WorldWideScience

Sample records for riverine tiger beetle

  1. Studies on tiger beetles : 84. Additions to the tiger beetle fauna of Sulawesi, Indonesia (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassola, F.

    1996-01-01

    Distributional new data are provided for several interesting or poorly known tiger beetle species from Sulawesi, Indonesia. The generic attribution of Wallacedela brendelli Cassola, 1991, is confirmed, and moreover two new species, Wallacedela? problematica spec. nov. and Wallacedela butonensis

  2. Rove beetles (Coleoptera Staphylilnidae) in neotropical riverine landscapes: characterising their distribution.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez Chacon, C.; Del Carmen Zuniga, M.; van Bodegom, P.M.; Chara, J.; Giraldo, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    1. The diversity and ecology of Staphylinidae in the Neotropical region has been poorly investigated, especially in riverine landscapes where these beetles are among the dominant organisms. Therefore, the relation between the occurrence of Staphylinidae and environmental variables was investigated

  3. The tiger beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelinae) of Israel and adjacent lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matalin, Andrey V; Chikatunov, Vladimir I

    2016-01-01

    Based on field studies, museums collections and literature sources, the current knowledge of the tiger beetle fauna of Israel and adjacent lands is presented. In Israel eight species occur, one of them with two subspecies, while in the Sinai Peninsula nine species of tiger beetles are now known. In the combined regions seven genera from two tribes were found. The Rift Valley with six cicindelids species is the most specious region of Israel. Cylindera contorta valdenbergi and Cicindela javeti azari have localized distributions and should be considered regional endemics. A similarity analysis of the tiger beetles faunas of different regions of Israel and the Sinai Peninsula reveal two clusters of species. The first includes the Great Rift Valley and most parts of the Sinai Peninsula, and the second incorporates most regions of Israel together with Central Sinai Foothills. Five distinct adult phenological groups of tiger beetles can be distinguished in these two clusters: active all-year (three species), spring-fall (five species), summer (two species), spring-summer (one species) and spring (one species). The likely origins of the tiger beetle fauna of this area are presented. An annotated list and illustrated identification key of the Cicindelinae of Israel and adjacent lands are provided.

  4. The tiger beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Cicindelinae) of Angola: a descriptive catalogue and designation of neotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Artur R M; Capela, Rúben A

    2013-11-01

    An annotated catalogue of the species and subspecies of tiger beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Cicindelinae) hitherto known from Angola is given. A total of 89 forms (74 species and 15 subspecies) is recorded from this southwestern country of Africa. Within this assemblage there are 31 endemic forms (33.3%). Some species are represented by only the holotype specimen (some without locality) or the type series. Others were recorded based on a single specimen. Records for six species previously unknow from Angola are given: Foveodromica sp. n. 1, Foveodromica sp. n. 2, Ophryodera rufomarginata bradshawi Péringuey, 1888, Elliptica muata parallelestriata (W. Horn, 1923), Lophyra differens (W. Horn, 1892) and Myriochila jucunda (Péringuey, 1892). A historical review, as well as some considerations on the distribution and conservation status of these beetles in Angola are also presented.

  5. Habitat manipulation of Exposed Riverine Sediments (ERS) how does microhabitat, microclimate and food availability influence beetle distributions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshall, S. E.; Sadler, J. P.; Hannah, D. M.

    2009-04-01

    Exposed riverine sediments (ERS) are frequently inundated areas of relatively un-vegetated, fluvially deposited sediment (sand, silt, gravel and pebble). These habitats provide an important interface allowing the interaction of aquatic and terrestrial habitats and species. ERS are highly valuable for many rare and specialist invertebrates particularly beetles. Within an area of ERS, beetle species richness tends to be highest along the water's edge. This higher species richness may be linked to: (1) the availability of food items in the form of emerging and stranded aquatic invertebrates and (2) favourable physical microhabitat conditions in terms of temperature and moisture. This paper explores the role of microclimate and food availability by creating areas of ‘water's edge' habitat in the centre of a gravel bar. Typically these areas are drier, reach higher temperatures and devoid of emerging aquatic invertebrate prey. Four 2m x 2m experimental plots were created: one wet plot, one wet- fed plot, one dry-fed plot and one dry plot (control). These plots were each replicated on three separate areas of ERS. Sixty colour marked ERS specialist ground beetles (Bembidion atrocaeruleum) were released into each plot to monitor beetle persistence and movement on and between plots. The plots were maintained wet using a capillary pump system, and fed with dried blood worms for 30 days. Sediment temperature (0.05 m depth) was measured at 15 minute intervals and spot measurements of surface temperature were taken daily. A hand search was carried out on 25% of each plot after 7, 14, 21 and 30 days. Significant temperature differences were observed between the wet and dry sediment and air temperature. The wet plots on average were 1.8oC cooler than the dry plots and had a reduced temperature range. Both wet and dry sediments remained significantly warmer than air temperature. The wet and wet-fed plots yielded significantly greater numbers of beetles and marked beetles than

  6. Effects of knowledge of an endangered species on recreationists' attitudes and stated behaviors and the significance of management compliance for ohlone tiger beetle conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelisse, Tara M; Duane, Timothy P

    2013-12-01

    Recreation is a leading cause of species decline on public lands, yet sometimes it can be used as a tool for conservation. Engagement in recreational activities, such as hiking and biking, in endangered species habitats may even enhance public support for conservation efforts. We used the case of the endangered Ohlone tiger beetle (Cicindela ohlone) to investigate the effect of biking and hiking on the beetle's behavior and the role of recreationists' knowledge of and attitudes toward Ohlone tiger beetle in conservation of the species. In Inclusion Area A on the University of California Santa Cruz (U.S.A.) campus, adult Ohlone tiger beetles mate and forage in areas with bare ground, particularly on recreational trails; however, recreation disrupts these activities. We tested the effect of recreation on Ohlone tiger beetles by observing beetle behavior on trails as people walked and road bikes at slow and fast speed and on trails with no recreation. We also surveyed recreationists to investigate how their knowledge of the beetle affected their attitudes toward conservation of the beetle and stated compliance with regulations aimed at beetle conservation. Fast cycling caused the beetles to fly off the trail more often and to fly farther than slow cycling or hiking. Slow cycling and hiking did not differ in their effect on the number of times and distance the beetles flew off the trail. Recreationists' knowledge of the beetle led to increased stated compliance with regulations, and this stated compliance is likely to have tangible conservation outcomes for the beetle. Our results suggest management and education can mitigate the negative effect of recreation and promote conservation of endangered species. Efectos del Conocimiento de una Especie en Peligro sobre las Actitudes y Comportamientos Declarados de los Recreacionistas y el Significado del Manejo de la Conformidad para la Conservación del Escarabajo Tigre de Ohlone. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Three new species of tiger beetles and new data on Cicindelina species from Angola (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Cicindelinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Artur R M; Capela, Rúben A; Oesterle, Andreas

    2015-10-15

    Three new species of tiger beetles, two of the genus Trichotaenia Rivalier, 1957 and one of the genus Cylindera Westwood, 1831, subgenus Ifasina Jeannel, 1946 are described from Angola. An annotated list of species of Cicindelina sampled in this country is provided also. Records for three species previously unknow from Angola are given: Ophryodera smrzi Werner, 2005, Lophyra clatharta (Dejean, 1825) and Lophyra sumlini Cassola, 1976. Some considerations on the distribution and general ecology of these beetles in Angola are also presented. Further, two dichotomic keys are made available for the identification of Trichotaenia species with marked shoulders and Cylindera (Ifasina) species of western and southwestern Africa, respectively.

  8. Taxonomic Revision of Hispaniola Tiger Beetles in the Genus Brasiella Rivalier, 1954 (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Acciavatti

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Brasiella tiger beetle fauna on Hispaniola, the second largest island of the Greater Antilles, has more species diversity than currently recognized as all populations previously have been assigned to the insular endemic Brasiella dominicana (Mandl. A comparative study of adult morphology, particularly male genitalic and female abdominal characters, for available Brasiella specimens from populations on Hispaniola, proposes eight additional new species also endemic to this island. Except for three sympatric species in the Sierra de Baoruco in southern Dominican Republic occurring in different habitats, all the Brasiella on Hispaniola appear to be allopatric. Most species occur in the major mountainous regions of Hispaniola. Two species, however, are known only from river floodplains in the southern coastal plain of the Dominican Republic. Brasiella dominicana (Mandl and B. ocoa, new species, occur along river floodplains emanating from the eastern end of the Cordillera Central in the Dominican Republic. Two new Brasiella species, B. bellorum, and B. philipi, occur in the Cordillera Central, Dominican Republic, the former species from central portions, and the latter species from north slopes of this mountain range, respectively. Three new Brasiella species, B. rawlinsi, B. iviei, and B. youngi, are isolated in the Sierra de Baoruco, Dominican Republic, where each occupies a different habitat along an altitudinal gradient. The two new Brasiella species in Haiti are B. darlingtoniana, in the Massif de la Selle, and B. davidsoni, in the Massif de la Hotte. All nine Brasiella species on Hispaniola, along with B. viridicollis (Dejean and its two subspecies on Cuba, belong to the viridicollis species group of the genus Brasiella based on criteria presented in earlier published phylogenetic studies of Brazilian and West Indian tiger beetles. The subspecies Brasiella viridicollis fernandozayasi (Kippenhan, Ivie & Hopp may represent a distinct species

  9. Integrating life stages into ecological niche models: a case study on tiger beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboada, Angela; von Wehrden, Henrik; Assmann, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Detailed understanding of a species' natural history and environmental needs across spatial scales is a primary requisite for effective conservation planning, particularly for species with complex life cycles in which different life stages occupy different niches and respond to the environment at different scales. However, niche models applied to conservation often neglect early life stages and are mostly performed at broad spatial scales. Using the endangered heath tiger beetle (Cicindela sylvatica) as a model species, we relate presence/absence and abundance data of locally dispersing adults and sedentary larvae to abiotic and biotic variables measured in a multiscale approach within the geographic extent relevant to active conservation management. At the scale of hundreds of meters, fine-grained abiotic conditions (i.e., vegetation structure) are fundamental determinants of the occurrence of both life stages, whereas the effect of biotic factors is mostly contained in the abiotic signature. The combination of dense heath vegetation and bare ground areas is thus the first requirement for the species' preservation, provided that accessibility to the suitable habitat is ensured. At a smaller scale (centimetres), the influence of abiotic factors on larval occurrence becomes negligible, suggesting the existence of important additional variables acting within larval proximity. Sustained significant correlations between neighbouring larvae in the models provide an indication of the potential impact of neighbourhood crowding on the larval niche within a few centimetres. Since the species spends the majority of its life cycle in the larval stage, it is essential to consider the hierarchical abiotic and biotic processes affecting the larvae when designing practical conservation guidelines for the species. This underlines the necessity for a more critical evaluation of the consequences of disregarding niche variation between life stages when estimating niches and

  10. The tiger beetles (Coleoptera, Cicindelidae) of the southern Levant and adjacent territories: from cybertaxonomy to conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmann, Thorsten; Boutaud, Estève; Buse, Jörn; Gebert, Jörg; Drees, Claudia; Friedman, Ariel-Leib-Leonid; Khoury, Fares; Marcus, Tamar; Orbach, Eylon; Ittai Renan; Schmidt, Constantin; Zumstein, Pascale

    2018-01-01

    The tiger beetles of the southern Levant (Egypt: Sinai, Israel, Jordan) and adjacent regions of the neighboring countries Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Egypt are reviewed in terms of species taxonomy, ecological and distributional traits and conservation biology. An illustrated dichotomous identification key from the species of this region is provided. Based on the classical identification key, we developed a digital identification application for smartphones and tablets. The species status of Calomera aulicoides (J.R. Sahlberg, 1913) is (re-) established (stat. rest.) as this taxon can be found sympatrically and parapatrically together with Calomera littoralis winkleri (Mandl, 1934). Morphological character states are discussed to identify Cicindela javetii Chaudoir, 1861 and C. herbacea Klug, 1832. Calomera aphrodisia (Baudi di Selve, 1864) is recorded for the first time from Israel. The presence of Calomera aulica (Dejean, 1831) and Grammognatha euphratica (Dejean, 1822) is confirmed by new records. At least five taxa are threatened or extinct in Israel. For one of these species, Israel has a national responsibility for the conservation as the main part of the distribution range is within this country. The application TIGER BEETLE ID for Android devices can be freely downloaded at https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.734.21989.suppl1. See also disclaimer of warranties.

  11. Beneficial Insects: Beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson, Erin W.; Patterson, Ron

    2007-01-01

    There are many beneficial beetles in Utah besides lady beetles or ladybugs. Beetles can significantly reduce common insect and weed problems and in some cases eliminate the need for chemical control. Examples of beneficial beetles include: ground beetles, rove beetles, tiger beetles and tortoise beetles. Many of these beetles are native to Utah, while others have been purposely introduced to help control damage from exotic insect and weed pests.

  12. The implications of habitat management on the population viability of the endangered Ohlone tiger beetle (Cicindela ohlone metapopulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara M Cornelisse

    Full Text Available Despite their role in providing ecosystem services, insects remain overlooked in conservation planning, and insect management approaches often lack a rigorous scientific basis. The endangered Ohlone tiger beetle (Cicindela ohlone occurs in a 24-km(2 area in Santa Cruz County, California. The once larger metapopulation now consists of subpopulations inhabiting five patches of coastal prairie where it depends on bare ground for mating, foraging, and oviposition. Human activities have eliminated natural disturbances and spread invasive grasses, reducing C. ohlone's bare-ground habitat. Management actions to restore critical beetle habitat consist of cattle and horse grazing, maintaining slow bicycle speeds on occupied public trails, and artificial creation of bare-ground plots. Recreational biking trails help maintain bare ground, but can cause beetle mortality if left unregulated. We tracked C. ohlone survivorship and estimated fecundity for three years. We then constructed a stage-structured population projection matrix model to estimate population viability among the five patches, and to evaluate the success of management interventions. We demonstrate that habitat creation, regulation of bicycle speed, and migration between patches increase C. ohlone survival and population viability. Our results can be directly applied to management actions for conservation outcomes that will reduce species extinction risk and promote recolonization of extirpated patches.

  13. Wind-powered wheel locomotion, initiated by leaping somersaults, in larvae of the southeastern beach tiger beetle (Cicindela dorsalis media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Harvey

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid movement is challenging for elongate, soft-bodied animals with short or no legs. Leaping is known for only a few animals with this "worm-like" morphology. Wheel locomotion, in which the animal's entire body rolls forward along a central axis, has been reported for only a handful of animals worldwide. Here we present the first documented case of wind-powered wheel locomotion, in larvae of the coastal tiger beetle Cicindela dorsalis media. When removed from their shallow burrows, larvae easily can be induced to enter a behavioral sequence that starts with leaping; while airborne, larvae loop their body into a rotating wheel and usually either "hit the ground rolling" or leap again. The direction larvae wheel is closely related to the direction in which winds are blowing; thus, all our larvae wheeled up-slope, as winds at our study site consistently blew from sea to land. Stronger winds increased both the proportion of larvae wheeling, and the distance traveled, exceeding 60 m in some cases. In addition, the proportion of larvae that wheel and the distance traveled by wheeling larvae are significantly greater on smooth sandy beaches than on beach surfaces made rough and irregular by pedestrian, equestrian, and vehicular traffic. Like other coastal species of tiger beetles, C. dorsalis media has suffered major declines in recent years that are clearly correlated with increased human impacts. The present study suggests that the negative effects of beach traffic may be indirect, preventing larvae from escaping from predators using wheel locomotion by disrupting the flat, hard surface necessary for efficient wheeling.

  14. ESCARABAJOS TIGRE (COLEOPTERA: CICINDELIDAE DEL MUSEO ENTOMOLÓGICO FRANCISCO LUÍS GALLEGO: NUEVOS REGISTROS PARA DEPARTAMENTOS DE COLOMBIA TIGER BEETLES (COLEOPTERA: CICINDELIDAE AT THE ENTOMOLOGICAL MUSEUM FRANCISCO LUÍS GALLEGO: NEW RECORDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alejandro Ramírez Mora

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se registran por primera vez las especies de escarabajos tigre (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae presentes en el Museo Entomológico Francisco Luis Gallego (MEFLG. Se identificaron 167 especimenes distribuidos en ocho géneros y 27 especies, se reportan 24 nuevos registros para diferentes departamentos de Colombia. Se señalan aspectos importantes de la taxonomía y sistemática del grupo. Además, se presentan comentarios biológicos y de distribución de las especies.Tiger beetles (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae species at the Museo Entomológico Francisco Luis Gallego (MEFLG are registered by first time. 167 specimens in 8 genus and 27 species were identified, 24 new records for different Colombian states are reported. Some important aspects of the group’s taxonomy and systematic are pointed. Additionally, species’ biological and distributional comments are presented.

  15. Mitochondrial phylogeography illuminates the origin of the extinct caspian tiger and its relationship to the amur tiger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Driscoll

    Full Text Available The Caspian tiger (Panthera tigris virgata flourished in Central Asian riverine forest systems in a range disjunct from that of other tigers, but was driven to extinction in 1970 prior to a modern molecular evaluation. For over a century naturalists puzzled over the taxonomic validity, placement, and biogeographic origin of this enigmatic animal. Using ancient-DNA (aDNA methodology, we generated composite mtDNA haplotypes from twenty wild Caspian tigers from throughout their historic range sampled from museum collections. We found that Caspian tigers carry a major mtDNA haplotype differing by only a single nucleotide from the monomorphic haplotype found across all contemporary Amur tigers (P. t. altaica. Phylogeographic analysis with extant tiger subspecies suggests that less than 10,000 years ago the Caspian/Amur tiger ancestor colonized Central Asia via the Gansu Corridor (Silk Road from eastern China then subsequently traversed Siberia eastward to establish the Amur tiger in the Russian Far East. The conservation implications of these findings are far reaching, as the observed genetic depletion characteristic of modern Amur tigers likely reflects these founder migrations and therefore predates human influence. Also, due to their evolutionary propinquity, living Amur tigers offer an appropriate genetic source should reintroductions to the former range of the Caspian tiger be implemented.

  16. Mitochondrial phylogeography illuminates the origin of the extinct caspian tiger and its relationship to the amur tiger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Carlos A; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila; Roca, Alfred L; Luo, Shujin; Macdonald, David W; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2009-01-01

    The Caspian tiger (Panthera tigris virgata) flourished in Central Asian riverine forest systems in a range disjunct from that of other tigers, but was driven to extinction in 1970 prior to a modern molecular evaluation. For over a century naturalists puzzled over the taxonomic validity, placement, and biogeographic origin of this enigmatic animal. Using ancient-DNA (aDNA) methodology, we generated composite mtDNA haplotypes from twenty wild Caspian tigers from throughout their historic range sampled from museum collections. We found that Caspian tigers carry a major mtDNA haplotype differing by only a single nucleotide from the monomorphic haplotype found across all contemporary Amur tigers (P. t. altaica). Phylogeographic analysis with extant tiger subspecies suggests that less than 10,000 years ago the Caspian/Amur tiger ancestor colonized Central Asia via the Gansu Corridor (Silk Road) from eastern China then subsequently traversed Siberia eastward to establish the Amur tiger in the Russian Far East. The conservation implications of these findings are far reaching, as the observed genetic depletion characteristic of modern Amur tigers likely reflects these founder migrations and therefore predates human influence. Also, due to their evolutionary propinquity, living Amur tigers offer an appropriate genetic source should reintroductions to the former range of the Caspian tiger be implemented.

  17. TIGER 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — As suggested by the GIS Technical Advisory Committees DASC subcommittee, the DASC staff has imported and converted the U.S. Bureau of Census 1992 Tiger Line Files...

  18. TIGER 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — As suggested by the GIS Technical Advisory Committees DASC subcommittee, the DASC staff has imported and converted the U.S. Bureau of Census 2000 TIGER Line files...

  19. TIGER 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The 2010 Census TIGER/Line data was merged together into a statewide layer if originally available by county from the US Census Bureau. The spatial data was then...

  20. Tiger Nut

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    proximate analysis show brown yellow variety had higher ash, crude protein and crude fiber contents with values of 1.85%, 2.75% and ... wooden mortar and pestle until a fine powder was obtained to .... from tiger nut so as to boost economic.

  1. Asparagus Beetle and Spotted Asparagus Beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson, Erin W.; Drost, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Asparagus beetle, Crioceris asparagi, and spotted asparagus beetle, C. duodecimpunctata are leaf beetles in the family Chrysomelidae. These beetles feed exclusively on asparagus and are native to Europe. Asparagus beetle is the more economically injurious of the two species.

  2. Tiger Team audits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheney, G.T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper will address the purpose, scope, and approach of the Department of Energy Tiger Team Assessments. It will use the Tiger Team Assessment experience of Sandia National Laboratories at Albuquerque, New Mexico, as illustration

  3. Riverine habitat dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, R.B.

    2013-01-01

    The physical habitat template is a fundamental influence on riverine ecosystem structure and function. Habitat dynamics refers to the variation in habitat through space and time as the result of varying discharge and varying geomorphology. Habitat dynamics can be assessed at spatial scales ranging from the grain (the smallest resolution at which an organism relates to its environment) to the extent (the broadest resolution inclusive of all space occupied during its life cycle). In addition to a potentially broad range of spatial scales, assessments of habitat dynamics may include dynamics of both occupied and nonoccupied habitat patches because of process interactions among patches. Temporal aspects of riverine habitat dynamics can be categorized into hydrodynamics and morphodynamics. Hydrodynamics refers to habitat variation that results from changes in discharge in the absence of significant change of channel morphology and at generally low sediment-transport rates. Hydrodynamic assessments are useful in cases of relatively high flow exceedance (percent of time a flow is equaled or exceeded) or high critical shear stress, conditions that are applicable in many studies of instream flows. Morphodynamics refers to habitat variation resulting from changes to substrate conditions or channel/floodplain morphology. Morphodynamic assessments are necessary when channel and floodplain boundary conditions have been significantly changed, generally by relatively rare flood events or in rivers with low critical shear stress. Morphodynamic habitat variation can be particularly important as disturbance mechanisms that mediate population growth or for providing conditions needed for reproduction, such as channel-migration events that erode cutbanks and provide new pointbar surfaces for germination of riparian trees. Understanding of habitat dynamics is increasing in importance as societal goals shift toward restoration of riverine ecosystems. Effective investment in restoration

  4. Union County TIGER 2000 Roads and Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  5. Lincoln County TIGER 2000 Roads and Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  6. Sierra County TIGER 2000 Roads and Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  7. Otero County TIGER 2000 Hydrography and Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  8. Socorro County TIGER 2000 Hydrography and Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  9. Bernalillo County TIGER 2000 Roads and Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  10. Luna County TIGER 2000 Roads and Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  11. Torrance County TIGER 2000 Roads and Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  12. Chaves County TIGER 2000 Roads and Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  13. Mora County TIGER 2000 Hydrography and Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  14. Bernalillo County TIGER 2000 Hydrography and Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  15. Catron County TIGER 2000 Hydrography and Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  16. Roosevelt County TIGER 2000 Roads and Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  17. Luna County TIGER 2000 Hydrography and Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  18. Socorro County TIGER 2000 Roads and Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  19. Roosevelt County TIGER 2000 Hydrography and Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  20. Eddy County TIGER 2000 Hydrography and Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  1. Harding County TIGER 2000 Hydrography and Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  2. Cibola County TIGER 2000 Hydrography and Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  3. Union County TIGER 2000 Hydrography and Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  4. Valencia County TIGER 2000 Hydrography and Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  5. Valencia County TIGER 2000 Roads and Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  6. Grant County TIGER 2000 Hydrography and Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  7. Lea County TIGER 2000 Roads and Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  8. Sandoval County TIGER 2000 Roads and Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  9. Eddy County TIGER 2000 Roads and Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  10. Guadalupe County TIGER 2000 Hydrography and Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  11. 1980 Census Tracts (TIGER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a vector polygon digital data structure taken from Census Bureau's TIGER/Line Files, 1994, for New Mexico. The source software used was ARC/INFO...

  12. Planning tiger recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilting, Andreas; Courtiol, Alexandre; Christiansen, Per

    2015-01-01

    [morphological (craniodental and pelage), ecological, molecular]. Our analyses revealed little variation and large overlaps in each trait among putative subspecies, and molecular data showed extremely low diversity because of a severe Late Pleistocene population decline. Our results support recognition of only...... two subspecies: the Sunda tiger, Panthera tigris sondaica, and the continental tiger, Panthera tigris tigris, which consists of two (northern and southern) management units. Conservation management programs, such as captive breeding, reintroduction initiatives, or trans-boundary projects, rely...

  13. Securing a future for wild Indochinese tigers: Transforming tiger vacuums into tiger source sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Antony J

    2010-12-01

    A century ago, tigers (Panthera tigris Linnaeus, 1758) were so common in parts of Southeast Asia as to be considered pests, and governments sponsored their killing. Habitat loss and fragmentation, market-driven poaching and loss of prey have since led to the disappearance of Indochinese tigers from most their former range. Despite 15 years of dedicated tiger conservation funding, national estimates of Indochinese tiger subpopulations can at best only be roughly approximated. The future for the subspecies appears grim unless very focused efforts can be applied to stabilize and recover subpopulations. On a regional scale, the 2 proposed subspecies Panthera tigris corbetti and P. tigris jacksoni are effectively managed as separate conservation units. Evaluating where to place conservation efforts should consider the vulnerability (likelihood of extinction) and irreplaceability (likelihood that an area contributes uniquely to regional conservation) of tiger subpopulations. Only 1 site in Thailand supporting tiger numbers within 10 years through protection and monitoring. Seven sites in Lao, Thailand and Myanmar are high vulnerability and irreplaceable, and might be recovered if government commitment to tigers, staff capacity and legal frameworks for tiger protection are established. Tigers are extremely vulnerable or even extinct in Cambodia's Eastern Plains and the site is irreplaceable for tigers because it represents the only large (>10,000 km(2) ) block of dry forest habitat available in the region. A reintroduction program is the only option to recover tigers there. © 2010 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  14. Registration of 'Tiger' wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Tiger’ hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed at Research Center-Hays, Kansas State University and released by Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station in 2010. Tiger was selected from a three-way cross KS98H245/’Trego’//KS98HW518 made in 1999 at Hays, KS. The objective of this ...

  15. Indian Reservation & Trust Land Boundaries (TIGER 2000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Shapefiles are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census MAF/TIGER database. The Census MAF/TIGER database...

