WorldWideScience

Sample records for river western cape

  1. Bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH compounds: (acenaphthene and fluorene in water using indigenous bacterial species isolated from the Diep and Plankenburg rivers, Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwadara Oluwaseun Alegbeleye

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was conducted to investigate the occurrence of PAH degrading microorganisms in two river systems in the Western Cape, South Africa and their ability to degrade two PAH compounds: acenaphthene and fluorene. A total of 19 bacterial isolates were obtained from the Diep and Plankenburg rivers among which four were identified as acenaphthene and fluorene degrading isolates. In simulated batch scale experiments, the optimum temperature for efficient degradation of both compounds was determined in a shaking incubator after 14 days, testing at 25 °C, 30 °C, 35 °C, 37 °C, 38 °C, 40 °C and 45 °C followed by experiments in a Stirred Tank Bioreactor using optimum temperature profiles from the batch experiment results. All experiments were run without the addition of supplements, bulking agents, biosurfactants or any other form of biostimulants. Results showed that Raoultella ornithinolytica, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus megaterium and Aeromonas hydrophila efficiently degraded both compounds at 37 °C, 37 °C, 30 °C and 35 °C respectively. The degradation of fluorene was more efficient and rapid compared to that of acenaphthene and degradation at Stirred Tank Bioreactor scale was more efficient for all treatments. Raoultella ornithinolytica, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus megaterium and Aeromonas hydrophila degraded a mean total of 98.60%, 95.70%, 90.20% and 99.90% acenaphthene, respectively and 99.90%, 97.90%, 98.40% and 99.50% fluorene, respectively. The PAH degrading microorganisms isolated during this study significantly reduced the concentrations of acenaphthene and fluorene and may be used on a larger, commercial scale to bioremediate PAH contaminated river systems.

  2. Bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds: (acenaphthene and fluorene) in water using indigenous bacterial species isolated from the Diep and Plankenburg rivers, Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegbeleye, Oluwadara Oluwaseun; Opeolu, Beatrice Olutoyin; Jackson, Vanessa

    This study was conducted to investigate the occurrence of PAH degrading microorganisms in two river systems in the Western Cape, South Africa and their ability to degrade two PAH compounds: acenaphthene and fluorene. A total of 19 bacterial isolates were obtained from the Diep and Plankenburg rivers among which four were identified as acenaphthene and fluorene degrading isolates. In simulated batch scale experiments, the optimum temperature for efficient degradation of both compounds was determined in a shaking incubator after 14 days, testing at 25°C, 30°C, 35°C, 37°C, 38°C, 40°C and 45°C followed by experiments in a Stirred Tank Bioreactor using optimum temperature profiles from the batch experiment results. All experiments were run without the addition of supplements, bulking agents, biosurfactants or any other form of biostimulants. Results showed that Raoultella ornithinolytica, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus megaterium and Aeromonas hydrophila efficiently degraded both compounds at 37°C, 37°C, 30°C and 35°C respectively. The degradation of fluorene was more efficient and rapid compared to that of acenaphthene and degradation at Stirred Tank Bioreactor scale was more efficient for all treatments. Raoultella ornithinolytica, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus megaterium and Aeromonas hydrophila degraded a mean total of 98.60%, 95.70%, 90.20% and 99.90% acenaphthene, respectively and 99.90%, 97.90%, 98.40% and 99.50% fluorene, respectively. The PAH degrading microorganisms isolated during this study significantly reduced the concentrations of acenaphthene and fluorene and may be used on a larger, commercial scale to bioremediate PAH contaminated river systems. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. The Capes Current: a summer countercurrent flowing past Cape Leeuwin and Cape Naturaliste, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Alan; Pattiaratchi, Charitha

    1999-03-01

    Although the dominant boundary current off Western Australia is the poleward-flowing Leeuwin Current, satellite imagery shows that there is a cool equatorward coastal countercurrent running close inshore in the extreme southwest during the summer months. This seasonal current has been named the Capes Current as it appears to be strongest between Cape Leeuwin (34°20'S) and Cape Naturaliste (33°30'S), and it is probably linked with the general northward shelf current which has been observed previously along most of the Western Australian coastline further north. Strong northwards wind stresses between November and March slow the Leeuwin Current (which moves offshore) and drive the Capes Current, and there may be localised upwelling as well (Gersbach et al., Continental Shelf Research, 1998). It has important implications for the salmon fishery as it may affect the migration of adult salmon around Cape Leeuwin at this time of year.

  4. Hepatitis e virus: Western Cape, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G. Madden (Richie); Wallace, S. (Sebastian); M. Sonderup; Korsman, S. (Stephen); Chivese, T. (Tawanda); Gavine, B. (Bronwyn); Edem, A. (Aniefiok); Govender, R. (Roxy); English, N. (Nathan); Kaiyamo, C. (Christy); Lutchman, O. (Odelia); A.A. Eijck (Annemiek); S.D. Pas (Suzan); Webb, G.W. (Glynn W); Palmer, J. (Joanne); Goddard, E. (Elizabeth); Wasserman, S. (Sean); H.R. Dalton (Harry); C.W. Spearman

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAIM To conduct a prospective assessment of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) IgG seroprevalence in the Western Cape Province of South Africa in conjunction with evaluating risk factors for exposure. METHODS Consenting participants attending clinics and wards of Groote Schuur, Red Cross

  5. 33 CFR 165.530 - Safety Zone: Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear Rivers, NC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone: Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear Rivers, NC. 165.530 Section 165.530 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.530 Safety Zone: Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear Rivers, NC. (a) Location. The following area is...

  6. 33 CFR 117.823 - Cape Fear River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Fear River. 117.823 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.823 Cape Fear River. The draw of the Cape Fear Memorial Bridge, mile 26.8, at Wilmington need not open for the passage of vessel from 8...

  7. 33 CFR 117.829 - Northeast Cape Fear River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Cape Fear River. 117... BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.829 Northeast Cape... the Seaboard System Railroad Bridge across the Northeast Cape Fear River, mile 27.0, at Castle Hayne...

  8. Knowledge and attitudes in the rural Western Cape towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study found that farm residents in the Western Cape are potentially exposed to pesticides through various environmental routes including water. This emphasises the need to monitor water for pesticides in the Western Cape, but in order to do this, human and laboratory resources and capacities to conduct routine ...

  9. Agrichemical safety practices on farms in the western Cape | London ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agrichemical safety practices on farms in the western Cape. ... a lesser extent the presence of empty containers, are identified as important problems. ... particularly in the light of statutory requirements for occupational safety and health under ...

  10. Afrikaans as an index of identity among Western Cape Coloured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    katevg

    shift in two semi-urban Western Cape Coloured communities; in particular, ... as the workplace and in the church), with Afrikaans being used almost ... language use, on the one hand, and ongoing psychological, social or cultural processes, ...

  11. Measures to Facilitate Necessity Entrepreneurship : Western Cape South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Macura, Alexander; Sjölund, John

    2005-01-01

    Problem- In the townships and rural areas of the Western Cape province of South Africa unemployment can be as high as 60%. For many, starting a business is the only viable option to survive. There are many organizations seeking to help entrepreneurs to successfully start and manage a business, but services are significantly lacking. We therefore wish to determine what business service providers in the Western Cape are doing today to help necessity entrepreneurs succeed, and what can be done b...

  12. An audit of povincial Gastroenterology services in the Western Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All hospitals in the Western Cape providing endoscopy were evaluated by means of a hands-on audit, to identify available organisational infrastructure. Data including staffing, details and utilisation of existing equipment, maintenance and disinfection techniques and delays in service provision were collected. Results.

  13. Patterns and drivers of marine bioinvasions in eight Western Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa, fouling is the dominant vector of marine invasions, being responsible for 48% of the 86 alien introductions that are known. This study aimed to document alien species in fouling assemblages in eight Western Cape harbours and to assess patterns and potential drivers of these invasions. In each harbour, 10 ...

  14. Temporality and Patterns of ART Adherence in the Western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an ethnographic study conducted over thirty months in South Africa's Western Cape Province ending in 2012, we explored ART adherence amongst almost 200 patients attending three clinics. This setting contained significant political, structural, economic and socio cultural barriers to the uptake of, and adherence to, ...

  15. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Western Cape Liquor Act in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Alcohol is one of the key risk factors for the exceptionally high levels of interpersonal violence in South Africa's Western Cape Province. It is also an important contributor to disease. Reducing access to alcohol is one of several strategies recommended for lowering alcohol-related harm; it has been identified as a suitable ...

  16. A critical appraisal of Western Cape Forum for Intellectual Disability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 2011 the Western Cape Forum for Intellectual Disability v Government of The Republic of South Africa case flagged a lot of issues faced by persons with disabilities relating to access to education in South Africa. The case tackled certain perceptions about the ineducability of persons with profound and severe disability ...

  17. Tuberculosis drug resistance in the Western Cape | Weyer | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Drug resistance is a serious problem in the treatment of tuberculosis and a threat to successful tuberculosis control programmes. Local health workers have expressed concern that the increasing tuberculosis epidemic in the Western Cape is partly attributable to drug resistance. The aim of this study was to ...

  18. Yersinia enterocolitica in the Western Cape | Finlayson | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yersinia enterocolitica, serotype 3, phage type 9a, has been isolated for the first time in the Western Cape. Sera from 59 abattoir workers were investigated for the presence of 0 and H agglutinins. These were present in one sample, suggesting a past infection. Sera from 115 Nama-speaking adults of the Kuboes area ...

  19. Afrikaans as an index of identity among Western Cape Coloured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in the intimate domains. It appears that Afrikaans remains a strong marker of identity in the two semi-urban Western Cape Coloured communities, despite English largely being regarded as the language of upward socioeconomic mobility. Keywords: language shift, language maintenance, language attitudes, bilingualism ...

  20. Heritage and the Development of Stellenbosch, Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Todeschini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The jurisdiction of Stellenbosch, located adjacent to, but outside of, the Cape Town metropolitan area in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, comprises over one thousand square kilometers of landscapes spanning: spectacular mountain wilderness areas; many productive rural valleys that are an integral part of the celebrated Cape Winelands; and a number of historic, characterful urban centres founded during the 17th century. Overall, this blend of domains attracts increasing numbers of tourists, while the places are also home to a growing population. The pressures for change and growth are significant: so is the need for appropriate policies and plans in the longer-term public interest. The authors report on a three-year project they are conducting for the local authority that focuses on the definition of the natural and cultural heritage and, in principle, on how development should be channelled.

  1. Learners' experiences of learning support in selected Western Cape schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaniyi Bojuwoye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study explored Western Cape primary and secondary school learners' experiences regarding the provision and utilization of support services for improving learning. A qualitative interpretive approach was adopted and data gathered through focus group interviews involving 90 learners. Results revealed that learners received and utilized various forms of learning support from their schools, teachers, and peers. The learning support assisted in meeting learners' academic, social and emotional needs by addressing barriers to learning, creating conducive learning environments, enhancing learners' self-esteem and improving learners' academic performance.

  2. The impacts of regulation on business in the Waste Sector: Evidence from the Western Cape

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available . In this regard, the Western Cape Department of Economic Development and Tourism commissioned a project to do a regulatory impact assessment for the waste economy in the Western Cape. The findings of this research suggest that a number of the legislative barriers...

  3. Flora of the Kap River Reserve, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Cloete

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available A detailed analysis ot the flora of the newly proclaimed Kap River Reserve (600 ha is given. The reserve is adjacent to the Fish River and some 5 km from the Fish River Mouth It consists of a coastal plateau up to 100 m a.s.I. which is steeply dissected by the two rivers that partially form the boundary of the reserve. The flora of the reserve was sampled over a period o f three years and plants were collected in all the vegetation types of grassland, thicket and forest. 488 species were collected with a species to family ratio of 4:4. The majority of the taxa recorded represent the major phytochoria of the region. Nineteen species are endemic to the Eastern Cape, two are classed as vulnerable, five are rare, six are protected and a further seventeen are of uncertain status. The flora of the Kap River has closest affinities to that of the Alexandria Forest.

  4. Delineation of groundwater recharge areas, western Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Walter, Donald A.

    2000-01-01

    The unconfined sand-and-gravel aquifer in western Cape Cod, Massachusetts, which is the sole source of water supply for the communities in the area, is recharged primarily from precipitation. The rate of recharge from precipitation is estimated to be about 26 inches per year (in/yr), or about 60 percent of the precipitation rate. This recharge rate yields a flow through the aquifer of about 180 million gallons per day (Mgal/d). Groundwater flows radially outward from the top of the water-table mound in the north-central part of the flow system toward the coast, as indicated by the water-table contours on the large map on this sheet. Recharge that reaches the water table near the top of the mound travels deeper through the aquifer than recharge that reaches the water table closer to the coast. All recharge to the aquifer ultimately discharges to pumping wells, streams, or coastal areas; however, some of this recharge may flow first through kettle ponds before eventually reaching these discharge points.

  5. Description of a new moss frog from the south-western Cape (Anura ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new species of moss frog, genus Arthroleptella, is described from the Kleinrivier mountains of the south-western Cape. It is morphologically indistinguishable from the other three species in the area. The four Cape species are allopatric, each has a unique male advertisement call, and preliminary molecular data shows ...

  6. The birds of the alien Acacia thickets of the South-western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    About 1876, the Cape Superintendent of Plantations began using the Australian Acacia cyanophylla and A. ... Strandveld; but 38 % of all nests recorded in the South-western Cape are in Acacia. S. senegalensis is .... of mixed exotic trees, often including some Acacia but also Eucalyptus, Pinus, Quercus,. Populus and other ...

  7. 33 CFR 80.501 - Tom's River, NJ to Cape May, NJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tom's River, NJ to Cape May, NJ. 80.501 Section 80.501 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Fifth District § 80.501 Tom's River, NJ to Cape May, NJ...

  8. 33 CFR 165.515 - Safety Zone: Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Cape Fear River to the stern of the Battleship USS NORTH CAROLINA. (b) Definitions. The designated..., Wilmington, North Carolina. 165.515 Section 165.515 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 165.515 Safety Zone: Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina. (a) Location. The following area is...

  9. An ethnobotany of Western Cape Rasta bush medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston Philander, Lisa

    2011-11-18

    This descriptive ethnobiological research is the first documentation of the materials utilized in the pharmacopeia of a novel group of herbalists, Rasta bush doctors, found in the botanically diverse Western Cape of South Africa. This article suggests that medicinal plants used by bush doctors unite the disparate ethnomedicines found in South Africa. Ethnospecies name and parts used were recorded during detailed inventories of 39 bush doctors. Collection of voucher specimens for botanical identification occurred in 15 locations. Herbal remedies were classified into use categories and were compared to historical ethnobotanical literature to ascertain previous cultural affiliations. There were 205 ethnospecies found in the Rastafari ethnobiology, 181 were used medicinally. Ethnospecies belong to 71 plant families and 71% belonged to six plant families: Rutaceae (13), Asteraceae (13), Apiaceae (9), Lamiaceae (8), Fabaceae (8), and Euphorbiaceae (7). The majority of remedies (49%) were foliage. Medicinal plants treated over 30 ailments including: gastrointestinal symptoms (11%), urogential complaints (11%), skin ailments (9%), and cardiovascular diseases (8%). Bush doctors appropriated remedies traditionally important to Zulu, KhoiSan, European and Xhosa healing traditions. Novel plants and plant utilization were noted for 22 plant species. Use of previously undocumented plant materials as medicinals denote distinct local knowledge including novel Rastafarian utilization of herbs for spiritual and ritual purposes. The range of the largely herbaceous pharmacopeia is narrow compared to the region's highly biodiverse materials and historical records of medicinal use. Bush doctors' experimentation with known herbal remedies illustrates a striking level of cross-cultural adaptation. This syncretic pharmacopeia reflects the cultural diversity of Southern Africa, drawing upon recent invasive species, European influence and traditional herbs used by the KhoiSan, Zulu and Xhosa

  10. Four decades of water recycling in Atlantis (Western Cape, South Africa): Past, present and future

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bugan, Richard DH

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary aquifer at Atlantis (Western Cape, South Africa) is ideally suited for water supply and the indirect recycling of urban stormwater runoff and treated domestic wastewater for potable purposes. The relatively thin, sloping aquifer requires...

