leave, job satisfaction are related to staffing adequacy and nursing work environment. Discussion and conclusion: The RN4CAST study generated a large evidence base of nurse workforce issues across European health systems which is quite unique in terms of the number and qualification of nursing staff, the quality of working environments, burnout rates, job satisfaction rates, intention-to-leave rates that can be used for policy making.

  6. Use of 222Rn-resistant techniques in new home construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, J.E. Jr.; Cote, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project was to assess the status of the use of 222 Rn-resistant construction techniques in new home construction in the eight Zone 1 counties of North Carolina. Zone 1 counties have an average predicted indoor 222 Rn screening potential greater than 148 Bq m -3 (4 pCi L -1 ). To facilitate a response from builders, a brief survey form was designed and printed on the back of a self-addressed, postage-paid postcard. This survey form was mailed to 460 home builders in the Zone 1 counties. The response rate was 17%, which can be compared to the 4.9% response rate obtained in a national survey conducted by the National Association of Home Builders Research Center. In their survey, 62% of the responding builders reported that they had built some or many homes in 1996 using construction techniques to reduce the entry of radon into homes, but only 10% of the builders reported using these techniques for many homes. The National Association of Home Builders survey determined that, nationally, 30% of homes built in Zone 1 counties had 222 Rn venting features. There is the potential for bias in the results of their survey (as well as in the results of the National Association of Home Builders survey) since the response rates were low

  7. Determination of 222Rn in groundwater - Recent applications for the investigation of river bank infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyer, K.; Treutler, H.C.

    1997-01-01

    With a half life of 3.8 days, the 222 Rn found in all groundwater makes an excellent tracer for solving several problems in the field of environmental research and hydrology. In Germany alluvial aquifers connected to rivers are used for drinking water extraction. Consequently importance is attached to studying the exchange processes between surface water and groundwater in order to determine infiltration velocities and infiltrate retention times in the aquifer. However, such investigations require a reliable, reproducible method for determining radon activity concentrations in groundwater samples, as well as a suitable sampling technique. This paper reports on just such a method, containing detailed instructions for sampling, transportation and activity determination using liquid scintillation spectrometry following toluene extraction. Spectral analysis and α/β separation improve the accuracy of measurement. The detection limit is about 0.05 Bq/1; the total error is 222 Rn by employing the effect that surface water infiltrating an aquifer absorbs 222 Rn along the infiltration pathway. As the degree of uptake is a function of the retention time, flow paths and flow velocities can all be determined by measuring the radon activity concentrations at the various groundwater gauging stations along measuring profiles. Corresponding investigations were carried out into a pleistocene aquifer below the River Elbe near a waterworks extracting bank-filtered water. The findings are presented and the technique's possibilities and limitations are discussed

  8. Música: uma imgagem sonora nas comunidades eclesiais de base

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Barroso da Rocha

    2012-01-01

    Esta dissertação tem o propósito de analisar a função social da música nas CEBs (Comunidades Eclesiais de Base), que possui bases bíblicas e está presente nos dias atuais. A primeira parte trata da função social da música na Bíblia chegando até os dias atuais com uma breve narrativa da história da música ocidental. A segunda parte aborda a música nas CEBs e a Teologia da Libertação como parte importante do contexto musical, onde os ideais da Teologia de Libertação são divulgados pela música; ...

  9. NASA UAS Integration into the NAS Project: Human Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Jay

    2016-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the work the Human Systems Integration (HSI) sub-project has done on detect and avoid (DAA) displays while working on the UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) Integration into the NAS project. The most recent simulation on DAA interoperability with Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) is discussed in the most detail. The relationship of the work to the larger UAS community and next steps are also detailed.

  10. Deficiencia combinada de proteínas c y s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaneth Zamora-González

    Full Text Available Las trombofilias son un grupo de enfermedades que favorecen la formación de trombosis, tanto arteriales como venosas, que han sido asociadas con diferentes complicaciones durante el embarazo, como: aborto recurrente, preclampsia, crecimiento intrauterino retardado y muerte fetal intraútero, entre otras. La deficiencia congénita o adquirida de proteínas de la coagulación, como las proteínas C y S, se asocia con eventos trombóticos antes de los 30 o 40 años. La trombosis venosa profunda es considerada la manifestación clínica más frecuente, aunque también puede verse asociada con enfermedad cerebro vascular, pérdidas recurrentes de embarazos y otros estados isquémicos. En la actualidad, las enfermedades trombóticas constituyen una de las primeras causas de fallecimiento en el mundo; la morbimortalidad anual por trombosis, ya sea arterial o venosa, es de aproximadamente dos millones de personas. Presentamos un caso con antecedentes de pérdidas recurrentes de embarazos y trombosis venosa profunda en miembros inferiores con deficiencia combinada de proteínas C y S.

  11. The Central and Eastern European Earthquake Research Network - CE3RN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragato, Pier Luigi; Costa, Giovanni; Gallo, Antonella; Gosar, Andrej; Horn, Nikolaus; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Mucciarelli, Marco; Pesaresi, Damiano; Steiner, Rudolf; Suhadolc, Peter; Tiberi, Lara; Živčić, Mladen; Zoppé, Giuliana

    2014-05-01

    The region of the Central and Eastern Europe is an area characterised by a relatively high seismicity. The active seismogenic structures and the related potentially destructive events are located in the proximity of the political boundaries between several countries existing in the area. An example is the seismic region between the NE Italy (FVG, Trentino-Alto Adige and Veneto), Austria (Tyrol, Carinthia) and Slovenia. So when a destructive earthquake occurs in the area, all the three countries are involved. In the year 2001 the Agencija Republike Slovenije za Okolje (ARSO) in Slovenia, the Department of Mathematics and Geoscience of the University of Trieste (DMG), the OGS (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale) in Italy and the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG) in Austria signed an agreement for the real-time seismological data exchange in the Southeastern Alps region. Soon after the Interreg IIIa Italia-Austria projects "Trans-National Seismological Networks in the South-Eastern Alps" and "FASTLINK" started. The main goal of these projects was the creation of a transfrontier network for the common seismic monitoring of the region for scientific and civil defense purposes. During these years the high quality data recorded by the transfrontier network has been used, by the involved institutions, for their scientific research, for institutional activities and for the civil defense services. Several common international projects have been realized with success. The instrumentation has been continuously upgraded, the installations quality improved as well as the data transmission efficiency. In the 2013 ARSO, DMG, OGS and ZAMG decided to name the cooperative network "Central and Eastern European Earthquake Research Network - CE3RN". The national/regional seismic networks actually involved in the CE3RN network are: • Austrian national BB network (ZAMG - OE) • Friuli Veneto SP network (OGS - FV) • Friuli VG

  12. The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) binds independently to both sites of the IgG homodimer with identical affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdiche, Yasmina Noubia; Yeung, Yik Andy; Chaparro-Riggers, Javier; Barman, Ishita; Strop, Pavel; Chin, Sherman Michael; Pham, Amber; Bolton, Gary; McDonough, Dan; Lindquist, Kevin; Pons, Jaume; Rajpal, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is expressed by cells of epithelial, endothelial and myeloid lineages and performs multiple roles in adaptive immunity. Characterizing the FcRn/IgG interaction is fundamental to designing therapeutic antibodies because IgGs with moderately increased binding affinities for FcRn exhibit superior serum half-lives and efficacy. It has been hypothesized that 2 FcRn molecules bind an IgG homodimer with disparate affinities, yet their affinity constants are inconsistent across the literature. Using surface plasmon resonance biosensor assays that eliminated confounding experimental artifacts, we present data supporting an alternate hypothesis: 2 FcRn molecules saturate an IgG homodimer with identical affinities at independent sites, consistent with the symmetrical arrangement of the FcRn/Fc complex observed in the crystal structure published by Burmeister et al. in 1994. We find that human FcRn binds human IgG1 with an equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) of 760 ± 60 nM (N = 14) at 25°C and pH 5.8, and shows less than 25% variation across the other human subtypes. Human IgG1 binds cynomolgus monkey FcRn with a 2-fold higher affinity than human FcRn, and binds both mouse and rat FcRn with a 10-fold higher affinity than human FcRn. FcRn/IgG interactions from multiple species show less than a 2-fold weaker affinity at 37°C than at 25°C and appear independent of an IgG's variable region. Our in vivo data in mouse and rat models demonstrate that both affinity and avidity influence an IgG's serum half-life, which should be considered when choosing animals, especially transgenic systems, as surrogates.

  13. LEVANTAMENTO DE AUTOS DE INFRAÇÃO PELO IBAMA/RN RELACIONADOS AOS EMPREENDIMENTOS DE CERÂMICA NO ESTADO DO RIO GRANDE DO NORTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sângela Ramos de Souza

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A produção brasileira de cerâmica continua em seu processo de expansão. O tamanho do mercado nordestino e os custos de transportes associados ao baixo valor agregado dos revestimentos cerâmicos estimularam um movimento de desconcentração regional da produção, uma vez que a implantação de unidades produtivas no Nordeste passou a fazer parte da estratégia competitiva de algumas empresas. O presente trabalho busca mostrar os principais autos de infração relacionados aos empreendimentos de Cerâmica no Estado do Rio Grande do Norte pelo Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Renováveis do RN - IBAMA/RN, órgão ambiental fiscalizador no Estado, no período de 01/01/2002 a 04/10/2005. O levantamento de dados foi realizado através do acesso a Sistemas operados pelo IBAMA/RN, que informou o número de indústrias cadastradas no Rio Grande do Norte, o número de infrações, entre outras. Foram verificadas 140 indústrias cadastradas no Estado, distribuídas em 24 municípios. O alto número de indústrias do setor pode ser decorrente da centralização da atividade como alternativa econômica visto que a região apresenta condições ambientais que prejudicam seu potencial produtivo. O levantamento dos dados revelou que as principais infrações eram receber, armazenar ou transportar produto florestal sem cobertura de ATPF (Autorização de Transporte de Produtos Florestais e funcionar sem prévio registro no IBAMA. A atuação dos órgãos governamentais foi constatada como de fundamental importância para a diminuição do número de autos de infração das indústrias de cerâmica, referente ao período avaliado. A substituição da matriz energética, nas indústrias de cerâmica, de lenha para gás natural é a alternativa ideal no combate à poluição e de outras formas impactantes. Parece haver um direcionamento dos empreendedores, buscando um desenvolvimento sustentável, ainda que seja na intenção de obterem

  14. Comparison of the quantulus 1220 and 300SL liquid scintillation counters for the analysis of {sup 222}Rn in groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Cheol; Jung, Yoon Hee; Lee, Wanno; Choi, Guen Sik; Chung, Kun Ho; Kang, Mun Ja [Environmental Radioactivity Assessment Team, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Liquid scintillation counters (LSCs) are commonly used as an analytical method for detecting {sup 222}Rn in groundwater because they involve a simple sample pretreatment and allow high throughout with an autosampler. The Quantulus 1220 is the best-selling LSC in Korea, but its production was stopped. Recently, a new type of LSC, the 300SL, was introduced. In this study, the 300SL was compared with the Quantulus 1220 in order to evaluate the ability of each apparatus to detect {sup 222}Rn in groundwater. The Quantulus 1220 and 300SL were used to detect the presence of {sup 222}Rn. Radon gas was extracted from a groundwater sample using a water-immiscible cocktail in a LSC vial. The optimal analytical conditions for each LSC were determined using a {sup 222}Rn calibration source prepared with a {sup 226}Ra source. The optimal pulse shape analysis level for alpha and beta separation was 80 for the Quantulus 1220, and the corresponding pulse length index was 12 in the 300SL. The counting efficiency of the Quantulus 1220 for alpha emissions was similar to that of the 300SL, but the background count rate of the Quantulus 1220 was 10 times lower than that of the 300SL. The minimum detectable activity of the Quantulus 1220 was 0.08 Bq·L{sup -,} while that of the 300SL was 0.20 Bq·L{sup -1}. The analytical results regarding {sup 222}Rn in groundwater were less than 10% different between these LSCs. The 300SL is an LSC that is comparable to the Quantulus 1220 for detecting {sup 222}Rn in groundwater. Both LSCs can be applied to determine the levels of {sup 222}Rn in groundwater under the management of the Ministry of Environment.

  15. Human IgG lacking effector functions demonstrate lower FcRn-binding and reduced transplacental transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Nigel M; Armstrong-Fisher, Sylvia S; Andersen, Jan Terje; van der Schoot, C Ellen; Porter, Charlene; Page, Kenneth R; Falconer, Donald; de Haas, Masja; Williamson, Lorna M; Clark, Michael R; Vidarsson, Gestur; Armour, Kathryn L

    2018-03-01

    We have previously generated human IgG1 antibodies that were engineered for reduced binding to the classical Fcγ receptors (FcγRI-III) and C1q, thereby eliminating their destructive effector functions (constant region G1Δnab). In their potential use as blocking agents, favorable binding to the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is important to preserve the long half-life typical of IgG. An ability to cross the placenta, which is also mediated, at least in part, by FcRn is desirable in some indications, such as feto-maternal alloimmune disorders. Here, we show that G1Δnab mutants retain pH-dependent binding to human FcRn but that the amino acid alterations reduce the affinity of the IgG1:FcRn interaction by 2.0-fold and 1.6-fold for the two antibodies investigated. The transport of the modified G1Δnab mutants across monolayers of human cell lines expressing FcRn was approximately 75% of the wild-type, except that no difference was observed with human umbilical vein endothelial cells. G1Δnab mutation also reduced transport in an ex vivo placenta model. In conclusion, we demonstrate that, although the G1Δnab mutations are away from the FcRn-binding site, they have long-distance effects, modulating FcRn binding and transcellular transport. Our findings have implications for the design of therapeutic human IgG with tailored effector functions. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Model equations for Calculating Rn-gas Concentrations in Air of Uranium Exploratory Tunnels, Allouga, West-Central Sinai , Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Monem, A.A.; Soliman, S.F.H.; Abd El-Kader, F.H.; El-Naggar, A.M.; Eissa, H.M.; Abd El-Hafez, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Gabal Allouga area is located some 40 km due east from Abu Zenima town on the east coast of the Gulf of Suez, West-Central Sinai, Egypt. A network of exploratory tunnels totaling 670m in length and approximately 2x2 m in cross section, were excavated within a paleosol clayey bed. They host (Fe, Mn)-, Cu-, and U-mineralizations. Portions of the tunnels are naturally ventilated and others portions are non-ventilated and show ground water seepage through fractures. Model equations were developed for calculating the Rn-gas concentrations in the air of the tunnels under dry conditions where Rn-gas transport is mainly by air flow through porous media as well as for wet conditions where Rn-gas transport is mainly by ground water flow into the tunnels. Under dry conditions the model calculated Rn-gas concentrations(15.2-60.6 PCi/1) are consistent with measured values by active techniques (3.26-22.85 pCi/1) and by SSNTD techniques (19-69.1 pCi/1) when the Rn-emanation coefficient (alpha= 0.05-0.2), the emanating rock thickness (X=10 cm) and U-concentration averages 30 ppm. Under wet and non-ventilated conditions the model calculated Rn-gas concentrations (159-1248 pCi/1) are consistent with the measured values by active techniques (231-1348 pCi/1) and by SSNTD techniques (144-999pCi/1), when the Rn-emanation coefficient (alpha=0.1-0.25), the ground water flow (F=0.04-0.10 ml/s -1 cm -2 ) and U-concertrations (100-250ppm)

  17. Concentration of {sup 222}Rn in drinking water of the Zacatecas City, measured by liquid scintillation and associated dose; Concentracion de {sup 222}Rn en agua potable de la Ciudad de Zacatecas, medida por centelleo liquido y dosis asociada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arevalo B, C. A.; Lopez del R, H.; Davila R, J. I.; Mireles G, F.; Pinedo V, J. L.; Rios M, C.; Saucedo A, S. A., E-mail: cesar_arevalob@outlook.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2017-09-15