  16. CARABID BEATLES AS INDICATORS REFLECTING RIVERINE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF RIVER REGULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Kędzior

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to estimate factors responsible for sustaining riverine communities in stream sections with various bank regulation systems. The research were conducted on Porebianka stream in the Polish Western Carpathians, where 10 different types of river regulations were chosen for the analysis (strong incision without alluvial deposits, redeposition with sand and gravel banks, concrete revetment walls along the banks, channel with banks lined with rip-rap and reference unmanaged cross- section. We conclude that the carabid beetles assemblages of the studied river sections respond mainly to hydraulic parameters of the stream. Elimination of frequent natural bank inundation (due to the regulations of the banks is the main factor responsible for the impoverishment and extinction of riverine communities.

  17. A tiger beetle’s pursuit of prey depends on distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noest, R. M.; Wang, Z. Jane

    2017-04-01

    Tiger beetles pursue prey by adjusting their heading according to a time-delayed proportional control law that minimizes the error angle (Haselsteiner et al 2014 J. R. Soc. Interface 11 20140216). This control law can be further interpreted in terms of mechanical actuation: to catch prey, tiger beetles exert a sideways force by biasing their tripod gait in proportion to the error angle measured half a stride earlier. The proportional gain was found to be nearly optimal in the sense that it minimizes the time to point directly toward the prey. For a time-delayed linear proportional controller, the optimal gain, k, is inversely proportional to the time delay, τ, and satisfies kτ =1/e . Here we present evidence that tiger beetles adjust their control gain during their pursuit of prey. Our analysis shows two critical distances: one corresponding to the beetle’s final approach to the prey, and the second, less expected, occurring at a distance around 10 cm for a prey size of 4.5 mm. The beetle initiates its chase using a sub-critical gain and increases the gain to the optimal value once the prey is within this critical distance. Insects use a variety of methods to detect distance, often involving different visual cues. Here we examine two such methods: one based on motion parallax and the other based on the prey’s elevation angle. We show that, in order for the motion parallax method to explain the observed data, the beetle needs to correct for the ratio of the prey’s sideways velocity relative to its own. On the other hand, the simpler method based on the elevation angle can detect both the distance and the prey’s size. Moreover we find that the transition distance corresponds to the accuracy required to distinguish small prey from large predators.

  18. Conserving tigers in working landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanchani, Pranav; Noon, Barry R; Bailey, Larissa L; Warrier, Rekha A

    2016-06-01

    Tiger (Panthera tigris) conservation efforts in Asia are focused on protected areas embedded in human-dominated landscapes. A system of protected areas is an effective conservation strategy for many endangered species if the network is large enough to support stable metapopulations. The long-term conservation of tigers requires that the species be able to meet some of its life-history needs beyond the boundaries of small protected areas and within the working landscape, including multiple-use forests with logging and high human use. However, understanding of factors that promote or limit the occurrence of tigers in working landscapes is incomplete. We assessed the relative influence of protection status, prey occurrence, extent of grasslands, intensity of human use, and patch connectivity on tiger occurrence in the 5400 km(2) Central Terai Landscape of India, adjacent to Nepal. Two observer teams independently surveyed 1009 km of forest trails and water courses distributed across 60 166-km(2) cells. In each cell, the teams recorded detection of tiger signs along evenly spaced trail segments. We used occupancy models that permitted multiscale analysis of spatially correlated data to estimate cell-scale occupancy and segment-scale habitat use by tigers as a function of management and environmental covariates. Prey availability and habitat quality, rather than protected-area designation, influenced tiger occupancy. Tiger occupancy was low in some protected areas in India that were connected to extensive areas of tiger habitat in Nepal, which brings into question the efficacy of current protection and management strategies in both India and Nepal. At a finer spatial scale, tiger habitat use was high in trail segments associated with abundant prey and large grasslands, but it declined as human and livestock use increased. We speculate that riparian grasslands may provide tigers with critical refugia from human activity in the daytime and thereby promote tiger occurrence

  19. The Chinese Tiger Mother

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Hołówka

    2011-01-01

    In 2010 a book by Amy Chua: Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother was published and it sparked a broad discussion among pedagogues and the open society about the factors determining educational success. Chua forms a simple and provocative thesis – the Chinese mothers are the best in the world because they don’t spoil their children, quickly introduce them into the adult culture, have high expectations of them, they are brusque and cold but they teach their children how to survive and be competitive...

  20. San Juan County TIGER 2000 Hydrography and Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  1. Santa Fe County TIGER 2000 Roads and Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  2. Dona Ana County TIGER 2000 Hydrography and Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  3. Rio Arriba County TIGER 2000 Roads and Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  4. San Miguel County TIGER 2000 Hydrography and Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  5. Dona Ana County TIGER 2000 Roads and Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  6. McKinley County TIGER 2000 Roads and Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  7. Los Alamos County TIGER 2000 Hydrography and Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  8. TIGER2012_BlockGroups

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The 2012 Census TIGER/Line data originally made available by the US Census Bureau. The spatial data was then joined to the 2010 Census Summary File 1 via the common...

  9. 2008 TIGER/Line Nationwide Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This dataset contains a nationwide build of the 2008 TIGER/Line datasets from the US Census Bureau downloaded in April 2009. The TIGER/Line Shapefiles are an extract...

  10. SUBMERGED MACROPHYTE EFFECTS ON NUTRIENT EXCHANGES IN RIVERINE SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Submersed macrophytes are important in nutrient cycling in marine and lacustrine systems, although their role in nutrient exchange in tidally-influenced riverine systems is not well studied. In the laboratory, plants significantly lowered porewater nutrient pools of riverine sedi...

  11. River use, conservation and management among riverine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However the problem remains that many water resource planning and management regimes do not capture the views of the myriad of stakeholders and the many benefits of ecological services. This paper examines river use, conservation and management among riverine communities in South Eastern Nigeria using ...

  12. Assessment of fine-scale resource selection and spatially explicit habitat suitability modelling for a re-introduced tiger (Panthera tigris population in central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mriganka Shekhar Sarkar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Large carnivores influence ecosystem functions at various scales. Thus, their local extinction is not only a species-specific conservation concern, but also reflects on the overall habitat quality and ecosystem value. Species-habitat relationships at fine scale reflect the individuals’ ability to procure resources and negotiate intraspecific competition. Such fine scale habitat choices are more pronounced in large carnivores such as tiger (Panthera tigris, which exhibits competitive exclusion in habitat and mate selection strategies. Although landscape level policies and conservation strategies are increasingly promoted for tiger conservation, specific management interventions require knowledge of the habitat correlates at fine scale. Methods We studied nine radio-collared individuals of a successfully reintroduced tiger population in Panna Tiger Reserve, central India, focussing on the species-habitat relationship at fine scales. With 16 eco-geographical variables, we performed Manly’s selection ratio and K-select analyses to define population-level and individual-level variation in resource selection, respectively. We analysed the data obtained during the exploratory period of six tigers and during the settled period of eight tigers separately, and compared the consequent results. We further used the settled period characteristics to model and map habitat suitability based on the Mahalanobis D2 method and the Boyce index. Results There was a clear difference in habitat selection by tigers between the exploratory and the settled period. During the exploratory period, tigers selected dense canopy and bamboo forests, but also spent time near villages and relocated village sites. However, settled tigers predominantly selected bamboo forests in complex terrain, riverine forests and teak-mixed forest, and totally avoided human settlements and agriculture areas. There were individual variations in habitat selection between exploratory

  13. Assessment of fine-scale resource selection and spatially explicit habitat suitability modelling for a re-introduced tiger (Panthera tigris) population in central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Mriganka Shekhar; Krishnamurthy, Ramesh; Johnson, Jeyaraj A; Sen, Subharanjan; Saha, Goutam Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Large carnivores influence ecosystem functions at various scales. Thus, their local extinction is not only a species-specific conservation concern, but also reflects on the overall habitat quality and ecosystem value. Species-habitat relationships at fine scale reflect the individuals' ability to procure resources and negotiate intraspecific competition. Such fine scale habitat choices are more pronounced in large carnivores such as tiger ( Panthera tigris ), which exhibits competitive exclusion in habitat and mate selection strategies. Although landscape level policies and conservation strategies are increasingly promoted for tiger conservation, specific management interventions require knowledge of the habitat correlates at fine scale. We studied nine radio-collared individuals of a successfully reintroduced tiger population in Panna Tiger Reserve, central India, focussing on the species-habitat relationship at fine scales. With 16 eco-geographical variables, we performed Manly's selection ratio and K-select analyses to define population-level and individual-level variation in resource selection, respectively. We analysed the data obtained during the exploratory period of six tigers and during the settled period of eight tigers separately, and compared the consequent results. We further used the settled period characteristics to model and map habitat suitability based on the Mahalanobis D 2 method and the Boyce index. There was a clear difference in habitat selection by tigers between the exploratory and the settled period. During the exploratory period, tigers selected dense canopy and bamboo forests, but also spent time near villages and relocated village sites. However, settled tigers predominantly selected bamboo forests in complex terrain, riverine forests and teak-mixed forest, and totally avoided human settlements and agriculture areas. There were individual variations in habitat selection between exploratory and settled periods. Based on threshold limits

  14. The effect of inundation frequency on ground beetle communities in a channelized mountain stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalski, T.; Kedzior, R.; Radecki-Pawlik, A.

    2012-04-01

    Under natural conditions, river channels and floodplains are shaped by flow and sediment regime and are one of the most dynamic ecosystems. At present, European river floodplains are among the most endangered landscapes due to human modifications to river systems, including channel regulation and floodplain urbanization, and land use changes in the catchments. Situated in a transition zone between terrestrial and aquatic environments, exposed riverine sediments (ERS) play a key role in the functioning of riverine ecosystems. This study aimed to verify whether the bare granular substrate is the only factor responsible for sustaining the biota associated with ERS or the inundation frequency also plays a role, modifying the potential of particular species to colonize these habitats. Ground beetles (Col. Carabidae) were selected as the investigated group of organisms and the study was carried out in Porębianka, a Polish Carpathian stream flowing through both unconstrained channel sections and sections with varied channelization schemes (rapid hydraulic structures, concrete revetments or rip-rap of various age). In each of the distinguished channel types, four replicates of 10 pitfall traps were established in three rows varying in distance to the mean water level (at three different benches). Almost 7000 individuals belonging to 102 species were collected on 60 plots. Forward selection of redundancy analysis revealed four factors significantly describing the variation in ground beetle species data: bank modification, potential bankfull discharge, frequency of inundation and plant height. Most of the biggest species were ordered at the positive site of first axis having the highest values of periods between floods. Total biomass of ground beetles and mean biomass of individuals differed significantly between sites of various frequency of inundation, whereas the variation in abundance and species richness of ground beetles was independent of the river dynamics. The body

  15. New Mexico County Boundaries (2007FE, TIGER, Current)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Shapefiles are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census MAF/TIGER database. The Census MAF/TIGER database...

  16. Bernalillo County Transportation Analysis Zones, Census 2000 from TIGER 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Shapefiles are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census MAF/TIGER database. The Census MAF/TIGER database...

  17. Planning tiger recovery: Understanding intraspecific variation for effective conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Wilting, Andreas; Courtiol, Alexandre; Christiansen, Per; Niedballa, J?rgen; Scharf, Anne K.; Orlando, Ludovic; Balkenhol, Niko; Hofer, Heribert; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Fickel, J?rns; Kitchener, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Although significantly more money is spent on the conservation of tigers than on any other threatened species, today only 3200 to 3600 tigers roam the forests of Asia, occupying only 7% of their historical range. Despite the global significance of and interest in tiger conservation, global approaches to plan tiger recovery are partly impeded by the lack of a consensus on the number of tiger subspecies or management units, because a comprehensive analysis of tiger variation is lacking. We anal...

  18. The Chinese Tiger Mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Hołówka

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2010 a book by Amy Chua: Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother was published and it sparked a broad discussion among pedagogues and the open society about the factors determining educational success. Chua forms a simple and provocative thesis – the Chinese mothers are the best in the world because they don’t spoil their children, quickly introduce them into the adult culture, have high expectations of them, they are brusque and cold but they teach their children how to survive and be competitive. Chua shows this educational model as a contrast to the Western model, where the children have their own, naive and sentimental culture, their own shops and catwalks in shopping malls. The results of systematic research on education seem to prove something quite different. The educational success has to be measured using different scales, because it depends on different factors. The data published by OECD show that the level of education depends on the educational tradition of the society, level of GDP, intergenerational contacts, level of education of teachers and their social status. A strong determiner is the family, but not necessarily the mother. Even more, there is a strong correlation between the results in learning and a supporting stance of the parents, but also with their habit of spending free time with their children. The parents who take their children to the cinema, an a trip, gossip with them or take them to McDonalds, can be sure that their children will have statistically higher than the average grades. Detailed results from other sources show that success correlates the most with grades from previous class, parents’ habit of talking about things at school, higher education of the parents, being a child of a single mother, signing the child up for extracurricular classes from music and the mother working part-time. Failure correlates with being an Afro-American or Latino, checking homework by parents, free time after school without

  19. Deforestation in Amazonia impacts riverine carbon dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langerwisch, Fanny; Walz, Ariane; Rammig, Anja; Tietjen, Britta; Thonicke, Kirsten; Cramer, Wolfgang

    2016-12-01

    Fluxes of organic and inorganic carbon within the Amazon basin are considerably controlled by annual flooding, which triggers the export of terrigenous organic material to the river and ultimately to the Atlantic Ocean. The amount of carbon imported to the river and the further conversion, transport and export of it depend on temperature, atmospheric CO2, terrestrial productivity and carbon storage, as well as discharge. Both terrestrial productivity and discharge are influenced by climate and land use change. The coupled LPJmL and RivCM model system (Langerwisch et al., 2016) has been applied to assess the combined impacts of climate and land use change on the Amazon riverine carbon dynamics. Vegetation dynamics (in LPJmL) as well as export and conversion of terrigenous carbon to and within the river (RivCM) are included. The model system has been applied for the years 1901 to 2099 under two deforestation scenarios and with climate forcing of three SRES emission scenarios, each for five climate models. We find that high deforestation (business-as-usual scenario) will strongly decrease (locally by up to 90 %) riverine particulate and dissolved organic carbon amount until the end of the current century. At the same time, increase in discharge leaves net carbon transport during the first decades of the century roughly unchanged only if a sufficient area is still forested. After 2050 the amount of transported carbon will decrease drastically. In contrast to that, increased temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration determine the amount of riverine inorganic carbon stored in the Amazon basin. Higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations increase riverine inorganic carbon amount by up to 20 % (SRES A2). The changes in riverine carbon fluxes have direct effects on carbon export, either to the atmosphere via outgassing or to the Atlantic Ocean via discharge. The outgassed carbon will increase slightly in the Amazon basin, but can be regionally reduced by up to 60 % due to

  20. TIGER: Turbomachinery interactive grid generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Bharat K.; Shih, Ming-Hsin; Janus, J. Mark

    1992-01-01

    A three dimensional, interactive grid generation code, TIGER, is being developed for analysis of flows around ducted or unducted propellers. TIGER is a customized grid generator that combines new technology with methods from general grid generation codes. The code generates multiple block, structured grids around multiple blade rows with a hub and shroud for either C grid or H grid topologies. The code is intended for use with a Euler/Navier-Stokes solver also being developed, but is general enough for use with other flow solvers. TIGER features a silicon graphics interactive graphics environment that displays a pop-up window, graphics window, and text window. The geometry is read as a discrete set of points with options for several industrial standard formats and NASA standard formats. Various splines are available for defining the surface geometries. Grid generation is done either interactively or through a batch mode operation using history files from a previously generated grid. The batch mode operation can be done either with a graphical display of the interactive session or with no graphics so that the code can be run on another computer system. Run time can be significantly reduced by running on a Cray-YMP.

  1. red flour beetle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... 2Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. 3Department of ... most important energy source around the globe ... T. castaneum (red flour beetle) samples were collected from rice.

  2. A postulate for tiger recovery: the case of the Caspian Tiger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Driscoll

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent genetic analysis has shown that the extinct Caspian Tiger (P. t. virgata and the living Amur Tigers (P. t. altaica of the Russian Far East are actually taxonomically synonymous and that Caspian and Amur groups historically formed a single population, only becoming separated within the last 200 years by human agency. A major conservation implication of this finding is that tigers of Amur stock might be reintroduced, not only back into the Koreas and China as is now proposed, but also through vast areas of Central Asia where the Caspian tiger once lived. However, under the current tiger conservation framework the 12 “Caspian Tiger States” are not fully involved in conservation planning. Equal recognition as “Tiger Range States” should be given to the countries where the Caspian tiger once lived and their involvement in tiger conservation planning encouraged. Today, preliminary ecological surveys show that some sparsely populated areas of Central Asia preserve natural habitat suitable for tigers. In depth assessments should be completed in these and other areas of the Caspian range to evaluate the possibility of tiger reintroductions. Because tigers are a charismatic umbrella species, both ecologically and politically, reintroduction to these landscapes would provide an effective conservation framework for the protection of many species in addition to tigers. And for today’s Amur Tigers this added range will provide a buffer against further loss of genetic diversity, one which will maintain that diversity in the face of selective pressures that can only be experienced in the wild.

  3. The Collapse of the 'Celtic Tiger' Narrative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böss, Michael

    2011-01-01

    An account of the factors that led to the collapse of the 'Celtic Tiger' economy in 2008 and an explanation of the political effects and implications for Irish identity.......An account of the factors that led to the collapse of the 'Celtic Tiger' economy in 2008 and an explanation of the political effects and implications for Irish identity....

  4. TIGER reliability analysis in the DSN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    The TIGER algorithm, the inputs to the program and the output are described. TIGER is a computer program designed to simulate a system over a period of time to evaluate system reliability and availability. Results can be used in the Deep Space Network for initial spares provisioning and system evaluation.

  5. A postulate for tiger recovery: the case of the Caspian Tiger

    OpenAIRE

    C.A. Driscoll; I. Chestin; H. Jungius; O. Pereladova; Y. Darman; E. Dinerstein; J. Seidensticker; J. Sanderson; S. Christie; S.J. Luo

    2012-01-01

    Recent genetic analysis has shown that the extinct Caspian Tiger (P. t. virgata) and the living Amur Tigers (P. t. altaica) of the Russian Far East are actually taxonomically synonymous and that Caspian and Amur groups historically formed a single population, only becoming separated within the last 200 years by human agency. A major conservation implication of this finding is that tigers of Amur stock might be reintroduced, not only back into the Koreas and China as is now proposed, but also ...

  6. Local Usage of Tiger Parts and Its Role in Tiger Killing in the Bangladesh Sundarbans

    OpenAIRE

    Saif, Samia; Russell, Aal M.; Nodie, Sabiha I.; Inskip, Chloe; Lahann, Petra; Barlow, Adam; Greenwood Barlow, Christina; Islam, Md. A.; MacMillan, Douglas C.

    2015-01-01

    This article explored the local medicinal and traditional values of tiger parts and associated beliefs, and its link to the commercial trade in the Bangladesh Sundarbans. Using semi-structured qualitative interviews with 139 respondents, we found that the local use of, and belief in, the medicinal values of tiger parts is widespread and that virtually all parts of the tiger are used. Some of the local uses of tiger parts were unique in both the way and the purpose of use. For example, the soi...

  7. Comparative serological investigation between cat and tiger blood for transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thengchaisri, Naris; Sinthusingha, Chayakrit; Arthitwong, Surapong; Sattasathuchana, Panpicha

    2017-06-29

    Evidence suggests that non-domesticated felids inherited the same AB-erythrocyte antigens as domestic cats. To study the possible compatibility of tiger blood with that of other endangered felidae, blood samples from captive tigers and domestic cats were subjected to an in vitro study. The objectives of this study were to (1) identify whether the captive tigers had blood type AB and (2) determine the compatibility between the blood of captive tigers and that of domestic cats with a similar blood type. The anti-coagulated blood with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid of 30 tigers was examined to determine blood type, and a crossmatching test was performed between tiger and cat blood. All 30 tigers had blood type A. Tube agglutination tests using tiger plasma with cat erythrocytes resulted in 100% agglutination (n=30) with type B cat erythrocytes and 76.7% agglutination (n=23) with type A cat erythrocytes. The 80% of major and 60% of minor compatibilities between blood from 10 tigers and 10 domestic cats with blood type A were found to pass compatibility tests. Interestingly, 3/10 of the tigers' red blood cell samples were fully compatible with all cat plasmas, and 1/10 of the tiger plasma samples were fully compatible with the type A red cells of domestic cats. Although the result of present findings revealed type-A blood group in the surveyed tigers, the reaction of tiger plasma with Type-A red cell from cats suggested a possibility of other blood type in tigers.

  8. Issues in Education: Tiger Moms--Five Questions that Need to Be Answered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Maxie; Aldridge, Jerry; Christensen, Lois M.; Kilgo, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    A "tiger mom" is a term popularized with the publication of Amy Chua's "Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother" (2011). Chua points to the tiger as a "living symbol of strength and power, [which] generally inspires fear and respect" (n.p.); the term "tiger mother" or "tiger mom" quickly became part of the popular lexicon. Chua perceives the tiger mom's…

  9. Two fatal tiger attacks in zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantius, Britta; Wittschieber, Daniel; Schmidt, Sven; Rothschild, Markus A; Banaschak, Sibylle

    2016-01-01

    Two captive tiger attacks are presented that took place in Cologne and Münster zoos. Both attacks occurred when the handlers, intent on cleaning the enclosures, entered whilst the tigers accidently retained access to the location, and thus defended their territory against the perceived intruders. Both victims suffered fatal neck injuries from the bites. At Münster, colleagues managed to lure the tiger away from its victim to enable treatment, whilst the Cologne zoo tiger had to be shot in order to allow access to be gained. Whilst it was judged that human error led to the deaths of the experienced zookeepers, the investigation in Münster was closed as no third party was found to be at fault, whereas the Cologne zoo director was initially charged with being negligent. These charges were subsequently dismissed as safety regulations were found to be up to date.

  10. Defining Tiger Parenting in Chinese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Yeong

    2013-09-01

    "Tiger" parenting, as described by Amy Chua [2011], has instigated scholarly discourse on this phenomenon and its possible effects on families. Our eight-year longitudinal study, published in the Asian American Journal of Psychology [Kim, Wang, Orozco-Lapray, Shen, & Murtuza, 2013b], demonstrates that tiger parenting is not a common parenting profile in a sample of 444 Chinese American families. Tiger parenting also does not relate to superior academic performance in children. In fact, the best developmental outcomes were found among children of supportive parents. We examine the complexities around defining tiger parenting by reviewing classical literature on parenting styles and scholarship on Asian American parenting, along with Amy Chua's own description of her parenting method, to develop, define, and categorize variability in parenting in a sample of Chinese American families. We also provide evidence that supportive parenting is important for the optimal development of Chinese American adolescents.

  11. Defining Tiger Parenting in Chinese Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Su Yeong

    2013-01-01

    “Tiger” parenting, as described by Amy Chua [2011], has instigated scholarly discourse on this phenomenon and its possible effects on families. Our eight-year longitudinal study, published in the Asian American Journal of Psychology [Kim, Wang, Orozco-Lapray, Shen, & Murtuza, 2013b], demonstrates that tiger parenting is not a common parenting profile in a sample of 444 Chinese American families. Tiger parenting also does not relate to superior academic performance in children. In fact, the be...

  12. Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae): a review of conservation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibisono, Hariyo T; Pusparini, Wulan

    2010-12-01

    The majority of wild Sumatran tigers are believed to live in 12 Tiger Conservation Landscapes covering approximately 88,000 km(2) . However, the actual distribution of tigers across Sumatra has never been accurately mapped. Over the past 20 years, conservation efforts focused on the Sumatran tigers have increased, but the population continues to decline as a result of several key threats. To identify the status of the Sumatran tiger distribution across the island, an island-wide questionnaire survey comprised of 35 respondents from various backgrounds was conducted between May and June 2010. The survey found that Sumatran tigers are positively present in 27 habitat patches larger than 250 km(2) and possibly present in another 2. In addition, a review on major published studies on the Sumatran tiger was conducted to identify the current conservation status of the Sumatran tiger. Collectively, these studies have identified several key factors that have contributed to the decline of Sumatran tiger populations, including: forest habitat fragmentation and loss, direct killing of tigers and their prey, and the retaliatory killing of tigers due to conflict with villagers. The present paper provides management authorities and the international community with a recent assessment and a base map of the actual distribution of Sumatran tigers as well as a general overview on the current status and possible future conservation challenges of Sumatran tiger management. © 2010 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  13. Probable Tiger-to-Tiger Transmission of Avian Influenza H5N1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanawongnuwech, Roongroje; Amonsin, Alongkorn; Tantilertcharoen, Rachod; Damrongwatanapokin, Sudarat; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Payungporn, Sunchai; Nanthapornphiphat, Kamonchart; Ratanamungklanon, Somchuan; Tunak, Eakchai; Songserm, Thaweesak; Vivatthanavanich, Veravit; Lekdumrongsak, Thawat; Kesdangsakonwut, Sawang; Tunhikorn, Schwann

    2005-01-01

    During the second outbreak of avian influenza H5N1 in Thailand, probable horizontal transmission among tigers was demonstrated in the tiger zoo. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of those viruses showed no differences from the first isolate obtained in January 2004. This finding has implications for influenza virus epidemiology and pathogenicity in mammals. PMID:15890122

  14. Landmark Points for Sierra County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. Roads for Lea County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  16. Airports for Valencia County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  17. Railroads for Roosevelt County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  18. Landmark Points for Chaves County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. Roads for San Juan County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. Roads for Mora County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. Railroads for Sierra County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  2. Roads for Otero County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. Roads for Guadalupe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  4. Railroads for Chaves County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  5. Roads for Roosevelt County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. Railroads for Lincoln County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. Railroads for Curry Curry, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  8. Roads for Taos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. Roads for Torrance County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. Railroads for Mora County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. Railroads for Union County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. Roads for Luna County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. Roads for Quay County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. Roads for Santa Fe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. Roads for Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  16. Roads for Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  17. Railroads for Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  18. Railroads for Guadalupe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. Roads for Chaves County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. Railroads for Valencia County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. Roads for Eddy County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  2. Railroads for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. Roads for Catron County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  4. Railroads for Santa Fe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  5. Roads for Harding County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. Railroads for Eddy County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. Railroads for San Juan County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  8. Railroads for Quay County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. Landmark Polygons for Guadalupe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. Railroads for San Miguel County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. Hydrography for Dona Ana County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. Landmark Polygons for Lea County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. Nodes for Union County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. Nodes for Sandoval County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. Roads for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  16. Landmark Polygons for Mora County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  17. Airports for Curry County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  18. Airports for De Baca County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. Roads for Los Alamos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. Hydrography for San Miguel County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. Airports for Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  2. Roads for Sandoval County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. Airports for Colfax County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  4. Airports for Los Alamos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  5. Landmark Polygons for Torrance County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. Railroads for Cibola County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. Nodes for Taos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  8. Hydrography for Harding County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. Landmark Points for Colfax County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. Landmark Polygons for Colfax County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. Hydrography for Catron County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. Airports for Mora County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. Complete mitochondrial genome of a wild Siberian tiger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yujiao; Lu, Taofeng; Sun, Zhaohui; Guan, Weijun; Liu, Zhensheng; Teng, Liwei; Wang, Shuo; Ma, Yuehui

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) was sequenced, using muscle tissue obtained from a male wild tiger. The total length of the mitochondrial genome is 16,996 bp. The genome structure of this tiger is in accordance with other Siberian tigers and it contains 12S rRNA gene, 16S rRNA gene, 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, and 1 control region.