  11. Feasibility of eradicating Ceratitis spp. fruit flies from the Western Cape of South Africa by the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Brian N.; Eyles, David K.

    2000-01-01

    western side, and by an extensive arid and semi-desert region on much of the northern side. The Western Cape as a whole, and a number of its individual fruit production valleys, are considered to be good candidates for the use of SIT to eradicate fruit flies (J. Hendrichs, G. Tween, J. Mumford, personal communication). As part of the feasibility study, a pilot SIT project has been initiated in the Hex River Valley (HRV), South Africa's principal table grape production area. The Hex River valley comprises about 4,000 ha farmed by about 140 growers, with an average farm size of 18 ha. Most of the area is under table grapes, with a very small but increasing area under soft citrus. It is one of the more isolated of the production areas, has only one through road, and one small village. A cost-benefit study has shown it to be economically the most favourable of all areas in the Western Cape for an SIT programme, based on a comparison of current control costs versus estimated SIT costs. This article describes progress with the pilot project to date, and factors likely to influence the success of SIT in this and other areas. Main areas of activity in the HRV have included the establishment of an extensive monitoring system, the implementation of a coordinated fruit fly baiting programme, and trial shipments of sterile C. capitata pupae

  12. Missed opportunities for immunisation at hospitals in the western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990, measles vaccine coverage in the Cape Province remains low,' and is ... ing 3 of the 6 facilities considered in this study, do nor pro- vide immunisation. Therefore ... the 2 studies were at 'high risk' in view of the risk of con- tracting measles ...

  13. Bilingualism and language shift in Western Cape communities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper considers a number of pertinent sociolinguistic aspects of a distinct process of language shift recently noted in some historically Afrikaans first language (L1) communities established in the Cape Metropolitan area. Particularly, it considers qualitatively how a number of families made deliberate choices to change ...

  14. Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to investigate habitat suitability of the Cape Vulture in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, D.; Estes, M. G., Jr.; Griffin, R.; Estes, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    As the global urban population rapidly increases, many wild species lose habitat to human development. The Western Cape of South Africa contains one of Earth's 35 biodiversity hotspots, with remarkably high levels of species richness and endemism. Understanding the relationship between anthropogenic changes and key species in this region is crucial for conservation of its threatened ecosystems. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect that climate change and urbanization each have on habitat suitability of the Cape Vulture. This research utilized NASA satellite data and crowdsourced species sightings to model past, current, and future habitat suitability for this key species in the Western Cape. Data used from NASA Earth Observations included: Landsat 8- derived Land Cover, Modis Land Surface Temperature, Digital Elevation Models from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, and precipitation data which integrated in-situ stations with Infrared data. Species observations were sourced from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility online database. A geospatial modelling framework was used to generate maps of present, past and future suitable habitats for analysis and comparison. Changes in precipitation and temperature may be a factor in the extreme loss of habitat since 1995, and predict even more drastic loss in the future. This research provides insights on anthropogenic effects on a species' range which may be used to inform discussions of conservation as an element of environmentally sustainable development.

  15. A taxonomic revision of Maurocenia (Celastraceae, a Western Cape monotypic endemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Archer

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic account is given of the monotypic genus Maurocenia Mill. Maurocenia frangula Mill, has a restricted range and is endemic to the Cape Peninsula and the West Coast National Park. Western Cape. Maurocenia frangularia (L.Mill., the species name and author citation widely used in the past, is incorrect. It is characterized by. among others, pendulous ovules and gynodioecy, rare states in the Celastraceae. Maurocenia is apparently most closely related to the southern African genus Lauridia Eckl. & Zeyh.

  16. Research collaboration 2011-2012: A joint publication highlighting the research partnerships between the CSIR and University of the Western Cape, University of Cape Town, Stellenbosch University

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available CSIR’s partnerships with the University of the Western Cape (UWC), University of Cape Town (UCT) and Stellenbosch University (SU) seek to conduct research that improves the quality of the lives of the people of South Africa by responding...

  17. Stable carbon isotopic assessment of prehistoric diets in the south-western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sealy, J C

    1984-01-01

    This thesis consists of a stable carbon isotopic assessment of the diets of the Holocene human inhabitants of the south-western Cape, South-Africa. Samples of the foods these people ate were collected from each of the four major physiographic zones in the area, and their /sup 13/C//sup 12/C ratios measured. A total of more than 200 such analyses enabled the estimation of the average delta /sup 13/C values of prehistoric human diets in each zone. This information is used to interpret delta /sup 13/C measurements on a series of archaeological human skeletons. The results are consistent with a model of prehistoric subsistence behaviour in which people living at the coast made intensive use of marine food resources throughout the Holocene, consuming such a large proportion of these foods that they must have spent much, if not all of their time at the coast. Inland skeletons reflect an almost entirely terrestrial diet. These results contradict hypotheses about seasonal population movements between the coast and the interior generated from excavated archaeological material. Considerable changes in many of our current views of the Late Stone Age of the south-western Cape will have to be made in order to accommodate these data.

  18. Adaptation is.... Managing climate risk in South Africa's Western Cape

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC

    rising demand. “This scarce resource needs to be equitably and efficiently divided between the ecological reserve in rivers on the one hand, and domestic, industrial, and ... planning. It brings a multidisciplinary team of scientists together with farmers, community and industry groups, and a range of local planning authorities.

  19. Bridge management system for the Western Cape provincial government, South Africa: implementation and utilization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nell, AJ

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the implementation and utilization of the bridge management system (BMS) of the Department of Transport and Public Works of the Western Cape Provincial Government. The implementation of the BMS as well as the visual assessment...

  20. Cervical HPV natural history among young Western Cape, South African women: The randomized control EVRI Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sudenga, Staci L.; Torres, B. Nelson; Botha, Matthys H.; Zeier, Michele; Abrahamsen, Martha E.; Glashoff, Richard H.; Engelbrecht, Susan; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; van der Laan, Louvina E.; Kipping, Siegfried; Taylor, Douglas; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this analysis was to assess human papillomavirus (HPV) infection persistence and incidence 7-months post-enrollment by HPV vaccine study arm (vaccine or placebo). HIV-negative, sexually active women aged 16-24 years in the Western Cape, South Africa, were enrolled in the EVRI Trial

  1. Spatio-temporal aspects of gated residential security estates in non-metropolitan Western Cape

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Spocter, M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available . This research attempts to address this research gap by focusing on the spatio-temporal aspects of non-metropolitan gated residential security estates in the Western Cape Province. It was found that most non-metropolitan gated residential security estates were...

  2. How do we know how much groundwater is stored in south-western Cape mountains?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Midgley, JJ

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Isotopes of water (D, O-18) in rain and streams were used to obtain an estimate of the amount of ground water in the south-western Cape Mountains. It was assumed that the groundwater reservoir is well-mixed and that the water isotope signals...

  3. Mapping the N-Year design rainfall - A case study for the Western Cape

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khuluse, S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Africa. The point process approach to extreme value theory is employed to quantify the 50-year winter rainfall return level estimate from daily rainfall data from fifteen stations in the Western Cape. Ordinary kriging is used to estimate the 50-year...

  4. Syntaxonomy and zonation patterns in coastal salt marshes of the Uilkraals Estuary, Western Cape (South Africa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mucina, L.; Janssen, J.A.M.; O'Callaghan, M.

    2003-01-01

    Vegetation on salt marshes of the Uilkraals Estuary (near Gansbaai, Western Cape, South Africa) is described and classified into 11 associations and/or rank-less plant communities (further subdivided into a number of sub-units). These communities were grouped into 6 high-rank syntaxa (alliances and

  5. The Mediation of Representative Council of Learners Policy in Western Cape Schools--1997 to 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Ivan; Williams, Clarence

    2009-01-01

    We investigated how education policy was mediated at a representative number of Western Cape schools, from 1997 to 2003, using the structure, symbolic, human resource and political frames of Bolman and Deal (1997) as the basis of the investigation. The investigation produced diverse research findings. At the one end there were a majority of…

  6. Homework Policy Review: A Case Study of A Public School in the Western Cape Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Verbra

    2018-01-01

    A key concern today is the question of homework in our nation's public schools. In this study, an investigation was conducted with the first no-homework policy, which has been introduced in one of the primary schools in the Western Cape. This study seeks to determine whether a no-homework policy will validate a positive or negative effect on…

  7. Non-metropolitan residential gated developments in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Spocter, M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available -metropolitan locale and the topic is also unexplored in the South African context. This research attempts to address this research gap by investigating the locations of gated developments in non-metropolitan towns of varying sizes in the Western Cape...

  8. Dryland salinity: threatening water resources in the semi-arid Western Cape

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bugan, Richard DH

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available associated with the mobilisation of inorganic salts from the landscape and the consequent increase in salt concentrations in receiving water bodies. Dyland salinity is not new to this area. Wheat lands in the Swartland and Overberg regions are widely known... to contain ?brak kolle? (saline scalds) where the wheat will not germinate. CAPTION: The Berg River near Velddrif. The river drains an area of approximately 9 000 km? and is an important source of water to the Boland and Cape Peninsula (source: Vernon...

  9. A Profile of the Western Cape Province: Demographics, Poverty, Inequality and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Pauw, Kalie

    2005-01-01

    This paper forms part of a series of papers that present profiles of South Africa's provinces, with a specific focus on key demographic statistics, poverty and inequality estimates, and estimates of unemployment. In this volume comparative statistics are presented for agricultural and non-agricultural households, as well as households from different racial groups, locations (metropolitan, urban and rural areas) and district municipalities of the Western Cape. Most of the data presented are dr...

  10. Monitoring of long-term pavement performance sites in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available of calibrated Highway Development and Management (HDM 4) type models. Generally, five years continuous data would give a complete view of the behaviour of the materials for the individual sites. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Department of Transport and Public Works... purposes. 4. FIELD DATA COLLECTION The CSIR project team in partnership with the Department of Transport and Public Works of the Western Cape province project team conduct detailed field investigation of six sites biannually. Field (monitoring) data...

  11. 33 CFR 165.540 - Regulated Navigation Area; Cape Fear River, Northeast Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Dredging work within the RNA will be conducted in five distinct areas: Ocean Bar II, Horseshoe Shoal.... (e) Description of work areas in the RNA—(1) Ocean Bar II, mouth of Cape Fear. The work area includes..., ensure that they have sufficient propulsion and directional control to safely navigate the RNA under the...

  12. Fish distributions in the Rondegat River, Cape Floristic Region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alien fishes are considered the most serious threat to native headwater stream fishes in South Africa. A 4 km reach of the Rondegat River is the first section of a South African river to be rehabilitated through the attempted removal of alien fish by using the piscicide rotenone. The objectives of the current study were to ...

  13. Western Cape Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCAT) study: Measuring primary care organisation and performance in the Western Cape Province, South Africa (2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Abdul-Rauf; le Grange, Cynthia; Bhagwan, Susheela; Manga, Nayna; Hellenberg, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Background Major health sector reform and the need for baseline measures of performance to determine impact. Aim Baseline audit of primary healthcare (PHC) performance. Setting Cape Town and Cape Winelands (rural) PHC facilities (PCFs) in Western Cape Province, South Africa. Method The South African cross-culturally validated ZA PCAT to audit PHC performance on 11 subdomains associated with improved health and reduced costs. Adult PCF users systematically sampled. All full-time doctors and nurse practitioners in PCFs sampled and all PCF managers in sub-districts sampled invited into the study. Results Data from 1432 users, 100 clinicians and 64 managers from 13 PCFs in 10 sub-districts analysed (figures show stakeholder percentages scoring subdomain performance ‘acceptable to good’). 11.5% users scored access ‘acceptable to good’; community orientation and comprehensive services provided 20.8% and 39.9%, respectively. Total PHC score for users 50.2%; for managers and practitioners 82.8% and 88.0%, respectively. Among practitioners access was lowest (33.3%); PHC team (98.0%) and comprehensive services available (100.0%) highest. Among managers, access (13.5%) and family centredness (45.6%) are lowest; PHC team (85.9%) and comprehensive services available (90.6%) highest. Managers scored access, family centredness and cultural competence significantly lower than practitioners. Users scored comprehensive services available, comprehensive services provided and community orientation significantly lower than practitioners and managers. Conclusion Gaps between users’ experience and providers’ assessments of PHC performance are identified. Features that need strengthening and alignment with best practice, provincial and national, and health policies are highlighted with implications for practitioner and manager training, health policy, and research. PMID:27247157

  14. Development and implementation of a Bridge Management System for the Provincial Government of the Western Cape, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development and implementation of a bridge management system for the Provincial Government Western Cape (PGWC). During the first phase of the project, the inventory and inspection modules were customised to meet the needs...

  15. 77 FR 37324 - Safety Zone; Major Motion Picture Filming, Cape Fear River; Wilmington, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... vessels from a portion of the Cape Fear River due to the filming of a movie involving high speed boat..., given the high risks of injury and damage that will be created during the filming of the movie, a delay... Planning and Review This rule is not a significant regulatory action under section 3(f) of Executive Order...

  16. 33 CFR 334.450 - Cape Fear River and tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County, N.C.; restricted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Fear River and tributaries... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.450 Cape Fear River and tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County, N.C.; restricted area. (a) The area. That portion of Cape Fear River due west of the main...

  17. The Palmiet River estuary in the south-western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the concentration and turnover of organiC matter. Four of the 19 species of .... and September 1980, giving a total of 28 days field work. On ...... supported no life. Despite the ..... 0,3 x 106 m3 year - 1, should balance evaporative water losses.