    A study was carried out to determine the concentration of {sup 222}Rn in samples of drinking water collected from different homes in the Zacatecas city, Mexico, whose main source of supply is groundwater. The {sup 222}Rn radioactive gas is a product of the decay series of {sup 238}U and is considered one of the main sources of natural radiation, since it contributes almost half of the radiation dose that a person will receive throughout his life. The {sup 222}Rn originates in the rocks of the aquifers and dissolves in the water, which is later integrated into the distribution network of the public supply that supplies the entire population. Exposure to ionizing radiation that {sup 222}Rn and its offspring emit can damage the DNA molecule, inducing the possible appearance of cancer. Has been demonstrated by various epidemiological studies carried out in uranium mines workers in different parts of the world, that this exposure increases the incidence of lung cancer, placing {sup 222}Rn and their offspring as the second main cause of this type of cancer, after smoking habit. Using the technique of solvent extraction of {sup 222}Rn in water and liquid scintillation spectrometry, water collected from 14 different households was sampled and analyzed. The average of the measured activity of {sup 222}Rn was 2.09 Bq/L and the annual effective dose per water intake attributable to that concentration of 6.07 mSv/a. The concentration of {sup 222}Rn in water and the annual effective dose are below 11 Bq/L and 50 mSv/a, such concentrations are the maximum limits established by the Unites States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the ICRP, respectively. The concentration of {sup 222}Rn that is transferred from the water to the air inside a house was also calculated and the radiation dose that this concentration causes by inhalation, being 0.209 Bq/m{sup 3} and 1,463 μ Sv a, respectively. (Author)

  18. Assessment pozzolanicity waste red ceramics produced in Valley Assu / RN; Avaliacao da atividade pozolanica dos residuos de ceramica vermelha produzidos no Vale do Assu / RN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palhares, Rodolfo de Azevedo; Pereira, Arthur Ruan da Silva; Cabral, Kleber Cavalcanti; Nobrega, Andreza Kelly Costa, E-mail: rodolfo.palhares@hotmail.com, E-mail: arthurruan_rn@hotmail.com, E-mail: kleber.cabral@ufersa.edu.br, E-mail: akcn123@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arido (UFERSA), Mossoro, RN (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Exatas

    2016-07-01

    It is known that both the cement industry as a ceramist contribute much to the generation of environmental impacts. Be the Co2 in the atmosphere, as well as the generation of excessive waste, reaching 20%. The objective of this study is to analyze the potential pozollanic of waste from the red ceramic industries Valley Assu / RN, in order that this material can be incorporated as alternative raw material in the manufacture of ecological and similar brick, replacing partially in its composition Portland cement. Thus contributing to reducing the environmental impact produced by both the ceramics industry, such as cement. To evaluate the efficiency of pozollanic material, it was made sample preparation and then the physico-chemical characterization. After performing tests, it was noticed that the material has the minimum requirements established in standard to be considered as pozollanic material. (author)

  19. Application of {sup 222} Rn as a tracer of groundwater discharge at the coastal zone of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Aplicacao de {sup 222} Rn como tracador da descarga de aguas subterraneas na regiao costeira de Ubatuba, Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Joselene de; Farias, Luciana A.; Mazzilli, Barbara P. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiometria Ambiental]. E-mail: jolivei@net.ipen.br; Burnett, William C. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Saraiva, Elisabete de S.B. e; Furtado, Valdenir V. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Dept. de Oceanografia Quimica e Geologica

    2002-07-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and recycled seawater can provide chemical constituents to coastal zone, representing an important material flux pathway from land to sea in some areas. Geochemical tracers, like {sup 222} Rn and {sup 226} Ra, are advantageous for regional-scale assessment of SGD, because their signals represent values integrated through the water column that removes small-scale variations. These radionuclides are usually enriched in groundwater compared to seawater, can be measured at very low concentrations and are conservative. This work reports preliminary results of a study carried out in a series of small embayements of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo State-Brazil, covering latitudes between 23 deg 26{sup '}S and 23 deg 46{sup '}S and longitudes between 45 deg02{sup '}W and 45 deg 11{sup '}W. The main aims of this research were to set up an analytical method to assess {sup 222} Rn and {sup 226} Ra activities in seawater samples and to apply the excess {sup 222} Rn inventories obtained to estimate the submarine groundwater discharge. Measurements made during 2001/2002 included {sup 222} Rn and {sup 226} Ra in seawater, {sup 222} Rn in sediment, seawater and sediment physical properties. (author)

  20. High electron mobility in Ga(In)NAs films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyashita, Naoya; Ahsan, Nazmul; Monirul Islam, Muhammad; Okada, Yoshitaka; Inagaki, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

    2012-01-01

    We report the highest mobility values above 2000 cm 2 /Vs in Si doped GaNAs film grown by molecular beam epitaxy. To understand the feature of the origin which limits the electron mobility in GaNAs, temperature dependences of mobility were measured for high mobility GaNAs and referential low mobility GaInNAs. Temperature dependent mobility for high mobility GaNAs is similar to the GaAs case, while that for low mobility GaInNAs shows large decrease in lower temperature region. The electron mobility of high quality GaNAs can be explained by intrinsic limiting factor of random alloy scattering and extrinsic factor of ionized impurity scattering.

  1. Propaganda negativa nas eleições presidenciais brasileiras

    OpenAIRE

    Borba, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    ResumoEste artigo tem como propósito investigar a propaganda negativa nas eleições presidenciais brasileiras. Tema de extrema relevância tendo em vista que a literatura recente vem sugerindo que o tom das campanhas tem consequências importantes para a decisão do voto, a participação política e o nível de informação dos eleitores. Entretanto, a maior parte desses estudos foi realizada para entender a realidade política dos Estados Unidos. No Brasil, apesar do crescente interesse pelos efeitos ...

  2. Estado Confusional Agudo nas Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, L; Alcântara, J

    1996-01-01

    As alterações do comportamento frequentemente observadas em doentes internados nas unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI), podem ser adequadamente designadas, na maioria das vezes, por estado confusional agudo, o qual se caracteriza por: flutuação do estado de vigília, distúrbio do ciclo vigília-sono, défice de atenção e concentração, desorganização do pensamento, manifestado entre outras formas por discurso incoerente, distúrbios da percepção sob a forma de ilusões e/ou alucinações, desorient...

  3. Pensamento estratégico nas organizações

    OpenAIRE

    Kich, Juliane Ines Di Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Sócio-Econômico, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Administração, Florianópolis, 2015. A presente tese propõe um modelo que subsidia o desenvolvimento do pensamento estratégico nas organizações. Tem como objetivo maior responder a seguinte pergunta de pesquisa: Quais são os atributos que formam o conceito do pensamento estratégico, e quais são os elementos organizacionais que desenvolvem tais atributos nos membros de uma organiza...

  4. 222Rn activity concentration differences in groundwaters of three Variscan granitoid massifs in the Sudetes (NE Bohemian Massif, SW Poland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przylibski, Tadeusz A.; Gorecka, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Based on research conducted in three Variscan granitoid massifs located within the crystalline Bohemian Massif, the authors confirmed that the higher the degree of their erosional dissection, the smaller the concentration of 222 Rn in groundwaters circulating in these massifs. This notion implies that radon waters and high-radon waters, from which at least some of the dissolved radon should be removed before feeding them as drinking water to the water-supply system, could be expected in granitoid massifs which have been poorly exposed by erosion. At the same time, such massifs must be taken into account as the areas of possible occurrence of radon medicinal waters, which in some countries can be used for balneotherapy in health resorts. Slightly eroded granitoid massifs should be also regarded as very probable radon prone areas or areas of high radon potential. - Highlights: • The concentration of 222 Rn in groundwater depends on the zone of the granitoid massif which is exposed on the ground surface. • The highest 222 Rn concentrations occur in the least eroded granitoid massifs, the lowest in massifs with exposed root parts. • The stronger the erosional dissection of a granitoid massif, the lower 222 Rn concentration in groundwaters in this massif. • Not all granitoid massifs are areas with groundwaters containing high concentrations of 222 Rn. • The least eroded granitoid massifs are radon prone areas with the occurrence of high-radon and radon groundwaters

  5. Seasonal and diurnal variation of outdoor radon (222Rn) concentrations in urban and rural area with reference to meteorological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podstawczynska, A.; Pawlak, W.; Kozak, K.; Mazur, J.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate temporal variability of outdoor radon ( 222 Rn) concentration registered in the center of Lodz (urban station), at Ciosny (rural station) and Krakow (suburban station) in relation to meteorological parameters (i.e. air temperature, temperature vertical gradient, wind speed, soil heat flux, volumetric water content in soil) with special consideration of urban-rural differences. Continuous measurements of 222 Rn concentration (at 60 min intervals) were performed at a height of 2 m above the ground using AlphaGUARD PQ2000PRO (ionization chamber) from January 2008 to May 2009. 222 Rn levels were characterized by a diurnal cycle with an early morning maximum and a minimum in the afternoon. The well-marked 24 h pattern of radon concentration occurred in summer at anticyclonic weather with cloudless sky, light wind and large diurnal temperature ranges. The urban measurement site was characterized by the lowest atmospheric 222 Rn concentration and an urban-rural differences of radon levels increased from winter to summer and during the nighttime periods. The maximum contrasts of 222 Rn levels between Lodz and Ciosny, reaching - 30 Bq m -3 , were registered in June and July during the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon (a positive thermal anomaly of a city if compared to rural area) and strong thermal inversion near the ground in the rural area. (authors)

  6. Association between Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist (IL1RN) Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) Polymorphism and Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mohammad; Naderi, Mohammad; Ebrahimi, Mahboubeh; Amininia, Shadi; Bahari, Gholamreza; Taheri, Mohsen; Eskandari-Nasab, Ebrahim; Ghavami, Saeid

    2015-02-01

    Macrophages and T-lymphocytes are involved in immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Macrophage produces interleukin (IL)-1 as an inflammatory mediator. IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL1-Ra) is a natural antagonist of IL-1 receptors. In this study we aimed to examine the possible association between the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN) gene and pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in a sample of Iranian population. Our study is a case-control study and we examined the VNTR of the IL1RN gene in 265 PTB and 250 healthy subjects by PCR. Neither the overall chi-square comparison of PTB and control subjects nor the logistic regression analysis indicated any association between VNTR IL1RN polymorphism and PTB. Our data suggest that VNTR IL1RN polymorphism may not be associated with the risk of PTB in a sample of Iranian population. Larger studies with different ethnicities are needed to find out the impact of IL1RN VNTR polymorphism on risk of developing TB.

  7. Updated estimates of HAL n and RN- effects on pork quality: fresh and processed loin and ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherel, P; Glénisson, J; Figwer, P; Pires, J; Damon, M; Franck, M; Le Roy, P

    2010-12-01

    A 1000-pig F2 intercross QTL detection experimental population was generated using two commercial sire lines. Independent carriers of HAL n and RN- mutations (10% and 14%, respectively) were included in this population as control genotypes. The effects of HAL n and RN- heterozygous genotypes on fresh and transformed loins and hams were estimated using a mixed model methodology. The results document the unfavorable effects of both mutations on meat quality. Smaller effects of HAL Nn genotype compared to HAL nn or RN-rn+ genotypes were estimated. Interestingly, effects of HAL Nn genotype on meat pH and loin color could be insignificant at 24-h postmortem, but translate into higher water losses on storage and cooking, and result in tougher cooked loin. Using the same methodology, significant effects of the PRKAG3 (RN) I199 allele on ultimate pH values but not on glycolytic potential were observed. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pla(y)cefully – når børn finder sted gennemt transformationer af institutionelle konstruktioner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Rikke Toft; Toft, Herdis

    2014-01-01

    , designere, kunstnere, pædagoger og forældre understøtte, at børn finder sted som mennesker i verden? Et svar kunne være, at vi, snarere end at indplacere børn i ’satte’ institutionelle kontekster, lader børn ’sætte’ deres eget sted, fx ved at lade dem ’pla(y)cefully’ transformere, hvad et gulv i en...... børnehave kan være, lade dem opdage, opfinde, opbygge og omskabe det. Lade børn eksperimentere og konstruere sig frem til egne pla(y)ces. Gennem en transdisciplinær tilgang kombinerer dette paper indsigter og resultater fra to særskilte forskningsprojekter omkring børn i børnehaver. Det ene projekt har...... gennem leg med artefakter, redskaber og teknologier i krydsfeltet mellem interaktionsdesign, human-centered design, digitale teknologier og konstruktionisme. Gennem den transdisciplinære tilgang til pla(y)ces og pla(y)cefullness og på bagrund af centrale emergerende kategorier i de to feltarbejder...

  9. The measurement of Rn-222 in drinking water by low-level liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, J.M.; McKlveen, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Radon-222 has consistently been found in well water. The research objectives are to establish a method to collect well water and to measure the Rn in ground water using liquid scintillation (LS) counting. Water is collected at the well head while the well is pumping. The water is adjusted to a slow, non-aerated, steady flow through a clear tube, and a 437 mL (16 oz) glass bottle is filled. The sample is tightly capped after a high meniscus has developed. In the laboratory, standard 22 mL LS glass vials are filled with 10 mL of a toluene based mineral oil LS cocktail. Then, two 5 mL sample aliquots are pipetted into the vial. Vials are capped tightly, shaken vigorously, and placed in the LS counter. Secular equilibrium is established in approximately 3.5 hours, after which samples are counted for 100 minutes each. Quality assurance and control is performed weekly on the LS counter's electronics, spectral window, counting efficiency, and background. The counting efficiency ranges between 315-345 percent depending on the chosen spectral window. The average background is about 6 cpm. A total of 28 wells were tested for Rn in the Carefree-Cave Creek, Arizona, USA area, and 12 wells were selected, each over 50 Bq/L (1,350 pCi/L), for an extended 6 month period. The area's average Rn concentration was found to be 46.5 Bq/L (1,255 pCi/L); it is a geometric mean. The associated estimated lung dose is 1.13 mSv/a

  10. Using {sup 222}Rn as a tracer of geodynamical processes in underground environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valladares, D.L. [GEA, Instituto de Matemática Aplicada San Luis (IMASL), Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Ej. de los Andes 950, D5700HHW San Luis (Argentina); Silva, A.A.R. da [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, P.O.Box 66318, 05314-970, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Serviço Especializado em Engenharia de Segurança e Medicina do Trabalho, Departamento de Saúde, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua da Reitoria, 109, 05508-900, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lacerda, T. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal Milton Tavares de Souza, s/n" o, Gragoatá, 24210-340, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Anjos, R.M., E-mail: meigikos@if.uff.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal Milton Tavares de Souza, s/n" o, Gragoatá, 24210-340, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Rizzotto, M.; Velasco, H.; Rosas, J.P. de [GEA, Instituto de Matemática Aplicada San Luis (IMASL), Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Ej. de los Andes 950, D5700HHW San Luis (Argentina); Tognelli, G. [Departamento de Geología, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Ej. de los Andes 950, D5700HHW San Luis (Argentina); and others

    2014-01-01

    Radon levels in two old mines in San Luis, Argentina, were measured and analyzed, with the aim to assess the potential use of this radioactive noble gas as a tracer of geological processes in underground environments. La Carolina gold mine and Los Cóndores tungsten mine are today used as tourism mines. CR-39 nuclear track detectors were used for this purpose. Measurements were performed during both winter and summer seasons. The findings show that in these environments, significant radon concentrations are subject to large seasonal fluctuations, due to the strong dependence on natural ventilation with the outside temperature variations. For both mines, higher concentration values of {sup 222}Rn were observed in summer than in winter; with an extreme ratio of 2.5 times between summer and winter seasons for Los Cóndores mine. The pattern of radon transport inside La Carolina mine revealed, contrary to what was believed, that this mine behaves as a system with two entrances located at different levels. However, this feature can only be observed in the winter season, when there is a marked difference between the inside and outside temperatures of the mine. In the case of Los Cóndores mine, the radon concentration pattern distribution is principally established by air current due to chimney-effect in summer and winter seasons. In both cases, the analyses of radon pattern distribution appear as a good method to trace air currents, and then localize unknown ducts, fissures or secondary tunnels in subterranean environments. - Highlights: • {sup 222}Rn levels in two old mines in San Luis, Argentina • CR-39 nuclear track detectors were used for this purpose • higher concentration values of {sup 222}Rn were observed in summer than in winter • radon pattern distribution appear as a good method to trace air currents • it localizes unknown ducts, fissures or secondary tunnels in subterranean environments.

