Hesham I Al-Khashan
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Health reforms that tend to increase the participation of clients in decision-making requires them to be health-literate; hence, the importance of health education. However, not much research has been done to investigate the differences in health education needs according to demographic characteristics of the clients. The aim of this study was to find out any possible gender differences there may be in health education needs and preferences. Subjects and Methods : This cross-sectional study was conducted at Riyadh Military Hospital, Saudi Arabia, on a convenience sample of adult Saudis attending its clinics. Data was collected from April 2009 to May 2010 using a self-administered questionnaire covering demographic data, history and needs of health education, methods, and preferred educator. Results: Of the 1300 forms distributed, 977 were returned completed (75.2% response. Most men (74.0% and women (77.9% had had health education, but more women reported that it had been helpful (P = 0.014. More men mentioned health education needs relating to primary prevention (P = 0.027, and unhealthy practices (P = 0.003, and considered the different language a barrier (P = 0.002 even after adjustment for age and education. The one-to-one method was the most preferred health education method for men (72.7% and women (67.9%. More women preferred group health education (P = 0.02 after adjustment for age and education. Significantly more men preferred pharmacists and dietitians as health educators. Conclusion: The results point to a few significant differences between men and women regarding their health education needs, barriers, and preferences. These must be taken into consideration when planning health education programs.
Alsaghir, Abdullah H.; Al-Mobeireek, Abdulla F.; Al-Jahdali, H.; Al-Etihan, A.; Al-Otair, H.; Al-Dayel, F.
Because reports of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) are lacking from the Middle East, we conducted a retrospective review of all histopathologically proven cases of BOOP over 10-year period at three tertiary care hospitals in Riyadh and describe the clinical features and outcome. Charts at the three hospitals were searched using a specific code for BOOP or cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP). Lung specimens have to show histological proof of BOOP with a compatible clinical picture. Chest radiographs and high resolution CT scans were reviewed. Twenty cases of biopsy-proven BOOP had well documented clinical and radiograph data. There were 11 males and 9 females (mean age 58 years; range 42-78). The clinical presentation f BOOP was acute or subacute pneumonia-like illness with cough (85%), fever (70%) dyspnea, (85%) and crackles (80%). The most frequent radiological pattern was a bilateral alveolar infiltrate. The most common abnormality on pulmonary function testing (n=14) was a restrictive pattern (11 patients). Most patients (70%) had no underlying cause (idiopathic BOOP). Other associations included thyroid cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, syphilis and Wegner's granulomatosis. Ten patients (50%) had a complete response to steroids, 6 (30%) had a partial response and 3 (15.8) with secondary BOOP had rapid progressive respiratory failure and died. The clinical presentation of BOOP in our patients is similar to other reported series. A favorable outcome occurs in the majority of cases. However, BOOP may occasionally be associated with a poor prognosis, particularly when associated with an underlying disease. (author)
Mohammed S. Alhussaini
Full Text Available Background: Candida species are important hospital-acquired pathogens in infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. This study was performed in the NICU of Saudi Arabian Hospital, Riyadh region, KSA to analyze patterns of neonatal Candida colonization as well as to determine the potential risk factors.Methods: Weekly surveillance fungal cultures of anal area, oral cavity, umbilicus and ear canal of neonates were performed from birth until their discharge from the hospital. Colonization was analyzed for timing, site, species, birth weight and gestational age. Potential environmental reservoirs and hands of health care workers (HCWs were also cultured monthly for fungi. Antifungal susceptibility of the identified isolates was also determined.Results: One hundred subjects have been recruited in this study. The overall colonization rate was 51%. Early colonization was found in 27 (27% neonates whereas 24 (24% neonates were lately colonized during their stay in NICU. Colonization was more in preterm neonates than in full and post term. Perianal area and oral cavity were the most frequent colonized sites. C. albicans was the main spp. (58.8% isolated from the neonates followed by C. tropicalis (17.6%, C. glabrata (15.6%, and C. krusei (2%. Of the 51 isolated Candida spp., 68.6% were sensitive to fluconazole, 80% to itraconazole and 64.7% to ketoconazole, while only 33% were sensitive to amphotericin B.Conclusion: Candida has emerged as a common cause of infections in infants admitted to NICU, and C. albicans is the most commonly isolated candidal species. Neonatal infections caused by non- albicans species occur at a later age during their stay in NICU.
The purpose of this paper is to identify factors influencing performance of hospital nurses in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia. Specific objectives were to estimate self-reported performance, and determine whether differences in employee demographics, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment, influenced performance. In total, 15 hospitals were randomly selected. The questionnaire was sent to all nurses (1,834) in these facilities and 923 nurses responded. Statistical analysis included correlation, t-test, and regression analysis. The study finds that job performance is positively correlated with organizational commitment, job satisfaction and personal and professional variables. Both job satisfaction and organizational commitment are strong predictors of nurses' performance. Job performance is positively related to some personal factors, including years of experience, nationality, gender, and marital status. Level of education is negatively related to performance. The findings of this study have a limited generalisability due to the fact that all measures used are based on self-reports. Future research may be directed to other objective measures of performance. Emphasis should be placed on effective supervision, empowerment, and a better reward system. Cultural diversity is a reality for most health organizations in Saudi Arabia; therefore, they need to adopt effective human resources strategies that aim to improve commitment and retention of qualified workers, and build a high performance organizational culture based on empowerment, open communication, and appreciation of impact of national culture on work attitudes. This study fulfills a research gap in the area of nursing performance, and its relationship with work attitudes in Saudi Arabia. The paper also highlights the impact of national culture on job performance and work attitude among nurses in Saudi Arabia, and other countries facing the issue of multi-national work force.
tary Hospital. ... in collaboration with clinical faculty, were present at all times. ... Based on the approval of both students and clinical instructors, we have ... structured learning environment during clinical rotations at Rwanda Military Hospital.
Mosher, Cynthia; Sarkar, Abdullah; Hashem, Alaa AbouBakr; Hamadah, Reem E; Alhoulan, Asma; AlMakadma, Yosra A; Khan, Tehreem A; Al-Hamdani, Abdurahman K; Senok, Abiola
The Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) is a practice guideline for healthcare providers to promote breastfeeding and increase breastfeeding rates. This study aimed to examine reported experiences and views on breastfeeding of women using prenatal and postnatal services, and opinions of staff, in the context of the BFHI programme in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Prospective cohort study. This prospective, longitudinal study was conducted from December 2013 to September 2015 at two healthcare facilities (BFHI and non-BFHI) in Riyadh Saudi Arabia. Women 36-40 weeks gestation receiving antenatal care at the hospitals were enrolled. Questionnaires were administered prenatally, at 1, 3 and 6 months postnatal and to the administrator and maternity staff. We recruited 277 women with an estimated 80% response rate. 156 (BFHI=78/139, non-BFHI=78/138, 56%) participants completed all questionnaires. Most BFHI-hospital participants (77.9%, n=8 for this question) acknowledged seeing the breast feeding policy compared to 23.5% (n=23) at the non-BFHI-hospital (p<0.01). Breast feeding education and encouragement was higher at the BFHI-hospital (93.3%) compared to the non-BFHI-hospital (48.2%; p<0.01). At postpartum discharge, 51% (n=53) of mothers in the BFHI-hospital were breast feeding exclusively versus 29.6% (n=29) at the non-BFHI-hospital. Where formula feed was introduced, women in the BFHI-hospital more often practiced mixed feeding rather than exclusive formula feeding with some switching from mixed feeding to exclusive breast feeding between 3 and 6 months postpartum. Exclusive breast feeding rates declined in both hospitals at 3 and 6 months postpartum with lack of community services for lactation being a major reason. Although BFHI-hospital staff (n=9) were more conversant with BFHI principles, defects in adherence to the BFHI 10 Steps were identified. This is the first study assessing the effectiveness of BFHI implementation in Saudi Arabia. Although women
Full Text Available Background: Emergency department nurses are continuously exposed to violence on the job. Objectives: This study sought to identify the prevalence and pattern of workplace violence and the consequences of violence on nurses working in emergency departments in Riyadh. Design: Cross-sectional survey conducted from April to May 2015. Setting: Emergency departments of three hospitals in Riyadh. Participants: Nurses participated voluntarily and anonymously. Methods: Nurses were recruited by advertisement. A self-administered questionnaire with 23 items was given to participants by a head nurse. Violent acts were classified as physical or nonphysical. Descriptive statistics are presented and statistical comparisons were made to evaluate differences by gender, nationality, age, experience and other demographic variables. Results: Of 150 questionnaires distributed, 121 were returned (80.6%. One hundred were females (82.6% and 71 (58.7% had worked in nursing for less than or equal to 5 years. Most participants (n=108, 89.3% had experienced a violent incident in the past 12 months. Eighty (80/108, 74.1% of those who had experienced violence had experienced verbal abuse and 20 (20/108, 18.5% had faced verbal and physical violence during the past year. The type of violence was associated with gender and educational level. Patients (89/108, 82.4% and their relatives (70/108, 64.8% were the most common instigators of violence. Most nurses (78/108, 72.3% expressed dissatisfaction with the manner in which incidents were handled. Conclusion: Workplace violence was pervasive in the emergency departments of these three hospitals in Riyadh. The data are consistent with other reports of workplace violence in emergency departments in Saudi Arabia and in other countries. Recommendations: Suitable strategies to deal with the issue include establishing workplace violence management teams and creating appropriate rules and regulations thatÂ can improve workplace safety
Shaffi Ahamed Shaik
Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of socio demographic and clinical characteristics of pregnant women on their physical activity. Methods: An observational quantitative cross sectional design was carried out in the delivery ward and paediatrics clinic of king Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study subjects included all women who had delivered in the last three months, during the study period between 2013- 2014. The sample size was 336. Data collection included socio-demographic variables, pregnancy related variables and the physical activity by using validated pregnancy physical activity questionnaire. Results: The mean (standard deviation total physical activity score of all the study subjects was 197.39(72.1. The physical activity scores are statistically significantly higher in younger women, graduation education level, and among those who were employed. The physical activity scores were statistically significantly higher in women who had normal delivery, did not have any illness and those who had followed the advice to perform physical activity. Conclusion: The levels of physical activity along with their socio demographic and clinical characteristic were assessed among the pregnant women. The study found low pursuance of physical activity during pregnancy. Any kind of illness suffered during pregnancy further reduced the physical activity levels. It was only the young and educated pregnant women who held onto regular physical activity as advised during their pregnancy.
Omar A Al-Mohrej
Conclusions: The awareness of DDH should be increased among paediatricians to decrease the incidence of late DDH diagnosis. A structured screening program has to be created and implemented in all hospitals of the country to detect DDH earlier and to provide treatment as early as possible.
Yousuf, Husam Bin; Al-Zahrani, A. A.; Al-Sobhi, S.
We describe our experiences of adrenalectomy and compare the results of open and laparoscopic approach. From March 1999 to March 2002 we performed 23 adrenalectomies. An anterior transabdominal approach was used for the open procedure (OP), and a lateral transperitoneal approach for the laparoscopic procedure (LP). There was no difference in tumor size or pathology between the two groups. The tumor size was smaller, operative time was longer and blood loss was was less in (LP). Mean length of hospital stay was shorter, mean time of resumption of oral intake was faster in the LP group. It was concluded that laparoscopic adrenalectomy is a safe procedure that can be performed for most adrenal pathology. It is associated with faster recovery, less postoperative pain, and shorter hospital stay. (author)
Lukish, J R; Gill, G G; McCoy, T R
To maintain the health of service members and their families throughout the world, the Department of Defense has established several isolated military hospitals (IHs). The operational environment of IHs is such that illness and traumatic injury requiring surgical intervention is common. This study sought to examine the general and orthopedic surgical experience at an IH to determine whether surgical care could be provided in an effective and safe manner. All patients evaluated by the general and orthopedic surgeon at Guantanamo Bay Naval Hospital from October 1, 1998, to April 1, 1999, were included in this study. The following data were retrospectively reviewed: patient demographic data, diagnosis, initial and follow-up care, medical evacuation data, operative procedures, and complications. There were 336 patients who presented for surgical evaluation, resulting in 660 follow-up appointments during the study period. There were 31 medical evacuations (3 emergent). The surgical services performed 122 major operative procedures. There were 58 inpatient admissions. There was 1 death, and surgical complications occurred in 2 patients, for an overall morbidity and mortality of 1.4% and 0.7%, respectively. Our data show that an IH is capable of providing surgical care, including care for traumatic injuries, in a safe manner. This is the first study that provides objective evidence that general and orthopedic surgery at an IH can be provided within the standard of care.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This file contains U.S. military hospital data for timely & effective care (process of care) measures collected by the Department of Defense (DoD). DoD collects...
Lower Limb Amputation at the 34 Military Hospital in Freetown, Sierra Leone: Causes and Indications. Paul F. Nabieu, Thomas A. Massaquoi, S. D. Massaquoi, G Luseni, B. Idris, T. B. Kamara, M. L. Baryoh ...
Delahaye, R P
Between June 1871 and December 1872, about five thousand prisoners were kept in Versailles among some places of detention. This high death rate was indebted for worst hygienic states (individual or collective) and food wretched quality during first weeks. Military Health Service, under Hippolyte Larrey's management with Adolphe Thiers and staff assent involved living conditions owing to tubs and toilets not forgiving accurate clothes and well-balanced food. In every prison was fitted and infirmary managed by a military physician. Sick people were sent into hospital. Versailles city's archives show that, during 1871, 154 insurgent people died in the military hospital while the number dropped to 55 during 1872.
Baddour, Manal M.
Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and the means of controlling it, continue to be of major interest to the healthcare community. The bactericidal activity of some disinfectants which are in common use in seven major tertiary care hospitals in Riyadh was tested against two control strains of S.aureus, namely MRSA ATCC 33591 and Methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) ATCC 29213. The disinfectants tested in this study were a group used for hand antisepsis (Purell, EZ-clean, Cida stat and Manorapid Synergy) and another group used for environmental disinfection (Combi spray, Tristel fusion, Alphadine, Isopropanol, Presept and Diesin). Presept, diesin and tristel fusion had a remarkable effect on the tested strains, both methicillin sensitive and methicillin resistant. There was hardly any noticeable difference between the effects on either (P>0.05). On the other hand, Purell and EZ-clean and Manorapid Synergy hand rubs had a relatively weak action after 15 and 30 minutes while their effect was better after 1 and 2 hours. There was no observable differences between their effects on MRSA or MSSA, P>0.05. Cita stat had a remarkably pronounced effect against both MRSA and MSSA. Contrary to some previous reports, this study has proven also that chlorhexidine and quaternary ammonium compounds show comparable efficacy against both MRSA and MSSA. (author)
Full Text Available The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA is an Islamic monarchy and was established in 1932. Saudi women first entered the medical field in 1975 and the country has since seen a steady increase in women pursuing medicine. However, there is limited data on gender related issues for women doctors practicing in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, our study objective was to assess the perception amongst peers regarding gender equality and social issues faced by women doctors in Saudi Arabia. An online anonymous cross-sectional survey was administered in English to doctors at King Khalid Hospital, affiliated to King Saud University, in Riyadh, between April and May of 2016. Of 1015 doctors, 304 (30% participated, of which 129 (42.4% were females and 231 (76% were Saudi nationals. The average age was 32.4 years (±SD: 8.7. The majority opined that there was no gender discrimination in salaries (73.7% p-value = 0.4, hospital benefits (62.2% p-value = 0.06 or entry into any field of Medicine/Pediatrics (68.4% p-value = 0.207. However, only a minority believed that there was no gender discrimination for entry into surgery (37.3% p-value = .091. A higher proportion of male doctors agreed that promotion opportunities are equal (66.3% vs 45.7%, p-value = 0.002. However, of 54 consultants, only 18 (33.3% were women. Over half of the women (52.3% reported that they never wear the face veil. Only a minority of male and female doctors (12.2% believed women doctors should wear the veil since they examine male patients. Fewer respondents believed that female doctors face harassment from male doctors (14.5% whereas 30.7% believed female doctors face harassment from male patients. More females, than males, agreed with the statement that female doctors are as committed to their careers as are males (92.2% vs 67.4%, p-value<0.0001. Of 304 participants, 210 (69.1% said that they would still choose to become a doctor with approximately equal proportions between males and females (68% vs
Baqi, Shehla; Albalbeesi, Amal; Iftikhar, Sundus; Baig-Ansari, Naila; Alanazi, Mohammad; Alanazi, Awadh
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is an Islamic monarchy and was established in 1932. Saudi women first entered the medical field in 1975 and the country has since seen a steady increase in women pursuing medicine. However, there is limited data on gender related issues for women doctors practicing in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, our study objective was to assess the perception amongst peers regarding gender equality and social issues faced by women doctors in Saudi Arabia. An online anonymous cross-sectional survey was administered in English to doctors at King Khalid Hospital, affiliated to King Saud University, in Riyadh, between April and May of 2016. Of 1015 doctors, 304 (30%) participated, of which 129 (42.4%) were females and 231 (76%) were Saudi nationals. The average age was 32.4 years (±SD: 8.7). The majority opined that there was no gender discrimination in salaries (73.7% p-value = 0.4), hospital benefits (62.2% p-value = 0.06) or entry into any field of Medicine/Pediatrics (68.4% p-value = 0.207). However, only a minority believed that there was no gender discrimination for entry into surgery (37.3% p-value = .091). A higher proportion of male doctors agreed that promotion opportunities are equal (66.3% vs 45.7%, p-value = 0.002). However, of 54 consultants, only 18 (33.3%) were women. Over half of the women (52.3%) reported that they never wear the face veil. Only a minority of male and female doctors (12.2%) believed women doctors should wear the veil since they examine male patients. Fewer respondents believed that female doctors face harassment from male doctors (14.5%) whereas 30.7% believed female doctors face harassment from male patients. More females, than males, agreed with the statement that female doctors are as committed to their careers as are males (92.2% vs 67.4%, p-valueequal proportions between males and females (68% vs 70.5%, p-value = 0.79). In conclusion, our survey of male and female doctors at a government university hospital in
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Forrester, M B
There is little information on poisonings managed at military and Veterans Administration (VA) hospitals. This investigation described and compared poisonings reported to Texas poison centers that were managed at military and VA hospitals. Retrospective analysis of poison centre data. Cases were poisonings among patients aged 18 years or more reported to Texas poison centers during 2000-2015 where management occurred at a military or VA hospital. The distribution of exposures for various demographic and clinical factors was determined for military and veterans hospitals and comparisons were made between the two groups. There were 4353 and 1676 poisonings managed at military and VA hospitals, resepctively. Males accounted for 50.5% of the military hospital patients and 84.9% of the VA hospital patients. The mean age for military hospital patients was 31 years and for VA hospital patients was 50 years. The proportion of poisonings managed at military hospitals and VA hospitals, respectively, were intentional (70.0% vs 64.1%), particularly suspected attempted suicide (57.3% vs 47.7%), and unintentional (25.0% vs 30.5%). More than one substance was reported in 37.7% of military and 33.2% of VA hospital poisonings. The most commonly reported substance categories for poisonings managed at military and VA hospitals, respectively, were analgesics (28.4% vs 19.7%), sedatives/hypnotics/antipsychotics (24.7% vs 23.4%), antidepressants (18.7% vs 19.7%) and alcohol (11.3% vs 10.6%). A number of differences were observed between poisonings managed at military and VA hospitals. These differing patterns of poisonings may need to be taken into account in the education, prevention and treatment of poisonings at these hospitals and among the populations they serve. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ahsan, O.; Razzaq, K.; Abbas, W.; Zarrin, F.
To study the pattern and endoscopic severity of caustic ingestion injuries presenting at Military Hospital Rawalpindi. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Medical and Gastroenterology Department Military Hospital Rawalpindi from August 2012 to April 2013. Material and Methods: Patients were selected from those who presented with caustic ingestion history in Medical OPD, ER and in medical wards. After informed consent the patient underwent upper gastrointestinal (GI) Endoscopy. Endoscopic findings were recorded. Results: Out of 50 patients, 21(42%) were males and 29 (58%) were females. Ingestion was accidental in 19 (38%) and was with intent of suicide or self-harm in 31(62%) patients. Mean age was 33.2 years (SD ± 13.2). All the patients were subjected to upper GI endoscopy and findings were recorded. Endoscopic findings were grade 0 in 4 (8%), Grade 1 in 6 (12%), grade 2a in 7 (14%), grade 2b in 10 (20%), grade 3a in 6 (12%) and grade 3b in 17 (34%) patients. Conclusion: Caustic ingestion injuries were seen more in younger females with predominant cause as suicidal intent. On endoscopic examination severe corrosive injuries were more frequent. (author)
Guilloton, L; Bruneau, O; Trousselard, M; Zagnoli, F; Blanc, P A; De Greslan, T; Drouet, A
Headaches are a common reason for consultation with a prevalence of 30%. Few data exist for military personnel, including in situations of war operations. The main objective of this work was to measure the evolution of the impact of headache in such a context. Two hundred and one personnel deployed in the Kaïa military field hospital in Afghanistan were recruited. A questionnaire designed to recognize headaches, supported by two quality of life scales (MIDAS and HIT-6) and a stress questionnaire were filled out before departure and upon return from missions. Sixty-three patients with headache were initially identified, of whom 52 remained symptomatic during the mission. The average total score of MIDAS before departure was 4 days and fell to 1.4 days upon return, with a mean measured change of 3.3 days. For HIT-6, the mean total score was 51.2 points initially and 51.9 points at the end of the mission with a mean change of-0.3 points. Nine patients without headache initially became symptomatic: MIDAS and HIT-6 were not affected. Thus, the impact of headache in the particular context of presence in a theater of operations was low: improved MIDAS score and the lack of influence on the HIT-6 score are underlined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Idenburg, Floris J; van Dongen, Thijs T C F; Tan, Edward C T H; Hamming, Jaap H; Leenen, Luke P H; Hoencamp, Rigo
From August 2006-August 2010, as part of the ISAF mission, the Armed Forces of the Netherlands deployed a role 2 enhanced Medical Treatment Facility (R2E-MTF) to Uruzgan province, Afghanistan. Although from the principle doctrine not considered a primary task, care was delivered to civilians, including many children. Humanitarian aid accounted for a substantial part of the workload, necessitating medical, infrastructural, and logistical adaptations. Particularly pediatric care demanded specific expertise and equipment. In our pre-deployment preparations this aspect had been undervalued. Because these experiences could be influential in future mission planning, we analyzed our data and compared them with international reports. This is a retrospective, descriptive study. Using the hospital's electronic database, all pediatric cases, defined as patients Afghanistan were analyzed. Of the 2736 admissions, 415 (15.2 %) were pediatric. The majority (80.9 %, 336/415) of these admissions were for surgical, often trauma-related, pathology and required 610 surgical procedures, being 26 % of all procedures. Mean length of stay was 3.1 days. The male to female ratio was 70:30. Girls were significantly younger of age than boys. In-hospital mortality was 5.3 %. Pediatric patients made up a considerable part of the workload at the Dutch R2E-MTF in Uruzgan, Afghanistan. This is in line with other reports from the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, but used definitions in reported series are inconsistent, making comparisons difficult. Our findings stress the need for a comprehensive, prospective, and coalition-wide patient registry with uniformly applied criteria. Civilian disaster and military operational planners should incorporate reported patient statistics in manning documents, future courses, training manuals, logistic planning, and doctrines, because pediatric care is a reality that cannot be ignored.
Saleem, M.Z.; Haq, M.Z.U.; Badsha, S.
Objective: To document distribution of childhood malignancies among Paediatric Oncology patients. Study design: Descriptive study Place and duration of study: Department of Paediatric Oncology, Combined Military Hospital, Rawalpindi from June 2006 to May 2007. Methodology: We collected data of 141 consecutive newly diagnosed paediatric oncology patients. Demographics (age and gender) and types of malignancy (diagnosed on histopathology) were collected in all cases. Results: Of the total patients 90 were male, 51 female with a male to female ratio of 1.76. Childhood malignancies found were leukaemia (60.3%) lymphomas (11.3%), bone tumours (4.3%), brain tumours (2.8%), germ cell tumours (3.5%), retinoblastoma (7.1%), neuroblastoma (3.5%), Wilms tumour (2.8%), rhabdomyosarcoma (2.1%), hepatoblastoma (1.4%) and synovial sarcoma(0.7%).Mean age at diagnosis was 5.4 +- 3.05 years. 24 (17%) patients were from Punjab, 9 (6.4%) from Sindh, 82 (58.2%) from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, 5 (3.5%) from Baluchistan and 21 (14.9%) from Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK). Conclusion: This study showed that distribution varies according to gender, age and geography. Leukemia is the commonest childhood malignancy. Our research findings are useful for prioritizing future childhood cancer research needs. (author)
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This file contains U.S. military hospital data from the TRICARE Inpatient Satisfaction Survey (TRISS) administered by the Department of Defense (DoD). TRISS data do...
Stephenson, Priscilla L; Trafford, Mabel A; Hadley, Alice E
Hospital libraries serving military bases offer a different perspective on library services. Two libraries located on islands in the Pacific Ocean provide services to active duty service men and women, including those deployed to other regions of the world. In addition, these hospital libraries serve service members' families living on the base, and often citizens from the surrounding communities.
Anwar, R.; Razzaq, K.; Imran, A.
Objective: To determine the frequency of anti-Hepatitis C virus antibodies in pregnant ladies attending Military Hospital Rawalpindi and to analyze risk factors for disease acquisition in them. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of gynaecology and obstetrics Military Hospital Rawalpindi, from Feb 2013 to Jul 2013. Material and Methods: All pregnant ladies attending Military Hospital Rawalpindi were tested for anti HCV antibodies by third generation ELISA method and evaluation of potential risk factors for acquisition of HCV infection was done. Results: Six point ninety five percent of study population was found to be positive for anti HCV antibodies. Conclusion: Six point nine five percentage of study pregnant ladies were found to have anti HCV antibodies. These HCV positive pregnant women were more likely to have history of blood transfusion, therapeutic injection use and surgery. (author)
To analyze the pattern of deaths on autopsy carried out on Armed Forces personnel in CMH Sialkot. Study Design: Retrospective analytical study Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital Sialkot (CMH), from 2009 to 2012 Materials and Methods: In a total of fifty (50) cases detailed postmortems were carried out and gross features on external examination and different systemic examinations were recorded. Histopathology of various organs was done in all cases. Chemical and toxicological examination of various abdominal viscera was carried out in all sudden and suspicious deaths. Results: Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) was most common cause of death (38%) followed by road traffic accidents (14%) and electrocution (8%). Sudden adult death syndrome accounted for 4 cases of deaths. Other causes were drowning, cerebral malaria, heat stroke, gunshot wounds, myocarditis, brain hemorrhage, meningitis and diabetic ketoacidosis. Most of these cases were young soldiers (n=30) followed by Non-Commissioned Officers (n=17). Conclusion: A large number of our young soldiers dying of heart problems is an alarming situation. Awareness among the troops of various risk factors is most important. Precautionary measures against preventable causes should be taken. (author)
To determine the pattern of skin prick test reactivity to aeroallergens in patients with asthma and rhinitis (airway allergy) residing in Riyadh region. This is a retrospective cross sectional study based on data analysis of skin prick test results of individuals with clinical diagnosis of airway allergy. Allergy skin prick test result data of 139 Saudi nationals from Riyadh region tested at King Khalid University Hospital between January 2003 and March 2004 was analyzed retrospectively. This group comprised of 53% females and 47% males, with a mean age of 27 +/- 12 years. A set of aeroallergens extracts for both indoor and outdoor allergens including fungal spores was used to test the patients. Seventy-five percent (105) of patients reacted to one or more allergen extracts. The most frequently reacting indoor allergen was house dust mite (77.8%) followed by the cat (33.6%) and cockroach (19.2%). Among the outdoor allergens Prosopis juliflora was tested positive in 72.1%, Bermuda grass in 53.8%, Chenopodium album in 47.1%, Rye grass in 36.5% and Salsola kali in 36.5%. A significant proportion of patients were also found reacting to Moulds (18.2%) and Aspergillus fumigatus (18.2%) extracts. Sensitivity to one or more aeroallergens was common in patients, indicating high level of aeroallergen sensitization in patients with airway allergy residing in Riyadh region. (author)
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The paper focusses its attention to the medical work of the British Military hospitals stationed in Macedonia during the First World War, the surgical work carried out under very heavy conditions in improvised operating theatres as well as the treatment of the wounded and sick solders brought from the battlefields on the Macedonian Front.
Wang, Hui; Jiang, Nan; Shao, Sicong; Zheng, Tao; Sun, Jianzhong
The objective of this study is to establish a comprehensive evaluation system for military hospitals' response capacity to bio-terrorism. Literature research and Delphi method were utilized to establish the comprehensive evaluation system for military hospitals' response capacity to bio-terrorism. Questionnaires were designed and used to survey the status quo of 134 military hospitals' response capability to bio-terrorism. Survey indicated that factor analysis method was suitable to for analyzing the comprehensive evaluation system for military hospitals' response capacity to bio-terrorism. The constructed evaluation system was consisted of five first-class and 16 second-class indexes. Among them, medical response factor was considered as the most important factor with weight coefficient of 0.660, followed in turn by the emergency management factor with weight coefficient of 0.109, emergency management consciousness factor with weight coefficient of 0.093, hardware support factor with weight coefficient of 0.078, and improvement factor with weight coefficient of 0.059. The constructed comprehensive assessment model and system are scientific and practical.
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to explore the expectations of women relating to their labor and delivery needs at the 37th Military Hospital, in Ghana. Using a generic or non-categorical qualitative research design women who delivered at the 37th Military Hospital were interviewed. Data was collected by using semi-structured individual interviews. Emerging themes from the data were: the importance of environmental serenity in childbirth, the need to confirm true labor, being in control during labor, the importance of midwives, and childbirth as a sacred and euphoric journey. The findings revealed that not only were the environment serene and devoid of noise but the nurse-midwives were friendly and supportive for the women and were competent in diagnosing the progression of labor. The competencies and attributes that the nurse-midwives possessed at this hospital offered the women with an element of ownership regarding their laboring processes.
The Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario learned that hosting the wife of the US president is more like a military manoeuvre than a typical VIP visit, but Hillary Rodham Clinton brought a unique perspective on universal health care to the Ottawa hospital. CMAJ Contributing Editor Charlotte Gray, who is also vice-chair of the hospital's board of trustees, recounts the experience of listening to “the sharpest, most intense professor of health care management you've ever met.” Imagesp1299-a
Al-Durihim, H; Al-Hussaini, M; Bin Salih, S; Hassan, I; Harakati, M; Al Hajjaj, A
We surveyed the records of 21 of the 28 snakebite victims seen at King Fahad National Guard Hospital in Riyadh over the 20-year period 1986-2005. The most common symptoms were local pain and swelling and the most common signs oedema and tenderness. Neurotoxicity was not noted in any case. Coagulopathy was recorded for 14/21 patients (66.7%) and 5/19 (26.4%) had leukocytosis. All patients were given tetanus toxoid (100%) and 20 (95.2%) received antivenom. Blood products were administered in 2 cases and prophylactic antibiotics in 10 (47.6%). No allergic reaction to antivenom was reported.
Full Text Available In patients with spinal cord injuries increased length ofhospital stay is often as a result of secondary complications such as pressuresores, urinary tract infection and respiratory infection. An increased lengthof hospital stay was observed at Kanombe Military Hospital in Rwanda.The aim of this study was to determine specific factors affecting length ofhospital stay for individuals with spinal cord injuries at Kanombe MilitaryHospital in Rwanda. The records of 124 individuals with spinal cordinjuries who were discharged from the hospital between 1st January1996and 31st December 2007 were reviewed to collect data. Information collected and captured on a data gathering sheetincluded demographic data, information relating to the injury, occurrence of medical complications and length ofhospital stay. Linear regression analysis was computed in SPSS to determine factors affecting the length of stay.The necessary ethical considerations were adhered to during the implementation of the study. Current employmentstatus and the occurrence of pressure sores were significantly associated with the length of hospital stay (p=0.021 andp=0.000 respectively. A strong relationship was noted between pressure sores and length of stay (R= 0.703. There is aneed for all members of the rehabilitation team to devise and implement effective measures to prevent the developmentof pressure sores, in patients with spinal cord injuries in the study setting.
cryptorchidism [752.89]) 3 Hernia (inguinal [550.9], ventral [553.2]) 3 Vascular (228.01)/lymphatic (457.9) malformation 3 Craniofacial malformation...girl who underwent resection of a cervical cystic hy- groma at our hospital and later received radiofrequency ablation treatment of her enlarged tongue...head and neck mass 2 Orthopedic fixation 2 Hernia repair 2 Computed tomography while under general anesthesia 2 Orchidopexy 1 Repair of rectal
The purpose of this research project was to determine whether Naval Hospital Bremerton could meet the service demands for the care of the over 65 military-Medicare eligible population within the catchment area...
Full Text Available Healthcare wastes are a major challenge in public health and comprise all types of wastes generated by healthcare centers, research facilities, and laboratories. The aim of this study was surveying the knowledge and practice of nursing staff about sharp waste management in selected military (Tehran and non- military (Qom hospitals in 2012. This was a descriptive-analytical study on 143 nursing stuff in Military and Non-Military hospitals. Data was collected using a self-report questionnaire. Statistical tests such as the student t-test, one-way analysis of variance and Pearson correlation were used to data analysis. The mean age of participants was 32(±6.3 and the majority were female. The mean score of knowledge was 54.7(±14.4 and their knowledge classified on a moderate level. Also, the mean score of practice was 65.44(±11.6 and was classified on a moderate level. The means of these variables were higher among personnel of Military than Non-Military. There were positive correlations between knowledge, practice and age variables (P
Pressley, Joyce C; Dawson, Patrick; Carpenter, Dustin J
Military deployment of one or both parents is associated with declines in school performance, behavioral difficulties, and increases in reported mental health conditions, but less is known regarding injury risks in pediatric military dependents. Kid Health Care Cost and Utilization Project 2006 (KID) was used to identify military dependents aged 0.1 year to 17 years through expected insurance payer being CHAMPUS, Tricare, or CHAMPVA (n = 12,310) and similarly aged privately insured nonmilitary in CHAMPUS, Tricare, or CHAMPVA states (n = 730,065). Mental health diagnoses per 1,000 hospitalizations and mechanisms of injury per 1,000 injury-related hospitalizations are reported. Unweighted univariate analyses used Fisher's exact, χ(2), and analysis of variance tests for significance. Odds ratios are age and sex adjusted with 95% confidence intervals. Injury-related admissions were higher in military than in nonmilitary dependents (15.5% vs. 13.2%, p sex-adjusted motor vehicle occupant and pedestrian injuries were significantly lower in all-age military dependents but not in age-stratified categories. Very young military dependents had higher all-cause injury admissions (p < 0.0001), drowning/near drowning (p < 0.0001), and intracranial injury (p < 0.0001) and showed a tendency toward higher suffocation (p = 0.055) and crushing injury (p = 0.065). Military adolescents and teenagers had higher suicide/suicide attempts (p = 0.0001) and poisonings from medicinal substances (p = 0.0001). Mental health diagnoses were significantly higher in every age category of military dependents. All-cause in-hospital mortality tended to be greater in military than in nonmilitary dependents (p = 0.052). This study suggests that military dependents are a vulnerable population with special needs and provides clues to areas where injury prevention professionals might begin to address their needs. Prognostic/epidemiologic study, level II.
Cooper, Linda; Andrew, Sharon; Fossey, Matt
In the UK, military veterans will receive care by civilian nurses in civilian hospitals. We propose that the nurses providing this care require an understanding of the unique experiences and specific health needs of veterans to deliver evidence-based care. To conduct an integrative review of published literature to explore how nursing programmes prepare nurses to care for the military veteran population in civilian hospitals. A systematic search was undertaken of a range of electronic databases, Google Scholar and hand searching of Military and Veteran health journals. Papers that focused on education of civilian nurses about veteran health and included primary research or description of practice-based innovations were included in the review. The search generated sixteen papers that were focused on nurse education in higher education institutions. Several papers focused on simulation as a teaching method for veteran-specific health issues or curriculum developments with educational innovations such as online courses. Six papers focusing in continuing professional education of nurses in the clinical setting were included as supplementary information. All papers reviewed were US focused and dated between January 2011 and September 2015. Our search concluded that there is a gap in knowledge in this subject area within a UK context, therefore our review includes UK background information to support the US findings. Civilian nurses need educational preparation to understand the specific needs of veterans. Educational institutions in the US have responded to nationwide initiatives to undertake that preparation. More empirical studies need to be undertaken to develop, test and evaluate educational innovations for preparing students and nurses delivering care to military veteran in civilian healthcare settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Terry, Melissa V; Barnes, Courtney; Beal, Katie; Enciso, Angel Jaime; Love-Zaranka, Angela
To compare and contrast military hospital and civilian hospital experiences of achieving Baby-Friendly designation, and to examine administration and staff responses as well as institutional and patient postimplementation outcomes. Staff, administration, and chairs of Baby-Friendly committees at both hospitals were interviewed. Motivating factors and perceived administrative support were similar at both institutions. Both sites saw an increase in exclusive breastfeeding rates upon discharge to a rate of 80-90%, and both noted an overall increase in delivery rates, which may also be attributed to achieving Baby-Friendly designation. Significant differences included the amount of time it took to achieve Baby-Friendly status, the number of specialties represented on the Baby-friendly committee, the percentage of employees who received training, pediatrics involvement and support, and funding sources for staff training.
Pe, Aye; Saw, Kaythi; Mon, Shu; Aung, Yin Yin [Department of Medical Oncology, Yangon, (Myanmar)
Over 250 cases of carcinoma of Breast in different stages, treated by Joint Cancer Clinic (JCC) of No (2) Military Hospital over 5 years (1987 to 1991) were analysed. Different combination of drugs CMF, CMF(P),CMFVP and COFA regimes were given either alone on in combination with local radiation therapy after surgery- lumpectomy or extended simple mastectomy. Hormonal therapy was also added to the standard method of treatment in most of the cases. Results were evaluated in different arms of treatment. The value of immunotherapy and neochemotherapy were also studied.
Aye Pe; Kaythi Saw; Shu Mon; Yin Yin Aung
Over 250 cases of carcinoma of Breast in different stages, treated by Joint Cancer Clinic (JCC) of No (2) Military Hospital over 5 years (1987 to 1991) were analysed. Different combination of drugs CMF, CMF(P),CMFVP and COFA regimes were given either alone on in combination with local radiation therapy after surgery- lumpectomy or extended simple mastectomy. Hormonal therapy was also added to the standard method of treatment in most of the cases. Results were evaluated in different arms of treatment. The value of immunotherapy and neochemotherapy were also studied
Mohamad, M. Y.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the Quality Assurance procedures in the Military Corps in Khartoum state, through the comprehensive Quality Control QC procedures of the x-ray machines and darkrooms in the x-ray departments, and to provide a Quality Assurance Manual to support the federal ministry of Health running QA program. This study is the first time that the departments of the Military Corps apply QC tests on their x-ray machines. The total number of x-ray machines in Khartoum state is 10 machines with 4 darkrooms. Only three of the x-ray machines are tested and the results showed that there are unacceptable parameters of the major exposure factors which determine the image quality. The percentage of accuracy defects are 67% for kVp Accuracy, 67% for Time Accuracy, 33% for Relative mA Linearity, 33% for Relative mAs Linearity, 67% for kVp Reproducibility, 67% for Collimator test. Also the tested darkrooms showed that the percentage of unacceptable parameters as: 15% for tested intensifying screens, 18% for tested Cassettes, 100% for light leakage, 67% for Safelight. Reject film Analysis showed that 5.3% and 10% is the reject percentage during four months for the main and casualty centers respectively. Personal monitoring records showed that the dose is within the dose limits the maximum and minimum Dose equivalent in 2001 is 4.231 Sv, 0.154 Sv and in 2002 is 2.736 Sv, 0.167 Sv consequently, and the monitoring has been stopped since July 2002. Also the study reveals that only 4% from the total cost of the x-ray machines owned by the mentioned hospitals is the price of the QC test tools equipments. The study gives a review of all definitions and QC procedures needed for the QA manual and can be referenced as a QA Manual for the Military Corps or any other hospital.
Nizi, M.K.; Ameen, S.S.; Saeed, K.; Yaqub, M.A.; Khan, M.D.; Arain, M.A.
Objective: To determine the frequency and risk factors for severity of retinopathy in diabetic patients referred to a tertiary military hospital. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and duration of study: Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology, Rawalpindi from Jun 2008 to Dec 2009. Patients and Methods: Diabetic patients aged 40 to 79, referred for suspected diabetic retinopathy (DR) on fundoscopy from medical outpatient clinic of Military Hospital Rawalpindi were randomly included in the study. Participants underwent a standardized interview and examination. Retinopathy was assessed through dilated pupils, and graded into absent retinopathy, mild to moderate, or advanced. Presence of clinically significant macular edema (CSME) was also recorded. To evaluate the simultaneous effect of significant risk factors on the different stages of DR, multivariate regression analysis was carried out. Results: Out of five hundred and ten patients, DR was confirmed in 63% cases with advanced retinopathy in 21.3%. In univariate analysis, duration of diabetes, fasting blood glucose, and presence of macular oedema were significantly associated with retinopathy (P<0.005). On multivariate analysis, however, only duration of diabetes (Odds Ratio 6.15 for 5 to 10 years and 38.29 for more than 10 years) and macular oedema (OR 6.617 95% CI 3.95-11.07) remained significant. CSME was present in 173 (33%) patients and its frequency increased with the severity of DR (P <0.001). Conclusion: The frequency of DR among military personnel and their dependants was high with strong association to duration of diabetes. This underscores the importance of regular retinal examination to detect DR in the early stages and timely intervention to prevent diabetes related blindness. (author)
Pineda Acero, Gustavo Adolfo; Torres Quintero, Pio
With the purpose of analyzing the experience of the orthopedics service and traumatology of the central military hospital in the treatment of the tumors of soft tissues, it carries out a descriptive observational study, type series of cases and retrospective. The incidence of the tumors of soft tissues compared with carcinomas and other neoplasia, constitutes less than 1% of all cancerous and the benign ones are more common than the wicked ones in a range of 100:1. The knowledge of the classification, stadification, evaluation strategies, previous biopsy, surgical treatment, radiotherapy y/o chemotherapy is vital for a good final result. 29 clinical histories were included of patient with tumoral lesions in the soft tissues, valued in the central military hospital between March of 1996 and March of 2001. The age average was of 39 years and the pursuit of 24 months. In most of the cases the anatomical commitment belonged to the inferior members (93%), 79% for benign tumors and 21% for wicked tumors. To avoid incorrect diagnoses and inappropriate treatments it is necessary the coordinated evaluation of all multidisciplinary team
Qayum, M.; Shaheen, N.; Khan, M.Q.A.; Ali, W.
Frequency of syphilis among pregnant women attending Combined Military Hospital Abbottabad Study Design: Descriptive study. Material and Methods: A screening for syphilis of 500 married pregnant women presenting to antenatal clinics was carried out using the qualitative Rapid Plasma Regent (RPR) test/ Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test. The Treponema Palladium Haem-Agglutination Assay (TPHA) test was used as confirmatory test for all Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test positive cases. Results: A total of 8 women (1.6%) were positive for Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test. Out of these 4 (0.8%) were positive for Treponema Palladium Haem-Agglutination Assay (TPHA) test. All of these cases have bad obstetrical history. Conclusion: The sero-positivity of Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test is (1.6%), considered high among pregnant women reporting in obstetrics clinics of Combined Military Hospital Abbottabad. Similarly sero-positivity of Treponema Palladium Haem-Agglutination Assay (TPHA) test is (0.8%) considered high among the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test population. Therefore Screening of syphilis in pregnancy especially in patients having bad obstetrical history (BOH) should be incorporated into the study. (author)
the mean maximum temperature was Hypotenson 15 (62.5) 102.0 + 1.3 F. A "saddle back" or dip- Rash (Non- Petechial ) 13 (54.2) hasic fever pattern was not...DENGUE FEVER IN AMERICAN MILITARY PERSONNEL IN THE PHILIPPINES: CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS ON HOSPITALIZED PATIENS DURING A 1984 EPIDEMIC C.G. Hayes, T.F...Accession Tr~I Jti ti DENGUE FEVER IN AMERICAN MILITARY PERSONNEL IN THE PHILIPPINES: CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS ON HOSPITALIZED PATIENTS DURING A 1984
Todorovic, V.; Jevtic, M.; Jovanovic, D.; Jovic-Stosic, J.
Possibility of mass injuries in traffic, industrial accidents or terrorist attack is every day reality. Management of victims may need complex measures including activities on the site, transportation, and hospital care. Preparedness for hospital treatment of mass trauma or poisoning is among the main duties of Military Medical Academy (MMA). It is medical institution of tertiary level with the capacity of 1214 beds in 13 surgical clinics, 12 internal medicine clinics, 2 neuropsychiatry clinics, poison control centre and organ transplantation centre. National Poison Control Centre is the only specialized institution for treatment of adult's acute poisonings in the country. Centre includes: 1. Clinic of Toxicology and Clinical Pharmacology with Intensive Care Unit and Toxicology Information Department; 2. Institute of Experimental Toxicology and Pharmacology; 3. Mobile Toxicological - Chemical Squad. Being a part of MMA, Centre benefits from all advantages of central type hospital, including possibilities for contemporary diagnostic and therapeutic procedures of different specialities, and other necessary medical and logistic support. Except hospital organization and preparedness for admission of mass injuries victims, one of strategic goals of MMA is functional integration in civilian health care system including more detailed planning for collaboration in case of chemical accidents.(author)
Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Ravangard, Ramin; Yaghoubi, Maryam; Alimohammadzadeh, Khalil
Background: Military hospitals are responsible for preserving, restoring and improving the health of not only armed forces, but also other people. According to the military organizations strategy, which is being a leader and pioneer in all areas, providing quality health services is one of the main goals of the military health care organizations. This study was aimed to evaluate the service quality of selected military hospitals in Iran based on the Joint Commission International (JCI) standards and comparing these hospitals with each other and ranking them using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) technique in 2013. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional and descriptive study conducted on five military hospitals, selected using the purposive sampling method, in 2013. Required data collected using checklists of accreditation standards and nominal group technique. AHP technique was used for prioritizing. Furthermore, Expert Choice 11.0 was used to analyze the collected data. Results: Among JCI standards, the standards of access to care and continuity of care (weight = 0.122), quality improvement and patient safety (weight = 0.121) and leadership and management (weight = 0.117) had the greatest importance, respectively. Furthermore, in the overall ranking, BGT (weight = 0.369), IHM (0.238), SAU (0.202), IHK (weight = 0.125) and SAB (weight = 0.066) ranked first to fifth, respectively. Conclusion: AHP is an appropriate technique for measuring the overall performance of hospitals and their quality of services. It is a holistic approach that takes all hospital processes into consideration. The results of the present study can be used to improve hospitals performance through identifying areas, which are in need of focus for quality improvement and selecting strategies to improve service quality. PMID:25250364
Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Ravangard, Ramin; Yaghoubi, Maryam; Alimohammadzadeh, Khalil
Military hospitals are responsible for preserving, restoring and improving the health of not only armed forces, but also other people. According to the military organizations strategy, which is being a leader and pioneer in all areas, providing quality health services is one of the main goals of the military health care organizations. This study was aimed to evaluate the service quality of selected military hospitals in Iran based on the Joint Commission International (JCI) standards and comparing these hospitals with each other and ranking them using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) technique in 2013. This was a cross-sectional and descriptive study conducted on five military hospitals, selected using the purposive sampling method, in 2013. Required data collected using checklists of accreditation standards and nominal group technique. AHP technique was used for prioritizing. Furthermore, Expert Choice 11.0 was used to analyze the collected data. Among JCI standards, the standards of access to care and continuity of care (weight = 0.122), quality improvement and patient safety (weight = 0.121) and leadership and management (weight = 0.117) had the greatest importance, respectively. Furthermore, in the overall ranking, BGT (weight = 0.369), IHM (0.238), SAU (0.202), IHK (weight = 0.125) and SAB (weight = 0.066) ranked first to fifth, respectively. AHP is an appropriate technique for measuring the overall performance of hospitals and their quality of services. It is a holistic approach that takes all hospital processes into consideration. The results of the present study can be used to improve hospitals performance through identifying areas, which are in need of focus for quality improvement and selecting strategies to improve service quality.