  18. Substances of abuse - demand for their determinations in the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter van der Bijl

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Drug abuse is as relevant today as ever. Management of such cases on a primary health care level may be challenging, particularly when laboratory facilities are unavailable. Furthermore, substance abuse and its sequelae place a significant burden on the already overstretched primary health care resources in the country, as well as on other ser- vices and society in general. Objectives. The current study surveyed the trends in demand for laboratory determination of amphetamines, opiates, methaqualone, cannabis, cocaine and ethanol for the period 1991 - 2002, in the Western Cape. The survey was conducted by extracting the relevant data from the records of the Pharmacology/Toxicology Laboratory of the University of Stellenbosch and Tygerberg Academic Hospital. This facility processes the largest number of specimens by a single laboratory in the Western Cape. Results. From the data obtained a seasonal pattern emerged for all substances except ethanol, with a trough appearing in early winter. Demand for ethanol analysis was fairly constant throughout the year, with a peak in the last quarter. Ethanol level was the most frequently requested analysis between 1991 and 1997. This concurs with its status as the main substance of abuse in South Africa and the rest of the world. There was an increased demand for analysis of ampheta- mines, opiates, methaqualone, cannabis and cocaine between 1991 and 2002. Generally dominating, next to ethanol, were requests for cannabis and methaqualone analysis. Interesting to note was the increase in demand for opiate analysis, following the trend observed in certain other regions of the world. Conclusion. The analysis trends observed in this study demon- strate global patterns of drug abuse emerging in the Western Cape. The medical and social effects of drug abuse impose a grave responsibility on policymakers to ensure that adequate funding is available for analytical laboratories. Only in such a way can

  19. Annual ryegrass toxicity in Thoroughbred horses in Ceres in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Grewar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of annual ryegrass toxicity occurred on a Thoroughbred stud in Ceres in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. This is the 1st report of annual ryegrass toxicity in horses in South Africa, although the condition has been reported in cattle and sheep populations in the past. Annual ryegrass toxicity is characterised by a variety of neurological signs including tremors, convulsions, recumbency and in many cases death. The description of the outbreak includes the history, clinical presentation and treatment protocol administered during the outbreak. Various epidemiological variables and their influence in the outbreak are also considered.

  20. Health risk behaviours of stroke patients in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Biggs

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a leading cause of death and a major cause of disability globally. Individuals with physical disabilities, including thosewho have suffered a stroke are at risk of secondary complications due to the impact of their disability, which may be exacerbated by their lifestylechoices. The aim of the present study was to determine the health riskbehaviours and factors that influence these behaviours of stroke patients inthe Metropole Region of the Western Cape, South Africa. A cross – sectionalsurvey, utilizing a self-administered questionnaire on a convenient sampleof 417 stroke patients, was used to collect data. A sub-sample of 10 parti-cipants was purposively selected for in-depth, face-to-face interviews.Approximately forty percent (40.3% of the participants did not engage in physical exercise. While 30.2% smoked only9% abused alcohol. A significant association was found between age and smoking (p<0.002. Information gathered in the in-depth interviews revealed factors that influenced the behaviours of the participants. These factors includedlack of financial resources and lack of access to information. As participants were found to be at risk of secondarycomplications because of poor lifestyle choices, there is a clear need to implement health promotion programmes topromote well-ness enhancing behaviours in order to enhance the quality of health of patients who have suffered astroke in the Western Cape, South Africa.

  1. Combined silver nanoparticles and temperature effects in the Cape River crab Potamanautes perlatus - Interactions between chemical and climatic stressors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Walters, Chavon R

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and temperature variation on toxicity and oxidative stress responses were investigated in the tissues of the Cape River crab Potamanautes perlatus following a seven-day exposure period. Toxicity...

  2. Wave Climate and Littoral Sediment Transport Potential, Cape Fear River Entrance and Smith Island to Ocean Isle Beach, North Carolina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Edward

    1999-01-01

    Numerical model studies were conducted to assist the U.S. Army Engineer District, Wilmington, in evaluating potential plans for modifying the Cape Fear River entrance channel and in preparing General Reevaluation Reports...

  3. A Systems Dynamic Model for Drug Abuse and Drug-Related Crime in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farai Nyabadza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex problem of drug abuse and drug-related crimes in communities in the Western Cape province cannot be studied in isolation but through the system they are embedded in. In this paper, a theoretical model to evaluate the syndemic of substance abuse and drug-related crimes within the Western Cape province of South Africa is constructed and explored. The dynamics of drug abuse and drug-related crimes within the Western Cape are simulated using STELLA software. The simulation results are consistent with the data from SACENDU and CrimeStats SA, highlighting the usefulness of such a model in designing and planning interventions to combat substance abuse and its related problems.

  4. Impacts of drought on grape yields in Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Julio A.; Abiodun, Babatunde J.; Crespo, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Droughts remain a threat to grape yields in South Africa. Previous studies on the impacts of climate on grape yield in the country have focussed on the impact of rainfall and temperature separately; meanwhile, grape yields are affected by drought, which is a combination of rainfall and temperature influences. The present study investigates the impacts of drought on grape yields in the Western Cape (South Africa) at district and farm scales. The study used a new drought index that is based on simple water balance (Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index; hereafter, SPEI) to identify drought events and used a correlation analysis to identify the relationship between drought and grape yields. A crop simulation model (Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator, APSIM) was applied at the farm scale to investigate the role of irrigation in mitigating the impacts of drought on grape yield. The model gives a realistic simulation of grape yields. The Western Cape has experienced a series of severe droughts in the past few decades. The severe droughts occurred when a decrease in rainfall occurred simultaneously with an increase in temperature. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) appears to be an important driver of drought severity in the Western Cape, because most of the severe droughts occurred in El Niño years. At the district scale, the correlation between drought index and grape yield is weak ( r≈-0.5), but at the farm scale, it is strong ( r≈-0.9). This suggests that many farmers are able to mitigate the impacts of drought on grape yields through irrigation management. At the farm scale, where the impact of drought on grape yields is high, poor yield years coincide with moderate or severe drought periods. The APSIM simulation, which gives a realistic simulation of grape yields at the farm scale, suggests that grape yields become more sensitive to spring and summer droughts in the absence of irrigation. Results of this study may guide decision-making on

  5. Simulation of land use impacts on sediment and nutrient transfer in coastal areas of Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebel Micha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge for water resource management in Western Cape, South Africa, is the reduction of the growing sediment and nutrient loads in coastal areas, which belong to the areas most affected by land use change. We used the WebGIS based software STOFFBILANZ to simulate runoff, soil loss, sediment, phosphorus, and nitrogen input in the surface water and groundwater of study area (ca. 6,450 km². The simulated runoff shows a large regional variability caused by the heterogeneous distribution of rainfall. For the reference catchment Klein River simulated total daily runoff fit the observed values of the reference year 2012. The calculation of potential input of sediment, phosphorus, and nitrogen into waters is based on aggregated or generalized information on climate data, land use types, crop and fruit types, yields, mineral fertilizers, farm manure, nitrogen fixing by leguminous plants, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, and soil denitrification. Critical source areas for potential sediment input, particulate P input and diffuse N input are mainly agricultural areas. Additionally, point sources of high relevance for N and P are found in urban areas. Based on the potential input of sediment and nutrients the impacts of current land use change on water resources were estimated. We used the web-based information system WebLand for the simulation aiming at the provision of stakeholders with information for decision making in water resource management.

  6. The development of hospitalbased palliative care services in public hospitals in the Western Cape South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Gwyther

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With the recent approval of a South African (SA National Policy Framework and Strategy for Palliative Care by the National Health Council, it is pertinent to reflect on initiatives to develop palliative care services in public hospitals. This article reviews the development of hospital-based palliative care services in the Western Cape, SA. Palliative care services in SA started in the non-governmental sector in the 1980s. The first SA hospital-based palliative care team was established in Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital in 2001. The awareness of the benefit of palliative care in the hospital setting led to the development of isolated pockets of excellence providing palliative care in the public health sector in SA. This article describes models for palliative care at tertiary, provincial and district hospital level, which could inform development of hospital-based palliative care as the national policy for palliative care is implemented in SA.

  7. A numerical study of the plume in Cape Fear River Estuary and adjacent coastal ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, M.; Xia, L.; Pietrafesa, L. J.

    2006-12-01

    Cape Fear River Estuary (CFRE), located in southeast North Carolina, is the only river estuary system in the state which is directly connected to the Atlantic Ocean. It is also an important nursery for economically and ecologically important juvenile fish, crabs, shrimp, and other species because of the tidal influence and saline waters. In this study, Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code (EFDC) is used to simulate the salinity plume and trajectory distribution at the mouth of the CFRE and adjacent coastal ocean. Prescribed with the climatological freshwater discharge rates in the rivers, the modeling system was used to simulate the salinity plume and trajectory distribution distribution in the mouth of the CFRE under the influence of climatological wind conditions and tidal effect. We analyzed the plume formation processes and the strong relationship between the various plume distributions with respect to the wind and river discharge in the region. The simulations also indicate that strong winds tend to reduce the surface CFRE plume size and distorting the bulge region near the estuary mouth due to enhanced wind induced surface mixing. Even moderate wind speeds could fully reverse the buoyancy-driven plume structure in CFRE under normal river discharge conditions. Tide and the river discharge also are important factors to influence the plume structure. The comparions between the distribution of salinity plume and trajectory also are discussed in the study.

  8. Analysis of measured L-band airborne land clutter from the Western Cape region of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Witt, JJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available -band Airborne Land Clutter from the Western Cape region of South Africa J.J. de Witt and J.J. Strydom Abstract: This paper presents backscatter analysis of L-band land clutter data, measured from an airborne platform, over various terrain types...

  9. Diversity and Contested Social Identities in Multilingual and Multicultural Contexts of the University of the Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Felix; Peck, Amiena

    2016-01-01

    We draw on Rampton's "Crossing: Language and Ethnicity Among Adolescents" (2014. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge) notion of "crossing" to explore contestations in ethnolinguistic, cultural and racial affiliations at the University of the Western Cape (UWC), a university built for "Coloureds" in apartheid South Africa, but…

  10. High HIV, HPV, and STI Prevalence Among Young Western Cape, South African Women: EVRI HIV Prevention Preparedness Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giuliano, Anna R.; Botha, Matthys H.; Zeier, Michele; Abrahamsen, Martha E.; Glashoff, Richard H.; van der Laan, Louvina E.; Papenfuss, Mary; Engelbrecht, Susan; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Sudenga, Staci L.; Torres, Benji N.; Kipping, Siegfried; Taylor, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Background:This study sought to assess the feasibility of conducting a phase III HIV prevention trial using a multivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (Gardasil; Merck, Whitehouse Station, NJ).Methods:A total of 479 sexually active women aged 16-24 years in the Western Cape, South Africa, were

  11. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Fish fauna of Indrayani River, northern Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelesh Dahanukar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater fish fauna of the Indrayani River, a northern tributary of the Krishna River system in the Western Ghats of India was studied. A total of 57 species of freshwater fish belonging to 18 families and 39 genera were recorded. However, based on the previous literature it is possible that the Indrayani River harbours around 67 species. Out of the 57 species in the present collection, 12 are endemic to the Western Ghats while six are endemic to the Krishna River system. Neotropius khavalchor, an endemic fish of the Krishna River system, was recorded for the first time from the northern tributaries. The fish fauna of the Indrayani River is threatened due to seven introduced species and anthropogenic activities such as deforestation leading to siltation, tourism, sand mining, over fishing and organic and inorganic pollution. Since the Indrayani River hosts endemic and threatened species, including Glyptothorax poonaensis, conservation measures to ensure habitat protection in the river are essential.

  12. Some ecological studies of the lower Cape Fear River Estuary, ocean outfall, and Dutchman Creek, 1971

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, B.J.; Birkhead, W.S.

    1972-01-01

    A survey of the hydrography and biological components of the Cape Fear River Estuary and nearshore ocean off Oak Island was conducted. Species diversity indices were computed from nekton samples and phytoplankton, zooplankton, and benthos samples are being analysed. A computer program was developed whereby data were alphabetized by species, sorted by location, station, and date, and printed. Experiments were conducted to determine the Critical Thermal Maximum of shrimp. Measurements were made on water temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen from June through October. (U.S.)

  13. Hereditary angio-oedema in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coovadia, K M; Chothia, M-Y; Baker, S G; Peter, J G; Potter, P C

    2018-03-28

    Hereditary angio-oedema (HAE) is an autosomal dominant condition caused by a deficiency in the C1-esterase inhibitor protein, resulting in increased bradykinin release. It presents clinically with recurrent attacks of angio-oedema, commonly affecting the limbs, face, upper airway and gastrointestinal tract. Little is known about this condition in sub-Saharan Africa. To analyse and report on the clinical presentation and treatment of patients with HAE in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. A retrospective analysis was conducted on a series of 60 cases of HAE seen between 2010 and 2015 at the Allergy Diagnostic and Clinical Research Unit, University of Cape Town Lung Institute, and the Allergy Clinic at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town. The findings in 43 cases of type 1 HAE are described. Parameters assessed included age, gender, age of diagnosis, duration of illness, family history, identifiable triggers, average duration of attack, number of attacks per year and type of attack. A total of 43 patients were included in this study. Of these, 65.1% (28/43) were female. The median age at diagnosis was 20 years (interquartile range (IQR) 10 - 27) and the median duration of illness 10.5 years (IQR 6 - 22). Of the patients, 62.8% (27/43), 32.6% (14/43) and 4.7% (2/43) were of mixed ancestry, white and black African, respectively; 51.2% (22/43) were index cases, with the remaining 48.8% (21/43) diagnoses via family member screening, 12 families making up the majority of the cohort. The mean (standard deviation) duration of an acute attack was 49 (25.8) hours, and 64.3% (27/42), 71.4% (30/42), 14.3% (6/42) and 88.1% (37/42) of patients experienced facial or upper airway, abdominal, external genitalia and limb attacks, respectively. Danazol for long-term prophylaxis was used in 21 patients, while C1-inhibitor concentrate (Berinert) was accessed for short-term prophylaxis in only four patients. Acute life-threating attacks were treated with fresh frozen plasma in 11

  14. Land Use Regression Modeling of Outdoor Noise Exposure in Informal Settlements in Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, Chloé; Ragettli, Martina S; Brink, Mark; Toyib, Olaniyan; Baatjies, Roslyn; Saucy, Apolline; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Dalvie, Mohamed Aqiel; Röösli, Martin

    2017-10-20

    In low- and middle-income countries, noise exposure and its negative health effects have been little explored. The present study aimed to assess the noise exposure situation in adults living in informal settings in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. We conducted continuous one-week outdoor noise measurements at 134 homes in four different areas. These data were used to develop a land use regression (LUR) model to predict A-weighted day-evening-night equivalent sound levels (L den ) from geographic information system (GIS) variables. Mean noise exposure during day (6:00-18:00) was 60.0 A-weighted decibels (dB(A)) (interquartile range 56.9-62.9 dB(A)), during night (22:00-6:00) 52.9 dB(A) (49.3-55.8 dB(A)) and average L den was 63.0 dB(A) (60.1-66.5 dB(A)). Main predictors of the LUR model were related to road traffic and household density. Model performance was low (adjusted R 2 = 0.130) suggesting that other influences than those represented in the geographic predictors are relevant for noise exposure. This is one of the few studies on the noise exposure situation in low- and middle-income countries. It demonstrates that noise exposure levels are high in these settings.