  11. Using 222Rn as a tracer of geodynamical processes in underground environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valladares, D.L.; Silva, A.A.R. da; o, Gragoatá, 24210-340, Niterói, RJ (Brazil))" data-affiliation=" (Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoatá, 24210-340, Niterói, RJ (Brazil))" >Lacerda, T.; o, Gragoatá, 24210-340, Niterói, RJ (Brazil))" data-affiliation=" (Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoatá, 24210-340, Niterói, RJ (Brazil))" >Anjos, R.M.; Rizzotto, M.; Velasco, H.; Rosas, J.P. de; Tognelli, G.

    2014-01-01

    Radon levels in two old mines in San Luis, Argentina, were measured and analyzed, with the aim to assess the potential use of this radioactive noble gas as a tracer of geological processes in underground environments. La Carolina gold mine and Los Cóndores tungsten mine are today used as tourism mines. CR-39 nuclear track detectors were used for this purpose. Measurements were performed during both winter and summer seasons. The findings show that in these environments, significant radon concentrations are subject to large seasonal fluctuations, due to the strong dependence on natural ventilation with the outside temperature variations. For both mines, higher concentration values of 222 Rn were observed in summer than in winter; with an extreme ratio of 2.5 times between summer and winter seasons for Los Cóndores mine. The pattern of radon transport inside La Carolina mine revealed, contrary to what was believed, that this mine behaves as a system with two entrances located at different levels. However, this feature can only be observed in the winter season, when there is a marked difference between the inside and outside temperatures of the mine. In the case of Los Cóndores mine, the radon concentration pattern distribution is principally established by air current due to chimney-effect in summer and winter seasons. In both cases, the analyses of radon pattern distribution appear as a good method to trace air currents, and then localize unknown ducts, fissures or secondary tunnels in subterranean environments. - Highlights: • 222 Rn levels in two old mines in San Luis, Argentina • CR-39 nuclear track detectors were used for this purpose • higher concentration values of 222 Rn were observed in summer than in winter • radon pattern distribution appear as a good method to trace air currents • it localizes unknown ducts, fissures or secondary tunnels in subterranean environments

  12. Experiential learning: using virtual simulation in an online RN-to-BSN program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Henny; Jones, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights the innovative experiential learning used by an online RN-to-BSN program through the use of simulation that takes place in an online classroom. Three experiential learning activities using a virtual community are described. These learning activities engage the students in thinking about social justice and health policy, as well as teaching concepts that include community, leadership, influence, advocacy, networking, collaboration, and vulnerable populations. These concepts are critical to the learning needs of diploma and associate degree-prepared nurses who wish to continue their education to be better prepared to meet the complex needs of today's health care environment. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Local variations of atmospheric 222Rn and 210Pb concentrations in Badgastein (Austria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallner, G.; Ayromlou, S.

    2002-01-01

    222 Rn was measured and aerosols for 210 Pb determination were collected simultaneously outdoors at ground level near the train station of Badgastein (1080 m a.s.l.), and later on also on the nearby Stubnerkogel (2230 m a.s.l.). Radon concentrations at lower altitude were up to 140 Bq/m 3 , on the mountain the usual background levels were found. In contrary to the differing radon levels, the 210 Pb activity concentrations were in the same order of magnitude for both locations with values between 0.16 and 0.77 mBq/m 3 . (author)

  14. S2 like Star Orbits near the Galactic Center in Rn and Yukawa Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borka, Dusko; Jovanović, Predrag; Jovanović Vesna Borka; Zakharov, Alexander F.

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter we investigate the possibility to provide theoretical explanation for the observed deviations of S2 star orbit around the Galactic Center using gravitational potentials derived from extended gravity models, but in absence of dark matter. Extended Theories of Gravity are alternative theories of gravitational interaction developed from the exact starting points investigated first by Einstein and Hilbert and aimed from one side to extend the positive results of General Relativity and, on the other hand, to cure its shortcomings. One of the aims of these theories is to explain galactic and extragalactic dynamics without introduction of dark matter. They are based on straightforward generalizations of the Einstein theory where the gravitational action (the Hilbert-Einstein action) is assumed to be linear in the Ricci curvature scalar R. The f(R) gravity is a type of modified gravity which generalizes Einstein's General Relativity, i.e. the simplest case is just the General Relativity. It is actually a family of models, each one defined by a different function of the Ricci scalar. Here, we consider Rn (power-law fourth-order theories of gravity) and Yukawa-like modified gravities in the weak field limit and discuss the constrains on these theories. For that purpose we simulate the orbit of S2 star around the Galactic Center in Rn and Yukawa-like gravity potentials and compare it with New Technology Telescope/Very Large Telescope (NTT/VLT) as well as by Keck telescope observations. Our simulations result in strong constraints on the range of gravity interaction and showed that both Rn and Yukawa gravity could satisfactorily explain the observed orbits of S2 star. However, we concluded that parameters of Rn and Yukawa gravity theories must be very close to those corresponding to the Newtonian limit of the theory. Besides, in contrast to Newtonian gravity, these two modified theories induce orbital precession, even in the case of point-like central mass. The

  15. Evolution of 222 Rn and chemical species related with eruptive processes of the Popocatepetl volcano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranda, P.; Ceballos, S.; Cruz, D.; Hernandez, A.; Lopez, R.; Pena, P.; Salazar, S.; Segovia, N.; Tamez, E.

    1997-01-01

    The 222 Rn monitoring in the Popocatepetl volcano was initiated on 1993. At December 21, 1994 it is initiated an eruptive stage in the volcano with gas emission, ashes and the lava dome formation on the crater at middle 1996. During all this time it has been determined radon concentrations on soils with active and passive detectors. In this work the changes in radon contents are reported also the physicochemical parameters in spring water related with the volcanic building associated to the recent activity of the volcano. (Author)

  16. Energy optimized Gaussian basis sets for the atoms T1 - Rn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faegri, K. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Energy optimized Gaussian basis sets have been derived for the atoms Tl-Rn. Two sets are presented - a (20,16,10,6) set and a (22,17,13,8) set. The smallest sets yield atomic energies 107 to 123 mH above the numerical Hartree-Fock values, while the larger sets give energies 11 mH above the numerical results. Energy trends from the smaller sets indicate that reduced shielding by p-electrons may place a greater demand on the flexibility of d- and f-orbital description for the lighter elements of the series

  17. Estimation of exposure to 222Rn from the excretion rates of 21πPb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtzman, R.B.; Rundo, J.

    1981-01-01

    A model is proposed with which estimates of exposure to 227 Rn and its daughter products may be made from urinary excretion rates of 210 Pb. It is assumed that 20% of all the 210 Pb inhaled reaches the blood and that 50% of the endogenous excretion is through the urine. The estimates from the model are compared with the results of measurements on a subject residing in a house with high levels of radon. Whole body radioactivity and excretion data were consistent with the model, but the estimates of exposure (WL) were higher than those measured with an Environmental Working Level Monitor

  18. Too Many, Too Few, or Just Right? Making Sense Of Conflicting RN Supply and Demand Forecasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spetz, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Forecasts of future supply and demand of health professionals are tools to guide policy, not a final statement about how the world will be in the future. Recent forecasts of RN supply and demand vary widely and are incredibly confusing for nurse leaders, nurse educators, and policymakers. To effectively incorporate forecasts into policy and planning, one must understand the structure of the forecasts and underlying assumptions. One should treat all forecasts cautiously, and use them as guides to policy rather than definitive future outcomes.

  19. Karakteristik Roti Manis dari Pati Sagu yang Dimodifikasi dengan Lactobacillus plantarum 1 RN2-12112

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusmarini Yusmarini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pati sagu dapat dimodifikasi secara mikrobiologis dengan memanfaatkan isolat bakteri asam laktat   L. plantarum 1 RN2-12112. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk megetahui karakteristik  roti manis yang dibuat dengan memanfaatkan pati sagu temodifikasi sebagai bahan substitusi tepung terigu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa roti manis yang dibuat dengan memanfaatkan pati sagu termodifikasi dapat mengurangi penggunaan terigu. Pemanfaatan pati sagu termodifikasi secara mikrobiologis dalam pembuatan roti manis memberikan pengaruh yang nyata terhadap kadar air, abu, protein, lemak, karbohidrat dan volume pengembangan. Penambahan pati sagu hingga 45% masih menghasilkan roti manis yang memenuhi standar dengan tingkat pengembangan yang cukup baik.

  20. Constructing pairs of dual bandlimited frame wavelets in L^2(R^n)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvig, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    combination of dilations of ψ with explicitly given coefficients. The result allows a simple construction procedure for pairs of dual wavelet frames whose generators have compact support in the Fourier domain and desired time localization. The construction relies on a technical condition on ψ, and we exhibit......Given a real, expansive dilation matrix we prove that any bandlimited function ψ∈L2(Rn), for which the dilations of its Fourier transform form a partition of unity, generates a wavelet frame for certain translation lattices. Moreover, there exists a dual wavelet frame generated by a finite linear...

  1. 222Rn content and 234U/238U activity ratio in groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olguin, M.T.; Segovia, N.; Ordonez, E.; Iturbe, J.L.; Bulbulian, S.; Carrillo, J.

    1990-01-01

    Geochemical radioanalytical studies of ground water were perfomed in the valleys of Villa de Reyes and San Luis Potosi, Mexico. The experiments were designed to measure radon and uranium content and 234 U/ 238 U activity ratio in ground water samples taken from wells in these sites and at the Nuclear Center of Salazar, Mexico. 222 Rn content varied depending on the sample source, reaching a maximum value of 235 pCi/l; uranium concentration results were less than 1 μg/l and 234 U/ 238 U activity ratios were close to equilibrium. (author) 9 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  2. Fractal analysis and nonlinear forecasting of indoor 222Rn time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pausch, G.; Bossew, P.; Hofmann, W.; Steger, F.

    1998-01-01

    Fractal analyses of indoor 222 Rn time series were performed using different chaos theory based measurements such as time delay method, Hurst's rescaled range analysis, capacity (fractal) dimension, and Lyapunov exponent. For all time series we calculated only positive Lyapunov exponents which is a hint to chaos, while the Hurst exponents were well below 0.5, indicating antipersistent behaviour (past trends tend to reverse in the future). These time series were also analyzed with a nonlinear prediction method which allowed an estimation of the embedding dimensions with some restrictions, limiting the prediction to about three relative time steps. (orig.)

  3. Results of long-term measurement of 222Rn concentrations in outdoor atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, K.; Boehm, R.; Polaskova, A.; Hola, O.

    1998-01-01

    Results are reported of the authors' long-term measurement of 222 Rn concentrations in the outdoor atmosphere. The measurements started in 1987 and were performed at a height of 1.5 m over a grass-covered ground surface, using till 1991 a Lucas type scintillation chamber and later a large volume scintillation chamber. Graphs are presented and discussed of the course of average monthly radon concentration in 1987-1996 and of annual courses of radon concentration for different time intervals of the day over 1991 to 1995. (A.K.)

  4. "Sempre tivemos mulheres nos cantos e nas cordas": uma pesquisa sobre o lugar feminino nas corporações musicais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Pacheco Coelho

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo insere-se em projeto de pesquisa-intervenção sobre a música e suas articulações identitárias nas corporações musicais da região dos Campos das Vertentes, em especial São João del-Rei e cidades vizinhas. Nessa região, a música tem papel significativo na formação da identidade cultural dos cidadãos e na história dos municípios. O recorte atual apresenta uma investigação sobre determinações de gênero, visando conhecer como se dá a participação de musicistas nas bandas e orquestras da região. Para tanto, utilizou-se a análise arqueológica do discurso, a fim de contrapor falas de musicistas às falas de músicos das corporações e, também, às falas masculinas presentes na filosofia e ao discurso utópico sobre a mulher. Observou-se que as diferenças de gênero tradicionais conservam-se encobertas no cotidiano das corporações musicais. Entretanto, observou-se também que as musicistas começam a ser reconhecidas nas corporações e, sobretudo, reconhecem-se como capazes de, nelas, alçarem voos.

  5. Concepts of Integration for UAS Operations in the NAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Hoffler, Keith D.

    2012-01-01

    One of the major challenges facing the integration of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) is the lack of an onboard pilot that can comply with the legal requirement identified in the US Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) that pilots see and avoid other aircraft. UAS will be expected to demonstrate the means to perform the function of see and avoid while preserving the safety level of the airspace and the efficiency of the air traffic system. This paper introduces a Sense and Avoid (SAA) concept for integration of UAS into the NAS that is currently being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and identifies areas that require additional experimental evaluation to further inform various elements of the concept. The concept design rests on interoperability principles that take into account both the Air Traffic Control (ATC) environment as well as existing systems such as the Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS). Specifically, the concept addresses the determination of well clear values that are large enough to avoid issuance of TCAS corrective Resolution Advisories, undue concern by pilots of proximate aircraft and issuance of controller traffic alerts. The concept also addresses appropriate declaration times for projected losses of well clear conditions and maneuvers to regain well clear separation.

  6. {sup 222} Rn determination and physicochemical characteristic and biological in aquifers in the Toluca Valley; Determinacion de {sup 222} Rn y caracteristicas fisicoquimicas y biologicas en acuiferos del Valle de Toluca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez A, A

    1998-10-01

    Concentration levels of {sup 222} Rn and {sup 226} Rn have been analyzed in water samples from boreholes belonging to the drinking water supply system around Toluca, Mexico. The {sup 222} Rn source is the decay of {sup 226} Rn within the solid matrix of the aquifer. The study was performed during the dry and rainy seasons. {sup 222} Rn concentration was determined by the liquid scintillation technique, {sup 226} Rn was determined by gamma spectrometry, the physicochemical parameters and bacteriological analysis were performed by conventional chemical techniques. Solubilized trace elements were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (Icp-Ms). The radon level fluctuations at the boreholes in Toluca city and Almoloya spring indicated differences in the radon content. At borehole Lodos Prietos 2, the temperature and radon level were systematically the highest in comparison with the other boreholes and the spring indicating a contribution of a regional flow to the water of this particular borehole. The result for {sup 226} Rn, the average {sup 222} Rn observed during the sampling period, no correspondence occurs between the radium and the radon content indicating that, radon is not supported by radium, but is incorporated into the water through fissures in the rocks in contact with the water. The radon levels obtained in house faucets which water is supplied by boreholes decrease as a function of the distance from the source borehole to the house. With the chemical composition of each one of the studied boreholes and spring a Piper diagram was draw indicating the kind of water. The boreholes and spring can be classified as bicarbonate calcium/magnesium. Almost no fluctuation on time was observed in the chemical species and trace elements only a slight increase was observed at the end of the rain season. At Almoloya, spring pollution with coliform bacteria and nitrates showed an anthropogenic contribution to the water deterioration probable and

  7. Determination of {sup 222}Rn and its physico-chemical and biological characteristics in aquifers of Toluca valley; Determinacion de {sup 222}Rn y caracteristicas fisicoquimicas y biologicas en acuiferos del Valle de Toluca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, A.; Aranda, P.; Ceballos, S.; Cruz, D.; Jauregui, B.; Lopez, R.; Pena, P.; Salazar, S.; Segovia, N.; Tamez, E. [Instituto nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    In this work it is realized a geochemical study which includes the evaluation of {sup 222} Rn concentration in drinking water wells at Toluca city and a spring water of Almoloya de Juarez municipality at State of mexico. the same is studied about evolution of {sup 222} Rn concentration in water of the hydrating which supply it to those wells. the geochemical evaluation also covers the determination of major and minor elements or trace and the biological analysis of water. The study includes two seasonal cycles, the low water mark one and other the rainy for being able to evaluate the aquifers reloading effects in the water composition. (Author)

  8. The influence of the nature of soil and plant and pollution on the 238U, 232Th, 222Rn and 220Rn concentrations in various natural honey samples using nuclear track detectors: impact on the adult consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misdaq, M.A.; Mortassim, A.