LaCroix, Jessica M; Colborn, Victoria A; Hassen, Helena O; Perera, Kanchana U; Weaver, Jennifer; Soumoff, Alyssa; Novak, Laura A; Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan
Suicide among United States service members is a significant public health concern. Intimate partner relationship stress may contribute to suicide risk, as a failed or failing relationship is the most commonly documented stressor preceding military suicide attempts and deaths. However, little is known about the manner by which relationship stressors are associated with the experience of military suicidality. A sample of 190 psychiatrically hospitalized military personnel and adult dependents enrolled in an ongoing randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of an inpatient cognitive behavioral treatment for suicidality were included in this study. Analyses examined depression, hopelessness, and suicidality among participants with (n = 105) and without (n = 85) self-reported romantic relationship stress. Over half (55%) of the sample reported current romantic relationship stress. Compared to participants without current romantic relationship stress, results indicated that individuals reporting current romantic relationship stress were more hopeless (AOR = 1.07 (95% CI: 1.01-1.12), p = 0.020), more likely to endorse multiple suicide attempts (AOR = 1.96 (95% CI: 1.01-3.79), p = 0.046), had higher overall suicide risk (AOR = 2.49, (95% CI: 1.03-6.06), p = 0.044), and were more likely to report that the reason for their suicidality was at least in part to get a reaction from others. Findings suggest romantic relationship stress is associated with greater suicide risk, and have clinical implications for suicide prevention and intervention. Future research may examine mechanisms and pathways between romantic relationship stress, suicidality, and prevention and intervention strategies. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Satizabal Azuero, Carlos E; Calderon Uribe, Oscar; Naquira Escobar, Luis F
This is an observational retrospective study series of cases carried out between January 1998 and July 2004 in the central military hospital, 13 patients were treated with Girdlestone arthroplasty with external fixation, with a pursuit average of 53 months. Function, return to the daily activities and associate complications was evaluated. They were as complication; pain in the fixator site, osteitis, and fixator broke. All patients report at the end of the treatment no pain in the hip. Shortening in the patient without lenghting was 3,5 cm and in the group with lenghting was 1.5 cm. the obtained results demonstrate that Girdlestone arthroplasty with external fixation, is option, to improve the patient's pain and function of the hip
Tariq, M.; Ishtiaq, S.; Zulfiqar, S.O.
Objective: To determine the difference in the frequency of middle cerebral artery (MCA) ischemic strokes between left and right cerebral hemispheres in the adult patients admitted to the Military Hospital (MH) Rawalpindi. Study Design: A descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: MH Rawalpindi from 01 Dec 2013 to 30 Mar 2014. Patients and Methods: Seventy eight adult patients admitted to MH Rawalpindi with neurologic deficits consistent with MCA strokes and having no evidence of intracerebral haemorrhage on Computed Tomographic (CT) scan of brain. Descriptive Statistics were calculated using SPSS version 17. Results: A total of 78 patients met the inclusion criteria of the study; 35 (45 percent) patients had right MCA stroke while 43 (55 percent) had left MCA stroke. Conclusion: Left MCA ischemic strokes are more common than right MCA ischemic strokes. (author)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Taiwan’s National Defense Bureau has been merging its hospitals and adjusting hospital accreditation levels since the beginning of 2006. These changes have introduced many stressors to the healthcare workers in these hospitals. This study investigates the association between job stress, psychological morbidity and quality of life in healthcare workers in three military hospitals. Methods We posted surveys to 1269 healthcare workers in three military hospitals located in southern Taiwan. The surveys included the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ, the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF, and the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI Questionnaire. High effort-reward (ER ratio and overcommitment were defined when scores fell into the upper tertile of the total distribution. Results The survey was completed by 791 healthcare workers. On average, women reported a higher ERI than men. High ERI was associated with younger age, higher psychological morbidity, and poor physical and psychological QOL domains in this population. High ER ratio and high overcommitment were associated with psychological morbidity and poor QOL in both sexes. However, high ER ratio was not significantly associated with the social QOL domain in either sexes or the physical QOL domain in males. Conclusions There was a clear association between ERI and QOL in the healthcare workers in the military hospitals under reorganization and accreditation in this study. We found ER ratio and overcommitment to be suitable indicators of job stress.
Bawazir, Omar A; Alsuwayt, Bandar; Alqahtani, Waleed; Al-Dhafiri, Ahmad; Al-Shamrani, Mosleh
This study was intended to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of pediatricians and pharmacists about sugar free medications (SFMs) and their impact on oral health. Self-administered close ended questionnaire was handed out to all pediatricians and pharmacists in five tertiary hospitals in Riyadh (King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud Medical City, King Fahad Medical City, Prince Sultan Medical Military City, Security Forces Hospital) to investigate the knowledge, attitude and practice concerning SFMs. Eighty-five pediatricians and 77 pharmacists participated in this study. The results showed that pediatricians and pharmacists have a good knowledge, but negative attitude toward SFMs. Only (5.9%) of pediatricians had formal undergraduate training which is significantly lower than pharmacists (15.6%) (p = 0.04). One-third of pediatricans and pharmacists prescribe or dispense SFMs. The most influencing factors toward prescription (pediatrician) of SFMs was the medical status of the patient (70.6%), while the most influencing factor of dispensing (pharmacists) SFMs was the availability in the pharmacy (64.9%). Two-third of pediatricians (67%) guide the parents about the risk associated with sugar-containing medications (SCMs) which is significantly higher than pharmacists (p < 0.0001). Also, 53% of pediatricians recommend oral hygiene instructions when prescribing SCMs which is also significantly higher than pharmacists (p = 0.0 02). There is a considerable knowledge about SFMs and its impact on dental caries, among pediatricians and pharmacists participated in this study. However, their attitude toward prescribing or dispensing SFMs was not positive and may be linked to the gap in knowledge. Further training and education of healthcare providers regarding the use of SFMs and its negative impact on dental caries has to be reiterated.
Karakas, Ahmet; Coskun, Omer; Artuk, Cumhur; Savasci, Umit; Gul, Hanefi Cem; Mert, Gurkan; Avci, Ismail Yasar; Besirbellioglu, Bulent Ahmet; Eyigun, Can Polat
This study aimed to review the possible sources of infection of 16 oropharyngeal tularemia hospital cases, and to document their epidemiological and demographical characteristics, laboratory findings, treatment methods, and treatment results. Sixteen cases from a Turkish military hospital between January 2011 and December 2012 were retrospectively evaluated. The age, sex, occupation, place of residence, symptoms, duration of symptoms, laboratory results, treatment and duration, and treatment results were recorded. Tularemia was diagnosed through tularemia-specific tests once the other conditions that may have caused lymphadenopathy were excluded. Twelve of the patients included in this study were males. The average age of the patients was 32.1 ± 17.2 years. Sore throat, fatigue, and fever were the most frequent symptoms. The mean duration of symptoms was 21.6 ± 6.9 days. All the patients had been treated for tonsillopharyngitis in primary healthcare institutions previously. However, despite the treatment, cervical lymphadenopathy had developed in these cases. Patients were given streptomycin, doxycycline, and ciprofloxacin monotherapy or in combination. Ten of the cases fully recovered, while five required surgical lymph node drainage. Spontaneous drainage occurred in the single remaining case. Turkey is considered to be an endemic country with regards to tularemia. Prompt diagnosis and proper treatment of the disease is imperative in providing cure. Since it can be potentially confused with tuberculous lymphadenitis, differential diagnosis is vital. Patients presenting with a condition of tonsillopharyngitis in endemic areas must be carefully monitored.
Juan Baños Sánchez-Matamoros
Full Text Available The present paper deals with one of the most neglected areas of research in accounting, that of the Army. In spite of the literature on industries related to the Army, not too much has been extended on the Army per se. For this reason, this paper analyses the process of rationalization developed in the 18th century in Spanish Army Hospitals, as a result of the bankruptcy of the Royal Finances. Due to this process, the Military Hospitals were the most developed in the country, and it led to the emergence of the Contralor (Controller within the hospital, and thus accounting was considered as an essential matter.
Full Text Available Objectives. To describe reoperative thyroid surgeries in our department. Study Design. Retrospective cross-sectional and descriptive study at the Ouakam Military Hospital in Dakar (Senegal, over a period of eight and a half years. Methods. The study involved all records of patients who had a reoperative thyroidectomy regardless of the indication and time of the second surgery. Parameters evaluated for first and reoperative surgery were time interval between the two surgeries, operative indications, surgical procedures, intraoperative findings, pathological examination, and morbidity. Results. 30 records of patients were selected out of a total of 698 thyroidectomies (4.3%. Thyroid cancers diagnosed on first surgical specimens were the first indications of reoperations (46.67% followed by neck hematoma (20%. Completion thyroidectomy with a prophylactic central lymph nodes dissection was the most performed surgical procedure (43.33% followed by haemostasis (20%. During reoperation, we found active bleeding (20%, textiloma (6.67%, and fourth branchial cleft fistula (3.33%. The morbidity accounted for 10%: lymphorrhea, permanent hypocalcemia, and permanent recurrent nerve palsy, in one case, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the morbidity in patients reoperated on and the one for patients operated on once. Conclusion. We did not find an increased risk of postoperative morbidity after reintervention.
Khan, A.U.; Yasmeen, R.; Habib, M.
To analyse the various types of retinopathy in individuals with type 2 DM. Design: Descriptive study. Place and duration of study: Military Hospital Rawalpindi from January 2010 to July 2010 Methods: One hundred and fifty patients with type 2 DM were studied into for different types of retinopathy, based on history, clinical examination (ophthalmological) and laboratory investigations. Results: Out of 150 patients who fulfilled the criteria for study, 93(62%) were male and 57(38%) were female patients, frequency of retinopathy was 28.67%. The duration of diabetes ranged from 5 to 30 years. The frequency of retinopathy was higher in males as compared to females. The mean age of the patients was 51.10 +- 8.33 years with range 36-77 years. Proliferative retinopathy was seen more in those diabetic patients whose duration of disease was more than 10 years. They also showed poor glycaemic control in the form of raised blood glucose and HbA1C levels. Conclusion: About twenty eight percent of our diabetic patients are suffering from diabetic retinopathy. This can be controlled by early detection and effective treatment both in terms of strict glycemic control and laser photocoagulation, thus decreasing the morbidity and mortality due to this chronic disease. (author)
Al-Maweri, Sadeq Ali; Al-Soneidar, Walid Ahmed; Dhaifullah, Esam; Halboub, Esam Saleh; Tarakji, Bassel
More than 50 % of oral cancer cases are diagnosed at advanced stages. Public knowledge about oral cancer can help in prevention and early detection of the disease. The aim of the present study was to assess the levels of awareness and knowledge about signs and risk factors of oral cancer among dental patients in Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information from 1410 randomly selected patients attending dental departments within public hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software. The significance level was set at P oral cancer. Some 68.2 and 56.5 %, respectively, were able to correctly identify tobacco and alcohol as risk factors. More than two thirds of subjects had no knowledge about any signs of oral cancer. Participants with lower than university education were significantly less aware, and had much less knowledge, of the signs and risk factors of oral cancer. The knowledge regarding oral cancer among Saudi dental patients is alarmingly low. Interventions to improve public knowledge about oral cancer and attitudes towards early diagnosis and treatment are urgently indicated.
Full Text Available To assess the effects of non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity, on the mother and the infant.A multicentre cohort study was conducted in three hospitals in the city of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. All Saudi women and their babies who delivered in participating hospitals were eligible for recruitment. Data on socio-demographic characteristics in addition to the maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy were collected. The cohort demographic profile was recorded and the prevalence of maternal conditions including gestational diabetes, pre-gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and obesity were estimated.The total number of women who delivered in participating hospitals during the study period was 16,012 of which 14,568 women participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 29 ± 5.9 years and over 40% were university graduates. Most of the participants were housewives, 70% were high or middle income and 22% were exposed to secondhand smoke. Of the total cohort, 24% were married to a first cousin. More than 68% of the participants were either overweight or obese. The preterm delivery rate was 9%, while 1.5% of the deliveries were postdate. The stillbirth rate was 13/1000 live birth. The prevalence of gestational diabetes was 24% and that of pre-gestational diabetes was 4.3%. The preeclampsia prevalence was 1.1%. The labour induction rate was 15.5% and the cesarean section rate was 25%.Pregnant women in Saudi Arabia have a unique demographic profile. The prevalence of obesity and diabetes in pregnancy are among the highest in the world.
Safety assessment of the operation of the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) system at 37 Military Hospital was done. Protocols were developed to assess the radiological health and safety impact of some selected MR imaging procedures on patients, staff and the general public. The parameters considered to be assessed were; specific absorption rate (SAR); temperature rise in the body, variation of the magnetic field gradients, RF energy used, sound pressure level and the potential for missile effects. The Smart brain and Routine lumbar Spine examination cards specific to brain and lumbar spine anatomy techniques were used. For brain examinations the T1 W-SE sagittal PH, and the T1 W-SE Tra-PH protocols gave the highest SAR values with a mean value 1.6 W/kg for 3 minutes. For the lumbar spine examinations, the T1 W-TSE axial protocols exposed patients to the highest consistent SAR value of 2.8 W /kg. The T2W-TSE axial protocol gave the highest SAR value of 3.8 W/kg with a mean value of 3.1 W/kg with the highest exposure time of 4 minutes with a mean of 2.5 minutes. These SAR values were within the limits recommended by the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA). To optimize patient, staff and public safety, local guidelines for safety assessment were developed which include: in house screening with a metal detector, filling in the screening form and ensuring that safety requirements are met before entering the MR room. The choice of protocols that minimize SAR values and strict compliance to safety protocols developed at the MRI facility therefore should be followed and continuously updated to achieve maximum safety for staff, patient and the general public in and around an MRI facility. (au)
Alghamdi, Abdulrahman S.; Khalid, Aleissa; Ghazi, Alzeer
Full text: Building materials used for construction of houses represent a major source of indoor radon. In this investigation, indoor radon concentrations are found to vary substantially among the different building materials, ventilation, cooling and heating systems used. This paper presents the effects of these factors on the radon concentration in Riyadh city dwellings. The measurements were obtained by using a passive integrating ionization system with an E-Perm Electret ion chamber. The study covered more than 700 houses and apartments, which were selected to cover the most common type of houses. The concentration range was found to be 1.02 to 196 Bq.m -3 , with an average value of 17.5 ± 3 Bq.m -3 . The results show that the radon concentration is higher in houses where the white bricks, no ventilation systems, plastic paint and Freon air conditioners are used, but relatively lower in houses where the red bricks, window ventilation, and water air conditioner is used. (author)
Claude Louis Sommé was born in Paris in 1772. After surgical studies between 1790 and 1792, he successfully embraced a military career in the armies of Napoleon at different fronts and in several hospitals. In 1806 he submitted his doctoral thesis at the Special Medical School of Strasburg, Dissertation upon Pain. The same year he presented his dismissal from he imperial armies and became chief-surgeon at the St Elisabeth hospital of Antwerp where he stayed on duty until his death in 1855. Sommé wrote a lot of medical books: surgical, anatomical and physiological. After the battle of Waterloo one third of the injured soldiers were transferred to Antwerp and were attended in his department. He also played an important role as a professor at the Primary Medical School of Antwerp. Sommé also created the botanical garden of Antwerp, close to the hospital.
Beliakin, S A; Fokin, Iu N; Kokhan, E P; Frolkin, M N
There was congested a wide experience of organization and management of scientific work in the 3rd CMCH by Vishnevsky A.A. for a term of more than 40 years. This experience is subjected to generalization, analyze for the purpose of determination of it's priority orientations of improvement. Scientific-methods work in hospital is rated as a complex of measures, organisationaly-planed and coordinated by purpose and reinforcement of scientific schools of the 3rd CMCH by Vishnevsky A.A., as a basis of effective delivery of specialized medical aid. The vector of scientific researches is directed, generally, to solving questions of military and field medicine.
Wells, Timothy S; Sato, Paul A; Smith, Tyler C; Wang, Linda Z; Reed, Robert J; Kappel Ryan, Margaret A
.... To determine if anthrax vaccination was associated with an increased risk of hospitalization, a historical cohort study utilizing pre- and post-anthrax-vaccination hospitalizations was undertaken...
Mandil, Ahmed; Yamani, Mohammad; BinSaeed, Abdulaziz; Ahmad, Shaffi; Younis, Afnan; Al-Mutlaq, Ahmad; Al-Baqmy, Omar; Al-Rajhi, Abdulaziz
AIM: This study aimed at assessing prevailing patterns and risk factors of tobacco consumption among clients, food handlers and employers of food facilities, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A cross-sectional approach to a representative sample of food facilities in Riyadh was used. A sample of 3000 participants included clients (75%); food handlers/hospitality workers (20 %) and employers (5 %). Participants were reached at restaurants, food courts or cafes. A modified version of the WHO-CDC-Global Youth Tobacco Survey questionnaire was used for data collection. RESULTS: The prevalence of tobacco use at food facilities was found to be 40.3 %, of which 74% were customers, 18.8% were food handlers and 7.2% were managers. The consumption of tobacco was higher at restaurants (39.9%), but lowest at food courts of shopping malls. Water pipe (55.3%) was the main consumption type, followed by cigarettes (42.6%) and chewing tobacco (2.1%). Multivariate analysis showed that gender (male), marital status (single), and type of food facility (Estaraha and café/coffee shop) were independent risk factors associated with tobacco use at food facilities. CONCLUSION: Tobacco use is very common in food facilities in Riyadh as reflected by results of our study, especially among single males Saudis. We should build on success encountered in banning smoking in airports, airplanes, shopping malls, market places, educational institutions and healthcare facilities, extending the ban to include food facilities as well. This is important for the health of non-smokers as well as smokers themselves. PMID:24987478
Conclusion: Nail-biting habit was highly prevalent among preschool children in Riyadh, followed by mouth breathing, thumb sucking, and teeth clenching. Malocclusion was the main factor related to the habits of thumb sucking and pacifier sucking. Respiratory and tonsils problems were related to mouth breathing. Teeth clenching was highly related to the presence of carious teeth.
Al-Kusayer, T.A.; Al-Haj, A.N.
A gamma spectroscopy system was used to analyze the radionuclides in soil samples and to determine the cumulative radioactivity of terrestrial origin in the Riyadh City area. Minimal work has been done in the 1980s to measure the natural background radiation level in Saudi Arabia by using thermoluminescent dosimeters. The measurement of the natural radioactivity in the Riyadh area for the radionuclide concentration in becquerels per kilogram, the exposure rate arising from radionuclides in grays per hour, and the equivalent dose rate in sieverts per hour are the goals of this work. Soil samples were collected from 21 places in Riyadh City. Each site was sampled for two depth profiles, 0 to 5 cm and 5 to 15 cm. These measurements were taken before the Chernobyl accident, and in the absence of any measurements for that area in the past, this work can be considered in future work for a reference 137 Cs concentration in Riyadh soil to determine the 137 Cs increase in the soil after the Chernobyl accident
Al Fayez, Hanan; Lappin, Julia; Murray, Robin; Boydell, Jane
Recent studies of 'duration of untreated psychosis' (DUP) indicate that some patients remain untreated in the community for some time. Considerable emphasis has been placed on reducing the DUP. However, most studies investigating DUP have been conducted in Western countries, where well-developed primary care systems are available. This study aims to describe DUP and its association with both demographic factors and pathways to care in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A retrospective study of 421 new case records of all Saudi schizophrenia patients over a 2-year period in six governmental hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The median DUP was 1.41 years (interquartile range 0.35-2.81 years). The longest time to contact was 9.86 years but 90% had a DUP shorter than 5 years. Older age at onset, single marital status and higher educational level were associated with shorter DUP. Long DUP was associated with help seeking from traditional healers. In Saudi Arabia, it usually takes longer for patients to seek help from psychiatric services after their first psychosis onset than it does in Western countries. The results suggest that the DUP is influenced by both demographic factors and pathways to care. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Al Eidan, Eidan; Ur Rahman, Saeed; Al Qahtani, Saeed; Al Farhan, Ali I; Abdulmajeed, Imad
Background and objectives : Subclinical hypothyroidism is an asymptomatic condition with normal thyroxin and raised thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in primary health care (PHC) settings in Riyadh and explore the relationship of TSH level with age, gender, family history, body mass index, and co-morbid conditions. Subjects and methods : A cross-sectional study of adult visitors to nine satellites PHC clinics in military housing in Riyadh was carried out. TSH concentration and free T4 levels were measured. Data were collected by nurses and physicians during routine clinical practice in primary care. Descriptive analysis was performed on all variables in study, and relationships were explored using chi-square, t -test, analysis of variance, and linear regression. Results : A total of 340 out of 394 participants in the study gave blood samples. Subclinical hyperthyroidism was identified in 2.1% ( p = .001) and subclinical hypothyroidism in 10.3% ( p = .001) of the PHC visitors. TSH levels were found to be significantly higher ( p = .047) in elderly population of ≥60 years and those with family history of thyroid disease. Non-significant upward trends were noted in TSH levels with hyperlipidemia and increasing blood pressure. No overt hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism was found in our study sample. Conclusion : Subclinical hypothyroidism has a prevalence of 10% of adults visiting PHC's. TSH levels are higher in the elderly, which warrants screening of those aged 60 years and above.
Safa, Louhichi; Afif, Neffati; Zied, Hajjej; Mehdi, Dridi; Ali, Yousfi Mohamed
Linezolid was introduced in clinical practice in the early 2000s. It was considered to be an ideal reserve drug for treatment of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. (VRE) and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA). The aim of our study was to describe and evaluate the use of linezolid in clinical practice at the intensive care unit (ICU) of the Tunisian military hospital. This is a thirty-month retrospective study including patients treated with linezolid at the ICU of the Tunisian military hospital. Data collection was realized using the patients' medical files and prescriptions. A pharmacist conducted an extended medication history and checked if an advice from an infectious disease-physician and a microbiological documentation were requested. A total of 80 patients were included. Forty-one per cent of indications were outside the Marketing Authorization (MA) criteria, and were mainly sepsis and postoperative mediastinitis (32% and 4% of total prescriptions, respectively). This antibiotic was used as a first-line therapy in 58% of cases. The advice from an infectious-disease physician was requested for 33% of prescriptions. Only 20% of infections were documented microbiologically, of which 35% were caused by methicillin resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. Linezolid is an interesting therapeutic alternative in case of infections due to multi-resistant bacteria and/or complex clinical situations. Therefore, its prescription must be rationalized in order to slow down the emergence of resistance to this antibiotic. The high frequency of its use outside the MA criteria shows the importance of carrying out more clinical trials to evaluate its effectiveness and safety for new indications.
Objective: To determine the status of thyroid functions in patients of Beta Thalassemia Major, reporting to OPD of Military Hospital, Rawalpindi. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Paediatric Outpatients Department of Military Hospital, Rawalpindi from 1st Jan to 30th Jun 2012. Material and Methods: After taking informed consent from the parents of all the children fulfilling the inclusion criteria, detailed history was taken and blood samples were drawn by strict aseptic means. Samples taken from these patients included complete blood and thyroid profile (serum thyroxine T4, triiodothyronine T3 and thyroid stimulating hormone TSH). These blood samples were labeled and sent to Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi for analysis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Primary hypothyroidism was defined by TSH levels >4IU/ml. Statistical analysis was done at the end of study using SPSS version 10. Significance for association was calculated using student t-test. Results: Sixty patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria out of these sixty four patients lost the follow up while 56 patients completed the study. Out of 56 patients, 21 (37.5 percent) had biochemical evidence of hypothyroidism. Mean Ferritin level was 3924 +- 1247ng/ml in hypothyroid and 3136 +- 1387ng/ml in euthyroid patients indicating a significant difference in mean serum ferritin levels between hypothyroid patients and others. Conclusion: The study demonstrates hypothyroidism in a significant number of hyper transfused Beta- thalassemic patients, emphasizing the importance of monitoring thyroid functions in thalassemic patients, particularly in those receiving suboptimal chelation. (author)
Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan; Lee-Tauler, Su Yeon; LaCroix, Jessica M; Kauten, Rebecca; Perera, Kanchana; Chen, Rusan; Weaver, Jennifer; Soumoff, Alyssa
Personality disorders (PDs) are associated with an increased risk for suicide. However, the association between PDs and suicide risk has not been examined among military personnel. This study evaluated whether endorsement of different PD dysfunctional beliefs was associated with lifetime suicide attempt status. Cross-sectional data were collected during the baseline phase of a randomized controlled trial, evaluating the efficacy of an inpatient cognitive behavior therapy protocol for the prevention of suicide. Participants (N = 185) were military service members admitted for inpatient psychiatric care following a suicide-related event. MANOVA and Poisson regression evaluated the association between each type of PD dysfunctional belief and the number of suicide attempts. Service members' PBQ subscale scores for borderline (p = 0.049) and histrionic PD dysfunctional beliefs (p = 0.034) significantly differed across those with suicide ideation only, single attempt, and multiple attempts. Upon further analysis, histrionic PD dysfunctional beliefs scores were significantly higher among those with multiple suicide attempts than those with single attempts. One point increase of dependent (Incidence Risk Ratio = 1.04, p = 0.009), narcissistic (IRR = 1.07, p histrionic beliefs as part of a psychosocial intervention will be useful. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Beny, K; Piriou, V; Dussart, C; Hénaine, R; Aulagner, G; Armoiry, X
Seven Neuromuscular Blocking Agents (NMBA) are commercialized in France. Four of them have an intermediate duration of action. Sugammadex required the use of NMBA slightly employed in clinical practice in France. Its introduction in routine practice could have an impact on NMBA use in clinical practice. This study was then conducted to assess and compare NMBA use before and after the commercialization of sugammadex. A longitudinal, retrospective, observational study was conducted between 2008 and 2011 in French university hospitals and military hospitals. The consumption data for sugammadex and NMBA were collected using a collection grid which was filled by pharmacists or anesthesiologists. Drug use was measured by the number of vials used divided by the annual number of hospitalizations in surgery and obstetrics (HSO). An overall analysis of the annual frequency of NMBA use was firstly performed, then individual data of each hospital were analyzed. Descriptive statistical analysis including mean, standard deviation, median, minimum and maximum was achieved. Thirty-four out of 39 hospitals participated in the study (87%) and analysis was performed on 26 of them (7%). The data of eight institutions were excluded due to missing values or because of the non-admission of sugammadex in their formulary. The NMBA mostly used were non-steroidal NMBA (75% of market share) with an increased use between 2008 and 2011 concerning atracurium (from 41 to 51 vials of 50mg atracurium used per 100 HSO). The overall analysis revealed an increase of the occurrence of rocuronium (between 2008 and 2011: from 1 to 4.8 vials of 50mg rocuronium used per 100 HSO). Individual analyses on each hospital showed a possible effect of sugammadex introduction on NMBA use in nine hospitals. The commercialization of sugammadex seems to have induced a discrete increase of steroidal NMBA but non-steroidal NMBA remain the leading agent in France. A long-term follow-up is deserved. Copyright © 2013 Soci
Alosaimi, Fahad D.; Alyahya, Haifa; Alshahwan, Hatem; Mahyijari, Nawal Al; Shaik, Shaffi A.
Objectives: To investigate the prevalence and correlates of smartphone addiction among university students in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between September 2014 and March 2015. An electronic self administered questionnaire and the problematic use of mobile phones (PUMP) Scale were used. Results: Out of 2367 study subjects, 27.2% stated that they spent more than 8 hours per day using their smartphones....
This study investigates the level of existence of organized retail crime in supermarkets of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The store managers, security managers and general employees were asked about the types of retail crimes occur in the stores. Three independent variables were related to the report of organized retail theft. The independent variables are: 1) the supermarket profile (volume, location, standard and type of the store), 2) the social physical environment of the store (maintenance, clea...
Alghamdi, Abdulrahman S.; Aleissa, Khalid A.
The influences on indoor radon concentrations in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia survey was carried out for 786 dwellings. The measurements were obtained by using a passive integrating ionization system with an E-Perm ® Electret ion chamber. Radon levels ranged from 1 to 195 Bq m −3 , with a mean value of 24.68 Bq m −3 , the geometric mean and the geometric standard deviation are 21 and 2 respectively. 98.5% of the results were below the action level recommended by WHO of 100 Bq.m −3 . The results were found to vary substantially due to types of houses and rooms, ventilation, seasons and building materials. Radon concentrations were higher in houses with no ventilation systems, and central air conditioners, and were relatively lower in well ventilated houses with red bricks and water air conditioners. - Highlights: • Limited information about indoor radon in Riyadh. • Several factors influence Radon level were investigated in 786 dwellings in Riyadh over one year. • Some results are over the action level and are advised to improve their ventilation systems
Jessica M Hameed
Full Text Available Travelers' diarrhea (TD is the most common ailment affecting travelers, including deployed U.S. military. Continuing Promise 2011 was a 5-month humanitarian assistance/disaster response (HA/DR military and non-governmental organization training mission aboard the hospital ship USNS Comfort, which deployed to Central and South America and the Caribbean between April and September 2011. Enhanced TD surveillance was undertaken during this mission for public health purposes. Passive surveillance (clinic visits, active surveillance (self-reported questionnaires, and stool samples were collected weekly from shipboard personnel. Descriptive statistics and multivariate-logistic regression methods were used to estimate disease burden and risk factor identification. Two polymerase chain reaction methods on frozen stool were used for microbiological identification. TD was the primary complaint for all clinic visits (20% and the leading cause of lost duties days due to bed rest confinement (62%, though underreported, as the active self-reported incidence was 3.5 times higher than the passive clinic-reported incidence. Vomiting (p = 0.002, feeling lightheaded or weak (p = 0.005, and being a food handler (p = 0.017 were associated with increased odds of lost duty days. Thirty-eight percent of self-reported cases reported some amount of performance impact. Based on the epidemiological curve, country of exercise and liberty appeared to be temporally associated with increased risk. From the weekly self-reported questionnaire risk factor analysis, eating off ship in the prior week was strongly associated (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.4, p<0.001. Consumption of seafood increased risk (aOR 1.7, p = 0.03, though consumption of ice appeared protective (aOR 0.3, p = 0.01. Etiology was bacterial (48%, with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli as the predominant pathogen (35%. Norovirus was identified as a sole pathogen in 12%, though found as a copathogen in an additional 6
Elmarjany, Mohammed; Maghous, Abdelhak; Razine, Rachid; Marnouche, Elamin; Andaloussi, Khalid; Bazine, Amine; Lalya, Issam; Zaghba, Noha; Hadadi, Khalid; Sifat, Hassan; Habib, Baba; Kouach, Jaouad; Mansouri, Hamid
Cancer of uterine cervix is the second most common cause of cancer related deaths among women. The aim of this study is to report the experience of Military Hospital Mohamed V in the management of cervical cancer and their results. All cervical cancer managed at the radiotherapy department of Military Hospital Mohamed V between January 2005 and February 2010, were included for investigation of their demographic, histological, therapeutic and follow-up characteristics. Of the 162 cases managed, 151 (93.2 %) cases were treated in our department. In our study the median age was 51.5 years (33-82). The median duration of symptoms before diagnosis was four [3, 7] months. The major presenting complaints were abnormal vaginal bleeding (89.8 %). Squamous cell carcinoma cervix was seen in 86.2 % (n = 137), adenocarcinoma in 11.3 % (n = 18) and adenosquamous carcinoma in 2.4 % (n = 4). One hundred seventeen (84.8 %) cases were seen at late stage. An abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) scan was performed in 34.6 % (n = 56) of cases, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 62.9 % (n = 102). The pelvic lymph nodes were achieved in 16.6 % of cases. Over half of patients 58.3 % (n = 88) were treated with a combination of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and a concurrent cisplatin based chemotherapy (40 mg /m2 weekly). With a mean of 51.6 months (2 to 109), we recorded 19 (12.6 %) pelvic relapse and 15 (9.9 %) metastases. The median time to onset was 19.4 months (2-84 months). The local control rate was 63.6 % (n = 96) and 21 (13.9 %) patients were lost to follow-up. The overall survival (OS) at 3 years and 5 years was respectively 78.3 % and 73.6 % and the relapse-free survival (RFS) was respectively 80 % and 77.2 %. Most of cervical cancer patients in Morocco are seen at late stage necessitating referral for radiotherapy, chemotherapy or palliative care. This may reflect lack of cervical screening in order to early
Mohamed, Ashry G
To determine the extent of work-related violence against nurses in hospitals in Riyadh. Through a cross sectional approach, a self administered questionnaire was offered to 500 active-duty nurses selected randomly. In addition to the demographic characteristics, the questionnaire inquired about exposure to workplace violence, hospital and department of employment at the time of exposure, characteristics of the assailant and nurses' perception of the causes of violence. Out of 434 respondents, 93 (21.4%) were males, and 341 (78.6%) females. The mean age was 36.1 ± 7.97 years. Workplace violence was experienced by 235 (54.3%) nurses. Of these 93.2% were exposed to harsh insulting language, 32.8% to verbal threat, 28.1% to attempts of physical assault, 17.4% to sexual harassment and 16.2% to actual physical assault. Nurses working in psychiatry and emergency units had the highest rate of exposure to violence (84.3% & 62.1% respectively) Nurses perceived shortage in security personnel (82%), shortage in nursing staff (63%), language barrier (36.3%) and unrestricted movement of patients in hospitals (21.5%) as causes of their exposure to violence. improve security in hospitals by increasing the number of security officers on duty and increase the community's awareness of the problem.
Rehman, M. M. U.; Zakaria, M.; Mustafvi, S. A.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the pattern of clinical presentations, haematological and biochemical abnormalities, and outcome of dengue fever patients admitted in Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Rawalpindi in year 2015. Study Design: A descriptive cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Medicine, CMH Rawalpindi, from January 2015 to December 2015. Material and Methods: Patients meeting the inclusion criteria were admitted at CMH Rawalpindi and blood serology was done to confirm the diagnosis of dengue fever. Cases with positive dengue serology were included in the study. Clinical symptoms, signs, investigations and outcome of these patients were recorded on a proforma. Blood samples were taken for analysis. Chest X-Ray and ultrasound abdomen were done on required basis. Results: Out of forty confirmed cases of dengue fever, there were 25 (62.5 percent) males and 15 (37.5 percent) females. Mean age was 40 years. There were 39 cases (97.5 percent) of dengue fever and one case (2.5 percent) of dengue shock syndrome.There was no case of dengue haemorrhagic syndrome. Maximum cases were seen in the month of October 2015.The clinical features noted were: headache and myalgias 62.5 percent, chills and rigors 57.5 percent, retro-orbital pain 42.5 percent, vomiting 35.0 percent, pruritus 27 percent, skin rash 20 percent, abdominal pain 20 percent, diarrhoea 10 percent, bleeding 2.5 percent, ascites and pleural effusion 2.5 percent, and hepatomegaly 15 percent. The laboratory findings were: leucopenia 85 percent and thrombocytopenia 92.5 percent. Serum alanine transaminase (ALT), urea, and creatinine were raised in 30 percent, 2.5 percent and 7.5 percent cases respectively. Mortality was 2.5 percent. Conclusion: This study showed that patients admitted to CMH hospital had a milder presentation of dengue fever in the year 2015. (author)
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate medical efforts and injury profiles of victims of the Lushan earthquake admitted to three military hospitals. This study retrospectively investigated the clinical records of 266 admitted patients evacuated from the Lushan earthquake area. The 2005 version of the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS-2005 was used to identify the severity of each injury. Patient demographic data, complaints, diagnoses, injury types, prognosis, means of transportation, and cause of injury were all reviewed individually. The statistical analysis of the study was conducted primarily using descriptive statistics. Of the 266 patients, 213 (80.1% were admitted in the first two days. A total of 521 injury diagnoses were recorded in 266 patients. Earthquake-related injuries were primarily caused by buildings collapsing (38.4% and victims being struck by objects (33.8%; the most frequently injured anatomic sites were the lower extremities and pelvis (34.2% and surface area of the body (17.9%. Fracture (41.5% was the most frequent injury, followed by soft tissue injury (27.5%, but crush syndrome was relatively low (1.2% due to the special housing structures in the Lushan area. The most commonly used procedure was suture and dressings (33.7%, followed by open reduction and internal fixation (21.9%.The results of this study help formulate recommendations to improve future disaster relief and emergency planning in remote, isolated, and rural regions of developing countries.
Kang, Peng; Tang, Bihan; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Xu; Liu, Zhipeng; Lv, Yipeng; Zhang, Lulu
The aim of this paper is to investigate medical efforts and injury profiles of victims of the Lushan earthquake admitted to three military hospitals. This study retrospectively investigated the clinical records of 266 admitted patients evacuated from the Lushan earthquake area. The 2005 version of the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS-2005) was used to identify the severity of each injury. Patient demographic data, complaints, diagnoses, injury types, prognosis, means of transportation, and cause of injury were all reviewed individually. The statistical analysis of the study was conducted primarily using descriptive statistics. Of the 266 patients, 213 (80.1%) were admitted in the first two days. A total of 521 injury diagnoses were recorded in 266 patients. Earthquake-related injuries were primarily caused by buildings collapsing (38.4%) and victims being struck by objects (33.8%); the most frequently injured anatomic sites were the lower extremities and pelvis (34.2%) and surface area of the body (17.9%). Fracture (41.5%) was the most frequent injury, followed by soft tissue injury (27.5%), but crush syndrome was relatively low (1.2%) due to the special housing structures in the Lushan area. The most commonly used procedure was suture and dressings (33.7%), followed by open reduction and internal fixation (21.9%).The results of this study help formulate recommendations to improve future disaster relief and emergency planning in remote, isolated, and rural regions of developing countries.
Umumararungu, Esperance; Ntaganda, Fabien; Kagira, John; Maina, Naomi
In Rwanda, the prevalence of viral hepatitis (HCV) is poorly understood. The current study investigated the prevalence and risk factors of HCV infection in Rwanda. A total of 324 patients attending Rwanda Military Hospital were randomly selected and a questionnaire was administered to determine the risk factors. Blood was collected and screened for anti-HCV antibodies and seropositive samples were subjected to polymerase chain reaction method. Hematology abnormalities in the HCV infected patients were also investigated. Anti-HCV antibody and active HCV infection were found in 16.0% and 9.6% of total participants, respectively. Prevalence was highest (28.4%; 19/67) among participants above 55 years and least (2.4%; 3/123) among younger participants (18-35 years). There was a significant ( P = 0.031) relationship between place of residence and HCV infection with residents of Southern Province having significantly higher prevalence. The hematological abnormalities observed in the HCV infected patients included leukopenia (48.4%; 15/52), neutropenia (6.5%; 2/52), and thrombocytopenia (25.8%; 8/52). The HCV infection was significantly higher in the older population (>55 years) and exposure to injection from traditional practitioners was identified as a significant ( P = 0.036) risk factor of infection. Further studies to determine the factors causing the high prevalence of HCV in Rwanda are recommended.
Full Text Available Background and Aims: Blood donation from glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD-deficient and sickle cell trait (SCT donors might alter the quality of the donated blood during processing, storage or in the recipient′s circulatory system. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency and SCT among blood donors coming to King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH in Riyadh. It was also reviewed the benefits and risks of transfusing blood from these blood donors. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1150 blood samples obtained from blood donors that presented to KKUH blood bank during the period April 2006 to May 2006. All samples were tested for Hb-S by solubility test, alkaline gel electrophoresis; and for G6PD deficiency, by fluorescent spot test. Results: Out of the 1150 donors, 23 (2% were diagnosed for SCT, 9 (0.78% for G6PD deficiency and 4 (0.35% for both conditions. Our prevalence of SCT and G6PD deficiency is higher than that of the general population of Riyadh. Conclusion: We recommend to screen all units for G6PD deficiency and sickle cell trait and to defer donations from donors with either of these conditions, unless if needed for special blood group compatibility, platelet apheresis or if these are likely to affect the blood bank inventory. If such blood is to be used, special precautions need to be undertaken to avoid complications in high-risk recipients.
Saad, R R; el-Gindy, A A
30 species belonging to 18 genera were isolated from floor dust of 30 homes in Riyadh. Out of them 16 species and 10 genera were isolated from dust of air conditioners of the same homes. The most common genera in floor dust were Aspergillus, Penicillium and Cladosporium. Aspergillus repens, A. amstelodami, A. versicolor, A. fumigatus, Penicillium purpurogenum, P. crustosum, Cladosporium cladosporoides and C. herbarum were frequently isolated. The most abundant genera in air conditioner dust were Aspergillus and Penicillium. Aspergillus fumigatus, A. ochraceus, A. terreus, Penicillium oxalicium and P. crustosum were most frequent species.
Hatim O. Sharif
Full Text Available Riyadh, the capital of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, has experienced unusual levels of urbanization in the past few decades, making it one of the fastest growing cities in the world. This paper examines flood hazards in the rapidly urbanizing catchment of Al-Aysen in Riyadh. Remote sensing and geographic information system techniques were employed to obtain and prepare input data for hydrologic and hydraulic models, with the former based on the very popular curve number approach. Due to the limited nature of the rainfall data, observations from two rain gauges in the vicinity of the catchment were used to estimate design storms. The hydrologic model was run in a semi-distributed mode by dividing the catchment into many sub-catchments. The impact of urbanization on run-off volume and peak discharge resulting from different storms was investigated, with various urbanization scenarios simulated. Flood hazard zones and affected streets were also identified through hydrologic/hydraulic model simulation. The mismatch between administrative and catchment boundaries can create problems in flood risk management for similar cities since hydrologic processes and flood hazards are based on the hydrologic connectivity. Since flooding events impact the road network and create driving hazards, governmental decision-makers must take the necessary precautions to protect drivers in these situations.
Ibrahim Al Alwan
Full Text Available Background The ages of onset of pubertal characteristics are influenced by genetic, geographic, dietary and socioeconomic factors; however, due to lack of country-specific norms, clinicians in Saudi Arabia use Western estimates as standards of reference for local children. Aims The aim of the Riyadh Puberty Study was to provide data on pubertal development to determine the average age of onset of pubertal characteristics among Saudi boys. Methods Cross-sectional study among male school children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in 2006, 542 schoolboys, aged 6 to 16 years old, from diverse socioeconomic levels were selected into the sample using a cluster sample design. Tanner stages were ascertained during physical examination by pediatric endocrine consultants, and also trained pediatric residents and fellows. Results The mean age (standard deviation at Tanner Stages 2, 3, 4, and 5 for pubic hair development of Saudi boys was 11.4 (1.6, 13.3 (1.3, 14.4 (1.0 and 15.1 (0.8 years old, respectively. For gonadal development, the mean age (standard deviation at stages 2, 3, 4, and 5 were 11.4 (1.5, 13.3 (1.2, 14.3 (1.1 and 15.0 (0.9 years old, respectively. Conclusion The ages of onset of pubertal characteristics, based on gonadal development, among Saudi boys are comparable to those reported in Western populations.
Full Text Available AIM: The aim of the study, Coronary Artery Disease (CAD diagnosed with identification of individuals in specific behaviors to improve health, health status and related factors to determine the levels of detection. METHODS: This descriptive study of data types of the Gulhane Military Medical Academy (GATA Hospital cardiology clinic in December 2009 - February 2010 were collected. The study group, at least 6 months before the diagnosis of CAD area, between the ages of 20-65 individuals who accept and participate in the study (n = 300 formed. Sociodemographic characteristics and health behaviors of the personal information form for the 33-item, 52-item scale of a healthy lifestyle behaviors and health status of the single-item scale working group of the detection technique applied to the face-to-face interview. The aim of the study, Coronary Artery Disease (CAD for the development of health behaviors in the case of individuals diagnosed with the identification, health status and related factors to determine the levels of detection. The statistical analysis techniques such as Mann Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis were used for the comparison. RESULTS: Of the group 57,7% were males, 46,3% were 50-59 years of age and 56,3% were higher education graduates. As regard to total Health Promotion Life-Style Profile Scale scores statistically significant differences had been found between age, gender, education, disease period, occupation and chronic condition groups. As regard to the average PHSS scores statistically significant differences had been found between age, education, body mass index, disease period, occupation, chronic condition and CAD related course groups (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Healthy lifestyle behaviors before planning training programs, individual models of health behavior and the behavior of individuals using the analyzed factors affecting.. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(3.000: 287-298
Full Text Available It is assumed that tactical medicine encompasses all therapeutic activities performed by a military medical service during military and humanitarian missions. Its scope is only apparently limited by the standards which, when referred to the NATO member countries, have been collected in the Joint Theater Trauma System – Clinical Practice Guidelines. The stage-structured character of medical assistance and treatment of the wounded, injured and sick patients assumes that the scope of therapeutic activities performed at each stage is limited only to essential actions. Consequently, more injured patients may be saved – those for whom life-saving activities are performed prior to their transfer to a higher level. The second level is represented by a field hospital. Its first structure is the trauma room in which a rescue team saves and qualifies the injured for further medical activities. Each injured patient undergoes an eFAST ultrasound examination which allows for a quick decision about a surgical treatment to be provided. Moreover, this technique is helpful in vascular cannulation. The authors present their own experiences with using an ultrasound examination during the work in the Field Hospital of the Polish Military Contingent in Afghanistan.