  15. Land Use Regression Modeling of Outdoor Noise Exposure in Informal Settlements in Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, Chloé; Ragettli, Martina S.; Toyib, Olaniyan; Baatjies, Roslyn; Saucy, Apolline; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Dalvie, Mohamed Aqiel; Röösli, Martin

    2017-01-01

    In low- and middle-income countries, noise exposure and its negative health effects have been little explored. The present study aimed to assess the noise exposure situation in adults living in informal settings in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. We conducted continuous one-week outdoor noise measurements at 134 homes in four different areas. These data were used to develop a land use regression (LUR) model to predict A-weighted day-evening-night equivalent sound levels (Lden) from geographic information system (GIS) variables. Mean noise exposure during day (6:00–18:00) was 60.0 A-weighted decibels (dB(A)) (interquartile range 56.9–62.9 dB(A)), during night (22:00–6:00) 52.9 dB(A) (49.3–55.8 dB(A)) and average Lden was 63.0 dB(A) (60.1–66.5 dB(A)). Main predictors of the LUR model were related to road traffic and household density. Model performance was low (adjusted R2 = 0.130) suggesting that other influences than those represented in the geographic predictors are relevant for noise exposure. This is one of the few studies on the noise exposure situation in low- and middle-income countries. It demonstrates that noise exposure levels are high in these settings. PMID:29053590

  16. Karoo-fynbos biomass along an elevational gradient in the western Cape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Rutherford

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available A short characterization of the vegetational gradient from two basic physiognomic forms of fynbos, through Renosterbosveld to arid Karoo vegetation of the south-western Cape, is given with reference to possible vegetational analogues within similar gradients in winter-rainfall areas elsewhere. Description is limited to some aspects affecting biomass and its measurement, as well as to consideration of community stability needed for valid comparison of community biomass. Live individuals, including single dominant species, all other shrubs, graminoids and other herbaceous species as well as dead individuals were harvested separately in each major community type within an elevational gradient corresponding to the vegetational gradient described. Greatest biomass (14311 kg ha-1 was found in a summit restionaceous community, while lowest biomass (7564 kg ha-1 was found in a low-lying succulent Karoo community. There was an inverse relationship between elevation and percentage dead material mass and a strongly positive relationship between elevation and percentage biomass of the graminoid group. Total biomass values appear to be in keeping with available data for analogue communities in different Mediterranean climate areas, although distinct differences sometimes occur in the relative biomass contributions of component groups.

  17. Interactive simulations for promoting transdisciplinary understanding: a case study of the Western Cape fisheries, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile Proches

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Simulations have proven beneficial in enabling participants from various backgrounds to meaningfully engage in learning from experience. The aim of this paper is to investigate how interactive simulations can play a role in navigating the changes faced in a multi- stakeholder setting, characterised by users dependent on marine resources and an authorising institution. Relevant literature in the areas of simulation and gaming, change management, systems thinking, and complexity theory was examined. A qualitative research approach and purposive sampling were employed. Interviews were first conducted with diverse stakeholders in the Western Cape fisheries of South Africa to determine the issues. A simulation was thereafter designed. The main findings from this study indicate that simulation use illustrates how the various stakeholders in a system interact, and how their actions and decisions influence each other. The simulation may be used in other areas of natural resource management, as well as in other kinds of multi- stakeholder scenarios. Keywords: Simulation and gaming, Change management, Fisheries, Multi-stakeholder scenarios, Systems thinking, Complexity theory Disciplines: Conflict Resolution, Leadership Studies, Management Studies, Natural Resource Management

  18. Three new species of Diascia (Scrophulariaceae from the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Steiner

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Three new annual species of Diascia Link & Otto are described from the Western Cape Province of South Africa. D. collina is characterized by greyish magenta flowers with two divergent yellow sacs containing oil-secreting trichomes. It is restricted to granite outcrops in the vicinity of Saldanha Bay, from the West Coast National Park and Langebaan north to Vredenburg. D. pusilla is closely related to D. collina. but differs from that species in having smaller flowers with shorter, ± parallel sacs, and posticous filaments that lack a protuberance where they bend sharply backwards towards the upper lip. It occurs in grey to whitish sands usually near seasonally moist or wet areas. It has not been found more than 35 km from the coast and ranges from Modderrivier, south o f Darling, north to Lambert’s Bay. D. appendiculata is related to D. diffusa (Thunb. Benth. and is characterized by having small, mainly reddish lilac to greyish magenta flowers, two shallow depressions in the corolla tube at the base of the upper lip, and posticous filaments with sterile appendages. It is known from only six localities in the general vicinity of Citrusdal and occurs in fynbos vegetation on lower mountain slopes or flats, in loose alluvial sands derived from Table Mountain Sandstone.

  19. Environmental factors influencing participation of stroke survivors in a Western Cape setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Cawood

    2015-10-01

    Objectives: To determine environmental barriers and facilitators to participation experienced by a group of stroke survivors in the Western Cape province of South Africa. Methods: A descriptive, mixed methods study was conducted in 2011. Quantitative data was collected with the International Classification for Functioning, Disability and Health core set for stroke (environmental factors, from 53 stroke survivors, sampled through proportional, stratified, random sampling. Data is presented through graphs and tables. Qualitative data was collected from five purposively sampled participants and thematically analysed. Results: Under products and technology, participants regarded assets, food, products and technology for daily living, transportation, mobility and communication, and access to buildings as barriers. The physical geography and attitudes of friends and society created further barriers. With regard to services, systems and policies - housing, communication, transport and social services created barriers. Health services, as well as support from health care service providers and family were considered facilitators. Conclusion: A lack of assets compounded barriers with regard to food, products for daily use, communication and transport. Barriers to participation were exacerbated by a lack of services, systems and implementation of policies focused on the inclusion of people with disabilities, as well as minimal access to assistive devices. Recommendations include provision of assistive devices, structural changes to houses, yards, roads and buildings, lobbying for accessible, affordable public transport, access audits of public buildings, and inclusion of non-governmental organisations and home-based care services in a seamless network of care.

  20. 33 CFR 207.610 - St. Lawrence River, Cape Vincent Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation of the harbor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Lawrence River, Cape Vincent Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and navigation of the harbor and U.S. breakwater. 207.610 Section 207... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.610 St. Lawrence River, Cape Vincent Harbor, N.Y.; use, administration, and...

  1. Unaccompanied and Separated Foreign Children in the Care System in the Western Cape – A Socio-Legal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Sloth-Nielsen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on the findings of a study of foreign children accommodated in the care system in the Western Cape, based on fieldwork conducted in child and youth care centres. The objectives of the study were firstly to map and quantify the number and demographics of foreign children placed in all CYCCs across the Western Cape. Secondly, the study aimed to analyse the reasons for children's migration and the circumstances around their placement in residential care institutions in order to establish whether family reunification was possible or desirable. Thirdly, the study explores the sufficiency of efforts made to trace and reunify the children with their families, whether in South Africa or across borders, as the institutional placement of children should not only be a last resort but it should preferably be temporary whilst family-based solutions are sought. Lastly, the documentation status of the children in the study was examined. Recommendations emanating from the research conclude the study.

  2. Health-related quality of life of patients six months poststroke living in the Western Cape, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Rhoda, Anthea J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The majority of individuals report a decline in health-related quality of life following a stroke. Quality of life and factors predicting quality of life could differ in individuals from lower income countries. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the quality of life and factors influencing quality of life of community-dwelling stroke patients living in low-income, peri-urban areas in the Western Cape, South Africa. Method: An observational, longitudinal study was u...

  3. Patient transport from rural to tertiary healthcare centres in the Western Cape: Is there room for improvement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Slabbert

    2011-03-01

    Discussion: The Western Cape EMS system is transferring significant numbers of seriously injured and ill patients, the largest group being young males following trauma. Focussed training, outreach and telemedicine services may help to improve the outcome for these patients. Appropriate protocols for the use of rotor and fixed wing resources are required, to help ensure patient outcome and make the best use of limited resources.

  4. The utilization of health care services by children with Foetal Alcohol Syndrome in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credé, Sarah; Sinanovic, Edina; Adnams, Colleen; London, Leslie

    2011-06-01

    The rates of Foetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Partial Foetal Alcohol Spectrum (PFAS) in South Africa are the highest reported worldwide. There is a paucity of research examining the health care costs of caring for children with FAS or PFAS in this country. A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted using an interviewer-administered questionnaire amongst caregivers of children (0-12 years) with FAS/PFAS in the Western Cape to estimate the utilization of health care services; the annual direct and indirect health care costs per child as well as the total cost to society for providing health care services to children with FAS/PFAS. It was found that the median number of annual visits to public health care facilities per child was 8 (IQR 4 to 14). The total average annual cost per child was $1039.38 (95% CI: $808.68; $1270.07) and the total annual societal cost for the Western Cape was $70,960,053.68 (95% CI: $5,528,895.48; $86,709,971.13). Caregivers in receipt of a social support grant reported spending significantly less on health care for a child with FAS/PFAS (Fisher's exact p=0.004). These study results confirm the significant burden of FAS/PFAS on the Western Cape economy and the health care system which has significant implications for FAS prevention. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. rural grade 2 western Cape disorders in in the and hearing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-01-19

    Jan 19, 1991 ... Departments of Otolaryngology and Paediatrics and Child. Health, University of Cape Town, and Red Cross War. Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town. C. A. J. PRESCOTT, F.R.CS. M. A. KIBEL, F.R.CP., D.CH. Accepted 21 Mar 1990. ear disease in the population. This statement can be justified.

  6. Children with Speech Difficulties: A survey of clinical practice in the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Pascoe

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on a study by Joffe and Pring (2008 which investigated assessment and therapy methods used by Speech Language Therapists (SLTs in the United Kingdom for children with phonological difficulties. Joffe and Pring reported SLTs’ most favoured assessments and therapy approaches in that context. Children with speech difficulties are likely to form a considerable part of SLT caseloads in South Africa, but the choice of assessments may not be so clearcut given the linguistic diversity of the region and the fact that few assessments have been developed specifically for the SA population. Linked to difficulties with assessment, selection of intervention approaches may also pose challenges. This study aimed to investigate the methods of assessment and intervention used by SLTs in the Western Cape when working with children with speech difficulties. A questionnaire was sent to SLTs working with pre and/ or primary school- aged children. Twenty-nine clinicians of varying experience responded. The majority of SLTs (89% use informal assessment tools in combination with formal assessment. When using formal assessments, more than 50% of SLTs make modifications to better suit the population. Participants use a variety of intervention approaches, often in combination, and based on a child’s individual profile of difficulties and available resources. Forty-six percent of SLTs felt unsure about the selection of assessments and intervention for bi/multilingual children with speech difficulties. SLTs suggested that guidelines about accepted / typical speech development in the region would be helpful for their clinical practice. Clinical implications of the findings are discussed together with some suggestions for developing knowledge of children’s speech difficulties in the South African context.

  7. Evaluating the electronic tuberculosis register surveillance system in Eden District, Western Cape, South Africa, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlotshwa, Mandla; Smit, Sandra; Williams, Seymour; Reddy, Carl; Medina-Marino, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) surveillance data are crucial to the effectiveness of National TB Control Programs. In South Africa, few surveillance system evaluations have been undertaken to provide a rigorous assessment of the platform from which the national and district health systems draws data to inform programs and policies. Evaluate the attributes of Eden District's TB surveillance system, Western Cape Province, South Africa. Data quality, sensitivity and positive predictive value were assessed using secondary data from 40,033 TB cases entered in Eden District's ETR.Net from 2007 to 2013, and 79 purposively selected TB Blue Cards (TBCs), a medical patient file and source document for data entered into ETR.Net. Simplicity, flexibility, acceptability, stability and usefulness of the ETR.Net were assessed qualitatively through interviews with TB nurses, information health officers, sub-district and district coordinators involved in the TB surveillance. TB surveillance system stakeholders report that Eden District's ETR.Net system was simple, acceptable, flexible and stable, and achieves its objective of informing TB control program, policies and activities. Data were less complete in the ETR.Net (66-100%) than in the TBCs (76-100%), and concordant for most variables except pre-treatment smear results, antiretroviral therapy (ART) and treatment outcome. The sensitivity of recorded variables in ETR.Net was 98% for gender, 97% for patient category, 93% for ART, 92% for treatment outcome and 90% for pre-treatment smear grading. Our results reveal that the system provides useful information to guide TB control program activities in Eden District. However, urgent attention is needed to address gaps in clinical recording on the TBC and data capturing into the ETR.Net system. We recommend continuous training and support of TB personnel involved with TB care, management and surveillance on TB data recording into the TBCs and ETR.Net as well as the implementation of a well

  8. The academic transitional experiences of masters’ students at the University of the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C. Hoffman

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Transition has been a major focus of educational institutions. However, most of the research into student transition focuses on the challenges related the transition from high school to university. Not much emphasis has been placed on the transition from undergraduate topostgraduate studies, despite the steadily increasing postgraduate enrolment rates in higher education institutions. The discrepancy between the enrolment and completion rates is an indication that postgraduate students are facing transitional challenges when engaging with postgraduate studies. The aim of this research study was to describe the academic transitional experiences of masters’ students in the Faculty of Community Health Sciences at the University of the Western Cape. The objectives were to determine the academic preparedness of postgraduate students, to explore their primary motivations for pursuing postgraduate studies, and to assess their utilisation of the available support services at UWC.A quantitative, exploratory, descriptive research design was employed. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with masters’ students during 2009, using convenience sampling. Data was statistically analysed using the SPSS to provide descriptive statistics. The majority of the sample indicated a lack of academic preparedness, even though most of them had a bachelor’s degree. The primary reasons listed as motivation for master’s study were to improve knowledge and reaching self-actualisation. The majority is still eager to complete their studies. Most support systems were utilised and students rated these services as a positive experience that facilitates smooth academic transition. However, concerns are that not many students utilised the academic writing centre and those who did, rated the overall service as average. One of the main recommendations was that a research culture needs to be established at undergraduate level, as this would give students greater exposure to

  9. Palystes kreutzmanni sp. n. – a new huntsman spider species from fynbos vegetation in Western Cape Province, South Africa (Araneae, Sparassidae, Palystinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Peter; Kunz, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Palystes kreutzmanni sp. n. is described from habitats close to Kleinmond, in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Spiders of this new species live in the typical fynbos vegetation of the Western Cape region. They build retreats between apical leaves of Leucadendron bushes. The systematic position of Palystes kreutzmanni sp. n. is discussed. Male and female show characters of different species groups, especially the female copulatory organ seems to be unique within the genus Palystes L. Koch, 1875. PMID:21594031

  10. Meteorological and oceanographic aspects of a winter storm over the south-western Cape Province, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jury, M.R.; Shillington, F.A.; Prestidge, G.; Maxwell, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    In May the southern hemisphere circumpolar jet stream accelerates in response to a growing temperature gradient between the pole and equator. Initially, the jet stream may 'spin up' in pulses, causing the upper air current to become unstable and to meander equatorwards out of the higher latitudes (40-50 degrees S). Winter storms induced by the jet stream and which move, from west to east, to the south of the African continent are then guided by the upper air currents further north. Between 15 and 17 May 1984, such a sequence of synoptic weather events developed and the south-western Cape came under the influence of the 'roaring 40's'. In this article a chronology of the storm and its meteorological effects are described using data collected at the Koeberg nuclear power station, the Cape Town Airport Weather Office and across the south-western Cape. The destructive effects of the storm, particularly felt along the coast as a result of large swells and a significant storm surge, are discussed

  11. Inefficient procurement processes undermine access to medicines in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magadzire, Bvudzai P; Ward, Kim; Leng, Henry M J; Sanders, David