    2009-01-01

    238 U and 232 Th concentrations as well as 222 Rn and 220 Rn α-activities per unit volume were measured in various natural honey samples collected from different regions in Morocco using CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). These radionuclides were also measured in soils, plant flowers and nectar solutions corresponding to the honey samples studied. In addition, these radionuclides were measured in different imported honey samples. The measured 238 U, 232 Th, 222 Rn and 220 Rn concentrations ranged from (1.5 ± 0.1) mBq kg -1 to (10.6 ± 0.6) mBq kg -1 , (1.1 ± 0.1) mBq kg -1 to (4.2 ± 0.2) mBq kg -1 , (1.5 ± 0.1) Bq kg -1 to (10.6 ± 0.6) Bq kg -1 and (1.1 ± 0.1) Bq kg -1 to (4.2 ± 0.2) Bq kg -1 for the honey samples studied, respectively. Annual 238 U, 232 Th and 222 Rn intakes by Moroccan adults from the consumption of honey were assessed. The influence of the nature of soil and plant on the 238 U and 232 Th contents of the studied honey samples was investigated. These measurements were completed by an investigation of the 238 U and 232 Th transfer between soils and plant flowers and that between plant flowers and honey, and also by the investigation of the influence of pollution due to different material dusts on 238 U, 232 Th and 222 Rn in the honey samples studied. Committed equivalent doses due to the annual intake of 238 U, 232 Th and 222 Rn were evaluated in the organs of adult members of the Moroccan rural population from the ingestion of the honey samples. The maximum total committed effective dose due to 238 U, 232 Th and 222 Rn from the ingestion of natural honey by the Moroccan rural population was found to be equal to 0.64 μSνy -1 . (author)

  9. Indoor "2"2"2Rn concentration in the exhibition and storage rooms of Polish geological museums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Długosz-Lisiecka, Magdalena; Krystek, Marcin; Raczyński, Paweł; Głuszek, Ewa; Kietlińska-Michalik, Barbara; Niechwedowicz, Mariusz

    2017-01-01

    The radon exhaled from radioactive mineral collections exhibited in five Polish geological museums may influence its total indoor concentration. Radon concentrations measured in the exhibition halls do not pose a risk for visitors or museum staff. However, air exceeding the action limit for workers (equal to 300 Bq/m"3) was noted in the storage rooms of two museums. Significant"2"2"2Rn activity concentrations equal to more than ~300 kBq/m"3were measured inside lead containers where radioactive minerals were stored. - Highlights: • In this "2"2"2Rn radionuclide measurements in 5 Polish geological museums have been done. • The review of "2"2"2Rn activity in the air in areas containing radioactive geological collections is not a routine protocol, and is not included in the national radon monitoring program. • Therefore the radiological exposure for museum staff resulting from inhalation of gaseous radon and its products has been including.

  10. Measuring techniques for environmental sup 3 H, sup 14 C and sup 222 Rn by liquid scintillation counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takata, Shigeru; Saito, Masaaki (Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center (Japan))

    1991-02-01

    Measuring techniques for environmental {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C and {sup 222}Rn with a liquid scintillation counter have been studied. {sup 3}H in environmental water was enriched by electrolysis and measured with a low background liquid scintillation counter. By this technique, {sup 3}H concentration of ground water, river water, sea water and rain water at Tokyo was founded to be 0.1 {approx} 2.5 Bq/1. {sup 14}C in taurine and ethyl-alcohol was measured directly liquid scintillation counter. By this {sup 14}C measuring, natural products, contain low level {sup 14}C, were distinguished from synthesised products contain no {sup 14}C. {sup 222}Rn in toluene extracted from environmental water or air was measured by scintillation pulse interval analysis method. By this technique, {sup 222}Rn was able to be measured under very low background counting rate, 0.03cpm, and high efficiency. (author).

  11. Anvender vi det optimale dosisregime for phenoxymethylpenicillin til børn mellem 0-10 år ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glerup, Mia; Rittig, Søren; Veirum, Jens Erik

    2011-01-01

    fået anlagt i.v. adgang. 20 børn skal indtage phenoxymethylpenicillin mikstur 25 mg/kg og 20 børn skal indtage 50 mg/kg. Blodprøver udtages 0-7 timer efter indtagelsen. Metode 2: Koncentrationen af penicillinet i blodprøverne bestemmes ved at måle hæmningszonen for Streptococcus Pyogenes på en...... agarplade påsat patientserum. Herefter sammenlignes med hæmningszonerne for Streptococcus Pyogenes på en anden agarplade påsat kendte penicillinkoncentrationer i intervallet 0,5-32 μg/ml (Standard disk diffusion bioassay). Resultater. To børn er færdigundersøgt. Begge havde maksimal koncentration 1 time...

  12. Determination of Rn222 in samples of well water and domicile of the cities of Chihuahua and Aldama, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalba, L.; Colmenero S, L.; Montero C, M.E.

    2004-01-01

    The study of the content of dissolved Rn 222 is presented in underground water and of domicile of the cities of Chihuahua and Aldama of the State of Chihuahua. The existence of the Rn 222 in the underground waters comes from its constant production in the rocks of the terrestrial bark. It has been determined that the radon is a noble gas of more solubility in the water, this solubility induces high concentrations in underground water, as well as bigger risk to the health in the human body once ingested or inhaled. Of the 32 wells studied in the cities of Chihuahua and Aldama, the content of dissolved Rn 222 in the water of 22 of them is bigger than 11 Bq/l and of 73 studied samples of water of domiciles 47 show bigger values that 11 Bq/l. These radon contents are attributable to the uraniferous rocks present in the aquifers. (Author)

  13. Functional characterization of the origin of replication of pRN1 from Sulfolobus islandicus REN1H1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chijioke J Joshua

    Full Text Available Plasmid pRN1 from Sulfolobus islandicus REN1H1 is believed to replicate by a rolling circle mechanism but its origin and mechanism of replication are not well understood. We sought to create minimal expression vectors based on pRN1 that would be useful for heterologous gene expression in S. acidocaldarius, and in the process improve our understanding of the mechanism of replication. We constructed and transformed shuttle vectors that harbored different contiguous stretches of DNA from pRN1 into S. acidocaldarius E4-39, a uracil auxotroph. A 232-bp region 3' of orf904 was found to be critical for pRN1 replication and is therefore proposed to be the putative origin of replication. This 232-bp region contains a 100-bp stem-loop structure believed to be the double-strand origin of replication. The loop of the 100-bp structure contains a GTG tri-nucleotide motif, a feature that was previously reported to be important for the primase activity of Orf904. This putative origin and the associated orf56 and orf904 were identified as the minimal replicon of pRN1 because transformants of plasmids lacking any of these three features were not recovered. Plasmids lacking orf904 and orf56 but harboring the putative origin were transformable when orf904 and orf56 were provided in-trans; a 75-bp region 5' of the orf904 start codon was found to be essential for this complementation. Detailed knowledge of the pRN1 origin of replication will broaden the application of the plasmid as a genetic tool for Sulfolobus species.

  14. Development Of Protocols For Simultaneous Measurements Of Rn, Tn Using Nuclear Track Detectors And Trial Application In Mining Areas Of Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui Dac Dung; Trinh Van Giap; Le Dinh Cuong; Tran Khanh Minh; Nguyen Huu Quyet; Nguyen Van Khanh; Tran Ngoc Toan

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive gases Radon (Rn) and Thoron (Tn) contribute of more than 50% of natural radiation dose. However, separate measurements of Rn and Tn have not been paid enough attention. An Intergovernmental Cooperation Project was conducted at the Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology with the help from Hungarian experts. The main tasks of the project were to finalize 02 protocols for simultaneous measurements of Rn and Tn using nuclear track detectors and to test these protocols in investigating the concentrations of Rn and Tn, calculating the natural dose due to Rn and Tn, and evaluating the increased radiation dose and radiation safety due to mining activities. Main results of the project include 02 protocols for simultaneous measurements of Rn and Tn and the test results in the mining areas. Rn and Tn concentrations inside the coal mining tunnels are in the average level of Vietnam and the world. Tn concentration inside the factory for separating Zircon at the Ha Tinh Zircon Processing Plant was found to be very high, up to 2931 Bq/m 3 . Based on annual effective dose calculation, workers inside the factory for separating Zircon at the Ha Tinh Zircon Processing Plant could receive an annual effective dose due to Rn and Tn of 4.890 mSv/year, and the increasing dose of 4.710 mSv/year is for higher than 1 mSv/year recommended by the IAEA. (author)

  15. Determination of 222Rn and its physico-chemical and biological characteristics in aquifers of Toluca valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, A.; Aranda, P.; Ceballos, S.; Cruz, D.; Jauregui, B.; Lopez, R.; Pena, P.; Salazar, S.; Segovia, N.; Tamez, E.

    1997-01-01

    In this work it is realized a geochemical study which includes the evaluation of 222 Rn concentration in drinking water wells at Toluca city and a spring water of Almoloya de Juarez municipality at State of mexico. the same is studied about evolution of 222 Rn concentration in water of the hydrating which supply it to those wells. the geochemical evaluation also covers the determination of major and minor elements or trace and the biological analysis of water. The study includes two seasonal cycles, the low water mark one and other the rainy for being able to evaluate the aquifers reloading effects in the water composition. (Author)

  16. Can Lis : la huella de la arquitectura de Jørn Utzon a través de esta obra

    OpenAIRE

    Lara Ruiz, Manuel de

    2016-01-01

    La tesis “CAN LIS, La huella de la arquitectura de Jørn Utzon a través de su obra Can Lis” analiza en profundidad la vivienda que Jørn Utzon realizó para sí mismo en la entonces calle de la Media Luna, Porto Petro, Mallorca, entre los años 1970-74. La investigación plantea el análisis de esta obra maestra de la arquitectura, sus causas e intenciones, su proceso proyectual, su proceso constructivo, sus relaciones e influencias y sus significados últimos. Este estudio es fruto de una labor de i...

  17. Accelerated second-degree nursing students: predictors of graduation and NCLEX-RN first-time pass rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penprase, Barbara B; Harris, Margaret A

    2013-01-01

    It is important to understand and identify factors that affect students' academic performance before entry into a nursing program and as they progress through the program. The authors discuss a study, and its outcomes, that assessed accelerated second-degree nursing students' prenursing and core nursing grades that served to predict their success at completing the nursing program and passing NCLEX-RN on first attempt. Strategies were identified to help at-risk students to be successful in the program and with first-time passage of NCLEX-RN.

  18. The ventilation influence on the spatial distribution of Rn-222 and its decay products in human inhabited environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, S.N.M.; Hadler, J.C.; Paulo, S.R.

    1996-01-01

    For the determination of the ventilation influence (directional flux of air induced by a fan) on the spatial distribution of Rn-222 and its decay products (daughters) present in human inhabited environments, a group of experimental results were obtained by means of the fission nuclear tracks left by α-particles over adequate plastic detectors CR-39). The exposure of these detectors was done in a closed environment considering the influence of ventilation for different angles, velocities and distances from fan. The results show that a relative quantity of daughters of Rn-222 are pulled out of the environment due to the effects of ventilation and plat-out

  19. Risk of 222 Rn ingestion by water consumption in the phosphate rich of the Northeast of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade Lima, Ricardo de

    1997-01-01

    Geological survey performed in the coastal region of the northeast of Brazil revealed the presence of uranium phosphate deposits in a land strip covering the Pernambuco-Bahia sedimentary basin. The water consumed by the local population crosses the phosphate area and presents higher tna normal concentration of uranium and its progeny. This work is aimed to determine the cancer risk, based on the rate ingestion of the 222 'Rn due to water consumption. The results of the analysis showed increments of 1.25% for cancer occurrences due to Rn-222 ingestion for the local population. (author). 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  20. Dose by {sup 222} Rn in houses of the Chihuahua city; Dosis por {sup 222} Rn en casas-habitacion de la ciudad de Chihuahua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colmenero S, L.H.; Talamantes F, C. [ITCH II, Ave. de las Industrias 11101, Chihuahua (Mexico); Villalba, M.L. [UACH, Facultad de Ingenieria, Chihuahua (Mexico); Dobson, P.F. [Laboratorio Nacional Lawrence Berkeley, California (United States); Ortalejo M, B. [UACH, Facultad de Enfermeria y Nutriologia, Chihuahua (Mexico)]. e-mail: luis.colmenero@cimav.edu.mx

    2007-07-01

    Full text: The dose equivalent that the population of the Chihuahua city receives due to the radon in air that joined to values of uranium, thorium and potassium due to the floor and radon in water was determined, they give values very above the international and national norms. The state of Chihuahua contains near 56 locations distributed by the whole state. The city of Chihuahua, capital of the state, is surrounded of rocks with great content of uranium, for what their floor also contains to the {sup 226} Ra that generates to the {sup 222} Rn. The construction of the housings of the city of Chihuahua is mainly of brick, block and adobe; the material to elaborate them is take from the rocks and floor of the surroundings, this makes that the radon is presented in a great quantity of houses of this city. As the floor and water they also contain those natural radionuclides, the total dose equivalent that the inhabitants receive is bigger to other cities of the country. Diverse international organizations dedicated to the radioactivity, indicate that the level of the {sup 222} Rn should not surpass the 148 Bq/m{sup 3}, since this gas produces lung cancer. The state of Chihuahua has an index of deaths on the average by lung cancer of double the national average, the capital of the state also has a high index. The radon concentration in a house depends on the construction material with which was made, as well as of the existent climatic conditions. During the day, this concentration depends mainly on the interior temperature, so during the night and dawn increases the radon concentration. The radon is the biggest source of radioactive dose received by the human being and it can generate a problem of public health if the concentration is high during enough time, for what the city of Chihuahua has the geologic and climatic characteristics to have it. This study was carried out in 50 house-room of the city of Chihuahua. Built houses with brick, block and adobe were

  1. Optimization of filtration for reduction of lung dose from Rn decay products: Part I--Theoretical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curling, C.A.; Rudnick, S.N.; Ryan, P.B.; Moeller, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    A theoretical model was developed for the optimization of filter characteristics that would minimize the dose from the inhalation of Rn decay products. Modified forms of the Jacobi-Porstendorfer room model and the Jacobi-Eisfeld lung dose model were chosen for use in the mathematical simulation. Optimized parameters of the filter were the thickness, solidity, and fiber diameter. For purposes of the calculations, the room dimensions, air exchange rate, particle-size distribution and concentration, and the Rn concentration were specified. The resulting computer-aided optimal design was a thin filter (the minimum thickness used in the computer model was 0.1 mm) having low solidity (the minimum solidity used was 0.5%) and large diameter fibers (the maximum diameter used was 100 microns). The simulation implies that a significant reduction in the dose rate can be achieved using a well-designed recirculating filter system. The theoretical model, using the assumption of ideal mixing, predicts an 80% reduction in the dose rate, although inherent in this assumption is the movement of 230 room volumes per hour through the fan

  2. Uncertainty and Sensitivity of Alternative Rn-222 Flux Density Models Used in Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg J. Shott, Vefa Yucel, Lloyd Desotell

    2007-06-01

    Performance assessments for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site have used three different mathematical models to estimate Rn-222 flux density. This study describes the performance, uncertainty, and sensitivity of the three models which include the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 3.64 analytical method and two numerical methods. The uncertainty of each model was determined by Monte Carlo simulation using Latin hypercube sampling. The global sensitivity was investigated using Morris one-at-time screening method, sample-based correlation and regression methods, the variance-based extended Fourier amplitude sensitivity test, and Sobol's sensitivity indices. The models were found to produce similar estimates of the mean and median flux density, but to have different uncertainties and sensitivities. When the Rn-222 effective diffusion coefficient was estimated using five different published predictive models, the radon flux density models were found to be most sensitive to the effective diffusion coefficient model selected, the emanation coefficient, and the radionuclide inventory. Using a site-specific measured effective diffusion coefficient significantly reduced the output uncertainty. When a site-specific effective-diffusion coefficient was used, the models were most sensitive to the emanation coefficient and the radionuclide inventory.