  14. Analyzing the Pathway to Improve Tiger Conservation in India

    OpenAIRE

    Zareena Begum. I; Amanat K. Gill

    2014-01-01

    Despite substantial conservation investments by governments and international agencies, the existence of tigers in the wild is still threatened. The main threats to the survival of wild tigers are poaching, prey depletion, and habitat degradation and fragmentation. All international trade in tiger parts has been prohibited since 1975, with China introducing a domestic ban in 1993. The domestic trade ban in China was followed by the establishment of captive tiger breeding farms in East Asia. C...

  15. Can tigers survive in human-dominated landscapes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolipaka, S.S.

    2018-01-01

    S.S. Kolipaka’s thesis questions and investigates the survival prospects of reintroduced tigers and their offspring’s in the human dominated landscape of Panna tiger reserve in India. This thesis recognises the importance of both the sociological (human) and biological (tiger) aspects to address

  16. 75 FR 38799 - ETC Tiger Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP10-459-000] ETC Tiger Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Application June 25, 2010. Take notice that on June 15, 2010, ETC Tiger Pipeline, LLC (ETC Tiger), 711 Louisiana Street, Suite 900, Houston, Texas 77002, filed an application in Docket...

  17. Big cat scan: magnetic resonance imaging of the tiger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, Thomas M.; Gregory, Richard J.W.; Litster, Annette L.; Hanger, Jonathan J.

    2004-01-01

    In August 2002, we performed MRI scans on a female juvenile Bengal tiger. We present the clinical course, imaging and autopsy findings, and some comparative anatomy of the tiger brain and skull. Magnetic resonance images of a tiger have not previously been published Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  18. Planning tiger recovery: Understanding intraspecific variation for effective conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilting, Andreas; Courtiol, Alexandre; Christiansen, Per; Niedballa, Jürgen; Scharf, Anne K.; Orlando, Ludovic; Balkenhol, Niko; Hofer, Heribert; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Fickel, Jörns; Kitchener, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Although significantly more money is spent on the conservation of tigers than on any other threatened species, today only 3200 to 3600 tigers roam the forests of Asia, occupying only 7% of their historical range. Despite the global significance of and interest in tiger conservation, global approaches to plan tiger recovery are partly impeded by the lack of a consensus on the number of tiger subspecies or management units, because a comprehensive analysis of tiger variation is lacking. We analyzed variation among all nine putative tiger subspecies, using extensive data sets of several traits [morphological (craniodental and pelage), ecological, molecular]. Our analyses revealed little variation and large overlaps in each trait among putative subspecies, and molecular data showed extremely low diversity because of a severe Late Pleistocene population decline. Our results support recognition of only two subspecies: the Sunda tiger, Panthera tigris sondaica, and the continental tiger, Panthera tigris tigris, which consists of two (northern and southern) management units. Conservation management programs, such as captive breeding, reintroduction initiatives, or trans-boundary projects, rely on a durable, consistent characterization of subspecies as taxonomic units, defined by robust multiple lines of scientific evidence rather than single traits or ad hoc descriptions of one or few specimens. Our multiple-trait data set supports a fundamental rethinking of the conventional tiger taxonomy paradigm, which will have profound implications for the management of in situ and ex situ tiger populations and boost conservation efforts by facilitating a pragmatic approach to tiger conservation management worldwide. PMID:26601191

  19. Key tiger habitats in the Garo Hills of Meghalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashish Kumar; Bruce G. Marcot

    2010-01-01

    We describe assumed tiger habitat characteristics and attempt to identify potential tiger habitats in the Garo Hills region of Meghalaya, North East India. Conserving large forest tracts and protected wildlife habitats provides an opportunity for restoring populations of wide-ranging wildlife such as tigers and elephants. Based on limited field observations coupled...

  20. Planning tiger recovery: Understanding intraspecific variation for effective conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilting, Andreas; Courtiol, Alexandre; Christiansen, Per; Niedballa, Jürgen; Scharf, Anne K; Orlando, Ludovic; Balkenhol, Niko; Hofer, Heribert; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Fickel, Jörns; Kitchener, Andrew C

    2015-06-01

    Although significantly more money is spent on the conservation of tigers than on any other threatened species, today only 3200 to 3600 tigers roam the forests of Asia, occupying only 7% of their historical range. Despite the global significance of and interest in tiger conservation, global approaches to plan tiger recovery are partly impeded by the lack of a consensus on the number of tiger subspecies or management units, because a comprehensive analysis of tiger variation is lacking. We analyzed variation among all nine putative tiger subspecies, using extensive data sets of several traits [morphological (craniodental and pelage), ecological, molecular]. Our analyses revealed little variation and large overlaps in each trait among putative subspecies, and molecular data showed extremely low diversity because of a severe Late Pleistocene population decline. Our results support recognition of only two subspecies: the Sunda tiger, Panthera tigris sondaica, and the continental tiger, Panthera tigris tigris, which consists of two (northern and southern) management units. Conservation management programs, such as captive breeding, reintroduction initiatives, or trans-boundary projects, rely on a durable, consistent characterization of subspecies as taxonomic units, defined by robust multiple lines of scientific evidence rather than single traits or ad hoc descriptions of one or few specimens. Our multiple-trait data set supports a fundamental rethinking of the conventional tiger taxonomy paradigm, which will have profound implications for the management of in situ and ex situ tiger populations and boost conservation efforts by facilitating a pragmatic approach to tiger conservation management worldwide.

  1. Attitudes toward consumption and conservation of tigers in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Gratwicke

    Full Text Available A heated debate has recently emerged between tiger farmers and conservationists about the potential consequences of lifting the ban on trade in farmed tiger products in China. This debate has caused unfounded speculation about the extent of the potential market for tiger products. To fill this knowledge gap, we surveyed 1880 residents from a total of six Chinese cities to understand Urban Chinese tiger consumption behavior, knowledge of trade issues and attitudes towards tiger conservation. We found that 43% of respondents had consumed some product alleged to contain tiger parts. Within this user-group, 71% said that they preferred wild products over farmed ones. The two predominant products used were tiger bone plasters (38% and tiger bone wine (6.4%. 88% of respondents knew that it was illegal to buy or sell tiger products, and 93% agreed that a ban in trade of tiger parts was necessary to conserve wild tigers. These results indicate that while Urban Chinese people are generally supportive of tiger conservation, there is a huge residual demand for tiger products that could resurge if the ban on trade in tiger parts is lifted in China. We suspect that the current supply of the market is predominantly met by fakes or substitutes branded as tiger medicines, but not listing tiger as an ingredient. We suggest that the Traditional Chinese Medicine community should consider re-branding these products as bone-healing medicines in order to reduce the residual demand for real tiger parts over the long-term. The lifting of the current ban on trade in farmed tiger parts may cause a surge in demand for wild tiger parts that consumers say are better. Because of the low input costs associated with poaching, wild-sourced parts would consistently undercut the prices of farmed tigers that could easily be laundered on a legal market. We therefore recommend that the Chinese authorities maintain the ban on trade in tiger parts, and work to improve the enforcement

  2. Evidences Dependent Population Distribution Patterns of Tiger and Leopard in Similipal Tiger Reserve, Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Ranjan Mishra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Tiger (Panthera tigris is an endangered carnivore with uncertain demographic status spanning 13 Asian countries. Due to its larger body size and carnivorous diet in nature it always occurs at low population densities. Further prey depletion due to overhunting (Karanth & Stith, 1998, poaching, habitat shrinkage (Kenny et al., 1995, Wcs, 1995 and direct killing altogether have also become a major factor for depletion of wild tiger populations tiger. Monitoring the abundance and its alteration is always important for the effective management of endangered species. Tiger is categorized as “Endangered” on the IUCN Red List (IUCN, 2008 and listed under Schedule-I of Wildlife (Protection Act, 1972 in India and Appendix-I of the CITES. Leopard (Panthera pardus is also included in the Schedule- I of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 and is placed under “Least Concern” category of 2002 IUCN Red List of threatened animals. Similipal Tiger Reserve is one of the largest Tiger Reserves of India with an area of 2750 km2. Therefore we have to depend mainly on the direct sightings and evidence records of the animals to analysis the status and distribution pattern of these two big cats in the core area of this Tiger Reserve.

  3. The Dynamic Impact of the Tiger within Chinese Martial Arts

    OpenAIRE

    Wing Lam; Saleem Alamudeen

    2012-01-01

    In Asia, there is, in general, a great reverence held for the tiger. The tiger has been imitated and reigns supreme as king of all the beasts throughout Asia. The relationship between man and tiger holds a strange duality in that as much as the tiger is feared for its fierce savagery and destructive power, it is also revered for these very same qualities and for its majestic nature. Therefore, the very symbolic essence of the tiger has permeated all levels of the Asian community and culture; ...

  4. TIGER Burned Brightly in JAMIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Sandra L.; Kashiwagi, Takashi

    2001-01-01

    The Transition From Ignition to Flame Growth Under External Radiation in 3D (TIGER- 3D) experiment, which is slated to fly aboard the International Space Station, conducted a series of highly successful tests in collaboration with the University of Hokkaido using Japan's 10-sec JAMIC drop tower. The tests were conducted to test engineering versions of advanced flight diagnostics such as an infrared camera for detailed surface temperature measurements and an infrared spectroscopic array for gas-phase species concentrations and temperatures based on detailed spectral emissions in the near infrared. Shown in the top figure is a visible light image and in the bottom figure is an infrared image at 3.8 mm obtained during the microgravity tests. The images show flames burning across cellulose samples against a slow wind of a few centimeters per second (wind is from right to left). These flow velocities are typical of spacecraft ventilation systems that provide fresh air for the astronauts. The samples are ignited across the center with a hot wire, and the flame is allowed to spread upwind and/or downwind. As these images show, the flames prefer to spread upwind, into the fresh air, which is the exact opposite of flames on Earth, which spread much faster downwind, or with the airflow, as in forest fires.

  5. Tiger Team assessment of the Pinellas Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-05-01

    This Document contains findings identified during the Tiger Team Compliance Assessment of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Pinellas Plant, Pinellas County, Florida. The assessment wa directed by the Department's Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES H) from January 15 to February 2, 1990. The Pinellas Tiger Team Compliance Assessment is comprehensive in scope. It covers the Environment Safety and Health, and Management areas and determines the plant's compliance with applicable Federal (including DOE), State, and local regulations and requirements.

  6. Final Action Plan to Tiger Team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This document presents planned actions, and their associated costs, for addressing the findings in the Environmental, Safety and Health Tiger Team Assessment of the Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, May 1991, hereafter called the Assessment. This Final Action Plan should be read in conjunction with the Assessment to ensure full understanding of the findings addressed herein. The Assessment presented 353 findings in four general categories: (1)Environmental (82 findings); (2) Safety and Health (243 findings); (3) Management and Organization (18 findings); and (4) Self-Assessment (10 findings). Additionally, 436 noncompliance items with Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards were addressed during and immediately after the Tiger Team visit

  7. The type-specimens of Caraboidea beetles (Coleoptera, Adephaga) deposited in the collections of the I.I. Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putshkov, Alexander V; Martynov, Alexander V

    2017-03-01

    A catalogue of type specimens of species and subspecies of caraboid beetles, tiger-beetles here treated as family Cicindelidae, and ground-beetles (Carabidae) of suborder Adephaga deposited in the I.I. Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology NAS of Ukraine is provided. For all type-specimens original photos of each specimen (with label) and label data are given in the original spelling (translated to English if the original label was in Cyrillic alphabet). In some cases data concerning the current status of taxons are discussed. Nominal taxa names are alphabethically listed within each family. Altogether, 372 type specimens of 133 taxa names (species and subspecies) are included in the catalogue: 15 holotypes, 344 paratypes (120 species and subspecies) and 13 specimens (9 taxa) with other type status.

  8. More than Just a Tiger Mom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Lydia

    2011-01-01

    Mention "best-seller" and author Amy Chua in the same breath and, chances are, a person's thoughts turn immediately to her controversial parenting memoir, "Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother." Indeed, national backlash has shadowed Chua for months since publication of the book, which describes her rigid parenting style in what she loosely calls "the…

  9. The Five Ancestors--Book 1: Tiger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    Losing a job is an awfully low point--until it turns into the opportunity to pursue writing full time, and a book like "The Five Ancestors: Tiger" results. Jeff Stone looks back to his own experience as a young reader and taps that experience to help frame his own writing. An intriguing snapshot of his new book follows.

  10. Kuidas tuua Eestisse Tiger Woods / Raul Ranne

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ranne, Raul

    2008-01-01

    Reaalselt arvestades on tõenäosus, et Eestit väisab golfistaar Tiger Woods, muidugi olematu. Teoreetiliselt on see siiski võimalik. Vestlusest Jõelähtme golfiväljakut opereeriv Estonian Golf Country Clubi presidendi Mait Schmidtiga

  11. Tiger: knowledge based gas turbine condition monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trave-Massuyes, L. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France); Quevedo, J. [University of Catalonia, (Spain); Milne, R.; Nicol, Ch.

    1995-12-31

    Exxon petrochemical plant in Scotland requires continuous ethylene supply from offshore site in North Sea. The supply is achieved thanks to compressors driven by a 28 MW gas turbine, whose monitoring is of major importance. The TIGER fault diagnostic system is a knowledge base system containing a prediction model. (D.L.) 11 refs.

  12. Review of research methodologies for tigers: telemetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Clayton S; Hebblewhite, Mark; Goodrich, John M; Miquelle, Dale G

    2010-12-01

    Over the past half century, wildlife research has relied on technological advances to gain additional insight into the secretive lives of animals. This revolution started in the 1960s with the development of radio telemetry and continues today with the use of Global Positioning System (GPS)-based research techniques. In the present paper we review the history of radio telemetry from its origins with grizzly bears in Yellowstone to its early applications in tiger research and conservation in Asia. We address the different types of data that are available using radio telemetry as opposed to using other research techniques, such as behavioral observations, camera trapping, DNA analysis and scat analysis. In the late 1990s, the rapid development of GPS collar technology revolutionized wildlife research. This new technology has enabled researchers to dramatically improve their ability to gather data on animal movements and ecology. Despite the ecological and conservation benefits of radio telemetry, there have been few telemetry studies of tigers in the wild, and most have been on the Bengal or Amur subspecies. We close with an assessment of the current tiger conservation efforts using GPS technology and discuss how this new information can help to preserve tigers for future generations. © 2010 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  13. Tiger: knowledge based gas turbine condition monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trave-Massuyes, L [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France); Quevedo, J [University of Catalonia, (Spain); Milne, R; Nicol, Ch

    1996-12-31

    Exxon petrochemical plant in Scotland requires continuous ethylene supply from offshore site in North Sea. The supply is achieved thanks to compressors driven by a 28 MW gas turbine, whose monitoring is of major importance. The TIGER fault diagnostic system is a knowledge base system containing a prediction model. (D.L.) 11 refs.

  14. Riverine dominance of a nearshore marine demersal food web ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine (i) the importance of riverine and marine organic matter for the Thukela Bank food web; and (ii) whether there are seasonal changes in the Thukela River stable isotope values, and, if so, whether these are reflected in the isotope values of demersal organisms. Estuarine organic matter ...

  15. Urinary schistosomiasis in Yauri riverine area Kebbi State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infection with Schistosoma haematobium was investigated in the riverine area of Yauri Metropolis in Kebbi State, north-western Nigeria between April-June 2013, using sedimentation technique. Out of 206 persons examined (106 males and 100 females), 87 (42.2%) were infected with Schistosoma haematobium.

  16. [Identification and production of monoclonal antibody of Siberian tiger's immunoglobulin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaonglong; Zhang, Duanling; Zhou, Ming; Xue, Yuan; Hua, Yuping; Ma, Jianzhang

    2010-03-01

    To purify immunoglobulin (Ig) of Siberian Tiger and prepare monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the Ig,which can be used to develop immunological diagnostic kits for diagnosing infectious disease in Siberian Tiger. The Ig of Siberian tigers was purified with saturated ammonium sulfate combined with recombinant Protein G. The C57BL/6 mice were immunized with the purified Ig. Spleno-cytes of the mice immunized were collected and fused with the mouse myeloma cell line (Sp2/0-Ag14). The positive hybridoma clones were selected by ELISA and were identified by western blot. The sandwich ELISA was used to detect immunocompetence of the purified Ig and the mAb. We obtained three mouse hybridoma clones that produced mAbs against Ig of Siberian Tiger. The derived McAbs could recognize Ig heavy chain of Siberian Tiger specifically. The biological activity of the Ig and obtained McAbs also could be identified by detecting the antibody induced by panleukopenia virus (FPV-HLJ) vaccine in Siberian Tiger. The antibody also would be useful for assess the vaccine efficacy against the infectious disease on the Siberian Tiger. Protein G can be used in Ig purification of Siberian Tiger. The obtained McAbs from the hybridoma ADT11 in this study owned strong ability to bind Ig of Siberian Tiger and have a stable immunocompetence. They can be used to develop diagnostic methods for detecting infectious disease in Siberian Tiger and vaccine research.

  17. Oldest known pantherine skull and evolution of the tiger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazák, Ji H; Christiansen, Per; Kitchener, Andrew C

    2011-01-01

    The tiger is one of the most iconic extant animals, and its origin and evolution have been intensely debated. Fossils attributable to extant pantherine species-lineages are less than 2 MYA and the earliest tiger fossils are from the Calabrian, Lower Pleistocene. Molecular studies predict a much younger age for the divergence of modern tiger subspecies at tigers would likely have differed markedly anatomically from extant tigers. Such inferences are hampered by the fact that well-known fossil tiger material is middle to late Pleistocene in age. Here we describe a new species of pantherine cat from Longdan, Gansu Province, China, Panthera zdanskyi sp. nov. With an estimated age of 2.55-2.16 MYA it represents the oldest complete skull of a pantherine cat hitherto found. Although smaller, it appears morphologically to be surprisingly similar to modern tigers considering its age. Morphological, morphometric, and cladistic analyses are congruent in confirming its very close affinity to the tiger, and it may be regarded as the most primitive species of the tiger lineage, demonstrating the first unequivocal presence of a modern pantherine species-lineage in the basal stage of the Pleistocene (Gelasian; traditionally considered to be Late Pliocene). This find supports a north-central Chinese origin of the tiger lineage, and demonstrates that various parts of the cranium, mandible, and dentition evolved at different rates. An increase in size and a reduction in the relative size of parts of the dentition appear to have been prominent features of tiger evolution, whereas the distinctive cranial morphology of modern tigers was established very early in their evolutionary history. The evolutionary trend of increasing size in the tiger lineage is likely coupled to the evolution of its primary prey species.

  18. Tiger cubs and little flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Short vignettes are related to show the conditions for girls and women in Morocco. Descriptions are given for child labor, literacy, the government's education campaign, youth group efforts to enhance family planning (FP) knowledge, the impact of FP outreach in rural areas, and unmarried mothers. In Morocco's cities, young boys can be seen hawking cigarettes and working in market stalls; in the countryside, boys herd goats or do other farm work. In rural areas girls are hidden by having them perform work around the house or on the farm primarily indoors. Women are supervised by women. 54% work as maids and 39% are apprentices in carpet factories. Parents prefer to have their daughters working and consider it protection from mischief as well as needed income. Only 60% of girls are enrolled in primary school vs. 80% of the boys. In rural areas, only 44% of girls are enrolled, and 20% stay to complete their primary education, while 76% of boys enroll and 63% complete primary school. Literacy of women has an effect on the ability to accurately take birth control pills. All ages of women gather at schools in the evening for lessons in reading and writing in a program supported by the King. Women are pleased with their success in just learning how to write their own names. Television advertisements promote sending children to school, as another part of the Ministry of Education's campaign to increase girl's educational status. There are still not enough schools; many schools are double shift, and communities are building their own schools. Youth clubs, which refer to boys as "tiger cubs" and girls as "little flowers," try to familiarize young people with some basic information about contraception. A traditional midwife relates some problems with girl's education: costs for clothing and supplies, worry about male teachers, and poor role models. In some remote areas, farm families do not send their children to school, because of the distance to schools and the need for

  19. Beetle wings are inflatable origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Ren, Jing; Ge, Siqin; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    Beetles keep their wings folded and protected under a hard shell. In times of danger, they must unfold them rapidly in order for them to fly to escape. Moreover, they must do so across a range of body mass, from 1 mg to 10 grams. How can they unfold their wings so quickly? We use high-speed videography to record wing unfolding times, which we relate to the geometry of the network of blood vessels in the wing. Larger beetles have longer unfolding times. Modeling of the flow of blood through the veins successfully accounts for the wing unfolding speed of large beetles. However, smaller beetles have anomalously short unfolding times, suggesting they have lower blood viscosity or higher driving pressure. The use of hydraulics to unfold complex objects may have implications in the design of micro-flying air vehicles.

  20. Metal fate and partitioning in soils under bark beetle-killed trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearup, Lindsay A; Mikkelson, Kristin M; Wiley, Joseph F; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K; Maxwell, Reed M; Sharp, Jonathan O; McCray, John E

    2014-10-15

    Recent mountain pine beetle infestation in the Rocky Mountains of North America has killed an unprecedented acreage of pine forest, creating an opportunity to observe an active re-equilibration in response to widespread land cover perturbation. This work investigates metal mobility in beetle-impacted forests using parallel rainwater and acid leaches to estimate solid-liquid partitioning coefficients and a complete sequential extraction procedure to determine how metals are fractionated in soils under trees experiencing different phases of mortality. Geochemical model simulations analyzed in consideration with experimental data provide additional insight into the mechanisms controlling metal complexation. Metal and base-cation mobility consistently increased in soils under beetle-attacked trees relative to soil under healthy trees. Mobility increases were more pronounced on south facing slopes and more strongly correlated to pH under attacked trees than under healthy trees. Similarly, soil moisture was significantly higher under dead trees, related to the loss of transpiration and interception. Zinc and cadmium content increased in soils under dead trees relative to living trees. Cadmium increases occurred predominantly in the exchangeable fraction, indicating increased mobilization potential. Relative increases of zinc were greatest in the organic fraction, the only fraction where increases in copper were observed. Model results reveal that increased organic complexation, not changes in pH or base cation concentrations, can explain the observed differences in metal partitioning for zinc, nickel, cadmium, and copper. Predicted concentrations would be unlikely to impair human health or plant growth at these sites; however, higher exchangeable metals under beetle-killed trees relative to healthy trees suggest a possible decline in riverine ecosystem health and water quality in areas already approaching criteria limits and drinking water standards. Impairment of water

  1. Phylogeography and genetic ancestry of tigers (Panthera tigris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Jin Luo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Eight traditional subspecies of tiger (Panthera tigris,of which three recently became extinct, are commonly recognized on the basis of geographic isolation and morphological characteristics. To investigate the species' evolutionary history and to establish objective methods for subspecies recognition, voucher specimens of blood, skin, hair, and/or skin biopsies from 134 tigers with verified geographic origins or heritage across the whole distribution range were examined for three molecular markers: (1 4.0 kb of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequence; (2 allele variation in the nuclear major histocompatibility complex class II DRB gene; and (3 composite nuclear microsatellite genotypes based on 30 loci. Relatively low genetic variation with mtDNA,DRB,and microsatellite loci was found, but significant population subdivision was nonetheless apparent among five living subspecies. In addition, a distinct partition of the Indochinese subspecies P. t. corbetti in to northern Indochinese and Malayan Peninsula populations was discovered. Population genetic structure would suggest recognition of six taxonomic units or subspecies: (1 Amur tiger P. t. altaica; (2 northern Indochinese tiger P. t. corbetti; (3 South China tiger P. t. amoyensis; (4 Malayan tiger P. t. jacksoni, named for the tiger conservationist Peter Jackson; (5 Sumatran tiger P. t. sumatrae; and (6 Bengal tiger P. t. tigris. The proposed South China tiger lineage is tentative due to limited sampling. The age of the most recent common ancestor for tiger mtDNA was estimated to be 72,000-108,000 y, relatively younger than some other Panthera species. A combination of population expansions, reduced gene flow, and genetic drift following the last genetic diminution, and the recent anthropogenic range contraction, have led to the distinct genetic partitions. These results provide an explicit basis for subspecies recognition and will lead to the improved management and conservation of these recently

  2. Expansion of Industrial Plantations Continues to Threaten Malayan Tiger Habitat

    OpenAIRE

    Varada S. Shevade; Peter V. Potapov; Nancy L. Harris; Tatiana V. Loboda

    2017-01-01

    Southeast Asia has some of the highest deforestation rates globally, with Malaysia being identified as a deforestation hotspot. The Malayan tiger, a critically endangered subspecies of the tiger endemic to Peninsular Malaysia, is threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation. In this study, we estimate the natural forest loss and conversion to plantations in Peninsular Malaysia and specifically in its tiger habitat between 1988 and 2012 using the Landsat data archive. We estimate a total loss ...

  3. A tiger cannot change its stripes: using a three-dimensional model to match images of living tigers and tiger skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiby, Lex; Lovell, Phil; Patil, Narendra; Kumar, N Samba; Gopalaswamy, Arjun M; Karanth, K Ullas

    2009-06-23

    The tiger is one of many species in which individuals can be identified by surface patterns. Camera traps can be used to record individual tigers moving over an array of locations and provide data for monitoring and studying populations and devising conservation strategies. We suggest using a combination of algorithms to calculate similarity scores between pattern samples scanned from the images to automate the search for a match to a new image. We show how using a three-dimensional surface model of a tiger to scan the pattern samples allows comparison of images that differ widely in camera angles and body posture. The software, which is free to download, considerably reduces the effort required to maintain an image catalogue and we suggest it could be used to trace the origin of a tiger skin by searching a central database of living tigers' images for matches to an image of the skin.