    2017-06-30

    South Africa (SA) has experienced several stock-outs of life-saving medicines for the treatment of major chronic infectious and non-communicable diseases in the public sector. To identify the causes of stock-outs and to illustrate how they undermine access to medicines (ATM) in the Western Cape Province, SA. This qualitative study was conducted with a sample of over 70 key informants (frontline health workers, sub-structure and provincial health service managers). We employed the critical incident technique to identify significant occurrences in our context, the consequences of which impacted on access to medicines during a defined period. Stock-outs were identified as one such incident, and we explored when, where and why they occurred, in order to inform policy and practice. Medicines procurement is a centralised function in SA. Health service managers unanimously agreed that stock-outs resulted from the following inefficiencies at the central level: (i) delays in awarding of pharmaceutical tenders; (ii) absence of contracts for certain medicines appearing on provincial code lists; and (iii) suppliers' inability to satisfy contractual agreements. The recurrence of stock-outs had implications at multiple levels: (i) health facility operations; (ii) the Chronic Dispensing Unit (CDU), which prepacks medicines for over 300 000 public sector patients; and (iii) community-based medicines distribution systems, which deliver the CDU's prepacked medicines to non-health facilities nearer to patient homes. For instance, stock-outs resulted in omission of certain medicines from CDU parcels that were delivered to health facilities. This increased workload and caused frustration for frontline health workers who were expected to dispense omitted medicines manually. According to frontline health workers, this translated into longer waiting times for patients and associated dissatisfaction. In some instances, patients were asked to return for undispensed medication at a later

  12. Inefficient procurement processes undermine access to medicines in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bvudzai P Magadzire

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. South Africa (SA has experienced several stock-outs of life-saving medicines for the treatment of major chronic infectious and non-communicable diseases in the public sector. Objective. To identify the causes of stock-outs and to illustrate how they undermine access to medicines (ATM in the Western Cape Province, SA. Methods. This qualitative study was conducted with a sample of over 70 key informants (frontline health workers, sub-structure and provincial health service managers. We employed the critical incident technique to identify significant occurrences in our context, the consequences of which impacted on access to medicines during a defined period. Stock-outs were identified as one such incident, and we explored when, where and why they occurred, in order to inform policy and practice. Results. Medicines procurement is a centralised function in SA. Health service managers unanimously agreed that stock-outs resulted from the following inefficiencies at the central level: (i delays in awarding of pharmaceutical tenders; (ii absence of contracts for certain medicines appearing on provincial code lists; and (iii suppliers’ inability to satisfy contractual agreements. The recurrence of stock-outs had implications at multiple levels: (i health facility operations; (ii the Chronic Dispensing Unit (CDU, which prepacks medicines for over 300 000 public sector patients; and (iii community-based medicines distribution systems, which deliver the CDU’s prepacked medicines to non-health facilities nearer to patient homes. For instance, stock-outs resulted in omission of certain medicines from CDU parcels that were delivered to health facilities. This increased workload and caused frustration for frontline health workers who were expected to dispense omitted medicines manually. According to frontline health workers, this translated into longer waiting times for patients and associated dissatisfaction. In some instances, patients were

  13. Revitalization of clinical skills training at the University of the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Jeggels

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Most educational institutions that offer health related qualifications make use of clinical skills laboratories. These spaces are generally used for the demonstration and assessment of clinical skills. The purpose of this paper is to share our experiences related to the revitalization of skills training by introducing the skills lab method at the School of Nursing (SoN, University of the Western Cape (UWC. To accommodate the contextual changes as a result of the restructuring of the higher education landscape in 2003, the clinical skills training programme at UWC had to be reviewed. With a dramatic increase in the student numbers and a reduction in hospital beds, the skills lab method provided students with an opportunity to develop clinical skills prior to their placement in real service settings. The design phase centred on adopting a skills training methodology that articulates with the case-based approach used by the SoN. Kolb’s, experiential learning cycle provided the theoretical underpinning for the methodology. The planning phase was spent on the development of resources. Eight staff members were trained by our international higher education collaborators who also facilitated the training of clinical supervisors and simulated patients. The physical space had to be redesigned to accommodate audio visual and information technology to support the phases of the skills lab method. The implementation of the skills lab method was phased in from the first-year level. An interactive seminar held after the first year of implementation provided feedback from all the role players and was mostly positive. The results of introducing the skills lab method include: a move by students towards self-directed clinical skills development, clinical supervisors adopting the role of facilitators of learning and experiential clinical learning being based on, amongst others, the students’ engagement with simulated patients. Finally, the recommendations relate

  14. Behavioural and chemical evidence for multiple colonisation of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wossler Theresa C

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, is a widespread invasive ant species that has successfully established in nearly all continents across the globe. Argentine ants are characterised by a social structure known as unicoloniality, where territorial boundaries between nests are absent and intraspecific aggression is rare. This is particularly pronounced in introduced populations and results in the formation of large and spatially expansive supercolonies. Although it is amongst the most well studied of invasive ants, very little work has been done on this ant in South Africa. In this first study, we investigate the population structure of Argentine ants in South Africa. We use behavioural (aggression tests and chemical (CHC approaches to investigate the population structure of Argentine ants within the Western Cape, identify the number of supercolonies and infer number of introductions. Results Both the aggression assays and chemical data revealed that the Western Cape Argentine ant population can be divided into two behaviourally and chemically distinct supercolonies. Intraspecific aggression was evident between the two supercolonies of Argentine ants with ants able to discriminate among conspecific non-nestmates. This discrimination is linked to the divergence in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of ants originating from the two supercolonies. Conclusions The presence of these two distinct supercolonies is suggestive of at least two independent introductions of this ant within the Western Cape. Moreover, the pattern of colonisation observed in this study, with the two colonies interspersed, is in agreement with global patterns of Argentine ant invasions. Our findings are of interest because recent studies show that Argentine ants from South Africa are different from those identified in other introduced ranges and therefore provide an opportunity to further understand factors that determine the distributional and spread

  15. 33 CFR 334.540 - Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River at the Eastern Range... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.540 Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing, Cape... navigable waters of the United States, as defined at 33 CFR part 329, within the Banana River contiguous to...

  16. Two new species of Erica (Ericaceae; one from Western Cape and one from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. H. Oliver

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Erica L. from South Africa are described. E. jananthus E.G.H.Oliv. & I.M .Oliv. is confined to a single peak in the eastern Groot Swartberg Range in Western Cape and usually forms a small, gnarled, woody, shrublet growing in rock crevices with sticky white flowers and black subexserted anthers that have obtrullate decurrent appendages.E. psittacina E.G.H.Oliv. & I.M.Oliv. is from KwaZulu-Natal. It forms large woodv shrubs with numerous bright pinkflowers and occurs as a single population on a mountain near Creighton. Both descriptions are accompanied by line drawings and distribution maps

  17. Expectations of urban residents in the Western Cape on the 2010 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In general, those residing in the city of Cape Town and those who declare themselves supporters of football, show a high level of optimism about the potential economic growth as a result of the tournament. However, the residents outside the metropolitan core are less convinced that the World Cup will benefi t them directly ...

  18. Mental illness in the Western Cape Province, South Africa: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    attending routine HIV follow-up care in Cape Town had mental disorders, including ... e.g. alcohol abuse is associated with depression and anxiety disorders and is also a risk factor for .... Poorly trained nursing staff. Lack of appropriate ...

  19. Effect of temperature on oxidative stress parameters and enzyme activity in tissues of Cape river crab (Potamanautes perlatus) following exposure to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Walters, Chavon R

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available of oxidative stress was studied in the gills and hepatopancreas of the Cape River crab Potamonautes perlatus. Responses were assessed through activities of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and the nonenzymatic...

  20. The lived experience of being a speech-language therapist in the Western Cape public health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, Jocelyn A; Mayers, Patricia; Kathard, Harsha

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the lived experience of being a Speech-Language Therapist (S-L Therapist) in the South African Western Cape public health service. The lived experience of seven S-L Therapists with varied clinical experience was illuminated using a qualitative phenomenological research design. S-L Therapists, working in the three Western Cape tertiary hospitals, provided an in-depth account of their experiences as S-L Therapists. The audio recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using an adaptation of Colaizzi's (1978) method of analysis. The rigour and trustworthiness of the research process was informed by consideration of issues of credibility, applicability, confirmability and dependability as they relate to phenomenological design. Five main themes emerged from data analysis: expectations of practice and practice realities; being part of the "underdog" profession: role definition and status; being connected; the holistic nature of the S-L Therapist's practice; and erosion or promotion.The implications for training and support of S-L Therapists by managers and policymakers and peers are highlighted.

  1. The Development Needs of Newly Appointed Senior School Leaders in the Western Cape South Africa: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelius Jansen van Vuuren

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The essential role that senior school leaders play in school leadership teams to ensure effective strategic leadership in schools has been the subject of intense discussion for many years. Crucial to this debate is the establishment of professional learning and leadership approaches for newly appointed senior school leaders. Recommendations for policy and practice highlight the importance of appropriate, multifaceted, developmental support initiatives for newly appointed school leaders. In many countries, including South Africa, a teaching qualification and, in most cases, extensive teaching experience is the only requirement for being appointed as a senior school leader in a school. This tends to suggest that no further professional development is required for newly appointed school leaders, the problem addressed in this paper. This paper reports on the main findings of the perceived development needs of newly appointed senior school leaders in the Western Cape, South Africa, and suggests that school leaders occupy a unique and specialist role in education, which requires relevant and specific preparation to support effective leadership. The respondents of this study report a lack of contextualised training and support before and after their appointment in their new roles creating unique development needs. This paper, therefore, employs a mixed-method approach to gather data to understand the perceived needs of twenty newly appointed senior school leaders in the Western Cape, South Africa.

  2. LESSONS FROM THE EVALUATION OF A PUBLIC OUT-PATIENT SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT PROGRAMME IN THE WESTERN CAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strebel, Anna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Substance abuse is widely regarded as a major health and social problem in South Africa, and particularly in the Western Cape (Corrigall, Ward, Stinson, Struthers, Frantz, Lund, Flisher & Joska, 2007; Myers, Fakier & Louw, 2009. The complex nature of patterns of substance abuse, as well as the particular problems associated with this abuse, has implications for the development and implementation of treatment interventions. The most common primary drug of abuse in the Western Cape amongst patients admitted to treatment programmes is methamphetamine (known locally as “tik” (Dada, Plüddemann, Parry, Vawda & Fourie, 2012. The previous decade saw a dramatic rise in methamphetamine (hereafter indicated as MA use, particularly among youths, with over half the patients in treatment for MA abuse being younger than 25 years (Plüddemann, Parry, Dada, Bhana, Bachoo & Fourie, 2010. MA is also often used in combination with other drugs, and this prevalence of poly-substance abuse needs to be taken into account in the planning of services (Harker, Kader, Myers, Falkier, Parry, Flisher, Peltzer, Ramlagan & Davids, 2008.

  3. Exploring nurse preceptors’ perceptions of benefits and support of and commitment to the preceptor role in the Western Cape Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inez S. Cloete

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: A preceptor is a specialised tutor who provides practical training to students in the practice setting. They are frequently used to orientate nursing students to prepare them for their duties as professional nurses. In the Western Cape Province professional nurses attend a training programme to prepare them for the role of preceptor. After completion of the training it is unclear how the trained nurse preceptors perceive their preparation for the role. The perceptions of preceptors may influence their commitment to their role.Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore nurse preceptors’ perceptions of benefits, support and commitment to the preceptor role. A conceptual framework guided the study which replicated previous studies that explored nurse preceptors’ perceptions.Method: A quantitative approach utilising a descriptive correlational design was used in this study to address the research questions. A convenience sample was drawn from preceptors (n = 60 who had completed a preceptor training programme at the University of the Western Cape. Instrumentation for the study included the following scales: preceptors’ perceptions of benefits and rewards, preceptors’ perceptions of support, and commitment to the preceptor role. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 20.0.Results: The findings indicate that nurse preceptors were committed to their role.Conclusion: The findings of this study are supported by Kanter’s model of structural determinants of behaviour in organisations, since preceptors who see themselves as having access to opportunity and support are likely to be committed to their role.

  4. Container terminal spatial planning - A 2041 paradigm for the Western Cape Province in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Havenga

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the suitable location for an intermodal inland container terminal (IICT in the city of Cape Town. A container market segmentation approach is used to project growth for container volumes over a 30-year period for all origin and destination pairings on a geographical district level in an identified catchment area. The segmentation guides the decision on what type of facility is necessary to fulfil capacity requirements in the catchment area and will be used to determine the maximum space requirements for a future IICT. Alternative sites are ranked from most suitable to least suitable using multi-criteria analysis, and preferred locations are identified. Currently, South Africa’s freight movement is dominated by the road sector. Heavy road congestion is thus prevalent at the Cape Town Container Terminal (CTCT. The paper proposes three possible alternative sites for an IICT that will focus on a hub-and-spoke system of transporting freight.

  5. Water-use dynamics of an alien-invaded riparian forest within the Mediterranean climate zone of the Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Shaw, Bruce C.; Everson, Colin S.; Clulow, Alistair D.

    2017-09-01

    In South Africa, the invasion of riparian forests by alien trees has the potential to affect the country's limited water resources. Tree water-use measurements have therefore become an important component of recent hydrological studies. It is difficult for South African government initiatives, such as the Working for Water (WfW) alien clearing program, to justify alien tree removal and implement rehabilitation unless hydrological benefits are known. Consequently, water use within a riparian forest along the Buffeljags River in the Western Cape of South Africa was monitored over a 3-year period. The site consisted of an indigenous stand of Western Cape afrotemperate forest adjacent to a large stand of introduced Acacia mearnsii. The heat ratio method of the heat pulse velocity sap flow technique was used to measure the sap flow of a selection of indigenous species in the indigenous stand, a selection of A. mearnsii trees in the alien stand and two clusters of indigenous species within the alien stand. The indigenous trees in the alien stand at Buffeljags River showed significant intraspecific differences in the daily sap flow rates varying from 15 to 32 L day-1 in summer (sap flow being directly proportional to tree size). In winter (June), this was reduced to only 7 L day-1 when limited energy was available to drive the transpiration process. The water use in the A. mearnsii trees showed peaks in transpiration during the months of March 2012, September 2012 and February 2013. These periods had high average temperatures, rainfall and high daily vapor pressure deficits (VPDs - average of 1.26 kPa). The average daily sap flow ranged from 25 to 35 L in summer and approximately 10 L in the winter. The combined accumulated daily sap flow per year for the three Vepris lanceolata and three A. mearnsii trees was 5700 and 9200 L, respectively, clearly demonstrating the higher water use of the introduced Acacia trees during the winter months. After spatially upscaling the

  6. A vegetation description and floristic analyses of the springs on the Kammanassie Mountain, Western Cape

    OpenAIRE

    G. Cleaver; L.R. Brown; G.J. Bredenkamp

    2004-01-01

    The Kammanassie Mountain is a declared mountain catchment area and a Cape mountain zebra Equus zebra zebra population is preserved on the mountain. The high number of springs on the mountain not only provides water for the animal species but also contributes to overall ecosystem functioning. Long-term conservation of viable ecosystems requires a broader understanding of the ecological processes involved. It was therefore decided that a classification, description and mapping of the spring veg...