Spinella, Philip C; Perkins, Jeremy G; Grathwohl, Kurt W; Repine, Thomas; Beekley, Alec C; Sebesta, James; Jenkins, Donald; Azarow, Kenneth; Holcomb, John B
United States military doctrine permits the use of fresh whole blood (FWB), donated by U.S. military personnel on site, for casualties with life-threatening injuries at combat support hospitals. U.S. Military Medical Department policy dictates that all patients treated at military facilities during combat (coalition military personnel, foreign nationals, and enemy combatants) are to be treated equally. The objectives of this study were to describe admission vital signs and laboratory values and injury location for patients transfused with FWB, and to determine if FWB was employed equally among all patient personnel categories at a combat support hospital. This retrospective cohort study evaluated admission vital signs and laboratory values, injury location, and personnel category for all patients receiving FWB at a U.S. Army combat support hospital in Baghdad, Iraq, between January and December 2004. Eighty-seven patients received 545 units of FWB. Upon admission, the average (+/-S.D.) heart rate was 144 bpm (+/-25); systolic blood pressure, 106 mmHg (+/-33); base deficit, 9 (+/-6.5); hemoglobin, 9.0 g/dl (+/-2.6); platelet concentration, 81.9 x 10(3)/mm(3) (+/-81); international normalized ratio (INR), 2.0 (+/-1.1); and temperature 95.7 degrees F (+/-2.6). The percentages of intensive care patients who received FWB by personnel category were as follows: coalition soldiers, 51/592 (8.6%); foreign nationals, 25/347 (7.2%); and enemy combatants, 11/128 (8.5% (p = 0.38). The amount of FWB transfused by personnel category was as follows: coalition soldier, 4 units (1-35); foreign national, 4 units (1-36); and enemy combatant, 4 units (1-11) (p = 0.9). Fresh whole blood was used for anemic, acidemic, hypothermic, coagulopathic patients with life-threatening traumatic injuries in hemorrhagic shock, and it was transfused in equal percentages and amounts for coalition soldiers, foreign nationals, and enemy combatants.
Jofre, M J; Sierralta, M P [Military Hospital Nuclear Medicine Department, Santiago (Chile); Del Campo, G; Ide, A; Wiener, R [Department of Endocrinology of the Military Hospital, Santiago (Chile)
An eighteen year experience of differentiated thyroid carcinoma treatment with 131 radioiodine at the Military Hospital Nuclear Medicine Department. Since the beginning of Nuclear Medicine, the thyroid gland has been an important subject for study. In the fifties, the complimentary use of 131 radioiodine after differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) surgery was postulated. The aim of the study was to analyze our experience of the management of patients with DTC. Material and methods: An 18-year retrospective analysis was made including 109 patients with previous diagnosis of DTC, 90 % females, mean age 47 +/- 17 y.o. (range: 19-85 y.o). Tumoral histology was 67 % papillary, 28 % follicular and 5% non-determined in the medical record. First doses of 131 radioiodine were between 50 and 200 mCi. In all, 156 radioiodine doses were given and 6 patients received 4 doses or more, with total doses between 300 and 570 mCi. Results: The distribution of first and total radioiodine doses is presented in the table below. Of the group of patients who received a first radioiodine dose of less than 100 mCi post surgery, 79% were treated before 1990. Those who received 150mCi or more had cervical ganglionar compromise, trachea invasion or subtotal thyroidectomy. In 50% of the patients who received 4 or more doses, the first two doses were 50 mCi. It is important to mention that there was one patient who received 8 radioiodine doses in 4 years , seven of them were 50 mCi ( total dose 438 mCi). This patient presented trachea and larynx invasion in the early stages, with a persistent focus in the left supraclavicular region. She later developed pulmonary fibrosis, for which she was treated with complimentary radiotherapy (30 Gy), before dying. Distribution of radioiodine doses is presented. Conclusion: It is important to emphasize the validity of a first 131 radioiodine dose after surgery of DTC patients of 100 mCi or more, to obtain the ablation of the remaining thyroid tissue. This
Jofre, M.J.; Sierralta, M.P.; Del Campo, G.; Ide, A.; Wiener, R.
An eighteen year experience of differentiated thyroid carcinoma treatment with 131 radioiodine at the Military Hospital Nuclear Medicine Department. Since the beginning of Nuclear Medicine, the thyroid gland has been an important subject for study. In the fifties, the complimentary use of 131 radioiodine after differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) surgery was postulated. The aim of the study was to analyze our experience of the management of patients with DTC. Material and methods: An 18-year retrospective analysis was made including 109 patients with previous diagnosis of DTC, 90 % females, mean age 47 +/- 17 y.o. (range: 19-85 y.o). Tumoral histology was 67 % papillary, 28 % follicular and 5% non-determined in the medical record. First doses of 131 radioiodine were between 50 and 200 mCi. In all, 156 radioiodine doses were given and 6 patients received 4 doses or more, with total doses between 300 and 570 mCi. Results: The distribution of first and total radioiodine doses is presented in the table below. Of the group of patients who received a first radioiodine dose of less than 100 mCi post surgery, 79% were treated before 1990. Those who received 150mCi or more had cervical ganglionar compromise, trachea invasion or subtotal thyroidectomy. In 50% of the patients who received 4 or more doses, the first two doses were 50 mCi. It is important to mention that there was one patient who received 8 radioiodine doses in 4 years , seven of them were 50 mCi ( total dose 438 mCi). This patient presented trachea and larynx invasion in the early stages, with a persistent focus in the left supraclavicular region. She later developed pulmonary fibrosis, for which she was treated with complimentary radiotherapy (30 Gy), before dying. Distribution of radioiodine doses is presented. Conclusion: It is important to emphasize the validity of a first 131 radioiodine dose after surgery of DTC patients of 100 mCi or more, to obtain the ablation of the remaining thyroid tissue. This
AlKheraif, Abdulaziz A; Mobarak, Fahmy A
In view of the risk of infection of dental health care workers and patients, interruption of possible chains of infection is to be demanded. The objective of this study was to assess infection control practice in private dental laboratories in Riyadh City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted on thirty-two private dental laboratories in Riyadh City regarding infection control practiced by these laboratories. The instrument of the study consisted of ten open-ended questions that were asked from the laboratories directors. A large percentage of the surveyed laboratories (87.5 %) did not implement any infection control protocol during their practice. The mean number of impressions received per week was 16. Most of the surveyed laboratories (90.6 %) had no way of communication with the clinics regarding the disinfection procedures. The results indicated that 62.5 % of the laboratories reported that they were aware that they may get infection from non-disinfected items. Only a small percentage (6.2%) of the laboratories added disinfecting agent to pumice slurry. Wearing laboratory coats was reported by 75% of the laboratory workers. The use of gloves during work was reported by 59.3% of the laboratories while 56.2% reported the use protective eyewear. Only 21.8% of the laboratories use face masks during work. Construction of infection control manuals that contain updated and recommended guidelines to ensure aseptic practice in private dental laboratories is highly recommended. Also, a way of communication between dentists and dental technicians regarding disinfection of laboratory items should be strongly encouraged. (author)
Al-Kahtani, N H
Health counseling before marriage can be a most worthwhile and satisfying aspect of preventive medicine. It is important in genetic diagnosis and the prevention of hereditary, sexually transmitted and other infectious diseases. To determine the acceptance of the concept of Premarital Health Counseling (PMHC), and to identify some factors, which may efect this acceptance among Saudis who attend Primary Health Care Center in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), 1417H. The present study is a cross-sectional one with a selected sample of Saudis who attended the Primary Health Care Centers in Riyadh during the year 1417H. A multistage sampling and equal allocation stratified sampling within was used to select 484 persons comprising an equal number of males and females, married and single above the age of 18 years. A pre-designed pre-tested questionnaire sheet was used to collect the required data, which were then tabulated and statistically analyzed. The study indicated that 364 (75.2%) of the study population accepted the concept of Premarital Health Counseling. PMHC was positively affected by the advancing age, experience of marriage, educational level and well-understood Islamic-health related issues. Out f those who accepted the concept, 273 (75%) agreed on the exchange of PMHC certificates between couples to be married and 152 (42%) agreed on the implementation of legislation on PMHC. Also, 298 (82%) of them wanted PMHC to be confidential and 168 (46%) agreed to the concept despite its cost. As regards the location of PMHC, most of participants who agreed to PMHC would prefer it to be given at governmental establishments. The study recommended the implementation of PMHC in Saudi Arabia, since it was accepted by the study population. However, further studies should be carried out to determine the details to be incorporated in the PMHC, their implementation and legislation on demographic basis of the Saudi community. Also, a community health education program for
Mohammad Abdul Baseer
Conclusion: Oral health knowledge among the health professionals working in KFMC, Riyadh was lower than what would be expected of these groups, which had higher literacy levels in health care, but they showed a positive attitude toward professional dental care.
Salih, Mustafa A M; Murshid, Waleed R; Mohamed, Ashry Gad; Ignacio, Lena C; de Jesus, Julie E; Baabbad, Rubana; El Bushra, Hassan M
Both genetic and non-genetic environmental factors are involved in the etiology of neural tube defects (NTD) which affect 0.5-2/1000 pregnancies worldwide. This study aimed to explore the risk factors for the development of NTD in Saudi population, and highlight identifiable and preventable causes. Similar studies are scarce in similar populations ofthe Arabian Peninsula and North Africa. This is an unmatched concurrent case-control study including NTD cases born at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh during a 4-year period (2002-2006). The case-control study included 25 cases and 125 controls (case: control ratio of 1:5). Years of formal education, employment, household environment (including availability of air conditioning) and rate of parental consanguinity did not differ between mothers of cases and controls. Significantly higher proportion of mothers of cases had history of stillbirth compared to control mothers (16% vs 4.1%, P=0.02). Also family history of hydrocephalus and congenital anomalies were more prevalent in cases than controls (P values=0.0000 and 0.003, respectively). There was significant protective effect of periconceptional folic acid consumption both prior to conception (OR 0.02, 95% CI 0.00-0.07) and during the first 6 weeks of conception (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.04-0.39). Further research, including a larger cohort, is required to enable ascertainment of gene-nutrient and gene environment interactions associated with NTD in Saudi Arabia.
Al-Jurayyan N, Nasir A; Mohamed, Sarar H; Al Otaibi, Hessah M; Al Issa, Sharifah T; Omer, Hala G
Longitudinal growth assessment is essential in child care. Short stature can be promptly recognized only with accurate measurements of growth and critical analysis of growth data. The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of short stature among patients referred to an endocrine pediatric clinic, King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and to ascertain the aetiological profile of short stature. This is a retrospective review of patients referred to a pediatric endocrine clinic with short stature during the period January 1990 and December 2009. After a proper detailed medical history, growth analysis and physical examination, followed by a radiological (bone age) and laboratory screening (complete blood count and thyroid function). Growth hormone stimulation tests were performed when indicated. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary was performed when necessary. As well, celiac screening and small bowel biopsy were performed when appropriate. During the period under review, hundred and ten patients were evaluated for short stature. Their age ranged from 2 years and six months to 4 years. The male to female ratio was 1.3:1. The commonest etiology was genetic short stature found in 57 (51.8%) patients, while in the other 53 (48.2%) patients, variable endocrine and nutritional causes were noted. Short stature was a common referral. A wide variety of etiological diagnosis was noticed with genetic short stature being the commonest. A wide variety of endocrine causes were evident, with growth hormone deficiency, as a results of different etiologies, being the commonest.
provide oversight , foster inclusion and develop an integrated healthcare delivery system within the current Service cultures. In May 2007, NCA military...provides oversight of IM/IT initiatives for the Joint Operating Area (JOA).” (Rowland, 2009) Membership for the JPG includes the Chief Information...professional development; and 4) offering services such as child and elder care programs, telecommuting , flexible work schedules, and employee
Alosaimi, Fahad D; Alyahya, Haifa; Alshahwan, Hatem; Al Mahyijari, Nawal; Shaik, Shaik A
To investigate the prevalence and correlates of smartphone addiction among university students in Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional study was conducted in King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between September 2014 and March 2015. An electronic self administered questionnaire and the problematic use of mobile phones (PUMP) Scale were used. Out of 2367 study subjects, 27.2% stated that they spent more than 8 hours per day using their smartphones. Seventy-five percent used at least 4 applications per day, primarily for social networking and watching news. As a consequence of using the smartphones, at least 43% had decrease sleeping hours, and experienced a lack of energy the next day, 30% had a more unhealthy lifestyle (ate more fast food, gained weight, and exercised less), and 25% reported that their academic achievement been adversely affected. There are statistically significant positive relationships among the 4 study variables, consequences of smartphone use (negative lifestyle, poor academic achievement), number of hours per day spent using smartphones, years of study, and number of applications used, and the outcome variable score on the PUMP. The mean values of the PUMP scale were 60.8 with a median of 60. University students in Saudi Arabia are at risk of addiction to smartphones; a phenomenon that is associated with negative effects on sleep, levels of energy, eating habits, weight, exercise, and academic performance.
Balandiz, Huseyin; Bolu, Abdullah
The definition of psychological trauma has been rephrased with the DSM-5. From now on, witnessing someone else's traumatic event is also accepted as a traumatic life event. Therefore, the psychiatric examination of forensic cases gains importance for not overlooking a psychiatric trauma. This research aims to discuss the psychiatric examinations of military personnel who had a traumatic life event and to reveal psychiatric states of soldiers after trauma. The forensic reports prepared at Gulhane Military Medical Academy (GMMA), Forensic Medicine polyclinic between January 1, 2011 and November 30, 2014 were examined, and among them the cases sent to GMMA Psychiatry polyclinic for psychiatric examination were analyzed retrospectively. There were a total of 2408 cases who applied for the arrangement of a judicial report and 167 of them required a psychological examination. Among 167 cases, 165 were male and 2 were female, and the mean age was 25.6 years. Anxiety disorder (53.9%) was the most common diagnosis as a result of the psychiatric examination, following posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (18.6%), and 3.6% had no psychopathology. It was determined that injuries caused by firearms (38.3%) and explosive materials (26.3%) had caused psychological trauma the most. On the other hand, 11 (6.6%) cases were determined to have undergone a psychological trauma on account of being a witness to their friends' injuries during the conflict without experiencing any physical injury. There were not any statistically significant relationships between the severity of physical injury and being PTSD or anxiety disorder. Development of PTSD risk is directly correlated with the nature of trauma. The trauma types of the cases in our study were in the high-risk group because of the military population. Our study is of importance in terms of putting forward the psychiatric disorders seen in the military population with traumatic life history associated with war (combat-related). In
Aly, M M; Abu Alsoud, N M; Elrobh, M S; Al Johani, S M; Balkhy, H H
The prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Saudi Arabia and their resistance genetic mechanisms are yet to be identified. We studied the prevalence and genetic diversity of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase genes, particularly the PER-1 gene, among carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii strains from patients at a tertiary care hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between 2006 and 2014. Fresh subcultured samples were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Total genomic DNA was extracted from each isolate and further used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) genotyping, sequence-based typing (SBT) of PER-1 and OXA-51-like gene, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of positive isolates. Randomly selected clinical isolates (n = 100) were subjected to MLST. A total of 503 isolates were characterized as multidrug-resistant (MDR) using the MIC. Isolates were further PCR tested for bla -TEM and bla -PER-1 resistance genes (n = 503). The genotyping results showed that 68/503 (14 %) isolates were positive to bla TEM. The genotyping results of PER-1-like genes showed that 384/503 (76.3 %) were positive among MDR Acinetobacter isolates. Based on SBT, the majority of these isolates were clustered into three main groups including isolates harboring PER-1: AB11 (bla -PER-1 ), isolate AB16 (bla -PER-1 ), and, finally, the plasmid pAB154 (bla -PER-7 ). Remarkably, many isolates were concealing the PER-1 gene and harboring the TEM resistance genes as well. MLST results for selected isolates (n = 100) identified four main sequence types (STs: 2, 19, 20, and 25) and four novel isolates (ST 486-489). We report 76.3 % prevalence of the PER-1 resistance gene among Acinetobacter clinical isolates from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Further work is needed to explore the clinical risks and patient outcome with such resistance related to healthcare-associated infections and investigate the genetic and molecular mechanisms that confer the MDR
Asi, Khaled Yousef
The present study aimed to identify the level of shyness among talented students in the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and detect differences according to the variable of socio-economic level of the family. The sample consisted of (101) students, who randomly chosen from centers of talented students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Shyness scale utilized…
Alosaimi, Fahad Dakheel; Altuwirqi, Maram Hani; Bukhari, Mujahid; Abotalib, Zeinab; BinSaleh, Saleh
No study has assessed psychiatric disorders among infertile men and women seeking fertility treatment in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, we sought to measure the rate of psychiatric disorders in this population. This was a cross-sectional observational study among patients attending infertility clinics at three referral hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between January 2013 and September 2014. 406 patients (206 women and 200 men) participated in the study. The approved Arabic version of the MINI tool was used to assess 18 common psychiatric illnesses. The response rate was 81%. Of the men surveyed, only 4.5% self-reported having a psychiatric disorder. Of the women surveyed, only 10.2% reported having a psychiatric disorder. However, using the MINI scale, psychiatric illness was documented in 30% of males and 36.9% of females. The most common diagnoses for both genders were depression (21.7%) and anxiety (21.2%). Significantly more females than males exhibited suicidality and depression. In contrast, significantly more males than females had bipolar disorders and substance-related disorders. A low monthly income among male and female participants and polygamy among female participants were significantly associated with psychiatric disorders. This study shows that a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders, particularly depression and anxiety, among infertile men and women in Saudi Arabia is associated with lower income and polygamy. This study highlights the importance of integrated care for alleviating the psychological burden of this unfortunate population and improving outcomes and quality of life. This study also encourages follow-up studies that aim to further understand the complex relationship between fertility and psychological well-being.
Duncan, Alaine D; Liechty, Janet M; Miller, Cathy; Chinoy, Gail; Ricciardi, Richard
The objectives of this study were to examine the feasibility of a weekly on-site complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) wellness clinic for staff at a military hospital, and to describe employees' perceptions of program effectiveness. The study setting was the Restore & Renew(®) Wellness Clinic at a United States Department of Defense hospital. The subjects were hospital nurses, physicians, clinicians, support staff, and administrators. The walk-in wellness clinic was open 8:00 am-2:00 pm 1 day a week. Participants selected one or more modalities each visit: ear acupuncture, clinical acupressure, and Zero Balancing.(®) A self-report survey was done after each clinic visit to evaluate clinic features and perceived impact on stress-related symptoms, compassion for patients, sleep, and workplace or personal relationships. Surveys completed after first-time and repeat visits (n=2,756 surveys) indicated that most participants agreed or strongly agreed they felt more relaxed after sessions (97.9%), less stress (94.5%), more energy (84.3%), and less pain (78.8%). Ninety-seven percent (97%) would recommend it to a co-worker. Among surveys completed after five or more visits, more than half (59%-85%) strongly agreed experiencing increased compassion with patients, better sleep, improved mood, and more ease in relations with co-workers. Perceived benefits were sustained and enhanced by number of visits. The most frequently reported health habit changes were related to exercise, stress reduction, diet/nutrition, and weight loss. This evaluation suggests that a hospital-based wellness clinic based on CAM principles and modalities is feasible, well-utilized, and perceived by most participants to have positive health benefits related to stress reduction at work, improved mood and sleep, and lifestyle.
Department of Homeland Security — This database contains locations of Hospitals for 50 states and Washington D.C. , Puerto Rico and US territories. The dataset only includes hospital facilities and...
... OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Cost of Hospital and Medical Care Treatment Furnished by the... Third Persons AGENCY: Office of Management and Budget, Executive Office of the President. ACTION: Notice.... 593; 42 U.S.C. 2652), and delegated to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget by the...
Al-Sadoon, Mohammed K.
The present investigation is a retrospective review of snake bites in Riyadh province over the period (2005–2010). A total of 1019 cases of bites admitted to the Ministry of Health medical centers in Riyadh province were analyzed on the basis of age, sex, time of bite and its site on the body, outcome of treatment, antiserum dose and type of snake. Bites occurred throughout the six years with the highest frequency in 2005 and least in 2006 where most of the bite cases were mild and all evolved to cure except four patients who died following the administration of antivenom during 24 h after snake bite. Most of the patients were males (81.7%) and the most attacked age was within the range of 11–30 years (51.5%). All the bites were mainly in the exposed limbs and the most frequently bitten anatomical regions were the lower limbs (427 cases, 41.9%), principally the feet. The study incriminates Cerastes cerastes gasperettii in most of the bites indicating it as the snake of medical importance in Riyadh province. Also, the study indicates low degree of threat in spite of high rate of snake bites as a result of the availability of the medical facilities and the antivenin use in medical centers in Riyadh province. PMID:25737653
Al dakeel, Taghreed M.; Almannie, Mohamed A.
The general school district of Riyadh is one of largest in the country of (45) school districts in Saudi Arabia. The school districts play an important roles in the development of education, therefore the objective of the study is to examine the roles of the management in the school districts to see if it is achieving competitive advantage. After…
Allala, Saeb; Alzubairi, Sharefa
The current study is an attempt to identify social shyness among mothers of children with disabilities based on (Disability type, mother's academic qualification, and family's economic level) in Riyadh. Thus, Social Shyness Scale was prepared of (28) paragraphs according to five-point Likert Scale. The reliability coefficient of the scale rated…
Al Saud, Al Johara Fahad
Saudi Arabia is one of the countries that encounter the issue of bilingualism due to the spread of private schools that offer programs in different languages. This research is an attempt to investigate the impact of bilingualism on the creative capabilities (Fluency, Flexibility, Originality, Details) of kindergarten children in Riyadh. It aims at…
Full Text Available Traffic crashes in Riyadh city cause losses in the form of deaths, injuries and property damages, in addition to the pain and social tragedy affecting families of the victims. In 2005, there were a total of 47,341 injury traffic crashes occurred in Riyadh city (19% of the total KSA crashes and 9% of those crashes were severe. Road safety in Riyadh city may have been adversely affected by: high car ownership, migration of people to Riyadh city, high daily trips reached about 6 million, high rate of income, low-cost of petrol, drivers from different nationalities, young drivers and tremendous growth in population which creates a high level of mobility and transport activities in the city. The primary objective of this paper is therefore to explore factors affecting the severity and frequency of road crashes in Riyadh city using appropriate statistical models aiming to establish effective safety policies ready to be implemented to reduce the severity and frequency of road crashes in Riyadh city. Crash data for Riyadh city were collected from the Higher Commission for the Development of Riyadh (HCDR for a period of five years from 1425H to 1429H (roughly corresponding to 2004-2008. Crash data were classified into three categories: fatal, serious-injury and slight-injury. Two nominal response models have been developed: a standard multinomial logit model (MNL and a mixed logit model to injury-related crash data. Due to a severe underreporting problem on the slight injury crashes binary and mixed binary logistic regression models were also estimated for two categories of severity: fatal and serious crashes. For frequency, two count models such as Negative Binomial (NB models were employed and the unit of analysis was 168 HAIs (wards in Riyadh city. Ward-level crash data are disaggregated by severity of the crash (such as fatal and serious injury crashes. The results from both multinomial and binary response models are found to be fairly consistent but
Tekeli, Ahmet Emre; Fouli, Hesham
Floods are among the most common disasters harming humanity. In particular, flash floods cause hazards to life, property and any type of structures. Arid and semi-arid regions are equally prone to flash floods like regions with abundant rainfall. Despite rareness of intensive and frequent rainfall events over Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA); an arid/semi-arid region, occasional flash floods occur and result in large amounts of damaging surface runoff. The flooding of 16 November, 2013 in Riyadh; the capital city of KSA, resulted in killing some people and led to much property damage. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) Real Time (RT) data (3B42RT) are used herein for flash flood forecasting. 3B42RT detected high-intensity rainfall events matching with the distribution of observed floods over KSA. A flood early warning system based on exceedance of threshold limits on 3B42RT data is proposed for Riyadh. Three different indexes: Constant Threshold (CT), Cumulative Distribution Functions (CDF) and Riyadh Flood Precipitation Index (RFPI) are developed using 14-year 3B42RT data from 2000 to 2013. RFPI and CDF with 90% captured the three major flooding events that occurred in February 2005, May 2010 and November 2013 in Riyadh. CT with 3 mm/h intensity indicated the 2013 flooding, but missed those of 2005 and 2010. The methodology implemented herein is a first-step simple and accurate way for flash flood forecasting over Riyadh. The simplicity of the methodology enables its applicability for the TRMM follow-on missions like Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission.
Abdullah M AlBedah
Full Text Available Background: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is a popular treatment option for many populations. The present work is aimed at studying the knowledge and attitude of health professionals in the Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia, toward CAM. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional survey, a multistage random sample was taken from health professionals working in hospitals in Riyadh city and surrounding governorates. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire, from 306 health professionals working in 19 hospitals, on socio-demographic data, knowledge about CAM and their sources, and attitudes toward CAM practices. Results: Of the participants, 88.9% had some knowledge about CAM. Respondents with a doctorate degree (94.74% and 92.53% of those with a bachelor′s degree had significantly higher knowledge of CAM than subjects with a diploma, a fellowship, or a master′s degree (68.75%, 76.67%, and 85.41%, respectively, P = 0.004. Mass media represented 60.1% of sources of the knowledge of CAM followed by family, relatives, and friends (29.08% and health educational organizations (14.71%. Participants estimated that prophetic medicine including prayer, honey and bee products, medical herbs, Hijama, nutrition and nutritional supplements, cauterization, and camel milk and urine were the most commonly used CAM practices (90.5%, 85%, 76.9%, 70.6%, 61.4%, 55.9%, and 52.5%, respectively in addition to medical massage (61.8% and acupuncture (55%. One hundred and fifteen (80% physicians were ready to talk with their patients on CAM. Conclusion: The willingness to improve knowledge and create a positive attitude in health professionals toward CAM has increased. Religious practices, especially those related to prophetic medicine, are more common in the region. Health educational organizations have to play a greater role by being the source of evidence-based knowledge of CAM. Talking on CAM with patients should be improved by rooting
Bashir, S.; Bashir, J.
Objective: To determine the frequency of primary uterine malignancy in hysterectomy specimens in women with postmenopausal bleeding. Study Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of study: It was conducted in the department of histopathology at Combined Military Hospital, Peshawar from 1st September 2010 to 31st May 2011. Material and Methods: A total of 255 hysterectomy specimens of postmenopausal women were examined grossly and microscopically to analyse the underlying pathology. Results: The mean age of patients with malignant diseases was 56.4 years and with benign diseases 49.3 years. Out of 255 patients 215 (95.6%) were found to have benign pathologies and 10 (4.4%) had malignant lesions. The frequency and histological pattern of primary uterine malignancy was; endometrial carcinoma 3.1%, cervical carcinoma 0.9% and leiomyosarcoma 0.4%. The benign pathologies included leiomyoma 35.6%, atrophic endometritis 16.4%, endometrial hyperplasia 15.1%, adenomysis 11.1%, endometrial polyp 10.2%, adenomyoma 6.7% and endometrial stromal nodule 0.4%. Conclusion: This study shows that frequency of malignancy in postmenopausal women is low in our set up and most of the underlying pathologies are benign. The most frequent malignancy found in postmenopausal women is endometrial carcinoma followed by cervical carcinoma. (author)
Barnawi, Fatima Hamza
Domestic violence (DV) against women can negatively affect the physical, mental, sexual, and reproductive health of the women as well as the well-being of their children. The objective was to estimate among Saudi women the prevalence of different types of DV, to identify its associated risk factors, and to determine the immediate victims' reactions to such violence. A cross-sectional study was carried between March and July, 2011. Self-administrated questionnaire was administered to ever-married Saudi women attending Al-Wazarat primary health care center, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Out of the 720 women studied, 144 (20%) reported exposure to DV over the last year. The most common DV types were emotional (69%), social (34%), economic (26%), physical (20%), and sexual violence (10%). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the following characteristics were independently associated with DV: younger women age, longer duration of marriage, higher women education, lower husband education, working husbands, military occupation, fewer children, husbands with multiple wives, smoking husbands, aggressive husbands, presence of chronic disease in women or husbands, and non-sufficient family income. The most common impacts of DV on women were medical or behavioral problems (72%) and psychiatric problems (58%). The most common reactions to DV were seeking separation (56%) and doing nothing (41%). More than 90% of children of abused women suffered psychological or behavioral problems. In conclusion, DV against Saudi women is considerable and the response is generally passive. Promoting a culture non-tolerant to DV and providing accessible, effective, and trustful social services to abused women are critically needed. © The Author(s) 2015.
The challenge could be briefly seen in these terms: hospitals as places for treatment where there’s a technology focus and hospitals for healing where there’s a human focus. In the 60s - 70s wave of new hospital building, an emphasis on technology can be seen. It’s time to move from the technology...... focus. It is not enough to consider only the factors of function within architecture, hygiene, economy and logistics. We also need to look at aspects of aesthetics, bringing nature into the building, art, color, acoustics, volume and space as we perceive them. Contemporary methods and advances...... placed, accessible, provided with plenty of greenery, and maximize sensory impressions, providing sounds, smells, sight and the possibility to be touched. This is a very well documented area I can say. Hygiene, in terms of architecture can give attention to hand wash facilities and their positioning...
Alghamdi, Abdullah S.; Yahya, Mohammed A.; Alshammari, Ghedeir M.; Osman, Magdi A.
Background Despite the prevalence of overweight and obesity and increases in associated diseases such as diabetes and heart disease in the Saudi population, no studies have addressed the spread of obesity among Saudi police officers. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity and associations with biochemical parameters among the police in Riyadh. Method The study involved a cross-sectional survey of 160 police officers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Anthr...
Suliman Ibrahim Alhaidari
Full Text Available Background: An important indication of a child′s well-being is evidence of having a normal growth pattern. A child′s growth pattern is influenced by multiple factors, genetic and/or environmental. From an environmental point of view, the socio-economic status of the mother plays an important role in a child′s growth during the early stages of childhood. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the association between mothers′ educational and socio-economic status on their children′s growth in Riyadh. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in eight hospitals in Riyadh. The target population was children aged between 1 month and 7 years and their mothers visiting the vaccination clinics. The mother′s data were collected using a structured interview, and the child′s weight and height were measured and plotted on growth charts. Results: A total of 744 mothers and children were screened (392 males, 352 females. The proportion of children with weight and height under the 25 th percentile was 40% and 29%, respectively. In terms of education, the height of a higher proportion of children (33% was under the 25 th percentile if the mother had a high school education compared with 25% when the mother had a college education (P = 0.02. Private sector-employed mothers had a lower proportion of children (26% with weight below the 25 th percentile compared to mothers who were government-employed or unemployed (both 41%. Mothers living in an apartment had a significantly lower proportion of children (24% with height under the 25 th percentile compared to mothers living in a house (33% (P = 0.04. In addition, mothers living in a rented residence had a significantly lower proportion (40% of children with weight under the 25 th percentile than mothers living in owned ones (42% (P = 0.02. Conclusion: Underweight and short stature among children are associated with less educated and unemployed mothers and with mothers who live in a house. The
Saleem, T.; Mohammad, Kazim H.; Abdel-Fattah, Moataz M.; Abbasi, Abdul H.
Objective was to analyze the results of exercise tolerance test ETT of Saudi women and assess their exercise capacity. A hospital based retrospective cohort analysis was carried out on all Saudi women referred to the Cardiology Department for ETT from February 2005 to June 2007. They underwent symptom limited treadmill test according to the standard Bruce protocol with exercise electrocardiogram monitoring. One hundred and seventy-six women were included in the study. Fifty-one 31.9% patients did not achieve target heart rate. The mean age +/- SD was 48.3+-9.3 years. There was no association of age, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, positive family history of ischemic heart disease IHD and hyperlipidemia to achieve target heart rate p>0.05. Exercise time was influenced by diabetes mellitus p=0.054 and hyperlipidemia p=0.044. The mean exercise time +/- SD was 5.15+/-2.63 minutes and the mean exercise capacity +/-SD was 6.29+/-2.52 metabolic equivalent. Sensitivity was 36.4%, 95% CI 29.3-44.6, specificity 92.3%, 95% CI 80.5-96.8, positive predictive value 26.7%, 95% CI 21.3-31.4, negative predictive value 95.4%, 95% CI 90.9-98.3, likelihood ratio for positive result was 4.7, 95%CI 3.1-6.2 and likelihood ratio for negative result was 0.69, 95% CI 0.48-0.81. Exercise capacity of Saudi women is less compared to similar studies in women from other regions. Exercise tolerance test can be used to rule out presence of IHD in Saudi women, but value of a positive test is less likely to predict the presence of IHD. (author)
Ma, M.S.; Zalini Yunus; Ahmad Razi Mohamed Yunus; Zukri Ahmad; Farizah Abdul Fatah
Water from the dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) is known to contaminate with microbial from the biofilm that formed in the tubing system. The water quality from DUWLs is important to patients and dental health care professionals as they could be infected either directly from the contaminated water or aerosol that is generated during dental procedures. Suppliers claimed that dental units supplied to the hospital can only use a specific disinfectant which is uneconomic compared with the others. The aims of this study were to evaluate and compare the efficacy of different disinfectant on the water quality of DUWLs. Four disinfectants (Calbenium, A-dec ICX tablet, Dentel 5, Metassys) and distil water were evaluated. 350 mL water sample was collected separately, from the outlet of high-speed hand piece, scaler, 3-ways syringe and cup filler into a sterile thiosulfate bag on the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 8th, 12th and 24th weeks of the study. The samples were tested on the following day for total viable count (TVC). There is significant difference in the efficacies of the different disinfectants. Only one disinfectant consistently produces water quality within the recommended level of American Dental Association (ADA). Within the limitation of this study, it was found that there is alternative disinfectant that can reduce the TVC to the level recommended by ADA. However, the water qualities produced with these disinfectants were not consistent although they did not cause any technical problem to the dental units during the period of study. (author)
Rowe, D.R. (D.R. Rowe Engineering Services, Inc., Bowling Green, KY (United States)); Al-Dhowalia, K.H.; Mansour, M.E. (King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia))
The objective of this study was to evaluate the nitric oxide and nitrogen oxide concentrations indoors and outdoors at three sites in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Results show that the outdoor and indoor concentrations for NO were at least 270 and 16 times the reported average worldwide NO concentrations, respectively. The NO(sub 2) concentrations were about 14 times reported outdoor worldwide levels; however, NO(sub 2) concentrations indoors were generally below those reported in the literature. The data presented, in combination with information presented in previous articles, will provide a valuable background database for use in dispersion models to determine the effect of the Kuwaiti oil well fires on the air quality of Riyadh.
Leda G. Bousiakou; Leda G. Bousiakou; Rabia Qindeel; A. S. Almuzaini; Hosham A. Alghamdi; Walid Tawfik; Walid Tawfik; W. A Farooq; H. Kalkani; E. Manzou
This work focuses on the monitoring of trace element removal from the Riyadh South Tertiary Wastewater Treatment plant using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Considering that the final effluent originating from the plant is directed for irrigation purposes towards the farms of Al- Dirayia, Dirab and Wadi Hanifa it is important to consider the possible presence of elevated microelement concentrations that could pose potential threats to the human health. All samples were...
Shubayr, Nasser Ali M.
The threat of nuclear attack will remain imminent in an ever-advancing society. Saudi Arabia is not immune to this threat. This dissertation establishes planning guidance for response to a nuclear attack on Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia, based on a hypothetical scenario of a nuclear detonation. A case scenario of a one-megaton thermonuclear bomb detonated at ground level over Riyadh is used to support the thesis. Previous nuclear tests and the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings have been used to present possible effects on Riyadh. US planning guidance and lessons learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear plants accidents have been used to develop the emergency response guidance. The planning guidance outlines a rapid response to the nuclear detonation. Four damage zones have been identified; severe damage zone, moderate damage zone, light damage zone and dangerous fallout zone. Actions that are recommended, and those that should be avoided, have been determined for each zone. Shelter/ evacuation evaluation for blast-affected and fallout-affected areas is the basis for the recommendation that shelter in place is the best decision for the first hours to days after the attack. Guidelines for medical care response and population monitoring and decontamination are included to reduce the early and long-term effects of the attack. Recommendations to the Saudi Arabian authorities have been made to facilitate suitable preparedness and response for such an event.
Purpose: To assess the culture of safety among nurses in a tertiary teaching hospital in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in King Khaled University Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A random sample of 492 nurses was included in the survey using a pre-validated instrument, Safety Attitudes ...
Al-Ajlan, Abdulrahman S
The present study is to determine the prevalence and implication of coeliac disease (CD) among adult Saudis and compared to those with diagnosed irritable bowel syndrome. This prospective study was conducted among 980 adults. Out of that, 482 subjects (staff and students of Riyadh Health Science College) were designated as control cohorts for undetected coeliac disease. Furthermore, another contingent of 498 subjects diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) at Prince Salman Hospital and Al-Iman General Hospital also constituted a segment of the overall initial 1020 subjects. Both cases and control were tested for serological markers of coeliac disease (tissues transglutaminase (tTGAs) and endomysial autoantibody (EMAs) and were confirmed by histopathology test. All the positive for cases of coeliac disease were screened for iron deficiency anaemia, Vitamin D deficiency, and osteoporosis and weight assessment. The percentage of coeliac disease in control subjects and patients diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) were found to be 1.9% and 9.6% respectively, about 38% of the total coeliac disease patients are among females of middle age (20-39-years) and 16% of the males in the same age range. Whereas, 20% and 25% of all coeliac disease cases with ages of 40-59 were remarked as females and males respectively. The identical nature and overlap of symptoms of the two conditions could possibly result in misdiagnosis of coeliac diseases or over-diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome. The findings of the study might also give considerable implications of the disease in the nutritional level which is noticeable.
Abdulrahman S. Al-Ajlan
Full Text Available The present study is to determine the prevalence and implication of coeliac disease (CD among adult Saudis and compared to those with diagnosed irritable bowel syndrome. This prospective study was conducted among 980 adults. Out of that, 482 subjects (staff and students of Riyadh Health Science College were designated as control cohorts for undetected coeliac disease. Furthermore, another contingent of 498 subjects diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS at Prince Salman Hospital and Al-Iman General Hospital also constituted a segment of the overall initial 1020 subjects. Both cases and control were tested for serological markers of coeliac disease (tissues transglutaminase (tTGAs and endomysial autoantibody (EMAs and were confirmed by histopathology test. All the positive for cases of coeliac disease were screened for iron deficiency anaemia, Vitamin D deficiency, and osteoporosis and weight assessment. The percentage of coeliac disease in control subjects and patients diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS were found to be 1.9% and 9.6% respectively, about 38% of the total coeliac disease patients are among females of middle age (20–39-years and 16% of the males in the same age range. Whereas, 20% and 25% of all coeliac disease cases with ages of 40–59 were remarked as females and males respectively. The identical nature and overlap of symptoms of the two conditions could possibly result in misdiagnosis of coeliac diseases or over-diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome. The findings of the study might also give considerable implications of the disease in the nutritional level which is noticeable.
The article argues that while doctrine represents the more scientific side of warfare, strategy represents the artistic side. Existing doctrine will almost never meet the requirements for winning the next war; it is through the artistic application of generic peacetime doctrine to the specific st...... strategic and operational context, using doctrine as building blocks for a context specific military strategy, that the military commander outwits and defeats or coerces the adversary and achieves the military objectives....
mother allegedly mistreated for preeclampsia at Tripler Army Medical Center could maintain an action for medical malpractice nothwithstanding Feres.1 2...retardation of unknown etiology in a child; - pregnancy in a woman older than age 35; - specific ethnic background suggestive of a high rate of genetic
Subject outcome measures include blood pressure, waist circumference, weight, body mass index (BMI), body fat, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides , glucose ...master patient index (MPI), 625 duplicate chest x-rays and CT scans of the head between sending and receiving institution (taken within 0-7 days) were... Index (MPI) software. The report included chest x-rays (CPT 71010 and 71020) and CT scans of the head (CPT 70450) for the stated time periods. The
barracks, schools, hospitals, child development centers, and other facilities needed to support U.S. military forces at home and overseas. This military...and programming into the President’s budget could take three or more years. Furthermore, it is important to note that only those projects that have...travel, fuel, minor construction projects of $1M or less, training and education , and depot maintenance, and base operations support. O&M
Qurashi, Salem; Tamimi, Abdulrahman; Jaradat, Maha; Al Sayyari, Abulla
To assess the effect of fasting Ramadan during the hottest month of the year in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. This prospective cohort study was performed at the King Fahd National Guard Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We used the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula to estimate the glomerular filtration rate in renal transplant patients who fasted and did not fast before and after Ramadan. There were 43 fasters and 37 nonfasters of comparable ages, with fasters having longer posttransplant times compared with nonfasters (P = .0001). The 2 groups had similar mean estimated glomerular filtration rates before Ramadan: 75.6 ± 29.2 and 65.9 ± 25.9 mL/min (P = .1) and similar mean estimated glomerular filtration rates 6 months after Ramadan: 77.2 ± 29.7 and 64.1 ± 29 mL/min (P = .21). Mean changes in the estimated glomerular filtration rate were similar in the 2 groups: -1.5 ± 10.9 and -2.8 ± 19.3 (P = .7) as was the percentage change (-0.2.2 ± 13.4 and 1.8 ± 15.9; P = .4). In the fasting group, serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate were similar before and 6 months after Ramadan: 105.1 ± 55 and 105.14 ± 61 μmol/L (P = 1.0) and 75.6 ± 29 and 72.2 ± 29.7 mL/min (P = .36). No significant changes were observed in the nonfasting group. No significant differences were detected regarding fasting in the estimated glomerular filtration rate before and 6 months after Ramadan in the 3 groups with the low, moderate, and high glomerular filtration rates at baseline. Fasting for Ramadan in August does not adversely affect graft function at a mean follow-up of 7.6 ± 1.3 months.
Bin Abdulhak, Aref A; Altannir, Mohamad A; Almansor, Mohammed A; Almohaya, Mohammed S; Onazi, Atallah S; Marei, Mohammed A; Aldossary, Oweida F; Obeidat, Sadek A; Obeidat, Mustafa A; Riaz, Muhammad S; Tleyjeh, Imad M
Antibiotics sales without medical prescriptions are increasingly recognized as sources of antimicrobial misuse that can exacerbate the global burden of antibiotic resistance. We aimed to determine the percentage of pharmacies who sell antibiotics without medical prescriptions, examining the potential associated risks of such practice in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, by simulation of different clinical scenarios. A cross sectional study of a quasi-random sample of pharmacies stratified by the five regions of Riyadh. Each pharmacy was visited once by two investigators who simulated having a relative with a specific clinical illness (sore throat, acute bronchitis, otitis media, acute sinusitis, diarrhea, and urinary tract infection (UTI) in childbearing aged women). A total of 327 pharmacies were visited. Antibiotics were dispensed without a medical prescription in 244 (77.6%) of 327, of which 231 (95%) were dispensed without a patient request. Simulated cases of sore throat and diarrhea resulted in an antibiotic being dispensed in (90%) of encounters, followed by UTI (75%), acute bronchitis (73%), otitis media (51%) and acute sinusitis (40%). Metronidazole (89%) and ciprofloxacin (86%) were commonly given for diarrhea and UTI, respectively, whereas amoxicillin/clavulanate was dispensed (51%) for the other simulated cases. None of the pharmacists asked about antibiotic allergy history or provided information about drug interactions. Only 23% asked about pregnancy status when dispensing antibiotics for UTI-simulated cases. We observed that an antibiotic could be obtained in Riyadh without a medical prescription or an evidence-based indication with associated potential clinical risks. Strict enforcement and adherence to existing regulations are warranted.
Kotb, Amgad A; Hammouda, Ehab F; Tabbara, Khalid F
To determine the major causes of eye diseases leading to visual loss and blindness among children attending a school for the blind in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 217 school children with visual disabilities attending a school for the blind in Riyadh were included. All children were brought to The Eye Center, Riyadh, and had complete ophthalmologic examinations including visual acuity testing, biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy, tonometry and laboratory investigations. In addition, some patients were subjected to electroretinography (ERG), electrooculography (EOG), measurement of visual evoked potentials (VEP), and laboratory work-up for congenital disorders. There were 117 male students with an age range of 6-19 years and a mean age of 16 years. In addition, there were 100 females with an age range of 6-18 years and a mean age of 12 years. Of the 217 children, 194 (89%) were blind from genetically determined diseases or congenital disorders and 23 (11%) were blind from acquired diseases. The major causes of bilateral blindness in children were retinal degeneration, congenital glaucoma, and optic atrophy. The most common acquired causes of childhood blindness were infections and trauma. The etiological pattern of childhood blindness in Saudi Arabia has changed from microbial keratitis to genetically determined diseases of the retina and optic nerve. Currently, the most common causes of childhood blindness are genetically determined causes. Consanguineous marriages may account for the autosomal recessive disorders. Public education programs should include information for the prevention of trauma and genetic counseling. Eye examinations for preschool and school children are mandatory for the prevention and cure of blinding disorders.
Alsanea, Mohammd; Masuadi, Emad; Hazwani, Tarek
Child restraint system (CRS) is designed to protect children from injury during motor vehicle crash (MVC). However, there is no regulation or enforcement of CRS use in Saudi Arabia. This study estimated the prevalence of CRS use and identified patterns of child transportation in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, a self-administered questionnaire was distributed across Riyadh targeting families who drove with children aged less than 5 years. The questionnaire inquired about CRS availability, patterns of child transportation if a CRS was unavailable, seat belt use by the driver and adult passengers, and the perception of CRS. Of 385 respondents, only 36.6% reported the availability of a CRS (95% CI: 31.8-41.7%), with only half of those reported consistent use 74 (52.2%). Nearly 30% of all children aged less than 5 years were restrained during car journeys. Sitting on the lap of an adult passenger on the front seat was the most common pattern of child transportation (54.5%). Approximately 13.5% of respondents were involved in an MVC while driving with children; 63.5% of these children were unprotected by any safety system. Seat belt use by drivers was low, with only 15.3% reporting constant use. The prevalence of CRS use in Riyadh is low, and safety practices are seldom used by drivers and passengers. In addition to legal enforcement of CRS use, implementation of a child transportation policy with age-appropriate height and weight specifications is imperative.
Full Text Available Child restraint system (CRS is designed to protect children from injury during motor vehicle crash (MVC. However, there is no regulation or enforcement of CRS use in Saudi Arabia. This study estimated the prevalence of CRS use and identified patterns of child transportation in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.In this cross-sectional study, a self-administered questionnaire was distributed across Riyadh targeting families who drove with children aged less than 5 years. The questionnaire inquired about CRS availability, patterns of child transportation if a CRS was unavailable, seat belt use by the driver and adult passengers, and the perception of CRS.Of 385 respondents, only 36.6% reported the availability of a CRS (95% CI: 31.8-41.7%, with only half of those reported consistent use 74 (52.2%. Nearly 30% of all children aged less than 5 years were restrained during car journeys. Sitting on the lap of an adult passenger on the front seat was the most common pattern of child transportation (54.5%. Approximately 13.5% of respondents were involved in an MVC while driving with children; 63.5% of these children were unprotected by any safety system. Seat belt use by drivers was low, with only 15.3% reporting constant use.The prevalence of CRS use in Riyadh is low, and safety practices are seldom used by drivers and passengers. In addition to legal enforcement of CRS use, implementation of a child transportation policy with age-appropriate height and weight specifications is imperative.