  4. Evaluating the Ability of the PBS Children?s Show Daniel Tiger?s Neighborhood to Teach Skills to Two Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Dotson, Wesley H.; Rasmussen, Eric E; Shafer, Autumn; Colwell, Malinda; Densley, Rebecca L.; Brewer, Adam T.; Alonzo, Marisol C.; Martinez, Laura A.

    2016-01-01

    Daniel Tiger?s Neighborhood is a children?s television show incorporating many elements of video modeling, an intervention that can teach skills to children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study evaluated the impact of watching Daniel Tiger?s Neighborhood episodes on the accurate performance of trying new foods and stopping play politely with two five-year-old children with ASD. Both children showed improved performance of skills only following exposure to episodes of Daniel Tiger?...

  5. Philopatry and dispersal patterns in tiger (Panthera tigris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Digpal Singh Gour

    Full Text Available Tiger populations are dwindling rapidly making it increasingly difficult to study their dispersal and mating behaviour in the wild, more so tiger being a secretive and solitary carnivore.We used non-invasively obtained genetic data to establish the presence of 28 tigers, 22 females and 6 males, within the core area of Pench tiger reserve, Madhya Pradesh. This data was evaluated along with spatial autocorrelation and relatedness analyses to understand patterns of dispersal and philopatry in tigers within this well-managed and healthy tiger habitat in India.We established male-biased dispersal and female philopatry in tigers and reiterated this finding with multiple analyses. Females show positive correlation up to 7 kms (which corresponds to an area of approximately 160 km(2 however this correlation is significantly positive only upto 4 kms, or 50 km(2 (r  = 0.129, p<0.0125. Males do not exhibit any significant correlation in any of the distance classes within the forest (upto 300 km(2. We also show evidence of female dispersal upto 26 kms in this landscape.Animal movements are important for fitness, reproductive success, genetic diversity and gene exchange among populations. In light of the current endangered status of tigers in the world, this study will help us understand tiger behavior and movement. Our findings also have important implications for better management of habitats and interconnecting corridors to save this charismatic species.

  6. Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Rolf G.; Friedrich, Frank; Leschen, Richard A. B.

    2009-11-01

    Here, we review Charles Darwin’s relation to beetles and developments in coleopteran systematics in the last two centuries. Darwin was an enthusiastic beetle collector. He used beetles to illustrate different evolutionary phenomena in his major works, and astonishingly, an entire sub-chapter is dedicated to beetles in “The Descent of Man”. During his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin was impressed by the high diversity of beetles in the tropics, and he remarked that, to his surprise, the majority of species were small and inconspicuous. However, despite his obvious interest in the group, he did not get involved in beetle taxonomy, and his theoretical work had little immediate impact on beetle classification. The development of taxonomy and classification in the late nineteenth and earlier twentieth century was mainly characterised by the exploration of new character systems (e.g. larval features and wing venation). In the mid-twentieth century, Hennig’s new methodology to group lineages by derived characters revolutionised systematics of Coleoptera and other organisms. As envisioned by Darwin and Ernst Haeckel, the new Hennigian approach enabled systematists to establish classifications truly reflecting evolution. Roy A. Crowson and Howard E. Hinton, who both made tremendous contributions to coleopterology, had an ambivalent attitude towards the Hennigian ideas. The Mickoleit school combined detailed anatomical work with a classical Hennigian character evaluation, with stepwise tree building, comparatively few characters and a priori polarity assessment without explicit use of the outgroup comparison method. The rise of cladistic methods in the 1970s had a strong impact on beetle systematics. Cladistic computer programs facilitated parsimony analyses of large data matrices, mostly morphological characters not requiring detailed anatomical investigations. Molecular studies on beetle phylogeny started in the 1990s with modest taxon sampling and limited DNA data

  7. Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Rolf G; Friedrich, Frank; Leschen, Richard A B

    2009-11-01

    Here, we review Charles Darwin's relation to beetles and developments in coleopteran systematics in the last two centuries. Darwin was an enthusiastic beetle collector. He used beetles to illustrate different evolutionary phenomena in his major works, and astonishingly, an entire sub-chapter is dedicated to beetles in "The Descent of Man". During his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin was impressed by the high diversity of beetles in the tropics, and he remarked that, to his surprise, the majority of species were small and inconspicuous. However, despite his obvious interest in the group, he did not get involved in beetle taxonomy, and his theoretical work had little immediate impact on beetle classification. The development of taxonomy and classification in the late nineteenth and earlier twentieth century was mainly characterised by the exploration of new character systems (e.g. larval features and wing venation). In the mid-twentieth century, Hennig's new methodology to group lineages by derived characters revolutionised systematics of Coleoptera and other organisms. As envisioned by Darwin and Ernst Haeckel, the new Hennigian approach enabled systematists to establish classifications truly reflecting evolution. Roy A. Crowson and Howard E. Hinton, who both made tremendous contributions to coleopterology, had an ambivalent attitude towards the Hennigian ideas. The Mickoleit school combined detailed anatomical work with a classical Hennigian character evaluation, with stepwise tree building, comparatively few characters and a priori polarity assessment without explicit use of the outgroup comparison method. The rise of cladistic methods in the 1970s had a strong impact on beetle systematics. Cladistic computer programs facilitated parsimony analyses of large data matrices, mostly morphological characters not requiring detailed anatomical investigations. Molecular studies on beetle phylogeny started in the 1990s with modest taxon sampling and limited DNA data. This has

  8. Mac OS X Tiger for Unix Geeks

    CERN Document Server

    Jepson, Brian

    2005-01-01

    If you're one of the many Unix developers drawn to Mac OS X for its Unix core, you'll find yourself in surprisingly unfamiliar territory. Unix and Mac OS X are kissing cousins, but there are enough pitfalls and minefields in going from one to another that even a Unix guru can stumble, and most guides to Mac OS X are written for Mac aficionados. For a Unix developer, approaching Tiger from the Mac side is a bit like learning Russian by reading the Russian side of a Russian-English dictionary. Fortunately, O'Reilly has been the Unix authority for over 25 years, and in Mac OS X Tiger for Unix Gee

  9. Are conflict-causing tigers different? Another perspective for understanding human-tiger conflict in Chitwan National Park, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.R. Lamichhane

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed characteristics of the problem-causing tigers in Chitwan National Park (Nepal to determine if specific groups or individuals in the source population have higher probability to get involved in conflicts with humans. From 2007 to 2016 we identified a total of 22 such tigers including 13 that killed humans, six serial livestock killers and three tigers that threatened human safety (with no reported human and livestock casualty. Thirteen of these tigers were controlled or killed and four were relocated. We compared a subset of 15 ‘problem tigers’ involved in conflict between 2009 and 2013 with the Chitwan's tiger population obtained from three different sessions of camera trapping (2009, 2010 and 2013. We found that <5% of this source population (tigers recorded in camera trap were involved in conflict. We conclude that transient tigers without a territory or physically impaired animals are more likely to be involved in conflict and recommend an early warning system be adopted to anticipate conflicts before they occur. This system should include regular monitoring and timely identification of problem tigers followed by decisive management action to either remove the tiger or encourage local people to modify their behavior to reduce the risk of conflict.

  10. Catching the Celtic Tiger by its tail

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Luisa; Vanhoudt, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    The paper attempts to assess the major sources behind the exceptional Irish growth performance in the 1990s. Contrary to other Tigers, Ireland's growth is due to efficiency gains, rather than capital deepening, but the causes for the swift growth in total factor productivity cannot be pinned down to a single factor. Human capital, foreign direct investment, Social Partnership agreements, sound budget and economic policies since the late 1980s, EU membership, all seemed to have interacted to p...

  11. Ground beetle populations near a kraft mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitag, R.; Hastings, L.; Mercer, W.R.; Smith, A.

    1973-02-01

    Twenty species of ground beetles (Family Carabidae) and one species of carrion beetle (Family Silphidae) were collected in six stations east of a kraft paper mill in Thunder Bay, Ontario, from May to August, 1971. The beetle population decreased markedly towards the mill. There was no apparent statistical difference in size variation of specimens near the mill and those further away.

  12. Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli Peacher

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB) is the most destructive forest insect in the South. The SPB attacks all species of southern pine, but loblolly and shortleaf are most susceptible. The Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS) is the computerized database used by the national forests in the Southern Region for tracking individual southern pine beetle infestations....

  13. Coastal and Riverine Flood Forecast Model powered by ADCIRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, A.; Ferreira, C.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal flooding is becoming a major threat to increased population in the coastal areas. To protect coastal communities from tropical storms & hurricane damages, early warning systems are being developed. These systems have the capability of real time flood forecasting to identify hazardous coastal areas and aid coastal communities in rescue operations. State of the art hydrodynamic models forced by atmospheric forcing have given modelers the ability to forecast storm surge, water levels and currents. This helps to identify the areas threatened by intense storms. Study on Chesapeake Bay area has gained national importance because of its combined riverine and coastal phenomenon, which leads to greater uncertainty in flood predictions. This study presents an automated flood forecast system developed by following Advanced Circulation (ADCIRC) Surge Guidance System (ASGS) guidelines and tailored to take in riverine and coastal boundary forcing, thus includes all the hydrodynamic processes to forecast total water in the Potomac River. As studies on tidal and riverine flow interaction are very scarce in number, our forecast system would be a scientific tool to examine such area and fill the gaps with precise prediction for Potomac River. Real-time observations from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and field measurements have been used as model boundary feeding. The model performance has been validated by using major historical riverine and coastal flooding events. Hydrodynamic model ADCIRC produced promising predictions for flood inundation areas. As better forecasts can be achieved by using coupled models, this system is developed to take boundary conditions from Global WaveWatchIII for the research purposes. Wave and swell propagation will be fed through Global WavewatchIII model to take into account the effects of swells and currents. This automated forecast system is currently undergoing rigorous testing to include any missing parameters which

  14. Cons ICARUS, TIGER and Fascism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Vrečko

    2010-12-01

    why the people of Primorska were the first in Europe to resist it, forming the insurgent organisation TIGR, later TIGER, while the priests of Primorska formed the College of St Paul’s Clerics for Istria. Robbed of human rights, man cannot be mechanised, for “there is no culture in mechanics”, there is no humanity in Fascism. Linking this cons to the early, ORJUNA-like TIGR-hood might have brought brand new results in understanding Kosovel as a concrete early TIGR revolutionary. And both TIGR and “Cons (Tiger” are about insurgence, about action. The model in this insurgence may be the Homunculi who had become human by developing emotions and passions, thus surpassing the plans of their maker, of the Fascist dictatorship which wanted them soulless and emotionless, wholly subordinated to mechanical slave labour.

  15. 76 FR 4103 - ETC Tiger Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. AC11-25-000] ETC Tiger Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Filing January 13, 2011. Take notice that on December 30, 2010, ETC Tiger Pipeline, LLC submitted a request for a waiver of the reporting requirement to file the FERC Form 2 for 2010...

  16. Habitat Selection and Activity Pattern of GPS Collared Sumateran Tigers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolly Priatna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although translocation has been used in mitigating human-carnivore conflict for decades, few studies have been conducted on the behavioral ecology of released animals. Such information is necessary in the context of sustainable forest management. In this study we determine the type of land cover used as main habitat and examine the activity pattern of translocated tigers. Between 2008 and 2010 we captured six conflict tigers and translocated them 74-1,350 km from their capture sites in Sumatera. All tigers were fitted with global positioning system (GPS collars. The collars were set to fix 24-48 location coordinates per day.  All translocated tigers showed a preference for a certain habitat type within their new home range, and tended to select the majority of natural land cover type within the landscape as their main habitat, but the availability of natural forest habitat within the landscape remains essensial for their survival. The activity of male translocated tigers differed significantly between the six time intervals of 24 hours, and their most active periods were in the afternoon (14:00-18:00 hours and in the evening (18:00-22:00 hours. Despite being preliminary, the findings of this study-which was the first such study conducted in Sumatera-highlight the conservation value of tiger translocation and provide valuable information for improving future management of conflict tigers.Keywords: activity pattern, GPS collars, habitat selection, sumateran tiger, translocation

  17. Philopatry and dispersal patterns in tiger (Panthera tigris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gour, Digpal Singh; Bhagavatula, Jyotsna; Bhavanishankar, Maradani; Reddy, Patlolla Anuradha; Gupta, Jaya A; Sarkar, Mriganka Shekhar; Hussain, Shaik Mohammed; Harika, Segu; Gulia, Ravinder; Shivaji, Sisinthy

    2013-01-01

    Tiger populations are dwindling rapidly making it increasingly difficult to study their dispersal and mating behaviour in the wild, more so tiger being a secretive and solitary carnivore. We used non-invasively obtained genetic data to establish the presence of 28 tigers, 22 females and 6 males, within the core area of Pench tiger reserve, Madhya Pradesh. This data was evaluated along with spatial autocorrelation and relatedness analyses to understand patterns of dispersal and philopatry in tigers within this well-managed and healthy tiger habitat in India. We established male-biased dispersal and female philopatry in tigers and reiterated this finding with multiple analyses. Females show positive correlation up to 7 kms (which corresponds to an area of approximately 160 km(2)) however this correlation is significantly positive only upto 4 kms, or 50 km(2) (r  = 0.129, ptigers in the world, this study will help us understand tiger behavior and movement. Our findings also have important implications for better management of habitats and interconnecting corridors to save this charismatic species.

  18. A baseline survey of tiger nut ( Cyperus esculentus ) production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) is a minor but important crop in Ghana. In a survey conducted on the production and marketing of the crop at Aduamoa in the Kwahu South District of Ghana, it was observed that tiger nut production was predominantly the work of women, with 70 per cent of farmers being women and 30 per ...

  19. Forest of Tigers: People, Politics, and Environment in the Sundarbans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jalais, A.

    2010-01-01

    Acclaimed for their unique ecosystem and Royal Bengal tigers, the mangrove slands that comprise the Sundarbans area of the Bengal delta are the setting for this anthropological work. The key question that the author explores is: what do tigers mean for the islanders of the Sundarbans? The diverse

  20. Tiger nut: as a plant, its derivatives and benefits | Bamishaiye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... thrombosis and colon cancer, among others. The presence of anti-nutrients like polyphenols and tannins can be eliminated by boiling in water. The tiger nut, though under-utilized, is still a good food snack for all. There is a need for awareness creation on tiger nut's inherent nutritional properties. Key words: nut, nutrition, ...

  1. Can Domestication of Wildlife Lead to Conservation? The Economics of Tiger Farming in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Tigers are a threatened species that might soon disappear in the wild. Not only are tigers threatened by deteriorating and declining habitat, but poachers continue to kill tigers for traditional medicine, decoration pieces and so on. Although international trade in tiger products has been banned

  2. Identifying Galactic Cosmic Ray Origins With Super-TIGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    deNolfo, Georgia; Binns, W. R.; Israel, M. H.; Christian, E. R.; Mitchell, J. W.; Hams, T.; Link, J. T.; Sasaki, M.; Labrador, A. W.; Mewaldt, R. A.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Super-TIGER (Super Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder) is a new long-duration balloon-borne instrument designed to test and clarify an emerging model of cosmic-ray origins and models for atomic processes by which nuclei are selected for acceleration. A sensitive test of the origin of cosmic rays is the measurement of ultra heavy elemental abundances (Z > or equal 30). Super-TIGER is a large-area (5 sq m) instrument designed to measure the elements in the interval 30 TIGER builds on the heritage of the smaller TIGER, which produced the first well-resolved measurements of elemental abundances of the elements Ga-31, Ge-32, and Se-34. We present the Super-TIGER design, schedule, and progress to date, and discuss the relevance of UH measurements to cosmic-ray origins.

  3. The economics of protecting tiger populations: Linking household behavior to poaching and prey depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damania, R.; Stringer, R.; Karanth, K.U.; Stith, B.

    2003-01-01

    The tiger (Panthera tigris) is classified as endangered and populations continue to decline. This paper presents a formal economic analysis of the two most imminent threats to the survival of wild tigers: poaching tigers and hunting their prey. A model is developed to examine interactions between tigers and farm households living in and around tiger habitats. The analysis extends the existing literature on tiger demography, incorporating predator-prey interactions and exploring the sensitivity of tiger populations to key economic parameters. The analysis aims to contribute to policy debates on how best to protect one of the world's most endangered wild cats.

  4. Fatal tiger attack: a case report with emphasis on typical tiger injuries characterized by partially resembling stab-like wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Hrishikesh; Borkar, Jaydeo; Dixit, Pradeep; Dhawane, Shailendra; Shrigiriwar, Manish; Dingre, Niraj

    2013-10-10

    Fatalities due to attacks by tigers on humans are uncommon and are rarely described in the medico-legal literature. We herein present a forensic investigation in a unique case of a fatal tiger attack in the wild on a 35 year old female in India by an Indian Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris). The attack resulted in two pairs of puncture wounds over the nape area with occult cervical spine injuries resulting from transfixing of spine due to the tiger canines; multiple puncture wounds, numerous scratches and abrasions consistent with the tiger claw injuries and injury to the right jugulocarotid vessels. This case outlines the characteristic injury pattern from such an attack along with the multiple sources of the tiger injuries. The analysis of these injuries might reveal the motivation behind the attack and the big cat species involved in the attack. A tiger injury is sometimes compared with a stab injury, as the patterned injuries due to a tiger bite are characterized by multiple penetrating, stab-like wounds. So, a special attention is paid toward establishment of the cause of death from bites by the animal teeth under unknown circumstances of trauma and to exclude the possibility of a homicide beyond reasonable doubt in such cases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Glucocorticoid Stress Responses of Reintroduced Tigers in Relation to Anthropogenic Disturbance in Sariska Tiger Reserve in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Subhadeep; Kumar, Vinod; Chandrasekhar, Mithileshwari; Malviya, Manjari; Ganswindt, Andre; Ramesh, Krishnamurthy; Sankar, Kalyanasundaram; Umapathy, Govindhaswamy

    2015-01-01

    Tiger (Panthera tigris), an endangered species, is under severe threat from poaching, habitat loss, prey depletion and habitat disturbance. Such factors have been reported causing local extermination of tiger populations including in one of the most important reserves in India, namely Sariska Tiger Reserve (STR) in northwestern India. Consequently, tigers were reintroduced in STR between 2008 and 2010, but inadequate breeding success was observed over the years, thus invoking an investigation to ascertain physiological correlates. In the present study, we report glucocorticoid stress responses of the reintroduced tigers in relation to anthropogenic disturbance in the STR from 2011 to 2013. We found anthropogenic disturbance such as encounter rates of livestock and humans, distance to roads and efforts to kill domestic livestock associated with an elevation in fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) concentrations in the monitored tigers. In this regard, female tigers seem more sensitive to such disturbance than males. It was possible to discern that tiger's fGCM levels were significantly positively related to the time spent in disturbed areas. Resulting management recommendations include relocation of villages from core areas and restriction of all anthropogenic activities in the entire STR.

  6. Glucocorticoid Stress Responses of Reintroduced Tigers in Relation to Anthropogenic Disturbance in Sariska Tiger Reserve in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhadeep Bhattacharjee

    Full Text Available Tiger (Panthera tigris, an endangered species, is under severe threat from poaching, habitat loss, prey depletion and habitat disturbance. Such factors have been reported causing local extermination of tiger populations including in one of the most important reserves in India, namely Sariska Tiger Reserve (STR in northwestern India. Consequently, tigers were reintroduced in STR between 2008 and 2010, but inadequate breeding success was observed over the years, thus invoking an investigation to ascertain physiological correlates. In the present study, we report glucocorticoid stress responses of the reintroduced tigers in relation to anthropogenic disturbance in the STR from 2011 to 2013. We found anthropogenic disturbance such as encounter rates of livestock and humans, distance to roads and efforts to kill domestic livestock associated with an elevation in fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM concentrations in the monitored tigers. In this regard, female tigers seem more sensitive to such disturbance than males. It was possible to discern that tiger's fGCM levels were significantly positively related to the time spent in disturbed areas. Resulting management recommendations include relocation of villages from core areas and restriction of all anthropogenic activities in the entire STR.

  7. Are conflict-causing tigers different? Another perspective for understanding human-tiger conflict in Chitwan National Park, Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamichhane, B.R.; Persoon, G.A.; Leirs, H.; Musters, C.J.M.; Subedi, N.; Gairhe, K.P.; Pokheral, C.P.; Poudel, S.; Mishra, R.; Dhakal, M.; Smith, J.L.D.; Iongh, H.H.

    2017-01-01

    We analyzed characteristics of the problem-causing tigers in Chitwan National Park (Nepal) to determine if specific groups or individuals in the source population have higher probability to get involved in conflicts with humans. From 2007 to 2016 we identified a total of 22 such tigers including

  8. Land use mediates riverine nitrogen export under the dominant influence of human activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Binhui; Chang, Scott X.; Lam, Shu Kee; Erisman, Jan Willem; Gu, Baojing

    2017-09-01

    Riverine nitrogen (N) export is a crucial process that links upstream and downstream ecosystems and coastal zones. However, the driving forces of riverine N export that is closely related to water N pollution are still not well understood. In this study, we used a mass balance approach to quantify the sources of N discharge and analyzed the effect of land use composition on riverine N export, taking Zhejiang Province, China as a case study. We found that the total reactive N discharge to rivers in Zhejiang increased from 0.22 to 0.26 Tg yr-1 from 2000 to 2015. At the watershed scale, our estimate of N export agrees well with the monitored riverine N concentration in the eight major watersheds in Zhejiang. Direct discharge of domestic wastewater and effluents from wastewater treatment plants are dominant sources of riverine N export, followed by agricultural non-point sources. Although riverine N export increases with the increasing proportion of urban and agricultural land uses, we did not find any relationship between land use change and changes in riverine N export. This suggests that the dominant factor affecting riverine N export should be human activities (e.g. wastewater discharge and fertilization level), while land use only mediates riverine N export.

  9. Fine-scale spatio-temporal variation in tiger Panthera tigris diet: Effect of study duration and extent on estimates of tiger diet in Chitwan National Park, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapfer, Paul M.; Streby, Henry M.; Gurung, B.; Simcharoen, A.; McDougal, C.C.; Smith, J.L.D.

    2011-01-01

    Attempts to conserve declining tiger Panthera tigris populations and distributions have experienced limited success. The poaching of tiger prey is a key threat to tiger persistence; a clear understanding of tiger diet is a prerequisite to conserve dwindling populations. We used unpublished data on tiger diet in combination with two previously published studies to examine fine-scale spatio-temporal changes in tiger diet relative to prey abundance in Chitwan National Park, Nepal, and aggregated data from the three studies to examine the effect that study duration and the size of the study area have on estimates of tiger diet. Our results correspond with those of previous studies: in all three studies, tiger diet was dominated by members of Cervidae; small to medium-sized prey was important in one study. Tiger diet was unrelated to prey abundance, and the aggregation of studies indicates that increasing study duration and study area size both result in increased dietary diversity in terms of prey categories consumed, and increasing study duration changed which prey species contributed most to tiger diet. Based on our results, we suggest that managers focus their efforts on minimizing the poaching of all tiger prey, and that future studies of tiger diet be of long duration and large spatial extent to improve our understanding of spatio-temporal variation in estimates of tiger diet. ?? 2011 Wildlife Biology, NKV.

  10. Transforming Indigenous Geoscience Education and Research (TIGER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelote, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    American Indian tribes and tribal confed­erations exert sovereignty over about 20% of all the freshwater resources in the United States. Yet only about 30 Native American (NA) students receive bachelor's degrees in the geosci­ences each year, and few of those degrees are in the field of hydrology. To help increase the ranks of NA geoscientists,TIGER builds upon the momentum of Salish Kootenai College's newly accredited Hydrology Degree Program. It allows for the development and implementation of the first Bachelor's degree in geosciences (hydrology) at a Tribal College and University (TCU). TIGER integrates a solid educational research-based framework for retention and educational preparation of underrepresented minorities with culturally relevant curriculum and socio-cultural supports, offering a new model for STEM education of NA students. Innovative hydrology curriculum is both academically rigorous and culturally relevant with concurrent theoretical, conceptual, and applied coursework in chemical, biological, physical and managerial aspects of water resources. Educational outcomes for the program include a unique combination of competencies based on industry recognized standards (e.g., National Institute of Hydrologists), input from an experienced External Advisory Board (EAB), and competencies required for geoscientists working in critical NA watersheds, which include unique competencies, such as American Indian Water Law and sovereignty issues. TIGER represents a unique opportunity to capitalize on the investments the geoscience community has already made into broadening the participation of underrepresented minorities and developing a diverse workforce, by allowing SKC to develop a sustainable and exportable program capable of significantly increasing (by 25 to 75%) the National rate of Native American geoscience graduates.