  7. The use of human resource information systems in two retail organisations in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Udekwe

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The retail industry is the largest contributor to employment and the gross domestic product (GDP in the Western Cape, South Africa. The management of human resources in this very competitive industry is a high priority for all retailers. The successful implementation, maintenance and use of human resource information systems (HRISs are an integral part of many retailers. Research purpose: Human resource information systems are difficult to implement and maintain, and as a result, organisations cannot effectively utilise these systems to their benefit. The purpose of this paper is to explore the factors affecting the implementation, maintenance and use of HRISs in two retail organisations in the Western Cape. Motivation of study: Many retailers find it difficult to apply and utilise HRISs to their benefit and to the systems’ full potential. This study explores the challenges retailers are facing when implementing, maintaining and using HRISs. Research design, approach and method: Multiple case studies were used to conduct the research. Data were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire using interviews. Twenty-one interviews were conducted in the two retail companies to gain an understanding of the use of HRISs within these organisations. The data were analysed using a thematic method of analysis. The units of analysis were the Human Resources and the Information Technology departments of both companies. The units of observation were (21 purposively selected employees in the two mentioned departments of both retail organisations. Main findings: This research shows an under-utilisation of the HRIS in both companies as a result of poor data quality, lack of adequate training and the high cost of implementing and maintaining the system. There is a gap in terms of data analytics and report generation. This gap leads to the under-utilisation of the HRISs preventing the retailers to optimise the benefits of the HRIS. Practical

  8. The Gediz River fluvial archive : A benchmark for Quaternary research in Western Anatolia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maddy, D.; Veldkamp, A.; Demir, T.; van Gorp, W.; Wijbrans, J.R.; van Hinsbergen, D.J.J.; Dekkers, M.J.; Schreve, D.; Schoorl, J.M.; Scaife, R.; Stemerdink, C.; van der Schriek, T.; Bridgland, D.R.; Aytaç, A.S.

    2017-01-01

    The Gediz River, one of the principal rivers of Western Anatolia, has an extensive Pleistocene fluvial archive that potentially offers a unique window into fluvial system behaviour on the western margins of Asia during the Quaternary. In this paper we review our work on the Quaternary Gediz River

  9. Agrichem.ical safety practices on farm.s in the western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract In order to study agrichemical safety practices in a rural farming area in the western ... their work, the environment and intentional misuse.I.}-; Little information is ... the farmer, farm manager or supervisor directly involved in production ...

  10. Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) Observational wind atlas for 10 met. stations in Northern, Western and Eastern Cape provinces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Hansen, Jens Carsten; Kelly, Mark C.

    As part of the “Wind Atlas for South Africa” project, microscale modelling has been carried out for 10 meteorological stations in Northern, Western and Eastern Cape provinces. Wind speed and direction data from the ten 60-m masts have been analysed using the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application...... Program (WAsP 11). The windclimatological inputs are the observed wind climates derived from the WAsP Climate Analyst. Topographical inputs are elevation maps constructed from SRTM 3 data and rough-ness length maps constructed from SWBD data and Google Earth satellite imagery. Summaries are given...... of the data measured at the 10 masts, mainly for a 3-year reference period from October 2010 to September 2013. The main result of the microscale modelling is observational wind atlas data sets, which can be used for verification of the mesoscale modelling. In addition, the microscale modelling itself has...

  11. Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) Observational wind atlas for 10 met. stations in Northern, Western and Eastern Cape provinces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Hansen, Jens Carsten; Kelly, Mark C.

    As part of the “Wind Atlas for South Africa” project, microscale modelling has been carried out for 10 meteorological stations in Northern, Western and Eastern Cape provinces. Wind speed and direction data from the ten 60-m masts have been analysed using the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application...... Program (WAsP 11). The wind-climatological inputs are the observed wind climates derived from the WAsP Climate Analyst. Topographical inputs are elevation maps constructed from SRTM 3 data and roughness length maps constructed from SWBD data and Google Earth satellite imagery. Summaries are given...... of the data measured at the 10 masts, mainly for a 3-year reference period from October 2010 to September 2013. The main result of the microscale modelling is observational wind atlas data sets, which can be used for verification of the mesoscale modelling. In addition, the microscale modelling itself has...

  12. Exploring nurse preceptors’ perceptions of benefits and support of and commitment to the preceptor role in the Western Cape Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inez S. Cloete

    2014-10-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore nurse preceptors’ perceptions of benefits, support and commitment to the preceptor role. A conceptual framework guided the study which replicated previous studies that explored nurse preceptors’ perceptions. Method: A quantitative approach utilising a descriptive correlational design was used in this study to address the research questions. A convenience sample was drawn from preceptors (n = 60 who had completed a preceptor training programme at the University of the Western Cape. Instrumentation for the study included the following scales: preceptors’ perceptions of benefits and rewards, preceptors’ perceptions of support, and commitment to the preceptor role. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 20.0. Results: The findings indicate that nurse preceptors were committed to their role. Conclusion: The findings of this study are supported by Kanter’s model of structural determinants of behaviour in organisations, since preceptors who see themselves as having access to opportunity and support are likely to be committed to their role.

  13. Promoting Physics Among Female Learners in the Western Cape Through Active Engagement (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendse, Gillian J.

    2009-04-01

    In 2006 the author organized a one-day intervention aimed at promoting physics among female learners at the University of Stellenbosch. The activities included an interactive lecture demonstration promoting active engagement, a hands-on session, and short presentations by female physicists addressing issues such as balancing family and career, breaking the stereotypes, and launching a successful career in physics. Each learner was expected to evaluate the program. In 2007 the author joined forces with Hip2B2 (Shuttleworth Foundation) to host a competition among grade-10 learners with the theme, ``promoting creativity through interactivity.'' The author was tasked by the Hip2B2-team to assist with a program for female learners planned for August 2008, coinciding with our national celebration of Women's Day. The event targeted 160 learners and took place in Durban, East London, Cape Town, and Johannesburg. The author shares some of the learners' experiences and personal triumphs.

  14. Two new species of Indigofera L. (Leguminosae) from the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism, Great Escarpment (Eastern and Western Cape, South Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, V Ralph; Schrire, Brian D; Barker, Nigel P

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of Indigofera L. (Leguminosae) are described from the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism on the southern Great Escarpment, Eastern and Western Cape Provinces, South Africa. Both species are localised high-altitude endemics. Indigoferamagnifica Schrire & V.R. Clark is confined to the summit plateau of the Toorberg-Koudeveldberg-Meelberg west of Graaff-Reinet, and complements other western Sneeuberg endemics such as Ericapasserinoides (Bolus) E.G.H. Oliv. and Faurearecondita Rourke & V.R. Clark. Indigoferaasantasanensis Schrire & V.R. Clark is confined to a small area east of Graaff-Reinet, and complements several other eastern Sneeuberg endemics such as Euryopsexsudans B. Nord & V.R. Clark and Euryopsproteoides B. Nord. & V.R. Clark. Based on morphology, both new species belong to the Cape Clade of Indigofera, supporting a biogeographical link between the Cape Floristic Region and the Sneeuberg, as well as with the rest of the eastern Great Escarpment.

  15. A link of full-scale accelerated pavement testing to long-term pavement performance study in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph K

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available of Accelerated Pavement Testing in Pavement Sustainability A Link of Full-Scale Accelerated Pavement Testing to Long-Term Pavement Performance Study in the Western Cape Province of South Africa J. K. Anochie-Boateng W. JvdM Steyn C. Fisher L. Truter...

  16. Agricultural land use doubled sediment yield of western China's rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A. H.; Bierman, P. R.; Sosa-Gonzalez, V.; Neilson, T. B.; Rood, D. H.; Martin, J.; Hill, M.

    2017-12-01

    Land use changes, such as deforestation and agriculture, increase soil erosion rates on the scale of hillslopes and small drainage basins; however, the effects of these changes on the sediment load in larger rivers is poorly quantified, with a few studies scattered globally, and only 10 data points in the world's most populous nation, China. At 20 different sites in western China, we compare contemporary (1945-1987) fluvial sediment yield data collected daily over 4 to 26 years (median = 19 years) to long-term measures of erosion (sediment generation) based on new isotopic measurements of in situ 10Be in river sediments. We find that median sediment transport at these sites exceeds background sediment generation rates by a factor of two (from 0.13 to 5.79 times, median 1.85 times) and that contemporary sediment yield is statistically significantly different from long-term sediment yield (p measured unsupported 210Pb and 137Cs in 130 detrital samples from throughout the region. We find that only 4 samples (those from high elevation, low relief watersheds) have detectable 137Cs and 31 samples have detectable unsupported 210Pb. The lack of 137Cs in most samples suggests high rates of erosion in the 1950s-1960s when 137Cs would have been delivered to the landscape. Detectable 210Pb in 25% of the watersheds suggests that in some areas erosion rates have slowed since that time allowing 210Pb to accumulate to measurable levels. Together, these data sets demonstrate that upstream agricultural land use has significantly increased sediment supply to rivers in western China, likely increasing turbidity and decreasing ecosystem services such as fisheries.

  17. A vegetation description and floristic analyses of the springs on the Kammanassie Mountain, Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cleaver

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Kammanassie Mountain is a declared mountain catchment area and a Cape mountain zebra Equus zebra zebra population is preserved on the mountain. The high number of springs on the mountain not only provides water for the animal species but also contributes to overall ecosystem functioning. Long-term conservation of viable ecosystems requires a broader understanding of the ecological processes involved. It was therefore decided that a classification, description and mapping of the spring vegetation of the Kammanassie Mountain be undertaken. A TWINSPAN classification, refined by Braun-Blanquet procedures, revealed 11 major plant communities that could be related to geological origin. Habitat factors associated with differences in vegetation include topography, soil type and grazing. Descriptions of the plant communities include diagnostic species as well as prominent and less conspicuous species of the tree, shrub and herbaceous layers. The results also indicate a high species richness compared to similar regions and the difference between plant communities of wet and dry springs. This data is important for long-term monitoring of the spring ecosystems as well as for the compilation of management plans.

  18. An investigation into diabetic patients knowledge of diabetes and its ocular complications in the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Clarke-Farr

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a study which evaluated the knowledge of a sample of diabetic patients about their disease and its ocular complications. A comprehensive questionnaire was provided to diabetic patients in the Cape Town metropolitan district and its surrounds. Specifically, the questionnaire aimed to determine the patient’s knowledge of diabetes, their knowledge of the ocular complications of diabetes, the options for its management and treatment as well as a section considering other general information relating to diabetes and its ocular complications. Their subject knowledge about diabetes and its ocular complications was relatively limited as only 42% of respondents knew about the existence of two types of diabetes. Twenty nine percent of respondents believed that diabetes would not affect their eyes. Although 76% of the patients felt it very important to measure their blood sugar and 80% rated blood sugar control as very important, only 37% of the respondents measured their blood sugar on a daily basis. A particular concern was that although 96% of the respondents felt that it was important to have their eyes checked regularly, only 30% of the respondents stated that they had actually had their eyes checked every year. The results of this investigation support the need for diabetic patients to receive better patient education about diabetes and its ocular complications. Furthermore, attention needs to be paid to expanding patient access to diabetic screenings and ocular examinations in order to manage this condition effectively.

  19. Challenges facing primary school educators of English Second (or Other Language learners in the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie O'Connor

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available We were prompted by the prevalence of English Second or Other Language (ESOL learners identified by educators as having language disorders and being referred for Speech-Language Therapy. We describe challenges faced by Grade 1, 2 and 3 educators at government schools in the Cape Metropolitan area who were working with such learners. Applying a mixed-methods descriptive design, a self-administered questionnaire and three focus groups were used for data collection. Educator perceptions and experiences regarding ESOL learners were described. Some participant educators at schools that were not former Model C schools had large classes, including large proportions of ESOL learners. Fur­thermore, there was a shortage of educators who were able to speak isiXhosa, the most frequently occurring first (or home language of the region's ESOL learners. Challenges faced by educators when teaching ESOL learners included learners' academic and socio-emotional difficulties and a lack of parent in­volvement in their children's education. Participant educators indicated a need for departmental, professional and parental support, and additional training and resources. Implications and recommendations for speech-language thera­pist and educator collaborations and speech-language therapists' participation in educator training were identified.

  20. Nuclear microanalysis of tooth enamel from a community in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda-Vargas, C.A. [MRG Group, iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa) and Groote Schuur Hospital, Private Bag, Observatory 7935 (South Africa)]. E-mail: pineda@tlabs.ac.za; Naidoo, S. [Faculty of Dentistry, P/Bag X1, Tygerberg 7505 (South Africa); Eisa, M.E.M. [Sudan University of Science and Technology, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 407, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2007-07-15

    Extracted teeth collected from a Black African community living in the Gugulethu suburb of Cape Town, South Africa were studied by nuclear microscopy. Analysis by PIXE (with 3.0 MeV protons) of permanent extracted incisor and molar teeth from males and females of different ages showed a homogeneous elemental profile distribution for iron, zinc and strontium, irrespective of gender and/or age. Fluorine content as determined simultaneously from the 110 keV gamma-ray yield from proton bombardment had a similar mean value (females: 1.8% by mass and males: 1.6% by mass) for both genders. However, the mean content of strontium for females (97 {mu}g g{sup -1}) was about 40% lower than that for males (69 {mu}g g{sup -1}). In addition, a sub-group of children showed a smaller standard deviation on the distribution of zinc and fluorine. Previous results on the trace elemental concentration of the enamel of molar teeth, showed a depletion of up to 50% by mass for strontium after 20 h of exposure in acidic solution. Although the strontium level for the African female group fits this profile it is not certain what the demineralization observed was due too.

  1. Taphonomic and paleoecological change in the large mammal sequence from Boomplaas Cave, western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith, J Tyler

    2013-12-01

    Excavations conducted by H.J. Deacon in the 1970s at Boomplaas Cave (BPA) uncovered a stratified sequence of Middle Stone Age (MSA) and Later Stone Age (LSA) deposits spanning the last >65,000 years. This study provides the first comprehensive and integrated taphonomic and paleoecological analysis of the BPA large mammals, with a focus on its implications for understanding human adaptations and environmental changes in southern Africa's Cape Floristic Region (CFR), an area that features prominently in understanding modern human origins. Taphonomic data indicate a complex history of human, carnivore, and raptor accumulation of the large mammal assemblage. The anthropogenic signal is largely absent from the bottom of the sequence (>65,000 years ago), intermediate in MSA and LSA assemblages from ~50,000 to 20,000 years ago, and strong in LSA deposits post-dating the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). When viewed in the broader CFR context, the inferred occupation history of BPA is consistent with the hypothesis that both MSA and LSA human populations were concentrated on the submerged coastline from ~60,000 to ~20,000 years ago. Intensive occupation following the LGM parallels an apparent increase in regional population densities, which may have been driven in part by rising sea levels. The BPA ungulate assemblage is characterized by the rise and decline of a taxonomically diverse grazing community, which peaks during the LGM. These changes are not correlated with taphonomic shifts, meaning that they are likely driven by environmental factors, namely the expansion and contraction of grassland habitats. Changes in ungulate diversity indicate that effective precipitation was highest during the LGM, corresponding with an intensified winter rainfall system. This is consistent with recent arguments that the LGM in this region may not have been extremely harsh and arid. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The supplier relationship practices of travel agencies in the Western Cape Province - What is the status quo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mornay Roberts-Lombard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the article is to explore the supplier relationship practices of travel agencies in the Western Cape province. The article wants to establish the current supplier relationship practices of travel agencies in the province and to identify limitations in supplier market relationships which might exist in the industry. Problem investigated: Relationships are the basis on which trade in the travel industry is built (George, 2006:224. The establishment and management of these relationships must be to the advantage of all parties in the relationship (Swart, 2003:120. Townes (2007 indicated that the current level of relationships that exists between travel agencies and their suppliers, especially the South African Airways (SAA, the Protea and Southern Sun hotel groups and motor vehicle rental companies such as AVIS is fragmented and negatively impairs on the ability of travel agents to deliver a quality service to their customers. To improve their overall level of service delivery to both corporate and leisure customers, it is important for travel agencies to know and understand the current level of their relationships with suppliers. It is against this background that the research was undertaken. Methodology: The target population for this study was 118 travel agencies of which 61 managers and/or owners participated through personal interviews in the completion of questionnaires. Data analysis was done by calculating averages and standard deviations, Explorative Factor Analysis (EFA, Cronbach Alpha-values and practical significance by means of effect sizes. Findings: The owners and managers of travel agencies are of the opinion that the strengthening of their existing relationships with suppliers must be prioritised. More emphasis should be placed on the strengthening of existing communication channels between travel agencies and their suppliers to secure the faster resolution of queries and complaints and to enhance the sharing

  3. Literacy for All? Using multilingual reading stories for literacy development in a Grade One classroom in the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prosper, Ancyfrida

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a literacy pilot project which investigated the use of multilingual reading books and the pedagogical strategies that were employed by one bilingual teacher and her assistant to teach literacy in a linguistically diverse Grade 1 classroom in a primary school in the Western Cape, South Africa. Data were collected by means of classroom observations and semi-structured interviews to understand the teacher’s literacy instruction, reflecting her understanding of the multilingual pedagogical approach as a means of fostering learners’ biliteracy skills. Through the lens of the social constructivist theory and the notion of biliteracy, this paper argues that bilingual competence does not necessarily translate to biliteracy if the teaching approaches and learning materials are not systematically and adequately used to support learners’ listening, oral, reading and writing skills in different languages in an integrated and holistic manner in multilingual classrooms. It concludes that, despite the progressive South African Language-in-Education Policy which supports additive multilingualism, classroom practices continue to reinforce monolingualism in English, which deprives the majority of learners of meaningful access to literacy in different languages as they do not exploit the socio-cultural and cognitive capital embedded in the learners’ home languages for additive bilingual and biliteracy competence.