Obeidat Sadek A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibiotics sales without medical prescriptions are increasingly recognized as sources of antimicrobial misuse that can exacerbate the global burden of antibiotic resistance. We aimed to determine the percentage of pharmacies who sell antibiotics without medical prescriptions, examining the potential associated risks of such practice in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, by simulation of different clinical scenarios. Methods A cross sectional study of a quasi-random sample of pharmacies stratified by the five regions of Riyadh. Each pharmacy was visited once by two investigators who simulated having a relative with a specific clinical illness (sore throat, acute bronchitis, otitis media, acute sinusitis, diarrhea, and urinary tract infection (UTI in childbearing aged women. Results A total of 327 pharmacies were visited. Antibiotics were dispensed without a medical prescription in 244 (77.6% of 327, of which 231 (95% were dispensed without a patient request. Simulated cases of sore throat and diarrhea resulted in an antibiotic being dispensed in (90% of encounters, followed by UTI (75%, acute bronchitis (73%, otitis media (51% and acute sinusitis (40%. Metronidazole (89% and ciprofloxacin (86% were commonly given for diarrhea and UTI, respectively, whereas amoxicillin/clavulanate was dispensed (51% for the other simulated cases. None of the pharmacists asked about antibiotic allergy history or provided information about drug interactions. Only 23% asked about pregnancy status when dispensing antibiotics for UTI-simulated cases. Conclusions We observed that an antibiotic could be obtained in Riyadh without a medical prescription or an evidence-based indication with associated potential clinical risks. Strict enforcement and adherence to existing regulations are warranted.
the relation of religion and politics to seventeenth-century English military history. Frederick II, King of Prussia. Frederick the Great on the Art...Beginning with the reign of King Henry VIII, Barnett’s work explores the history of the British Army as an institution and fighting force. The volume...native clans led by Shaka , to its fall under the guns of the British Army by 1878. The Zulus produced a formidable military force, and this excellent
Al-Quaiz, Al-Joharah M; Raheel, Hafsa M
To determine the frequency, experiences and correlates of sexual violence among female adolescents in Riyadh city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2 schools in Riyadh city for adolescent females starting from January 2008 for 3 months. Five classes with 25 students in each were randomly selected from intermediate and secondary grade of each school. Four hundred and nineteen students were included. A self-answering questionnaire was distributed and collected after 15 minutes by 3 research assistants. Forty-two adolescent students (10%) were exposed to sexual violence. Only 31% of the students were taught how to react to sexual violence. Students whose order was > or = 5th among siblings and who had unsupportive parents in discussing sexual issues were more exposed to sexual violence (chi2=4.02, p=0.044, chi2=4.24, p=0.039). Being > or = 5th in order among siblings and having unsupportive parents in discussing sexual issues were correlates for exposure to sexual violence.
Abdullah A. Bin Shalhoub
Full Text Available Objectives: To identify and describe the hospital disaster preparedness (HDP in major private hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: This is an observational cross-sectional survey study performed in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia between December 2015 and April 2016. Thirteen major private hospitals in Riyadh with more than 100 beds capacity were included in this investigation. Results: The 13 hospitals had HDP plan and reported to have an HDP committee. In 12 (92.3% hospitals, the HDP covered both internal and external disasters and HDP was available in every department of the hospital. There were agreements with other hospitals to accept patients during disasters in 9 facilities (69.2% while 4 (30.8% did not have such agreement. None of the hospitals conducted any unannounced exercises in previous year. Conclusion: Most of the weaknesses were apparent particularly in the education, training and monitoring of the hospital staff to the preparedness for disaster emergency occasion. Few hospitals had conducted an exercise with casualties, few had drilled evacuation of staff and patients in the last 12 months, and none had any unannounced exercise in the last year.
Klimov, A S; Gromov, M F
In December 2011 marked 80 years of the founding of the Ryazan garrison hospital, originally housed in two buildings: "Redut housed"--a monument of architecture of the XVIII century and the former almshouses room "for the maimed in the war", was built in 1884 now Ryazan garrison hospital (from 2010--Branch No 6 FSI "in 1586 the district military hospital in the Western Military District", the Defense Ministry of Russia)--a multi-field medical preventive institution on the basis of which soldiers, military retirees, family members and military retirees from Ryazan, Moscow, Tambov regions are treated. Every year more than 7 thousand patients get treatment here. During the counterterrorism operations in Chechnya over 800 wounded were brought to the hospital from the battle area.
Khalil, Mutasim I., E-mail: email@example.com [King Saud University, Department of Chemistry, College of Science (Saudi Arabia)
A total of 30 clay samples were collected from the area around Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. A complete chemical analysis was carried out using different techniques. X-ray diffraction studies showed that the clay samples were mainly of the smectite group with traces of the kaolinite one. The samples studied were classified as nontronite clay minerals. One of the clay fraction has been studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy as raw clay fraction and after being fired at 950-1,000 Degree-Sign C. The Moessbauer spectra showed accessory iron compounds in the form of hematite and goethite. The structural iron contents disintegrate on firing transforming into magnetic iron oxide and a paramagnetic small particles iron oxide.
Full Text Available A survey of phytopathogenic fungi and Oomyceteswas conducted in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia duringOctober 2008 – May 2009. Total of 223 samples were collectedfrom four regions; Al-Kharj, Oyaynah, Old Diriyah, and Al Amariyah. Isolation was done using Potato Dextrose Agar(PDA. Infected parts were cut then sterilized in chlorox(10%, then were put in petridish that contain PDA andincubated at 25-27 °C. A total twelve genera of fungi andsingle genera of Oomycetes were isolated from the infectedplants and identifi ed as Fusarium spp., Alternaria spp.,Helmintosphorium (Bipolaris spp., Sclerotium spp., Rhizoctoniaspp., Cladosporium spp., Mauginiella scattae, Erysiphe spp.,Leveillula spp., Macrophomina phaseolina, Ustilago spp.,Ulocladium spp., and Phytium spp.
Abdel-Azeem S. Abdel-Baki
Full Text Available Nosema sp. is recorded in Saudi Arabia for the first time, in adult Apis mellifera collected from apiaries in Riyadh city. Samples of 100 workers were collected and examined for the infection with Nosema sp. 5% of the bees were found positively infected with Nosema sp. Spores were oval to elliptical shaped and measuring 6.4 (5.0–7.0 μm in length, 3.4 (3.0–4.5 μm in width. The conclusive identification of the present Nosema species will preclude until further ultrastructure and molecular studies. The present study concluded that intensive surveys are prerequisite to identify the species of Nosema and to estimate their distribution and prevalence in different regions of Saudi Arabia.
It is often said that international humanitarian law (IHL) “accounts for” military necessity, but its meaning and normative consequences have remained obscure. This thesis develops a theory that offers a coherent explanation of the process through which IHL generates its rules. To
Historic military uses of radiography are discussed in this chapter: Battle of Adowa in 1986 was the first. Besides describing the early campaigns in which radiography was used, the author discusses the problems faced: a reliable source of electricity; the problems of extreme heat; moving and breakage of equipment. Numerous historical photographs are included. 9 refs
Full Text Available Background: Tobacco consumption is associated with considerable negative impact on health. Health professionals, including future doctors, should have a leading role in combating smoking in the community. Objectives: The aims of the study were to assess the prevalence of smoking among medical students of newly established medical colleges in Riyadh city, the capital of Saudi Arabia, as well as to assess students′ attitude, practice and their knowledge on the risk factors of tobacco consumption. Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study of students from two medical colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was carried out. The questionnaire used was anonymous, self-administered and developed mainly from Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS. Results: A total of 215 students participated in this study. Forty students (19% indicated that they smoke tobacco at the time of the study. All of them were males, which raise the prevalence among male students to 24%. Tobacco smoking was practiced by males more than females (P value < 0.0001 and by senior more than junior students (< 0.0001. About 94% of the study sample indicated that smoking could cause serious illnesses. About 90% of the students indicated that they would advice their patients to quit smoking in the future and 88% thought that smoking should be banned in public areas. Forty-four students (20% thought that smoking has some beneficial effects, mainly as a coping strategy for stress alleviation. Conclusion: Despite good knowledge about the hazards of tobacco consumption, about 25% of the medical students in this study continue to smoke. The main reported reasons should be addressed urgently by policy-makers. Special efforts should be taken to educate medical students on the effective strategies in managing stress during their study as they thought that tobacco smoking could be used as a coping strategy to face such a stress.
Alwakeel, Suaad S
This study was conducted to determine the microbial and inhabitant of household environment in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Overall, a total of 180 samples were collected and analyzed for fungal growth, 160 house samples were obtained on BAP medium and PDA medium. The Eastern Riyadh region turned out with the highest fungal isolates with 15/61 (24.6%). Among the most common fungal isolates from bedroom carpets were Aspergillus niger (21.6%), Alternaria sp. (15.7%), Aspergillus flavus (15.7%) Candida sp. (11.8%), Cladosporium sp. (9.8%) and Rhizopus sp. (9.8%). Other fungal isolates from bedroom carpets included Penicillium sp (5.9%)., Cunninghamella sp.(3.9%), Rhodotorula sp.(3.9%) and Aspergillus terreus (1.9%) Overall relative densities from all specimens obtained from household carpets, bedroom walls and carpet stores showed Alternaria spp. as the most common fungal isolate (55.3%) followed by Aspergillus niger (29%), Aspergillus flavus (19.3%), Rhizopus spp. (9.7%) and Penicillium spp. (7.0%). Other fungal isolates such as Candida spp., Cladosporium spp., Cunninghamella spp., Rhodotorula spp. and Aspergillus terreus had less than 6% overall relative density. From 40 carpet specimens collected for microbial analysis, 20 (50%) showed bacterial growth. Bacillus spp. was the most common isolated organism (35%) followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (10%), Epiococcus spp. (10%), Corynebacterium spp. (10%) and Bacillus polymyxa (10%). Other bacterial isolates included Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacteroides spp., Clostridium spp. and Staphylococcus aureus .The presence of these fungal and microbial pathogens poses risk for individuals. When possible, floor carpeting in homes should be minimized or avoided since this serves as habitats for opportunistic fungi and infectious agents that pose harm to one's health. (author)
Al-Amri, F.; Saeedi, M.Y.; Al-Tahan, F.M.; Alomary, S.A.; Kassim, K.A.; Ali, A.M.; Mostafa Arafa, M.; Ibrahim, A.K.; Ali, A.M.
Background: Breast cancer is the first cancer among females in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, accounting for 27.4% of all newly diagnosed female cancers in 2010. There are several risk factors affecting the incidence of breast cancer where some factors influence the risk more than the others. Aim: We aimed to identify the different risk factors related to breast cancer among females participating in the breast-screening program in Riyadh, KSA. Methods: Based on data from phase-I of the breast-screening program, a case-control study was conducted on women living in Riyadh, KSA. A sample of 349 women (58 cases and 290 controls) was recruited to examine the different breast cancer correlates. Multivariate regression model was built to investigate the most important risk factors. Results: The mean age of cases was 48.5 ± 7.1 years. Age at marriage, number of pregnancy, age at menopause, oral contraceptive pills, breast feeding and family history of breast cancer in first-degree relative were identified as the most important correlates among the studied cohort. Conclusions: The findings of the current work suggested that age at marriage, age at menopause ≥50 years, and 1st degree family history of breast cancer were risk factors for breast cancer, while, age at menopause<50 years, number of pregnancies and practicing breast feeding were protective factors against breast cancer. There was no effect of body mass index or physical inactivity. Further studies are needed to explore the hereditary, familial and genetic background risk factors in Saudi population.
Norah Faleh Al-Mutairi
Full Text Available Introduction: Breast milk is the best natural essential nutrition to newborns and infants. However, the practice of breastfeeding (BF has declined in Saudi Arabia. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and practice of BF with their determinants among mothers in Riyadh. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 252 mothers attending the well-baby clinics in Riyadh from March 2016 to May 2017 were selected randomly with their consent and studied by a standardized questionnaire. Results: Of the 252 women, 69.4% were 25–35 years of age and 56.7% with a bachelor degree or higher education. Nearly 75% mothers had education on BF before our study. Mixed feeding was the most preferred method (51.6% followed by artificial milk (29.4%. The most reported reason for discontinuing BF was breast milk insufficiency (37.3% and of breastfeed continuation was their perceived benefit (36.6%. Excellent knowledge was observed among 12.7%, good knowledge in 57.1%, and unsatisfactory level in 30.2% mothers. The regression model shows that high school education improved the knowledge by 10.9 points (P = 0.024 and undergraduate by 18.7 points (P value = 0.001 when compared to women who were literate. Women with parity> 5 improved knowledge score by 17.3 points (P < 0.001. Conclusion: We observed that majority (57.1% of Saudi mothers had a moderate level of knowledge on BF benefits and 19% had practiced exclusive BF. There is a need for better educational programs to increase awareness on its benefits for the health situation in the country on the long term.
Military facilities provide health care services to an important segment of both themilitary and civil population. Methods: The aim of this study was to evaluate drug prescribing practices at a Nigerian military hospital (MilitaryHospital, Ikoyi, Lagos) and tomake recommendations for its improvement.UsingWHOrational drug use ...
Almutairi, Khalid M
This study aims to determine the level of satisfaction of patients who visit primary healthcare centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The investigation was a cross-sectional study conducted in twenty randomly selected primary healthcare centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from October to December 2014. A descriptive data analysis was performed. Eligible participants had visited at least one of the selected primary healthcare centers within the past 12 months. A total of 1741 participants completed the survey, providing a response rate of 87 % (43 % male, 57 % female). The highest satisfaction rates were in the following areas: comprehensiveness and coordination 76.2 % (95 % CI 74.8 ± 77.5), communication 72.7 % (95 % CI 71.3 ± 74) and attitude of staff 73.4 % (95 % CI 72.1 ± 74.8) The areas of greatest concern expressed by the participants were the length of the wait and the quality of the facility 55.4 % (95 % CI 53.3 ± 57.5), 50.5 % (95 % CI 48.3 ± 52.7), respectively. The majority of the patients attending primary healthcare centers in Riyadh showed high levels of satisfaction; however, there are still some factors that need to be considered and improved upon. These include the accessibility of primary healthcare centers as well as waiting time of patients. The results of the current study showed relative improvement in other factors such as comprehensiveness and coordination, communication and attitude of staff. The level of satisfaction of patients and stakeholders shows the progress of the quality of care in healthcare facilities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Alexey I. Podberyozkin
Military-political issues is an important area of research work at MGIMO. The difference in this direction from the classical international specialization is that it is at the intersection of several disciplines: military science, military-technical and military-industrial as well as International Relations. A specialist in military and political issues should not only be an expert in the field of international relations and diplomacy, but also have a deep knowledge of military-technical issu...
Full Text Available Abstract: Self-medication is a widespread behavior worldwide. It is defined as the practice of self-diagnosis and drug prescription without proper professional consultation. Aim: To determine the prevalence and predictors of self-medication for oral health problems among adults living in Riyadh city. Methods: A cross-sectional study based on a structured close-ended questionnaire was distributed among adults visiting shopping malls in all different five regions of Riyadh. A two-stage sampling technique was used: cluster and simple random sampling. The questionnaire was composed of two main sections: demographic characteristics and questions assessing the behavior of self-medication. Results: The prevalence of self-medication was found to be 63.25%, with a higher prevalence among females than males. Gender and nationality were significantly associated with self-medication. Salt in hot water locally (52.57% and acetaminophen (47.43%, a type of an analgesic, were, systemically, the most frequently used. Pharmacy shops were the main source of these medicaments (66.01%. Similarly, the advice for using them was mainly given by pharmacists (53.36%. Lack of time was claimed to be the main reason for practicing self-medication (54.55% with abscess, toothache, and gingival bleeding being the main predictors. Conclusions: Self-medication was found to be a common practice among the population of Riyadh city.
Valentine, Kovalchuk P; Viacheslav, Kondratiuk M
Microbiology of modern war wounds is unique for each military conflict. Climatic and geographical features of the theater of war, contemporary warfare as well as wound management affect the microbial flora of wounds. This study was designed to determine time-specific microbial flora of combat wounds of upper and lower extremities obtained during the war in eastern Ukraine. The patients enrolled in study had combat wounds of upper or lower extremities which were treated in the Military Medical Clinical Center of Central Region. The wounds were swab-cultured and measured at each surgical debridement. The recovered microorganisms were identified and their antimicrobial resistance profiles were evaluated by disc diffusion method. Forty-nine patients with battle-field wounds were enrolled in the study from July to November 2014; all patients were male with a mean Injury Severity Score and arrival APACHE II scores of 16.2 ± 10.7 and 7.4 ± 4.2 respectively. Among 128 swab cultures, 100 swab cultures were positive. Swab cultures were obtained from 57 wounds of 49 patients. The results of the test showed that 87.7% of all positive swab cultures contained a single-organism while the rest of the swab-culture results showed polymicrobial growth. Among the isolated microorganisms 65% (76 strains) were Gram-negative rods, 22.2% (26 strains) of Gram-positive cocci, followed by Gram-positive rods (12.8%, 15 strains). We found that epidemiology of wound infection changes with the time after injury. The most common bacterial isolates cultured during the first week were Gram-positive microbes with low pathogenicity. The number of Gram-negative rods increased during the wound healing process. The incidence of Gram-positive microorganisms' growth fell after the first week and increased after third week. During wound healing, bacterial microflora of wounds changes with increasing number of Gram-negative rods with predominance of Acinetobacter species. Predominant microorganisms in
Alshammari, Sulaiman A.; AlShowair, Mishal A.; AlRuhaim, Abdulmalik
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, studies have shown a high prevalence of hormones and nutritional supplement use by athletes and gym members. Many athletes consume unproven, potentially harmful or even banned supplements. OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of the use of hormones and nutritional supplements by people who exercise in gyms in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and the types of supplements they most commonly use and to obtain a general view of the main reasons for using these enhancements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted at gyms in Riyadh that were selected randomly from different sectors of the city. The sample size was estimated at 289, but the actual number of randomly selected participants in the study was 457. RESULTS: The number of gym members who participated in this study was 457. Approximately 47.9% of the sample reported an intake of nutritional supplements and 7.9% reported that they took hormones. Protein powder was consumed by 83.1% of the participants. Approximately 16.8% of supplement users had noticed some side effects, and 25.7% of those who took hormones had stopped taking them because of adverse effects. Only half of the hormone users (54.2%) reported that they had had medical checkups. The major source of information on supplement and hormone use was non-health professionals; friends being major source (40%) of information on the use of hormones. The use of nutritional supplements was significantly associated with BMI (OR = 1.89, CI = 1.06–3.39), duration of daily exercise (OR = 4.23, CI = 2.06–8.68), and following a special diet (OR = 8.42, CI = 5.37–13.2). There was a very strong association between nutritional supplement consumption and hormone use (P gyms took nutritional supplements, and most had received their information from nonhealth professionals. There was an association between the duration of exercise and the use of hormones and supplements. Fewer than half of
Full Text Available Abdullah Mohammed Al-Bedah1, Naseem Akhtar Qureshi21Arabian Center for Tobacco Control, 2General Administration for Medical Research and Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Tobacco use is a major public health problem, and its prevalence is globally increasing, especially among children and adolescents.Objective: The Global Youth Tobacco Survey aimed to explore the epidemiological trends and risk factors of tobacco smoking among intermediate school boys in Riyadh region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.Method: A two-stage cluster sample design was used to produce a representative sample of male students from selected schools. The participants (n = 1830 self recorded their responses on the Global Youth Tobacco Survey questionnaire.Results: Lifetime prevalence of cigarette smoking was 35%, while 13% of students currently used other tobacco products. About 16% of students currently smoked at home, and 84% of students bought cigarettes without any refusal from storekeepers. Thirty-one percent and 39% of students were exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke inside and outside the house, respectively, which was definitely or probably harmful to health as opined by 87% of participants, and 74% voiced to ban smoking from public places. Among current smokers, 69% intended (without attempt to quit and 63% attempted (but failed to quit during the past year. Almost an equal number of students saw antismoking and prosmoking media messages in the last month, and 28% of students were offered free cigarettes by a tobacco company representative. In schools, more than 50% of students were taught about the dangers of cigarette smoking in the last year. Smoking by parents, older brothers, and close friends, watching prosmoking cigarette advertisements, free offer of cigarettes by tobacco company representatives, perception of smoking being not harmful, and continuing smoking which can be easily quit significantly
Bian, Qijing; Alharbi, Badr; Shareef, Mohammed M.; Husain, Tahir; Pasha, Mohammad J.; Atwood, Samuel A.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.
Knowledge of the sources of carbonaceous aerosol affecting air quality in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, is limited but needed for the development of pollution control strategies. We conducted sampling of PM2.5 from April to September 2012 at various sites in the city and used a thermo-optical semi-continuous method to quantify the organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations. The average OC and EC concentrations were 4.7 ± 4.4 and 2.1 ± 2.5 µg m-3, respectively, during this period. Both OC and EC concentrations had strong diurnal variations, with peaks at 06:00-08:00 LT and 20:00-22:00 LT, attributed to the combined effect of increased vehicle emissions during rush hour and the shallow boundary layer in the early morning and at night. This finding suggested a significant influence of local vehicular emissions on OC and EC. The OC / EC ratio in primary emissions was estimated to be 1.01, close to documented values for diesel emissions. Estimated primary organic carbon (POC) and secondary organic carbon (SOC) concentrations were comparable, with average concentrations of 2.0 ± 2.4 and 2.8 ± 3.4 µg m-3, respectively.We also collected 24 h samples of PM10 onto quartz microfiber filters and analyzed these for an array of metals by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Total OC was correlated with Ca (R2 of 0.63), suggesting that OC precursors and Ca may have similar sources, and the possibility that they underwent similar atmospheric processing. In addition to a ubiquitous dust source, Ca is emitted during desalting processes in the numerous refineries in the region and from cement kilns, suggesting these sources may also contribute to observed OC concentrations in Riyadh. Concentration weighted trajectory (CWT) analysis showed that high OC and EC concentrations were associated with air masses arriving from the Persian Gulf and the region around Baghdad, locations with high densities of oil fields and refineries as well as a
Alrajhi, M.; Hawarey, M.
The General Directorate for Surveying and Mapping (GDSM) of the Deputy Ministry for Land and Surveying (DMLS) of the Ministry of Municipal and Rural Affairs (MOMRA) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has the exclusive mandate to carry out aerial photography and produce large-scale detailed maps for about 220 cities and villages in the KSA. This presentation is about the comprehensive geo-spatial data creation for the Ar-Riyadh region, Central KSA, that was founded on country-wide horizontal geodetic ground control using Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) within the MOMRA's Terrestrial Reference Frame 2000 (MTRF2000) that is tied to International Terrestrial Reference Frame 2000 (ITRF2000) Epoch 2004.0, and vertical geodetic ground control using precise digital leveling in reference to Jeddah 1969 mean sea level, and included aerial photography of area 3,000 km2 at 1:5,500 scale and 10,000 km2 at 1:45,000 scale, full aerial triangulation, and production of orthophoto maps at scale of 1:10,000 (480 sheets) for 10,000 km2, with aerial photography lasting from July 2007 thru August 2007.
Alwakeel, Suaad S.
A randomized sampling of 50 households in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia was conducted to determine microbial and Aspergillus spp contaminants in domestic kitchens between May and June 2006. Samples were taken from open air in the kitchen and from used kitchen sponges. Inoculation procedures were varied from direct inoculation of the sponge into the medium to dilution of a cut portion of the sponge. A total of 200 samples were taken from which, 700 culture plates were done (BAP and Nutrient agar). Identification by the API system of identification (Analytical Profile Index, BioMerieux) revealed Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterobacter cloacae, Diphtheroids and Bacillus cereus, Aspergillus spp. was isolated and identified microscopically. Among the isolates, Staphylococcus epidermidis , Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 90% of the plates followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (83%) , Klebsiella pneumonia ; Bacillus cereus (63%).and Aspergillus spp (15%) These opportunistic pathogens may be harmful especially in immunocompromised hosts. In this setting, there is a constant risk of contamination and transfer to willing hosts, thus appropriate measures should be implemented such as the use of disposable sponges. (author)
El-Shobokshy, Mohammad S.; Al-Saedi, Yaseen G.
During the last two decades, the urban areas in the city of Riyadh—the capital of Saudi Arabia—were increasing at an exceptionally high rate through a series of development plans. The major plans had been completed by the end of 1982. Some other big utility projects were started and completed during 1987. As a consequence, the air quality has deteriorated markedly and air pollution episodes recorded during these activities showed that particulates were present in the atmosphere at high concentrations. Later in January 1991 the Gulf war started and the firing of the oil fields in Kuwait soon followed. It was estimated that soot particulates were emitted at a rate of 600 ton d -1 along with high rates of other gases. This event has led to significant air quality and visibility problems. Direct normal solar radiation has been measured during the summer months of July and August which were characterized by very dry and cloudless weather for the period between 1982 and 1992. A year-to-year trend of the transmittance of direct normal solar irradiance was then determined. The atmospheric fine aerosol (oil field fires in Kuwait were passing over Riyadh are presented. The reduction in solar irradiation reflects the intensity of dark smoke at a distance of 500 km from Kuwait.
Al-Turki, Yousef A.; Al-Fraih, Yasser S.; Jalalay, Jalal B.; Al-Maghlouth, Ibrahim A.; Al-Rashoudi, Fahad H.; Al-Otaibi, Azzam F.; Al-Thnayan, Anas A.; Trabzoni, Abdulmohsin I.; Al-Shaykh, Abdulaziz S.
Objective was to assess the knowledge and attitudes towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) among the students of King Saud University. This study was a cross sectional survey among King Saud University students, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, which took place on December 17-20, 2006. The data was collected from self-administered questionnaires prepared in Arabic. The questionnaires were distributed to all 15 colleges of the university. Out of a study sample of 2250 students, 31% did not have prior CPR information. Of those with previous knowledge, 85% feel that it is inadequate. The most common sources of information were television and movies. The 12.7% of individuals encountered a situation that required the use of CPR. However, 14% of them performed it. This was mostly due to lack of knowledge (42.8%). Eighty-eight percent of students would like to learn how to perform CPR. Out of all King Saud University students, 45% believe that CPR training should be a graduation requirement. It was found that overall attitude towards CPR was positive. However, the knowledge on the topic was insufficient. Thus, more focus should be placed on the improvement of CPR skills. In addition, more studies are needed to assess knowledge and attitudes towards CPR in the community. (author)
Aldjain, Ibrahim M; Al-Whaibi, Mohamed H; Al-Showiman, Salim S; Siddiqui, Manzer H
Exposure of heavy metals to human beings has risen dramatically in the last 50 years. In today's urban and industrial society, there is no escaping from exposure to toxic chemicals and heavy metals. Humans are more likely to be exposed to heavy metal contamination from the dust that adheres to edible plants than from bioaccumulation. This is because it is very difficult to wash off all the dust particles from the plant material before ingesting them. The objectives of this experiment were to determine the concentrations of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in washing residues and in the tissues of fruits of date palm growing in 14 sites of Riyadh and also to assess whether the fruits were safe for human consumption. The washing residues and tissue of date palm fruits collected from different sites showed the presence of significant amounts of the Pb and Cd. The concentration of Pb in the dust and fruit tissue increased with increasing anthropogenic sources. Therefore, fruits of date palm might be used as a pollution indicator; it might be recommend that fruits of date palm could be safe for human consumption after washing. The mean concentration of Pb and Cd in all the samples collected from different sites is within the safe limits recommended by FAO/WHO.
Secondary school girls, ages 15 - 19 yrs were surveyed to find out the coping strategies they used when stressed. Adolescents, who are affected with stress and depression early in life, suffer from depression throughout their lives especially if they are utilizing improper ways to cope with it. A cross sectional school based survey among 1028 adolescent girls was conducted among the secondary schools in Riyadh city,Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. About 25% stated that they cry, 19% listen to music, 15% start eating a lot, 12% sit alone/isolate themselves, 11% pray/read the Quran, 10% get into a verbal argument or a fight. Only a few, 3% exercise, and 2% stated that they find someone to discuss and talk to. Majority of the adolescent girls in our survey, rely on emotion related coping mechanisms rather than problem solving mechanisms. This can cause long term implications in these adolescents as there is an increased probability to develop depression later on in life. Policy makers need to implement strategies for early identification of stress and depression. Talking to friends and family can serve as an effective way to cope with stress.
Ahmed I. Rushdi
Full Text Available Soil particles contain a variety of anthropogenic and natural organic components derived from many sources such as industrial and traffic fossil fuel emissions and terrestrial biota. The organic contents of soil and sand from the Arabian region have not fully characterized. Thus, samples of fine soil particles (sieved to <125 μM were collected from the Riyadh area in November 2006 (late summer and February 2007 (late winter. The samples were extracted with a mixture of dichloromethane/hexane and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GCMS in order to characterize the chemical composition and sources of aliphatic hydrocarbons. The results showed that both anthropogenic and natural biogenic inputs were the major sources of the aliphatic hydrocarbons in these extracts. Vehicular emission products and discarded plastics were the major anthropogenic sources in the fine particles of the soils and ranged from 64% to 96% in November 2006 and from 70% to 92% in February 2007. Their tracers were n-alkanes, hopanes, sterane, plasticizers and UCM. Vegetation was also a major natural source of hydrocarbon compounds in samples ranging from ∼0% to18% in November 2006 and from 1% to 13% in February 2007 and included n-alkanes and triterpenoids.
Waleed A. Al Rashed
Full Text Available Aim. The current study aimed to evaluate the knowledge of eye disease and awareness of eye care among the Saudi adults and to explore existing eye-related misconceptions in the community. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Riyadh city during May and June 2016. A self-administered anonymous online questionnaire was used to explore the most common misconceptions related to eye diseases and eye care. Results. Out of 1000 individuals, only 711 (71.1% participant responses were received. The participants’ acceptable knowledge (score ≥50% was high about the eye problem in diabetes (88.6%, ocular trauma (81.2%, and other general eye diseases (91.3%, whereas low about refractive errors (63%, pediatric eye problems (51.5%, and glaucoma (14.8%. The variation in knowledge about specific ocular morbidities was significant (p<0.001. The majority of participants reported sources of information about the common eye diseases and eye care encountered from the community, internet-based resources, and social media. Conclusions. The majority of the participants had awareness about the common eye diseases, whereas low percentage of participant’s awareness about specific condition of eye diseases. Public eye health awareness should be more focused on social media and the internet to be able to cover the younger individuals of the community.
Fetohy, Ebtisam M
An experimental study was conducted to assess the impact and suitability of menstrual education program (MEP) for 1st and 2nd graders at a girls' secondary school in Riyadh city. The MEP was conducted on 5 classes, through one session and one assessment. The results revealed that the mean scores of knowledge, attitude and practice of the intervention classes (1st and 2nd graders) were significantly higher than that of the control classes. Stepwise linear regression models show that the age of menarche and grade were the predictors of students' knowledge among the control group and explained 7.8% of the variation of the knowledge score. Knowledge was a predictor of students' attitude of both groups (control and intervention) (beta = 0.359, 0.300 respectively). Knowledge was also a predictor of students' menstrual practice among control group (beta = -2.12). Attitude was a predictor of students' menstrual practice for both groups (beta = 0.360, 0.252 respectively). The study recommended the replication of the same program among elementary, preparatory, and other secondary schools for improvement of students' menstrual knowledge, attitudes and practice.
Chang, Jonghwa; Lee, Wonjae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
N GNP reactor plant adopted a Rank in steam cycle for early deployment and for reducing R and D risk and cost. Original plant design is based on a wet cooling tower with wet bulb temperature of 34 .deg. C. This cooling environment may be sufficient for most area in North America. However, we should consider air temperature of 45 .deg. C and no available cooling water for any site near Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A plausible option in such arid area is using an air-cooled condenser(ACC) which is widely used in a combined cycle plant in arid region. ACC is also suitable for freezing area such as northern territory or high elevation remote area. We have studied impact of the cooling method on the power generation efficiency and the annual average power production referencing N GNP steam turbine. Even though condenser split is assumed to be the same between ACC and wet cooling tower, large difference in air temperature and wet bulb temperature makes large efficiency loss in the ACC. The ACC efficiency is lower than that of the wet cooling tower by 1.12%. To make up this loss, we proposed the variable steam extraction rates operation. An air cooled condenser is a practical.
Abdel Gawwad, Ensaf S
The objective of this study was to assess diabetes-related knowledge, attitudes and management practices among school teachers in order to determine their diabetes training needs and preparedness to provide adequate care for students with diabetes. A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out among 177 school teachers in Boys and Girls primary and intermediate school compounds in Riyadh City. Data was collected using self-administered questionnaires during the period February-March 2007. The results showed that most of the school teachers had fair diabetes knowledge (78%), and unfavorable attitudes toward taking responsibility of diabetes education and care in schools. Recognizing normal, low and high blood sugar levels was the least known. The most frequent sources of information were booklets, brochures, mass media and own experience. A negative significant relationship was found between knowledge and attitude scores. Only 18.6% of teachers had got good total score of diabetes management practices for their diabetic students. The most frequent practices mentioned were trying to have competency in using glucometer, and allowing students to use restroom as needed. Developing an emergency action plan, and observing diabetic students all the school day were the least mentioned practices. Good diabetes managers were more knowledgeable and more expressing unfavorable attitudes. This study highlighted the need of diabetes education training courses especially designed to school teachers to promote adequate care and management of diabetes emergencies in schools.
Full Text Available Background: Advertising is a crucial component of pharmaceutical industry promotion. Research indicates that information on advertisement materials might be inadequate, inaccurate, biased, and misleading. Objective: To analyse and critically assess the information presented in print pharmaceutical advertisements in Saudi Arabia.Methods: Pharmaceutical advertisements were collected from 280 community pharmacies in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The advertisements were evaluated using criteria derived from the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA regulation, the World Health Organization (WHO ethical medicinal drug promotion criteria, and other principles reported in similar studies. The data were extracted independently by two of the researchers using a standardized assessment form. Results: One hundred eighty five printed advertisements were included in the final sample. Approximately half of the advertisements (n = 94, 51% were for over-the-counter (OTC medications, and 71 (38% were for prescription-only medication. Information such as the name of active ingredients was available in 168 (90.8% advertisements, therapeutic uses were mentioned in 156 (98.7% of analysed advertisements. Safety information related to side effects, precautions, and major interactions were stated in 53 (28.5%, 58 (31%, and 33 (16.5% advertisements, respectively. Only 119 advertisements (64% provided references for information presented. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that print advertisements do not convey all the information necessary for safe prescribing. These results have implications for the regulation of drug advertising and the continuing education of pharmacists.
Basfar, A.A.; Abdel Rehim, F.
The goal of this research was to establish the applicability of the electron beam treatment process for treating wastewater intended for reuse. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of gamma irradiation in the disinfection of wastewater, and the improvement of the water quality by determining the changes in organic matter as indicated by the measurement of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC). Samples of effluent, before and after chlorination, and sludge were obtained from a Riyadh Wastewater Treatment Plant. The studies were conducted using a laboratory scale 60 Co gamma source. The improvement in quality of the irradiated samples was demonstrated by the reduction in bacteria, and the reduction in the BOD, COD and TOC. Radiation of the wastewater provided adequate disinfection while at the same time increasing the water quality. This treatment could lead to additional opportunities for the reuse of this valuable resource. Limited studies, conducted on the anaerobically digested secondary biosolids, showed an improvement in bacterial content and no change in COD
Mohammed A. AL-Saleh
Full Text Available In 2011–2012, sixty nine samples were collected from alfalfa plants showing viral infection symptoms in Riyadh region. Mechanical inoculation with sap prepared from two collected samples out of twenty five possitive for Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV by ELISA were produced systemic mosaic on Vigna unguiculata and Nicotiana tabacum, local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa. Vicia faba indicator plants that induce mosaic and mottle with AMV-Sagir isolate and no infection with AMV-Wadi aldawasser isolate. Approximately 700-bp was formed by RT-PCR using AMV coat protein specific primer. Samples from infected alfalfa gave positive results, while healthy plant gave negative result using dot blot hybridization assay. The nucleotide sequences of the Saudi isolates were compared with corresponding viral nucleotide sequences reported in GenBank. The obtained results showed that the AMV from Australia, Brazil, Puglia and China had the highest similarity with AMV-Sajer isolate. While, the AMV from Spain and New Zealaland had the lowest similarity with AMV-Sajer and Wadi aldawasser isolates. The data obtained in this study has been deposited in the GenBank under the accession numbers KC434083 and KC434084 for AMV-Sajer and AMV- Wadialdawasser respectively. This is the first report regarding the gnetic make up of AMV in Saudi Arabia.
To determine the mean eruption time of permanent first molars, central and lateral incisors and to compare the relationship of mean eruption time with body mass index (BMI) in Saudi female primary school children from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The mean age of children was 89.3 (SD 9.6) months ranging from 71 months to 109 months. The maxillary right first molar had the lowest mean eruption time of 77.4 (SD 3.9) months and the maxillary right lateral incisor was the last tooth to erupt with eruption time of 98.4 (SD 6.5) months. Furthermore, the mandibular incisors erupted significantly earlier than maxillary incisors. By the age of 100 months, 97% of the girls had all their first permanent molars erupted. There was no significant correlation observed between eruption times with BMI of the studied teeth except the maxillary right lateral incisor. However, an inverse relationship may exist between the eruption times and BMI. The Saudi female primary school children showed later eruption time of permanent first molars, central and lateral incisors when compared with the reported results of other national studies. Key words: Eruption time, permanent teeth, Saudi Arabia, female children. (author)
Almajhdi Fahad N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although human parainfluenza type 2 (HPIV-2 virus is an important respiratory pathogen, a little is known about strains circulating in Saudi Arabia. Findings Among 180 nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from suspected cases in Riyadh, only one sample (0.56% was confirmed HPIV-2 positive by nested RT-PCR. The sample that was designated Riyadh 105/2009 was used for sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the most variable virus gene; the haemagglutinin-neuramindase (HN. Comparison of HN gene of Riyadh 105/2009 strain and the relevant sequences available in GenBank revealed a strong relationship with Oklahoma-94-2009 strain. Phylogenetic analysis indicated four different clusters of HPIV-2 strains (G1-4. Twenty-three amino acid substitutions were recorded for Riyadh 105/2009, from which four are unique. The majority of substitutions (n=18 had changed their amino acids characteristics. By analyzing the effect of the recorded substitutions on the protein function using SIFT program, only two located at positions 360 and 571 were predicted to be deleterious. Conclusions The presented changes of Riyadh 105/2009 strain may possess potential effect on the protein structure and/or function level. This is the first report that describes partial characterization of Saudi HPIV-2 strain.
Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term outcome of six children with persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy (PHHI) after pancreatectomy who have been followed since 1990 at the Riyadh Military Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods Data from six patients were ...
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Full Text Available Knowledge of the sources of carbonaceous aerosol affecting air quality in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, is limited but needed for the development of pollution control strategies. We conducted sampling of PM2.5 from April to September 2012 at various sites in the city and used a thermo-optical semi-continuous method to quantify the organic carbon (OC and elemental carbon (EC concentrations. The average OC and EC concentrations were 4.7 ± 4.4 and 2.1 ± 2.5 µg m−3, respectively, during this period. Both OC and EC concentrations had strong diurnal variations, with peaks at 06:00–08:00 LT and 20:00–22:00 LT, attributed to the combined effect of increased vehicle emissions during rush hour and the shallow boundary layer in the early morning and at night. This finding suggested a significant influence of local vehicular emissions on OC and EC. The OC ∕ EC ratio in primary emissions was estimated to be 1.01, close to documented values for diesel emissions. Estimated primary organic carbon (POC and secondary organic carbon (SOC concentrations were comparable, with average concentrations of 2.0 ± 2.4 and 2.8 ± 3.4 µg m−3, respectively.We also collected 24 h samples of PM10 onto quartz microfiber filters and analyzed these for an array of metals by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES. Total OC was correlated with Ca (R2 of 0.63, suggesting that OC precursors and Ca may have similar sources, and the possibility that they underwent similar atmospheric processing. In addition to a ubiquitous dust source, Ca is emitted during desalting processes in the numerous refineries in the region and from cement kilns, suggesting these sources may also contribute to observed OC concentrations in Riyadh. Concentration weighted trajectory (CWT analysis showed that high OC and EC concentrations were associated with air masses arriving from the Persian Gulf and the region around Baghdad, locations with
Al Garni, Bishi; Pani, Sharat Chandra; Almaaz, Adel; Al Qeshtaini, Ehsan; Abu-Haimed, Hamad; Al Sharif, Khalid
One of the factors that dissuade patients needing tooth replacement from choosing dental implants is the prohibitive cost. Willingness to pay (WTP) is a useful tool to determine the ideal cost of an expensive procedure. The aim of this study was to study the factors that influence the willingness to pay (WTP) among patients attending a private clinic and compare them to those attending a government setup. A total of 100 patients (38 male, 62 female) who had one or more missing teeth were presented with different cost-benefit scenarios and then asked if they were willing to pay the median cost of a single implant in Riyadh city. The mean WTP price was compared using the one way-ANOVA, factors which could possibly influence patients' WTP were grouped together in a Binomial logistic regression model. Of the 100 individuals surveyed 67% said they would be willing to pay the median price for the placement of an implant. A comparison of socio-demographic factors showed that significant differences were found between gender, income groups and setting of the clinic in the mean WTP price of the patients (P difference in the mean WTP price between groups with regard to the area of the missing tooth, the patients' perception of their oral health and the their desire to want an implant (P pay the median price for an implant. Willingness to pay (WTP) is a multifactorial variable which is significantly influenced by the income of the patient, the setting of the clinic and the gender; the most significant factor being the acceptability of the implant to the patient.
ALFaris, Nora A; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z; Al-Jobair, Moneera O; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M
Background : Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective : The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design : In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13-18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19-29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results : Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants' fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants' hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion : Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls.
ALFaris, Nora A.; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z.; Al-Jobair, Moneera O.; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M.
Background Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13–18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19–29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants’ fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants’ hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls. PMID:25792229
Nora A. ALFaris
Full Text Available Background: Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design: In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13–18 years and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19–29 years were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results: Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants’ fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants’ hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%. Conclusion: Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls.
Sales, Ibrahim; Aljadhey, Hisham; Albogami, Yasser; Mahmoud, Mansour A
Purpose: To assess the general public awareness and perception about Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) reporting and pharmacovigilance. Method: A cross-sectional study conducted on June 2012 during awareness campaign held in two malls in Riyadh city for two days. A self-administered questionnaire consisting of three parts was distributed to the attendees who accepted to participate in the study. Results: A total of 204 questionnaires were collected with a response rate of 68%. Twenty-three percent could correctly define ADRs. Only 13(15.7%) of responders were familiar with the term "Pharmacovigilance" and only 78.6% were aware about the Saudi Pharmacovigilance Center. Sixty-seventy percent indicated that their physicians or pharmacists don't actively encourage them to report ADRs that may occur when they take their medications. The majority of responders (73.2%) believed that the medical team, rather than consumers, should report ADRs. When asked why patients do not report ADRs, 19.1(48.5%) believed that patients do not know whether the ADR is from the medication or not, 18.1(46.1%) stated that the reason was because patients don't know about the Pharmacovigilance Center, 16(40.7%) think that patients don't know about the importance of ADRs reporting, and 14(36.3%) responded that patients probably don't know how to report ADRs. Conclusion: The general public in Saudi Arabia are not aware about ADRs reporting and the pharmacovigilance system. The Saudi Food and Drug Authorities (FDA) need to put more efforts to increasing public awareness about the importance of ADRs reporting process and the importance of pharmacovigilance system in promoting patient safety.
Almuhanna, Monira Abdulrahman; Alsaif, Mohammed; Alsaadi, Muslim; Almajwal, Ali
Childhood obesity has become a new challenge for healthcare providers. The issue is not limited to certain parts of the world; its prevalence is increasing worldwide. The causes of obesity are poorly understood and continue to be debated and studied. It is a multifactorial disorder which involves dietary, behavioral, environmental as well as genetic factors. The increased consumption of more energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods with high levels of sugar and saturated fats, combined with reduced physical activity, have led to high obesity rates among children. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary intake on the occurrence of childhood obesity, and study other associated factors including the education, occupation and income of parents and the living status. Normal healthy school girls (n =196) and school boys (n = 85) between the age of 6- 15 were recruited for the study. We found that obesity among children in Riyadh City was significantly associated with fast food intake (p = 0.0280). It was also observed that 72.5% of the overweight or obese students consumed fast food at least 4 times/week, and the other 15.9% were taking fast food 1- 3 times/week, while only 11.6% of the same overweight or obese group did not consume any fast food/ week. Father's and mother's occupations were not significantly correlated to their children's body weight. The prevalence of childhood obesity is changing and increasing yearly and is attributed to the nutritional risk factors for the Saudi school-age children. It is interesting to know that most of overweight or obese school students belonged to the families of highincome. Parents must take necessary precautions for the diet of their children and should adopt healthy life style in order to prevent or manage obesity of their children.
Al-Jobair, Asma M; Baidas, Laila F; Al-Hamid, Anfal A; Al-Qahtani, Sara G; Al-Najjar, Amani T; Al-Kawari, Huda M
To assess and compare the severity of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need among young Saudis receiving free treatment at public dental practices versus those paying for treatment at private practices. This retrospective study evaluated the records of 300 patients (179 females, 121 males; age 13-21 years) treated at orthodontic clinics from 2013 through 2015. The public sample was selected from orthodontic clinics at the College of Dentistry, King Saud University (KSU); the private sample was selected from five private orthodontic clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The records were examined for the severity of malocclusion and for orthodontic treatment need using the Dental Health Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. The prevalence of each occlusal discrepancy and the Dental Health Component grade were recorded. The severity of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need were compared between practice types, age groups, and sexes with the chi-square test. Displacement, increased overjet, and Class II and III malocclusion were the most common orthodontic problems in this study. Patients attending public clinics at KSU generally had more severe malocclusion than the patients attending private clinics. Seventy-seven percent of orthodontically treated patients at KSU clinics were in great need of treatment, compared with 58.5% of patients treated at private clinics ( P =0.003). Among the patients with great treatment need, approximately 62% of male patients and 70% of patients ≤16 years of age were treated at KSU clinics, compared with 38% and 48%, respectively, treated at private clinics ( P orthodontic treatment at public clinics at KSU had more severe malocclusion with greater need of orthodontic treatment than the patients paying for treatment at private clinics.