  11. Hydrological connectivity for riverine fish: measurement challenges and research opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, A.H.; Burnett, K.M.; Steel, E.A.; Flitcroft, R.L.; Pess, G.R.; Feist, B.E.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Miller, D.J.; Sanderson, B.L.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we first summarize how hydrologic connectivity has been studied for riverine fish capable of moving long distances, and then identify research opportunities that have clear conservation significance. Migratory species, such as anadromous salmonids, are good model organisms for understanding ecological connectivity in rivers because the spatial scale over which movements occur among freshwater habitats is large enough to be easily observed with available techniques; they are often economically or culturally valuable with habitats that can be easily fragmented by human activities; and they integrate landscape conditions from multiple surrounding catchment(s) with in‐river conditions. Studies have focussed on three themes: (i) relatively stable connections (connections controlled by processes that act over broad spatio‐temporal scales >1000 km2 and >100 years); (ii) dynamic connections (connections controlled by processes acting over fine to moderate spatio‐temporal scales ∼1–1000 km2 and hydrologic connectivity, including actions that disrupt or enhance natural connections experienced by fish.We outline eight challenges to understanding the role of connectivity in riverine fish ecology, organized under three foci: (i) addressing the constraints of river structure; (ii) embracing temporal complexity in hydrologic connectivity; and (iii) managing connectivity for riverine fishes. Challenges include the spatial structure of stream networks, the force and direction of flow, scale‐dependence of connectivity, shifting boundaries, complexity of behaviour and life histories and quantifying anthropogenic influence on connectivity and aligning management goals. As we discuss each challenge, we summarize relevant approaches in the literature and provide additional suggestions for improving research and management of connectivity for riverine fishes.Specifically, we suggest that rapid advances are possible in the following arenas: (i

  12. Aged riverine particulate organic carbon in four UK catchments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Jessica L.; Tipping, Edward; Bryant, Charlotte L.; Helliwell, Rachel C.; Toberman, Hannah; Quinton, John

    2015-01-01

    The riverine transport of particulate organic matter (POM) is a significant flux in the carbon cycle, and affects macronutrients and contaminants. We used radiocarbon to characterise POM at 9 riverine sites of four UK catchments (Avon, Conwy, Dee, Ribble) over a one-year period. High-discharge samples were collected on three or four occasions at each site. Suspended particulate matter (SPM) was obtained by centrifugation, and the samples were analysed for carbon isotopes. Concentrations of SPM and SPM organic carbon (OC) contents were also determined, and were found to have a significant negative correlation. For the 7 rivers draining predominantly rural catchments, PO 14 C values, expressed as percent modern carbon absolute (pMC), varied little among samplings at each site, and there was no significant difference in the average values among the sites. The overall average PO 14 C value for the 7 sites of 91.2 pMC corresponded to an average age of 680 14 C years, but this value arises from the mixing of differently-aged components, and therefore significant amounts of organic matter older than the average value are present in the samples. Although topsoil erosion is probably the major source of the riverine POM, the average PO 14 C value is appreciably lower than topsoil values (which are typically 100 pMC). This is most likely explained by inputs of older subsoil OC from bank erosion, or the preferential loss of high- 14 C topsoil organic matter by mineralisation during riverine transport. The significantly lower average PO 14 C of samples from the River Calder (76.6 pMC), can be ascribed to components containing little or no radiocarbon, derived either from industrial sources or historical coal mining, and this effect is also seen in the River Ribble, downstream of its confluence with the Calder. At the global scale, the results significantly expand available information for PO 14 C in rivers draining catchments with low erosion rates. - Highlights:

  13. Aged riverine particulate organic carbon in four UK catchments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Jessica L., E-mail: jesams@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Tipping, Edward, E-mail: et@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Bryant, Charlotte L., E-mail: charlotte.bryant@glasgow.ac.uk [NERC Radiocarbon Facility, East Kilbride G75 0QF, Scotland (United Kingdom); Helliwell, Rachel C., E-mail: rachel.helliwell@hutton.ac.uk [The James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH Scotland (United Kingdom); Toberman, Hannah, E-mail: hannahtoberman@hotmail.com [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); School of Environmental Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GP (United Kingdom); Quinton, John, E-mail: j.quinton@lancaster.ac.uk [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-01

    The riverine transport of particulate organic matter (POM) is a significant flux in the carbon cycle, and affects macronutrients and contaminants. We used radiocarbon to characterise POM at 9 riverine sites of four UK catchments (Avon, Conwy, Dee, Ribble) over a one-year period. High-discharge samples were collected on three or four occasions at each site. Suspended particulate matter (SPM) was obtained by centrifugation, and the samples were analysed for carbon isotopes. Concentrations of SPM and SPM organic carbon (OC) contents were also determined, and were found to have a significant negative correlation. For the 7 rivers draining predominantly rural catchments, PO{sup 14}C values, expressed as percent modern carbon absolute (pMC), varied little among samplings at each site, and there was no significant difference in the average values among the sites. The overall average PO{sup 14}C value for the 7 sites of 91.2 pMC corresponded to an average age of 680 {sup 14}C years, but this value arises from the mixing of differently-aged components, and therefore significant amounts of organic matter older than the average value are present in the samples. Although topsoil erosion is probably the major source of the riverine POM, the average PO{sup 14}C value is appreciably lower than topsoil values (which are typically 100 pMC). This is most likely explained by inputs of older subsoil OC from bank erosion, or the preferential loss of high-{sup 14}C topsoil organic matter by mineralisation during riverine transport. The significantly lower average PO{sup 14}C of samples from the River Calder (76.6 pMC), can be ascribed to components containing little or no radiocarbon, derived either from industrial sources or historical coal mining, and this effect is also seen in the River Ribble, downstream of its confluence with the Calder. At the global scale, the results significantly expand available information for PO{sup 14}C in rivers draining catchments with low erosion rates

  14. Tree physiology and bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Ryan; Gerard Sapes; Anna Sala; Sharon Hood

    2015-01-01

    Irruptive bark beetles usually co-occur with their co-evolved tree hosts at very low (endemic) population densities. However, recent droughts and higher temperatures have promoted widespread tree mortality with consequences for forest carbon, fire and ecosystem services (Kurz et al., 2008; Raffa et al., 2008; Jenkins et al., 2012). In this issue of New Phytologist,...

  15. The Dynamic Impact of the Tiger within Chinese Martial Arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing Lam

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In Asia, there is, in general, a great reverence held for the tiger. The tiger has been imitated and reigns supreme as king of all the beasts throughout Asia. The relationship between man and tiger holds a strange duality in that as much as the tiger is feared for its fierce savagery and destructive power, it is also revered for these very same qualities and for its majestic nature. Therefore, the very symbolic essence of the tiger has permeated all levels of the Asian community and culture; art, mythology, religion, astrology, herbology, and military fighting strategies. The purpose of this article is to show the many rich aspects that the tiger exhibits, and its influence and impact on Asian culture and Chinese martial arts in particular. Martial arts such as Cantonese Hung Gar (Hong Family and Hasayfu Hung Gar (Hong Family Four Lower Tigers dedicate a portion of their systems to achieving awesome strength and speed, and to imitating the tiger’s physical prowess. By doing so, they may achieve higher levels of effectiveness within the martial arts.

  16. Population dynamics of the northern tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) in the Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, Levi R.; van Riper, Charles

    2018-05-01

    Throughout the Southwestern United States, riparian systems contain narrow belts of vegetation along streams and rivers. Although only a small percentage of the total land cover, this ecosystem is important for maintaining high species diversity and population densities of birds. Anthropogenic changes to Western riverine systems have enhanced their susceptibility to invasion by introduced plant species, in particular, ornamental plants from the genus Tamarix (or saltcedar), which can establish itself in dry, salty conditions and spread rapidly. Recently, the central Asian saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) was released as a biocontrol for tamarisk. Since its release on the Colorado Plateau, tamarisk beetle populations in Nevada, Utah, Colorado, and Wyoming have widely expanded, leading to widespread tamarisk defoliation, and concerns from land managers regarding the consequences of the environmental impact. Defoliation can also negatively impact avian communities in the short term by decreasing insect abundance and nesting success, owing to increased solar radiation or loss of camouflage. This report details two studies that examine the spread of the introduced tamarisk beetle over parts of the Southwestern United States. The first chapter documents plant phenology and beetle abundance and movement along the Dolores and San Juan Rivers, two major tributaries of the Colorado River. This study demonstrates that D. carinulata population-movement patterns can be highly influenced by the availability of beetle food resources and that local beetle “boom and bust” events are common. The second study demonstrates that the extent and timing of tamarisk defoliation are predictable on the basis of (1) abiotic cues for D. carinulata activity, (2) spatial distributions and abundances of D. carinulata across a site, and (3) movement of D. carinulata as a result of available tamarisk foliage. A significant positive correlation exists between the

  17. Prioritizing tiger conservation through landscape genetics and habitat linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumnam, Bibek; Jhala, Yadvendradev V; Qureshi, Qamar; Maldonado, Jesus E; Gopal, Rajesh; Saini, Swati; Srinivas, Y; Fleischer, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    Even with global support for tiger (Panthera tigris) conservation their survival is threatened by poaching, habitat loss and isolation. Currently about 3,000 wild tigers persist in small fragmented populations within seven percent of their historic range. Identifying and securing habitat linkages that connect source populations for maintaining landscape-level gene flow is an important long-term conservation strategy for endangered carnivores. However, habitat corridors that link regional tiger populations are often lost to development projects due to lack of objective evidence on their importance. Here, we use individual based genetic analysis in combination with landscape permeability models to identify and prioritize movement corridors across seven tiger populations within the Central Indian Landscape. By using a panel of 11 microsatellites we identified 169 individual tigers from 587 scat and 17 tissue samples. We detected four genetic clusters within Central India with limited gene flow among three of them. Bayesian and likelihood analyses identified 17 tigers as having recent immigrant ancestry. Spatially explicit tiger occupancy obtained from extensive landscape-scale surveys across 76,913 km(2) of forest habitat was found to be only 21,290 km(2). After accounting for detection bias, the covariates that best explained tiger occupancy were large, remote, dense forest patches; large ungulate abundance, and low human footprint. We used tiger occupancy probability to parameterize habitat permeability for modeling habitat linkages using least-cost and circuit theory pathway analyses. Pairwise genetic differences (FST) between populations were better explained by modeled linkage costs (r>0.5, p<0.05) compared to Euclidean distances, which was in consonance with observed habitat fragmentation. The results of our study highlight that many corridors may still be functional as there is evidence of contemporary migration. Conservation efforts should provide legal status

  18. Prioritizing tiger conservation through landscape genetics and habitat linkages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibek Yumnam

    Full Text Available Even with global support for tiger (Panthera tigris conservation their survival is threatened by poaching, habitat loss and isolation. Currently about 3,000 wild tigers persist in small fragmented populations within seven percent of their historic range. Identifying and securing habitat linkages that connect source populations for maintaining landscape-level gene flow is an important long-term conservation strategy for endangered carnivores. However, habitat corridors that link regional tiger populations are often lost to development projects due to lack of objective evidence on their importance. Here, we use individual based genetic analysis in combination with landscape permeability models to identify and prioritize movement corridors across seven tiger populations within the Central Indian Landscape. By using a panel of 11 microsatellites we identified 169 individual tigers from 587 scat and 17 tissue samples. We detected four genetic clusters within Central India with limited gene flow among three of them. Bayesian and likelihood analyses identified 17 tigers as having recent immigrant ancestry. Spatially explicit tiger occupancy obtained from extensive landscape-scale surveys across 76,913 km(2 of forest habitat was found to be only 21,290 km(2. After accounting for detection bias, the covariates that best explained tiger occupancy were large, remote, dense forest patches; large ungulate abundance, and low human footprint. We used tiger occupancy probability to parameterize habitat permeability for modeling habitat linkages using least-cost and circuit theory pathway analyses. Pairwise genetic differences (FST between populations were better explained by modeled linkage costs (r>0.5, p<0.05 compared to Euclidean distances, which was in consonance with observed habitat fragmentation. The results of our study highlight that many corridors may still be functional as there is evidence of contemporary migration. Conservation efforts should

  19. Innovation and networking among entrepreneurs across generations of Asian tigers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brambini-Pedersen, Jan Vang; Jensen, Kent W; Schøtt, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    entrepreneurship monitor (GEM) data, this paper aims at reducing this research gap by conducting an analysis of the generational differences between the tiger economies entrepreneurs in respect to their innovative performance, their inclination to network and the importance of the quality of the network......Much attention has been paid to analysing the determinants of the economic development in the different generations of Asian tiger economies. This stream of research has provided valuable insights on the particular generational challenges, the tigers face in implementing successful catching up...

  20. Tests with an integrated helmet system for the TIGER helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Hans-Dieter V.; Evers, Carl; Stenner, K.-H.

    1998-08-01

    The TIGER helicopter is under development by the MODs of France and Germany for their armies. The initial German requirement was for anti-tank missions only. This task has been extended to support missions which resulted in an upgrade to the German 'UH-TIGER' variant. German MOD is planning to procure 212 UH-TIGER helicopters armed with TRIGAT-, HOT anti-tank missiles, STINGER air-to-air missiles, 68 mm rockets and a gun pod with a 12.7 mm gun.

  1. An Analysis of the Employment of the LVT-5 in Riverine Operations in Vietnam and Recommendations for the Employment of the AAAV in Future Riverine Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coggins, David

    2002-01-01

    ... of the maneuver commander. The LVT used in Vietnam was not ideally suited for riverine operations, but techniques, tactics, and procedures were developed to allow for the maximum employment of LVTs in the brown water...

  2. Urban Water and Riverine Quality: Participatory Science in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgitt, D. L.

    2011-12-01

    Singapore is a highly urbanised environment experiencing tropical monsoon hydrological regimes. A heavily engineered fluvial system has been developed over time to provide efficient drainage and reduce the area subject to flood risk. However, recent interest in ecosystem-based approaches to river management and the enhancement of the aesthetic and ecological 'quality' of riverine landscape, coupled with concerns about climate change, has challenged the prevailing engineering view. This is reflected in the Public Utility Board (PUB) ABC Waters Programme, which also seeks to develop community interest in riverine environments and engagement with water-related concerns. As part of a programme developing participatory GIS (PGIS) with school and university students, we have undertaken applications involving participant observation, reporting and analysis of water quality data and habitat quality based on a simplified version of the UK Environment Agency's River Habitat Survey. From an educational perspective, there is evidence that these PGIS initiatives raise environmental awareness and enhance geospatial thinking, particularly in relation to catchment management concepts. The extent to which participant-derived data can contribute to a citizen science of urban water quality and hence deliver some aspects of the community engagement sought after by the authorities, is a topic of debate.

  3. 1999 international workshop on sustainable riverine fish habitat: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The workshop ended April 24, 1999 with attendance by 75 participants from Brazil, Canada, Kenya, Norway, the UK and the US. Sponsors included the World Bank, the US Dept of Energy, the provincial government of British Columbia and the Institute of Hydrology in the UK. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together a multi-disciplinary team of experts concerned with the effect of water management on the sustainability of fish resources in rivers. Those in attendance constituted a mix of scientists, utility engineers, and government regulators. There were presentations on the science and regulatory aspects of riverine fish habitat/instream flow issues from all these countries. Each day was introduced with a key note address: (1) evolution of US instream flow needs; (2) the mission of the World Commission on dams; and (3) fish habitat simulation models, verification studies and applications in multi-objective decision support systems. Three papers of interest are abstracted separately on a unique application of the instream flow incremental methodology to predict impacts on riverine aquatic habitat, total gas pressure and biological responses and fish habitat simulation models and integrated assessment tools

  4. Phylogeographic analysis reveals northerly refugia for the riverine amphibian Triturus dobrogicus (Caudata: Salamandridae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vörös, J.; Mikulíček, Peter; Major, Á.; Recuero, E.; Arntzen, J. W.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 4 (2016), s. 974-991 ISSN 0024-4066 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Danube River * microsatellites * mitochondrial DNA * newt * riverine barrier * riverine dispersal * Sava River Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.288, year: 2016

  5. Are we meeting the challenges of landscape-scale riverine research? A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Ashley Steel; Robert M. Hughes; Aimee H. Fullerton; Stefan Schmutz; John A. Young; Michio Fukushima; Susanne Muhar; Michaela Poppe; Blake E. Feist; Clemens. Trautwein

    2010-01-01

    Identifying and quantifying relationships among landscape patterns, anthropogenic disturbances, and aquatic ecosystems is a new and rapidly developing approach to riverine ecology. In this review, we begin by describing the policy and management drivers for landscape-scale riverine research and we synthesize the technological advances that have enabled dramatic...

  6. 75 FR 48914 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to Delist the Tiger...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ...). Domestic livestock, such as cattle, water buffalos, goats, and dogs, are also frequently taken by tigers... of the tigers. The issue of tiger farming within the context of CITES, especially in China if the use...

  7. Triage of means: options for conserving tiger corridors beyond designated protected lands in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indranil Mondal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The latest tiger census conducted in India during the year 2014 shows that it harbours 57% of the global tiger population in 7% of their historic global range. At the same time, India has 1.25 billion people growing at a rate of 1.7% per year. Protected tiger habitats in India are geographically isolated and collectively holds this tiger population under tremendous anthropogenic pressure. These protected lands are in itself not enough to sustain the growing tiger population, intensifying human-tiger conflict as dispersing individuals enter human occupied areas. These factors – isolation and inadequate size of the protected lands harbouring tiger meta-populations, highlight the need to connect tiger habitats and the importance of corridors beyond protected lands. It is imperative to conserve such corridors passing through private lands to safeguard the long-term survival of the tigers in India. The goal of long-term tiger conservation in India lies in smartly integrating tiger conservation concerns in various sectors where tiger conservation is not the priority. To effectively tap into all these resources, we propose a Triage of Means strategy. Here we do not prioritize species, populations or sites due to the non-availability of conservation resources. Instead, we aim to prioritize from available resources (means to achieve conservation from other sectors where tiger conservation is not the focus. We outline how to prioritise resources available from various sectors into conservation by prioritizing issues hampering tiger conservation beyond protected habitats.

  8. Radiosensitivity of red flour beetle tribolium castaneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattar, A.; Khattak, S.; Hamed, M.

    1992-07-01

    In this report radiosensitivity of red beetle has been discussed. Red flour beetle is the most injurious pest causing great losses to stored grain. Radiation is one of the best tools of insect control. Different radiation doses (50 to 200 krads) were employed for different age groups from 1 to 60 days. It is concluded from these results that 200 krad radiation dose caused 100% mortality in red beetle in all age group. (A.B.)

  9. R2 Metropolitan Division, 2013; TIGER/Line Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  10. SpaceWire Tiger Team Findings and Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishac, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    This technical report intends to highlight the key findings and recommendations of the SpaceWire Tiger Team for the CoNNeCT project. It covers findings which are technical in nature, covering design concepts and approaches.

  11. EFFECT OF INBREEDING ON MORTALITY OF CAPTIVE TIGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidharth Prasad Mishra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out on the captive tigers of Nandankanan zoo, Odisha, India, to conclude any deleterious effect of inbreeding on mortality. A pedigree path analysis of 342 tigers was done to estimate the inbreeding coefficient of each tiger from the available pedigree information since the inception of zoological park in 1964. Percentage of animal with different range of inbreeding coefficient was classified based on their normal and white body coat colour. The correlation values between sex, colour and inbreeding coefficient with mortality were also estimated. The colour and inbreeding coefficient was found to be significantly (p<0.05 correlated with the mortality. The inbreeding was found to be significant (p<0.05 with white colour of tiger.

  12. Identifying landscape factors affecting tiger decline in the Bangladesh Sundarbans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Naser Mohsin Hossain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sundarbans Forest (∼10,000 km2 represents the only mangrove ecosystem inhabited by tigers Panthera tigris. However, in the Bangladesh portion of the Sundarbans (∼6,000 km2 tigers appear to have declined. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of a range of environmental and landscape variables in possible changes in the relative abundance of tigers in the Bangladesh Sundarbans over a five-year period (2007–2011. In 2007, 2011 tiger relative abundance was assessed using sign surveys. Using regression models we investigated changes in relative abundance versus multiple landscape variables (human disturbance associated with villages and commercial shipping lanes, distance to the international border with India where there is enhanced patrolling, presence of forest guard stations, number of criminal prosecutions and forest protection status. Tiger relative abundance was higher in 2007 and declined by 2011 with changes best explained by the proximity to international boundaries. This result might have been affected by the high levels of security patrols at the India-Bangladesh border along with cross border tiger movement between India and Bangladesh. Neighboring tiger range countries could strengthen cross-border law enforcement, increasing protection of dispersing animals. Particularly alarming was the absence of a positive effect of protected areas relative to those outside the protected area system or forest guard stations, implying a lack of management effectiveness suggesting an urgent need for an improved strategy for managing tigers and their habitats. Keywords: Wildlife poaching, Population declines, Transboundary protection, Joint patrolling, Protected area effectiveness

  13. Non-riverine pathways of terrigenous carbon to the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, T.

    2007-12-01

    The extent and nature of non-riverine fluxes of carbon from land to ocean are poorly understood. Tidal pumping from highly productive coastal environments, atmospheric deposition and submarine groundwater discharge can be significant transport mechanisms for carbon to the ocean. Evidence is mounting that tidally-induced porewater fluxes ("outwelling") of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from mangroves and salt marshes alone may be similar in magnitude as the global riverine flux of DOM. Tidal pumping of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) might exceed organic carbon fluxes by far, but the existing knowledge on DIC outwelling is too scarce for a first global estimate. Results from two case studies on the biogeochemistry of DOM outwelling are presented, from the mangroves in Northern Brazil and the salt marshes in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Ongoing research in the Northern Gulf of Mexico indicates that outwelling and groundwater inputs probably exceed riverine DOM fluxes in this region. Similar observations were made in Northern Brazil. There, the fate of mangrove-derived DOM could be traced from its source in the mangrove sediments to the outer North Brazil shelf by using a combination of isotopic and molecular approaches. Reversed-phase liquid chromatography / mass spectrometry (LC/MS) provided a multifaceted array of information that mirrors the molecular complexity of DOM. Statistical analyses on these data revealed significant differences between mangrove and open-ocean DOM which successively disappeared by irradiating the samples with natural sunlight. Nuclear magnetic resonance analyses yielded concurrent results. Ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) is the only technique capable of resolving and identifying individual elemental compositions in these complex mixtures. We applied this technique for characterizing mangrove-derived DOM and to assess the molecular changes that occur in the initial stages of

  14. ECOLOGICAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF RIVERINE HYDROECOSYSTEMS AND CURRENT PROBLEMS OF FISHERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sherman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze permanent negative effect from transformation of riverine hydroecosystems on fish fauna of Azov-Black Sea Basin. Methodology. Materials on the abiotic parameters of hydro river, according to information received by the regional meteorological stations and their own observations. Industrial situation analyzed by official reports Statefishagency of Ukraine. Findings. The studies demonstrate that there is a gradual process of an increase of the number of components, which virtually exclude the significance of positive results of self-purification by natural way, in water mass of transformed riverine systems. Spontaneous fluctuation of water level, which is caused by volumes of daily discharges, often instantly changes water levels on spawning areas. Fertilized fish eggs is periodically flooded or periodically dried, aeration regime changes that results in mass fish kills at different stages and phases of embryogenesis. Ecological situation of transformed hydroecosystems demonstrates coupling of negative effect of hydrological regime autostaticity in time and space, deterioration of water chemical composition. There is a permanent trend of saturation of water with components, which are not natural that results in doubtfulness of effective reproduction puts in question the possibility of stable state of valuable commercial fish stocks. At the same time, transformed water areas of riverine hydroecosystems have high bioproductive potential, which having its own food resource, is ineffectively transformed into food base for valuable commercial fish species. Against the background of noted changes, the considered water areas lost their suitability of providing effective reproduction. As a consequence, primary valuable fish species form low-yield generations and this is reflected on qualitative indices of commercial fishing. There was found a permanent trend of sufficiently fast change of the ratio of valuable and low-valuable species

  15. Tracking changes and preventing loss in critical tiger habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anup R; Dinerstein, Eric; Wikramanayake, Eric; Anderson, Michael L; Olson, David; Jones, Benjamin S; Seidensticker, John; Lumpkin, Susan; Hansen, Matthew C; Sizer, Nigel C; Davis, Crystal L; Palminteri, Suzanne; Hahn, Nathan R

    2016-04-01

    The global population of wild tigers remains dangerously low at fewer than 3500 individuals. Habitat loss, along with poaching, can undermine the international target recovery of doubling the number of wild tigers by 2022. Using a new satellite-based monitoring system, we analyzed 14 years of forest loss data within the 76 landscapes (ranging from 278 to 269,983 km(2)) that have been prioritized for conservation of wild tigers. Our analysis provides an update of the status of tiger habitat and describes new applications of technology to detect precisely where forest loss is occurring in order to curb future habitat loss. Across the 76 landscapes, forest loss was far less than anticipated (79,597 ± 22,629 km(2), 7.7% of remaining habitat) over the 14-year study period (2001-2014). Habitat loss was unevenly distributed within a subset of 29 landscapes deemed most critical for doubling wild tiger populations: 19 showed little change (1.5%), whereas 10 accounted for more than 98% (57,392 ± 16,316 km(2)) of habitat loss. Habitat loss in source population sites within 76 landscapes ranged from no loss to 435 ± 124 km(2) ([Formula: see text], SD = 89, total = 1676 ± 476 km(2)). Doubling the tiger population by 2022 requires moving beyond tracking annual changes in habitat. We highlight near-real-time forest monitoring technologies that provide alerts of forest loss at relevant spatial and temporal scales to prevent further erosion.

  16. Conservation priorities for endangered Indian tigers through a genomic lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natesh, Meghana; Atla, Goutham; Nigam, Parag; Jhala, Yadvendradev V; Zachariah, Arun; Borthakur, Udayan; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2017-08-29

    Tigers have lost 93% of their historical range worldwide. India plays a vital role in the conservation of tigers since nearly 60% of all wild tigers are currently found here. However, as protected areas are small (<300 km 2 on average), with only a few individuals in each, many of them may not be independently viable. It is thus important to identify and conserve genetically connected populations, as well as to maintain connectivity within them. We collected samples from wild tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) across India and used genome-wide SNPs to infer genetic connectivity. We genotyped 10,184 SNPs from 38 individuals across 17 protected areas and identified three genetically distinct clusters (corresponding to northwest, southern and central India). The northwest cluster was isolated with low variation and high relatedness. The geographically large central cluster included tigers from central, northeastern and northern India, and had the highest variation. Most genetic diversity (62%) was shared among clusters, while unique variation was highest in the central cluster (8.5%) and lowest in the northwestern one (2%). We did not detect signatures of differential selection or local adaptation. We highlight that the northwest population requires conservation attention to ensure persistence of these tigers.

  17. What do dung beetles eat?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holter, Peter; Scholtz, Clarke H.

    2007-01-01

    Most adult coprophagous beetles feed on fresh dung of mammalian herbivores, confining ingestion to small particles with measured maximum diameters from 2-5 to 130 µm, according to body size and kind of beetle. This study explores benefits and costs of selective feeding in a ‘typical' dung beetle...... that of elephant and rhino (40-58%) was available to selective feeders. 3. Nitrogen concentrations were high - and C/N ratios low - in most types of bulk dung compared with the average food of terrestrial detritivores or herbivores. Exceptions were elephant and rhino dung with low nitrogen concentrations and high...... C/N ratios. 4. Estimated C/N ratios of 13-39 in bulk dung (sheep-elephant) were decreased by selective feeding to 7.3-12.6 in the ingested material. In assimilated food, ratios are probably only 5-7, as most assimilable nitrogen and carbon may be of microbial origin. If so, the assimilable food...

  18. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2015, Series Information for the 2015 TIGER/Line Shapefile All Roads County-based Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The All Roads Shapefile includes all features within the MTDB Super Class "Road/Path Features" distinguished where the MAF/TIGER Feature Classification Code (MTFCC)...

  19. TIGER Railroads for South Louisiana, UTM 15N NAD83, Louisiana Recovery Authority (2007), [TIGER_LA_Railroads_2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a line data set for 'Railroads' of Louisiana extracted from 1997 TIGER/Line source data. Railroad Mainlines, Spurs, Yards, and specialized rail lines have...