  3. Matérn-based nonstationary cross-covariance models for global processes

    KAUST Repository

    Jun, Mikyoung

    2014-07-01

    Many spatial processes in environmental applications, such as climate variables and climate model errors on a global scale, exhibit complex nonstationary dependence structure, in not only their marginal covariance but also their cross-covariance. Flexible cross-covariance models for processes on a global scale are critical for an accurate description of each spatial process as well as the cross-dependences between them and also for improved predictions. We propose various ways to produce cross-covariance models, based on the Matérn covariance model class, that are suitable for describing prominent nonstationary characteristics of the global processes. In particular, we seek nonstationary versions of Matérn covariance models whose smoothness parameters vary over space, coupled with a differential operators approach for modeling large-scale nonstationarity. We compare their performance to the performance of some existing models in terms of the aic and spatial predictions in two applications: joint modeling of surface temperature and precipitation, and joint modeling of errors in climate model ensembles. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  4. Purification and Characterization of Organic Solvent and Detergent Tolerant Lipase from Thermotolerant Bacillus sp. RN2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiko Kajiwara

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the organic solvent and detergent tolerant properties of recombinant lipase isolated from thermotolerant Bacillus sp. RN2 (Lip-SBRN2. The isolation of the lipase-coding gene was achieved by the use of inverse and direct PCR. The complete DNA sequencing of the gene revealed that the lip-SBRN2 gene contains 576 nucleotides which corresponded to 192 deduced amino acids. The purified enzyme was homogeneous with the estimated molecular mass of 19 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration. The Lip-SBRN2 was stable in a pH range of 9–11 and temperature range of 45–60 °C. The enzyme was a non metallo-monomeric protein and was active against pNP-caprylate (C8 and pNP-laurate (C12 and coconut oil. The Lip-SBRN2 exhibited a high level of activity in the presence of 108% benzene, 102.4% diethylether and 112% SDS. It is anticipated that the organic solvent and detergent tolerant enzyme secreted by Bacillus sp. RN2 will be applicable as catalysts for reaction in the presence of organic solvents and detergents.

  5. Musikterapi med børn med svær autisme - en litteraturgennemgang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Holck

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Faglitteratur om musikterapi med børn med autisme er omfattende og indeholder såvel kvalitative case-beskrivelser som kvantitative forskningsundersøgelser. I artiklen gennemgås faglitteraturen systematisk med henblik på at specifi cere musikterapiens effekt og virkemåder i forhold til denne målgruppe. Vægten ligger på børn med svær autisme, men litteratur om voksne højtfungerende personer med autisme inddrages også. Forskningslitteraturen viser, at det især er inden for områderne koncentration, visuel opmærksomhed, respons og initiativ, samt brug af stemme og tur-tagning, at musikterapi har en effekt. Case-litteraturen begrunder denne effekt med musikkens evne til at være redundant, anvendelse af imitation og responsfremmende teknikker (overraskelse etc., fælles opbyggede samspilsformer, samt det temporale-interaktive element i improvisatorisk musikterapi. Ud fra en interaktionsteoretisk indfaldsvinkel sammenkobles effekten endvidere med, at den musikalske interaktion hjælper musikterapeuten til at fastholde et dynamisk udtryk, hvilket er afgørende i forhold til en klientgruppe, der ofte giver ´flad´ eller stærkt afvigende feedback.

  6. Quantitative research on critical thinking and predicting nursing students' NCLEX-RN performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Elizabeth M

    2010-07-01

    The concept of critical thinking has been influential in several disciplines. Both education and nursing in general have been attempting to define, teach, and measure this concept for decades. Nurse educators realize that critical thinking is the cornerstone of the objectives and goals for nursing students. The purpose of this article is to review and analyze quantitative research findings relevant to the measurement of critical thinking abilities and skills in undergraduate nursing students and the usefulness of critical thinking as a predictor of National Council Licensure Examination-Registered Nurse (NCLEX-RN) performance. The specific issues that this integrative review examined include assessment and analysis of the theoretical and operational definitions of critical thinking, theoretical frameworks used to guide the studies, instruments used to evaluate critical thinking skills and abilities, and the role of critical thinking as a predictor of NCLEX-RN outcomes. A list of key assumptions related to critical thinking was formulated. The limitations and gaps in the literature were identified, as well as the types of future research needed in this arena. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Assessment of 222Rn occupational exposure at IPEN nuclear materials storage site, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caccuri, Lilian Saueia

    2007-01-01

    In this study it was assessed the occupational exposure to 222 Rn at IPEN, SP, Brazil, nuclear materials storage site through the committed effective dose received by workers exposed to this radionuclide. The radiation dose was calculated through the radon concentrations at nuclear materials storage site. Radon concentrations were determined by passive detection method with solid state nuclear detectors (SSNTD). The SSNTD used in this study was the polycarbonate Makrofol E; each detector is a small square plastic of 1 cm 2 , placed into a diffusion chamber type KFK. It was monitored 14 points at nuclear materials storage site and one external point, over a period of 21 months, changing the detectors every three months, from December 2004 to September 2006. The 222 Rn concentrations varied from 196 ± 9 and 2048 ± 81 Bq·m -3 . The committed effective dose due to radon inhalation at IPEN nuclear materials storage site was obtained from radon activity incorporated and dose conversion factor, according to International Commission on Radiological Protection procedures. The effective committed dose received by workers is below 20 mSv·y -1 . This value is suggested as an annual effective dose limit for occupational exposure by ICRP 60. (author)

  8. {sup 222}Rn determination in water and brine samples using liquid scintillation spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Thiago C.; Oliveira, Arno H., E-mail: oliveiratco2010@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Monteiro, Roberto P.G.; Moreira, Rubens M., E-mail: rpgm@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Liquid scintillation spectrometry (LSC) is the most common technique used for {sup 222}Rn determination in environmental aqueous sample. In this study, the performance of water-miscible (Ultima Gold AB) and immiscible (Optiscint) liquid scintillation cocktails has been compared for different matrices. {sup 241}Am, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra standard solutions were used for LSC calibration. {sup 214}Po region was defined as better for both cocktails. Counting efficiency of 76 % and optimum PSA level of 95 for Ultima Gold AB cocktail, and counting efficiency of 82 % and optimum PSA level of 85 for Optiscint cocktail were obtained. Both cocktails showed similar results when applied for {sup 222}Rn activity determination in water and brine samples. However the Optiscint is recommended due to its quenching resistance. Limit of detection of 0.08 and 0.06 Bq l{sup -1} were obtained for water samples using a sample:cocktail ratio of 10:12 mL for Ultima Gold AB and Optiscint cocktails, respectively. Limit of detection of 0.08 and 0.04 Bq l{sup -1} were obtained for brine samples using a sample:cocktail ratio of 8:12 mL for Ultima Gold AB and Optiscint cocktails, respectively. (author)

  9. 222Rn determination in water and brine samples using liquid scintillation spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Thiago C.; Oliveira, Arno H.

    2017-01-01

    Liquid scintillation spectrometry (LSC) is the most common technique used for 222 Rn determination in environmental aqueous sample. In this study, the performance of water-miscible (Ultima Gold AB) and immiscible (Optiscint) liquid scintillation cocktails has been compared for different matrices. 241 Am, 90 Sr and 226 Ra standard solutions were used for LSC calibration. 214 Po region was defined as better for both cocktails. Counting efficiency of 76 % and optimum PSA level of 95 for Ultima Gold AB cocktail, and counting efficiency of 82 % and optimum PSA level of 85 for Optiscint cocktail were obtained. Both cocktails showed similar results when applied for 222 Rn activity determination in water and brine samples. However the Optiscint is recommended due to its quenching resistance. Limit of detection of 0.08 and 0.06 Bq l -1 were obtained for water samples using a sample:cocktail ratio of 10:12 mL for Ultima Gold AB and Optiscint cocktails, respectively. Limit of detection of 0.08 and 0.04 Bq l -1 were obtained for brine samples using a sample:cocktail ratio of 8:12 mL for Ultima Gold AB and Optiscint cocktails, respectively. (author)

  10. Study of 222Rn emanation levels present in naturally occurring radioactive materials - NORM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Marcia Valeria F.E. Sa; Crispim, Verginia Reis; Lima, Clara Teresa S.

    2009-01-01

    The presence of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM), contaminating oil and gas installations, is usual in the petroleum industry, and can be severe enough to expose the workers to elevated levels of radiation. The segregation of contaminated residues although necessary, is still a problem without a satisfactory solution. Currently, the most practical and economic option for discarding this material is to stock it in areas of the installation with controlled access. Certain equipment used in the petroleum industry has scale and sludge that could be associated to important levels of radioactivity. Typically, the scales are mixtures of carbonate and sulphate minerals, such as barite (BaSO 4 ), that easily incorporate 226 Ra and 228 Ra in their structures. The objective of this work was to measure the emanations of the radon present in NORM samples, via diffusion chambers containing a nuclear track detector (CR-39). The images of α particle tracks emanated by 222 Rn registered on CR-39 were observed with a Nikon E400 optic microscope and captured by a Nikon Coolpix digital camera and then stored in a database, to later count the tracks using the computational program, Image Pro plus. Since the number of those tracks resulted proportional to the emanation rate of 222 Rn this methodology allowed the comparison of contamination levels in analyzed samples. (author)

  11. Exposures to 222Rn and its progeny derived from implanted 210Po activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikezic, D.; Yu, K.N.

    2006-01-01

    The Jacobi room model was applied to study the relative contributions from the unattached and attached fractions to the implanted activity of 210 Po. It was found that under normal conditions, about 85% of the implantation was due to the unattached fraction. Sensitivity analysis was performed to identify the most important factors that influence the deposition and implantation of radon progeny. The main factors affecting the incorporation of 210 Po are the attachment rate, deposition rate of unattached progeny and the surface to volume ratio of the room. The calibration curves, which related the 210 Po activity per unit surface area to the concentrations of 222 Rn and of the radon progeny, were determined as functions of exposure times. The implanted activity is found to distribute close to a lognormal distribution. For an exposure of 20 years, the distribution has a geometric standard deviation of 2.2 and a geometric mean of 0.023Bq/m 2 /(Bq/m 3 ). The last value is considered as the calibration coefficient of the glass response in terms of the implanted 210 Po activity per unit surface area per unit concentration of 222 Rn for an exposure period of 20 years

  12. Practical difficulties in determining 222Rn flux density in underground uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.

    1991-01-01

    Radon-222 flux density, J, has been determined in a number of locations in an underground U mine. Measurements were conducted using the Two-Point Measurement (2PM) method, consisting of measuring the 222Rn concentration at two different points a distance apart within a given section of the mine. Several mine models were used for determining J by the above method. The 2PM method is sensitive to sources and sinks of 222Rn other than mine walls, as well as mining operations and mining activities of a diverse nature, and to local variations in airflow conditions. Because of this, J obtained by the 2PM method represents an 'apparent' flux density. Significant differences were found in the flux density calculated according to different mine models. In addition, J measurements using the flux 'can' method were also carried out in mine walls and compared with the values obtained by the 2PM method. Wide discrepancies between the two methods were found. The practical and theoretical difficulties in determining J are discussed

  13. Uncertainty and Sensitivity of Alternative Rn-222 Flux Density Models Used in Performance Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greg J. Shott, Vefa Yucel, Lloyd Desotell Non-Nstec Authors: G. Pyles and Jon Carilli

    2007-01-01

    Performance assessments for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site have used three different mathematical models to estimate Rn-222 flux density. This study describes the performance, uncertainty, and sensitivity of the three models which include the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 3.64 analytical method and two numerical methods. The uncertainty of each model was determined by Monte Carlo simulation using Latin hypercube sampling. The global sensitivity was investigated using Morris one-at-time screening method, sample-based correlation and regression methods, the variance-based extended Fourier amplitude sensitivity test, and Sobol's sensitivity indices. The models were found to produce similar estimates of the mean and median flux density, but to have different uncertainties and sensitivities. When the Rn-222 effective diffusion coefficient was estimated using five different published predictive models, the radon flux density models were found to be most sensitive to the effective diffusion coefficient model selected, the emanation coefficient, and the radionuclide inventory. Using a site-specific measured effective diffusion coefficient significantly reduced the output uncertainty. When a site-specific effective-diffusion coefficient was used, the models were most sensitive to the emanation coefficient and the radionuclide inventory

  14. 222Rn determination in some thermal baths of a central eastern Italian area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desideri, D.; Bruno, M.R.; Roselli, C.

    2004-01-01

    Some recent Italian laws, based on the Euratom Directive 26/96, introduce the obligation of monitoring the exposition to natural radioactivity in particular worksites (thermal baths, mines, basements, etc.). Results of 222 Rn measurements in some thermal baths of Rimini and Pesaro-Urbino provinces (Central Eastern Italy), by Radosys-2000, a complete set suitable to radon concentration measurements with CR-39 plastic alpha-track detectors are reported. Some areas where radon could accumulate (bathing, reaction, muddy, inhalation, insufflation rooms and swimming pools) were selected for the investigation. The dosimeters have been exposed for 98 days. The results show that 222 Rn concentrations are very low in the considered thermal baths (7-71 Bq x m -3 ). Moreover, no difference was observed between the concentrations measured in the therapy rooms (bathing, muddy, inhalation and insufflation rooms, swimming pools) and in the normal areas (passages, reaction rooms, dressing rooms, etc.). The calculated dose contribution to workers was about one tenth of the legally suggested value. (author)

  15. A survey of 222Rn in drinking water in mexico city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez-Lopez, C.; Zendejas-Leal, B. E.; Golzarri, J. I.; Espinosa, G.

    2011-01-01

    In Mexico City there are more than 22 millions of inhabitants (10 in the metropolitan area and 12 in the suburban zone) exposed to drinking water. The local epidemiological authorities recognised that exposure to radon contaminated drinking water is a potential health hazard, as has been considered worldwide. The United States Environmental Protection Agency has proposed a limit of 11.1 Bq l -1 for the radon level in drinking water. In Mexico a maximum contamination level of radon in drinking water has not yet even considered. In this work, a 222 Rn study of drinking water in Mexico City has revealed a range of concentrations from background level to 3.8 Bq l -1 . 222 Rn was calculated using a portable degassing system (AquaKIT) associated with an AlphaGUARD measuring system. Samples from 70 wells of the water system of the south of the Valley Basin of Mexico City and from houses of some other political administrative divisions of Mexico City were taken. (authors)

  16. 222Rn determination in mineral waters from the Pocos de Caldas Plateau in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taddei, M.H.T.; Silva, N.C.; Cipriani, M.

    2002-01-01

    It is estimated that 50% of the radioactive effective dose equivalent to man comes from radon and its radioactivity daughters. The main 222 Rn sources are the soils, building materials and potable waters. There is an especial interest in spas waters with high natural radioactivity. It's considered that the use of these waters as drinking waters is a significant radiation exposure factor, and it is worthwhile to assess the consequent dose. Such estimation has been made for the Pocos de Caldas Plateau, which is a region of high natural radioactivity, from volcanic origin, containing several spas (Aguas da Prata, Caldas, Pocos de Caldas and Andradas). The 222 Rn content was determined in 23 spring waters in Pocos de Caldas and neighboring cities. In water sampling, modified Marinelli flasks were used. The determinations were effected with a high resolution gamma ray spectrometer. High concentration variations were observed in the collected mineral waters, the highest values having been found in Fonte Villela's waters, in Aguas da Prata town (926 Bq/l); Grande Hotel's in Caldas Town (420 Bq/l) and COLAB's in Pocos de Caldas region (289 Bq/l). The annual whole body effective dose equivalent estimate for adult due to water ingestion, using the Crowford-Brown's biokinetic model's adult dose conversion factors, was higher than 1 mSv/year in 61% of the analyzed waters. (author)

  17. Variations of airborne and waterborne Rn-222 in houses in Maine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, C.T.; Weiffenbach, C.V.; Norton, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    Concentrations of airborne radon ranging from 0.05 to 135 pCi/L were found in houses in Maine. To investigate the association between elevated radon concentrations in well water and the indoor airborne radon concentrations, the radon in the water supplies of these houses was measured by liquid scintillation. Monitors of airborne radon were used for dynamic studies in 18 houses, determining the component of airborne radon associated with showers, laundry and dishwashing, which liberate radon in bursts. The component of airborne radon associated with water sources was found to vary inversely with ventilation rate and directly with waterborne radon concentration, with 0.8 +- 0.2 pCi Rn/L air per nCi Rn/L water at a ventilation rate of 1.0 air change per hour. The data are pertinent to a study which has revealed significant correlations between county averages, from the National Cancer Institute, or age-adjusted cancer mortality rates in Maine and average values of radon concentrations in water for the counties. (author)

  18. Behaviour of 222Rn and its daughter products in open atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondo-Estok, D.; Holy, K.; Stanys, T.; Polaskova, A.; Hola, O.