Alam, Awatif Ali
We conducted this study to assess the knowledge of breast cancer and sources of information about breast cancer among women in Riyadh. We also analyzed whether associations existed between demographic variables. Knowledge of breast cancer and, and the practice of breast self examination and use of mammography screening. Women interested in participating in this community based descriptive study provided data by completing a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Of 864 participating women, 84% were Saudi 45% were married and 67.8% had a university level education*0% were between the ages of 20 to 50 years. Knowledge of breast self examination (BSE) was high 82% (95% CI, 79.2%-84.4%) knew about BSE, 61% (95% CI confidence intervals [CI], 79.2%-84.4%) knew about BSE , while 61% [95%CI, 57.9%-64.5%] knew about mammography but only 41.2% [95% CI, 37.9%-44.5%] had performed BSE and 18.2% (95% CI, 15.5%-20.8%)had had mammography screening Knowledge of breast cancer, risk factors and protective factors for breast cancer was moderate. There was a statistically significant association between demographic characteristics (marital status, educational status and family history of breast cancer) and knowledge and practice of BSE and mammography. Though it has limitations, this study revealed an imbalance between the knowledge and practice of BSE among women. It also showed that there is only that there is only moderate knowledge of risks and protective factors for breast cancer and that knowledge and practice of BSE and mammography vary according to marital and educational status. Hence, frequent community based awareness programs are needed so that all women can know and practice BSE, which in turn helps to prevent breast cancer. (author)
Al-Tuwijri, Abdulmohsin A [Dept. of Family Medicine, Ministry of Health, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Al-Rukban, Mohammed Othman [Dept. of Family and Community Medicine, Coll. of Medicine, King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)
The prevalence of hypertension in Saudi Arabia has been assessed only in preliminary reports. The aim of this study was to determine the degree of control of blood pressure and the prevalence of common hypertension co-morbidities among hypertensive patients attending primary health care (PHC) centers in Riyadh. A cross sectional study was conducted by reviewing medical records of hypertensive patients during May and June 2001. Two hundred fifty-five medical records selected by a stratified randomization process according to the distribution of the 73 PHC centers in the city and the total number of hypertensive patients registered in the mini-clinic of each PHC-center. Trained mini-clinic nurses collected data using a data collection form developed for this purpose. Of 255 patients, 121 (47.5%) were males and 134 (52.5%) were females, the mean age was 57.2+-11.1 years and 8.3% were smokers. The majority 204 (85.7%) had greater than normal body weight. Only 101 (40.4%) had controlled systolic BP. The most common co-morbidity was diabetes mellitus found in 98 (38.4%), followed by dislipidemia in 50 (19.6%), bronchial asthma in 28 (11.0%) and renal diseases in 12 (4.7%). Except for osteoporosis, which was reported by females only (P=0.003), the occurrences of hypertensive co-morbidities did not vary from other demographic characteristics. This study demonstrated poor blood pressure control in the mini-clinics in the PHC-centers. To improve the quality of care for hypertensive patients, we recommend an improvement in PHC physician knowledge of and attitudes toward the importance of achieving targeted blood pressure levels. (author)
Al-Tuwijri, Abdulmohsin A.; Al-Rukban, Mohammed Othman
The prevalence of hypertension in Saudi Arabia has been assessed only in preliminary reports. The aim of this study was to determine the degree of control of blood pressure and the prevalence of common hypertension co-morbidities among hypertensive patients attending primary health care (PHC) centers in Riyadh. A cross sectional study was conducted by reviewing medical records of hypertensive patients during May and June 2001. Two hundred fifty-five medical records selected by a stratified randomization process according to the distribution of the 73 PHC centers in the city and the total number of hypertensive patients registered in the mini-clinic of each PHC-center. Trained mini-clinic nurses collected data using a data collection form developed for this purpose. Of 255 patients, 121 (47.5%) were males and 134 (52.5%) were females, the mean age was 57.2+-11.1 years and 8.3% were smokers. The majority 204 (85.7%) had greater than normal body weight. Only 101 (40.4%) had controlled systolic BP. The most common co-morbidity was diabetes mellitus found in 98 (38.4%), followed by dislipidemia in 50 (19.6%), bronchial asthma in 28 (11.0%) and renal diseases in 12 (4.7%). Except for osteoporosis, which was reported by females only (P=0.003), the occurrences of hypertensive co-morbidities did not vary from other demographic characteristics. This study demonstrated poor blood pressure control in the mini-clinics in the PHC-centers. To improve the quality of care for hypertensive patients, we recommend an improvement in PHC physician knowledge of and attitudes toward the importance of achieving targeted blood pressure levels. (author)
Adolescents who suffer from depression early in life, have an increase in suicidal tendency, anxiety, conduct disorders, substance abuse, and continue to be depressed, later on in life. This study was conducted to identify the prevalence and correlates of depression among adolescent girls in Riyadh city in order to carry out early intervention. A cross-sectional, school-based survey was conducted among 1028 adolescent girls aged 15-19 years in secondary schools of Riyadh city. Riyadh was divided into clusters and within each cluster, both public and private schools were enrolled. From the selected schools students from grade 10-12 were surveyed. Survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire including the beck depression inventory-II, and questions exploring the correlates of depression. About 30% of participants were found to be depressed. Depression was more prevalent among female adolescents whose household income was Saudi Riyal/month (odds ratio [OR] 2.17, confidence interval [CI] 0.97-6.84), did not have a good relationship with peers and family members (OR 4.63, CI 2.56-8.41), lived with single parent or alone (OR 1.77, CI 0.97-3.23), been emotionally abused (OR 3.45, CI 2.56-8.41), and those who had been subjected to physical violence, at least once (OR 3.34, CI 1.89-5.91). Strategies need to be developed to identify early signs and symptoms of depression among Saudi female adolescents. Training can be given to groups of students to help their peers, and also to the teachers to identify, and help students identify early signs of depression and provide them with better-coping strategies to combat progression of depression and anxiety among such adolescents.
Jofre, M.J.; Sierralta, M.P.
During military training, the incidence of overuse injuries like stress fractures increase. The aim of the study was to investigate the utility of bone scan in a military population with clinical suspected stress fractures or periostitis. Material and methods: A three-year retrospective analysis was made on patients who were clinically diagnosed with stress fractures at the Military Hospital Nuclear Medicine Department. Thirty-seven patients were studied (mean age 23. +/- 8 y.o; 31 males), 28 cases of which (76%) had tibial stress syndrome. Other localizations were lumbar spine, femoral, fibular, tarsal or metatarsal. Bone scintigraphy was performed injecting 1036 MBq of Tc99m-MDP i.v. Whole body images and lateral projections of lower extremities were done. Results: Bone scan in tibial syndrome was positive for 23 cases (82%), 65% of them were bilateral and 13% also had femoral injuries. X-rays were done in 10 cases and were all negative. In other localizations, the bone scans were negative, but demonstrated other degenerative lesions. All stress fractures were conservatively treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatories and suspension of physical activity. Conclusions: Bone scan is a reliable confirmatory tool for tibial stress syndrome diagnosis. In addition, it helps to determine both the severity and extension of the injury as well as support the indication of rest in the military population
Jofre, M J; Sierralta, M P [Military Hospital Nuclear Medicine Department, Santiago (Chile)
During military training, the incidence of overuse injuries like stress fractures increase. The aim of the study was to investigate the utility of bone scan in a military population with clinical suspected stress fractures or periostitis. Material and methods: A three-year retrospective analysis was made on patients who were clinically diagnosed with stress fractures at the Military Hospital Nuclear Medicine Department. Thirty-seven patients were studied (mean age 23. +/- 8 y.o; 31 males), 28 cases of which (76%) had tibial stress syndrome. Other localizations were lumbar spine, femoral, fibular, tarsal or metatarsal. Bone scintigraphy was performed injecting 1036 MBq of Tc99m-MDP i.v. Whole body images and lateral projections of lower extremities were done. Results: Bone scan in tibial syndrome was positive for 23 cases (82%), 65% of them were bilateral and 13% also had femoral injuries. X-rays were done in 10 cases and were all negative. In other localizations, the bone scans were negative, but demonstrated other degenerative lesions. All stress fractures were conservatively treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatories and suspension of physical activity. Conclusions: Bone scan is a reliable confirmatory tool for tibial stress syndrome diagnosis. In addition, it helps to determine both the severity and extension of the injury as well as support the indication of rest in the military population.
Ikonen, Anne Leena; Eklund Karlsson, Leena; Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard
(from SDU to Princess Nourah University - PNU) in Bachelor level education in 2013-17. The SDU BSc in Public Health curriculum was adjusted into a BSc in Health Education and Promotion and BSc in Epidemiology Programmes to fit into the Saudi context and culture and education needs. Training the PNU......Abstract title: Training of trainers in active learning methods at the Princess Nourah Bint Abdul Rahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Students’ learning outcome of teaching activity/course presented: University of Southern Denmark (SDU) conducted a cross-cultural knowledge transfer project...
Alosaimi, Fahad D; Al-Sultan, Omar A; Alghamdi, Qusay A; Almohaimeed, Ibrahim K; Alqannas, Sulaiman I
To evaluate the gender-specific difference in the prevalence of depression and anxiety and the help-seeking behavior among gastroenterology outpatients. A cross-sectional study was carried out in gastroenterology clinics in 4 hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between February and September 2013. A self-administrated questionnaire was developed and administered to patients. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) questionnaires were used to identify depression and anxiety. A total of 438 patients completed the study questionnaire; 135 (31%) females, and 303 (69%) males. Compared with males, females had more depression symptoms (44% versus 32%, p=0.012), anxiety symptoms (34% versus 24%, p=0.036), anxiety-associated difficulty (65% versus 52%, p=0.012), but similar suicidal thoughts (14% versus 11%, p=0.347). Females had similar gastrointestinal complaints but longer duration of symptoms. In both females and males, the most common first interventions were using medications (63% versus 69%), and undergoing endoscopy (19% versus 15%), while very few patients initially used herbs or Islamic incantation `Roquia` (7% versus 8%). Compared with males, females were more likely to subsequently seek help at private clinics (23% versus 14%, p=0.014), or with a Quran therapist (11% versus 5%, p=0.012). There are clear gender-specific differences in depression and anxiety symptoms and associated perceived difficulty, but modest differences in help-seeking behavior. Female patients at the gastroenterology clinic may deserve more psychological attention to diagnose depression and anxiety and to alleviate their impact.
Hamadah, Reem; Kharraz, Razan; Alshanqity, Airabab; AlFawaz, Danah; Eshaq, Abdulaziz M; Abu-Zaid, Ahmed
Little is known about the clerkship (clinical) medical students' knowledge of hand hygiene as the single most important precautionary measure to reduce nosocomial healthcare-associated infections. The aim of this study is to explore the knowledge of, and attitudes towards, hand hygiene practices among fourth-year clerkship medical students at Alfaisal University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional, paper-based, Yes/No formatted questionnaire was administered to explore the students' knowledge of, and attitudes towards, hand hygiene practices. Data were decoded in Microsoft Excel sheet and presented as numbers and percentages. One hundred and eleven students (n=111/147) participated in the questionnaire (response rate: 76%). Although the majority of students had a fair knowledge of hand hygiene practices, a number of them had some misconceptions. Only 14% of students correctly agreed to the statement: "Traditional hand washing (water, plus regular soap) decreases the number of germs." Furthermore, only 32% of students correctly answered that "hand washing with a regular soap, instead of an antiseptic soap, is better in limiting the transmission of clostridium difficile infections". Almost all students (93%) agreed to the importance of hand hygiene education in medical curricula and its awareness in healthcare centers. Despite the importance of hand hygiene, only 13% of students reviewed the respective WHO and CDC guidelines before starting their clinical training in the teaching hospital. The students' inadequate knowledge about hand hygiene needs to be enriched by well-structured curricular and extra-curricular programs as well as more positive attitudes by healthcare workers.
Chapliuk, A L; Brovkin, S G; Kal'manov, A S; Bulavin, V V
The authors showed that at the present time military much more servicemen, suffering from obstructive pulmonary disease, may receive medical examination in outpatient conditions. Series of researches allow us to perform a medical examination on an outpatient basis. The calculation of the cost-effectiveness of health services to such patients during a military medical examination in the hospital and clinics was made. Savings during the examination in the clinic for 1 patient was 2829 rubbles.
Çelen, Özay; Teke, Abdulkadir; Cihangiroglu, Necmettin
In this study, our aim was to determine the effect of the socio-cultural characteristics of health workers on the effectiveness of teamwork. In this study, a questionnaire method was used for data collection. To this end, a scale was first developed to assess the effectiveness of teamwork. The study was conducted in 34 departments/divisions within the GMMF Training Hospital with 423 health workers. "Specialist opinion" was used to determine the content validity of the "Teamwork Effectiveness Scale" developed for this study, while "factor analysis" was used to test the scale's construct validity. Cronbach Alpha values were calculated to test the reliability of the scale. To determine the effect of socio-cultural characteristics on the effectiveness of teamwork, the "Kruskal-Wallis" test, the "Mann-Whitney U" test and "Logistic Regression Analysis" were used within the context of the study. Based on the study results, it was observed that "assignment, "age" and "status" did not have an effect on the effectiveness of teamwork (p > 0.05). On the other hand, a significant and negative relationship was observed between "the obligation to perform compulsory service" and the attitudes that considered teamwork to be effective (p = 0.029). Similarly, a difference was identified between the workers' attitudes towards the effectiveness of teamwork depending on the size of the place of assignment (p = 0,042). It was thus observed that the "effectiveness of teamwork" was affected by the presence or absence of the "obligation to perform compulsory service" and by the "size of the place of assignment.
Ibrahim H Al-Ayed
Conclusion: This study revealed the feasibility of screening for behavioral problems of children in an outpatient setting. It is necessary to implement screening procedures for psycho-behavioral problems, and train pediatricians to screen children presenting at clinics.
Hasan M Al-Dorzi
Conclusions: In our study, NFA risk factors were younger age and higher number of ED visits. NFA had significant morbidity. Reducing neuromuscular blockade duration during ventilator management may decrease neuromyopathy risk.
The People's Republic of China (PRC) is seen by many as an economic powerhouse with the world's largest standing military that has the potential to translate economic power into the military sphere...
Bernasconi, Jeffrey J
.... Two divergent theories cover the ground of military effectiveness. One looks at the interaction of social structures, whereas the other looks at the effect organization has on military effectiveness...
The theoretical results about optimum strategy of use of military uranium confirmed by systems approach accounts are received. The numerical value of the system approach price of the highly enriched military uranium also is given
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Demir, Cesim; Sahin, Bayram; Teke, Kadir; Ucar, Muharrem; Kursun, Olcay
An individual's loyalty or bond to his or her employing organization, referred to as organizational commitment, influences various organizational outcomes such as employee motivation, job satisfaction, performance, accomplishment of organizational goals, employee turnover, and absenteeism. Therefore, as in other sectors, employee commitment is crucial also in the healthcare market. This study investigates the effects of organizational factors and personal characteristics on organizational commitment of military physicians using structural equation modeling (SEM) on a self-report, cross-sectional survey that consisted of 635 physicians working in the 2 biggest military hospitals in Turkey. The results of this study indicate that professional commitment and organizational incentives contribute positively to organizational commitment, whereas conflict with organizational goals makes a significantly negative contribution to it. These results might help develop strategies to increase employee commitment, especially in healthcare organizations, because job-related factors have been found to possess greater impact on organizational commitment than personal characteristics.
Rushdi, Ahmed I; Al-Mutlaq, Khalid; Simoneit, Bernd R T
Major advances have been made in molecular marker analysis to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic organic matter inputs to the atmosphere. Resuspension of soil and sand by wind is one of the major mechanisms that produces particle dusts in the atmosphere. Soil and sand samples from the Riyadh area were collected in winter 2002, sieved to remove coarse particles and extracted with a mixture of dichloromethane and methanol (3:1, v:v). The total extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in order to characterize the contents and identify the potential sources of the organic components. The major organic compounds of these extracts were derived from natural biogenic and anthropogenic sources. Organic compounds from natural sources, mainly vegetation, were major in samples from outside the city of Riyadh and included n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, n- alkanols, methyl alkanoates, and sterols. Anthropogenic inputs were significant in the fine particles of soil and sand samples collected from populated areas of the city. They consisted mainly of n-alkanes, hopanes, UCM (from vehicular emissions), and plasticizers (from discarded plastics, e.g., shopping bags). Carbohydrates had high concentrations in all samples and indicate sources from decomposed cellulose fibers and/or the presence of viable microbiota such as bacteria and fungi.
AlWakeel, Suaad S
This study aimed to determine the bacterial species colonizing the nasal and oropharyngeal mucosa of fuel workers in Central Riyadh, Saudi Arabia on a microbiological and molecular level. Throat and nasal swab samples were obtained from 29 fuel station attendants in the period of time extending from March to May 2014 in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Microbiological identification techniques were utilized to identify the bacterial species isolated. Antibiotic sensitivity was assessed for each of the bacterial isolates. Molecular identification techniques based on PCR analysis of specific genomic sequences was conducted and was the basis on which phylogeny representation was done for 10 randomly selected samples of the isolates. Blood was drawn and a complete blood count was conducted to note the hematological indices for each of the study participants. Nineteen bacterial species were isolated from both the nasal cavity and the oropharynx including Streptococcus thoraltensis , alpha-hemolytic streptococci, Staphylococcus hominis , coagulase-negative staphylococci, Leuconostoc mesenteroides , Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and several others. We found 100% sensitivity of the isolates to ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime and gentamicin. Whereas cefotaxime and azithromycin posted sensitivities of 85.7% and 91.4%, respectively. Low sensitivities (fuel products may be a contributing factor to bacterial colonization of the respiratory tract in fuel workers.
Saeed, S.A.R. [King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Architecture and Building Science
This study is an attempt to define thermal comfort requirements for Friday prayer during the hot season of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. According to Islam, a Muslim should perform his prayers five times a day. The obligatory five prayers are Subuh prayer immediately before dawn, Thohor prayer in the afternoon, Assor prayer in late afternoon, Maghreb prayer immediately after sunset, and Ishaa prayer early evening. Generally, Muslims are encouraged to perform all five prayers in a mosque. Friday prayer that replaces Thohor prayer once a week, should take place in one of the main mosques of the neighbourhood. The mosque where Friday prayer could be performed is known as Friday mosque. Usually Friday prayer is attended by hundreds of worshippers and takes place in the afternoon. Since the summer of Riyadh is characterised by a very high temperature and a very low relative humidity, the indoor climate of the Friday mosque (Al-Masjed Al-Gamae) need a special study. This is the second part of a series of field investigations dealing with thermal comfort requirements in the hot-dry region of Saudi Arabia. (author)
Al-Gahtany, Abdulrahman Mohammed
The purpose of this study was to describe the present status of geography education in boys' intermediate schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia as perceived by geography teachers and supervisors; that is, to investigate the objectives, content, methods of teaching, tools and resources that are available and used in classrooms, evaluation techniques, and problems encountered in the teaching of geography. To collect data from this representative sample population, a questionnaire was developed by the researcher specifically for this study. Questionnaire data was collected from 19 social studies supervisors and 213 geography teachers. Percentages, frequencies, means, and standard deviations were computed for each questionnaire item. Chi Square tests were applied to determine if any significant differences could be identified between the observed and expected responses of supervisors and teachers. Major findings of the study indicated that both supervisors and teachers tend to strongly support the identified geography objectives. Most teachers and supervisors also indicated that the current geography curriculum contains enough information about Saudi Arabia, the Arabic world, and the Islamic world. In addition, the also indicated that geography content promotes a sense of patriotism and cultural pride. Responses indicated that educators see deficiencies in the content: it does not focus sufficiently on current events nor on developing student skills such as research and technical skills like drawing maps. Lecture and discussion are the most commonly used strategies in the teaching of geography. Field trips, role-playing, scientific competitions, scientific games, solving problems, and individual learning are less commonly used. Teaching tools most commonly used are wall maps and earth globes, whereas the use of geographical transparencies, models, and instruments is not common. Most of the teachers do lot use computers in their teaching. Evaluation techniques depend
Alquaiz, ALJohara M; Almuneef, Maha; Kazi, Ambreen; Almeneessier, Aljohara
Intimate partner violence is a worldwide public health problem. The objectives of this study were to measure the prevalence and types of domestic violence, and to explore the association between social determinants (sociodemographic factors, husband-related factors, and social support) and violence against women by their intimate partner (husband). We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 18 randomly selected primary health care centers and 13 private institutions (teaching institutes, government offices, social welfare organizations) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Female data collectors took interview from 1,883 married Saudi females aged 30 to 75 years. Interviews included sociodemographic information, reproductive health variables, and social support questionnaire. Violence was measured using modified Intimate Partner Violence Against Women questionnaire developed by the World Health Organization. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted. The lifetime prevalence for any type of violence was 43.0% ( n = 810). The most frequent type was controlling behavior (36.8%), followed by emotional violence (22%), sexual violence (12.7%), and physical violence (9.0%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the following were associated with greater odds of reporting domestic violence: younger age 30 to 40 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.3, 3.0]), 41 to 50 years (aOR = 1.6, 95% CI = [1.1, 2.5]); lack of emotional support (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI = [1.2, 2.5]); lack of tangible support (aOR = 1.4, 95% CI = [1.1, 1.9]); and perceived poor self-health (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI = [1.0, 3.0]), husbands' poor health (aOR = 1.9, 95% CI = [1.2, 2.0]), and polygamy (aOR = 1.6, 95% CI = [1.5, 2.6]). Domestic violence occurs frequently in Saudi Arabia. Both social conditions and social relations are significantly associated with domestic violence against Saudi women. Furthermore, improvement in implementation of the local policies
Bander Mohammed Al-Abdulwahhab
Full Text Available Background : The rubber dam is one of the best tools for tooth isolation and infection control in the dental field. Our aim is to evaluate the attitudes toward the use of rubber dams by dental interns in Riyadh Dental Colleges (RCsDP and determine the barriers to their use. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was designed and used for data collection. 150 questionnaires were distributed by hand to the dental interns of RCsDP over a period of two weeks. Information sought included the attitudes toward and difficulties for the use of the rubber dam, the time needed to apply the rubber dam, and the patients′ allergic history of the rubber dam. Respondents were asked to state their preference on a five point Likert type scale ranging from "strongly dislike" to "strongly like". The information and data of the completed questionnaires were statistically analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test and Friedman test. Results: Of 150 questionnaires distributed, 150 were completed and returned (response rate = 100%. Of those, 46.7% were males and 53.3% were females. In general; (43.3%, interns strongly liked the use of the rubber dam and the rest (46.7% liked the use of the rubber dam. The majority of respondents liked to use rubber dam in direct restorations more than in indirect restorations and 46.7% strongly liked to use it in posterior teeth for composite restoration. Most dental interns felt that they would strongly like to use a rubber dam for endodontic treatment whether in posterior teeth (73.3% or anterior teeth (68.7%. 66.7% of interns asked their patients if they had an allergy to latex prior to the use of the rubber dam. Child behavior (mean rank about seven is the most important reason for not using rubber dam. The time is taken to apply the rubber dam was less than five minutes in most cases. Conclusion: Most dental interns prefer to use rubber dams in the general dental field and are enthusiastic to use it in future.
this revival of pacifist influence a threat to West- ern military efforts to .... man sacrifice his life even in a cause in which he did not believe. ... by hospital work, civil defence and coal mining.16. The American .... question of balance; no society can contemplate ..... defence, international security, East-West arms control, and ...
Full Text Available What are young Australians’ understandings of, and attitudes to, the military and military service? This article describes a pilot study of 320 young Australian university students’ attitudes to the military and military service during a time when Australia was engaged in the Afghanistan war. The main purpose of this study was to develop a survey instrument for further work in researching civil–military relations in Australia. Civil–military relations describe the complex set of relationships between the civil and military spheres. The role of the military, the relationship between the state and the military, the division of labor between civilian and military entities, foreign policy, and knowledge of military service are some of the fields that constitute a study of civil–military relations. This article reports on beliefs about, and attitudes to the specificities of military service and responses to the broader field of civil–military relations.
Turki Homod Albatti
Conclusion: Self-medication is highly prevalent in Riyadh, particularly among adolescents. Easy access to pharmacies was found to be the leading cause for self-medication. The use of these drugs was associated with inappropriate drug use and the deterioration of health status. Self-medication should be closely monitored and awareness should be increased with educational programs among students.
Atiyat, Omar Khalil
This study aimed at measuring the level of the psychological burnout in the teachers of students that have autism symptoms in Al-Riyadh area--kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In light of variables. These variables are the gender, the teaching place, the academic qualification of the teachers, the experience of the teachers, the age of the teachers, and…
Alharbi, Wafa Owaydhah; Alturki, Khaled Ibrahim
The study aimed to identify the degree of social media contribution to reinforcing digital citizenship meaning from the viewpoint of female students at Imam Mohammed bin Saud Islamic University in Riyadh. The study was an attempt to answer the following two questions in order to achieve the objectives of the study: To which extent does SnapChat…
Alghabiwi, Reem; Palianopoulou, Maria; Eklund Karlsson, Leena
-efficacy in self-managing chronic disease in 253 female patients aged 18-55 years from six primary care clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The data were collected using two standard questionnaires (PDRQ-9 and SEMCD) and analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test (SPSS Software). Our findings showed...
Abdullah M.N. AlBedah
Full Text Available Objectives: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM iswell established world wide. The present work is aimed at studying the knowledge, attitude and practice of CAM by the people of Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia.Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive household survey studyof the people living in Riyadh city, as well as the surrounding governorates. A multistage random sample was taken from1st January to the end of March 2010, with a total number of 518 participants. Data were collected using a pre-designed questionnaire through direct interview. The data was collected based on socio-demography, as well as knowledge, attitude and practice of CAM.Results: Participants were nearly sex-matched, consisting of approximately 70�0Saudi and 30�0non-Saudis. About 89�0ofthe participants had some knowledge of CAM. Mass media e.g.(T.V., newspapers and radio and family, relatives and friends represented the main sources of CAM knowledge, (46.5�0and46.3�0respectively. Nearly 85�0of participants or one of their family members has used some form of CAM before, and the most common users of CAM practices were females, housewives, and illiterate subjects (or those who could just read and write, as well as participants aged 60 years and above. Medical herbs (58.89� prayer (54� honey and bee products (54� hijama (35.71�nd cauterization or medical massage therapy (22�20were thecommonly used CAM practices. Most participants agreed that there are needs for; CAM practices (93.8� regulations for CAM(94.9� health education (96.6� specialized centers (94.8�20and CAM clinics (92.7� While only 8.3�0of participants usually discussed CAM with their physicians.Conclusion: There is a high prevalence and increased public interest in CAM use in the Riyadh region. There is a positiv eattitude towards CAM, yet most participants are reluctant to share and discuss CAM information with their physicians.
Vinodkumar Balakrishna Pillai Padmakshiamma
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Low back pain is the second most common symptom related reason for clinician visits in the United States. Up to 84 percent of adults have low back pain at some time in their lives. Low back pain poses an economic burden to society mainly in terms of the large number of work days lost by a small percentage of patients who develop chronic back pain. Lifestyle diseases are defined as those problems that evolve due to changes in lifestyle. The contributing factors are bad food habits, physical inactivity, wrong body postures, habits and personality including sleep and disturbed biological clock. Spinal disorders contribute to loss more than 20 million of productive life years. Wrong sitting and standing posture while working gives stress to backbone and leads to chronic backache. Regularly spending a lot of time in front of computer may also lead to muscular pain of neck and back. People who lift heavy weight are predisposed to disc diseases and sciatica. In this background this study was conducted to 1. Determine the obesity as a risk factor for back ache 2. Find out other factors that contribute to backache. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study Design- Case-Control Study. Study Period- April 1, 2014, to March 31, 2015. Study Site- KMCR, Al-Malaz, Riyadh, KSA. All persons coming to Orthopaedics OP during the study period with back pain both males and females for the first time constituted the cases and a person coming to orthopaedics OP without backache Exclusion criteria- Acute trauma with RTA and fall. Data was collected by self-administered structured questionnaire and personal examination and investigation evaluation. Software support- Excel, SPSS RESULTS 1 BMI with OR (odds ratio 4.85(p=0.000, 95%; CI 2.30-10.19; 2 Stress-OR=2.82(p=0.002, 95%; CI 1.45-5.50; 3 Personality-OR=2.94 (p=0.003, 95%; CI 1.45-5.96. The other factors tested having OR more than one were-1 Age, OR=1.15; 2 Exercises, OR=1.24; 3 Existences of comorbid conditions, OR=1
elevated plasma glucose levels. One theory states that insulin resistance is the main cause of MS, thus the high correlation of MS to type 2 diabetes...Diabetes Shaw et al. studied the interest and satisfaction of pregnant women who had access to online health information and records in Hamilton...information. Pregnant women are believed to have more motivation to engage in positive health behaviors and providers spend a lot of time answering
activities are selected highlights completed by Northrop Grumman during the year. Cycle 4 development: - Increased the max_allowed_packet size in MySQL ...deployment with the Java install that is required by CONNECT v188.8.131.52. - Updated the MIDHT code base to work with the CONNECT v.184.108.40.206 Core Libraries...Provided TATRC the CONNECTUniversalClientGUI binaries for use with CONNECT v220.127.116.11 − Created and deployed a common Java library for the CONNECT
may annotate a more specific reason by clicking the icon , just as you would for your usual HED charting 9. Click “Save” 10. Review med...SQA5 – A5 (SQ insulin) SQC2 – C2 (SQ insulin) SQRA – right arm (SQ) SQA6 – A6 (SQ insulin) SQC3 – C3 (SQ insulin) Appendix 2 – Injection Site
Al-Ayedh, Hassan Ibn Yahiya
Trapping efficiency of seven different colored sticky traps (Green, Fluorescent yellow, Orange, Pink, red, White and Yellow) was evaluated in some solanacea plants, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum), eggplant (Solanum Magellan) and sweet pepper (Capsicum spp.) crops, for whitefly (Bemis ia airlifting), leaf miners (Liriomyza trifolii), thrips (Thrips tabaci) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The traps were placed at four different heights (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 m above the ground). The experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomized Block Design (CRBD) with four replications during autumn 2001, spring and autumn 2002. Significantly high insect populations were trapped on Fluorescent yellow, yellow and green colored sticky traps. No significant differences were witnessed between mean numbers of various insects caught on sticky traps placed at different heights but more insects were trapped at 0.5 - 1.5m. (author)
Abdulaziz I. Alharrah
Full Text Available E-learning that integrates digital knowledge content, network and information technology has become an emerging learning method. As the e-learning platform approach is becoming an important tool to allow the flexibility and quality requested by such a kind of learning process. There is a new kind of problem faced by organizations consisting in the selection of the most suitable e-learning platform. This paper proposes evaluation model for E-Learning platform in Riyadh City universities (RCU with Applied Geographic Information System (GIS. The E-Learning platform solution selection is a multiple criteria decision-making problem that needs to be addressed objectively taking into consideration the relative weights of the criteria for any organization. We formulate the quoted multi criteria problem as a decision hierarchy to be solved using GIS. AGIS-based evaluation index system and web-based evaluating platform were established. In this paper we will show the general evaluation strategy and some obtained results using our model to evaluate some existing commercial platforms.The results of evaluation model are outlined as follows: Total weights of the proposed framework in management feature is 20.25/25, in collaborative feature is 9.2/10, in adaption learning path is 6.8/10 and in interactive learning object is 5/5. The total weights of all features are 41.25/50. In this study an evaluation model was applied on Riyadh City universities like KSU, IMAMU, NAUSS, YU and FU. Then, the results were compared with each other. The total weighs of KSU was 41. While the total weights of FU, IMAMU, YU and NAUSS was 40, 37, 36 and 32, respectively. Evaluation process shows that the proposed framework satisfied the objectives with applied GIS.
Suaad S. AlWakeel
Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the bacterial species colonizing the nasal and oropharyngeal mucosa of fuel workers in Central Riyadh, Saudi Arabia on a microbiological and molecular level. Throat and nasal swab samples were obtained from 29 fuel station attendants in the period of time extending from March to May 2014 in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Microbiological identification techniques were utilized to identify the bacterial species isolated. Antibiotic sensitivity was assessed for each of the bacterial isolates. Molecular identification techniques based on PCR analysis of specific genomic sequences was conducted and was the basis on which phylogeny representation was done for 10 randomly selected samples of the isolates. Blood was drawn and a complete blood count was conducted to note the hematological indices for each of the study participants. Nineteen bacterial species were isolated from both the nasal cavity and the oropharynx including Streptococcus thoraltensis, alpha-hemolytic streptococci, Staphylococcus hominis, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and several others. We found 100% sensitivity of the isolates to ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime and gentamicin. Whereas cefotaxime and azithromycin posted sensitivities of 85.7% and 91.4%, respectively. Low sensitivities (<60% sensitivity to the antibiotics ampicillin, erythromycin, clarithromycin and norfloxacin were observed. Ninety-seven percent similarity to the microbial bank species was noted when the isolates were compared to it. Most hematological indices recorded were within the normal range. In conclusion, exposure to toxic fumes and compounds within fuel products may be a contributing factor to bacterial colonization of the respiratory tract in fuel workers.
Al-Mohrej, Omar A; Al-Ayedh, Noura K; Masuadi, Emad M; Al-Kenani, Nader S
Anatomy instructors adopt individual teaching methods and strategies to convey anatomical information to medical students for learning. Students also exhibit their own individual learning preferences. Instructional methods preferences vary between both instructors and students across different institutions. In attempt to bridge the gap between teaching methods and the students' learning preferences, this study aimed to identify students' learning methods and different strategies of studying anatomy in two different Saudi medical schools in Riyadh. A cross-sectional study, conducted in Saudi Arabia in April 2015, utilized a three-section questionnaire, which was distributed to a consecutive sample of 883 medical students to explore their methods and strategies in learning and teaching anatomy in two separate institutions in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Medical students' learning styles and preferences were found to be predominantly affected by different cultural backgrounds, gender, and level of study. Many students found it easier to understand and remember anatomy components using study aids. In addition, almost half of the students felt confident to ask their teachers questions after class. The study also showed that more than half of the students found it easier to study by concentrating on a particular part of the body rather than systems. Students' methods of learning were distributed equally between memorizing facts and learning by hands-on dissection. In addition, the study showed that two thirds of the students felt satisfied with their learning method and believed it was well suited for anatomy. There is no single teaching method which proves beneficial; instructors should be flexible in their teaching in order to optimize students' academic achievements.
Alghamdi, Abdullah S; Yahya, Mohammed A; Alshammari, Ghedeir M; Osman, Magdi A
Despite the prevalence of overweight and obesity and increases in associated diseases such as diabetes and heart disease in the Saudi population, no studies have addressed the spread of obesity among Saudi police officers. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity and associations with biochemical parameters among the police in Riyadh. The study involved a cross-sectional survey of 160 police officers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, lipid profiles and fasting blood sugar levels were measured for all individuals. According to the results, the average body mass index (BMI) was 27.5 ± 5.1, indicating an increase in overweight in this population and 66.9% were overweight or obese. Moreover, the mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure values were 119.5 and 79.4 mmHg, respectively, within normal limits. The mean total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) levels were 187.5, 43.9, 119.5 and 124.5 mg/100 ml, respectively. These BMI and biochemical findings suggest a high proportion of overweight and obese individuals in the sample population, as well as an increase in the proportion of individuals with high levels of biochemical indicators who are therefore susceptible to heart disease and diabetes. The study recommends using preventive programs to combat obesity and overweight and related diseases and conducting further studies using measures other than BMI.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of the tuberculosis (TB mobile teams on treatment outcomes in Riyadh Region by comparing patients who received treatment under mobile teams and those who did not, from 2013 to 2015. This was a retrospective descriptive study using National TB Control and Prevention Program data from 2013 to 2015 from Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Descriptive analyses were used to summarize characteristics of TB case-patients served by mobile teams and those who were not served. The χ2 test measured the significant differences between mobile-served and non-mobile-served case-patients. Exposure was whether or not the TB case-patient was under the care of the mobile team; the outcome of interest was whether or not treatment was successful, defined as treatment completed and cured. We found that the ratio of treatment success among mobile team case-patients was 1.28 greater than among those not served by mobile teams. The χ2 test showed a statistically significant finding (probability ratio = 1.28; 95% confidence interval = 1.21–1.35, p < 0.01. Mobile teams increased the treatment success rate to 92%, compared to 71.77% among those not served by mobile teams. This study shows that community mobilization of mobile teams is an effective strategy to enhance TB treatment, reduced mortality and loss to follow-up and improve TB treatment outcomes. Keywords: Directly observed therapy, Mobile teams, Saudi Arabia, Tuberculosis
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Larsen, Josefine Kühnel; Struwe, Lars Bangert
Military capacity building has increasingly become an integral part of Danish defence. Military capacity is a new way of thinking Danish defence and poses a new set of challenges and opportunities for the Danish military and the Political leadership. On the 12th of december, PhD. Candidate Josefine...... Kühnel Larsen and researcher Lars Bangert Struwe of CMS had organized a seminar in collaboration with Royal Danish Defense Colleg and the East African Security Governance Network. The seminar focused on some of the risks involved in Military capacity building and how these risks are dealt with from...
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Rasmussen, Mikkel Vedby
If the military were a business, would you buy shares? Over recent years, Western armed forces, particularly the US, have been costing more yet achieving less. At the same time, austerity measures are reducing defence budgets. This book uses defence data to examine the workings of modern Western...... militaries and explore what kind of strategies can overcome this gap between input and output. Instead of focusing on military strategy, Mikkel Vedby Rasmussen seeks to draw on the ideas of business strategy to assess alternative business cases - reforming military HR to combat instability in the 'Global...
Rasmussen, Mikkel Vedby
If the military were a business, would you buy shares? Over recent years, Western armed forces, particularly the US, have been costing more yet achieving less. At the same time, austerity measures are reducing defence budgets. This book uses defence data to examine the workings of modern Western...... militaries and explore what kind of strategies can overcome this gap between input and output. Instead of focusing on military strategy, Mikkel Vedby Rasmussen seeks to draw on the ideas of business strategy to assess alternative business cases - reforming military HR to combat instability in the 'Global...... to fit within a nation's overall national security system without ever-increasing budgets....
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Alexey I. Podberyozkin
Full Text Available Military-political issues is an important area of research work at MGIMO. The difference in this direction from the classical international specialization is that it is at the intersection of several disciplines: military science, military-technical and military-industrial as well as International Relations. A specialist in military and political issues should not only be an expert in the field of international relations and diplomacy, but also have a deep knowledge of military-technical issues to understand the basic trends in the development of scientific and technological progress and its impact on the balance of forces in the world. Global changes in the balance of power and the nature of the conflict, the emergence of new types of weapons are changing the basic methods and approaches to the art of war, which requires a science-based perspective on problem solving and multi-disciplinary approach in achieving the goals. Military and political studies allow us to understand how the development of military technology and military organization of the state affected by the political situation in the world, the national security of the country and its place in the system of international relations. Military-political research has been developing at MGIMO for a few decades. It laid down the basis for a scientific school of political-military studies. Its founding fathers were such prominent scholars of international affairs, as I.G. Usachyov, A.D. Nikonov, A.G. Arbatov, V.G. Baranovsky, V.M. Kulagin, A.N. Nikitin and other well-known experts. Their work covers a wide range of military and political issues, including the topics of arms control and disarmament, international, and especially European security, military policy, NATO, the Western military-political doctrines and their practical application. Now the lead in the development of this research at MGIMO has taken Center for Military-Political Studies, which became a concentration of relevant
Merridew, C G
"Those wonderful huts…" (Florence Nightingale). This is the story of the British Civil Hospital, erected in 1855 at Renkioi on the south Dardanelles coast of Turkey. The spectacular hospital was a portable one designed by British engineer IK Brunel. It was his only health-related project, and it was known as a Civil Hospital because its staff were all civilians, despite its patients being military.
statute within the military system, persons unfamiliar with the military justice system may find the procedure something of a paradox at first blush...Manual for Courts-Martial) Is RM Nemitafinuestlitimelf.(er- V. GRAD*: c. ORGANIZATION dDT FRPR ast eiRO t: fII) EPR LCDR/ Naval Justice School
... family that loses the active presence of a parent through separation faces significant challenges and stress. During the parent's ... children can and do adjust successfully to the separation and stress involved when a parent in the military is deployed. Visit AACAP's Military ...
Nodar Z. Mossaki
Full Text Available The article analyzes the system of training of officers in military academies in Iraq – in Zakho, Qalacholan, ar-Rustamiyah and an-Nasiriyah. The author describes the history of creation, process of evolution, challenges and features of training in these colleges. Particular attention paid to military academies in the territory of Iraqi Kurdistan, which actually do not obey the central government of Iraq, however, have the highest level of training. Currently, Iraq's military academies operate on the basis of the NATO standards. Iraqi military academies paid miuch attention to the specifics of the military and political situation in Iraq – counterinsurgency and counterterrorism operations, patrolling cities, fighting in an urban environment etc. Significant place in the curriculum take the courses contributing to the formation of pro-Western sentiment.
Avian influenza (Bird flu) is a highly contagious viral disease affecting mainly chickens, turkeys, ducks, other birds and mammals. Reservoirs for HPAI /H5N1 virus are shore birds and waterfowl (asymptomatic, excrete virus in feces for a long periods of time), live bird markets and commercial swine facilities. Virus tends to cycle between pigs and birds. HPAI (H5N1) virus is on every 'top ten' list available for potential agricultural bio-weapon agents. The threat of a HPAI/H5N1 pandemic is a definitively global phenomenon and the response must be global. A number of National plans led to various measures of preventing and dealing with epidemics/pandemics. Lessons learned form the pandemic history indicated essential role of military and military medical support to civil authorities in a crisis situation. Based on International Military Medical Avian Influenza Pandemic workshop (Vienna 2006), an expected scenario would involve 30-50% outpatients, 20-30% hospital admission, 2-3% deaths, 10-20% complicated cases. Activities of civil hospital may be reduced by 50%. Benefits of military support could be in: Transportation of patients (primarily by air); Mass vaccination and provision of all other preventive measures (masks, Tamiflu); Restriction of movements; Infection control of health care facilities; Field hospitals for triage and quarantine, military barracks to treat milder cases and military hospitals for severe cases; Deal with corpses; Stockpiling (vaccines, antiviral, antibiotics, protective equipment, supplies); Training; Laboratories; Ensure public safety, etc. With the aim of minimizing the risk of a pandemic spread by means of rapid and uncomplicated cooperation, an early warning system has to be established to improve surveillance, improve international contacts (WHO, ECDC, CDC), establish Platform for sharing information, close contacts of national and international military and civilian surveillance networks and databases, cooperation between military
Deutsch, Anne-Marie; Lande, R Gregory
Military suicide rates have been rising over the past decade and continue to challenge military treatment facilities. Assessing suicide risk and improving treatments are a large part of the mission for clinicians who work with uniformed service members. This study attempts to expand the toolkit of military suicide prevention by focusing on protective factors over risk factors. In 1983, Marsha Linehan published a checklist called the Reasons for Living Scale, which asked subjects to check the reasons they choose to continue living, rather than choosing suicide. The authors of this article hypothesized that military service members may have different or additional reasons to live which may relate to their military service. They created a new version of Linehan's inventory by adding protective factors related to military life. The purpose of these additions was to make the inventory more acceptable and relevant to the military population, as well as to identify whether these items constitute a separate subscale as distinguished from previously identified factors. A commonly used assessment tool, the Reasons for Living Inventory (RFL) designed by Marsha Linehan, was expanded to offer items geared to the military population. The RFL presents users with a list of items which may be reasons to not commit suicide (e.g., "I have a responsibility and commitment to my family"). The authors used focus groups of staff and patients in a military psychiatric partial hospitalization program to identify military-centric reasons to live. This process yielded 20 distinct items which were added to Linehan's original list of 48. This expanded list became the Reasons for Living-Military Version. A sample of 200 patients in the military partial hospitalization program completed the inventory at time of or close to admission. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board at Walter Reed National Military Center for adhering to ethical principles related to pursuing research
missions to such regions as Indonesia , Africa, and the South Pacific (Pueschel 2013). The end of the Cold War combined with, heightened global...Navy deployed the carrier Abraham Lincoln and the hospital ship Mercy to Indonesia . . . .Two things became clear very quickly. First, the military can...The samaritan’s dilemma. New York: Oxford University Press. Goodhand, Jonathan, and Mark Sedra. 2007. Bribes or bargains? Peace conditionalities
Ben Wadham; Grace Skrzypiec; Phillip Slee
What are young Australians’ understandings of, and attitudes to, the military and military service? This article describes a pilot study of 320 young Australian university students’ attitudes to the military and military service during a time when Australia was engaged in the Afghanistan war. The main purpose of this study was to develop a survey instrument for further work in researching civil–military relations in Au...
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In performing jobs related to national security and defense, personnel must comply with rules and decisions communicated in the form of written legislation, which includes directives, memos, instructions, manuals, standard operating procedures, and reports. Incorrect understanding of legislative provisions may lead to disastrous consequences, making clear communication through these documents paramount. The vast majority of military of...
Full Text Available The actual study is aimed at defining the place and the role of the concepts of authority, management and leadership and their connexions within the recognized military strategic systems. In addition to the above mentioned main objective, the following related aims will be achieved in the present work: - to analyze the command, management and leadership nexus; - to make suggestions for configuring an effective professional framework to address the armed forces leadership challenges and the visionary leader concept. Eventually, the present study will emphasize the need for the military leaders to lead not only the members of the organization but the military organizations themselves.
Alrukban, Mohammed O; Albadr, Badr O; Almansour, Mohammed; Sami, Waqas; Alshuil, Mussab; Aldebaib, Abulrahman; Algannam, Tamim; Alhafaf, Faisal; Almohanna, Abdulaziz; Alfifi, Tariq; Alshehri, Abdullah; Alshahrani, Muhannad
Breaking bad news is one of the most stressful and difficult things a physician has to do. Good communication skills are required in order to ensure that bad news is delivered in a humane but effective way. This study was designed to explore the preferences and attitude of the Saudi population toward receiving bad news. Second, it was to identify the associations between preferences, attitudes, and sociodemographic characteristics. This was a cross-sectional study conducted during the month of April 2009 in Riyadh. Data were collected from 1013 adult Saudis. Stratified random sampling technique was used through a self-administered questionnaire. In this study, 474 (46.8%) were males and 539 (53.2%) were females. Almost two-third of the participants preferred to be the first to receive the bad news. A majority of the participants 695 (68.6%) preferred to be told the bad news at a private place, whereas, 441 (43.5%) preferred to be told by the head of the medical team. Moreover, almost half of the participants would like the one who breaks the bad news to remain with them to give them some more information about the disease. Significant associations were observed between participants' perception and attitude with age, marital status, gender, and education (P bad news is received. Understanding what is important in the process of breaking bad news may help in determining how best to perform this challenging task.