  20. Connectivity of tiger (Panthera tigris) populations in the human-influenced forest mosaic of Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Aditya; Vaidyanathan, Srinivas; Mondol, Samrat; Edgaonkar, Advait; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2013-01-01

    Today, most wild tigers live in small, isolated Protected Areas within human dominated landscapes in the Indian subcontinent. Future survival of tigers depends on increasing local population size, as well as maintaining connectivity between populations. While significant conservation effort has been invested in increasing tiger population size, few initiatives have focused on landscape-level connectivity and on understanding the effect different landscape elements have on maintaining connectivity. We combined individual-based genetic and landscape ecology approaches to address this issue in six protected areas with varying tiger densities and separation in the Central Indian tiger landscape. We non-invasively sampled 55 tigers from different protected areas within this landscape. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian genetic assignment tests indicate long-range tiger dispersal (on the order of 650 km) between protected areas. Further geo-spatial analyses revealed that tiger connectivity was affected by landscape elements such as human settlements, road density and host-population tiger density, but not by distance between populations. Our results elucidate the importance of landscape and habitat viability outside and between protected areas and provide a quantitative approach to test functionality of tiger corridors. We suggest future management strategies aim to minimize urban expansion between protected areas to maximize tiger connectivity. Achieving this goal in the context of ongoing urbanization and need to sustain current economic growth exerts enormous pressure on the remaining tiger habitats and emerges as a big challenge to conserve wild tigers in the Indian subcontinent.

  1. Connectivity of tiger (Panthera tigris populations in the human-influenced forest mosaic of Central India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Joshi

    Full Text Available Today, most wild tigers live in small, isolated Protected Areas within human dominated landscapes in the Indian subcontinent. Future survival of tigers depends on increasing local population size, as well as maintaining connectivity between populations. While significant conservation effort has been invested in increasing tiger population size, few initiatives have focused on landscape-level connectivity and on understanding the effect different landscape elements have on maintaining connectivity. We combined individual-based genetic and landscape ecology approaches to address this issue in six protected areas with varying tiger densities and separation in the Central Indian tiger landscape. We non-invasively sampled 55 tigers from different protected areas within this landscape. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian genetic assignment tests indicate long-range tiger dispersal (on the order of 650 km between protected areas. Further geo-spatial analyses revealed that tiger connectivity was affected by landscape elements such as human settlements, road density and host-population tiger density, but not by distance between populations. Our results elucidate the importance of landscape and habitat viability outside and between protected areas and provide a quantitative approach to test functionality of tiger corridors. We suggest future management strategies aim to minimize urban expansion between protected areas to maximize tiger connectivity. Achieving this goal in the context of ongoing urbanization and need to sustain current economic growth exerts enormous pressure on the remaining tiger habitats and emerges as a big challenge to conserve wild tigers in the Indian subcontinent.

  2. Tiger Team Assessment of the Ames Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This report documents the Tiger Assessment of the Ames Laboratory (Ames), located in Ames, Iowa. Ames is operated for the US Department of Energy (DOE) by Iowa State University. The assessment was conducted from February 10 to March 5, 1992, under the auspices of the Office of Special Projects, Office of the Assistant Secretary of Environment, Safety and Health, Headquarters, DOE. The assessment was comprehensive, encompassing Environment, Safety, and Health (ES ampersand H) disciplines; management practices; and contractor and DOE self-assessments. Compliance with applicable Federal, State of Iowa, and local regulations; applicable DOE Orders; best management practices; and internal requirements at Ames Laboratory were assessed. In addition, an evaluation of the adequacy and effectiveness of DOE and the site contractor's management of ES ampersand H/quality assurance program was conducted

  3. Tiger Team Assessment of the Ames Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This report documents the Tiger Assessment of the Ames Laboratory (Ames), located in Ames, Iowa. Ames is operated for the US Department of Energy (DOE) by Iowa State University. The assessment was conducted from February 10 to March 5, 1992, under the auspices of the Office of Special Projects, Office of the Assistant Secretary of Environment, Safety and Health, Headquarters, DOE. The assessment was comprehensive, encompassing Environment, Safety, and Health (ES H) disciplines; management practices; and contractor and DOE self-assessments. Compliance with applicable Federal, State of Iowa, and local regulations; applicable DOE Orders; best management practices; and internal requirements at Ames Laboratory were assessed. In addition, an evaluation of the adequacy and effectiveness of DOE and the site contractor's management of ES H/quality assurance program was conducted.

  4. Some ecological, economic, and social consequences of bark beetle infestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Progar; Adris Eglitis; John E. Lundquist

    2009-01-01

    Bark beetles are powerful agents of change in dynamic forest ecosystems. Most assessments of the effects of bark beetle outbreaks have been based on negative impacts on timber production. The positive effects of bark beetle activities are much less well understood. Bark beetles perform vital functions at all levels of scale in forest ecosystems. At the landscape...

  5. Monitoring Asian longhorned beetles in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya Nehme; Melody Keena; Aijun Zhang; Alan Sawyer; Kelli. Hoover

    2011-01-01

    An operationally effective trap to monitor the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis or ALB) has been a goal of the ALB eradication program since the first beetle was found in New York in 1996. Ground surveying is only ~20 percent effective at identifying infested trees and, although tree climbing is more effective, it is also...

  6. Biological pest control in beetle agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aanen, D.K.; Slippers, B.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Bark beetles are among the most destructive tree pests on the planet. Their symbiosis with fungi has consequently been studied extensively for more than a century. A recent study has identified actinomycete bacteria that are associated with the southern pine beetle and produce specific antibiotics

  7. Acoustic characteristics of rhinoceros beetle stridulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stridulation behavior has been reported for adults and larvae of many dynastids. This report describes acoustic recordings and analyses of stridulations by larvae of two Southeastern Asia rhinoceros beetle species and by adults of the coconut rhinoceros beetle. The behavioral context of the strid...

  8. Current Census Tracts for Torrance County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. 75 FR 70962 - California Green Trade Corridor Transportation Investment Generating Economic Recovery (TIGER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [Docket Number 2010-0103] California Green Trade Corridor Transportation Investment Generating Economic Recovery (TIGER) AGENCY: Department of... California Green Trade Corridor Transportation Investment Generating Economic Recovery (TIGER) grant. An...

  10. Current Federal Congressional Districts for Cibola County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. Current Census Tracts for Cibola County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. Current Census Blocks for San Miguel County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. 2000 Census Unified School Districts for Harding County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Socorro County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. 2000 Census Voting Precincts for Santa Fe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  16. Miscellaneous Ground Transportation (Utilities) for Valencia County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  17. Current State Senate Districts for Catron County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  18. Current State Senate Districts for Curry County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. Current Urban Areas for Santa Fe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. Current Block Groups for Guadalupe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. 2000 Census Urban Areas for Los Alamos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  2. Current 5-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Quay County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. Current Census Tracts for San Juan County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  4. Current Census Blocks for Los Alamos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  5. 2000 Census Voting Precincts for Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. County Economic Census for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  8. Economic Census Designated Places for San Juan County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. County Economic Census for Roosevelt County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. County Economic Census for Dona Ana County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. Economic Census Designated Places for Los Alamos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. Economic Census Designated Places for Catron County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. County Economic Census for Taos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. Economic Census Designated Places for Mora County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. County Economic Census for Cibola County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  16. Economic Census Designated Places for Lea County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  17. Economic Census Designated Places for Guadalupe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  18. Current County Boundary for Mora County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. County Economic Census for McKinley County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. Economic Census Designated Places for De Baca County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. County Economic Census for San Miguel County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  2. County Economic Census for Union County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. County Economic Census for Chaves County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  4. County Economic Census for San Juan County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  5. Economic Census Designated Places for Dona Ana County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. Economic Census Designated Places for San Miguel County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. County Economic Census for Harding County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  8. Economic Census Designated Places for Roosevelt County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. County Economic Census for Curry County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. County Economic Census for Lea County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. Economic Census Designated Places for Cibola County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. County Economic Census for Guadalupe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. Economic Census Designated Places for Harding County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. Economic Census Designated Places for Quay County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. Economic Census Designated Places for Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  16. County Economic Census for Otero County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  17. Economic Census Designated Places for Taos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  18. Economic Census Designated Places for Torrance County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. Economic Census Designated Places for Eddy County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. Economic Census Designated Places for Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. County Economic Census for Mora County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  2. County Economic Census for Catron County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. Economic Census Designated Places for Santa Fe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  4. County Economic Census for Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  5. Economic Census Designated Places for Socorro County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. County Economic Census for Sandoval County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. County Economic Census for Socorro County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  8. County Economic Census for Santa Fe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. County Economic Census for Grant County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. County Economic Census for Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. Economic Census Designated Places for Curry County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. Economic Census Designated Places for Sierra County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. County Economic Census for Colfax County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. Economic Census Designated Places for Grant County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. Economic Census Designated Places for Chaves County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  16. County Economic Census for Luna County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  17. Economic Census Designated Places for Luna County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  18. County Economic Census for De Baca County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. County Economic Census for Quay County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. County Economic Census for Valencia County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. Economic Census Designated Places for Valencia County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  2. Economic Census Designated Places for Sandoval County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. Economic Census Designated Places for McKinley County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  4. Economic Census Designated Places for Otero County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  5. Economic Census Designated Places for Lincoln County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. County Economic Census for Lincoln County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. Economic Census Designated Places for Colfax County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  8. County Economic Census for Torrance County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. Miscellaneous Ground Transportation (Utilities) for Lincoln County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. Miscellaneous Ground Transportation (Utilities) for Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. Miscellaneous Ground Transportation (Utilities) for Mora County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. Miscellaneous Ground Transportation (Utilities) for Torrance County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. Miscellaneous Ground Transportation (Utilities) for McKinley County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. Miscellaneous Ground Transportation (Utilities) for Union County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. Railroads for McKinley County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  16. Roads for McKinley County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  17. Miscellaneous Ground Transportation (Utilities) for Catron County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  18. Miscellaneous Ground Transportation (Utilities) for Los Alamos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. Miscellaneous Ground Transportation (Utilities) for Cibola County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. Miscellaneous Ground Transportation (Utilities) for San Juan County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. Current County Boundary for Santa Fe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  2. Current County Census Subdivision for Union County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. 2000 Census Unified School Districts for Valencia County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  4. 2000 Census Designated Places for Harding County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  5. Current Urban Areas for Luna County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. Current Core Based Statistical Areas for Chaves County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. Current County Census Subdivision for Lincoln County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  8. Current Unified School Districts for Socorro County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. 2000 Census Voting Precincts for Eddy County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Chaves County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. Current Census Blocks for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. Current County Boundary for Cibola County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Sandoval County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. 2000 Census Voting Precincts for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Catron County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  16. Current State Senate Districts for Guadalupe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  17. Current Block Groups for Luna County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  18. Current County Census Subdivision for De Baca County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. American Indian Tribal Subdivision Areas for Socorro County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. Current Block Groups for San Juan County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. Current State House Districts for Colfax County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  2. Current Water Polygons for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. 2000 Census Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSA) for Sandoval County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  4. American Indian Tribal Subdivision Areas for Sandoval County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  5. Current Federal Congressional Districts for Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. County Economic Census for Sierra County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. Current Federal Congressional Districts for Lea County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  8. Current Census Blocks for Luna County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. Current State House Districts for Lea County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. Current State House Districts for San Miguel County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. American Indian Tribal Subdivision Areas for Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. Current Block Groups for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Catron County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. Miscellaneous Ground Transportation (Utilities) for Dona Ana County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  16. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Otero County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  17. Miscellaneous Ground Transportation (Utilities) for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  18. Current Census Blocks for Catron County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. Landmark Points for San Miguel County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. Current State House Districts for Harding County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. Current 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Guadalupe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  2. 2000 Census Designated Places for Quay County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. County Economic Census for Eddy County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  4. Current Designated Places for San Miguel County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  5. County Economic Census for Los Alamos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. Current Urban Areas for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. Current Census Blocks for Chaves County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  8. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Sandoval County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. Current Census Tracts for Sierra County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. 2000 Census Designated Places for Chaves County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. Current Federal Congressional Districts for Chaves County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. Current County Boundary for Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. Current 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Union County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. Miscellaneous Ground Transportation (Utilities) for Grant County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. Current County Boundary for Sandoval County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  16. Economic Census Designated Places for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  17. Current Census Blocks for Quay County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  18. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Otero County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. 2000 Census Unified School Districts for San Juan County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. 2000 Census Voting Precincts for Torrance County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. Current State House Districts for Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  2. Current County Boundary for San Miguel County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Mora County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  4. 2000 Census Voting Precincts for Sierra County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  5. Current 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Torrance County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. Current Combined Statistical Areas for Curry County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. Current 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Sierra County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  8. Landmark Polygons for Santa Fe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. Current Urban Areas for Lincoln County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. Current State House Districts for Taos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. 2000 Census Unified School Districts for Los Alamos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. Current Designated Places for Catron County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. Current State Senate Districts for Torrance County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. Current Traffic Analysis Zones for Dona Ana County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. Current Designated Places for Mora County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  16. Current State Senate Districts for Harding County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  17. Current County Boundary for Valencia County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  18. Current Census Tracts for Taos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. Current Traffic Analysis Zones for Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. Current State House Districts for Dona Ana County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. HELMINTHIASIS IN A BENGAL TIGER (PANTHERA TIGRIS TIGRIS - A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaji Bhattacharya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During post mortem examination of a wild male adult Bengal Tiger of Pirkhali of Sundarban Tiger Reserve, West Bengal, India,Toxocara cati and Taenia hydatigena was observed in the stomach and intestine.

  2. Current Census Tracts for McKinley County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. Landmark Points for McKinley County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  4. American Indian Tribal Subdivision Areas for San Juan County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  5. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Valencia County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Lincoln County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. Current Census Tracts for De Baca County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  8. 2000 Census Unified School Districts for Mora County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Taos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. Current County Boundary for Chaves County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. Current Unified School Districts for Otero County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. 2000 Census Voting Precincts for Colfax County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. Current Federal Congressional Districts for Luna County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. Landmark Polygons for McKinley County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. Current 5-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Guadalupe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  16. Current Urban Areas for Cibola County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  17. Current Core Based Statistical Areas for Los Alamos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  18. Current State Senate Districts for Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. 2000 Census Unified School Districts for Lea County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. American Indian Tribal Subdivision Areas for Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. Economic Census Designated Places for Union County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  2. Current 5-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Valencia County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. 2000 Census Unified School Districts for Colfax County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  4. Current Federal Congressional Districts for Dona Ana County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  5. Current 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Roosevelt County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. 2000 Census Voting Precincts for Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. Metal fate and partitioning in soils under bark beetle-killed trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bearup, Lindsay A., E-mail: lbearup@mines.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Hydrological Science and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Mikkelson, Kristin M. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Hydrological Science and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Wiley, Joseph F. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K.; Maxwell, Reed M. [Hydrological Science and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Department of Geology and Geological Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Sharp, Jonathan O.; McCray, John E. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Hydrological Science and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Recent mountain pine beetle infestation in the Rocky Mountains of North America has killed an unprecedented acreage of pine forest, creating an opportunity to observe an active re-equilibration in response to widespread land cover perturbation. This work investigates metal mobility in beetle-impacted forests using parallel rainwater and acid leaches to estimate solid–liquid partitioning coefficients and a complete sequential extraction procedure to determine how metals are fractionated in soils under trees experiencing different phases of mortality. Geochemical model simulations analyzed in consideration with experimental data provide additional insight into the mechanisms controlling metal complexation. Metal and base-cation mobility consistently increased in soils under beetle-attacked trees relative to soil under healthy trees. Mobility increases were more pronounced on south facing slopes and more strongly correlated to pH under attacked trees than under healthy trees. Similarly, soil moisture was significantly higher under dead trees, related to the loss of transpiration and interception. Zinc and cadmium content increased in soils under dead trees relative to living trees. Cadmium increases occurred predominantly in the exchangeable fraction, indicating increased mobilization potential. Relative increases of zinc were greatest in the organic fraction, the only fraction where increases in copper were observed. Model results reveal that increased organic complexation, not changes in pH or base cation concentrations, can explain the observed differences in metal partitioning for zinc, nickel, cadmium, and copper. Predicted concentrations would be unlikely to impair human health or plant growth at these sites; however, higher exchangeable metals under beetle-killed trees relative to healthy trees suggest a possible decline in riverine ecosystem health and water quality in areas already approaching criteria limits and drinking water standards. Impairment of

  8. Trends of Forest Dynamics in Tiger Landscapes Across Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Pinki; Nagendra, Harini

    2011-10-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are cornerstones of biodiversity conservation, but small parks alone cannot support wide-ranging species, such as the tiger. Hence, forest dynamics in the surrounding landscapes of PAs are also important to tiger conservation. Tiger landscapes often support considerable human population in proximity of the PA, sometimes within the core itself, and thus are subject to various land use activities (such as agricultural expansion and road development) driving habitat loss and fragmentation. We synthesize information from 27 journal articles in 24 tiger landscapes to assess forest-cover dynamics in tiger-range countries. Although 29% of the PAs considered in this study have negligible change in overall forest cover, approximately 71% are undergoing deforestation and fragmentation. Approximately 58% of the total case studies have human settlements within the core area. Most changes—including agricultural expansion, plantation, and farming (52%), fuelwood and fodder collection (43%), logging (38%), grazing (38%), and tourism and development (10%)—can be attributed to human impacts largely linked to the nature of the management regime. This study highlights the need for incorporating new perspectives, ideas, and lessons learned locally and across borders into management plans to ensure tiger conservation in landscapes dominated by human activities. Given the increasing isolation of most parks due to agricultural, infrastructural, and commercial developments at the periphery, it is imperative to conduct planning and evaluation at the landscape level, as well as incorporate multiple actors and institutions in planning, instead of focusing solely on conservation within the PAs as is currently the case in most tiger parks.

  9. 75 FR 17755 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel GULF TIGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel GULF TIGER AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... vessel GULF TIGER as required by 33 U.S.C. 1605(c) and 33 CFR 81.18. DATES: The Certificate of Alternate... for the h offshore supply vessel GULF TIGER. Full compliance with 72 COLREGS and the Inland Rules Act...

  10. 77 FR 36287 - Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the California Tiger Salamander, Calaveras...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ...-FXES11120800000F2-123-F2] Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the California Tiger Salamander... animal, the threatened Central California Distinct Population Segment of the California tiger salamander (tiger salamander). The applicant would implement a conservation program to minimize and mitigate the...

  11. Technology Informatics Guiding Education Reform (TIGER). The Future of Interprofessional Education Is Here!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ming-Chuan; Ball, Marion; Skiba, Diane J; Marin, Heimar; Shaw, Toria; Chang, Polun

    2018-01-01

    This session will describe the TIGER Initiative journey, its evolution and accomplishments nationally and internationally. A powerful demonstration of the TIGER Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) will be highlighted along with case studies from around the world, with emphasis on global competencies and opportunities for engagement in all current TIGER activities and future plans.

  12. Subspecific Status of the Korean Tiger Inferred by Ancient DNA Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-Yeong Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The tiger population that once inhabited the Korean peninsula was initially considered a unique subspecies (Panthera tigris coreensis, distinct from the Amur tiger of the Russian Far East (P. t. altaica. However, in the following decades, the population of P. t. coreensis was classified as P. t. altaica and hence forth the two populations have been considered the same subspecies. From an ecological point of view, the classification of the Korean tiger population as P. t. altaica is a plausible conclusion. Historically, there were no major dispersal barriers between the Korean peninsula and the habitat of Amur tigers in Far Eastern Russia and northeastern China that might prevent gene flow, especially for a large carnivore with long-distance dispersal abilities. However, there has yet to be a genetic study to confirm the subspecific status of the Korean tiger. Bone samples from four tigers originally caught in the Korean peninsula were collected from two museums in Japan and the United States. Eight mitochondrial gene fragments were sequenced and compared to previously published tiger subspecies’ mtDNA sequences to assess the phylogenetic relationship of the Korean tiger. Three individuals shared an identical haplotype with the Amur tigers. One specimen grouped with Malayan tigers, perhaps due to misidentification or mislabeling of the sample. Our results support the conclusion that the Korean tiger should be classified as P. t. altaica, which has important implications for the conservation and reintroduction of Korean tigers.

  13. Ecopsychosocial Aspects of Human–Tiger Conflict: An Ethnographic Study of Tiger Widows of Sundarban Delta, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Arabinda N.; Mondal, Ranajit; Brahma, Arabinda; Biswas, Mrinal K.

    2016-01-01

    AIMS Human–tiger conflict (HTC) is a serious public health issue in Sundarban Reserve Forest, India. HTC is a continued concern for the significant mortality and morbidity of both human and tiger population. This is the first comprehensive report on Sundarban tiger–human conflicts and its impact on widows whose husbands were killed by tigers. The study attempts to explore the situation analysis of HTC and the aftermath of the incident including bereavement and coping, the cultural stigma related to being killed by a tiger and the consequent discrimination, deprivation, and social rejection, and the impact on the mental health of the tiger-widows. METHODS This is a three-phase ethnographic research with a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods. In the first phase, a door-to-door village survey (3,084 households) was carried out in two villages of Sundarban, which are adjacent to the Reserve Forest, in which the incidents of human–animal conflicts and the 65 tiger-widows identified were documented. In the second phase, the 65 tiger-widows were studied to explore the ecodemography of tiger attacks and tiger-widows alongside the stigma issue by using a stigma questionnaire (n = 49). The stigma burden was compared with normal widows (n = 21) and snake-bite widows (n = 18). In the third phase, the psychosocial and cultural dimensions related to tiger attacks were studied by using in-depth interviews (IDI) of the tiger-widows, focus-group discussions (FGD), and participatory mapping in the community. Clinical examinations of the mental health of the widows were also carried out in this phase. RESULTS The mean age of the 65 widows was 43.49 ± 9.58 years. Of this, 12.3% of the widows had remarried and only 4.6% of the widows were literate. In all, 67.2% of all tiger attacks occurred as a result of illegal forest entry. The main livelihood of the former husbands of the widows were 43.8% wood cutting, 28.1% fishing, 10.9% crab catching, 9.4% tiger prawn seed

  14. Ecopsychosocial Aspects of Human-Tiger Conflict: An Ethnographic Study of Tiger Widows of Sundarban Delta, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Arabinda N; Mondal, Ranajit; Brahma, Arabinda; Biswas, Mrinal K

    2016-01-01

    Human-tiger conflict (HTC) is a serious public health issue in Sundarban Reserve Forest, India. HTC is a continued concern for the significant mortality and morbidity of both human and tiger population. This is the first comprehensive report on Sundarban tiger-human conflicts and its impact on widows whose husbands were killed by tigers. The study attempts to explore the situation analysis of HTC and the aftermath of the incident including bereavement and coping, the cultural stigma related to being killed by a tiger and the consequent discrimination, deprivation, and social rejection, and the impact on the mental health of the tiger-widows. This is a three-phase ethnographic research with a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods. In the first phase, a door-to-door village survey (3,084 households) was carried out in two villages of Sundarban, which are adjacent to the Reserve Forest, in which the incidents of human-animal conflicts and the 65 tiger-widows identified were documented. In the second phase, the 65 tiger-widows were studied to explore the ecodemography of tiger attacks and tiger-widows alongside the stigma issue by using a stigma questionnaire (n = 49). The stigma burden was compared with normal widows (n = 21) and snake-bite widows (n = 18). In the third phase, the psychosocial and cultural dimensions related to tiger attacks were studied by using in-depth interviews (IDI) of the tiger-widows, focus-group discussions (FGD), and participatory mapping in the community. Clinical examinations of the mental health of the widows were also carried out in this phase. The mean age of the 65 widows was 43.49 ± 9.58 years. Of this, 12.3% of the widows had remarried and only 4.6% of the widows were literate. In all, 67.2% of all tiger attacks occurred as a result of illegal forest entry. The main livelihood of the former husbands of the widows were 43.8% wood cutting, 28.1% fishing, 10.9% crab catching, 9.4% tiger prawn seed (juvenile prawn), and 4.7% honey

  15. Ecological impact of Prosopis species invasion in Turkwel riverine forest, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muturi, G.M.; Poorter, L.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Kigomo, B.N.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of Prosopis species invasion in the Turkwel riverine forest in Kenya was investigated under three contrasting: Acacia, Prosopis and Mixed species (Acacia and Prosopis) canopies. Variation amongst canopies was assessed through soil nutrients and physical properties, tree characteristics

  16. Expansion of Industrial Plantations Continues to Threaten Malayan Tiger Habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varada S. Shevade

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia has some of the highest deforestation rates globally, with Malaysia being identified as a deforestation hotspot. The Malayan tiger, a critically endangered subspecies of the tiger endemic to Peninsular Malaysia, is threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation. In this study, we estimate the natural forest loss and conversion to plantations in Peninsular Malaysia and specifically in its tiger habitat between 1988 and 2012 using the Landsat data archive. We estimate a total loss of 1.35 Mha of natural forest area within Peninsular Malaysia over the entire study period, with 0.83 Mha lost within the tiger habitat. Nearly half (48% of the natural forest loss area represents conversion to tree plantations. The annual area of new plantation establishment from natural forest conversion increased from 20 thousand ha year−1 during 1988–2000 to 34 thousand ha year−1 during 2001–2012. Large-scale industrial plantations, primarily those of oil palm, as well as recently cleared land, constitute 80% of forest converted to plantations since 1988. We conclude that industrial plantation expansion has been a persistent threat to natural forests within the Malayan tiger habitat. Expanding oil palm plantations dominate forest conversions while those for rubber are an emerging threat.