  4. Pressed flowers: notions of indigenous and alien vegetation in South Africa's Western Cape, c. 1902-1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooley, Simon

    2010-01-01

    In the early twentieth century, botanists in South Africa's Western Cape sought urgently to popularise and protect the region's unique indigenous Fynbos flora. Plants imported from the 1840s, some of which proved invasive, became a physical and symbolic focus for their advocacy. The botanists' efforts resonated with political attempts to forge a common white South African national identity that drew on notions of landscape and the indigenous flora for symbolism and that consciously exploited the politically integrative potential of the new science of ecology. Introduced by overseas-trained experts, ecological theory was, however, inappropriate for the local flora, and had unfortunate consequences for the scientifically-informed research and management particularly of the fire-maintained Fynbos. While botanists and conservationists were united in defending the local flora against invasive introduced plants, they drew distinctions between what was 'indigenous' and what was 'natural' that further complicated their attitudes to the local flora. These historical debates illuminate agendas and policies on introduced ('alien') and indigenous flora in the region today.

  5. Making a difference? Societal entrepreneurship and its significance for a practical theological ecclesiology in a local Western Cape context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatius Swart

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with the question of whether and how a local church or congregation can, as indissoluble dimension of its vocation as a Christian faith agent, make a difference by influencing the dynamics of social and economic change that are transforming the face and structures of ‘traditional’ social and religious life in its community. Based upon the authors’ own interest in the specific context of the Dutch Reformed congregation of Simondium in the Western Cape and the case study work that they have conducted in this context, an argument about the potential role of this congregation is developed through the conceptual lens of ‘societal entrepreneurship’. After exploring some recent thoughts on this concept in the literature, the authors use the results of their recently conducted case study work to show how the dynamics of a new entrepreneurial drive amongst long-established residents and newcomers in the Simondium region shape the social reality of both the region and the congregation in a forceful way. This insight leads the authors to develop a sociologically and theologically motivated argument about the way in which this changing reality offers newfound opportunities to the Simondium congregation to fulfil its Christian calling. As such, the notion of becoming an ‘entrepreneurial church’ is introduced and a more detailed perspective is offered on those factors that a contextually orientated practical theological ecclesiology should take into account in building the entrepreneurial model in the congregation.

  6. Policy commitments vs. lived realities of young pregnant women and mothers in school, Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngabaza, Sisa; Shefer, Tamara

    2013-05-01

    Reproductive rights in South Africa continue to be undermined for young women who fall pregnant and become mothers while still at school. Before 1994, exclusionary practices were common and the majority of those who fell pregnant failed to resume their education. With the adoption of new policies in 2007, young pregnant women and mothers are supposed to be supported to complete school successfully. Notwithstanding these new policies, there are incongruities between policy implementation and young women's lived experience in school. This paper explores the experiences of pregnancy and parenting among a group of 15 young women who fell pregnant and became mothers while attending three high schools in Khayelitsha township, a working-class community in the Western Cape of South Africa. Qualitative, in-depth interviews, conducted between 2007 and 2008, highlighted two key areas of concern: continuing exclusionary practices on the part of schools, based on conservative interpretations of policy, and negative and moralistic responses from teachers and peers. Such practices resulted in secrecy and shame about being pregnant, affecting the young women's emotional and physical well-being and their decisions whether to remain in school during pregnancy and return after having the baby. Further attention is required to ensure appropriate implementation of policies aimed at supporting pregnant and parenting young women to complete their education successfully. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigating a green economy transition of the electricity sector in the Western Cape province of South Africa: a system dynamics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oosthuizen, Juan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Western Cape Government in South Africa has identified the concept of a green economy as a way to transform the Province’s economy to one that is more sustainable from an economic, social, and environmental perspective. System dynamics modelling was used to develop a better understanding of the implications of different green economy policies and investments in the electricity sector of the Western Cape Province. The results suggest that continuing on the current policy path would increase the gap between demand and supply, increase the carbon footprint of the electricity sector, and not provide growth in employment in the sector. Strategic green economy investments are therefore expected to impact positively on a number of indicators across a number of sectors.

  8. A network model shows the importance of coupled processes in the microbial N cycle in the Cape Fear River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, David E.; Lisa, Jessica A.; Song, Bongkeun; Tobias, Craig R.; Borrett, Stuart R.

    2012-06-01

    Estuaries serve important ecological and economic functions including habitat provision and the removal of nutrients. Eutrophication can overwhelm the nutrient removal capacity of estuaries and poses a widely recognized threat to the health and function of these ecosystems. Denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) are microbial processes responsible for the removal of fixed nitrogen and diminish the effects of eutrophication. Both of these microbial removal processes can be influenced by direct inputs of dissolved inorganic nitrogen substrates or supported by microbial interactions with other nitrogen transforming pathways such as nitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA). The coupling of nitrogen removal pathways to other transformation pathways facilitates the removal of some forms of inorganic nitrogen; however, differentiating between direct and coupled nitrogen removal is difficult. Network modeling provides a tool to examine interactions among microbial nitrogen cycling processes and to determine the within-system history of nitrogen involved in denitrification and anammox. To examine the coupling of nitrogen cycling processes, we built a nitrogen budget mass balance network model in two adjacent 1 cm3 sections of bottom water and sediment in the oligohaline portion of the Cape Fear River Estuary, NC, USA. Pathway, flow, and environ ecological network analyses were conducted to characterize the organization of nitrogen flow in the estuary and to estimate the coupling of nitrification to denitrification and of nitrification and DNRA to anammox. Centrality analysis indicated NH4+ is the most important form of nitrogen involved in removal processes. The model analysis further suggested that direct denitrification and coupled nitrification-denitrification had similar contributions to nitrogen removal while direct anammox was dominant to coupled forms of anammox. Finally, results also indicated that partial

  9. Projected future runoff of the Breede River under climate change ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Breede River is the largest river in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, and as such, is a key resource for a variety of activities within the region. It is this significance of the river that prompted a study into the impact of climate change on future runoff in the river and hence, the potential impacts a projected change ...

  10. Investigation into the relationship between the socio-economic and health status of the Coloured people of the Western Cape in an urban setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EL Stellenberg

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive non-experimental approach was applied to investigate and describe the prevalence of factors influencing the health status of the Coloured people of the Western Cape in an urban setting as a dissertation for a doctorate degree. For the purpose of this article the relationship between the socio-economic and health status of the Coloured people of the Western Cape in an urban setting are described. The study only included economically active persons < 21 ^ 50 years. The objective was to determine the relationship between the health status and the socio-economic status of economically active Coloured people in an urban area as defined. The objectives set for the study were reached through a cross sectional study. The hypothesis, an association between the health status and the socio-economic status of the Coloured people of an urban area in the Western Cape was tested using the chi square statistical test. A purposeful stratified sample of 353 participants was drawn from the residential areas as defined for the purpose of the study. All social classes were well represented in the suburbs. Statistical associations on a 95% confidence interval were shown between the socio-economic status (i.e. educational level, income and occupation social habits, diet, and money available for food, exercise and the health status of the respondents. Recommendations were made based on the scientific evidence obtained through the study.

  11. Cranes and Crops: Investigating Farmer Tolerances toward Crop Damage by Threatened Blue Cranes ( Anthropoides paradiseus) in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velden, Julia L.; Smith, Tanya; Ryan, Peter G.

    2016-12-01

    The Western Cape population of Blue Cranes ( Anthropoides paradiseus) in South Africa is of great importance as the largest population throughout its range. However, Blue Cranes are strongly associated with agricultural lands in the Western Cape, and therefore may come into conflict with farmers who perceive them as damaging to crops. We investigated the viability of this population by exploring farmer attitudes toward crane damage in two regions of the Western Cape, the Swartland and Overberg, using semi-structured interviews. Perceptions of cranes differed widely between regions: farmers in the Swartland perceived crane flocks to be particularly damaging to the feed crop sweet lupin (65 % of farmers reported some level of damage by cranes), and 40 % of these farmers perceived cranes as more problematic than other common bird pests. Farmers in the Overberg did not perceive cranes as highly damaging, although there was concern about cranes eating feed at sheep troughs. Farmers who had experienced large flocks on their farms and farmers who ranked cranes as more problematic than other bird pests more often perceived cranes to be damaging to their livelihoods. Biographical variables and crop profiles could not be related to the perception of damage, indicating the complexity of this human-wildlife conflict. Farmers' need for management alternatives was related to the perceived severity of damage. These results highlight the need for location-specific management solutions to crop damage by cranes, and contribute to the management of this vulnerable species.

  12. Taxonomic composition of phytoplankton in the Vakh River (Western Siberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorobogatova, O. N.

    2018-03-01

    This paper provides data on the hydrological and hydrochemical parameters of the Vakh River in the Middle Ob region. In 2005-2008 we have identified 404 taxonomic units represented by 463 species, types and forms of algae, belonging to 140 genera, 52 families, 13 classes and 7 divisions. 386 species were identified for the first time, 141 taxa were identified as rare and 22 taxa as new for Western Siberia. Leading divisions, Bacillariophyta and Chlorophyta, make up for 78.9% of total phytoplankton diversity. Cyanobacteria, Chrysophyta and Euglenophyta form a community of 88 taxonomic units having a rank lower than genus level, and represent 19.0% of the total number. The floral role of Xanthophyta and Dinophyta is insignificant (2.1%). The main structure-forming species are 14: vegetating throughout the year (Aulacoseira italica, Asterionella formosa), summer taxa (Microcystis aeruginosa, Melosira varians, Aulacoseira granulata, Pandorina morum, Pediastrum boryanum, P. duplex, Lacunastrum gracillimum, Scenedesmus quadricauda) and summer-autumn (Microcystis pulverea, Tabellaria fenestrata, T. flocculosa, Mucidosphaerium pulchellum). The Vakh River demonstrates specific characteristics of boreal flowing waterways. The northern composition is represented in a big rate of families (44.2%) and genera (109 77.9) with one to three species. The richest genera Closterium (31 taxa), Eunotia (27 taxa), Pinnularia (22 taxa), Desmidium (11 taxa) and the family Desmidiaceae (45 taxa) ensure diversity of phytoplankton. Ecological and geographical analysis demonstrates predominance of cosmopolitan algae (56.6%). Plankton represents 44.7% of all algae, oligogalobs - 78.8% and indifferent algae – 36.7%. Water meets the requirements for β-mezosaprobian pollution zone, class of satisfactory purity (III class).

  13. Pre-release efficacy assessment of the leaf-mining moth Digitivalva delaireae (Lepidoptera: Glyphipterigidae), a potential biological control agent for Cape-ivy, Delairea odorata (Asteraceae), in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    The leaf-mining moth Digitivalva delaireae Gaedike & Kruger (Lepidoptera: Glyphipterigidae) is a potential biological control agent for the invasive vine Cape-ivy, Delairea odorata Lemaire (Asteraceae), in western North America, where two morphological varieties (stipulate and exstipulate) of Cape-i...

  14. Vegetation of high-altitude fens and restio marshlands of the Hottentots Holland Mountains, Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. J. Sieben

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Seepages occurring at high altitudes in the Hottentots Holland Mountains (HHM (Western Cape Province. South Africa were subject to a phytosociological survey. Relevé sampling method and classification procedures of the floristic-sociological (Braun-Blanquet approach as well as numerical data analyses (numerical classification and ordination were used to reveal syn- taxonomic patterns and characterize the position of the syntaxa along major environmental gradients. Nine plant communities were recognized, three of which were classified as associations, following formal syntaxonomic and nomenclatural rules of the floristic-sociological approach Most of the studied mire communities were dominated by low-growing clonal restios (Restionaceae. whereas some consisted of other types of graminoids. The most important species determining the structure (and function of the mire communities on sandstones of the HHM include restios Anthochortus crinalis, Chondropetalum deustum.C. mucronatum, Elegia intermedia. E. thyrsifera. Restio subtilis. R. purpurascens. cyperoids Epischoenus villosus. Ficinia argy-ropa, grasses Ehrharta setacea subsp. setacea. Pentameris hirtiglumis as well as shrubs Berzelia squarrosa. Cliffortia tricuspi- data. Erica intenallaris and Grubbia rosmarinifolia. Protea lacticolor and Restio perplexus dominate a rare shale band seep­age community. There are two major groups of communities—the fens (dominated by carpets of Anthochortus crinalis and other low-growing species and the restio marshlands (mosaics of low tussocks of Restio subtilis and tall Chondropetalum mucrona­tum. The degree of soil (and water minerotrophy was found to be the most important differentiating feature between the mire (fen and restio marshland communities studied. The soils in the centre of mires were found to have high contents of peat and showed very little influence from the underlying sandstone. The soils along the mire margins had a greater admixture of

  15. Sustainable solutions for cooling systems in residential buildings: case study in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foudzai, F.; M' Rithaa, M. [Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town (South Africa). Dept. of Industrial Design

    2010-07-01

    sustainable cooling in residential buildings of Western Cape, South Africa are discussed.

  16. A Critical Appraisal of Western Cape Forum for Intellectual Disability V Government of the Republic of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronell Kruger.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2011 the Western Cape Forum for Intellectual Disability v Government of The Republic of South Africa case flagged a lot of issues faced by persons with disabilities relating to access to education in South Africa. The case tackled certain perceptions about the ineducability of persons with profound and severe disability and the remaining charity-oriented perception by the South African Department of Basic Education. While the court made several important points in advancing universal access to education, the author argues that certain holes in the judgment hinders the existence of judicial finding truly infused with concerns of substantive equality. An example of this short-coming is the court's consideration of reasonableness when the right to basic education is an immediately realisable right. The author also argues that the South African developments in education policy for persons with disability, while positive, is insufficient to truly give effect to substantive equality – the claim to equality being made in the new constitutional dispensation. There is still an attitude that is too permissive of separating students based on abilism. The social model of thinking about requires a complete transformation of the education system that would not require a classification of learners by abilities but have a different constitution so as to accommodate all students and not unduly enable one group over another. The author considers the approaches from Canada and India to explore its responses to education for students with varying levels of ability. Canada's similar conception of equality and India's influence on South African constitutionalism and shared experience with massive equality gaps make these jurisdictions instructive.