Almajwal, Ali M
Nurses are the largest group of direct health providers and can serve as role models for their patients. In this cross sectional study we assessed the relationship among physical activity and barriers, shift duty, elevated BMI, and selected eating habits among 362 non-Saudi female nurses in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Results showed that 46.7% were either overweight or obese. Marital status, shift duty, education level, and BMI were significant predictors of physical activity. Weather was the most frequently reported barrier to physical activity (88.3%), followed by a lack of transportation (82.6%), and a lack of time (81.3%). Nurses who worked shift duty had significantly (p = 0.004) higher BMIs compared with day shift nurses. Nurses who rarely ate breakfast (p = 0.004) and meals (p = 0.001) and often eat fast food (p = 0.001) were more likely to be overweight or obese. Nurses should be encouraged for a better healthy lifestyles.
Ahmed Abd El Aal
Full Text Available This study evaluates the capability of surface electrical resistivity technique for identifying the weak zones or subsurface cavities in karst area with limestone rocks. Weak zones or cavities near surface can be potentially dangerous and several problems are associated with collapse of roads or buildings accompanied by subsidence phenomena. Karst environments are characterized by distinctive landforms, which are related to dissolution and dominant subsurface drainage. The interaction of limestone with water is able to create karst features such as cavity, pinnacle, boulder and sinkhole through the dissolution process. The existence of subsurface karst features are always a matter of concern to engineers before any development starts because these features could cause disaster in the future. The study was conducted at Tuwaiq Mountain Limestone, Riyadh region, KSA with the objective to detect and treat karst features at limestone rocks. The karst features such as fill cavity, boulder, pinnacle, discontinuity and overhang were detected in the survey lines. The 2-D ER results showed a good correlation with all the borehole records in determining the subsurface of limestone formation. The 2-D ER method is capable in mapping karst features and bedrock depth. The ability of the electrical technique to produce high resolution images of the subsurface, which are useful for subsidence assessment is illustrated.
Alotaibi, Faihan D.; Ali, Adel A.
In mobile radio systems, path loss models are necessary for proper planning, interference estimations, frequently assignments and cell parameters which are basic for network planning process as well as Location Based Services (LBS) techniques that are not based on GPS system. Empirical models are the most adjustable models that can be suited to different types of environments. In this paper, the Lee path loss model has been tuned using Least Square (LS) algorithm to fit measured data for TETRA system operating 400 MHz in Riyadh urban and suburbs. Consequently, Lee model's parameter (L0, y) are obtained for the targeted areas. The performance of the tuned Lee model is then compared to the three most widely used empirical path loss models: Hat, ITU-R and Cost 231 Walfisch-Ikegami non line-of-sight (CWI-NLOS) path loss models. The performance criterion selected for the comparison of various empirical path loss models are the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and goodness of fit (R2). The RMSE and R2between the actual and predicted data are calculated for various path loss models. It turned that the tuned Lee model outperforms the other empirical models. (author)
Alrukban, Mohammed O.; Albadr, Badr O.; Almansour, Mohammed; Sami, Waqas; Alshuil, Mussab; Aldebaib, Abulrahman; Algannam, Tamim; Alhafaf, Faisal; Almohanna, Abdulaziz; Alfifi, Tariq; Alshehri, Abdullah; Alshahrani, Muhannad
Background: Breaking bad news is one of the most stressful and difficult things a physician has to do. Good communication skills are required in order to ensure that bad news is delivered in a humane but effective way. Objectives: This study was designed to explore the preferences and attitude of the Saudi population toward receiving bad news. Second, it was to identify the associations between preferences, attitudes, and sociodemographic characteristics. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted during the month of April 2009 in Riyadh. Data were collected from 1013 adult Saudis. Stratified random sampling technique was used through a self-administered questionnaire. Results: In this study, 474 (46.8%) were males and 539 (53.2%) were females. Almost two-third of the participants preferred to be the first to receive the bad news. A majority of the participants 695 (68.6%) preferred to be told the bad news at a private place, whereas, 441 (43.5%) preferred to be told by the head of the medical team. Moreover, almost half of the participants would like the one who breaks the bad news to remain with them to give them some more information about the disease. Significant associations were observed between participants' perception and attitude with age, marital status, gender, and education (P bad news is received. Understanding what is important in the process of breaking bad news may help in determining how best to perform this challenging task. PMID:24987276
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Full Text Available To what extent do frequently cited determinants of military spending allow us to predict and forecast future levels of expenditure? The authors draw on the data and specifications of a recent model on military expenditure and assess the predictive power of its variables using in-sample predictions, out-of-sample forecasts and Bayesian model averaging. To this end, this paper provides guidelines for prediction exercises in general using these three techniques. More substantially, however, the findings emphasize that previous levels of military spending as well as a country’s institutional and economic characteristics particularly improve our ability to predict future levels of investment in the military. Variables pertaining to the international security environment also matter, but seem less important. In addition, the results highlight that the updated model, which drops weak predictors, is not only more parsimonious, but also slightly more accurate than the original specification.
Martin, Charmaine L
...: focus, integration, timeliness, security, objective, and centralized control. However, I propose that operational advantage, consisting of surprise, information advantage and security, are essential elements of a successful military deception...
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Renzi, Jr, Alfred E
.... This thesis will describe a structure to assist with both those needs. The premise is that an expanded and improved network of US Military Groups is the weapon of choice for the war on terror, and beyond...
environment such as that in Abu Grahib prison , where military personnel tasked with similar duties to that of contractors have been held legally accountable... Grahib Prison . The Washington Post. Office of Management and Budget Circular A-76. (August 4, 1988. Revised 1999). Performance of Commercial...downsizes the military after the Global War on Terror as it did after the Cold War. Private contractors depend largely upon former service members to
would require of us. (In fact, it could ultimately end up requiring us to do harm.) This is a case of cultural relativism in its least plausible...recent accounts of the PME that seek its source in various artifacts of our military culture and society. Moral obligation is a product of...that seek its source in various artifacts of our military culture and society. Moral obligation is a product of individual abilities and relationships
following questions: In what fields are military personnel most likely to patent, and how do demographics, such as age, race, and gender , along with...technologies, which have transformed how the United States wages war. DARPA continues to develop new technologies and capabilities for the U.S. military today...build the European navies so it instead decided to utilize an innovative ship design to exploit a gap specific to the British Royal Navy. The six
electronic inpa- tient and outpatient medical records from the following sources: Standard Inpatient Data Record, which contains one record for each...Deployment dates to military opera- tions between September 2001 and March 2008 were determined using military electronic data from the Defense... plasms requiring hospitalization in the first year of life among this cohort. Although multivariable statistical modeling was not performed for
Le Vot, J.
Published at the occasion of the centenary of the First World War, this article proposes an historical overview of the emergence and development of military medical radiology during this conflict. The author first describes the situation of radiology in the different armies and countries on the eve of the war as this application of radiology is relatively recent (it is based on Roentgen's discovery in 1895). He indicates the first steps of emergence of radiology department in military hospitals, the interest of military physicians in radiology and the availability of mobile equipment which had been actually presented at the parade on the 14 July 1914. The author then highlights some important personalities who have been important actors of the development, application and use of radiology and of military radiology during the war. He proposes an overview of radiological equipment in 1914, of the variety of vehicles adapted to transport and use such equipment. He also comments how radiology professionals were trained
This article examines what petroleum products and services the US military buys, the contracts awarded to Asian and European refiners for supplies outside the USA, and military specifications and test methods including the specifications of JP-8 battlefield fuel and the JP-8+100 additive package for military aircraft. The way in which the military buys petroleum products is described, and details are given of the types of military contracts, the bidding on Defense Energy Support Center (DESC) petroleum contracts, the performance of military petroleum contracts, socio-economic programmes, the Prompt Payment Act requiring contractors to be paid promptly, and procedures for claims and disputes
work.10 Military history has recorded a strong role for private actors in military affairs firmly ..... Evidence records that, while the state military officers found by a military ... Should it be the chief executive officer (CEO) of .... The Financial Times.
Using a Resource-Based Theory/View of the firm, this study examined if increased inpatient staffing levels at military hospitals can generate a competitive advantage based on better patient quality outcomes...
Albogami, Saad S; Alotaibi, Meshal R; Alsahli, Saud A; Masuadi, Emad; Alshaalan, Mohammad
ARTIs have a huge impact in health systems in which 20-30% of all hospital admissions and 30-60% of practitioner visits are related to respiratory tract infections. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence, age distribution, and seasonal variation of respiratory viruses. This study was descriptive retrospective study in which all patients 14 years of age and below who presented with signs and symptoms of ARTIs between January 2013 and December 2014 and had respiratory specimen tested by direct immunofluorescence assays for viruses identification were included in the study. During that period, a total of 4611 patients who presented with ARTIs from January 2013 to December 2014 were investigated, viruses were detected in 1115 (24%). RSV was associated with 97.4% of the total viral pathogens. Viruses were detected throughout all the two years with a peak in winter; Dec (n: 265), Jan (n: 418), Feb (n: 218), and Mar (n: 109). Viral pathogens are very important cause of ARTIs in our region. RSV was the most common virus detected with the highest detection rate in children who are two years old and below. A multi-center surveillance with more sensitive detection methods like PCR may help to provide a comprehensive understanding of virus distribution in our area, which may contribute implant an effective prevention approach for each virus. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Saad S. Albogami
Full Text Available ARTIs have a huge impact in health systems in which 20–30% of all hospital admissions and 30–60% of practitioner visits are related to respiratory tract infections. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence, age distribution, and seasonal variation of respiratory viruses. This study was descriptive retrospective study in which all patients 14 years of age and below who presented with signs and symptoms of ARTIs between January 2013 and December 2014 and had respiratory specimen tested by direct immunofluorescence assays for viruses identification were included in the study. During that period, a total of 4611 patients who presented with ARTIs from January 2013 to December 2014 were investigated, viruses were detected in 1115 (24%. RSV was associated with 97.4% of the total viral pathogens. Viruses were detected throughout all the two years with a peak in winter; Dec (n: 265, Jan (n: 418, Feb (n: 218, and Mar (n: 109. Viral pathogens are very important cause of ARTIs in our region. RSV was the most common virus detected with the highest detection rate in children who are two years old and below. A multi-center surveillance with more sensitive detection methods like PCR may help to provide a comprehensive understanding of virus distribution in our area, which may contribute implant an effective prevention approach for each virus. Keywords: Pediatrics, Infectious diseases, Respiratory infections, Respiratory syncytial virus, Saudi Arabia
Alanazi, Menyfah Q; Alqahtani, Fulwah Y; Aleanizy, Fadilah S
Urinary tract infection (UTIS) is a common infectious disease in which level of antimicrobial resistance are alarming worldwide. Therefore, this study aims to describe the prevalence and the resistance pattern of the main bacteria responsible for UTIS Escherichia coli (E. coli). Retrospective chart review for patients admitted to emergency department and diagnosed with UTIS at KAMC, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between January to March 2008 was performed. Antimicrobial susceptibility to ampicillin, augmentin (amoxicillin/clavulanate), cefazolin, co-trimoxazole (sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim), ciprofloxacin, and nitrofurantoin, and cefpodoxime was determined for 101 E. coli urinary isolates. Escherichia coli was the most prevalent pathogen contributing to UTIS representing 93.55, 60.24, and 45.83% of all pathogen isolated from urine culture of pediatric, adult, and elderly, respectively. High rates of resistance to ampicillin (82.76, 58, and 63.64%) and co-trimoxazole (51.72, 42, and 59.09%), among E. coli isolated from pediatric, adult and elderly respectively. Nitrofurantoin was the most active agent, followed by ciprofloxacin, augmentin and cefazolin. 22.77% of E. coli isolates exhibited multiple drug resistance (MDR). Among 66 and 49 isolates resistant to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole, respectively, 34.84 and 42.85% were MDR. In contrast, all isolates resistant to augmentin and nitrofurantoin were MRD, while 72.7 and 82.4% of isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin and cefazolin were MDR. High resistance was observed to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole which commonly used as empirical treatments for UTIS, limiting their clinical use. This necessitates continuous surveillance for resistance pattern of uropathogens against antibiotics.
Z Alotaibi, Abdullah
Vision is the ability of seeing with a definite understanding of features, color and contrast, and to distinguish between objects visually. In the year 1999, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness formulated a worldwide project for the eradication of preventable loss of sight with the subject of "Vision 2020: the Right to Sight". This global program aims to eradicate preventable loss of sight by the year 2020. This study was conducted to determine the main causes of low vision in Saudi Arabia and also to assess their visual improvement after using low vision aids (LVD).The study is a retrospective study and was conducted in low vision clinic at Eye World Medical Complex in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The file medical record of 280 patients attending low vision clinics from February 2008 to June 2010 was included. A data sheet was filled which include: age, gender, cause of low vision, unassisted visual acuity for long distances and short distances, low vision devices needed for long distances and short distances that provides best visual acuity. The result shows that the main cause of low vision was Optic atrophy (28.9%). Retinitis pigmentosa was the second cause of low vision, accounting for 73 patients (26%) followed by Diabetic retinopathy and Macular degeneration with 44 patients (15.7%) and 16 patients (5.7%) respectively. Inter family marriage could be one of the main causes of low vision. Public awareness should be embarked on for enlightenment on ocular diseases result in consanguineous marriage. Also, it is an important issue to start establishing low vision clinics in order to improve the situation.
Full Text Available Background: Physical inactivity increases the risk of several chronic, non-communicable diseases which ultimately reduces life expectancy. Recently, major lifestyle changes in Saudi Arabia due to economic growth, globalization, and modernization resulted in physical inactivity and low level of physical fitness. Health care professionals can play an important role in developing awareness about physical fitness among people. However, little is known about the impact of current health promotion practices of Saudi healthcare providers. This cross-sectional study evaluates Saudi primary healthcare providers’ attitudes, knowledge, and awareness associated with advising patients about physical activity during routine consultations. Methods: A quantitative survey on 803 respondents who comprised of general physicians, nurses, nurse assistants, dieticians and health educators in five districts of Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia was conducted using convenience sampling method. Results: The data showed that most of the primary care staffs are quite enthusiastic in promoting physical activity among the patients and revealed that they routinely discussed and advised about the benefits of physical fitness. However, there are some factors acting as barriers for promoting physical activity, such as i lack of time, ii lack of educational materials for patients, iii lack of proper training and protocols for health care professionals, iv lack of patient cooperation, and v lack of financial incentive. Conclusion: Proper strategies should be developed to motivate primary health care professionals, so that they can effectively encourage the general population to be more active physically. Hence, there is an urgent need to integrate physical activity promotion in to practice consultation in Saudi Arabia. In addition, more efforts are required from the policy makers and health professionals to gather sufficient knowledge about current physical activity recommendations.
Al-Muammar, T.; Hassan, A.; Kessie, G.; Cruz, D.M.D.; Al-Ahdal, Mohammed N.; Mohammed, Gamal E.
Prevalence information is lacking on human papillomavirus type 16 and 18 (HPV-16/18) infections in cervical tissues of women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In addition, there are no observations on progression to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Pap smear and HPV-16/18 detection by PCR followed by Southern blotting was performed on 120 subjects (Saudi and other Arab nationals) during routine gynecological examination. Some HPV-positive was followed for 4 years by Pap smears at every 6 months and by HPV DNA detection at the end of four years. Overall HPV-16/18 prevalence was 31.6%. HPV-16 prevalence alone was 13.3%, HPV-16 as a mixed infection with HPV-18 was 15% and all HPV-18 was 18.3%. Ten subjects had cervical abnormalities with the Pap smear test, six of whom were HPV-16/18 positive, 1 with HPV-16, 1 with HPV-18 and 4 with a mixed infection of HPV-16/18. Of all 23 HPV-16/18-positive subjects, either as individual or mixed infection, followed for years, 7 showed abnormal cytology, 6 at initial examination and 1 during follow-up. Of these 7, 6 reverted to normal without treatment and 1 was treated and became normal after 3 years. None of the subjects progressed to CIN-III. A high prevalence of HPV-16/18 was found, but with low rate of progression to CIN. A significant association with abnormal cytology was found only in patents with HPV-16/18 mixed infection. (author)
AlSaeed, Eyad Fawzi; Tunio, Mutahir A
We aimed to compare the dietary habits, engagement in various sports, smoking habits, marital status and other demographic characteristics, between cancer patients and healthy adults (control) at our institute, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 500 participants (237 cancer patients and 263 healthy adults). A well-structured questionnaire was given to these participants regarding the life style, dietary habits, and marital status through interviews. Mean age of whole cohort was 39.3 years (range: 14-85). Among the cancer patients, breast cancer was predominant (45.6%). Compared to controls, higher percentage of married (72.6% vs. 55.5%) and divorced (10.2% vs.4.2%) was noticed in cancer patients (P = 0.002). In cancer patients, majority were unemployed (housewives = 49.3%; retired = 16.0%) as compared to controls (housewives = 14.1%; retired = 2.0%) P = 0.0001. Use of computer laptops/tablets and internet surfing was significantly higher in controls as compared to cancer patients (80.3% vs. 42.2%) P = 0.0001. Similarly, cancer patients started smoking at early age and were relatively heavy smokers with P = 0.03 and P = 0.001 respectively. Cancer patients consumed < 3 cups of coffee/day as compared to control (42.4% vs. 21.5%) P = 0.02. More cancer patients got married at early age between 11-20 years (58.7% vs. 37.7%) P = 0.01. Unemployment, marital status, lack of nutritional knowledge through internet, heavy smoking, heavy coffee consumption and early age at marriage were associated with the risk of various cancers in both genders.
Danish Hasan Qaiser
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: College students are at risk of many sleep disorders that may affect their performance. We conducted this study to identify the sleeping patterns, poor sleep quality factors among medical students, and to observe if there is any relationship between the student’s grades and their level of distress. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional study that was conducted in King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, College of Medicine (male campus, Riyadh. We included 101 (2nd, 3rd, and 4th year male medical students who completed a self-administered questionnaire. The students sleeping disturbances were evaluated by using Epworth Sleeping Scale (ESS, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI and their distress was evaluated by the Subjective Units of Distress Scale (SUD. A relationship between student’s distress and their grade was determined by using one-way ANOVA. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 21. RESULTS: The mean ±SD of the number of hours medical students slept was 5.6±2.6 hours. The most common cause of disturbed sleep was not being able to fall asleep within 30 minutes after going to bed. The mean score for ESS was 8.2 ±5.4. Most students had an ESS score <10 indicating that they had a normal amount of daytime sleepiness and good sleep. There was a relationship between the academic year and ESS; a higher percentage of the students in 3rd and 4th year were sleepy (ESS ≥ 10 than 2nd year (P = 0.04. There was no relation between the student’s grades and their level of distress (P = 0.37. CONCLUSION: Medical students got less actual sleep hours than the optimal sleep duration. However, most had normal day time sleepiness. There was no relation between the student’s grades and their level of distress.
Fagbo, Shamsudeen F; Garbati, Musa A; Hasan, Rami; AlShahrani, Dayel; Al-Shehri, Mohamed; AlFawaz, Tariq; Hakawi, Ahmed; Wani, Tariq Ahmad; Skakni, Leila
The emergence of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in Saudi Arabia has intensified focus on Acute Respiratory Infections [ARIs]. This study sought to identify respiratory viruses (RVs) associated with ARIs in children presenting at a tertiary hospital. Children (aged ≤13) presenting with ARI between January 2012 and December 2013 tested for 15 RVs using the Seeplex R RV15 kit were retrospectively included. Epidemiological data was retrieved from patient records. Of the 2235 children tested, 61.5% were ≤1 year with a male: female ratio of 3:2. Viruses were detected in 1364 (61.02%) children, 233 (10.4%) having dual infections: these viruses include respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (24%), human rhinovirus (hRV) (19.7%), adenovirus (5.7%), influenza virus (5.3%), and parainfluenzavirus-3 (4.6%). Children, aged 9-11 months, were most infected (60.9%). Lower respiratory tract infections (55.4%) were significantly more than upper respiratory tract infection (45.3%) (P < 0.001). Seasonal variation of RV was directly and inversely proportional to relative humidity and temperature, respectively, for non MERS coronaviruses (NL63, 229E, and OC43). The study confirms community-acquired RV associated with ARI in children and suggests modulating roles for abiotic factors in RV epidemiology. However, community-based studies are needed to elucidate how these factors locally influence RV epidemiology. J. Med. Virol. 89:195-201, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
In this study, Lt Col Karen O. Dunivin, USAF, examines social change in American military culture and explores the current struggle between the military's traditional and exclusionary combat, masculine-warrior (CMW...
Goel, D S; Kumari, Renu; Saldanha, D; Kaushik, A; Gupta, Lalit
A questionnaire designed to assess attitudinal profile was mailed to nursing officers in five representative military hospitals. 158 (77.83%) of 203 addressees responded. Cluster analysis indicated higher level of commitment in nursing officers with over 16 years service as compared to those with less than 5 years. Self-image and job-satisfaction, however tended to be eroded with increasing length of service which was also associated with a more authoritarian attitude, relatively less materialistic outlook and (paradoxically) greater negative attitude towards authority figures. Marriage and having children did not influence any parameter. The feeling of sexual harassment increased with seniority in service, as also a perceived erosion in the authority of the principal matron. Relatively junior nursing officers appeared dissatisfied with "too much paper work" and a felt deterioration in working environment as well as the image of Military Nursing Service.
Kevin M. Beaver
Full Text Available Given that enlistment in the U.S. military is completely voluntary, there has been a great deal of interest in identifying the various factors that might explain why some people join the military, whereas others do not. The current study expanded on this line of literature by estimating the extent to which genetic and environmental factors explained variance in the liability for lifetime participation in the military. Analysis of twin pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health revealed that 82% of the variance was the result of genetic factors, 18% of the variance was the result of nonshared environmental factors, and none of the variance was accounted for by shared environmental factors. In light of a number of limitations, replication studies are needed to determine the robustness of these findings and whether they are generalizable to other samples and populations.
Recent events suggest that nuclear reactors could make tempting military or terrorist targets. Despite the care with which most reactors are built, studies document their vulnerability to willful destruction through disruption of coolant mechanisms both inside and outside the containment building. In addition to reactors, such nuclear support facilities as fuel fabrication, reprocessing, and waste storage installations may be attractive military targets. A nuclear bomb which exploded in the vicinity of a reactor could increase its lethal effects by one-third. The implications of this is vulnerability for Middle East stability as well as to other volatile regions. The author suggests several avenues for controlling the dangers: international law, military and civil defense, facility siting, increasing plant safety, and the international management of nuclear energy. 21 references
Aizenman, Joshua; Glick, Reuven
This paper clarifies one of the puzzling results of the economic growth literature: the impact of military expenditure is frequently found to be non-significant or negative, yet most countries spend a large fraction of their GDP on defense and the military. We start by empirical evaluation of the non- linear interactions between military expenditure, external threats, corruption, and other relevant controls. While growth falls with higher levels of military spending, given the values of the o...
M. S. Zaitsev
Full Text Available The article analyzes the evolution of military strategy of the Republic of India and key factors that influences its development. New Delhi keeps an eye on the balance of power in South Asia to create favorable conditions for its economic and social development, yet the remaining threats and new challenges still undermine the security and stability in India. The ambitions of China aspiring to power in Asia-Pacific region, combined with its immense military build-up and territorial disputes, cause disturbance in New Delhi. The remaining tensions between India and Pakistan also cause often border skirmishes and medium-scale conflicts. Close relations between China and Pakistan, labeled as “all-weather friendship”, are a source of major concern for India. The fact that both Beijing and Islamabad wield nuclear weapons means that without effective mechanisms of nuclear deterrence any military conflict may turn into a full-scale nuclear war. Terrorist activities and insurgency in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir and in the North-Eastern regions of the country, along with maritime piracy and illicit drug trafficking contribute to the complicated nature of the challenges to the Indian security. Indian military strategy is considered as a combination of the army doctrine, maritime doctrine and nuclear doctrine. The Indian political and military leadership wants to meet the challenges of changing geopolitical environment and thus continuously adapts its strategy. However, there is still a gap between theory and practice: Indian armed forces lack the capacity to implement the declared goals because of bulky bureaucratic system, outdated military equipment and insufficient level of command and control. The government needs to mobilize political will and administrative resources to upgrade its defense sector to counter its security threats and challenges.
This SpringerBrief reveals the latest techniques in computer vision and machine learning on robots that are designed as accurate and efficient military snipers. Militaries around the world are investigating this technology to simplify the time, cost and safety measures necessary for training human snipers. These robots are developed by combining crucial aspects of computer science research areas including image processing, robotic kinematics and learning algorithms. The authors explain how a new humanoid robot, the iCub, uses high-speed cameras and computer vision algorithms to track the objec
This background paper does not endorse any military action towards Syria. The document does not reflect or express any official Danish policy or a position of the University of Copenhagen or the Centre for Military Studies. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe military capabilities...... and options in order to provide a factual background for the ongoing discussion on possible military intervention in the Syrian conflict and Denmark’s possible participation in such an intervention. The paper is primarily based on the Military Balance published by the International Institute for Strategic...
Full Text Available Although there have been studies that focus on the experiences of the gay and lesbian population serving in the United States military, few have focused on the experience of active duty transgender service members. Transgender individuals transgress the binary conception of gender by deviating from societal gender norms associated with assigned sex at birth. The Department of Defense has set policies and standards that reflect a binary conception of gender, with a focus on conformity. We argue that able-bodied gender variant service personnel are just as capable of serving their country as anyone else. Because of the repercussions associated with active duty transgender military personnel, our sample is small and involves nine clandestine service members and two international service members who wanted to share their stories from a different perspective. Snowball sampling was aimed at finding current active duty and reserve transgender service members. Using a combination of telephone interviews and questionnaires, data were collected from active duty transgender service personnel throughout the United States and two from international militaries that allow transgender people to serve. Data collection focused on the overall experiences of the participants along with questions regarding workplace discrimination, suggestions for policy changes, and their views about the overturn of Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell. Our findings add to a growing source of information about the transgender military experience in the U.S. armed forces and the importance of overturning discriminatory workplace policies that negatively impact transgender service members.
briefest life span of any major military equipment type - spanning not ... that country. The disadvantages of this to PLAN ... increasingly hamper the employment of heli- .... time, both attack and medium helicopters could .... balance out his armoured superiority and to im- ... derable flexibility to our operations and enhance.
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supremacy in the world. Like the foreign policies of the USSR and the USA , their military doctrines reveal the objectives they pursue: the Soviet... Gastronom or a Detskiy Mir. In- stallation of the equipment was delayed a long time as a result. The district finance service therefore did not consider
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Easterbrooks, M. Ann; Ginsburg, Kenneth; Lerner, Richard M.
In this article, the authors present their approach to understanding resilience among military connected young people, and they discuss some of the gaps in their knowledge. They begin by defining resilience, and then present a theoretical model of how young people demonstrate resilient functioning. Next they consider some of the research on…
The Ministry of Defence and the military in particular have a very strong commitment to radiation protection of personnel in war and peace. MOD endeavours to do better all the time because it is essential that the armed forces have the confidence to fulfil their role and this is best achieved by providing them with the best possible protection irrespective of the hazard. (author)
Sjøstedt, Peter; Grønlund, Thomas
The Military Instructor's handbook was written for the basic professional training of instructors in the danish defence. The book describes the work of instructors and their areas of responsibility, and it offers guidance and direction on how to plan, conduct and evaluate learning activities...
existential fear of one’s superpower rival. Nor was the Cold War the only arms race in history: naval rivalry in the late 19th and early 20th centuries...Military Review, July-August 2006; Norman Solomon, “The Bogus Blurring of Terrorism and Insurgency in Iraq,” The Humanist , Vol. 66, No. 2, March-April
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Rahman, M. T.
The city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia has experienced rapid population growth and urban expansion over the past several decades. Due to such growth, the capital city faces many short and long-term social and environmental consequences. In order to monitor and mitigate some of these consequences, it is essential to examine the past changes and historical growth of the city. It is also essential to measure its urban sprawl over the past few decades. The objective of this study is to fulfil these goals. It does so by first examining the historical growth of the city of Riyadh. To do so, Landsat data over the past two and half decades are classified using a combination of supervised and unsupervised classification techniques. Based on the classification results, the study then uses Shannon's Entropy to measure the urban sprawl in the city. The results show that from 1990-2009, the urban built-up area of the city has increased by 90% in the western, south-eastern, and northern parts. The Shannon's entropy values show that the city is dispersing towards the outskirts of the city. The results from this study will assist city planners and government officials to plan, reduce, and perhaps mitigate some of the social and environmental consequences and enable the growth of the city in a sustainable manner in the near future.
Turki H. Albatti
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to 1 determine the prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD among both governmental and private primary Saudi school children, 2 measure the gender difference of ADHD prevalence, and 3 determine any association between the socio-demographic characteristic of the parents of children with ADHD. Methods: This is an observational cross-sectional study of 1000 primary school children belonging to 1st, 2nd and 3rd grade. The selected students were screened by the ADHD rating scale using multistage sampling technique. The first stage was selection of 20 schools from all Riyadh regions by simple randomization. The second stage was choosing children whom serial numbers were multiples of five in each class. The ADHD rating scale was filled by both parents and teachers along with a socio-demographic questionnaire for the parents. Results: The estimated prevalence of ADHD was 3.4%. ADHD manifestations affect boys more than girls. In addition, ADHD was more frequent among children of illiterate mothers. Finally, ADHD was significantly more prevalent among first grade children. Conclusion: This epidemiological study filled the data gap of ADHD prevalence in Riyadh. The study's findings go in line with many nearby and global studies. Keywords: ADHD, Prevalence, Socio-demographics, Children, Saudi Arabia
Full Text Available Aim: To determine the impact of a school-based oral hygiene instructions program on the gingival health of children in randomly selected middle schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Nine hundred and fourteen children were selected from nine schools that were randomly determined from Riyadh City public schools. After obtaining the parents′ consent, the criteria-guided enrolment of study participants yielded 457 children in the control group and 457 students in the experimental group. The intervention design was 90 days experimental period with an intermediate follow-up visit at 45 days. A calibrated examiner (HW measured the plaque index (PI and the gingival index (GI. The indices were measured at day 1, day 45 and day 90 in both the control and the experimental groups. Results were analyzed with Wilcoxon sign rank test for each index, site, and by sessions for each group to determine if the scores had increased, decreased, or remained the same between intervals. Results: Plaque and gingival scores in the control group showed a steady improvement throughout the experimental period when compared with the baseline scores. Scores in the experimental group were significantly improved at each session between baseline and session 2 (45 days and session 3 (90days respectively. Conclusions: The continued reduction of GI and PI scores at the end of the intervention observed in this pilot study suggest that a school-based oral hygiene measures program can significantly improve oral health among school children in Saudi Arabia.
Full Text Available Mohammad A Aldosari, Aljazi H Aljabaa, Fares S Al-Sehaibany, Sahar F Albarakati Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Students differ in their preferred methods of acquiring, processing, and recalling new information. The aim of this study was to investigate the learning style preferences of undergraduate dental students and examine the influence of gender, Grade Point Average (GPA, and academic year levels on these preferences.Methods: The Arabic version of the visual, aural, read/write, and kinesthetic (VARK questionnaire was administered to 491 students from the first- to the fifth-year academic classes at the College of Dentistry, King Saud University. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the learning styles of the students, and Chi-square test and Fisher’s test were used to compare the learning preferences between genders and among academic years. Significance was set at a p-value of <0.05.Results: A total of 368 dental students completed the questionnaire. The multimodal learning style was preferred by 63.04% of the respondents, with the remaining 36% having a unimodal style preference. The aural (A and the kinesthetic (K styles were the most preferred unimodal styles. The most common style overall was the quadmodal (VARK style with 23.64% having this preference. These differences did not reach statistical significance (p>0.05. Females were more likely to prefer a bimodal learning style over a unimodal style (relative risk =2.37. Students with a GPA of “C” were less likely to have a bimodal or a quadmodal style preference compared to students with a GPA of “A” (relative risk =0.34 and 0.36, respectively. Second-year students were less likely to prefer a bimodal over a unimodal style compared to first-year students (relative risk =0.34.Conclusion: The quadmodal VARK style is the preferred learning method chosen by dental students
Full Text Available After the liberation of Nis from the Turks which took place on January 11th, 1878, there were two military hospitals: one was next to The Skull Tower and the other on the road to Leskovac and there was Islahana the civil institution which was not the forerunner of the district hospital in Nis. At first, they founded the military hospital in Nis in 1878 and then they founded The District Hospital on July 17th in 1881. The first director of the District hospital was Anton Zajicek. He is also the first graduated medical doctor in Nis. The District Hospital was situated on the left bank of the Nisava river in a private house.
Gross, M L; Rendin, R W; Childress, C W; Kerstein, M D
During U.S. Marine Corps Reserve summer 2-week active duty for training periods, 6,482 people were tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Testing at an initial exercise, Solar Flare, trained a cadre of contact teams to, in turn, train other personnel in phlebotomy and the HIV protocol at three other exercises (141 Navy Reserve and Inspector-Instructor hospital corpsmen were trained). Corpsmen could be trained with an indoctrination of 120 minutes and a mean of 15 phlebotomies. After 50 phlebotomies, the administration, identification, and labeling process plus phlebotomy could be completed in 90 seconds. HIV testing during military exercises is both good for training and cost-effective.
Knezević, Bojana; Belosević, Ljiljana
This preliminary study examined the sources of work stress in military physicians. Forty-eight medical doctors (24 military and 24 civilian) completed a questionnaire on stressors at the work place. The participation in the study was anonymous and voluntary. Out of 24 military physicians, 14 were military general practitioners (mean age 40.5, 14 female), and 10 were consultants of different specialties (mean age 43.5, 7 male and 3 female). Civilian physicians included 13 general practitioners working at primary health care system (mean age 37, 3 male and 10 female), and 11 consultants of different specialties working at out of hospital practice (average age 37, 6 male and 5 female). The questionnaire included items aiming to obtain demographic characteristics (sex, age, marital status, children, academic degree, clinical specialty, work place, average time in practice, average time at current position) and 37 items to determine occupational stressors. The stressors were related to work management, professional demands, interpersonal and patient-doctor relationship. Differences in recognizing work stressors between the groups of civilian and military physicians were statistically analyzed by using chi-squared-test. The leading work stressors identified by military physicians were inadequate salary, being bypassed for promotion, inadequate continuous education, poor resources, poor communication with superiors, poor management, trouble with superiors, excessive paperwork, unpredictable situations, and 24-hour standby. Civilian physicians reported inadequate salary, poor resources, poor management, misinformed patients, lack of co-workers, lack of time, unpredictable situations, exposure to indictment, dealing with incurable patients and exposure to public criticism and judgment. In comparison with civilian physicians, military physicians significantly more frequently reported inadequate salary (pcommunication with superiors (pcommunication with superiors (12
behavior and rights, the values of the military are different and unique. Senior military officers highlight the importance of understanding the...Examples include on-base housing, shopping , schools, children’s sports leagues, and community and social events such as concerts, comedy shows, and movies... mall , a sporting event, or the movies provides a simple, 16 Skelton, “The Civil-Military Gap
Hajjar, Remi M.
This article examines how and why many contemporary US mainstream military advisors—as compared to Special Forces advisors—often work from a position of disadvantage when conducting unconventional advising missions. Post-9/11 deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan have caused the US military to adapt to myriad complexities, including a renewed need for the widespread execution of the unconventional military advising mission by the Special Forces and conventional units. Although Special Forces ty...
funded autism study – it covers autism spectrum disorders . He was not aware that DOD had this subject in their portfolio. He will be working with Dr...serotonin transporter gene and family history of depression? Journal of Affective Disorders , 77, 273-275. 8. Joiner, T., Sheldon, K., Williams, G...the military, impact unit morale, and take a large emotional toll on the involved friends, family , and commanders. As noted before with continued
Van Heerden, Adelaide
Full Text Available are unaware of the causes and symptoms of PTSD, and that awareness training at junior leadership levels could provide commanders with critical skills and insight to identify, manage, coordinate and facilitate such incidents before the situation gets... and group level is discussed in the context of contributing toward the end state of combat readiness. The critical contribution of leadership (p. 263), personal relationships both within the military and personal life as well as the construct of hardiness...
Recreation Centers (AFRCs) and the Army Recreation Machine Program (ARMP), NAF Major Construction program, and NAF employee benefit programs... Bingo . • Bowling Centers (over 12 lanes). • Food, Beverage, and Entertainment Operations. • Golf Courses. • Military Clubs. • Others...nds. ach service has specific policies. (2) Funds must be used for the collective benefit of all unit members for off-duty recreational purposes
Andrus Pedai; Igor Astrov
Nanotechnology is the new cyber, according to several major leaders in this field. Just as cyber is entrenched across global society now, nano is poised to be major capabilities enabler of the next decades. Expert members from the National Nanotechnology Initiative (in U.S.) representing government and science disciplines say nano has great significance for the military and the general public. It is predicted that after next 15 years nanotechnology will replace information technology as the m...
by the hundreds. The most popular subjects were his tor ical dramas, comedies , simplistic versions of the classics, and sentimental domestic and...Germans and the making of a world "safe for democracy." All the war films, even the slapstick comedies , presented a simple view of the conflict-the...an exciting and romantic background for a love story or a musical. The value of military preparedness was implied strongly in these films which
Jurgen Brauer; John Tepper Marlin
As a proportion of gross national product, U.S. military spending has declined steadily since the mid-1980s. The end of the Cold War has given rise to calls for even more cuts in military spending. In early 1992, President George Bush proposed to reduce military spending by 3 percent per year, in real dollars, for the next five years. The Democratic leadership in the House of Representatives countered with a plan calling for substantially deeper cuts. Any substantial changes in military expen...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military pilots or former military pilots... Ratings and Pilot Authorizations § 61.73 Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules. (a... a disciplinary action involving aircraft operations, a U.S. military pilot or former military pilot...
de Montravel, G
Current humanitarian emergencies create complex, mutidimensional situations that stimulate simultaneous responses from a wide variety of sources including governments, non-governmental organizations (NGO), United Nations agencies, and private individuals. As a result, it has become essential to establish a coherent framework in which each actor can contribute promptly and effectively to the overall effort. This is the role of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Regardless of the circumstances and level of coordination, cooperation and collaboration between humanitarian and military personnel, it is necessary to bear in mind their objectives. The purpose of humanitarian action is to reduce human suffering. The purpose of military intervention is to stop warfare. The author of this article will discuss the three major obstacles to civilian-military coordination (strategic, tactical, and operational). Operations cannot be conducted smoothly and differences cannot be ironed out without mutual respect between the two parties, an explicit definition of their respective duties and responsibilities, a clear understanding of their cultural differences, and the presence of an organization and facilities for coordination and arbitrage by a neutral referee.
Walker, R.I.; Conklin, J.J.
Acute medical consequences affecting military personnel fall into two major classes: early events affecting performance and later more lethal events associated with single and combined injuries. If cells survive the radiation insult, they have the capability for repair. But the patient must survive fluid loss, infection, and bleeding defects until this can occur. Although no one can ever eliminate the incomprehensible destruction of human life associated with the use of nuclear weapons, significant medical advances can be achieved that will increase the performance and recovery of persons exposed to these weapons. Furthermore, these medical advances will go far toward improving the life and functioning of persons undergoing radiotherapy, trauma, accidental exposures, or a variety of other clinical situations. In the near future, the military battlefield will move into another dimension - space. Once outside the geomagnetic shield of the earth, military prsonnel will be exposed to a formidable array of new radiations. Among the new radiations will be high solar energy, solar particles and flares, and heavy nuclei from galactic cosmic arrays. Associated stresses will be microgravity, vibration, and isolation. To protect man in these new environments will truly challenge our ingenuity. This book looks at various medical consequences we face as a result of nuclear energy
Raul Caruso; Ilaria Petrarca; Roberto Ricciuti
We show the existence of a diffusion process of military dictatorships in Sub-Saharan Africa from 1972 through 2007, using panel data probit estimation and a Markov chain transition model. This process is shortly-lived, since we observe an overall trend that reduces the number of military regimes. We also find that Manufacturing share of GDP, Primary share of GDP positively affect the probability of military dictatorship, and Openness to trade, whereas the British colonial origin are negative...
Daugaard, Søren Bech; Jacobsen, Karen Vestergård; Aigro, Signe; Skarequist, Anne
This project aims to explain how the military balancing of Russia against NATO can be explained from a neoclassical realist framework. The project consists in three analytical parts of respectively, 1: The military capabilities balance between NATO and Russia; 2: How the international system puts pressure on Russia; and 3: How the strategic culture of Russia can explain its balancing. This project aims to explain how the military balancing of Russia against NATO can be explained from a neo...
to military, and to make them able to operate effectively in multicultural dimensions. This cultural impact forced the military doctrine to adapt...degree the research findings and conclusions. The bibliography reviewed for this thesis is available at the Combined Arms Research Library . Unfortunately...in terms of increased ability of understanding and operating in a different cultural or multicultural setting, led the military decision makers to
Kuvshinov, K E; Klipak, V M; Chaplyuk, A L; Moskovko, V M; Belyshev, D V; Zherebko, O A
The current task of the implementation of medical information systems in the military and medical organizations is an automation of the military-medical expertise as one of the most important activities. In this regard, noteworthy experience of the 9th Medical Diagnostic Centre (9th MDC), where on the basis of medical information system "Interi PROMIS" for the first time was implemented the automation of the work of military medical commission. The given paper presents an algorithm for constructing of the information system for the military-medical examination; detailed description of its elements is given. According to military servicemen the implementation of the Military Medical Commission (MMC) subsystem of the medical information system implemented into the 9th MDC has reduced the time required for the MMC and paperwork, greatly facilitate the work of physicians and medical specialists on military servicemen examination. This software can be widely applied in ambulatory and hospital practice, especially in case of mass military-medical examinations.
Full Text Available The article analyses the situation of abandoned military sites, their value and significance of their conservation. It also reviews their impact on their environment and their potential in tourism, environmental, economic and social spheres. Further the positive experiences in military sites' conversion are studied. The importance of society's involvement in the conversions is discussed. The situation of XIX-XX age's military object's, the significance of their conservation and their potential in tourism market is separately analysed. The results of two researches are introduced, one of which inquires about the Lithuanian military objects' potential in tourism sphere, another one explores the possibilities of conversion. Article in Lithuanian
University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — Hospital Facilities information was compiled from several various sources. Main source was the RI Department of Health Facilities Regulation database, License 2000....
Changes to the military retirement system in the 1980's and attention by law makers, military leadership, and service members to pay comparability between the private sector and the military indicate...
McNeary, A M; Lomenick, T S
The female military population represents a high-risk group for preterm labor and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. As the number of women entering the armed forces continues to increase, concerns regarding the effects of military service on pregnancy must persist. Although active duty females have access to prenatal care and maintain consistent follow-up, previous research has noted a 5-fold increase in preterm labor compared with civilian working women. Hospitalization and loss of work attributable to pregnancy complications directly affect productivity and mission accomplishment; therefore, it is crucial to identify those at risk to institute measures that will prevent such occurrences and decrease time away from work. This article provides a review of the existing literature concerning preterm labor in military women, comparisons with the civilian population, and recommendations for future research.
receive state-of-the-art physical therapy and occupational therapy , in- cluding demanding and challenging sports equipment and virtual reality systems...Knudson MM. Into the theater: perspectives from a civilian trauma sur- geon’s visit to the combat support hospital in Balad, Iraq. Bull Am Coll Surg...following type III open tibia fracture . J Orthop Trauma. 2012;26:43 47. 52. U.S Army Medical Research and Materiel Command. Armed Forces In- stitute of
Partial Contents: Military Political Issues, Military Science, Warsaw Pact, Armed Forces, Air Forces, Air Defense Forces, Naval Forces, Strategic Rocket Forces, Civil Defense, Rear Services, Defense Industries, DOSAAF...
Jansen, Don J
.... Known as Tricare, this system of military and private health care offers benefits to active duty personnel and other beneficiaries, including dependents of active duty personnel, military retirees...
Alkharfy Khalid M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Follow-up epidemiologic studies are needed to assess trends and patterns of disease spread. No follow-up epidemiologic study has been done in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to assess the current prevalence of major chronic, noncommunicable diseases, specifically in the urban region, where modifiable risk factors remain rampant. This study aims to fill this gap. Methods A total of 9,149 adult Saudis ages seven to eighty years (5,357 males (58.6% and 3,792 females (41.4% were randomly selected from the Riyadh Cohort Study for inclusion. Diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2 and obesity were based on the World Health Organization definitions. Diagnoses of hypertension and coronary artery disease (CAD were based on the Seventh Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure and American Heart Association criteria, respectively. Results The overall crude prevalence of DMT2 was 23.1% (95% confidence interval (95% CI 20.47 to 22.15. The age-adjusted prevalence of DMT2 was 31.6%. DMT2 prevalence was significantly higher in males, with an overall age-adjusted prevalence of 34.7% (95% CI 32.6 to 35.4, than in females, who had an overall age-adjusted prevalence of 28.6% (95% CI 26.7 to 29.3 (P P Conclusion Comparisons of our findings with earlier data show that the prevalence of DMT2, hypertension and CAD in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, has alarmingly worsened. Aggressive promotion of public awareness, continued screening and early intervention are pivotal to boosting a positive response.
Albawardi, Nada M; Jradi, Hoda; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M
Physical inactivity is among the leading risk factors for non-communicable diseases. Saudi Arabia has just begun to address physical inactivity as recent studies have shown an alarming prevalence of insufficiently physically active adults. Saudi women are identified as among the most overweight/obese and least active worldwide. With an increase in the number of women in office based jobs, the risk of physical inactivity is likely to increase. Identifying the level and correlates for high BMI and physical inactivity in Saudi women will help to plan more effective public health strategies. The aim of this study is to assess the level of physical activity, inactivity and body mass index among Saudi women working in office based jobs in Riyadh city and identify the correlates for overweight, obesity and low physical activity. A cross- sectional study was conducted on 420 Saudi women aged 18 to 58 years working in office based jobs in eight worksites in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Body mass index was determined using weight and height measurements and physical activity was assessed based on a validated self-administered questionnaire. The majority of the subjects were overweight or obese (58.3 %). Overweight/obesity was associated with increased age, lower income and with those working in the public versus private sector. More than half of the sample (52.1 %) were insufficiently physically active. Participants working seven or more hours per day and those working in private versus public sector were significantly associated with low physical activity. This study identified Saudi women working in office based jobs as a high risk group for overweight, obesity and physical inactivity. As sedentary jobs may compound the risk for obesity and physical inactivity, this may support the use of workplace health programs to reduce sitting time and promote physical activity as a viable public health initiative.
Gonzalez Requena, J. M.