    2003-01-01

    In this contribution the influence of the meteorological conditions on activity concentrations of the outdoor 222 Rn and its daughter products is discussed in detail. In addition, the correlation between concentrations of measured radionuclides is studied and empirical relations for concentrations of radon daughter products are presented. he courses of the activity concentrations of 222 Rn and its short-lived decay products in the outdoor atmosphere are very similar even in some details. The average equilibrium factor F determined on the basis of our measurements in the outdoor atmosphere is approximately about 20 % lower than the value F recommended by UNSCEAR 1996 for the open air (F = 0,7). The obtained nonlinear relations between radon and its decay products reduce the applications of decay products in the atmospheric studies on one hand but on the other hand they can be useful at the calculation of the equilibrium equivalent radon concentration with the aim to determine the effective radon dose on the basis of the measurements of its activity concentrations only. (authors)

  19. Variations of airborne and waterborne Rn-222 in houses in Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, C.T.; Weiffenbach, C.V.; Norton, S.A. (Maine Univ., Orono (USA))

    1982-01-01

    Concentrations of airborne radon ranging from 0.05 to 135 pCi/L were found in houses in Maine. To investigate the association between elevated radon concentrations in well water and the indoor airborne radon concentrations, the radon in the water supplies of these houses was measured by liquid scintillation. Monitors of airborne radon were used for dynamic studies in 18 houses, determining the component of airborne radon associated with showers, laundry and dishwashing, which liberate radon in bursts. The component of airborne radon associated with water sources was found to vary inversely with ventilation rate and directly with waterborne radon concentration, with 0.8 +- 0.2 pCi Rn/L air per nCi Rn/L water at a ventilation rate of 1.0 air change per hour. The data are pertinent to a study which has revealed significant correlations between county averages, from the National Cancer Institute, or age-adjusted cancer mortality rates in Maine and average values of radon concentrations in water for the counties.

  20. Study of the emanation levels of 222Rn present in Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials - NORM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Marcia Valeria de Fatima da Encarnacao Sa

    2009-01-01

    The presence of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM), contaminating oil and gas facilities, is a common fact in the petroleum industry, and can be severe enough to expose the workers to elevated levels of radiation. Thus, contaminated residues need to be segregated but, this is still a problem without a satisfactory solution. Currently, the most practical and economic option for discarding this material is to stock it in areas of the facility whose access is controlled. Certain equipment used in the petroleum industry has scale and sludge that could be associated to important levels of radioactivity. Typically, the scale is a mixture of carbonate and sulphate minerals, such as barite (BaSO 4 ), that easily incorporates 226 Ra and 228 Ra in its structures. The objective of this work was to measure the emanations of the radon present in these NORM samples, via diffusion chambers containing a nuclear track detector (CR-39). The images of particle alpha tracks emanated by 222 Rn registered on CR-39 were observed with a Nikon E400 optic microscope and captured by a Nikon Coolpix digital camera and then stored in a database, to later count the tracks using the computational program, Image Pro plus. Being that the emanation rate of 222 Rn was proportional to the number of these tracks the methodology permitted the comparison of contamination levels of the analyzed samples. (author)

  1. Døvfødte børn og deres livsbetingelser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Steen; Larsen, Lena Bech; Lindsay Sommer, Mette

    Formålet med denne rapport er at give et bredt billede af levevilkår for den første generation af døvfødte børn, som er vokset op med behandlingen Cochlear Implantat (CI), og derved får bedre mulighed for at lære at lytte og tale. CI har betydet et stort fremskridt for mennesker, der bliver født...... døve. De får således lært at læse meget bedre end gruppen tidligere gjorde. CI løser dog langtfra alle problemer. Rapporten viser, at selv om børnene nu har mulighed for at kommunikere ved at lytte og tale, er de slet ikke kommet på linje med gruppen af børn, som er født uden hørehandicap. Baggrunden...... for dette er dels, at deres hørelse begynder at fungere senere end andre børns, dels at hørelse med CI slet ikke har samme kvalitet som naturlig hørelse. Det er vanskeligt at følge med, når flere mennesker deltager i samtaler, og i uformelle sammenhænge, fx sammen med kammerater. Undersøgelsen er bestilt af...

  2. A survey of ²²²Rn in drinking water in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-López, C; Zendejas-Leal, B E; Golzarri, J I; Espinosa, G

    2011-05-01

    In Mexico City there are more than 22 millions of inhabitants (10 in the metropolitan area and 12 in the suburban zone) exposed to drinking water. The local epidemiological authorities recognised that exposure to radon contaminated drinking water is a potential health hazard, as has been considered worldwide. The United States Environmental Protection Agency has proposed a limit of 11.1 Bq l(-1) for the radon level in drinking water. In Mexico a maximum contamination level of radon in drinking water has not yet even considered. In this work, a (222)Rn study of drinking water in Mexico City has revealed a range of concentrations from background level to 3.8 Bq l(-1). (222)Rn was calculated using a portable degassing system (AquaKIT) associated with an AlphaGUARD measuring system. Samples from 70 wells of the water system of the south of the Valley Basin of Mexico City and from houses of some other political administrative divisions of Mexico City were taken.

  3. Loss of Magnet® Designation and Changes in RN Work Engagement: A Report on How 1 Hospital's Culture Changed Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonder, Amy Hagedorn; York, Jacki; Jackson, Kathryn L; Sluys, Teresa D

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the loss of Magnet® designation and how RNs' work engagement changed at 1 community hospital. The importance of RN work engagement to promote quality and safety is widely recognized in healthcare. Ongoing consistent research is critical to determine what organizational structures are needed to support RN work engagement. This was a comparative, descriptive, correlational study of RN cohorts at 2 time points: time 1 (T1), in 2011 during Magnet designation (n = 119), and time 2 (T2), in 2016, approximately 2 years after the loss of Magnet designation (n = 140). The cohort of RNs at T2 reported significantly lower work engagement in the time period after the loss of Magnet designation when compared with the RN cohort at T1 during Magnet designation (P ≤ .0002). These results provide insights for clinical leaders striving to support a culture of RN work engagement and quality care.

  4. Measurements of {sup 222} Rn in the indoor of dwellings in the Argentinean Republic; Mediciones de {sup 222} Rn en el interior de viviendas de la Republica Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canoba, A.; Lopez, F. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Del Libertador 8250 Ciudad de Buenos Aires (1429) (Argentina)]. e-mail: acanoba@cae.arn.gov.ar

    2006-07-01

    The {sup 222} Rn is responsible for approximately half of the dose in the population resultant of the exposure to natural radiation. Most of this dose comes from the inhalation of the offspring of the {sup 222} Rn, and these doses they are specially important in set closed. The concentration of gas radon has been measured in housings of different cities of the Argentinean Republic. The elected cities are representative of the different geologic areas of our territory. For this its were used as detecting measurement method of nuclear tracks, electret detectors and detectors based on the adsorption in activated coal. Its were analyzed a total of 2689 housings from 1983 to the date. The average value of the radon concentration obtained starting from the 2689 monitored housings was of 41.6 Bq.m{sup -3}. The effective annual dose calculated starting from this radon concentration, using a dosimetric factor of 25 {mu}Sv.a{sup -1} (Bq.m{sup -3}), which assumes an equilibrium factor of 0.4, was of 1.04 mSv. Also, with the objective of determining the dose in form more exact, during the year 2000 it put on to point a passive technique for the simultaneous measurement such the radon concentration like of the equilibrium factor. This technique uses in oneself device two detectors of nuclear traces. The average value obtained starting from 204 monitored housings by this method of simultaneous measurement turns out to be 47.1 Bq.m{sup -3} and 0.36 the equilibrium factor, being obtained a value of effective annual dose of 1.38 mSv. It fits to highlight that are very few the values above 200 Bq.m{sup -3} and in any case the 300 Bq.m{sup -3} is overcome. Analyzing the average equilibrium factor measured of 0.36, it was concluded that having assumed an equilibrium factor of 0.4 was adequate, for what for great measurement campaigns it can continue using the simple method that determines only the radon concentration. Comparing the obtained results by both methods, although the first

  5. Refração atmosferica nas medidas Doppler

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Leonardo Castro de

    1990-01-01

    Orientador: Jose Bittencourt de Andrade Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal do Parana. Setor de Tecnologia Resumo: Esta dissertação tem por objetivo realizar investigações referentes à refração atmosférica nas medidas Doppler. São considerados quatro modelos para correção troposférica, e o modelo de duas frequências para a correção da refração ionosférica . São também testados de diferentes fontes de dados meteorológicos. Todos os testes são feitos utilizando-se o programa GEO...

  6. O Jornalismo nas Rádios Comunitárias

    OpenAIRE

    Rosembach, Cilto José

    2006-01-01

    O presente estudo analisa o jornalismo nas rádios comunitárias a partir do paradigma da comunicação popular, alternativa e da contextualização histórica das rádios comunitárias no Brasil. A programação jornalística de duas rádios comunitárias no Estado de São Paulo é analisada a partir do referencial teórico que elucida a comunicação popular e prioriza os conceitos de jornalismo popular. São analisadas a Rádio Cantareira FM 107,5, de Vila Isabel, distrito de Brasilândia, São...

  7. Ensinar e aprender geografia com/nas redes sociais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élida Pasini Tonetto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo trata de refletir sobre as potencialidades/operacionalidades das práticas pedagógicas da Geografia na apropriação das redes sociais online. Para isso, analisamos possíveis potencialidades oferecidas pelas redes sociais online para a Geografia e como podem ser operacionalizadas nas práticas pedagógicas com as redes sociais online seu ensino e, também, pensar como elas podem contribuir para ensinar e aprender com mais significância Geografia. Os fios teóricos da pesquisa estão tramados no entendimento de aprendizagem online para emaranhar os conceitos de espaço e ciberespaço, transitando por dois locais fundamentais: o da escola e o das redes. A abordagem metodológica é construída nas trilhas das pesquisas pós-críticas em educação, onde o Facebook é o lócus para analisar as novas formas de comunicar que subjetivam os sujeitos e engendram novos formatos de ensinagem. Os resultados apontam diferentes potencialidades e operacionalidades das redes sociais online, mas que não representam apenas o uso da técnica em sala de aula, mas sim como parte da agenda de busca pela construção de processos de aprendizagens significativos em Geografia, através das redes sociais, que representam uma forma contemporânea de comunicar/interagir presente no cotidiano dos alunos.

  8. The Rn-222 with natural tracer in the study of natural gas transport within sterile cells of mining; O Rn-222 como tracador natural no estudo de transporte de gases no interior de pilhas de estereis de mineracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chagas, Eduardo G.L. das; Dias, Danila C.S.; Guerrero, Eder T. Z.; Alberti, Heber L.C.; Couto, Jeferson A.; Silva, Nivaldo C., E-mail: duglchagas@hotmail.com, E-mail: ncsilva@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas; Braz, Marcelo L. [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Abreu, Carolina B. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lopez, Dina [Universidade de Ohio (United States); Branco, Otavio [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil); Fleming, Peter M. [Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The objectives of this work are mapping of Rn-222 concentration in the interstitial air of the cell 4 (BF-4) barren of uranium mining in the Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG - Brazil, as well as build an automatic system for collection of interstitial gases.

  9. Utilization of marble from Bejui mine - Currais Novos/RN in ceramic mass; Analise da incorporacao de marmore da mina Brejui - Currais Novos/RN na massa ceramica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, D.S.U. de; Souza, M.M. de; Almeida, A.B.D. de; Lima, T.C. de; Nobrega, L.F.P. de M. [Instituto Federal de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Rio Grande do Norte (IFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Mendes, L.B., E-mail: debora_suf_00@hotmail.com [Fundacao de Apoio a Pesquisa do Rio Grande do Norte (FAPERN), Natal RN (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Mining in Mine Brejui, in Currais Novos - RN, is related to the extraction of scheelite, however the marble of the region is not fully tapped. Aiming to provide a utility to this carbonate rock very abundant in the Serido region, this work is to evaluate, from its chemical and other tests, the addition of marble in the ceramic mass. For the analysis, the samples were collected, then comminuted and sieved to #200 and, right after, characterized by fluorescence X-ray method (FRX). The results indicate a high concentration of CaO (95%), a flux element, and very low content of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SO{sub 3} (less than 0.6%). After produced the samples, there were performed the water absorption tests and linear shrinkage, which has indicate satisfactory results and classifying them as porcelain. Therefore, with the significant potential of the marble, other laboratory tests may be performed to analyze its incorporation in the formulation of ceramic bodies, being economically viable and adding proper use and commercial value to the rock. (author)

  10. On the influence of environmental factors on radon levels in caves of Ribeira valley state parks, SP and evaluation of radioactive equilibrium and equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny; Sobre a influencia de fatores ambientais nos niveis de radonio em cavernas dos parques estaduais do vale do Ribeira, SP e avaliacao do equilibrio radioativo e fator de equilibrio entre radonio e seus descendentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberigi, Simone

    2011-07-01

    In the present study it was carried out the monitoring of radon in caves distributed among three state parks of Sao Paulo. The radon concentration were determinate in Morro Preto and Santana caves, located at PETAR - Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (High Ribeira River Tourist State Park), Diabo cave, situated in PEJ - Parque Estadual de Jacupiranga (Jacupiranga State Park) and Colorida cave located in PEI - Parque Estadual Intervales (Intervales State Park PEI). The monitoring covered measurements between April 2009 and June 2010. Radon concentrations were carried out by using the technique of passive detection with CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors and NRPB diffusion chambers. The detectors were exposed in periods ranging from 30 to 150 days. Radon concentrations varied from 132 Bq/m{sup 3} to 9456 Bq/m{sup 3}. The values of radon concentrations were analyzed together with information about rainfall and internal and external temperature values of the Santana cave environment and regional literature values for a possible relationship between radon variations and weather information. Both the determinations of {sup 22}'6Ra in water samples collected in some caves and rivers and radon emanation from a stalactite collected at Santana cave allowed to verify that the radon in the caves comes from the walls rocks. The verification of the radioactive equilibrium between {sup 222}Rn, {sup 218}Po and '2{sup 14}Po in the exposed detectors was prejudiced by the high tracks densities, committing the methodology effectiveness. The annual effective dose was calculated for three values obtained from the literature for the equilibrium factor. Considering the most realistic scenario, with equilibrium factor of 0.5 and 52 working weeks, the annual effective dose was 5.1 mSv/y. Concerning the worst scenario, which simulates an extreme case, adopting an equilibrium factor equal to 1 and 52 weeks of work per year, the annual effective dose is 10.2 m

  11. Remotely Operated Aircraft (ROA) Impact on the National Airspace System (NAS) Work Package: Automation Impacts of ROA's in the NAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to analyze the impact of Remotely Operated Aircraft (ROA) operations on current and planned Air Traffic Control (ATC) automation systems in the En Route, Terminal, and Traffic Flow Management domains. The operational aspects of ROA flight, while similar, are not entirely identical to their manned counterparts and may not have been considered within the time-horizons of the automation tools. This analysis was performed to determine if flight characteristics of ROAs would be compatible with current and future NAS automation tools. Improvements to existing systems / processes are recommended that would give Air Traffic Controllers an indication that a particular aircraft is an ROA and modifications to IFR flight plan processing algorithms and / or designation of airspace where an ROA will be operating for long periods of time.