  17. Lacustrine-fluvial interactions in Australia's Riverine Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Justine; Pietsch, Timothy; Gontz, Allen; Olley, Jon

    2017-06-01

    Climatic forcing of fluvial systems has been a pre-occupation of geomorphological studies in Australia since the 1940s. In the Riverine Plain, southeastern Australia, the stable tectonic setting and absence of glaciation have combined to produce sediment loads that are amongst the lowest in the world. Surficial sediments and landforms exceed 140,000 yr in age, and geomorphological change recorded in the fluvial, fluvio-lacustrine and aeolian features have provided a well-studied record of Quaternary environmental change over the last glacial cycle. The region includes the Willandra Lakes, whose distinctive lunette lakes preserve a history of water-level variations and ecological change that is the cornerstone of Australian Quaternary chronostratigraphy. The lunette sediments also contain an ancient record of human occupation that includes the earliest human fossils yet found on the Australian continent. To date, the lake-level and palaeochannel records in the Lachlan-Willandra system have not been fully integrated, making it difficult to establish the regional significance of hydrological change. Here, we compare the Willandra Lakes environmental record with the morphology and location of fluvial systems in the lower Lachlan. An ancient channel belt of the Lachlan, Willandra Creek, acted as the main feeder channel to Willandra Lakes before channel avulsion caused the lakes to dry out in the late Pleistocene. Electromagnetic surveys, geomorphological and sedimentary evidence are used to reconstruct the evolution of the first new channel belt following the avulsion. Single grain optical dating of floodplain sediments indicates that sedimentation in the new Middle Billabong Palaeochannel had commenced before 18.4 ± 1.1 ka. A second avulsion shifted its upper reaches to the location of the present Lachlan River by 16.2 ± 0.9 ka. The timing of these events is consistent with palaeohydrological records reconstructed from Willandra Lakes and with the record of

  18. Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in riverine and marine sediments of the Laizhou Bay area, North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Xiaohui; Tang Jianhui; Chen Yingjun; Li Jun; Zhang Gan

    2011-01-01

    PCN congeners were analyzed in marine and riverine sediments of the Laizhou Bay area, North China. Concentrations of PCNs ranged from 0.12 to 5.1 ng g -1 dry weight (dw) with a mean value of 1.1 ng g -1 dw. The levels of PCNs varied largely, with industrial group approximately ten folds higher than those of the rural in riverine sediment. A strong impact by direct discharge from local factories was suggested. Similar compositional profiles were found within groups. High resemblance of compositional profiles between industrial samples and Halowax 1014 was observed. It was indicated that PCNs in riverine sediments were mainly from release of industrial usage, with additional contributions from industrial thermal process at certain sites. In marine sediments, it was suggested that PCNs along the coast of Laizhou Bay were mainly controlled by riverine input. While in the central bay, PCN distributions were possibly impacted by combined multiple factors. - Highlights: → We investigated the PCN levels both in the riverine and marine surface sediments of Laizhou Bay. → PCN concentrations in the river sediments of industrial group were ten times higher than in the rural group. → Leakage from industrial materials and thermal processes were the major sources. → PCNs in the coastal sites were more influenced by the river discharge. → In the centre bay, PCN distributions were possibly impacted by combined multiple factors. - A systematic sampling of riverine and marine sediments was conducted in Laizhou Bay area to investigate the distribution and possible sources of PCNs.

  19. Faecal cortisol metabolites in Bengal (Panthera tigris tigris) and Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Edward J; Parnell, Tempe; Clark, Giles; Martin-Vegue, Patrick; Mucci, Al; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2013-12-01

    The tiger (Panthera tigris) faces a great risk of extinction as its wild numbers have plummeted due to poaching and habitat destruction so ex-situ conservation programs are becoming ever more necessary. Reliable non-invasive biomarkers of the stress hormone (cortisol) are necessary for assessing the health and welfare of tigers in captivity. To our knowledge, non-invasive stress endocrinology methods have not been tested as widely in tigers. The first aim of this study was to describe and validate a faecal cortisol metabolite enzyme-immmunoassay (FCM EIA) for two tiger sub-species, the Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) and the Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae). Individual tigers (n=22) were studied in two large Zoos in Queensland, Australia (Dreamworld Theme Park and Australia Zoo). Fresh faecal samples (Zoos over a study period of 21 days. Biological validation was conducted separately by collecting feces 5 days before and 5 days after blood was taken from four male and five female tigers. Results showed that mean FCM levels increased by 138% and 285% in the male and female tigers within 1 day after bloods were taken, returning to baseline in 5 days. Laboratory validations of the FCM EIA were done using an extraction efficiency test and parallelism. Results showed >89% recovery of the cortisol standard that was added to tiger faecal extract. We also obtained parallel displacement of the serially diluted cortisol standard against serially diluted tiger faecal extract. Our second aim was to determine whether the FCM levels were significantly different between tiger sub-species and sex. Results showed no significant difference in mean FCM levels between the Bengal and Sumatran tiger sub-species. Mean levels of FCMs were significantly higher in females than in male tigers. Those male and female tigers with reported health issues during the study period expressed higher FCM levels than the reportedly healthy tigers. Interestingly, those tigers that took

  20. Recovery of the SuperTIGER Instrument and Preparations for the Flight of SuperTIGER-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, N. E.; Supertiger Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    On December 8, 2012, the SuperTIGER (Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder) instrument began its long-duration balloon flight from Williams Field, Antarctica. Flying for a record-breaking 55 days at a mean altitude of 125,000 feet, the instrument successfully measured the relative elemental abundances of Galactic cosmic ray nuclei having charge (Z) greater than Z=10, showing very well resolved individual element peaks up to Z=40. The instrument measures particle charge and energy through the combined use of two Cherenkov detectors and three scintillation detectors, and determines particle trajectory with a scintillating fiber hodoscope. After cutdown and two years on the ice, SuperTIGER was successfully recovered in January, 2015. Its detectors and hodoscopes are being tested and refurbished, and are expected to be used again for a second flight, SuperTIGER-2. The second flight is aimed at improving SuperTIGER's already excellent charge resolution as well as at accumulating more data to be combined with that of SuperTIGER for improved statistics. In November 2015, a test of the scintillator saturation effect was performed at CERN using a beam of interacted Pb nuclei to help create more accurate charge reconstruction models that will help resolve elements in the range Z=41 to Z=60. This research was supported by NASA under Grants NNX09AC17G, NNX14AB25G, the Peggy and Steve Fossett Foundation and the McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences at Washington University.

  1. Neutrino radiation hazards: A paper tiger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossairt, J.D.; Grossman, N.L.; Marshall, E.T.

    1996-09-01

    Neutrinos are present in the natural environment due to terrestrial, solar, and cosmic sources and are also produced at accelerators both incidentally and intentionally as part of physics research programs. Progress in fundamental physics research has led to the creation of beams of neutrinos of ever-increasing intensity and/or energy. The large size and cost associated with these beams attracts, and indeed requires, public interest, support, and some understanding of the 'exotic' particles produced, including the neutrinos. Furthermore, the very word neutrino ('little neutral one', as coined by Enrico Fermi) can lead to public concern due to confusion with 'neutron', a word widely associated with radiological hazards. Adding to such possible concerns is a recent assertion, widely publicized, that neutrinos from astronomical events may have led to the extinction of some biological species. Presented here are methods for conservatively estimating the dose equivalent due to neutrinos as well as an assessment of the possible role of neutrinos in biological extinction processes. It is found that neutrinos produced by the sun and modern particle accelerators produce inconsequential dose equivalent rates. Examining recent calculations concerning neutrinos incident upon the earth due to stellar collapse, it is concluded that it is highly unlikely that these neutrinos caused the mass extinctions of species found in the paleontological record. Neutrino radiation hazards are, then, truly a 'paper tiger'. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  2. Tiger Team Assessment, Energy Technology Engineering Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    The Office Special Projects within the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) has the responsibility to conduct Tiger Team Assessments for the Secretary of Energy. This report presents the assessment of the buildings, facilities, and activities under the DOE/Rockwell Contract No. DE-AM03-76SF00700 for the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC) and of other DOE-owned buildings and facilities at the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL) site in southeastern Ventura County, California, not covered under Contract No. DE-AM03-76SF00700, but constructed over the years under various other contracts between DOE and Rockwell International. ETEC is an engineering development complex operated for DOE by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation. ETEC is located within SSFL on land owned by Rockwell. The balance of the SSFL complex is owned and operated by Rocketdyne, with the exception of a 42-acre parcel owned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The primary mission of ETEC is to provide engineering, testing, and development of components related to liquid metals technology and to conduct applied engineering development of emerging energy technologies.

  3. Tiger Team Assessment, Energy Technology Engineering Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    The Office Special Projects within the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) has the responsibility to conduct Tiger Team Assessments for the Secretary of Energy. This report presents the assessment of the buildings, facilities, and activities under the DOE/Rockwell Contract No. DE-AM03-76SF00700 for the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC) and of other DOE-owned buildings and facilities at the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL) site in southeastern Ventura County, California, not covered under Contract No. DE-AM03-76SF00700, but constructed over the years under various other contracts between DOE and Rockwell International. ETEC is an engineering development complex operated for DOE by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation. ETEC is located within SSFL on land owned by Rockwell. The balance of the SSFL complex is owned and operated by Rocketdyne, with the exception of a 42-acre parcel owned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The primary mission of ETEC is to provide engineering, testing, and development of components related to liquid metals technology and to conduct applied engineering development of emerging energy technologies

  4. Multiple myeloma in an Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica is an endangered tiger subspecies. An adult zoo-bred female was found collapsed, and died despite supportive treatment. Hematology and biochemistry showed pancytopenia and hyperglobulinemia, and serum protein electrophoresis revealed a monoclonal band in the β-globulin region. Necropsy demonstrated hemoabdomen, multifocal lytic bone marrow lesions, splenomegaly, and hemorrhagic hepatic nodules, with left medial lobe rupture. There were mutifocal hemorrhages in the subcutis, lung, epicardium, and intestinal mucosa. Histopathology demonstrated plasmacytoid cells infiltrating the bone marrow, liver and spleen, and circulating within blood vessels. On immunohistochemistry, cell infiltrates of the three tissues were positive for λ light chains, bone marrow infiltrates were positive for MUM-1 and bone marrow and spleen infiltrates were positive for CD20. These findings indicate that this animal died of hemoabdomen subsequent to multiple myeloma. This is the first time this disease has been reported in a tiger.

  5. Saving wild tigers: a case study in biodiversity loss and challenges to be met for recovery beyond 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidensticker, John

    2010-12-01

    Wild tigers are being annihilated. Tiger range countries and their partners met at the 1st Asian Ministerial Conference on Tiger Conservation in January 2010 to mandate the creation of the Global Tiger Recovery Program to double the number of tigers by 2022. Only 3200-3600 wild adult tigers remain, approximately half of the population estimated a decade ago. Tigers now live in only 13 countries, all of which are experiencing severe environmental challenges and degradation from the effects of human population growth, brisk economic expansion, rapid urbanization, massive infrastructure development and climate change. The overarching challenge of tiger conservation, and the conservation of biodiversity generally, is that there is insufficient demand for the survival of wild tigers living in natural landscapes. This allows the criminal activities of poaching wild tigers and their prey and trafficking in tiger derivatives to flourish and tiger landscapes to be diminished. The Global Tiger Recovery Program will support scaling up of practices already proven effective in one or more tiger range countries that need wider policy support, usually resources, and new transnational actions that enhance the effectiveness of individual country actions. The program is built on robust National Tiger Recovery Priorities that are grouped into themes: (i) strengthening policies that protect tigers; (ii) protecting tiger conservation landscapes; (iii) scientific management and monitoring; (iv) engaging communities; (v) cooperative management of international tiger landscapes; (vi) eliminating transnational illegal wildlife trade; (vii) persuading people to stop consuming tiger; (viii) enhancing professional capacity of policy-makers and practitioners; and (ix) developing sustainable, long-term financing mechanisms for tiger and biodiversity conservation. © 2010 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  6. Developing a National Tiger Action Plan for the Union of Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Antony J.; Khaing, Saw Tun; Zaw, Khin Maung

    2006-01-01

    A century ago, tigers were considered pests in Myanmar. Hunters claimed thousands, yet populations persisted. In the past century, because of habitat loss and prey depletion, coupled with the recent demand for traditional medicines, tiger populations have been reduced to a few hundred individuals. As a first step toward long-term planning for tigers, and to guide efforts to increase protected area coverage, the Myanmar government in 1998 initiated a project to develop a revised National Tiger Action Plan. Extensive surveys confirmed tigers in only 4 of 17 survey locations. Significant populations are thought to persist in the far North and far South of the country, where large, intact forests offer the potential for tiger recovery. With partnerships and collaborations, tiger populations can be protected in the short term (laws. Over the long term (5-20 years), recovery of Myanmar’s tiger populations will depend on increasing support from local people, zoning tiger areas to reduce habitat loss and disturbance, and maintaining connectivity of existing national and transboundary forests. This article reviews the development of a new National Tiger Action Plan for the Union of Myanmar and discusses a blueprint for conservation measures aimed at saving tigers from extinction.

  7. Toward Human-Carnivore Coexistence: Understanding Tolerance for Tigers in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Inskip

    Full Text Available Fostering local community tolerance for endangered carnivores, such as tigers (Panthera tigris, is a core component of many conservation strategies. Identification of antecedents of tolerance will facilitate the development of effective tolerance-building conservation action and secure local community support for, and involvement in, conservation initiatives. We use a stated preference approach for measuring tolerance, based on the 'Wildlife Stakeholder Acceptance Capacity' concept, to explore villagers' tolerance levels for tigers in the Bangladesh Sundarbans, an area where, at the time of the research, human-tiger conflict was severe. We apply structural equation modeling to test an a priori defined theoretical model of tolerance and identify the experiential and psychological basis of tolerance in this community. Our results indicate that beliefs about tigers and about the perceived current tiger population trend are predictors of tolerance for tigers. Positive beliefs about tigers and a belief that the tiger population is not currently increasing are both associated with greater stated tolerance for the species. Contrary to commonly-held notions, negative experiences with tigers do not directly affect tolerance levels; instead, their effect is mediated by villagers' beliefs about tigers and risk perceptions concerning human-tiger conflict incidents. These findings highlight a need to explore and understand the socio-psychological factors that encourage tolerance towards endangered species. Our research also demonstrates the applicability of this approach to tolerance research to a wide range of socio-economic and cultural contexts and reveals its capacity to enhance carnivore conservation efforts worldwide.

  8. Genotyping faecal samples of Bengal tiger Panthera tigris tigris for population estimation: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Lalji

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bengal tiger Panthera tigris tigris the National Animal of India, is an endangered species. Estimating populations for such species is the main objective for designing conservation measures and for evaluating those that are already in place. Due to the tiger's cryptic and secretive behaviour, it is not possible to enumerate and monitor its populations through direct observations; instead indirect methods have always been used for studying tigers in the wild. DNA methods based on non-invasive sampling have not been attempted so far for tiger population studies in India. We describe here a pilot study using DNA extracted from faecal samples of tigers for the purpose of population estimation. Results In this study, PCR primers were developed based on tiger-specific variations in the mitochondrial cytochrome b for reliably identifying tiger faecal samples from those of sympatric carnivores. Microsatellite markers were developed for the identification of individual tigers with a sibling Probability of Identity of 0.005 that can distinguish even closely related individuals with 99.9% certainty. The effectiveness of using field-collected tiger faecal samples for DNA analysis was evaluated by sampling, identification and subsequently genotyping samples from two protected areas in southern India. Conclusion Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using tiger faecal matter as a potential source of DNA for population estimation of tigers in protected areas in India in addition to the methods currently in use.

  9. Toward Human-Carnivore Coexistence: Understanding Tolerance for Tigers in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inskip, Chloe; Carter, Neil; Riley, Shawn; Roberts, Thomas; MacMillan, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Fostering local community tolerance for endangered carnivores, such as tigers (Panthera tigris), is a core component of many conservation strategies. Identification of antecedents of tolerance will facilitate the development of effective tolerance-building conservation action and secure local community support for, and involvement in, conservation initiatives. We use a stated preference approach for measuring tolerance, based on the 'Wildlife Stakeholder Acceptance Capacity' concept, to explore villagers' tolerance levels for tigers in the Bangladesh Sundarbans, an area where, at the time of the research, human-tiger conflict was severe. We apply structural equation modeling to test an a priori defined theoretical model of tolerance and identify the experiential and psychological basis of tolerance in this community. Our results indicate that beliefs about tigers and about the perceived current tiger population trend are predictors of tolerance for tigers. Positive beliefs about tigers and a belief that the tiger population is not currently increasing are both associated with greater stated tolerance for the species. Contrary to commonly-held notions, negative experiences with tigers do not directly affect tolerance levels; instead, their effect is mediated by villagers' beliefs about tigers and risk perceptions concerning human-tiger conflict incidents. These findings highlight a need to explore and understand the socio-psychological factors that encourage tolerance towards endangered species. Our research also demonstrates the applicability of this approach to tolerance research to a wide range of socio-economic and cultural contexts and reveals its capacity to enhance carnivore conservation efforts worldwide.

  10. Effect of tiger nut-derived products in gluten-free batter and bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Núria; Albanell, Elena; Miñarro, Begoña; Guamis, Buenaventura; Capellas, Marta

    2015-07-01

    Tiger nut is a tuber used to produce tiger nut milk that yields a high quantity of solid waste, which can be dried and used as fiber source. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the quality of gluten-free bread formulated with different tiger nut-derived products in order to substitute soya flour (which is an allergen ingredient) and, at the same time, increase the use of tiger nut-derived products. Four gluten-free formulations based on corn starch and containing tiger nut milk, tiger nut milk by-product, tiger nut flour, or soya flour (as reference formulation) were studied. Tiger nut milk increased G' of gluten-free batter and rendered breads with the softest crumb (502.46 g ± 102.05), the highest loaf-specific volume (3.35 cm(3)/g ± 0.25), and it was mostly preferred by consumers (61.02%). Breads elaborated with tiger nut flour had similar characteristics than soya flour breads (except in color and crumb structure). The addition of tiger nut milk by-product resulted in a hard (1047.64 g ± 145.74) and dark (L(*)  = 70.02 ± 3.38) crumb bread, which was the least preferred by consumers. Results showed that tiger nut is a promising ingredient to formulate gluten-free baked products. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Additional floral elements to the Ranthambhore Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shrivastava

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Ranthambhore Tiger Reserve (RTR located in semi-arid zones of western India is popularly known for the Indian Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris protection. Stretched over Aravalli and Vindhya ranges, the Reserve sustains a highly variable phytodiversity with dominant Anogeissus pendula Edgew. Forest cover. Floristic and ethnobotanical studies were conducted in the RTR during the years 2001-2005. This has resulted in adding, 141 species of flowering plants belonging to 113 genera spread over to 48 families, not recorded earlier. The recorded species are inventorised following Bentham and Hooker’s classification.

  12. The cultural and political significance of tiger mothering

    OpenAIRE

    Pitt, Nicola Ann

    2017-01-01

    The ‘Tiger Mothering’ debate was ignited in January 2011 by Amy Chua’s new book, Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother (2011a), and her essay of excerpts in the Wall Street Journal (WSJ), ‘Why Chinese mothers are superior’ (8 Jan, 2011b). An instant bestseller, Chua’s book provoked wide discussion around the world on account of her controversial endorsement of strict and disciplined childrearing approaches, which she associated with Chinese parents, and which she contrasted with supposedly ‘Western...

  13. Tigers in the Terai: Strong evidence for meta-population dynamics contributing to tiger recovery and conservation in the Terai Arc Landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchan Thapa

    Full Text Available The source populations of tigers are mostly confined to protected areas, which are now becoming isolated. A landscape scale conservation strategy should strive to facilitate dispersal and survival of dispersing tigers by managing habitat corridors that enable tigers to traverse the matrix with minimal conflict. We present evidence for tiger dispersal along transboundary protected areas complexes in the Terai Arc Landscape, a priority tiger landscape in Nepal and India, by comparing camera trap data, and through population models applied to the long term camera trap data sets. The former showed that 11 individual tigers used the corridors that connected the transboundary protected areas. The estimated population growth rates using the minimum observed population size in two protected areas in Nepal, Bardia National Park and Suklaphanta National Park showed that the increases were higher than expected from growth rates due to in situ reproduction alone. These lines of evidence suggests that tigers are recolonizing Nepal's protected areas from India, after a period of population decline, and that the tiger populations in the transboundary protected areas complexes may be maintained as meta-population. Our results demonstrate the importance of adopting a landscape-scale approach to tiger conservation, especially to improve population recovery and long term population persistence.

  14. Tigers of Sundarbans in India: is the population a separate conservation unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sujeet Kumar; Mishra, Sudhanshu; Aspi, Jouni; Kvist, Laura; Nigam, Parag; Pandey, Puneet; Sharma, Reeta; Goyal, Surendra Prakash

    2014-01-01

    The Sundarbans tiger inhabits a unique mangrove habitat and are morphologically distinct from the recognized tiger subspecies in terms of skull morphometrics and body size. Thus, there is an urgent need to assess their ecological and genetic distinctiveness and determine if Sundarbans tigers should be defined and managed as separate conservation unit. We utilized nine microsatellites and 3 kb from four mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes to estimate genetic variability, population structure, demographic parameters and visualize historic and contemporary connectivity among tiger populations from Sundarbans and mainland India. We also evaluated the traits that determine exchangeability or adaptive differences among tiger populations. Data from both markers suggest that Sundarbans tiger is not a separate tiger subspecies and should be regarded as Bengal tiger (P. t. tigris) subspecies. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses of the mtDNA data revealed reciprocal monophyly. Genetic differentiation was found stronger for mtDNA than nuclear DNA. Microsatellite markers indicated low genetic variation in Sundarbans tigers (He= 0.58) as compared to other mainland populations, such as northern and Peninsular (Hebetween 0.67- 0.70). Molecular data supports migration between mainland and Sundarbans populations until very recent times. We attribute this reduction in gene flow to accelerated fragmentation and habitat alteration in the landscape over the past few centuries. Demographic analyses suggest that Sundarbans tigers have diverged recently from peninsular tiger population within last 2000 years. Sundarbans tigers are the most divergent group of Bengal tigers, and ecologically non-exchangeable with other tiger populations, and thus should be managed as a separate "evolutionarily significant unit" (ESU) following the adaptive evolutionary conservation (AEC) concept.

  15. Tigers of Sundarbans in India: Is the Population a Separate Conservation Unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sujeet Kumar; Mishra, Sudhanshu; Aspi, Jouni; Kvist, Laura; Nigam, Parag; Pandey, Puneet; Sharma, Reeta; Goyal, Surendra Prakash

    2015-01-01

    The Sundarbans tiger inhabits a unique mangrove habitat and are morphologically distinct from the recognized tiger subspecies in terms of skull morphometrics and body size. Thus, there is an urgent need to assess their ecological and genetic distinctiveness and determine if Sundarbans tigers should be defined and managed as separate conservation unit. We utilized nine microsatellites and 3 kb from four mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes to estimate genetic variability, population structure, demographic parameters and visualize historic and contemporary connectivity among tiger populations from Sundarbans and mainland India. We also evaluated the traits that determine exchangeability or adaptive differences among tiger populations. Data from both markers suggest that Sundarbans tiger is not a separate tiger subspecies and should be regarded as Bengal tiger (P. t. tigris) subspecies. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses of the mtDNA data revealed reciprocal monophyly. Genetic differentiation was found stronger for mtDNA than nuclear DNA. Microsatellite markers indicated low genetic variation in Sundarbans tigers (He= 0.58) as compared to other mainland populations, such as northern and Peninsular (Hebetween 0.67- 0.70). Molecular data supports migration between mainland and Sundarbans populations until very recent times. We attribute this reduction in gene flow to accelerated fragmentation and habitat alteration in the landscape over the past few centuries. Demographic analyses suggest that Sundarbans tigers have diverged recently from peninsular tiger population within last 2000 years. Sundarbans tigers are the most divergent group of Bengal tigers, and ecologically non-exchangeable with other tiger populations, and thus should be managed as a separate “evolutionarily significant unit” (ESU) following the adaptive evolutionary conservation (AEC) concept. PMID:25919139

  16. Tigers of Sundarbans in India: is the population a separate conservation unit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujeet Kumar Singh

    Full Text Available The Sundarbans tiger inhabits a unique mangrove habitat and are morphologically distinct from the recognized tiger subspecies in terms of skull morphometrics and body size. Thus, there is an urgent need to assess their ecological and genetic distinctiveness and determine if Sundarbans tigers should be defined and managed as separate conservation unit. We utilized nine microsatellites and 3 kb from four mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA genes to estimate genetic variability, population structure, demographic parameters and visualize historic and contemporary connectivity among tiger populations from Sundarbans and mainland India. We also evaluated the traits that determine exchangeability or adaptive differences among tiger populations. Data from both markers suggest that Sundarbans tiger is not a separate tiger subspecies and should be regarded as Bengal tiger (P. t. tigris subspecies. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses of the mtDNA data revealed reciprocal monophyly. Genetic differentiation was found stronger for mtDNA than nuclear DNA. Microsatellite markers indicated low genetic variation in Sundarbans tigers (He= 0.58 as compared to other mainland populations, such as northern and Peninsular (Hebetween 0.67- 0.70. Molecular data supports migration between mainland and Sundarbans populations until very recent times. We attribute this reduction in gene flow to accelerated fragmentation and habitat alteration in the landscape over the past few centuries. Demographic analyses suggest that Sundarbans tigers have diverged recently from peninsular tiger population within last 2000 years. Sundarbans tigers are the most divergent group of Bengal tigers, and ecologically non-exchangeable with other tiger populations, and thus should be managed as a separate "evolutionarily significant unit" (ESU following the adaptive evolutionary conservation (AEC concept.

  17. Asian longhorned beetle complicates the relationship ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban foresters routinely emphasise the importance of taxonomic diversity to reduce the vulnerability of tree assemblages to invasive pests, but it is unclear to what extent diversity reduces vulnerability to polyphagous (i.e. generalist) pests. Drawing on field data from seven communities in metropolitan Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, we tested the hypothesis that communities with higher diversity would exhibit lower vulnerability to the polyphagous Asian longhorned beetle, which currently threatens the region. Based on street tree compositions and the beetle?s host preferences, Asian longhorned beetle threatened up to 35.6% of individual street trees and 47.5% of the total basal area across the study area, but we did not see clear connections between taxonomic diversity and beetle vulnerability among study communities. For example, the city of Fairfield was among the least diverse communities but had the lowest proportion of trees vulnerable to Asian longhorned beetle, whereas the city of Wyoming exhibited high diversity and high vulnerability. On the other hand, Forest Park aligned with our original hypothesis, as it was characterised by low diversity and high vulnerability. Our results demonstrate that relatively high taxonomic diversity in street tree assemblages does not necessarily lead to reduced vulnerability to a polyphagous pest. Considering the threats posed by polyphagous pests, selecting a set of relatively pest resistant trees known to perform well in urb

  18. Orthogonius species and diversity in Thailand (Coleoptera, Caraboidea, Orthogoniini, a result from the TIGER project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyi Tian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The carabid genus Orthogonius MacLeay is treated, based mainly on materials collected in Thailand through the TIGER project (the Thailand Inventory Group for Entomological Research. Among 290 specimens, 20 species are identified in total, 10 of them are new species: O. taghavianae sp. n. (Nakhon Nayok: Khao Yai National Park, O. coomanioides sp. n. (Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park, O. similaris sp. n. (Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park; Loei: Phu Kradueng National Park, O. setosopalpiger sp. n. (Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park, O. gracililamella sp. n. (Loei: Phu Kradueng National Park; Chaiyaphum: Tat Tone National Park, O. pseudochaudoiri sp. n. (Phetchabum: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park; Nakhon Nayok: Khao Yai National Park, O. constrictus sp. n. (Phetchabum: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park, O. pinophilus sp. n. (Phetchabum: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park, O. vari sp. n. (Cambodia: Siem Reap; Thailand: Ubon Ratchathani: Pha Taem National Park; Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park and O. variabilis sp. n. (Thailand: Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park; Nakhon Nayok: Khao Yai National Park; Phetchabun: Nam Nao National Park; China: Yunnan. In addition, O. mouhoti Chaudoir, 1871 and O. kirirom Tian & Deuve, 2008 are recorded in Thailand for the first time. In total, 30 species of Orthogonius have been recorded from Thailand, indicating that Thailand holds one of the richest Orthogonius faunas in the world. A provisional key to all Thai species is provided. A majority of Thai Orthogonius species are endemic. Among the ten national parks in which orthogonine beetles were collected, Thung Salaeng Luang holds the richest fauna, including 16 species.