One of the most justified and pressing demands that society makes of the State, requiring a fast, forceful and effective response, is that it guarantees the safety of people and their assets when a disaster seriously endangers them. At the proposal of the President of the Government, the Cabinet of Ministers, in its meeting held on October 7, 2005, agreed to create the Military Emergency Unit, known since the as the UME. Its mission is to intervene anywhere in the national territory when the President of the Government, or the Minister to whom he delegates, so decides in order to assure the safety and welfare of citizens in cases of serious risk, disaster, catastrophe or any other public need. The UME is organically incorporated into the Ministry of Defense and its actions may be supported with all the available human and material needs of the Armed Forces. Availability and effectiveness, with calmness and humility, have characterized the early actions of the Military Emergency Unit and are the guidelines for future action. The first steps of this military unit have focused on a clear goal: collaboration and participation in situations whose seriousness requires the coordination of different forces in order to immediately respond to them. The UME is the States tool to join forces and, with other administration and institutions, help to rapidly and effectively deal with emergencies. It has taken its first step and achieved the capacity specified in the UME Operations Order for 2007. The 150 men and women per battalion, plus the 80 in the Gando detachment, are on active duty and have sufficient material means to deploy, if necessary and when requested by the regions, town councils an other administrative bodies, to help in the extinction of forest fires. (Author)
Smith, Elizabeth A; Jahnke, Sara A; Poston, Walker S C; Malone, Ruth E; Haddock, Christopher K
Higher tobacco taxes reduce tobacco use. On military installations, cigarettes and other tobacco products are sold tax-free, keeping prices artificially low. Pricing regulations in the military specify that tobacco should be within 5% of the local most competitive price, but prices still average almost 13% lower than those at local Walmarts. To gain insight into policy leaders' ideas and positions on military tobacco pricing, we interviewed members of the Department of Defense (DoD) Addictive Substances Misuse Advisory Committee and the Advisory Committee on Tobacco about tobacco pricing policies (n = 12). Participants frequently lacked specific knowledge of details of military pricing policy, and the impact higher prices might have on military tobacco use. Most participants thought tobacco should not be sold at military stores, but many also felt that this policy change was unlikely due to tobacco industry pressure, and DoD reliance on tobacco profits to support Morale, Welfare, and Recreation funds. Achieving a tobacco-free military will require changing pricing policy, but this study suggests that for effective implementation, military leadership must also understand and articulate more clearly the rationale for doing so. Previous work has found that adherence to military tobacco pricing policy is inconsistent at best. This study suggests that lack of knowledge about the policy and conflicting pressures resulting from the funding stream tobacco sales represent extend to high level military policy leaders. Without clearer information and direction, these leaders are unlikely to be able to establish and implement better tobacco pricing policy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
McLean, A D
Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under
CTC_depression_family_sheet.pdf U.S. Army War College. Basics from the Barracks: Military Etiquette and Protocol ; A Spouse’s Quick Reference to Its Unique Customs...http://youtu.be/zfTknLkDPTY U.S. Army War College. Military Family Program. Customs & Courtesies/ Protocol . Carlisle Barracks: U.S. Army War College
Hill, Nathan E
.... There is undoubtedly a need for military contractors and there are numerous positive arguments in their favor. However, the negative arguments have not been highlighted enough recently and the scales are now out of balance. The intent of this research paper is to encourage the U.S. military to rebalance the scales and curb the over-reliance on contractors.
Military Court of Appeals ruled in United States v. Beeker that “the use or possession of marihuana was service connected because the use or...possession . . . of marihuana and narcotics has a special military significance since their use has ‘disastrous effects on the health, morale and fitness
Wermser, Frederik; Täuber, Susanne; Essens, Peter; Molleman, Henricus; Beeres, Robert; Bakx, Gwendolyn; de Waard, Erik; Rietjens, Sebastiaan
Increased military cooperation between member states of the European Union is a political given. The Netherlands and Germany form a spearhead in this process by integrating entire military units (i.e., brigades, battalions, companies) into higher-order units of the respective other nation (i.e.,
U.S. environmental issues also have important global implications. This paper analyzes current U.S. Policy as it pertains to global warming and climate...for military involvement to reduce global warming . Global warming and other environmental issues are important to the U.S. military. As the United
Reveals strengths and weaknesses encountered by a psychology teacher involved in the overseas graduate counseling program for Ball State University. Problems included lack of proper teaching and counseling facilities, long teaching hours, and civilian teachers' ignorance of military protocol. Advantages included helping military personnel obtain a…
against the heart of the U.S. Pacific Fleet in 1941. Italy’s uneven naval buildup, stressing submarines and unemployed battleships, posed a particular...military, not to speak of a society which has yet to recover from its psychic wounds. How to arrange our American military institutions so that they
Meyer, Eric G; Writer, Brian W; Brim, William
Military cultural competence has recently gained national attention. Experts have posited that limited outcomes in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression in the military may be related to limited familiarity with the military. National surveys have indicated low military cultural competence among providers and limited educational efforts on military culture or pertinent military pathology in medical schools and residency training programs. Military families, with their own unique military cultural identity, have been identified as a population with increased risks associated with deployment. In response to these findings, several curricula regarding military culture have been established and widely distributed. Assessments of military cultural competence have also been developed. The clinical impact of enhanced cultural competence in general has thus far been limited. The military, however, with its highly prescribed cultural identity, may be a model culture for further study.
Bricknell, M C M
This paper examines the challenges involved in commanding a field hospital. There are frequent, dynamic tensions between the military culture that is based on a task-focussed, hierarchical structure and the clinical culture that is based on flat, process-focussed, multidisciplinary teams. The paper outlines the cultural environment of the field hospital and then examines the deployment sequence whereby a functioning clinical facility may be created from a group of disparate individuals. There are a number of tools that may assist with this including the personality of the Commanding Officer, individual skills, the creation of an organizational identity and the choice of command structure.
..., domiciliary or nursing home care of persons discharged or released from active military, naval, or air service... Hospital, Domiciliary and Nursing Home Care § 17.46 Eligibility for hospital, domiciliary or nursing home care of persons discharged or released from active military, naval, or air service. (a) In furnishing...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Hospital Compare has information about the quality of care at over 4,000 Medicare-certified hospitals across the country. You can use Hospital Compare to find...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of hospital ratings for the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS). HCAHPS is a national, standardized survey of hospital...
Full Text Available Hospital ships are operated by the Naval forces in or near war zones to provide medical assistance to the wounded personnel of all nationalities and not be used for any military purpose. Hospital ships possibly existed in ancient times and the Athenian Navy had a ship named Therapia. However, it was only during the 17th century that it became a common practice for the naval squadrons to be accompanied by large ships with the facilities of carrying the wounded after each engagement. In 1860, the steamships HMS Melbourne and HMS Mauritius were equipped with genuine medical facilities. They were manned by the Medical Staff Corps and provided services to the British expedition to China. During the World War I and World War II, passenger ships were converted for use as hospital ships and were started to be used on a massive scale. RMS Aquitania and HMHS Britannic were two famous examples of hospital ships used extensively. Modern US hospital ships USNS Mercy and USNS Comfort are operated by Military Sealift Command of the US Navy. Their primary mission is to provide emergency on-site care for US combatant forces deployed in war or other operations.
Ross, Andrew L
What is military innovation? How should we think about Chinese military innovation? By developing an analytical framework that captures both the components of military innovation (technology, doctrine, and organization) and the continuum of change, we can better assess the nature, extent, and importance of contemporary Chinese military innovation.
the variance in regards to overall satisfaction. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Dentistry, Patient Satisfaction, Military, Consumer Satisfaction, Dental... patient satisfaction in military dental treatment facilities. Dental health is extremely important for the military as dental assets are not always... customer satisfaction is an important component of military dental care. Quarterly patient satisfaction reports are generated for each dental treatment
Kelty, Ryan; Kleykamp, Meredith; Segal, David R.
Ryan Kelty, Meredith Kleykamp, and David Segal examine the effect of military service on the transition to adulthood. They highlight changes since World War II in the role of the military in the lives of young adults, focusing especially on how the move from a conscription to an all-volunteer military has changed the way military service affects…
... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military Academy. 575.1 Section 575.1 National... MILITARY ACADEMY § 575.1 Military Academy. (a) Organization and administration. (1) The United States Military Academy is under the general direction and supervision of the Department of the Army. The...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military service. 29.333 Section 29... Satisfied by June 30, 1997 § 29.333 Military service. (a) For employees who entered on duty on or before June 30, 1997, and whose military service was performed prior to that date, credit for military service...
This study tests the argument that Foreign Military Assistance and the consequently professionalizing of the recipient military has a positive effect on the process of democratization in Kenya.......This study tests the argument that Foreign Military Assistance and the consequently professionalizing of the recipient military has a positive effect on the process of democratization in Kenya....
Ford, Shannon; Schnitzlein, Carla
With the announcement that members of the military who identify as transgender are allowed to serve openly, the need for Department of Defense behavioral health providers to be comfortable in the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of this population becomes quickly evident. This population has been seeking care in the community and standards have been developed to help guide decision-making, but a comparable document does not exist for the military population. Previously published papers were written in anticipation of the policy allowing for open service. The civilian sector has treatment guidelines and evidence supporting the same for reference. There is no similar document for the military population, likely due to the recent change and ongoing development. This paper attempts to provide an overview of the recent Department of Defense policy and walks the reader through key considerations when providing care to a transgender member of the military as it relates to those who are currently serving in the military through the use of a case example. The military transgender population faces some unique challenges due to the need to balance readiness and deployability with medically necessary health care. Also complicating patient care is that policy development is ongoing-as of this publication, the decision has not yet been made regarding how people who identify as transgender will access into the military nor is there final approval regarding coverage for surgical procedures. Unique circumstances of this population are brought up to generate more discussion and encourage further evaluation and refinement of the process.
Acemoglu, Daron; Ticchi, Davide; Vindigni, Andrea
We investigate how nondemocratic regimes use the military and how this can lead to the emergence of military dictatorships. Nondemocratic regimes need the use of force in order to remain in power, but this creates a political moral hazard problem; a strong military may not simply work as an agent of the elite but may turn against them in order to create a regime more in line with their own objectives. The political moral hazard problem increases the cost of using repression in nondemocratic r...
, governments and military services hope to introduce game-changing military technologies that are ‘better, faster and cheaper’, investing heavily in research and development of AWS. In this paper, I wish to map the different and competing practices of critique and justification that shape the technopolitical...... controversy of AWS, showing its complexity and internal contradictions. In addition to identifying the dominant regimes of justification, that organize the discourse of AWS, I argue that the military bureau and its officeholders become technopolitical mediators and translators of risk in an emergent practice...
The author addresses three questions about military spending in developing countries: What are the levels of (and trends in) military spending as a percentage of gross national product? What impact does peacetime military spending have on growth, government spending on social welfare and infrastructure, and other key economic variables? What major factors influence the level of military spending? The author finds that military spending as a share of GNP generally fell in the 1980s, even in th...
Palmer, William A., Jr; Hanna, Marcia
The Military Librarian Workshop(MLW) is an annual meeting that brings together civilian and military personnel who serve as special librarians, library supervisors, or technical information officers in military or governmental...
Jorgensen, Brent M
"Outsourcing Small Wars: Expanding the Role of Private Military Companies in U.S. Military Operations" argues that, under current domestic and international laws, and current military regulations and doctrine...
MILITARY FORCES(FOREIGN), *MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS, MILITARY ENGINEERING , INFANTRY, AMPHIBIOUS OPERATIONS, MINELAYING, ARMORED VEHICLES, NUCLEAR...RADIATION, DOSIMETERS, CHEMICAL WARFARE, PROTECTIVE CLOTHING, DECONTAMINATION, HEALTH PHYSICS.
Department of Veterans Affairs — Supports operations to access/update data related to (Compensation and Pension) Awards. This service will also support business processes such as reading military...
Tharion, William J; Lieberman, Harris R; Montain, Scott J; Young, Andrew J; Baker-Fulco, Carol J
...) have been measured while training under various conditions. Group mean total energy expenditures for 424 male military personnel from various units engaged in diverse missions ranged from 13.0 to 29.8 MJ per day...
.... It is particularly concerned with issues relating to the recruitment and retention within the military of homosexuals, that is, those individuals who have a sexual propensity for persons of their own gender...
France refuses to rule out military use of the plutonium produced by the planned breeder reactor Superphenix, although other nations, including the US, have contributed nuclear materials to it. US policy has been to separate military and civilian nuclear programs to set an example. France has not stated an intention to use Superphenix for military purposes, but is reserving the right to do so. It does not separate the two kinds of nuclear materials for economic reasons. The Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) does not address the possibility that plutonium pledged to peaceful use might be commingled with plutonium for military use in a civilian facility within a weapons state. The US could work to strengthen the US-Euratom Agreement on the basis of the contamination principle. 11 references
.... Its purpose is to provide reviews and recommendations to the Commander, U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, on research projects, programs, and products as they relate to the nutrition and performance of military personnel...
with a threat both abroad and within their homeland societies. Civilians fulfil a ..... we have now with the use of force and forces is their persistent structuring ... advanced equipment remains the main feature of Western military culture. Western.
sea power introducing education as an additional population characteristic , a review of education philosophy, education trends, impact of education on the knowledge military, and the impact of the knowledge on the joint force.
Shams-White, Marissa; Deuster, Patricia
The objective was to review prevention efforts and approaches attempting to limit the problem of obesity in the military. Various individual-level initiatives have emerged, including programs promoting healthy cooking, meal planning, and other behavior changes among service members. Importantly, the military is attempting to tackle environmental factors contributing to the rise of obesity, by focusing on many recent environmental-level interventions and initiatives to improve military dining facilities and examine and modify other aspects of installations' built environments. Although published research within the military setting directed towards obesity prevention is limited, many innovative programs have been launched and need to be followed forward. The review of past and ongoing efforts can be an important step in identifying specific areas needing improvement, gaps that should be considered, lessons learned, and characteristics of successful programs that should be disseminated as best practices and further expanded.
Federal Geographic Data Committee — This data set is part of a collection of real estate data concerning current and historic military installations whose real property interests are managed by the...
Zabel, Sarah E
.... The 9/11 attacks set this plan in motion. In the years leading up to and following the 9/11 attacks, global jihadis have written copiously on their military strategy for creating an Islamic state...
Bermann, S; Escudero, J C
The socioeconomic policies of Argentina's Military Junta, in power since March 1976, have led to a sharp impoverishment of the vast majority of the population. In the health sector, facilities which previously were public are being transferred to the private sector, and public hospitals formerly providing free services to the population now charge patients for the care received. As a necessary counterpart to these unpopular measures, a regime of terror has been waged against members of the health team--both those politically active and those considered potentially subversive, particularly the psychiatrists and workers in community health. Differences between the Argentinian situation and previous European fascist patterns are noted, and the possibility of use of the "Argentinian model" in other capitalist countries in crisis is discussed.
War has at some point touched every nation. Beginning with ancient history and following through to the present, this book addresses the question of why war exists, and explains the shapes in which it occurs. It will lead young readers on a journey through time by tracing weapons from the earliest stones and clubs to modern technological military warfare. Along with the evolution of weaponry through the ages, it also goes into the development of protective gear, transportation, communication, and military strategies.
Gullaksen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Kristoffer Merrild; Siegel, Viktor; Labuz, Patrick Ravn
This project is sparked by the contemporary evolvement that has been happening with consumer Virtual Reality technology and an interest for looking into the military industrial complex. The paper describes how Virtual Reality as a concept has evolved historically since the 19th century and how it has since entered the military and consumer market. The implementation of Virtual Reality is described in order to analyse it by using Technology-Oriented Scenario Analysis, as described by Francesco...
Bardwell, Andrew; Buggy, Sean; Walls, Remuis
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Cyber threats are a growing concern for our military, creating a need for cybersecurity education. Current methods used to educate students about cyber, including annual Navy Knowledge Online training, are perceived to be ineffective. The Naval Postgraduate School developed an All hands pilot cybersecurity course with the objective of increasing military officers' cybersecurity awareness. The three of us participated in the ten-week co...
Al-Haqwi Ali I
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conducted to examine the perception and views of medical students regarding the extent of alcohol and substance abuse in the community and the possible predisposing factors for this problem. Methods It is a cross-sectional study involving samples from two medical colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The students who decided to participate in the study without the offer of any incentives filled an anonymous, self administered questionnaire which had been designed to meet the purpose of the study. Results Two hundred and fifteen out of three hundred and thirty students (65% response rate participated in this study. About 75% of them believe that alcohol and substance abuse is a common problem in the community. Students' views also correspond with the reported view that the problem is mainly present in young adult males. Married males and senior students perceived the problem as more serious than their other colleagues. Students perceived that alcohol was the most commonly abused drug in the community, followed by amphetamines, heroin, cannabis and cocaine. They believe that influence of friends, life stressors, tobacco smoking and curiosity are the most important predisposing factors for abuse of alcohol and other substances. According to the students' perception, the main beneficial effect of alcohol and substance abuse was stress alleviation. About 3% of the students have also indicated that they may use alcohol or some other substance in the future. Conclusion Despite scarce information on the subject and a strong religious belief in Saudi Arabia against the use of alcohol and other addictive substances, a significant majority of the medical students in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia, perceived that alcohol and substance abuse is a common problem in the community. Some students appear to perceive the seriousness of the problem less than others. Efforts are needed to educate young men and women at an early
Almegbel, Faisal Yousef; Alotaibi, Ibrahim Muthyib; Alhusain, Faisal Ahmed; Masuadi, Emad M; Al Sulami, Salma Lafyan; Aloushan, Amairah Fahad; Almuqbil, Bashayer Ibrahim
Approximately 28% to 35% of people aged 65 and over fall each year. The consequent injuries of falls are considered a major public health problem. Falls account for more than half of injury-related hospitalisations among old people. The aim of this study was to measure a 1-year period prevalence of falling among old people in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In addition, this study described the most common risk factors and consequent injuries of falls. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in Riyadh, using a convenient sampling. The targeted population were Saudi citizens who were 60 years or above. Over a 6-month period, 1182 individuals were sampled (545 men and 637 women). The 1-year prevalence of falling among old Saudis (>=60 years) was 49.9%. Our results show that 74% of the participants who experienced falls had postfall injuries. Old participants who were uneducated and those with middle school certification were associated with falls (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.72; 95% CI 1.15 to 2.56, aOR 1.81; 95% CI 1.15 to 2.85, respectively). Those who live in rented houses had a higher risk of falls. Interestingly, having a caregiver was significantly associated with more falls (aOR 1.39; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.79). However, not using any medications was significantly related to fewer falls. In addition, old individuals using walking aids were more likely to fall than those who did not. Participants who mentioned 'not having stressors were associated with less frequent falls (aOR 0.62; 95% CI 0.39 to 0.97). Cerebrovascular accidents were strongly associated with falls with an estimated OR of 2.75 (95% CI 1.18 to 6.43). Moreover, osteoporosis, poor vision and back pain were found to be predictors for falls among the elderly. 49.9% of elderly Saudis had experienced one or more falls during a 12-month period. Several preventable risk factors could be addressed by routine geriatric assessment. Research on the impact of these risk factors is needed. © Article author(s) (or their
Else, Daniel H; Scott, Christine; Panangala, Sidath V
... construction, military housing allowances, military installation maintenance and operation, the Department of Veterans Affairs, and other veteran-related agencies, rested in the House Committee...
.... This report reviews military options open to each side as the United Nations, United States, and South Korea explore ways to resolve the resultant crisis peacefully despite threats of war from Pyongyang...
With the recent passage of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017, Congress has triggered groundbreaking Military Health System organizational restructuring with the Defense Health Agency assuming responsibility for managing all hospitals and clinics owned by the Army, Navy, and Air Force. This is a major shift toward a modern value-based managed care system, which will require much greater military-civilian health care delivery integration to be in place by October 2018. Just before the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017 passage, the Department of Defense had already begun a seismic shift and awarded a contract for the new Military Health System-wide electronic health record system. In this perspective, we discuss the implications of the intersection of two large-scope and large-scale initiatives, health system transformation, and information technology modernization, being rolled out in the largest and most complex federal agency and potential risk mitigating steps. The Military Health System will require an expanded unified clinical leadership to spearhead short-term transformation; furthermore, developing, organizing, and growing a cadre of informatics expertise to expand the use and diffusion of novel solutions such as health information exchanges, data analytics, and others to transcend organizational barriers are still needed to achieve the long-term aim of health system reform as envisioned by the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017.
Rychnovsky, Jacqueline D
(a) To describe fatigue levels in military active-duty women, (b) to describe the relationship among selected predictor variables of fatigue, and (c) to examine the relationship between predictor variables, fatigue levels, and performance (as measured by functional status) after childbirth. Based on the Theory of Unpleasant Symptoms, a longitudinal, prospective design. A large military medical facility in the southwest United States. A convenience sample of 109 military active-duty women. Postpartum fatigue. Women were found to be moderately fatigued across time, with no change in fatigue levels from 2 to 6 weeks after delivery. All variables correlated with fatigue during hospitalization and at 2 weeks after delivery, and depression, anxiety, maternal sleep, and functional status correlated with fatigue at 6 weeks after delivery. Regression analyses indicated that maternal anxiety predicted fatigue at 6 weeks after delivery. Over half the women had not regained full functional status when they returned to work, and 40% still displayed symptoms of postpartum depression and anxiety. Military women continue to experiencing postpartum fatigue when they return to the workplace. Future research is needed to examine issues surrounding fatigue and its associated variables during the first year after delivery.
Full Text Available The transition requirement for post communism countries, especially the part that is about military forces is to establish those civil-military relation that will have prepared projects for awareness evolving of society and military about necessity of democratic control over military sector of country through development of many different communication forms and shapes. Before everything, it means the entire freedom and independence of media at access to military forces as the topic and subject of its interests and also the organization of public military communication system as integral part of information-communication system in society
A. A. Mustafa
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to provide some insights into the ability of the sixth year medical students and interns to recall theoretical knowledge of pharmacology. A cross-sectional study was conducted among students who graduated from three different medical schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was distributed to male and female students in 3 different colleges of medicine. The questionnaire included demographic information and ten multiple choice questions (MCQs on basic pharmacology. Out of the 161 students, there were 39 females (24% and 122 males (76%. A total of 36 (22% students studied at a traditional learning school whereas 125 (78% students studied at problem based learning (PBL schools. The students were recruited from three universities: KSU, KSAU-HS, and KFMC-COM. In general, 31 students (19% of the participants scored ≥ 7 out of 10, 77 students (48% of them obtained a correct score of (4–6 out of 10, and 53 students (33% scored less than 4. The study showed no statistically significant difference in recalling pharmacology between traditional school and problem based learning school except for those who prepared for exams. Results suggest that pharmacology is a difficult subject. Reevaluations are needed in the way of teaching pharmacology.
El-Ansary, Afaf; Warsy, Arjumand; Daghestani, Maha; Merghani, Nada M.; Al-Dbass, Abeer; Bukhari, Wadha; Al-Ojayan, Badryah; Ibrahim, Eiman M.; Al-Qahtani, Asma M.; Shafi Bhat, Ramesa
The current study aims to synthesize silver nanoparticles using Ziziphus spina Christi (ZSC) or (Sidr) aqueous leaf extract collected from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using sidr leaves extract was successful. Production of silver nanoparticles was confirmed through UV-vis Spectrophotometer, particles size and zeta potential analysis, Infra-red spectroscopy, Scanning, and Transmission Electron Microscope (SEM and TEM). The UV-visible spectra showed that the absorption peak existed at 400 nm. SEM analysis showed that the synthesized AgNPs were spherical but in slightly aggregated form. TEM demonstrated different size range of 4-33 nm with an average size of 13. The element analysis profile showed silver signal together with oxygen, calcium, and potassium peaks which might be related to the plant structure. Biological effects of the synthesized AgNPs exhibit satisfactory inhibitory effect against ten tested microorganisms. It inhibited the growth of 5 gram-positive and five gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, AgNPs demonstrated a synergistic effect on the neurotoxicity induced in rat pups with orally administered methyl mercury (MeHg). The present study showed that AgNPs prepared from ZSC might be a promising antimicrobial agent for successful treatment of bacterial infection in intensive care units (ICU) especially in case of antibiotic resistance.
Khawaja, Naveed Ahmad; Khalil, Hesham; Parveen, Kauser; Al-Mutiri, Abdulmajeed; Al-Mutiri, Saif; Al-Saawi, Abdullah
The purpose of this study is to determine the type and frequency of pathological conditions around third molar teeth among randomly selected patient's records in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh. Totally, 281 patient panoramic radiographs were selected with detectable pathology among 570 files of patients seen in oral and maxillofacial surgery clinics 2 years retrospectively. Almost 17-55 years age (mean age 25.43) was selected. The following radiographs were analyzed for all pathology associated impacted teeth; dental caries, bone resorption, periodontitis, and apical pathology. The study found caries, external bone resorption and periodontitis are highly frequent to mesioangular and horizontal in mandibular impacted third molar compared to maxillary impacted third molar. Overall result evaluated that tooth #28 related periodontitis is significant (P = 0.021), and tooth #38 related bone resorption, tooth #48 related root caries, bone resorption and apical pathology are highly significant (P = 0.000) comparing to others. This study also concluded the high frequency of root caries, bone resorption and apical pathology reported in relation to mandibular impacted third teeth. Significant results were also achieved with periodontitis in relation to mesiangular and vertical angulation of left impacted maxillary third molars. Prophylactic removal of impacted third molars is recommended in many studies to avoid future risk of associated pathology. Retained asymptomatic impacted third molars imply pathology that could be difficult in later ages as less morbidity in younger ages.
Al-Hamadan, Adel Ibn Abd. Al-Wahab; Alorf, Sadaa Bent Muhamed
All elderly residents (total number 74) in the Riyadh nursing home were included in this study. Body mass index (BMI), mid-arm circumference (MAC) and calf circumference (CC) were measured. The Mini Nutritional Assessment (MAA), specifically designed for elderly subjects was used in the study to determine the nutritional status. 27% and 43% of elderly subjects were found to be malnourished and at risk of being malnourished, respectively. The means the (BMI), (MAC), and (CC) were about 24 Kg/m2, 26 cm and 29.5 cm, respectively. Elderly people, who were classified as malnourished, according to the (MNA), had the lowest (BMI), (MAC). When the score of the (MNA) was based on the diagnosis of the elderly, the results show the elderly subjects with more one main diagnosis had the lowest score. Based on the score of the (MNA) test, more than 1/4 of the subjects were malnourished. Most of the subjects were consuming three whole meals and more than two serving of fruit and vegetables per day. It seems that food intake, in the nursing home, was satisfactory, among the subjects. Despite that the percentage of malnourished subjects reached 27%. The results of the (MNA) test indicated the necessity of performing national nutritional assessment for this vulnerable group of people in other nursing homes and in the community. (author)
Full Text Available Khalaf Ali Al-Jumah,1 Mohamed Azmi Hassali,2 Ibrahem Al-Zaagi31Al Amal Psychiatric Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia; 3King Saud Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaObjective: The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt the Armando Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire into Arabic and validate its use in the general population.Methods: The translation was conducted based on the principles of the most widely used model in questionnaire translation, namely Brisling’s back-translation model. A written authorization allowing translation into Arabic was obtained from the original author. The Arabic version of the questionnaire was distributed to 480 participants to evaluate construct validity. Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17.0 for Windows was used for the statistical analysis.Results: The response rate of this study was 96%; most of the respondents (52.5% were female. Internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach’s α, which showed that this questionnaire provides a high reliability coefficient (reaching 0.9299 and a high degree of consistency and thus can be relied upon in future patient satisfaction research.Keywords: cross-cultural, Arabic, survey
Pavel V. Didov
Full Text Available The article analyzes the phenomenon of "polite people" from the point of view of the history and theory of ethical thought. Identify and specify ethical principles that form the basis of military courtesy. On the basis of the revealed regularities, the study proves that ethics is impossible without a certain power attributes, which constitute its core. In relation to the traditions of Russian warriors revealed the key role to their formation of the Orthodox ethics and the military of meekness. The obtained results can serve as material for educational activities for the formation of fighting spirit.
techniques have been extremely effective for acute pain management, especially pain from ex- tremity injuries and rib fractures . Such techniques...temporary stabilization of a fracture to minimize blood loss, then physiologic stabilization, and finally definitive orthopedic management.35 The...particularly in the most severe wounds and results in low complication rates. Regional Anesthesia and Total Intravenous Anesthesia Combat pain management
ISAAC ENRIQUE HERNÁNDEZ TÉLLEZ
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the measurement of the Cobb angle in printed radiographs and digitalized radiographs displayed with the "PixViewer" tool. Methods: Pre-operative radiographs of 23 patients were performed in printed films and using the software "PixViewer". The same evaluator, a spine surgeon, chose the proximal and distal end vertebrae at the limit of the main curve in printed radiographs without identifying patients, and measured the Cobb angle based on these parameters. The same parameters and measurements were performed in digitalized radiographs. The measurements were compared, as well as the choice of end vertebrae. Results: The average change in the Cobb angle between the methods was 1.48±1.73°. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was 0.99, demonstrating excellent reproducibility. Conclusion: The Cobb method can be used to evaluate scoliosis through the "PixViewer" tool with the same reliability of the classic method on printed radiographs.
...-AA00 Safety Zone; Military Ocean Terminal Concord Safety Zone, Suisun Bay, Military Ocean Terminal... Guard is establishing a safety zone in the navigable waters of Suisun Bay near Military Ocean Terminal Concord, CA in support of military onload and offload operations. This safety zone is established to...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military riggers or former military riggers: Special certification rule. 65.117 Section 65.117 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Riggers § 65.117 Military riggers or former military riggers: Special certification rule. In place of the...
...%). Only 4 percent of youth volunteered that they might be joining the military. Overall, youth mentioned family, friends and acquaintances, and movies and television most often as influencing their impression of the military...
Mait, Joseph N
.... This report is a primer for commercial providers to gain some understanding of the military's thinking about military information technology and some of the programs it foresees for the future...
Chizek, Judy G
.... As the military services attempt to increase the agility and versatility of their weapon systems, they also see a need to increase the capabilities of military intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR...
Goldberg, Adam M
This study explores the Jewish experience within the American military. The history of military service by persons of the Jewish faith corresponds roughly to that of persons from many other ethnic or religious groups...
.... It describes a program sponsored by the Department of Defense and supported by the Department of the Army in which military installations, military units, clubs, and volunteer licensed amateur radio...
Partial Contents: Military Political Issues, Ministry Of Defense and General Staff, Warsaw Pact and Groups of FOrces, Armed Forces, Ground Forces, Air Defense Forces, Naval Forces, Civil Defense, DOSAAF and Military...
This publication, Military Sfrategies for Sustainment of Nufrition and Immune Function in the Field, is the latest in a series of reports based on workshops sponsored by the Committee on Military Nutrition Research (CMNR...
the various security forces, policy reviews and the introduction of a human ...... Military legal practitioners must become experts in the land, air, maritime and cyber- ... private military companies, non-governmental organisations, transnational.
Best Jr, Richard A
... carry out their military missions, and to be prepared to deliver health care during wartime. The military health system also provides, where space is available, health care services in Department of Defense (DOD...
Vincent, Stéphanie; Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann; W. Jepsen, Peter
Public concern about soldiers’ mental health has increased over the last decade. Yet the large literature on the mental health problems of returning soldiers relies primarily on self-reported measures that may suffer from non-response bias, usually refers to older conflicts, and focuses mainly...... on specific diagnoses such as PTSD. Another challenge is that the differences between soldiers and non-soldiers are not necessarily causal, instead possibly reflecting an underlying propensity towards active military service. Using the objective measures of hospitalizations and the purchase of mental health...... medication, this paper is the first to investigate the effect of recent military deployments on a broader measure of mental health, for a full population of Danish soldiers and a comparison group of eligible men. We exploit a panel of Danish health administrative records and use propensity score matching...
Čabarkapa Milanko M.
Full Text Available Suicide of soldiers has its own specifics, because not only it represents the tragedy for the individuals and their family, but also has great psychological effect on social environment and military unit in which it occurs. Suicide can be caused by variety of factors, as reported in the literature. The case reviewed in this article presents multilateral determination of suicide, with particular stress on the character of each individual and social interaction of soldiers. Psychological complex of basic inferiority, low educational level, family problems, and poor integration into military unit could be considered the leading determinants of this suicide. This emphasizes the importance of certain preventive measures such as more rigorous psychological selection for specific military duty, and the education of non-commissioned officers for better recognition and understanding of pre-suicidal syndrome.
Jamison, David; Cohen, Steven P.
As in the general population, chronic pain is a prevalent and burdensome affliction in active-duty military personnel. Painful conditions in military members can be categorized broadly in terms of whether they arise directly from combat injuries (gunshot, fragmentation wound, blast impact) or whether they result from non-combat injuries (sprains, herniated discs, motor vehicle accidents). Both combat-related and non-combat-related causes of pain can further be classified as either acute or chronic. Here we discuss the state of pain management as it relates to the military population in both deployed and non-deployed settings. The term non-battle injury (NBI) is commonly used to refer to those conditions not directly associated with the combat actions of war. In the history of warfare, NBI have far outstripped battle-related injuries in terms not only of morbidity, but also mortality. It was not until improvements in health care and field medicine were applied in World War I that battle-related deaths finally outnumbered those attributed to disease and pestilence. However, NBI have been the leading cause of morbidity and hospital admission in every major conflict since the Korean War. Pain remains a leading cause of presentation to military medical facilities, both in and out of theater. The absence of pain services is associated with a low return-to-duty rate among the deployed population. The most common pain complaints involve the low-back and neck, and studies have suggested that earlier treatment is associated with more significant improvement and a higher return to duty rate. It is recognized that military medicine is often at the forefront of medical innovation, and that many fields of medicine have reaped benefit from the conduct of war.
Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to discuss the role of communication in military leadership. First of all, basic terms related to communication, command and military leadership are explained. In the following parts of the paper it is intended to answer the question contained in the title: what is the role of communication in the military leadership? To precise the issue: is the role of communication in military organisations similar to civilian leadership and management or does it significantly differ?
Jerald A Schiff; Benedict J. Clements; Sanjeev Gupta
The decline in military spending that began in the mid-1980s continued through 1995, and this decline was widespread both geographically and by level of development. Cuts in military spending appear to have potentially important implications for nonmilitary spending and fiscal adjustment. In contrast to findings for previous periods, military spending has declined more than proportionately in those countries that have reduced total spending. Countries with Fund programs have reduced military ...
Roberts, Gordon R
.... The cause for this apparent mental reservation on the part of military leaders can be found in their organizational bias and environmental influences, but the solution can be found in history. It is vital for the military to understand that a currency of truth is the most important contribution it can make to the civilian-military relationship.
performance measures: customer satisfaction , flexibility, visibility, and trust. If we apply this explanation of Li and Schulze (2011) to the military...unmanned systems, initially, we aimed to define current and proposed unmanned applications in civilian-sector logistics and current military...aimed to define current and proposed unmanned applications in civilian-sector logistics and current military logistics challenges. Then, justifying
Poliakov, R. Iu.
The subcultures that develop among military students have a powerful influence on their values and behavior, and in some situations are more influential than the official, military culture. Any attempt to improve levels of discipline in the military cannot afford to ignore these subcultures. [This article was translated by Kim Braithwaite.
.... If the Military Citation and The Bluebook do not address a source of authority used in military practice, the author should attempt to maintain uniformity in citation style by adapting the most analogous and useful citation form that Military Citation and The Bluebook do address. Most importantly, the author should provide the reader with sufficient information to locate the referenced material swiftly.
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military service. 842.306 Section 842.306... EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Credit for Service § 842.306 Military service. (a) Except as...' Retirement System Act of 1986, an employee's or Member's military service is creditable if it was performed...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military service. 831.301 Section 831.301...) RETIREMENT Credit for Service § 831.301 Military service. (a) Service of an individual who first became an... is not receiving military retired pay awarded for reasons other than (i) service-connected disability...
Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Sbrocco, Tracy; Theim, Kelly R.; Cohen, L. Adelyn; Mackey, Eleanor R.; Stice, Eric; Henderson, Jennifer L.; McCreight, Sarah J.; Bryant, Edny J.; Stephens, Mark B.
Objective This review discusses the current knowledge and future directions regarding obesity within the US military family (i.e., active-duty servicemembers, as well as military spouses, children, retirees, and veterans). The increasing rates of overweight and obesity within the US military adversely impact military readiness, limit recruitment, and place a significant financial burden on the Department of Defense. Design and Methods The following topics are reviewed: 1) The prevalence of and the financial, physical, and psychological costs associated with overweight in military communities; 2) military weight regulations, and challenges faced by the military family related to overweight and disordered eating; 3) the continued need for rigorous program evaluations and new intervention development. Results Overweight and its associated sequelae impact the entire military family. Military families share many similarities with their civilian counterparts, but they face unique challenges (e.g., stress related to deployments and relocations). Although the military has weight management resources, there is an urgent need for rigorous program evaluation and the development of enhanced obesity prevention programs across the lifespan of the military family–several of which are proposed herein. Conclusions Interdisciplinary and collaborative research efforts and team-based interventions will continue to inform understanding of obesity treatment and prevention within military and civilian populations. PMID:23836452
... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military service. 1602.17 Section 1602.17 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.17 Military service. The term military service includes service in the Army, the Navy, the Air Force...
Kleinreesink, E.; Soeters, J.M.M.L.
It can be difficult for researchers from outside the military to gain access to the field. However, there is a rich source on the military that is readily available for every researcher: military memoirs. This source does provide some methodological challenges with regard to truth and (self)
the Brazilian military.57 The establishment of an enduring program, even after the departure of US personnel, indicated the successful nature of...United States, coming to support the United States in a time of crisis went a long way to begin rebuilding a relationship that was in decline since the
Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 4 (1978) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Mackenzie, Colin; Donohue, John; Wasylina, Philip; Cullum, Woodrow; Hu, Peter; Lam, David M
In Maryland, there have been no military/civilian training exercises of the Medical Mutual Aid Agreement for >20 years. The aims of this paper are to describe the National Disaster Medical System (NDMS), to coordinate military and civilian medical mutual aid in response to arrival of overseas mass casualties, and to evaluate the mass-casualty reception and bed "surge" capacity of Maryland NDMS Hospitals. Three tabletop exercises and a functional exercise were performed using a simulated, overseas, military mass-casualty event. The first tabletop exercise was with military and civilian NMDS partners. The second tested the revised NDMS activation plan. The third exercised the Authorities of State Emergency Medical System and Walter Reed Army Medical Center Directors of Emergency Medicine over Maryland NDMS hospitals, and their Medical Mutual Aid Agreement. The functional exercise used Homeland Security Exercise Evaluation Program tools to evaluate reception, triage, staging, and transportation of 160 notional patients (including 20 live, moulaged "patients") and one canine. The first tabletop exercise identified deficiencies in operational protocols for military/civilian mass-casualty reception, triage, treatment, and problems with sharing a Unified Command. The second found improvements in the revised NDMS activation plan. The third informed expectations for NDMS hospitals. In the functional exercise, all notional patients were received, triaged, dispatched, and accounted in military and five civilian hospitals within two hours. The canine revealed deficiencies in companion/military animal reception, holding, treatment, and evacuation. Three working groups were suggested: (1) to ensure 100% compliance with triage tags, patient accountability, and return of equipment used in mass casualty events and exercises; (2) to investigate making information technology and imaging networks available for Emergency Operation Centers and Incident Command; and (3) to establish NDMS
Andrew, R R
A comparative study of costs per bed per day in teaching hospitals affiliated with Monash University compared with large non-teaching metropolitan hospitals (1964 to 1974) shows they are much higher in teaching hospitals. There is no evidence that this is due to the additional costs arising from the clinical schools. Research in the teaching hospitals and the accompanying high professional standards and demands on services are major factors accounting for the difference. Over the decade studied, the resident staff have increased by 77% and other salaried staff by 24%. The index of expenditure for the three teaching hospitals in the decade has increased by 386%.
Breland, Jessica Y; Donalson, Rosemary; Nevedal, Andrea; Dinh, Julie V; Maguen, Shira
Disordered eating, ranging from occasional binge eating or restriction to behaviors associated with eating disorder diagnoses, is common among military personnel and veterans. However, there is little information on how military service affects eating habits. To describe possible pathways between military service and disordered eating among women veterans, a high risk group. Twenty women veterans who reported changing eating habits in response to stress participated in audio-recorded focus groups or dyadic interviews between April 2013 and October 2014. We used thematic analysis of transcripts to identify and understand women's self-reported eating habits before, during, and after military service. Participants reported entering the military with varied eating habits, but little disordered eating. Participants described several ways military environments affected eating habits, for example, by promoting fast, irregular, binge-like eating and disrupting the reward value of food. Participants believed military-related stressors, which were often related to gender, also affected eating habits. Such stressors included military sexual trauma and the need to meet military weight requirements in general and after giving birth. Participants also reported that poor eating habits continued after military service, often because they remained under stress. For some women, military service can result in socialization to poor eating habits, which when combined with exposure to stressors can lead to disordered eating. Additional research is needed, including work to understand possible benefits associated with providing support in relation to military weight requirements and the transition out of military service. Given the unique experiences of women in the military, future work could also focus on health services surrounding pregnancy-related weight change and the stress associated with being a woman in predominantly male military environments. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Bosilevac, Joseph M; Gassem, Mustafa A; Al Sheddy, Ibraheem A; Almaiman, Salah A; Al-Mohizea, Ibrahim S; Alowaimer, Abdullah; Koohmaraie, Mohammad
Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella are significant foodborne pathogens that can be found in the feces and on the hides of meat animals. When hides are removed during the harvest process, the carcass and subsequent meat products can become contaminated. Camels, cattle, sheep, and goats are harvested for meat in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella are unknown in these animals, and it is assumed that if the animals carry the pathogens in their feces or on their hides, meat products are likely to become contaminated. To this end, a minimum of 206 samples each from hides and feces of camels, cattle, goats, and sheep were collected over the course of 8 months and tested for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella. It was found that E. coli O157:H7 was present in feces (10.7, 1.4, 2.4, and 2.4%) and on hides (17.9, 8.2, 2.9, and 9.2%) of cattle, goats, camels, and sheep, respectively. The prevalence of Salmonella was 11.2, 13.5, 23.2, and 18.8% in feces and 80.2, 51.2 67.6, and 60.2% on hides of cattle, goats, camels, and sheep, respectively. The prevalence of E coli O157:H7 was nearly zero in all samples collected in June and July, while Salmonella did not exhibit any seasonal variation. These results constitute the first comprehensive study of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella prevalence in Saudi Arabian meat animals at harvest.
Fayed, Amel A; Wahabi, Hayfaa; Mamdouh, Heba; Kotb, Reham; Esmaeil, Samia
To investigate the impact of maternal age on pregnancy outcomes with special emphasis on adolescents and older mothers and to investigate the differences in demographic profile between adolescents and older mothers. This study is a secondary analysis of pregnancy outcomes of women in Riyadh Mother and Baby cohort study according to maternal age. The study population was grouped according to maternal age into five subgroups; mothers were married when conceived with the index pregnancy. Young mothers were less likely to be illiterate, more likely to achieve higher education and be employed compared with mothers ≥ 40 years. Compared with the reference group, adolescents were more likely to have vaginal delivery (and least likely to deliver by caesarean section (CS); OR=0.6, 95% CI 0.4 to 0.9, while women ≥40 years, were more likely to deliver by CS; OR 2.9, 95% CI 2.3 to 3.7. Maternal age was a risk factor for gestational diabetes in women ≥40 years; OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.3 to 2.1. Adolescents had increased risk of preterm delivery; OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.1 and women ≥40 years had similar risk; OR, 1.3, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.6. Adverse pregnancy outcomes show a continuum with the advancement of maternal age. Adolescents mother are more likely to have vaginal delivery; however, they are at increased risk of preterm delivery. Advanced maternal age is associated with increased risk of preterm delivery, gestational diabetes and CS. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Abu-Mostafa, Nedal A; Al-Mejlad, Najmah J; Al-Yami, Amal S; Al-Sakhin, Fatimah Z; Al-Mudhi, Shahad A
Inappropriate use of antibiotics may lead to adverse side effects. This cross-sectional survey aimed to investigate the knowledge and attitude of female non-medical students regarding the medical and dental use of antibiotics. Four hundred validated self-administered questionnaires were distributed in Princess Norah Bint-Abdurrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire included questions about accessibility, attitude toward usage, efficacy, side effects, resistance, and usage for dental issues. Knowledge was estimated for every respondent by counting the correct answers, which were considered as points. The scores were categorized as poor, moderate, and high. Of the respondents, 77.8% answered they get antibiotics according to a doctor's prescription; however, 31% stops taking antibiotics when they feel well. Only 38.8% of respondents knew that antibiotics may cause allergic reactions while 59.8% believed the human body can be resistant to antibiotics. The percentages of answers related to dental issues were: antibiotics relieve dental pain (68.8%), antibiotics can be harmful for children's teeth (27.3%), antibiotics are best avoided in pregnancy (56.7%) and no need for antibiotics after scaling (33.8%), root canal treatment (16%), or simple extraction (40.3%). Of respondents, 68% had poor scores about antibiotics efficacy, side effects, and resistance while 86.8% had poor scores related to dental problems. This study noticed a bad attitude related to antibiotics usage, with many misconceptions and poor knowledge. Moreover, the necessity of antibiotics for treatment of dental disease or after dental procedures was totally unclear for the respondents. Community campaigns are recommended every university semester to educate students about the indications, efficacy, and side effects of antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Al Dosari, Mohammed N; Ferwana, Mazen; Abdulmajeed, Imad; Aldossari, Khaled K; Al-Zahrani, Jamaan M
To determine perceptions of parents about child abuse, and their impact on physical and emotional child abuse. Two hundred parents attending three primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Riyadh serving National Guard employes and their families, were requested to participate in this survey. Data was collected by self administered questionnaire. Five main risk factors areas/domains were explored; three were parent related (personal factors, history of parents' childhood abuse, and parental attitude toward punishment), and two were family/community effects and factors specific to the child. SPSS was used for data entry and analysis. Descriptive analysis included computation of mean, median, mode, frequencies, and percentages; Chi-square test and t -test were used to test for statistical significance, and regression analysis performed to explore relationships between child abuse and various risk factors. Thirty-four percent of the parents reported a childhood history of physical abuse. Almost 18% of the parents used physical punishment. The risk factors associated significantly with child abuse were parents' history of physical abuse, young parent, witness to domestic violence, and poor self-control. Child-related factors included a child who is difficult to control or has attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Parents who did not own a house were more likely to use physical punishment. Abusive beliefs of parent as risk factors were: physical punishment as an effective educational tool for a noisy child; parents' assent to physical punishment for children; it is difficult to differentiate between physical punishment and child abuse; parents have the right to discipline their child as they deem necessary; and there is no need for a system for the prevention of child abuse. The causes of child abuse and neglect are complex. Though detecting child abuse may be difficult in primary care practice, many risk factors can be identified early. Parents' attitudes can
Culture analysis seems to create friction when we try to introduce academic concepts relating to culture to military planners. This friction might be related to the fact that officers and academics do their thinking in different 'spaces'. This paper argues the interface or overlapping space between...