  12. Calibration of a degassing-emanation line for 222Rn determination in seawater samples; Calibracao de uma linha de emanacao para determinacao de {sup 222}Rn em amostras de agua do mar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Luciana Aparecida

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to calibrate a degassing-emanation line and to determine {sup 222}Rn and {sup 226}Ra activity concentrations in seawater samples. This methodology, also called Lucas method, consists in the extraction of radon (originally dissolved in seawater), collection of the gas in a liquid nitrogen cold trap and transfer from the trap to an alpha scintillation cell. Total extraction efficiencies of the 4 degassing-emanation systems were determined by measuring {sup 226}Ra reference solutions. The efficiencies obtained for these 4 systems varied from 21 % to 62%. This work also presents preliminary results of a study carried out in a series of small embayements of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo State-Brazil: Flamengo Bay, Fortaleza Bay, Mar Virado Bay and Ubatuba Bay. Concentration of Rn in excess varied from 0,011 to 0,317 Bq/L for Flamengo Bay, from 0,009 to 0,130 Bq/L for Fortaleza Bay, from 0,018 to 0,050 Bq/L for Mar Virado Bay and from 0,004 to 0,120 Bq/L for Ubatuba Bay. The results obtained for the concentration of {sup 222}Rn in excess in a transect at Flamengo Bay varied from 0,002 to 0,036 Bq/L. Higher concentrations of {sup 222}Rn in excess were obtained in Flamengo Bay, Fortaleza Bay and Ubatuba bay. It was also observed that the concentration of {sup 222}Rn in excess increases with depth, as expected. (author)

  13. Björn Andersson – et liv for elevene, lærerne og naturfagene Björn Andersson – a life for students, teachers and science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svein Sjøberg

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is written in memory of Professor Björn Andersson (1939-2013, the pioneer in the emerging field of science education research in Sweden. In 1976 he was the first to present a PhD in the field of science education in the Nordic countries, and later he became the first to hold a chair in this field in Sweden. The article lifts his PhD (Andersson, 1976 as an example for how a PhD should be written and argues that it should be re-read today. The theses has a clear purpose and research agenda, a well-argued theoretical foundation, a solid anchoring to classroom context, sound choices of methods, excellent analysis of empirical data, both qualitative and qualitative, and a clear presentation of findings and implications. In the decades that followed, Björn was the key person to build the field of science education research in Sweden. This article presents just a few aspects of his wide scope of interests and activities as they have unfolded on the national as well as on the international scene. Björn brought international perspectives to Sweden, and he also represented Sweden abroad. Now, nearly 40 years after Björn graduated, the field of science education in Sweden and the other Nordic countries is well established and flourishing. Björn combined a series of qualities and can serve as a model for new generations: a concern for the learner, teachers and their classroom activities, and a care for coworkers. He provides an example of how to combine an academic activity with a devotion to improve the quality of teaching and learning.

  14. Interacciones de las proteínas disulfuro isomerasa y de choque térmico Hsc70 con proteínas estructurales recombinantes purificadas de rotavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Y. Moreno

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La entrada de rotavirus a las células parece estar mediado por interacciones secuenciales entre las proteínas estructurales virales y algunas moléculas de la superficie celular. Sin embargo, los mecanismos por los cuales el rotavirus infecta la célula diana aún no se comprenden bien. Existe alguna evidencia que muestra que las proteínas estructurales de rotavirus VP5* y VP8* interactúan con algunas moléculas de la superficie celular. La disponibilidad de las proteínas estructurales de rotavirus recombinantes en cantidad suficiente se ha convertido en un aspecto importante para la identificación de las interacciones específicas de los receptores virus-célula durante los eventos tempranos del proceso infeccioso. Objetivo. El propósito del presente trabajo es realizar un análisis de las interacciones entre las proteínas estructurales de rotavirus recombinante VP5*, VP8* y VP6, y las proteínas celulares Hsc70 y PDI utilizando sus versiones recombinantes purificadas. Materiales y métodos. Las proteínas recombinantes de rotavirus VP5* y VP8* y las proteínas recombinantes celulares Hsc70 y PDI se expresaron en E. coli BL21 (DE3, mientras que VP6 se expresó en células MA104 con virus vaccinia recombinante transfectada. La interacción entre el rotavirus y las proteínas celulares se estudió mediante ELISA, co-inmunoprecipitación y SDS-PAGE/ Western. Resultados. Las condiciones óptimas para la expresión de proteínas recombinantes se determinaron y se generaron anticuerpos contra ellas. Los resultados sugirieron que las proteínas virales rVP5* y rVP6 interactúan con Hsc70 y PDI in vitro. También se encontró que éstas proteínas virales recombinantes interactúan con Hsc70 en las balsas lipídicas (“Rafts” en un cultivo celular. El tratamiento de las células, ya sea con DLP o rVP6 produjo significativamente la inhibición de la infección por rotavirus. Conclusión. Los resultados permiten concluir que r

  15. Assessment of (222)Rn emanation from ore body and backfill tailings in low-grade underground uranium mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Devi Prasad; Sahu, Patitapaban; Panigrahi, Durga Charan; Jha, Vivekanand; Patnaik, R Lokeswara

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of (222)Rn emanation from the ore and backfill tailings in an underground uranium mine located at Jaduguda, India. The effects of surface area, porosity, (226)Ra and moisture contents on (222)Rn emanation rate were examined. The study revealed that the bulk porosity of backfill tailings is more than two orders of magnitude than that of the ore. The geometric mean radon emanation rates from the ore body and backfill tailings were found to be 10.01 × 10(-3) and 1.03 Bq m(-2) s(-1), respectively. Significant positive linear correlations between (222)Rn emanation rate and the (226)Ra content of ore and tailings were observed. For normalised (226)Ra content, the (222)Rn emanation rate from tailings was found to be 283 times higher than the ore due to higher bulk porosity and surface area. The relative radon emanation from the tailings with moisture fraction of 0.14 was found to be 2.4 times higher than the oven-dried tailings. The study suggested that the mill tailings used as a backfill material significantly contributes to radon emanation as compared to the ore body itself and the (226)Ra content and bulk porosity are the dominant factors for radon emanation into the mine atmosphere.

  16. Generalized pustular psoriasis in infant with heterozygous mutation in the IL36RN gene successfully treated with infliximab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glerup, Mia; Herlin, Troels; Veirum, Jens Erik

    , but to our knowledge heterozygous IL36RN mutation related to severe generalized pustular psoriasis in early childhood has not been described. Case presentation: First child of non-consanguineous caucasian (Danish) parents prenatally diagnosed with tetralogy of Fallot. Array CGH revealed normal karyotype...

  17. Early Start Denver Model - intervention for de helt små børn med autisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynskov, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) er en autismespecifik interventionsmetode, som er udviklet til helt små børn med autisme (0-4 år). Metoden fokuserer på at styrke den tidlige kontakt og barnets motivation, og den arbejder målrettet med de socio-kommunikative forløbere for sprog og med den tidlige...

  18. Characterization of Rn-222 production in Campo do Cercado C/09 Pocos de Caldas, Minas Gerais State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, E.B.

    1977-01-01

    A systematic study for correlating the Rn-222 escape with the main geochemical and mineralogical factors for understanding of some change processes from uranium deposits in Campo do Cercado C-09 in Pocos de Caldas, Minas Gerais State is described. (author)

  19. Gender-Based Barriers Experienced by Male Students in an Online RN-to-BSN Nursing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, John R.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative survey-based research study examined the experiences of 49 men through a comparative analysis of their traditional classroom-based Diploma or Associate Degree in Nursing program and their subsequent experiences in the University of Phoenix online Registered Nurse to Bachelor of Science in Nursing (RN-to-BSN) degree completion…

  20. Gaussian likelihood inference on data from trans-Gaussian random fields with Matérn covariance function

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Yuan

    2017-07-13

    Gaussian likelihood inference has been studied and used extensively in both statistical theory and applications due to its simplicity. However, in practice, the assumption of Gaussianity is rarely met in the analysis of spatial data. In this paper, we study the effect of non-Gaussianity on Gaussian likelihood inference for the parameters of the Matérn covariance model. By using Monte Carlo simulations, we generate spatial data from a Tukey g-and-h random field, a flexible trans-Gaussian random field, with the Matérn covariance function, where g controls skewness and h controls tail heaviness. We use maximum likelihood based on the multivariate Gaussian distribution to estimate the parameters of the Matérn covariance function. We illustrate the effects of non-Gaussianity of the data on the estimated covariance function by means of functional boxplots. Thanks to our tailored simulation design, a comparison of the maximum likelihood estimator under both the increasing and fixed domain asymptotics for spatial data is performed. We find that the maximum likelihood estimator based on Gaussian likelihood is overall satisfying and preferable than the non-distribution-based weighted least squares estimator for data from the Tukey g-and-h random field. We also present the result for Gaussian kriging based on Matérn covariance estimates with data from the Tukey g-and-h random field and observe an overall satisfactory performance.

  1. High-spin states in 214Rn, 216Ra and a study of even-even N = 128 systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennroth, T.; Horn, D.; Baktash, C.; Lister, C.J.; Young, G.R.

    1983-01-01

    High-spin states in 214 Rn and 216 Ra have been studied by means of the reaction 208 Pb( 13 C, α 3n #betta#) 214 Rn and 208 Pb( 13 C, 5n #betta#) 216 Ra at beam energies in the range 75--95 MeV. In-beam spectroscopy techniques, including #betta#-decay excitation functions, α-#betta# coincidences, #betta#-#betta# coincidences, #betta#-ray angular distributions, and pulsed-beam-#betta# timing, were utilized to establish level energies, #betta#-ray multipolarities, J/sup π/ assignments, and isomeric lifetimes. Excited states with spins up to 23h in 214 Rn and roughly-equal30h in 216 Ra were observed. Isomers were found in 214 Rn at 1625 keV (T/sub 1/2/ = 9 ns, J/sup π/ = 8 + ), 1787 keV (22 ns, 10 + ), 3485 keV (95 ns, 16), 4509 keV (230 ns, 20), and 4738 keV (8 ns, 22), and in 216 Ra at 1708 keV (8 ns, 8 + ) and 5868 keV (10 ns, approx.24). B(EL) values were deduced and compared to previously known lead-region electric transition rates. Shell-model calculations were performed and used to make configurational assignments. The absence of major α-decay branching in the isomers is explained and the systematic behavior of N = 128 even-even nuclei is discussed

  2. Effects of vegetation, a clay cap and environmental variables on 222Rn fluence rate from reclaimed U mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, R.C.; Fraley, L. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    We measured 222 Rn fluence rate and several environmental variables on two plots with U mill tailings buried beneath 30 cm of overburden and 20 cm of topsoil. An additional 30 cm of clay covered the tailings on one plot and each plot was subdivided into bare soil and vegetated subplots. We used linear correlation, two-way ANOVA and stepwise multiple regression to analyze the effects of the plot characteristics and the environmental variables on 222 Rn fluence rate. The most important effect on 222 Rn fluence rates from these plots was the combination of a clay cap and a vegetated surface. The mean annual fluence rate from the plot having both of these characteristics (520 +/- 370 mBq m-2 s-1) was over three times that of the vegetated plot without a clay cap (170 +/- 130 mBq m-2 s-1) and 18 times that of the bare plot with a clay cap (29 +/- 13 mBq m-2 s-1). The interaction effect may have been due to the growth of roots in the moist clay and active transport of dissolved 222 Rn to the surface in water. This speculation is supported by the observation that on vegetated plots with a clay cap, moisture in the clay enhanced the fluence rate

  3. The Rn-222 with natural tracer in the study of natural gas transport within sterile cells of mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chagas, Eduardo G.L. das; Dias, Danila C.S.; Guerrero, Eder T. Z.; Alberti, Heber L.C.; Couto, Jeferson A.; Silva, Nivaldo C.; Abreu, Carolina B.; Lopez, Dina; Branco, Otavio; Fleming, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this work are mapping of Rn-222 concentration in the interstitial air of the cell 4 (BF-4) barren of uranium mining in the Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG - Brazil, as well as build an automatic system for collection of interstitial gases

  4. High-spin states in 214Rn, 216Ra and a study of even-even N = 128 systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennroth, T.; Horn, D.; Baktash, C.; Lister, C.J.; Young, G.R.

    1981-09-01

    High-spin states in 214 Rn and 216 Ra have been studied by means of the reaction 208 Pb( 13 C,α3nγ) 214 Rn and 208 Pb( 13 C,5nγ) 216 Ra at beam energies in the range 75-95 MeV. In-beam spectroscopy techniques, including γ-decay excitation functions, α-γ coincidences, γ-γ coincidences, γ-ray angular distributions and pulsed-beam-γ timing, were utilized to establish level energies, γ-ray multipolarities, JHπ assignments and isomeric lifetimes. Excited states with spins up to 23 h/2π in 214 Rn and 30 h/2π in 216 Ra were established. Isomers are found in 214 Rn at 1625 keV (9 ns, 8 + ), 1787 keV (22 ns, 10 + ), 3485 keV (95 ns, 16 + ), 4509 keV (230 ns, 20 + ) and 4735 keV (8.0 ns, 22 + ) and in 216 Ra at 1710 keV (8 ns, 8 + ) and 5868 keV (10 ns, 24 - ). B(EL) values are derived and compared to previously known lead-region electric transition rates. Shell-model calculations are performed on the basis of which configuration assignment is made. The absence of α-decay branching in the isomers is explained. The systematical behaviour of N = 128 even-even nuclei is discussed. Effective moments of inertia are derived. (author)

  5. National survey on the natural radioactivity and Rn-222 exhalation rate of building materials in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, P.; van Dijk, W.; van der Graaf, E.R.; de Groot, A.V.

    The present study reports on results of a nationwide survey on the natural radioactivity concentrations and Rn-222 exhalation rates of the prevailing building materials in the Netherlands. In total 100 samples were taken and analyzed for the activity concentrations of Ra-226, Ra-228, Th-228, and

  6. Anden-ordens false belief og sproglig rekursion hos børn med Autisme Spektrum Forstyrrelser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyanskaya, Irina

    2017-01-01

    En tværfaglig forskningsgruppe fra Roskilde Universitet undersøger forbindelsen mellem udviklingen af sprog og udviklingen af socialkognitive evner hos børn med Autisme Spektrum Forstyrrelser. Projektet er støttet af VELUX FONDEN, og bag projektet står psykolog og ph.d.-studerende Irina Polyanskaya...

  7. Gaussian likelihood inference on data from trans-Gaussian random fields with Matérn covariance function

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Yuan; Genton, Marc G.

    2017-01-01

    Gaussian likelihood inference has been studied and used extensively in both statistical theory and applications due to its simplicity. However, in practice, the assumption of Gaussianity is rarely met in the analysis of spatial data. In this paper, we study the effect of non-Gaussianity on Gaussian likelihood inference for the parameters of the Matérn covariance model. By using Monte Carlo simulations, we generate spatial data from a Tukey g-and-h random field, a flexible trans-Gaussian random field, with the Matérn covariance function, where g controls skewness and h controls tail heaviness. We use maximum likelihood based on the multivariate Gaussian distribution to estimate the parameters of the Matérn covariance function. We illustrate the effects of non-Gaussianity of the data on the estimated covariance function by means of functional boxplots. Thanks to our tailored simulation design, a comparison of the maximum likelihood estimator under both the increasing and fixed domain asymptotics for spatial data is performed. We find that the maximum likelihood estimator based on Gaussian likelihood is overall satisfying and preferable than the non-distribution-based weighted least squares estimator for data from the Tukey g-and-h random field. We also present the result for Gaussian kriging based on Matérn covariance estimates with data from the Tukey g-and-h random field and observe an overall satisfactory performance.

  8. PERCEPÇÃO AMBIENTAL DE MORADORES DO BAIRRO NOVA PARNAMIRIM EM PARNAMIRIM/RN SOBRE SANEAMENTO BÁSICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cândida Cunha

    2015-02-01

    iminente no processo de urbanização e desenvolvimento de um local. O bairro de Nova Parnamirim em Parnamirim/RN se destacou nos últimos 20 anos pelo acelerado crescimento populacional, urbanístico e de infraestrutura, porém, enfrenta graves problemas relacionados ao saneamento básico, especialmente esgotamento sanitário e drenagem urbana.