  19. Symbiont diversification in ambrosia beetles: Diversity of fungi associated with exotic scolytine beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    In virtually every forest habitat, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae, Platypodinae) plant and maintain symbiotic fungus gardens inside dead or dying wood. Some introduced ambrosia beetles aggressively attack live trees and can damage tree crops, lumber, and native woody plant t...

  20. Thermal infrared remote sensing of water temperature in riverine landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handcock, Rebecca N.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Cherkauer, Keith A.; Gillespie, Alan R.; Klement, Tockner; Faux, Russell N.; Tan, Jing; Carbonneau, Patrice E.; Piégay, Hervé

    2012-01-01

    Water temperature in riverine landscapes is an important regional indicator of water quality that is influenced by both ground- and surface-water inputs, and indirectly by land use in the surrounding watershed (Brown and Krygier, 1970; Beschta et al., 1987; Chen et al., 1998; Poole and Berman, 2001).Coldwater fishes such as salmon and trout are sensitive to elevated water temperature; therefore, water temperature must meet management guidelines and quality standards, which aim to create a healthy environment for endangered populations (McCullough et al., 2009). For example, in the USA, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established water quality standards to identify specific temperature criteria to protect coldwater fishes (Environmental Protection Agency, 2003). Trout and salmon can survive in cool-water refugia even when temperatures at other measurement locations are at or above the recommended maximums (Ebersole et al., 2001; Baird and Krueger, 2003; High et al., 2006). Spatially extensive measurements of water temperature are necessary to locate these refugia, to identify the location of ground- and surface-water inputs to the river channel, and to identify thermal pollution sources. Regional assessment of water temperature in streams and rivers has been limited by sparse sampling in both space and time. Water temperature has typically been measured using a network of widely distributed instream gages, which record the temporal change of the bulk, or kinetic, temperature of the water (Tk) at specific locations. For example, the State of Washington (USA) recorded water quality conditions at 76 stations within the Puget Lowlands eco region, which contains 12,721 km of streams and rivers (Washington Department of Ecology, 1998). Such gages are sparsely distributed, are typically located only in larger streams and rivers, and give limited information about the spatial distribution of water temperature.

  1. Concerted diurnal patterns in riverine nutrient concentrations and physical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholefield, David; Le Goff, Thierry; Braven, Jim; Ebdon, Les; Long, Terry; Butler, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Several long-term sets of hourly nitrate concentration data were obtained through deployment of a nitrate sensor in an upper reach of the River Taw, a small moorland-fed river in the South West of the UK. Examination of the data obtained during periods of low flow and the absence of rainfall in the catchment revealed the presence of marked diurnal cycles, which were in concert and negatively correlated with diurnal cycles in water temperature. After verifying that these cycles were natural, an intensive 90-h field monitoring campaign was conducted, in which river water was sampled hourly and immediately analysed in the laboratory for molybdate-reactive phosphorus (P), nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, and pH. Coincident measurements of water temperature, river discharge and solar energy were also taken at, or close to, the site. All measurements revealed diurnal patterns and all patterns were concerted. The cycles of P, nitrate, nitrite, and discharge had two maxima and minima per 24 h, while the cycle of water temperature had one, with a maximum at 20.00 and a minimum at 08.00. The amplitudes of the cycles of P and nitrate were each about 30% of the mean values, while the amplitude of the nitrite cycle was as great as 80% of the mean value on occasions. Both biological and physical mechanisms for the cycling could operate through water temperature and/or incident radiation to account for the observed phenomenon, but there remains uncertainty of which is the more important. The observations have important implications for both the accuracy of pollution assessment in rivers and the physiological rhythms of riverine organisms

  2. Relation of contaminants to fish intersex in riverine sport fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieshaber, Casey A; Penland, Tiffany N; Kwak, Thomas J; Cope, W Gregory; Heise, Ryan J; Law, J Mac; Shea, Damian; Aday, D Derek; Rice, James A; Kullman, Seth W

    2018-06-20

    Endocrine active compounds (EACs) are pollutants that have been recognized as an emerging and widespread threat to aquatic ecosystems globally. Intersex, the presence of female germ cells within a predominantly male gonad, is considered a biomarker of endocrine disruption caused by EACs. We measured a suite of EACs and assessed their associated impacts on fish intersex occurrence and severity in a large, regulated river system in North Carolina and South Carolina, USA. Our specific objective was to determine the relationship of contaminants in water, sediment, and fish tissue with the occurrence and severity of the intersex condition in wild, adult black bass (Micropterus), sunfish (Lepomis), and catfish (Ictaluridae) species at 11 sites located on the Yadkin-Pee Dee River. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), ethinylestradiol (EE2), and heavy metals were the most prevalent contaminants that exceeded effect levels for the protection of aquatic organisms. Fish intersex condition was most frequently observed and most severe in black basses and was less frequently detected and less severe in sunfishes and catfishes. The occurrence of the intersex condition in fish showed site-related effects, rather than increasing longitudinal trends from upstream to downstream. Mean black bass and catfish tissue contaminant concentrations were higher than that of sunfish, likely because of the latter's lower trophic position in the food web. Principal component analysis identified waterborne PAHs as the most correlated environmental contaminant with intersex occurrence and severity in black bass and sunfish. As indicated by the intersex condition, EACs have adverse but often variable effects on the health of wild sport fishes in this river, likely due to fluctuations in EAC inputs and the dynamic nature of the riverine system. These findings enhance the understanding of the relationship between contaminants and fish health and provide information to guide ecologically

  3. Concerted diurnal patterns in riverine nutrient concentrations and physical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholefield, David; Le Goff, Thierry; Braven, Jim; Ebdon, Les; Long, Terry; Butler, Mark

    2005-05-15

    Several long-term sets of hourly nitrate concentration data were obtained through deployment of a nitrate sensor in an upper reach of the River Taw, a small moorland-fed river in the South West of the UK. Examination of the data obtained during periods of low flow and the absence of rainfall in the catchment revealed the presence of marked diurnal cycles, which were in concert and negatively correlated with diurnal cycles in water temperature. After verifying that these cycles were natural, an intensive 90-h field monitoring campaign was conducted, in which river water was sampled hourly and immediately analysed in the laboratory for molybdate-reactive phosphorus (P), nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, and pH. Coincident measurements of water temperature, river discharge and solar energy were also taken at, or close to, the site. All measurements revealed diurnal patterns and all patterns were concerted. The cycles of P, nitrate, nitrite, and discharge had two maxima and minima per 24 h, while the cycle of water temperature had one, with a maximum at 20.00 and a minimum at 08.00. The amplitudes of the cycles of P and nitrate were each about 30% of the mean values, while the amplitude of the nitrite cycle was as great as 80% of the mean value on occasions. Both biological and physical mechanisms for the cycling could operate through water temperature and/or incident radiation to account for the observed phenomenon, but there remains uncertainty of which is the more important. The observations have important implications for both the accuracy of pollution assessment in rivers and the physiological rhythms of riverine organisms.

  4. Benthic Light Availability Improves Predictions of Riverine Primary Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, L.; Cohen, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Light is a fundamental control on photosynthesis, and often the only control strongly correlated with gross primary production (GPP) in streams and rivers; yet it has received far less attention than nutrients. Because benthic light is difficult to measure in situ, surrogates such as open sky irradiance are often used. Several studies have now refined methods to quantify canopy and water column attenuation of open sky light in order to estimate the amount of light that actually reaches the benthos. Given the additional effort that measuring benthic light requires, we should ask if benthic light always improves our predictions of GPP compared to just open sky irradiance. We use long-term, high-resolution dissolved oxygen, turbidity, dissolved organic matter (fDOM), and irradiance data from streams and rivers in north-central Florida, US across gradients of size and color to build statistical models of benthic light that predict GPP. Preliminary results on a large, clear river show only modest model improvements over open sky irradiance, even in heavily canopied reaches with pulses of tannic water. However, in another spring-fed river with greater connectivity to adjacent wetlands - and hence larger, more frequent pulses of tannic water - the model improved dramatically with the inclusion of fDOM (model R2 improved from 0.28 to 0.68). River shade modeling efforts also suggest that knowing benthic light will greatly enhance our ability to predict GPP in narrower, forested streams flowing in particular directions. Our objective is to outline conditions where an assessment of benthic light conditions would be necessary for riverine metabolism studies or management strategies.

  5. Pheromone biosynthesis in bark beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittiger, Claus; Blomquist, Gary J

    2017-12-01

    Pine bark beetles rely on aggregation pheromones to coordinate mass attacks and thus reproduce in host trees. The structural similarity between many pheromone components and those of defensive tree resin led to early suggestions that pheromone components are metabolic derivatives of ingested precursors. This model has given way to our current understanding that most pheromone components are synthesized de novo. Their synthesis involves enzymes that modify products from endogenous metabolic pathways; some of these enzymes have been identified and characterized. Pheromone production is regulated in a complex way involving multiple signals, including JH III. This brief review summarizes progress in our understanding of this highly specialized metabolic process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Wild versus domestic prey in the diet of reintroduced tigers (Panthera tigris) in the livestock-dominated multiple-use forests of Panna Tiger Reserve, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolipaka, S S; Tamis, W L M; van 't Zelfde, M; Persoon, G A; de Iongh, H H

    2017-01-01

    Grazing livestock in openly accessible areas is a common practice in the multiple-use forests of India; however, its compatibility with the reintroduction of tigers to these areas requires examination. Here, we investigated the diet of tigers in a livestock-dominated multiple-use buffer zone of the Panna Tiger Reserve, India. We hypothesised that the presence of feral cattle, along with open-access grazing practices in multiple-use forests, would increase the incidence of predation on livestock by tigers, even when wild prey are available. We used generalised linear models to test whether predation of livestock versus wild animals was influenced by (1) the sex and age class of tigers, (2) season, and (3) the distance of prey from the core-zone boundary of the reserve. Overall, sub-adult tigers and male tigers killed more livestock than wild prey, even when wild prey was available. In the winter and rainy seasons livestock were killed in higher numbers in the buffer zone than in summers, this may be because of the seasonally changing livestock herding patterns in the area. Further, with increasing distance from the core-zone boundary, all tigers killed more livestock, possibly because livestock were more easily accessible than wild prey. Our results show that open-access and unregulated livestock grazing is not currently compatible with large carnivore conservation in the same landscape. Such practices will lead to an increase in negative tiger-human-livestock interactions. In conclusion, we suggest the need to encourage locals to corral valuable cattle, leaving feral/unwanted livestock for tigers. This simple strategy would benefit both local inhabitants and tiger conservation in the multiple-use forests of India.

  7. Wild versus domestic prey in the diet of reintroduced tigers (Panthera tigris in the livestock-dominated multiple-use forests of Panna Tiger Reserve, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Kolipaka

    Full Text Available Grazing livestock in openly accessible areas is a common practice in the multiple-use forests of India; however, its compatibility with the reintroduction of tigers to these areas requires examination. Here, we investigated the diet of tigers in a livestock-dominated multiple-use buffer zone of the Panna Tiger Reserve, India. We hypothesised that the presence of feral cattle, along with open-access grazing practices in multiple-use forests, would increase the incidence of predation on livestock by tigers, even when wild prey are available. We used generalised linear models to test whether predation of livestock versus wild animals was influenced by (1 the sex and age class of tigers, (2 season, and (3 the distance of prey from the core-zone boundary of the reserve. Overall, sub-adult tigers and male tigers killed more livestock than wild prey, even when wild prey was available. In the winter and rainy seasons livestock were killed in higher numbers in the buffer zone than in summers, this may be because of the seasonally changing livestock herding patterns in the area. Further, with increasing distance from the core-zone boundary, all tigers killed more livestock, possibly because livestock were more easily accessible than wild prey. Our results show that open-access and unregulated livestock grazing is not currently compatible with large carnivore conservation in the same landscape. Such practices will lead to an increase in negative tiger-human-livestock interactions. In conclusion, we suggest the need to encourage locals to corral valuable cattle, leaving feral/unwanted livestock for tigers. This simple strategy would benefit both local inhabitants and tiger conservation in the multiple-use forests of India.

  8. Canine distemper virus: an emerging disease in wild endangered Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimon, Tracie A; Miquelle, Dale G; Chang, Tylis Y; Newton, Alisa L; Korotkova, Irina; Ivanchuk, Galina; Lyubchenko, Elena; Tupikov, Andre; Slabe, Evgeny; McAloose, Denise

    2013-08-13

    Fewer than 500 Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) remain in the wild. Due to low numbers and their solitary and reclusive nature, tiger sightings across their range in the Russian Far East and China are rare; sightings of sick tigers are rarer still. Serious neurologic disease observed in several wild tigers since 2001 suggested disease emergence in this endangered species. To investigate this possibility, histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), in situ hybridization (ISH), and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) were performed on tissues from 5 affected tigers that died or were destroyed in 2001, 2004, or 2010. Our results reveal canine distemper virus (CDV) infection as the cause of neurologic disease in two tigers and definitively establish infection in a third. Nonsuppurative encephalitis with demyelination, eosinophilic nuclear viral inclusions, and positive immunolabeling for CDV by IHC and ISH were present in the two tigers with available brain tissue. CDV phosphoprotein (P) and hemagglutinin (H) gene products were obtained from brains of these two tigers by RT-PCR, and a short fragment of CDV P gene sequence was detected in lymph node tissue of a third tiger. Phylogenetically, Amur tiger CDV groups with an Arctic-like strain in Baikal seals (Phoca siberica). Our results, which include mapping the location of positive tigers and recognition of a cluster of cases in 2010, coupled with a lack of reported CDV antibodies in Amur tigers prior to 2000 suggest wide geographic distribution of CDV across the tiger range and recent emergence of CDV as a significant infectious disease threat to endangered Amur tigers in the Russian Far East. Recognition of disease emergence in wildlife is a rare occurrence. Here, for the first time, we identify and characterize a canine distemper virus (CDV), the second most common cause of infectious disease death in domestic dogs and a viral disease of global importance in common and endangered carnivores, as the etiology of

  9. A call for tiger management using "reserves" of genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Rachael A; Ramakrishnan, Uma; Hadly, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    Tigers (Panthera tigris), like many large carnivores, are threatened by anthropogenic impacts, primarily habitat loss and poaching. Current conservation plans for tigers focus on population expansion, with the goal of doubling census size in the next 10 years. Previous studies have shown that because the demographic decline was recent, tiger populations still retain a large amount of genetic diversity. Although maintaining this diversity is extremely important to avoid deleterious effects of inbreeding, management plans have yet to consider predictive genetic models. We used coalescent simulations based on previously sequenced mitochondrial fragments (n = 125) from 5 of 6 extant subspecies to predict the population growth needed to maintain current genetic diversity over the next 150 years. We found that the level of gene flow between populations has a large effect on the local population growth necessary to maintain genetic diversity, without which tigers may face decreases in fitness. In the absence of gene flow, we demonstrate that maintaining genetic diversity is impossible based on known demographic parameters for the species. Thus, managing for the genetic diversity of the species should be prioritized over the riskier preservation of distinct subspecies. These predictive simulations provide unique management insights, hitherto not possible using existing analytical methods.

  10. NAEP and Policy: Chasing the Tail of the Assessment Tiger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diket, Read M.; Brewer, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper grabs hold of the "assessment tiger" by considering the history of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) "Arts Report Cards" for the visual arts, which were constructed and have been administered four times within thirty-five years. Two purposes of the NAEP have persisted since its founding: (1)…

  11. Tiger Team Assessment of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This draft report documents the Tiger Team Assessment of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) located in Batavia, Illinois. Fermilab is a program-dedicated national laboratory managed by the Universities Research Association, Inc. (URA) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Tiger Team Assessment was conducted from May 11 to June 8, 1992, under the auspices of DOE's Office of Special Projects (OSP) under the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health (EH). The assessment was comprehensive, encompassing environmental, safety and health (ES ampersand H), and quality assurance (QA) disciplines; site remediation; facilities management; and waste management operations. Compliance with applicable Federal , State of Illinois, and local regulations; applicable DOE Orders; best management practices; and internal Fermilab requirements was addressed. In addition, an evaluation of the effectiveness of DOE and Fermilab management of the ES ampersand H/QA and self-assessment programs was conducted. The Fermilab Tiger Team Assessment is part a larger, comprehensive DOE Tiger Team Independent Assessment Program planned for DOE facilities. The objective of the initiative is to provide the Secretary of Energy with information on the compliance status of DOE facilities with regard to ES ampersand H requirements, root causes for noncompliance, adequacy of DOE and contractor ES ampersand H management programs, response actions to address the identified problem areas, and DOE-wide ES ampersand H compliance trends and root causes

  12. Undoing Quantitative Easing: Janet Yellen's Tiger Ride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederjohn, M. Scott; Schug, Mark C.; Wood, William C.

    2014-01-01

    "One who rides a tiger is afraid to dismount," says a colorful proverb from an earlier time. This may be an apt saying for the situation facing the new head of the Federal Reserve, Janet L. Yellen, who takes over at a time when successive rounds of Fed policy have taken the central bank into uncharted territory. By historical standards,…

  13. Genetic diversity of intensive cultured and wild tiger shrimp Penaeus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity of intensive cultured and wild tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) in Malaysia using six microsatellite markers (CSCUPmo1, CSCUPmo2, CSCUPmo3, CSCUPmo4, CSCUPmo6 and CSCUPmo7). The mean numbers of allele, observed heterozygosis, ...

  14. Density estimation in tiger populations: combining information for strong inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalaswamy, Arjun M.; Royle, J. Andrew; Delampady, Mohan; Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas; Macdonald, David W.

    2012-01-01

    A productive way forward in studies of animal populations is to efficiently make use of all the information available, either as raw data or as published sources, on critical parameters of interest. In this study, we demonstrate two approaches to the use of multiple sources of information on a parameter of fundamental interest to ecologists: animal density. The first approach produces estimates simultaneously from two different sources of data. The second approach was developed for situations in which initial data collection and analysis are followed up by subsequent data collection and prior knowledge is updated with new data using a stepwise process. Both approaches are used to estimate density of a rare and elusive predator, the tiger, by combining photographic and fecal DNA spatial capture–recapture data. The model, which combined information, provided the most precise estimate of density (8.5 ± 1.95 tigers/100 km2 [posterior mean ± SD]) relative to a model that utilized only one data source (photographic, 12.02 ± 3.02 tigers/100 km2 and fecal DNA, 6.65 ± 2.37 tigers/100 km2). Our study demonstrates that, by accounting for multiple sources of available information, estimates of animal density can be significantly improved.

  15. Tiger hair morphology and its variations for wildlife forensic investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thitika Kitpipit

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Tiger population has dramatically decreased due to illegal consumption and commercialisation of their body parts. Frequently, hair samples are the only evidence found in the crime scene. Thus, they play an important role in species identification for wildlife forensic investigation. In this study, we provide the first in-depth report on a variety of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of tiger guard hairs (24 hairs per individual from four individuals. The proposed method could reduce subjectivity of expert opinions on species identification based on hair morphology. Variations in 23 hair morphological characteristics were quantified at three levels: hair section, body region, and intra-species. The results indicate statistically significant variations in most morphological characteristics in all levels. Intra-species variations of four variables, namely hair length, hair index, scale separation and scale pattern, were low. Therefore, identification of tiger hairs using these multiple features in combination with other characteristics with high inter-species variations (e.g. medulla type should bring about objective and accurate tiger hair identification. The method used should serve as a guideline and be further applied to other species to establish a wildlife hair morphology database. Statistical models could then be constructed to distinguish species and provide evidential values in terms of likelihood ratios.

  16. Reproductive profile of captive Sumateran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GONO SEMIADI

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae is one of several endemic Indonesian wild cat groups which population is critically endangered. A program to increase the population size had been conducted in captivity, especially in the zoo. In order to monitor the captive population and for the means of management in captivity, a logbook data recording system had been developed for individual animals. A compilation data from the Tiger International Stud Book from 1942 to 2000 was analyzed. The extraction data consisted of the reproduction performance of the animals, such as calving pattern, sex ratio, litter size etc. The results showed that mortality of cubs at ≤ 5 months old reached 59%, between 5 and 24 months old was 9.3% and above 24 months was 31.7%. Cubs were born all year round with concentration in July for Europe and North America regions. The mean of first reproductive age was at 4.6 years old (± 2.28, with the mean of the oldest reproductive age was at 8.3 years (± 3.63. Mean litter size was 2.21 cubs from dame born in captivity and 2.45 cubs from dame capture from the wild. Sex ratio of male to female was 53.8:46.2. The average lifespan of adult wild captive tiger was 5108.9 day (± 2365.4 day, while for adult (≥ 24 months of age captive tiger was 4417.4 day (± 1972.7.

  17. Unique fatality due to claw injuries in a tiger attack: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Hrishikesh; Dixit, Pradeep; Dhawane, Shailendra; Meshram, Satin; Shrigiriwar, Manish; Dingre, Niraj

    2014-11-01

    This paper describes a unique case of a fatal tiger attack in the wild. In the present case, a tiger fatally mauled a 34-year-old female with its claws, instead of the usual mechanism of killing by the bite injury to the neck. The autopsy revealed multiple fatal and non-fatal injuries caused by the tiger claws. The characteristic injuries due to the tooth impacts were absent as the teeth of the offending tiger were either fallen or non-functional. To the best of our knowledge, probably this rare case would be the first reported human fatality due to the tiger claw injuries in the world. The purpose of the present article is to highlight the fatal injuries due to the tiger claws, as the claw-induced fatal injuries in a tiger attack are not reported in the medico-legal literature. Moreover, this report would be an illustrative one for differentiation between the fatal injuries due to the claws and tooth impacts in a tiger attack. Furthermore, the present report establishes the importance of the tiger claws as a source of fatal injuries in a tiger attack. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Saving the superstar: a review of the social factors affecting tiger conservation in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Archi; Hickey, Gordon M; Badola, Ruchi; Hussain, Syed Ainul

    2012-12-30

    Tiger conservation in India represents an excellent case study of the many challenges facing conservation programs internationally. It is well understood that tigers are sensitive to human disturbances and large areas of habitat need to be protected for their conservation. Such protected areas in India are managed by the governments using an exclusionary approach. However, this approach is known to create several issues with local communities, including historical, legal, livelihood and management issues; with a volume of literature suggesting the inclusion of local communities in management. Yet, other evidence suggests that inclusion of communities in tiger conservation may lead to anthropogenic disturbances that can jeopardize tigers. The gravity of the situation is reflected in the recent disappearance of tigers from two key protected areas in India, the Sariska and Panna Tiger Reserves. This review paper connects the key literature from conservation biology, environmental history, management sciences, policy and political sciences to underline the gridlock of tiger conservation: it needs exclusive protected areas that antagonize communities, and it depends on the support of the same communities for success. We examine the possibility of reconciliation between these disciplines, and assert that research on tiger conservation needs to allow for an increasingly interdisciplinary approach. We call for a more integrated approach to tiger conservation, to examine the values inherent in conservation and to shed more light on the social factors that affect tiger conservation schemes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Canine distemper virus as a threat to wild tigers in Russia and across their range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Martin; Soutyrina, Svetlana V; Seryodkin, Ivan V; Sulikhan, Nadezhda; Uphyrkina, Olga V; Goncharuk, Mikhail; Matthews, Louise; Cleaveland, Sarah; Miquelle, Dale G

    2015-07-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) has recently been identified in populations of wild tigers in Russia and India. Tiger populations are generally too small to maintain CDV for long periods, but are at risk of infections arising from more abundant susceptible hosts that constitute a reservoir of infection. Because CDV is an additive mortality factor, it could represent a significant threat to small, isolated tiger populations. In Russia, CDV was associated with the deaths of tigers in 2004 and 2010, and was coincident with a localized decline of tigers in Sikhote-Alin Biosphere Zapovednik (from 25 tigers in 2008 to 9 in 2012). Habitat continuity with surrounding areas likely played an important role in promoting an ongoing recovery. We recommend steps be taken to assess the presence and the impact of CDV in all tiger range states, but should not detract focus away from the primary threats to tigers, which include habitat loss and fragmentation, poaching and retaliatory killing. Research priorities include: (i) recognition and diagnosis of clinical cases of CDV in tigers when they occur; and (ii) collection of baseline data on the health of wild tigers. CDV infection of individual tigers need not imply a conservation threat, and modeling should complement disease surveillance and targeted research to assess the potential impact to tiger populations across the range of ecosystems, population densities and climate extremes occupied by tigers. Describing the role of domestic and wild carnivores as contributors to a local CDV reservoir is an important precursor to considering control measures. © 2015 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Ranging, Activity and Habitat Use by Tigers in the Mangrove Forests of the Sundarban.

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    Dipanjan Naha

    Full Text Available The Sundarban of India and Bangladesh (about 6000 km² are the only mangrove forests inhabited by a sizeable population of tigers. The adjoining area also supports one of the highest human densities and experiences severe human-tiger conflicts. We used GPS-Satellite and VHF radio-collars on 6 (3 males and 3 female tigers to study their ranging patterns and habitat preference. The average home range (95% Fixed Kernel for resident females was 56.4 (SE 5.69 and for males it was 110 (SE 49 km². Tigers crossed an average of 5 water channels > 30 meters per day with a mean width of 54 meters, whereas channels larger than 400 meters were rarely crossed. Tigers spent over 58% of their time within Phoenix habitat but compositional analysis showed a habitat preference of the order Avicennia-Sonneratia > Phoenix > Ceriops > Barren > Water. Average daily distance moved was 4.6 km (range 0.1-23. Activity of tigers peaked between 05:00 hours and 10:00 hours showing some overlap with human activity. Territory boundaries were demarcated by large channels which tigers intensively patrolled. Extra caution should be taken while fishing or honey collection during early morning in Avicennia-Sonneratia and Phoenix habitat types along wide channels to reduce human-tiger conflict. Considering home-range core areas as exclusive, tiger density was estimated at 4.6 (SE range 3.6 to 6.7 tigers/100 km2 giving a total population of 76 (SE range 59-110 tigers in the Indian Sundarban. Reluctance of tigers to cross wide water channels combined with increasing commercial boat traffic and sea level rise due to climate change pose a real threat of fragmenting the Sundarban tiger population.