...: quality of scholarship, point of view subject matter, and readability. They are categorized by period and subject matter, and given a rating by the author. The first chapter contains an annotated list of twenty-five books that Dr. Murray considers essential to the library of a warfighter, scholar, or student of military history.
militarization Union. I have concluded that the disappeared. 5 Indeed, a de -militarization military’s opportunity and motivation to of Soviet society and... sindrom 41-go." Novoe vremya, No. 8 (February volunteers over conscripts, and the Navy 1991); Maj. Gen. V.G. Strekozov, "Zakony ob oborone i statuse
In Private Military and Security Contractors: Controlling the Corporate Warrior a multinational team of 16 scholars and a practitioner from political science, sociology, and law address a developing phenomenon: controlling the use of privatized force by states in international politics. Robust...
Rossen, Eric; Carter, Courtney D.
In the last decade, more than 800,000 parents of school-age children have been deployed by the U.S. military. Many have deployed more than once and for extended periods, often longer than a year. As a result, increasing numbers of students experience significant distress on a daily basis and are at increased risk for behavioral problems, decreased…
Full Text Available Attractions such as military history museums which exhibit a wide range of important historical artefacts are fundamental sub-elements in any tourism systems, and yet their study suffers from lack of theoretical depth. Military history is an integral element of the history of any nation and countless varieties of tourists both local and international, visit military museums whenever the opportunity presents itself because museums are generally stimulating places of interest. This article focuses predominantly on international tourists visiting the Ditsong National Museum of Military History. In addition to the interest that such museums generate, they play a key role as the organizational foundation stones of modernity. It is via their many interesting exhibits that museums enlighten us about the past that intrinsically highlights its distance from the present era. Museums also selectively reconstitute aspects of history and in so doing alienate many artefacts from their original context and yet manage to impart deep understanding of events that shaped the modern world. Museums of all types thus impart knowledge and have a wide range of tales to tell concerning the many and diverse assortments of objects they hold. National pride is an obvious reason for having a military museum where the comprehensive display of military equipment is exceptionally unique while exhibition halls also offer an educational narrative of a nation’s history. What is also of interest to many visitors is the type of research that is carried out in a multiplicity of ways. The huge global growth in tourism in recent years has contributed to many museums radically altering their exhibits in both content and manner of exhibition. This is significant given the reciprocal impact that museums and tourism have on one another. The attractions in museums are regarded by many to be central to the tourism process and these are very often the main reason for many tourists visiting
Mahlen, Steven D.
Summary: Serratia species, in particular Serratia marcescens, are significant human pathogens. S. marcescens has a long and interesting taxonomic, medical experimentation, military experimentation, and human clinical infection history. The organisms in this genus, particularly S. marcescens, were long thought to be nonpathogenic. Because S. marcescens was thought to be a nonpathogen and is usually red pigmented, the U.S. military conducted experiments that attempted to ascertain the spread of this organism released over large areas. In the process, members of both the public and the military were exposed to S. marcescens, and this was uncovered by the press in the 1970s, leading to U.S. congressional hearings. S. marcescens was found to be a certain human pathogen by the mid-1960s. S. marcescens and S. liquefaciens have been isolated as causative agents of numerous outbreaks and opportunistic infections, and the association of these organisms with point sources such as medical devices and various solutions given to hospitalized patients is striking. Serratia species appear to be common environmental organisms, and this helps to explain the large number of nosocomial infections due to these bacteria. Since many nosocomial infections are caused by multiply antibiotic-resistant strains of S. marcescens, this increases the danger to hospitalized patients, and hospital personnel should be vigilant in preventing nosocomial outbreaks due to this organism. S. marcescens, and probably other species in the genus, carries several antibiotic resistance determinants and is also capable of acquiring resistance genes. S. marcescens and S. liquefaciens are usually identified well in the clinical laboratory, but the other species are rare enough that laboratory technologists may not recognize them. 16S rRNA gene sequencing may enable better identification of some of the less common Serratia species. PMID:21976608
Full Text Available Objective To investigate the current global status of military ocular injury for the purpose of improving the level of domestic epidemiological investigation,in order to improve treatment strategies,and to prevent and reduce the incidence of military ocular injury in Chinese PLA.Methods The epidemiological literature concerning military ocular injury occurring in our country and abroad in recent five years was retrieved by information research;the problems and experiences in the aspects of epidemiological survey,registry,data collection,systematic treatment and prevention of military ocular injury existed in PLA were also summarized and analyzed.Results There were currently no systematic epidemiological data about ocular injury in PLA.A few articles about epidemiological study on ocular injury showed that servicemen were the high risk population of ocular injury.Both in peacetime or wartime the ocular injury was the primary cause leading to monocular blindness of soldiers.As to the ocular injury,in 51.55% of the patients,it occurred in the military operations and work,and 30.31% in military training.The incidence of ocular injury was different in various services,for example,the incidence in the internal security forces of armed police could be as high as 78.85% due to training of martial arts and boxing and wrestling.The deficiency of microsurgery equipments and untimely evacuation were the main causes affecting prognosis during treatment course in primary military hospitals.Conclusions Military affairs,physical training,military maneuver and defense constructions are the main causes of ocular injury in servicemen,and young male soldiers are the main group for prevention and treatment for military ocular injury.More attention should be paid to the epidemiological survey of military ocular injury to find out the causes leading to ocular injury,to improve treatment strategies,to formulate feasible protective measures and then military ocular
There are 9.4 million military veterans receiving Social Security benefits, which means that almost one out of every four adult Social Security beneficiaries has served in the United States military. In addition, veterans and their families make up almost 40 percent of the adult Social Security beneficiary population. Policymakers are particularly interested in military veterans and their families and have provided them with benefits through several government programs, including Social Security credits, home loan guarantees, and compensation and pension payments through the Department of Veterans Affairs. It is therefore important to understand the economic and demographic characteristics of this population. Information in this article is based on data from the March 2004 Current Population Survey, a large, nationally representative survey of U.S. households. Veterans are overwhelmingly male compared with all adult Social Security beneficiaries who are more evenly split between males and females. Military veterans receiving Social Security are more likely to be married and to have finished high school compared with all adult Social Security beneficiaries, and they are less likely to be poor or near poor than the overall beneficiary population. Fourteen percent of veterans receiving Social Security benefits have income below 150 percent of poverty, while 25 percent of all adult Social Security beneficiaries are below this level. The higher economic status among veterans is also reflected in the relatively high Social Security benefits they receive. The number of military veterans receiving Social Security benefits will remain high over the next few decades, while their make-up and characteristics will change. In particular, the number of Vietnam War veterans who receive Social Security will increase in the coming decades, while the number of veterans from World War II and the Korean War will decline.
Full Text Available Hamdan Al-HazmiDivision of Urology, Department of Surgery, College of Medicine and King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaObjective: Our aim is to prove that duration of catheterization and length of hospital stay (LOS are associated with the rate of hospital-acquired urinary tract infections (UTI, while taking into account type of urinary catheter used, the most common organisms found, patient diagnosis on admission, associated comorbidities, age, sex, precautions that should be taken to avoid UTI, and comparison with other studies.Methods: The study was done in a university teaching hospital with a 920-bed capacity; this hospital is a tertiary care center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study was done on 250 selected patients during the year 2010 as a retrospective descriptive study. Patients were selected as purposive sample, all of them having been exposed to urinary catheterization; hospital-acquired UTI were found in 100 patients. Data were abstracted from the archived patients' files in the medical record department using the annual infection control logbook prepared by the infection control department. The data collected were demographic information about the patients, clinical condition (diagnosis and the LOS, and possible risk factors for infection such as duration of catheterization, exposure to invasive devices or surgical procedures, and medical condition.Results: There was a statistically significant association between the rate of UTI and duration of catheterization: seven patients had UTI out of 46 catheterized patients (15% at 3 days of catheterization, while 30 patients had UTI out of 44 catheterized patients (68% at 8 days of catheterization (median 8 days in infected patients versus 3 days in noninfected patients; P-value <0.05, which means that the longer the duration of catheterization, the higher the UTI rate. There was a statistically significant association between the rate of UTI and LOS
Full Text Available The origins of military leadership are rooted in ancient times and its embodiment are great chieftains and commanders. However, since the moment when in organisation and management sciences the civil theories of leadership started to emerge, the military forces have incorporated their solutions to structure the assumptions of new, coherent and effective models of military leadership. A good example of such solutions is the Canadian model of military leadership, competently merging the civil theories with experience and needs of the military environment. This solution may be a perfect example of effective application of leadership theory to modify the existing national model of military leadership and construct a more efficient one.
support from the lesbian, gay, bi-sexual, transgender ( LGBT ) community and in return made several campaign promises along the way. One of the campaign ...Lesbian, Gay, Bi-sexual, Transgender] ( LGBT ) rights is exploited by those seeking to divide us. But at its core, this issue is about who we are as...No. 85. July 2007. Donnelly, Elaine. Who Will Confront the “ LGBT Left?”. Center for Military Readiness. (5 February 2008). Frank
Chang, Bei-Hung; Stein, Nathan R; Skarf, Lara M
Although combat experiences can have a profound impact on individuals' spirituality, there is a dearth of research in this area. Our recent study indicates that one unique spiritual need of veterans who are at the end of life is to resolve distress caused by combat-related events that conflict with their personal beliefs. This study sought to gain an understanding of chaplains' perspectives on this type of spiritual need, as well as the spiritual care that chaplains provide to help veterans ease this distress. We individually interviewed five chaplains who have provided spiritual care to veterans at the end of life in a Veterans Administration hospital. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed based on "grounded theory." Chaplains reported that they frequently encounter veterans at the end of life who are still suffering from thoughts or images of events that occurred during their military career. Although some veterans are hesitant to discuss their experiences, chaplains reported that they have had some success with helping the veterans to open up. Additionally, chaplains reported using both religious (e.g., confessing sins) and nonreligious approaches (e.g., recording military experience) to help veterans to heal. Our pilot study provides some insight into the spiritual distress that many military veterans may be experiencing, as well as methods that a chaplain can employ to help these veterans. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings and to examine the value of integrating the chaplain service into mental health care for veterans.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. In December 2001, an outbreak of trichinellosis spreaded in a military unit. The aim of this paper was to show possibilities and consequences of trichinellosis infestations in military units during peace time, as well as to improve knowledge and awareness of medical corps personnel, commanders and soldiers about this disease. Methods. A descriptive and analytical epidemiological models were used to find out a source of outbreak and to identify the ways of its transmission. Results. This outbreak was caused by the contaminated raw smoked sausage which had not undergone health inspection and brought from civilians to a military unit. Thirty-eight persons were exposed, twenty-one affected and hospitalized. The most frequent symptoms reported were fever (76.2%, myalgia (76.2%, palpebral edema (42.8%, face edema (19.0% and diarrhea (14.3%. Test for indirect immunofluorescence was positive in 14.3% and ELISA test was positive in 28.6% of the patients. Eosinophilia was present in 85.7% of the affected. IgE values were increased in 28.6% and CPK values were increased in 61.9% of the diseased. All of the 17 exposed undiseased had negative laboratory analyses for trichinellosis. Conclusion. We propose intensifying health education and continuing the implementation of duly supervised and evaluated self-check programs. A well-tuned, fast-reacting epidemiological monitoring system has to be obligatory.
Apgar, Mahlon; Keane, John M
A $200 billion market has appeared on your business horizon, but you may not have noticed it. It's the U.S. military--the new U.S. military. Virtually all aspects of the military are changing to ensure it can fight unpredictable threats while sustaining the infrastructure needed to support and train forces. The military is turning to non-traditional business partners to meet a wide range of needs, from health care to housing to information technology. The Defense Department is yielding its monopoly on every aspect of national security and adopting a more businesslike model in which the military's warfighting capabilities are supported through outsourcing and business alliances. Civilians are replacing military personnel in many noncombat roles. Military functions with corporate equivalents are candidates for outsourcing and privatization. Market standards are replacing the heavy customization that has locked many companies out of this marketplace. The authors have participated in the transformation process from different perspectives--one civilian, the other military. Together, they highlight the prospects that transformation is creating for companies outside the traditional defense industry and reveal paths to success in this complex market. They also present six principles for doing business with the military that require persistence, integrity, and a willingness to master the intricacies of a distinctive culture. By understanding the logic of military transformation, executives can identify and create vast new business opportunities. And by mastering the six principles, they can build profitable long-term relationships.
Meadows, Sarah O.; Beckett, Megan K.; Bowling, Kirby; Golinelli, Daniela; Fisher, Michael P.; Martin, Laurie T.; Meredith, Lisa S.; Osilla, Karen Chan
Abstract Military life presents a variety of challenges to military families, including frequent separations and relocations as well as the risks that service members face during deployment; however, many families successfully navigate these challenges. Despite a recent emphasis on family resilience, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) does not have a standard and universally accepted definition of family resilience. A standard definition is a necessary for DoD to more effectively assess its efforts to sustain and improve family resilience. RAND authors reviewed the literature on family resilience and, in this study, recommend a definition that could be used DoD-wide. The authors also reviewed DoD policies related to family resilience, reviewed models that describe family resilience and identified key family resilience factors, and developed several recommendations for how family-resilience programs and policies could be managed across DoD. PMID:28083409
Full Text Available One of the main goals for human resources management structures and for armed forces leaders is to maintain all necessary personnel, both qualitatively and quantitatively for operational needs or for full required capabilities. The retention of military personnel is essential to keep morale and unit readiness and to reduce the costs for recruiting, training, replacement of manpower. Retention rates depend not only on money or other social measures. The goal for retention is to keep in use the most valuable resource that belongs to an organization: the human beings and their knowledge. The aim pf this paper is to provide a comparative analysis of retention measures in various countries based on Research and Technology Organisation report released in 2007 and, thus, provide more examples of retention measures as far as the Romanian military system is concerned.
Beaumont, Steven P; Allan, Helen T
To explore how peacetime employment of military nurses in the UK National Health Service Medical Defence Hospital Units prepares them to be competent to practise in their role on deployment. Military secondary care nurses are employed within UK National Health Service Trusts to gain clinical experience that will be relevant to their military nursing role. A two-stage grounded theory study using mixed methods: postal questionnaire survey and in-depth interviews. In stage one a postal questionnaire was distributed to all serving military nurses. Stage two involved 12 semi-structured interviews. The data from both parts of the study were analysed using grounded theory. Four categories and one core category were identified, which suggested that participants did not feel fully prepared for deployment. Their feelings of preparedness increased with deployment experience and decreased when the nature of injuries seen on deployment changed. Respondents argued that even when unprepared, they did not feel incompetent. The findings suggest that the peacetime clinical experience gained in the National Health Service did not always develop the necessary competencies to carry out roles as military nurses on deployment. This study highlights the unique role of military nurses. We discuss these findings in the light of the literature on competency and expertise. The military nurses in this study did not feel fully prepared for deployed operations. We propose a new model for how military nurses could gain relevant experience from their National Health Service placements. National Health Service clinical placements need to be reassessed regularly to ensure that they are meeting military nurses' clinical requirements. Experiences of nurses returning from deployment could be shared and used as a basis for reflection and learning within National Health Service Trusts and also inform decisions regarding the appropriateness of clinical placements for qualified military nurses. © 2012
SGVU SUBJECT: Professional Presentation Approval 8 APR2016 1. Your paper, entitled Statistical Challenges in Military Research presented at Joint...Statistical Meetings, Chicago, IL 30 July - 4 Aug 2016 and Proceedings of the Joint Statistical Meetings with MDWI 41-108, and has been assigned ...charges (to include costs for tables and black and white photos). We cannot pay for reprints. If you are 59 MDW staff member, we can forward your request
automated artificial intelligence to act at the speed of cyber (S. Jasper, class notes, September 12, 2017). The idea is to limit damage inside your network...we would not want artificial intelligence conducting counter attacks; there needs to be a human in the loop in order to prevent terrible decisions...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT CYBERSECURITY EDUCATION FOR MILITARY OFFICERS
federal subsidies have promoted produc- tion and use of biodiesel, which is not a hydrocarbon but rather a fatty acid methyl ester ( FAME ) unsuitable for... methyl ester ( FAME ). FAME and blends of FAME with petroleum-derived fuels are currently banned from use in all deployable, tactical DoD military...fatty acid methyl ester FT Fischer-Tropsch FY fiscal year ISBL inside battery limit Navy Fuels Team Naval Fuels and Lubricants Cross-Functional Team
or position of the Department of the Army, Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government. MILITARY ENGAGEMENT WITH SOCIAL MEDIA BY...been the Army’s best and most effective messengers. Every time a member of the Army family joins Army social media , it increases the timely and...transparent dissemination of information. Social media is a cheap, effective , and measurable form of communication.”6 The Deputy Secretary of Defense
attack birds move in, it realizes the reserve must finish the fight. TF Sa- is over.., the senior controller calls "change of ber is alerted to recycle ...concentrate on field S1 must then take the casualties and recycle exerise performance alone, measwing it them as replacements. objectively against a...degenerate into a formal rehash of military history and the causes and consequences of common places and a plodding through trivia , tension between
comment directly on the moral dimensions of military deception is the great Roman orator, Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43 B.C.). Of paramount...action is to be commended, if what is 1 Marcus Tullius Cicero, De Officiis, I.xiii.40, trans. Walter Miller (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1913... Aurelius Augustinus (A.D. 354-430), later known as Saint Augustine, the Catholic bishop of Hippo in North Africa, is in many ways the pivotal
Talas, Laszlo; Baddeley, Roland J; Cuthill, Innes C
While one has evolved and the other been consciously created, animal and military camouflage are expected to show many similar design principles. Using a unique database of calibrated photographs of camouflage uniform patterns, processed using texture and colour analysis methods from computer vision, we show that the parallels with biology are deeper than design for effective concealment. Using two case studies we show that, like many animal colour patterns, military camouflage can serve multiple functions. Following the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact, countries that became more Western-facing in political terms converged on NATO patterns in camouflage texture and colour. Following the break-up of the former Yugoslavia, the resulting states diverged in design, becoming more similar to neighbouring countries than the ancestral design. None of these insights would have been obtained using extant military approaches to camouflage design, which focus solely on concealment. Moreover, our computational techniques for quantifying pattern offer new tools for comparative biologists studying animal coloration.This article is part of the themed issue 'Animal coloration: production, perception, function and application'. © 2017 The Author(s).
Waness, Abdelkarim; Akbar, Jalal U; Kharal, Mubashar; BinSalih, Salih; Harakati, Mohammed
To test the effect of improved physician availability on hospital bed utilization. A prospective cohort study was conducted from 1st January 2009 to 31st March 2009 in the Division of Internal Medicine (DIM), King Abdul-Aziz Medical City (KAMC), Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Two clinical teaching units (CTU) were compared head-to-head. Each CTU has 3 consultants. The CTU-control provides standard care, while the CTU-intervention was designed to provide better physician-consultant availability. Three outcomes were evaluated: patient outsourcing to another hospital, patient discharge during weekends, and overall admissions. Statistical analysis was carried out by electronic statistics calculator from the Center for Evidence-Based Medicine. Three hundred and thirty-four patients were evaluated for admission at the Emergency Room by both CTU's. One hundred and eighty-three patients were seen by the CTU-control, 6 patients were outsourced, and 177 were admitted. One hundred fifty-one patients were seen by the CTU-intervention: 39 of them were outsourced, and 112 were admitted. Forty-eight weekend patient discharges occurred during this period of time: 21 by CTU-control, and 27 by CTU-intervention. Analysis for odds ratio in both the rate of outsourcing, and weekend discharges, showed statistical significance in favor of the intervention group. The continuous availability of a physician-consultant for patient admission evaluation, outsourcing, or discharge during regular weekdays and weekends at DIM, KAMC proved to have a positive impact on bed utilization.
Adel Ali Alshehri
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Patient satisfaction after anesthesia is an important outcome of hospital care. The aim is to evaluate the postoperative patient satisfaction during the patient stay at King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods: Three hundred and fifty-three patients who underwent surgery under general/regional anesthesia were surveyed. They were interviewed face to face on the first postoperative day. We recorded pain and pain controls in addition to some common complication of anesthesia like nausea and vomiting (postoperative nausea and vomiting as a parameter to assess the rate of patient′s satisfaction. Results: The overall level of satisfaction was high (95.2%; 17 (4.8% patients were dissatisfied with their anesthetic care. There was a strong relation between patient dissatisfaction and: (i Patients with poor postoperative pain control 13 (12.4%, (ii patients with moderate nausea 8 (11.1% and (iii patients with static and dynamic severe pain 6 (21.4. Several factors were associated with dissatisfaction can be prevented, or better treated. Conclusion: We concluded that the patient satisfaction was high. Postoperative visit should be routinely performed in order to assess the quality and severity of postoperative pain, nausea and vomiting and the other side-effects postoperatively.
The central problem of modern military art is defined as the development of new methods of conducting armed conflict. The changes involving the radical military technical re-equipping of Soviet Armed Forces, are described.
Kutz, Gregory D; Causseaux, Bruce A; Dorn, Terrell G
The Kaiserslautern Military Community Center (KMCC) is one of many projects initiated at Ramstein Air Base to upgrade capabilities of the base as a result of the consolidation of military bases in Europe...
This thesis analyzes the civil-military relations of the growing U.S. military presence in Romania and the implications of this development for bi-lateral relations beyond the barracks and the maneuver field...
This research thesis is a study through a military commercial industry partnership to seek whether investments in military modeling and simulation can be easily transferred to benefit commercial industry...
Nikolai P. Kovalev
Full Text Available One of peculiar features of the military criminal justice system in Russia is that in some cases military defendants may apply for trial by jury. Unlike the existing U.S. court-martial jury and the Russian military jury of the early 1900s (World War I period which were comprised of the members of the armed forces, in modern Russia jurors trying military defendants are civilians. This article aims to provide a brief history of military jury in Russia and identify issues of independence and impartiality in Russian military courts with participation of lay decision-makers. In particular, the article will analyze two high-profile cases which resulted in acquittals of Russian officers accused of killing several Chechen civilians during counter-terrorist operations in Chechnya.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Welcome to hospitalinspections.org, a website run by the Association of Health Care Journalists (AHCJ) that aims to make federal hospital inspection reports easier...
This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation.
Smith, EA; Malone, RE
Smoking impairs the readiness and performance of military personnel, yet congressional opposition has thwarted military tobacco control initiatives. Involvement of civilian organizations might alter this political dynamic. We interviewed 13 leaders of national civilian public health and tobacco control organizations to explore their perspectives on military tobacco control, inductively analyzing data for themes. Leaders believed that military tobacco use was problematic but lacked specific kn...
Bolin, Phil Warren
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The influence of military service and military vocational training on post-service earnings was analyzed using the National Longitudinal Survey of young men (14-24 years of age in 1966) . When individuals were classified by their propensity to use training neither military service nor military vocational training was a significant determinant of post-service earnings. A disaggregation of the sample IQ revealed that m...
Anxiety, Life Satisfaction , Addiction, Trauma 4 The Military Family Coping Project reflects two phases. The first consisted of a series of focus...need for and guided the work of the Military Family Coping Project Phase II funded by TATRC. The Military Family Coping Project Phase II was...solidarity. For the purposes of family functioning analyses, married and unmarried soldiers were analyzed separately because marital status affects
Petrov, G M; Moretskiĭ, A A
There are discussed the problems of military treatment and prophylactic institution (TPI) functioning under conditions of market reform of Russian public health. Main marketing concepts in military health are determined and some recommendations on work improvement in TPI of the Armed Forces in the system of obligatory medical insurance are presented, granting population paid medical services. It is necessary to form a new type of director--military and medical manager.
Abu-Qarn, A. S.; Dunne, J. P.; Abdelfattah, Y.; Zaher, S.
Egypt plays a pivotal role in the security of the Middle East as the doorway to Europe and its military expenditure reflects its involvement in the machinations of such an unstable region, showing considerable variation over the last forty years. These characteristics make it a particularly interesting case study of the determinants of military spending. This paper specifies and estimates an econometric model of the Egyptian demand for military spending, taking into account important strategi...
Jie, Wan; Wen, Wang
The building of military logistics network is an important issue for the construction of new forces. This paper has thrown out a concept model of 6R military logistics network model based on JIT. Then we conceive of axis spoke y logistics centers network, flexible 6R organizational network, lean 6R military information network based grid. And then the strategy and proposal for the construction of the three sub networks of 6Rmilitary logistics network are given.
Sun, Yong; Shao, Yani; Zhang, Zhiguo; Wang, Lianfen; Mariga, Alfred M.; Pang, Guangchang; Geng, Chaoyu; Ho, Chi-Tang; Hu, Qiuhui; Zhao, Liyan
Cordyceps (Cordyceps militaris) exhibits many biological activities including antioxidant, inhibition of inflammation, cancer prevention, hypoglycemic, and antiaging properties, etc. However, a majority of studies involving C. militaris have focused only on in vitro and animal models, and there is a lack of direct translation and application of study results to clinical practice (e.g., health benefits). In this study, we investigated the regulatory effects of C. militaris micron powder (3 dos...
Hiring Expectancies – Expectancy (VIE) Theory ( Vroom , 1996) states individuals choose among a set of employment alternatives on the basis of the...A Conceptual Model of Military Recruitment Presented at NATO Technical Course HFM 180 – Strategies to Address Recruiting and Retention Issues in...the Military Fariya Syed October, 2009 Based on A Proposed Model Of Military Recruitment (Schreurs & Syed, 2007) Report Documentation Page
basis of military economics. As is known, the modern scientific and technological revolution has strengthened even more the dependence of war and...investment spheres of an academy’s graduates must also be consider- ed The teaching of political and military economies would border on enlight - enment...dynamics of its military, economic, scientific and technological potential without mastering the changes in the industrial structure of physical
Full Text Available After the peace bonus era, global military expenditures have escalated sharply despite some worldwide declines in military personnel. Theories on the economic impacts of the military institution and escalated military spending greatly differ and include arguments that they either improve domestic economic performance or crowd out growth-inducing processes. Empirical findings on this matter are inconclusive, in part due to a failure to disentangle the various dimensions of military expenditures. We further suggest that modern sociology's relative inattention to such issues has contributed to these shortcomings. We explore a new dimension of military spending that clarifies this issuemilitary expenditures per soldier which captures the capital intensiveness of a countrys military organization. Our cross-national panel regression and causal analyses of developed and less developed countries from 1990 to 2003 show that military expenditures per soldier inhibit the growth of per capita GDP, net of control variables, with the most pronounced effects in least developed countries. These expenditures inhibit national development in part by slowing the expansion of the labor force. Labor-intensive militaries may provide a pathway for upward mobility, but comparatively capital-intensive military organizations limit entry opportunities for unskilled and under- or unemployed people. Deep investments in military hardware also reduce the investment capital available for more economically productive opportunities. We also find that arms imports have a positive effect on economic growth, but only in less developed countries.
Ott, Laura E.; Kellley Morgan, Jessica; Akroyd, H. Duane
The military lifestyle imposes unique challenges for military spouses in regards to their education and careers. To help alleviate these challenges, military spouses are encouraged to pursue portable career paths. This causes one to question whether spouses desire these portable careers and what influences spouses place on pursuing specific…
Hospenthal, Duane R; Green, Andrew D; Crouch, Helen K; English, Judith F; Pool, Jane; Yun, Heather C; Murray, Clinton K
Infections have complicated the care of combat casualties throughout history and were at one time considered part of the natural history of combat trauma. Personnel who survived to reach medical care were expected to develop and possibly succumb to infections during their care in military hospitals. Initial care of war wounds continues to focus on rapid surgical care with debridement and irrigation, aimed at preventing local infection and sepsis with bacteria from the environment (e.g., clostridial gangrene) or the casualty's own flora. Over the past 150 years, with the revelation that pathogens can be spread from patient to patient and from healthcare providers to patients (including via unwashed hands of healthcare workers, the hospital environment and fomites), a focus on infection prevention and control aimed at decreasing transmission of pathogens and prevention of these infections has developed. Infections associated with combat-related injuries in the recent operations in Iraq and Afghanistan have predominantly been secondary to multidrug-resistant pathogens, likely acquired within the military healthcare system. These healthcare-associated infections seem to originate throughout the system, from deployed medical treatment facilities through the chain of care outside of the combat zone. Emphasis on infection prevention and control, including hand hygiene, isolation, cohorting, and antibiotic control measures, in deployed medical treatment facilities is essential to reducing these healthcare-associated infections. This review was produced to support the Guidelines for the Prevention of Infections Associated With Combat-Related Injuries: 2011 Update contained in this supplement of Journal of Trauma.
Hall, Lynn K
Social workers can make a significant contribution to military service members and their families, but first it is essential that the worldview, the mindset, and the historical perspective of life in the military are understood. Unless we understand how the unique characteristics of the military impact the service members and their families, we cannot work effectively with them. In addition, unless we understand their language, their structure, why they join, their commitment to the mission, and the role of honor and sacrifice in military service, we will not be able to adequately intervene and offer care to these families.
Partial Contents: Military Political Issues, Warsaw Pact, Armed Forces, Ground Forces, Air Force, Air Defense Forces, Naval Forces, Strategic Rocket Forces, Civil Defense , Rear Services, Defense Industries, DOSAAF...
.... In addition to definitions specific to auditory displays, speech communication, and audio technology, the lexicon includes several terms unique to military operational environments and human factors...
authorities, military support to civilian law enforcement agencies, and military assistance for civil disturbances. Also called MACA . (DODD 3025.1...Center MACA military assistance to civil authorities MACB multinational acquisition and contracting board MACCS Marine air command and control
... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Military Leadership Diversity Commission Meeting... will take place: 1. Name of Committee: Military Leadership Diversity Commission (MLDC). 2. Date... Military Leadership Diversity Commission to continue their efforts to address congressional concerns as...
power interplay between the civil elites and the military elites using the term 'civil- military relations' ..... the American military, whose 5th Fleet is headquartered in Bahrain. The advice was that the ..... Embassy Madrid. 23 Danopoulos, C (ed).
... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Military Leadership Diversity Commission (MLDC....150, the Department of Defense announces that the Military Leadership Diversity Commission (MLDC) will... commissioners of the Military Leadership Diversity Commission to continue their efforts to address congressional...
Maloney, J P; Anderson, F D; Gladd, D L; Brown, D L; Hardy, M A
The purpose of this study was to describe health care providers' perceptions of their work environment at a large U.S. Army medical center, and to compare the findings to other military medical centers. The sample (N = 112) consisted of the professional nursing staff working on the nine inpatient units. The Work Environmental Scale (WES) was used to measure perceptions of the workplace relative to gender, position (head nurses, staff nurses, and agency nurses), specialty nursing (intensive care unit [ICU] versus non-ICU), education (MSN, BSN, and ADN), and patterns of differences between the WES subscales of four military medical centers. Results of the study indicate that there were no significant gender differences. Head nurses, non-ICU nurses, and MSN nurses perceived their environment more positively. There were significant differences in the WES subscales between the military hospitals. Implications for nursing using the WES were recommended.
Army Dental Centre, Military Hospital, Awolowo Road, Ikoyi, 1Department of ... Correspondence to: Dr. E. Taiwo Adebayo, General Post Office Box 3338, Kaduna – 800 001, Nigeria. .... meet their individual requirements for an adequate ..... reference materials such as essential drugs list, ... and sterilization equipment.
Sambu R. Tsyrendorzhjyev
Full Text Available The notion of "military danger, military threats, military and non-military measures to Parry, and other definitions from the policy of the State to ensure the military security of the now widely used in journalism, conceptual, other documents and research. The attentive reader it is not difficult to notice the ambiguity in the interpretation of these concepts. This makes it difficult to not only the perception of the relevant topics for ensuring military security publications, but also the development of the theory and practice of ensuring the defence and security of the State. The author's view on the essence of the reasoning logic of non-military measures to counter military threats, as the ultimate goal of the article is the following.First the task of analyzing the concept of "national security", "object of national security" and understand the functions of the State, society and the individual to ensure national security. Decomposition of an object of national security, which is "national property" (the content of the concepts described in the article has made it possible to substantiate the basis for classification of national security threats and with better understanding of the nature, variety, Genesis. This provided a rationale for the role and the place of the tasks ensuring military security in the common task of ensuring national security, the correlation of military and non-military threats.The final phase of the research, the results of which are set out in the article is devoted to analysis of military threats, which made it possible to identify their main structural elements: source, media, military-political and strategic nature, install the main factors defining the content of these elements and their interaction. Based on these results, the proposed definition of the essence of non-military measures for counteracting of military threats, as well as guidelines for developing these measures.
Henderson, Jr, Ronald H
The story of Regulus, while certainly apocryphal, nevertheless illustrates a fundamental tension of military leadership -- the moral imperative for military leaders to tell the truth, even when that...
Field, Kimberly C
The unique characteristics of the "Global War on Terrorism" have implications for the relationship society has with its military, and therefore, for military effectiveness in achieving political ends...
Liang, Chun-Yang; Yang, Yang; Shen, Chun-Sen; Wang, Hai-Jiang; Liu, Nai-Ming; Wang, Zhi-Wen; Zhu, Feng-Lei; Xu, Ru-Xiang
Secondary brain injury is the main cause of mortality from traumatic brain injury (TBI). One hallmark of TBI is intracranial hemorrhage, which occurs in 40-50% of severe TBI cases. Early identification of intracranial hematomas in TBI patients allows early surgical evacuation and can reduce the case fatality rate of TBI. As pre-hospital care is the weakest part of Chinese emergency care, there is an urgent need for a capability to detect brain hematomas early. In China, in addition to preventing injuries and diseases in military staff and in enhancing the military armed forces during war, military medicine participates in actions such as emergency public health crises, natural disasters, emerging conflicts, and anti-terrorist campaigns during peacetime. The purpose of this observational study is to evaluate in the Chinese military general hospital the performance of a near-infrared (NIR)-based portable device, developed for US Military, in the detection of traumatic intracranial hematomas. The endpoint of the study was a description of the test characteristics (sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values [NPV]) of the portable NIR-based device in identification of hematomas within its detection limits (volume >3.5 mL and depth hematoma detection in patients sustaining TBI. Data were collected in the People's Liberation Army General Hospital in Beijing using the NIR device at the time of CT scans, which were performed to evaluate suspected TBI. One hundred and twenty seven patients were screened, and 102 patients were included in the per protocol population. Of the 102 patients, 24 were determined by CT scan to have intracranial hemorrhage. The CT scans were read by an independent neuroradiologist who was blinded to the NIR measurements. The NIR device demonstrated sensitivity of 100% (95% confidence intervals [CI] 82.8-100%) and specificity of 93.6% (95%CI 85-97.6%) in detecting intracranial hematomas larger than 3.5 mL in volume and that
professional military. It simultaneously undermines a military’s commitment to protect the country and its citizens. Plato noted some 2,400 years ago...stepping down from his post as Senior Advisor to the President on Defence and Security.42 He procured not only spoiled food rations for the Ugandan... Plato , The Republic, tr. G.M.A. Grube (Hacket, 1992), 417b and 434a-b. 17 “Above the State: The Officers’ Republic in Egypt,” Carnegie Middle East Center
Bourrelier, P.; Kassel, Ch.
The site of Pierrelatte in France, receives since 1958 gaseous diffusion plants assigned to the uranium enrichment for military uses. Since 1996 Cogema implements, by order of the Cea, a dismantling operation of the site. The operation which will begin in 2000, is going to last ten years. This project shows difficulties that make it innovative. Its originality, the planning, the risks, the program progressing and the regulation aspects are detailed in this paper. Beyond the complicated technical operations, the wastes management is of primary importance for the good development of the operations. (A.L.B.)
This paper reports that soon after Roentgen's discovery, physicians in the armed services of the major powers grasped the importance of x-ray sin military surgery. By May of 1896, radiographic examinations were being performed on Italian soldiers returning from the ill-fated Ethiopian campaign. Initially, radiographs were used for foreign body localization and the detection of fractures; later, a full range of diagnostic services was offered. The early challenges of obtaining x-ray examinations in the field - fragility of tubes and plates, mobility of machines and patients, and unpredictability of radiation dosage - became the basis for innovations that would fundamentally alter the daily practice of radiology in civilian life
Spent fuel elements contain the largest amount of radioactivity, but commercial spent fuel is not presently being reprocessed in the US, so the wastes are left contained within spent fuel assemblies and are not immediately accessible to the environment. By reprocessing military spent fuel to separate plutonium and unspent uranium from the highly radioactive and high-heat fission product waste, known as high-level waste (99.5% fission products and about 0.5% plutonium and uranium), nuclear weapons manufacture produces more dangerous radioactive wastes than do current commercial processes. The Department of Energy standards should be subject to an environmental impact study. 27 references
Alkorashy, Hanan A Ezzat; Al Moalad, Fawziah Bakheet
Violence against nurses is a major challenge for healthcare administrators. It is gaining more attention because it has a negative impact on nurses, the quality of health care and health organization. Common types of violence include physical harassment, sexual abuse, aggression, mobbing and bullying. Patients, their relatives and co-workers are considered the main perpetrators. To determine the prevalence rate of workplace violence against nursing professionals in a university hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, most frequent type and perpetrators as well as the contributing factors. This quantitative cross-sectional study adapted a survey questionnaire from the Massachusetts Nurses Association Survey on Workplace Violence/Abuse to collect data from a quota sample of 370 nursing personnel. Almost half of the participants had experienced violence in the professional setting during the 12 months prior to the study. The majority of subjects perceived workplace violence as verbal abuse. Nearly all nursing professionals identified patients as the leading cause. Slightly more than half mentioned understaffing, misunderstandings, long waits for service and lack of staff training and policies for preventing crisis as contributing factors. The prevalence rate is extremely high among nurses in the targeted Saudi university hospital. Saudi health as well as university hospitals' administration and policy makers should adopt and introduce a 'zero tolerance policy', set standards and develop practical measures for preventing the incidence and for controlling the prevalence of violence against nurses. Besides, healthcare organizations, particularly hospitals, can fulfil their obligations to provide both staff and patients with more secure environment. Further research on the topic is needed. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.
Muller, Kurt E.
Argues that facility in a foreign language contributes to the nation's military capability in command, intelligence, operations, logistics, survival skills and in community and official relations. After reviewing relevant historical episodes, suggests that an effort should be made to improve U.S. military personnel language skills. (MES)
Muhr, Sara Louise; Sløk-Andersen, Beate
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine why and how past stories of women’s insufficiency for military work survive and how they come to form a gendered organizational narrative dominant in constructing current opinions on women in the military. Design/methodology/approach The analysis is...
Rodt, Annemarie Peen
This book provides the first comprehensive review of the European Union’s role in military conflict management beyond its borders and makes an important contribution to debates on the EU’s role in global security governance. The EU has launched five military operations within the framework of its...
Meetings of students and veterans, militarized physical culture celebrations , department and school activities which develop a sense of patriotism, formal...they capable of making military affairs interesting to a young men in Adidas jackets with dyed- hackle hairdos, of getting them to love military
Veestraeten, Marlies; Kyndt, Eva; Dochy, Filip
As teams have become fundamental parts of today's organisations, the need for these teams to function and learn efficiently and effectively is widely emphasised. Also in military contexts team learning is vital. The current article examines team learning behaviour in military teams as it aims to cross-validate a team learning model that was…
of rich and poor – suffice it to refer to Meggitt (1998), in particular, who made ... was poised to use its military prowess ruthlessly when its preferred option. 4 Oakes' ..... 23 The military terms in 1 Peter's moral instruction, στρατεύονται (2:11) and ...
lithium -ion battery that may be replaced by the user (unlike Apple iPod Touch devices), thus spare batteries can be carried. If there is only sporadic...Android Smartphone Relevance to Military Weather Applications by David Sauter ARL-TR-5793 October 2011...Android Smartphone Relevance to Military Weather Applications David Sauter Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, ARL
Patton, Christina L; McNally, Matthew R; Fremouw, William J
Previous studies have implicated significant differences between military members and civilians with regard to violent behavior, including suicide, domestic violence, and harm to others, but none have examined military murder-suicide. This study sought to determine whether there were meaningful differences between military and civilian murder-suicide perpetrators. Using data from the Center for Disease Control's (CDC) National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS), military (n = 259) and civilian (n = 259) murder-suicide perpetrators were compared on a number of demographic, psychological, and contextual factors using chi-square analyses. Logistic regression was used to determine which variables predicted membership to the military or civilian perpetrator groups. Military murder-suicide perpetrators were more likely to be older, have physical health problems, be currently or formerly married, less likely to abuse substances, and to exhibit significantly different motives than civilian perpetrators. Logistic regression revealed that membership to the military, rather than the civilian, perpetrator group was predicted by age, physical health problems, and declining heath motive-reflecting the significance of a more than 15-year difference in mean age between the two groups. Findings point to the need to tailor suicide risk assessments to include questions specific to murder-suicide, to assess attitudes toward murder-suicide, and to the importance of assessing suicide and violence risk in older adult military populations. © The Author(s) 2015.
Phelps, Terri; Dunham, Mardis; Lyons, Robert
This study investigated the impact that military deployment has upon academic achievement of elementary school students. TerraNova test scores of 137 fourth and fifth grade students in two elementary schools with a high proportion of military dependent children were examined for two consecutive years. Although the academic test performance fell…
Sexual Harassment 1 Contrapower Sexual Harassment of Military Officers Sexual harassment is generally categorized in one of two ways: quid pro quo ...power or status over the victim (McKinney, 1992). The very definition of quid pro quo sexual harassment generally necessitates a superior harassing a...Contrapower Sexual Harassment of Military Officers A Thesis Presented by Sarah K. Clapp to the
The relationship between military expenditure and the stimulation of aggregate demand, inflation, investment, trade balance, foreign exchange, the improvement of taxation, and employment creation and industrialization in the Third World is analyzed. To some extent military expenditure does promote economic growth, but it does not automatically…
A key issue in the study of civil-military relations has been how to create a military sufficiently strong to ensure security from external threats while simultaneously preventing the military from using its preponderance of power in the domestic arena. This dilemma arises from the fear engendered by a large armed force created to combat foreign threats, but which is also inherently a threat to the society that created it. In Russia, however, the question is not how the civilian leadership can keep the military out of politics, but how the military can keep the leadership from politicizing the armed forces. The Russian military has no interest in resolving Russia`s domestic political problems. It is a professional military that prefers to leave politics to the politicians, and to carry out its mission of defending the nation against external attack. But the lack of responsible central leadership and the poor state of the economy are driving the military toward involvement in domestic politics if for no other reason than to ensure its own survival.
as any to borrow from other countries’ experiences. In order to do so, this article introduces the concept of ‘selective emulation’, and compares the French and German military adaptation processes in Afghanistan. The article argues that there is indeed something distinctive about French military...
Delahaij, R.; Gaillard, A.W.K.; Soeters, J.M.L.M.
The new environment in which current military operations take place is often characterized by unpredictable and ambiguous situations. This places new demands on military personnel. In combination with high levels of violence and threat, these situations will elicit acute stress reactions, which can
Ighoyota B. AJENAGHUGHRURE
Full Text Available Military infantry recruits, although trained, lacks experience in real-time combat operations, despite the combat simulations training. Therefore, the choice of including them in military operations is a thorough and careful process. This has left top military commanders with the tough task of deciding, the best blend of inexperienced and experienced infantry soldiers, for any military operation, based on available information on enemy strength and capability. This research project delves into the design of a mission combat efficiency estimator (MCEE. It is a decision support system that aids top military commanders in estimating the best combination of soldiers suitable for different military operations, based on available information on enemy’s combat experience. Hence, its advantages consist of reducing casualties and other risks that compromises the entire operation overall success, and also boosting the morals of soldiers in an operation, with such information as an estimation of combat efficiency of their enemies. The system was developed using Microsoft Asp.Net and Sql server backend. A case study test conducted with the MECEE system, reveals clearly that the MECEE system is an efficient tool for military mission planning in terms of team selection. Hence, when the MECEE system is fully deployed it will aid military commanders in the task of decision making on team members’ combination for any given operation based on enemy personnel information that is well known beforehand. Further work on the MECEE will be undertaken to explore fire power types and impact in mission combat efficiency estimation.
The history of military surgery claims many forebears. The first surgeon-soldiers were Homer's Machaon and Podalirius, followed a thousand years later by the Roman surgeons-general, Antonius Musa and Euphorbus; and later, e.g. Ambrose Paré, John Hunter and Sir John Pringle; and the 19th century innovators, Dominique-Jean Larrey (France), Friedrich von Esmarch (Prussia) and the Russian, Nikolai Pirogoff. The singular feature that distinguished modern military surgery from its earlier practice was the use of gunpowder. It was one of two inventions (the other was printing) that by the empowerment of individuals, lifted Western humankind from the medieval to the modern era. Research of primary and secondary archives. Gunpowder was first used in European warfare at Algeceras (1344-1368). Hitherto, the destruction of tissue had been the result of (relative) low-energy wounding with tissue damage caused by incisional or crushing wounds. The founder of modern surgery, Master John of Arderne (1307-1380), wrote of his experience gained as a military surgeon on the battlefield at Crecy (1346). Following Crecy, Arderne was the only chronicler who described the origins of the Prince of Wales's feathers as a royal and later commercial symbol, and the motto 'Ich Dien', 'I serve', as that of hospitals in the Western World. Later advances in military surgery incorporated both clinical experimentation and the innovation of new systems of pre-hospital battlefield care. © 2012 The Author. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Edwards-Stewart, Amanda; Kinn, Julie T; June, Jennifer D; Fullerton, Nicole R
Military suicide has increased over the past decade and reports of Service Member and Veteran suicides receive media attention. Some methods of reporting suicide appear to cause a "media contagion" effect, potentially increasing suicide. This effect is explored in relation to media reports of both military and civilian suicides. To reduce possible contagion, recommendations for media reporting of suicides were adapted by the Suicide Prevention Resource Center (SPRC). We assessed 240 military and civilian newspaper reports of suicide from 15 different sources for compliance with the SPRC guidelines. Nearly all reviewed articles violated at least one guideline. Results highlighted military news articles regarding Service Members included more pejorative language and discussion of failed psychological treatment. Conversely, civilian articles romanticized the victim and provided more details regarding the suicide. Further exploration of military suicide reporting bias is discussed as a need in future research.
Phipps, Alison; Barnett, Ronald
Academic hospitality is a feature of academic life. It takes many forms. It takes material form in the hosting of academics giving papers. It takes epistemological form in the welcome of new ideas. It takes linguistic form in the translation of academic work into other languages, and it takes touristic form through the welcome and generosity with…