  9. Odhady absolutního kardiovaskulárního rizika v České republice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reissigová, Jindra; Zvárová, Jana

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 5 (2008), s. 288-292 ISSN 0032-6739 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : framinghamská studie * SCORE studie * odhad kardiovaskulárního rizika * validační studie Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  10. Evaluation of patients with headache due to spontaneous intracranial hypotension by RN cisternography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Su Zy; Park, Chan Hee; Soo, Joo In; Pai, Moon Sun; Yoon, Suk Nam; Kim, Jang Sung

    1997-01-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) typically occurs without an obvious cause. However, it can be seen following the lumbar puncture, craniotomy, or spinal surgery. Also listed are contributing factors such as sneezing, coughing, intercourse or minor fall. Spontaneous spinal CSF leaks are not common, but are now increasingly recognized as a cause of postural headache associated with intracranial hypotension. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the role of RN cisternography in the diagnosis of SIH cuased by spinal CSF leakage. Four patients with clinical suspicion of SIH (Group I) and six patients as normal control (Group II) underwent RN cisternography. RN cisternography in Group II was done for various reasons, such as hydrocephalus, syringomyelia and memory loss. Group I consisted of the patients who presented with postural headache, as well as additional symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness, tinnitus and eyeball pain. The age range of these patients was 27 - 67 years. Lumbar puncture and CSF examinations were performed in Group I more than once and showed typical findings of low CSF pressure and slightly elevated protein level. Brain MRI (4/4), Cervico-thoracic spine MRI (3/4) were also performed. On gadolinium-enhanced brain MRI, enhancement of the meninges which is the most characteristic radiographic finding in intracranial hypotension was found in all patients of Group I. But, cervico-thoracic spin MRI was nonspecific. None of Group I had contrast myelography because of the patient's refusal. Group I and Group II underwent radionuclide cisternography following lumbar subarachnoid injection of 99mTc-DTPA (1-2mCi). The scans were taken in 2, 5, 24 hours later using single head gamma camera equipped with LEAP. Entire spinal region in posterior view and head in frontal and lateral views were obtained. The cisternography of Group I showed the CSF leakage or diverticulum at the level of cervico-thoracic junction(3/4) and mid-thoracic level (1

  11. Evaluation of patients with headache due to spontaneous intracranial hypotension by RN cisternography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Su Zy; Park, Chan Hee; Soo, Joo In; Pai, Moon Sun; Yoon, Suk Nam; Kim, Jang Sung [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) typically occurs without an obvious cause. However, it can be seen following the lumbar puncture, craniotomy, or spinal surgery. Also listed are contributing factors such as sneezing, coughing, intercourse or minor fall. Spontaneous spinal CSF leaks are not common, but are now increasingly recognized as a cause of postural headache associated with intracranial hypotension. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the role of RN cisternography in the diagnosis of SIH cuased by spinal CSF leakage. Four patients with clinical suspicion of SIH (Group I) and six patients as normal control (Group II) underwent RN cisternography. RN cisternography in Group II was done for various reasons, such as hydrocephalus, syringomyelia and memory loss. Group I consisted of the patients who presented with postural headache, as well as additional symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness, tinnitus and eyeball pain. The age range of these patients was 27 - 67 years. Lumbar puncture and CSF examinations were performed in Group I more than once and showed typical findings of low CSF pressure and slightly elevated protein level. Brain MRI (4/4), Cervico-thoracic spine MRI (3/4) were also performed. On gadolinium-enhanced brain MRI, enhancement of the meninges which is the most characteristic radiographic finding in intracranial hypotension was found in all patients of Group I. But, cervico-thoracic spin MRI was nonspecific. None of Group I had contrast myelography because of the patient's refusal. Group I and Group II underwent radionuclide cisternography following lumbar subarachnoid injection of 99mTc-DTPA (1-2mCi). The scans were taken in 2, 5, 24 hours later using single head gamma camera equipped with LEAP. Entire spinal region in posterior view and head in frontal and lateral views were obtained. The cisternography of Group I showed the CSF leakage or diverticulum at the level of cervico-thoracic junction(3/4) and mid

  12. 222Rn studies and mapping in the city of Curitiba - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Janine Nicolosi; Fior, Loriane; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Schelin, Hugo R.; Pecequilo, Brigitte R. S.; Paula Melo, Vicente de

    2008-01-01

    This work describes radon monitoring performed in cooperation between the Laboratory of Ionizing Radiations of the Federal University of Technology - Parana (UTFPR), the Institute of Nuclear and Energetic Researches (IPEN) and the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD), from the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), during the last two years. For 222 Rn concentration measurements related to different construction materials as well as for the studies of radon emanation and its reduction, the sealed cell chambers, of approximately 60 x 60 cm 2 , was built using ceramic and concrete blocks. This construction was performed within a protected and isolated laboratory environment to maintain the air humidity and temperature stable. These long term measurements have been performed using polycarbonate alpha track passive detectors. The exposure time was set to 15 days considering previous calibration performed at IRD, where a efficiency of 70% was obtained for the density of alpha particle tracks about 13.8 cm -2 per exposure day and per kBq/m 3 of radon activity concentration. The chemical development of the alpha tracks was achieved by electrochemical etching. The track identification and counting were done using a code based on the MATLAB Image Processing Toolbox. The cell chambers were built following four main steps: 1) assembling the walls using the blocks and mortar; 2) plaster installation; 3) wall surface finishing using lime; 4) wall surface insulation by paint. By comparison between three layers installed at the masonry walls from concrete and ceramic blocks, it was concluded that only wall painting with acrylic varnish attended the expectation and reduced the radon emanation flow by a factor of approximately 2.5. The construction materials were submitted to the instant measurements of radon concentration using a ALPHA GUARD Professional detector. The samples of the construction materials were stored inside an acrylic container (sealed up

  13. Evaluation of patients with headache due to spontaneous intracranial hypotension by RN cisternography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Su Zy; Park, Chan Hee; Soo, Joo In; Pai, Moon Sun; Yoon, Suk Nam; Kim, Jang Sung [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) typically occurs without an obvious cause. However, it can be seen following the lumbar puncture, craniotomy, or spinal surgery. Also listed are contributing factors such as sneezing, coughing, intercourse or minor fall. Spontaneous spinal CSF leaks are not common, but are now increasingly recognized as a cause of postural headache associated with intracranial hypotension. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the role of RN cisternography in the diagnosis of SIH cuased by spinal CSF leakage. Four patients with clinical suspicion of SIH (Group I) and six patients as normal control (Group II) underwent RN cisternography. RN cisternography in Group II was done for various reasons, such as hydrocephalus, syringomyelia and memory loss. Group I consisted of the patients who presented with postural headache, as well as additional symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness, tinnitus and eyeball pain. The age range of these patients was 27 - 67 years. Lumbar puncture and CSF examinations were performed in Group I more than once and showed typical findings of low CSF pressure and slightly elevated protein level. Brain MRI (4/4), Cervico-thoracic spine MRI (3/4) were also performed. On gadolinium-enhanced brain MRI, enhancement of the meninges which is the most characteristic radiographic finding in intracranial hypotension was found in all patients of Group I. But, cervico-thoracic spin MRI was nonspecific. None of Group I had contrast myelography because of the patient's refusal. Group I and Group II underwent radionuclide cisternography following lumbar subarachnoid injection of 99mTc-DTPA (1-2mCi). The scans were taken in 2, 5, 24 hours later using single head gamma camera equipped with LEAP. Entire spinal region in posterior view and head in frontal and lateral views were obtained. The cisternography of Group I showed the CSF leakage or diverticulum at the level of cervico-thoracic junction(3/4) and mid-thoracic level (1

  14. IDENTIFICAÇÃO DE ESPAÇOS PARA AS PRÁTICAS AMBIENTAIS NA CIDADE DO NATAL/RN: UMA ANÁLISE DE REFERENCIAIS VEICULADOS NA WEB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Lucas Lima

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A educação ambiental com seu aspecto interdisciplinar apresenta potenciais muito significativos para contribuir com a conservação de áreas naturais e assim garantir a acessibilidade da população a espaços vivenciais passíveis de sensibilização frente à necessidade de se conservar a biodiversidade. Nesse sentido, o objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar pontos vivenciais significativos na temática ambiental frente aos problemas que a população está constantemente exposta. Com grande probabilidade de obter êxito nas respostas aos desafios de trabalhar a educação ambiental voltada para o exercício da cidadania. Foram desenvolvidas pesquisas online utilizando palavras-chave direcionadas para buscar as informações sobre a educação ambiental associando-as com informações direcionadas para valorização da diversidade biológica presente nos espaços educativos para prática na cidade de Natal/RN.

  15. Short-term 222Rn activity concentration changes in underground spaces with limited air exchange with the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijałkowska-Lichwa, L.; Przylibski, T. A.

    2011-04-01

    The authors investigated short-time changes in 222Rn activity concentration occurring yearly in two underground tourist facilities with limited air exchange with the atmosphere. One of them is Niedźwiedzia (Bear) Cave in Kletno, Poland - a natural space equipped with locks ensuring isolation from the atmosphere. The other site is Fluorite Adit in Kletno, a section of a disused uranium mine. This adit is equipped with a mechanical ventilation system, operated periodically outside the opening times (at night). Both sites are situated within the same metamorphic rock complex, at similar altitudes, about 2 km apart. The measurements conducted revealed spring and autumn occurrence of convective air movements. In Bear Cave, this process causes a reduction in 222Rn activity concentration in the daytime, i.e. when tourists, guides and other staff are present in the cave. From the point of view of radiation protection, this is the best situation. For the rest of the year, daily concentrations of 222Rn activity in the cave are very stable. In Fluorite Adit, on the other hand, significant variations in daily 222Rn activity concentrations are recorded almost all year round. These changes are determined by the periods of activity and inactivity of mechanical ventilation. Unfortunately this is inactive in the daytime, which results in the highest values of 222Rn activity concentration at the times when tourists and staff are present in the adit. Slightly lower concentrations of radon in Fluorite Adit are recorded in the winter season, when convective air movements carry a substantial amount of radon out into the atmosphere. The incorrect usage of mechanical ventilation in Fluorite Adit results in the most unfavourable conditions in terms of radiation protection. The staff working in that facility are exposed practically throughout the year to the highest 222Rn activity concentrations, both at work (in the adit) and at home (outside their working hours). Therefore, not very well

  16. Development of method for quantification of 222Rn exhalation ratio at radioactive waste dam and soil study as mitigator material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macacini, Jose Flavio

    2008-01-01

    The Brazilian uranium mining company (INB) processed 2.32 10 6 tons of uranium ore in its ore treatment unit (UTM - Caldas), located in the Pocos de Caldas plateau. During 16 years of operation, this unit discarded 2.39 10 6 tons of solid waste in a tailing dam, with an average activity concentration of 226 Ra of 7311 ± 184 Bq kg -1 . Most of the atoms of 222 Rn generated from the radioactive waste of the tailing dam remain bounded to the mineral structure. However, a fraction of these atoms can be released from the mineral structure and then emanate. Reaching the porous space of the waste piles, the 222 Rn moves towards the interface waste-atmosphere, exhaling into the atmosphere. The featuring properties of the 222 Rn transport and the biological damage caused by its progeny transform this small chain of radionuclides into a scourge of nature. Because of that, the dry area of the tailing dam was the scope of this work. A methodology was developed for quantifying the exhalation rate of 222 Rn. Moreover, the soil from its surroundings was experimentally evaluated as a cover material to reduce the exhalation of 222 Rn. A collector of 222 Rn was developed, being denominated 607. This collector was proved to be exact and precise after laboratory tests, when a standard for 222 Rn exhalation was prepared with caldasite, an uranium ore with high concentration of 226 Ra (26611 ± 581 Bq kg -1 ), crushed to the granulometric interval from 1.168 mm to 0.589 mm. The results of 222 Rn exhalation rate using the collector 607 were not influenced by the adsorption of water steam, considering sampling periods lower than 5 days and mass of water steam lower than 7 g. Sampling for measuring 222 Rn exhalation rates in the dry area of the tailing dam was carried out using the collector 607, following the experimental design established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The average exhalation rate in the west part of the tailing dam was 1.30 ± 1.24 Bq m

  17. High-spin states in 214Rn, 216Ra and a study of even-even N=128 systematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnroth, T.; Horn, D.; Baktash, C.; Lister, C. J.; Young, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    High-spin states in 214Rn and 216Ra have been studied by means of the reaction 208Pb(13C, α 3n γ)214Rn and 208Pb(13C, 5n γ)216Ra at beam energies in the range 75-95 MeV. In-beam spectroscopy techniques, including γ-decay excitation functions, α-γ coincidences, γ-γ coincidences, γ-ray angular distributions, and pulsed-beam-γ timing, were utilized to establish level energies, γ-ray multipolarities, Jπ assignments, and isomeric lifetimes. Excited states with spins up to 23ℏ in 214Rn and ~30ℏ in 216Ra were observed. Isomers were found in 214Rn at 1625 keV (T12=9 ns, Jπ=8+), 1787 keV (22 ns, 10+), 3485 keV (95 ns, 16), 4509 keV (230 ns, 20), and 4738 keV (8 ns, 22), and in 216Ra at 1708 keV (8 ns, 8+) and 5868 keV (10 ns, ~24). B(EL) values were deduced and compared to previously known lead-region electric transition rates. Shell-model calculations were performed and used to make configurational assignments. The absence of major α-decay branching in the isomers is explained and the systematic behavior of N=128 even-even nuclei is discussed. NUCLEAR STRUCTURE 208Pb(13C, α 3n γ)214Rn, 208Pb(13C, 5n γ) 216Ra, Elab=75-95 MeV. Measured α-γ coin, γ-γ(t) coin, I(θ), pulsed-beam-γ timing. Deduced level schemes, Jπ, T12, B(EL), multipolarities. Shell model calculations, Ge(Li) and Si detectors, enriched target.

  18. Estimated doses related to 222Rn concentration in bunker for radiotherapy and storage of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestre, Freddy; Carrizales-Silva, Lila; Sajo-Bohus, Laszlo; Diaz, Cruz

    2013-01-01

    It was done a survey in radiotherapy services underground hospitals and clinics of Venezuela and Paraguay in order to estimate the concentrations of radon and its possible consequences on worker occupational exposure. Passive dosimeters were used to assess nuclear traces (NTD type CR-39®). The concentration of 222 Rn is determined based on the density of traces using the calibration coefficient of 1 tr/cm 2 equivalent to 0,434 Bqm -3 per month of exposure. Assuming the most likely environmental conditions and the dose conversion factor equal to 9.0 x 10 -6 mSv h -1 by Bqm -3 , it was determined the average values and estimated the possible risks to health that are on average 3.0 mSva -1 and 150 micro risk cancer

  19. Characterization of ceramics used in mass ceramic industry Goianinha/RN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sales Junior, J.C.C.; Nascimento, R.M. do; Andrade, J.C.S.; Saldanha, K.M.; Dutra, R.P.S.

    2011-01-01

    The preparation of the the ceramic mass is one of the most important steps in the manufacture of ceramic products, since the characteristics of the raw materials used, and the proportions that they are added, directly influence the final properties of ceramic products and the operational conditions of processing. The objective of this paper is to present the results of the characterization of a ceramic mass used in the manufacture of sealing blocks by a red ceramic industry of the city of Goianinha / RN. We analyzed the chemical and mineralogical composition; thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis; granulometric analysis; evaluation of plasticity; and determining the technological properties of specimens used in test firing at 700, 900 and 1100 ° C. The results show that the ceramic body studied has characteristics that allow use in the manufacture of sealing blocks when burned at a temperature of 900 ° C. (author)

  20. Time variation of 222Rn concentration and gamma level in a half-basement room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iimoto, Takeshi; Eguchi, Hoshio; Kosako, Toshiso; Sugiura, Nobuyuki

    1998-01-01

    Correlation between 222 Rn (radon) concentration and gamma level in a half-basement has been discussed. In order to decrease the background count of a whole-body counter (WBC), a ventilation blower of 72 m 2 h -1 was installed. The device succeeded in a big reduction of radon concentration in the half-basement and then the background of WBC (NaI(Tl)) decreased to the 76.5% of the saturated value. Through a radon saturation test the exhalation rate of radon from concrete wall was estimated as 2.1 Bqm -2 h -1 by a simple model calculation. In addition, through a ventilation test, the procedure was analyzed by another simple model. (author)