  17. Diabetes mellitus in Zambia and the Western Cape province of South Africa: Prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sarah Lou; Ayles, Helen; Beyers, Nulda; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Muyoyeta, Monde; du Toit, Elizabeth; Yudkin, John S; Floyd, Sian

    2016-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of and risk factors for diabetes mellitus and examine its diagnosis and management in the study communities. This is a population-based cross-sectional study among adults in 24 communities from Zambia and the Western Cape (WC) province of South Africa. Diabetes is defined as a random blood glucose concentration (RBG)⩾11.1mmol/L, or RBGdiabetes diagnosis. For individuals with a prior diagnosis of diabetes, RBGprevalence of diabetes was 3.5% and 7.2% respectively. The highest risk groups identified were those of older age and those with obesity. Of those identified to have diabetes, 34.5% in Zambia and 12.7% in WC were previously unaware of their diagnosis. Among Zambian participants with diabetes, this proportion was lower among individuals with better education or with higher household socio-economic position. Of all those with previously diagnosed diabetes, 66.0% in Zambia and 59.4% in WC were not on any diabetes treatment, and 34.4% in Zambia and 32.7% in WC had a RBG concentration beyond the recommended level, ⩾7.8mmol/L. The diabetes risk factor profile for our study communities is similar to that seen in high-income populations. A high proportion of individuals with diabetes are not on diabetes treatment and of those on treatment a high proportion have high glycaemic concentrations. Such data may assist in healthcare planning to ensure timely diagnosis and management of diabetes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. The status of academic integrity amongst nursing students at a nursing education institution in the Western Cape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theart, Cecilia J; Smit, Ilze

    2012-06-20

    Honesty is regarded as a basic ethical value in all educational programmes, and academic integrity is of undisputed importance in educational environments. The literature reviewed revealed that academic dishonesty is wide-ranging and also encountered in the nursing education environment. This phenomenon is of concern to the nursing fraternity because of the proven positive correlation between unethical academic practices and future unethical professional behaviour. Limited research data regarding academic dishonesty at nursing education institutions in South Africa and this correlation motivated the present study. The purpose was to examine the status of academic integrity amongst nursing students at a nursing education institution in the Western Cape. Formulated objectives guided investigation of several variables which impact upon academic integrity, for example the incidence of and student perceptions around academic dishonesty. A quantitative, descriptive survey design was used, with a self-reported questionnaire (based on literature review and study objectives) designed to obtain information about academic dishonesty. Provision was also made for qualitative input from the respondents by including three open-ended questions. It was found that academic dishonesty was a reality at the nursing education institution where this study was done. Cheating associated with plagiarism and assignments was identified as the main problem area. An unacceptably high level of dishonesty in completion of practical records was also an area of concern. The main recommendations are development and implementation of a code of honour and implementation of comprehensive academic integrity policies at the nursing education institution, with practical measures aimed at combating cheating in tests and examinations.

  19. The association between childhood environmental exposures and the subsequent development of Crohn's disease in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Basson

    Full Text Available Environmental factors during childhood are thought to play a role in the aetiolgy of Crohn's Disease (CD. However the association between age at time of exposure and the subsequent development of CD in South Africa is unknown.A case control study of all consecutive CD patients seen at 2 large inflammatory bowel disease (IBD referral centers in the Western Cape, South Africa between September 2011 and January 2013 was performed. Numerous environmental exposures during 3 age intervals; 0-5, 6-10 and 11-18 years were extracted using an investigator administered questionnaire. An agreement analysis was performed to determine the reliability of questionnaire data for all the relevant variables.This study included 194 CD patients and 213 controls. On multiple logistic regression analysis, a number of childhood environmental exposures during the 3 age interval were significantly associated with the risk of developing CD. During the age interval 6-10 years, never having had consumed unpasteurized milk (OR = 5.84; 95% CI, 2.73-13.53 and never having a donkey, horse, sheep or cow on the property (OR = 2.48; 95% CI, 1.09-5.98 significantly increased the risk of developing future CD. During the age interval 11-18 years, an independent risk-association was identified for; never having consumed unpasteurized milk (OR = 2.60; 95% CI, 1.17-6.10 and second-hand cigarette smoke exposure (OR = 1.93; 95% CI, 1.13-3.35.This study demonstrates that both limited microbial exposures and exposure to second-hand cigarette smoke during childhood is associated with future development of CD.

  20. Clinical skills required of ophthalmic nurse practitioners in tertiary level public hospitals in the Western Cape Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Kyriacos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa has a 32-year history of training ophthalmic nurse practitioners (ONPs. The role and required skills and competencies of ONPs are not well documented in the international literature and are also absent from South African publications, including South African Nursing Council publications. Aim: This study aims to inform curriculum development and human resource planning by reporting on the clinical skills expected of ONPs by members of multidisciplinary ophthalmology teams. Method: A limited survey was undertaken in the ophthalmology wards and outpatient departments of three tertiary level hospitals in the Western Cape Province. A researcher-designed structured self-completion questionnaire was distributed to 30 ophthalmology practitioners: doctors, nurses and technicians. Respondents were asked to indicate the expected clinical skills of ONPs. Findings: All questionnaires were completed. All respondents favoured ONPs taking histories and performing emergency eye irrigations. There was less support for more complex procedures, such as B-scans. One-third of respondents did not expect ONPs to have skills in eight key areas, including examination of the anterior chamber angle for glaucoma. No statistically significant differences were found between responses of doctors and nurses, with one exception: more nurses (15/18 than doctors (4/10 had confidence in the ONP undertaking basic eye examinations for ocular motility (Fisher‘s exact test, P = 0 .035. Conclusion: In the study settings, ONPs are not using their specialist skills to the full. Not all practitioners were receptive to ONPs using the skills that they had acquired during their postgraduate diploma, threatening the educational effectiveness of this initiative.

  1. Assessment of the impact of family physicians in the district health system of the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Swanepoel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2007, South Africa made family medicine a new speciality. Family physicians that have trained for this new speciality have been employed in the district health system since 2011. The aim of the present study was to explore the perceptions of district managers on the impact of family physicians on clinical processes, health system performance and health outcomes in the district health system (DHS of the Western Cape. Methods: Nine in-depth interviews were performed: seven with district managers and two with the chief directors of the metropolitan and rural DHS. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using the ATLAS-ti and the framework method. Results: There was a positive impact on clinical processes for HIV/AIDS, TB, trauma, noncommunicable chronic diseases, mental health, maternal and child health. Health system performance was positively impacted in terms of access, coordination, comprehensiveness and efficiency. An impact on health outcomes was anticipated. The impact was not uniform throughout the province due to different numbers of family physicians and different abilities to function optimally. There was also a perception that the positive impact attributed to family physicians was in the early stages of development. Unanticipated effects included concerns with their roles in management and training of students, as well as tensions with career medical officers. Conclusion: Early feedback from district managers suggests that where family physicians are employed and able to function optimally, they are making a significant impact on health system performance and the quality of clinical processes. In the longer term, this is likely to impact on health outcomes.

  2. Biogeography and molar morphology of Pleistocene African elephants: new evidence from Elandsfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathlyn M.; Stynder, Deano D.

    2015-05-01

    Elandsfontein (EFT) is a Middle Pleistocene archaeological/paleontological site located in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The largest herbivore in the assemblage is Loxodonta atlantica zulu, an extinct member of the genus that includes modern African elephants. No Elephas recki specimens were recovered at EFT, despite their common occurrence in other regions of Africa at the same time. Because E. recki and L. atlantica molars are similar in appearance, but the two species are traditionally viewed as dominating different regions of Africa during the Pleistocene, isolated molars may on occasions have been assessed to species level on the basis of geography rather than morphology. The last morphologic evaluation of EFT elephants was conducted in the 1970s, and revisiting this issue with new specimens provides added insight into the evolution of elephants in Africa. Reevaluating morphological characteristics of EFT elephant molars, through qualitative and quantitative description and comparison with Middle Pleistocene E. recki recki, L. atlantica atlantica, and L. atlantica zulu molar morphology, corroborates assessment of EFT elephants as L. a. zulu. Two recently discovered, previously undescribed molars from EFT show that molars of L. a. zulu exhibit greater variation in enamel thickness, lamellar frequency, and occlusal surface morphology than previously reported. An update of the Pleistocene biogeography of Loxodonta and Elephas indicates that fossil remains of both are often found at the same localities in eastern Africa. Their rare co-occurrences in the north and south, however, suggest geographic separation of the two genera in at least some regions of Africa, which may have been based on habitat preference.

  3. The development of an implementation framework for service-learning during the undergraduate nursing programme in the Western Cape Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester Julie

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Service-learning (SL is a contested field of knowledge and issues of sustainability and scholarship have been raised about it. The South African Higher Education Quality Committee (HEQC has provided policy documents to guide higher education institutions (HEIs in the facilitation of SL institutionalisation in their academic programmes. An implementation framework was therefore needed to institutionalise the necessary epistemological shifts advocated in the national SL policy guidelines. Objectives: This article is based on the findings of a doctoral thesis that aimed at developing an SL implementation framework for the School of Nursing (SoN at the University of the Western Cape (UWC. Method: Mixed methods were used during the first four phases of the design and developmenti ntervention research model developed by Rothman and Thomas. Results: The SL implementation framework that was developed during Phase 3 specified the intervention elements to address the gaps that had been identified by the core findings of Phases 1 and 2. Four intervention elements were specified for the SL implementation framework. The first intervention element focused on the assessment of readiness for SL institutionalisation. The development of SL capacity and SL scholarship was regarded as the pivotal intervention element for three of the elements: the development of a contextual SL definition, an SL pedagogical model, and a monitoring and evaluation system for SL institutionalisation. Conclusion: The SL implementation framework satisfies the goals of SL institutionalisation, namely to develop a common language and a set of principles to guide practice, and to ensure the allocation of resources in order to facilitate the SL teaching methodology.The contextualised SL definition that was formulated for the SoN contributes to the SL operationalisation discourse at the HEI.

  4. The association between race and Crohn's disease phenotype in the Western Cape population of South Africa, defined by the Montreal Classification System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Basson

    Full Text Available Inter-racial differences in disease characteristics and in the management of Crohn's disease (CD have been described in African American and Asian subjects, however for the racial groups in South Africa, no such recent literature exists.A cross sectional study of all consecutive CD patients seen at 2 large inflammatory bowel disease (IBD referral centers in the Western Cape, South Africa between September 2011 and January 2013 was performed. Numerous demographic and clinical variables at diagnosis and date of study enrolment were identified using an investigator administered questionnaire as well as clinical examination and patient case notes. Using predefined definitions, disease behavior was stratified as 'complicated' or 'uncomplicated'.One hundred and ninety four CD subjects were identified; 35 (18% were white, 152 (78% were Cape Coloured and 7(4% were black. On multiple logistic regression analysis Cape Coloureds were significantly more likely to develop 'complicated' CD (60% vs. 9%, p = 0.023 during the disease course when compared to white subjects. In addition, significantly more white subjects had successfully discontinued cigarette smoking at study enrolment (31% vs. 7% reduction, p = 0.02. No additional inter-racial differences were found. A low proportion of IBD family history was observed among the non-white subjects.Cape Coloured patients were significantly more likely to develop 'complicated' CD over time when compared to whites.

  5. Impacts of changing climate and snow cover on the flow regime of Jhelum River, Western Himalayas

    KAUST Repository

    Azmat, Muhammad; Liaqat, Umar Waqas; Qamar, Muhammad Uzair; Awan, Usman Khalid

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the change in climate variables and snow cover dynamics and their impact on the hydrological regime of the Jhelum River basin in Western Himalayas. This study utilized daily streamflow records from Mangla dam, spanning a time

  6. Seasonal nutrient chemistry in mountainous river systems of tropical Western Peninsular India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pradhan, U.K.; Wu, Y.; Shirodkar, P.V.; Zhang, J.

    Nutrient chemistry was studied in three mountainous rivers (Mandovi, Zuari and Netravati), across western peninsular India (WPI) during south-west monsoon (SWM), post-monsoon and pre-monsoon seasons of year 2011-2012. Nutrients in rainwater were...

  7. Geomorphic origin of Merritt Island-Cape Canaveral, Florida, USA: A paleodelta of the reversed St. Johns River?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Peter N.

    2018-04-01

    The Merritt Island-Cape Canaveral (MICCSC) sedimentary complex consists of a series of adjacent, non-conformable, beach ridge sets that suggest a multi-phase constructional history, but the feature's geomorphic and sedimentary origins are not well-understood. In spite of its notable sedimentary volume (surface area = 1200 km2), the MICCSC lacks a clear sediment source, or supply mechanism, to explain its presence today. Previously published U/Th, radiocarbon and OSL dates indicate that beach ridge deposition was active during MIS 5 (130-80 ka) on Merritt Island, but has occurred over a shorter, younger time interval on Cape Canaveral proper (6 ka to present). In this paper, it is proposed that the MICCSC is an abandoned paleodelta whose fluvial source provided a sediment supply sufficient for coastal progradation. Although the MICCSC, today, does not receive an appreciable sediment supply, the nearly 23,000 km2 drainage basin of the St. Johns River may well have provided such a sediment supply during MIS 5 times. This low-gradient fluvial system currently empties to the Atlantic Ocean some 200 km north of the MICCSC (near Jacksonville, Florida) but may have flowed southward during the time of MICCSC sedimentary construction, then experienced flow reversal since MIS 5 times. Three possible uplift mechanisms are proposed to explain the northward down-tilting that may have reversed the flow direction of the St. Johns, abandoning deltaic construction of the MICCSC: (1) karst-driven, flexural isostatic uplift in response to carbonate rock dissolution in central Florida, (2) glacio-hydro-isostatic tilting/back-tilting cycles during loading and unloading of the Laurentide ice sheet during the Pleistocene, and (3) mantle convection-driven dynamic topography operating within southeastern North America since the Pliocene. This example testifies to the sensitivity of low-gradient, low-relief landscapes to various sources of uplift, be they isostatic or otherwise.

  8. The Bot River, a closed estuary in the south-western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and artificial opening of the estuary. The major primary .... Figure 2 shows the bathymetric chart of the lagoon. The ... part, while an erosion channel, developed from the artificial ... and there is no direct contact with the sea, no tidal effects occur.

  9. Fluvial response to Holocene volcanic damming and breaching in the Gediz and Geren rivers, western Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gorp, W.; Veldkamp, A.; Temme, A.J.A.M.; Maddy, D; Demir, T.; Schriek van der, T.; Reimann, T.; Wallinga, J.; Wijbrans, J.R.; Schoorl, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study discusses the complex late Holocene evolution of the Gediz River north of Kula, western Turkey, when a basaltic lava flow dammed and filled this river valley. Age control was obtained using established and novel feldspar luminescence techniques on fluvial sands below and on top of the

  10. Health-related quality of life of patients six months poststroke living in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoda, Anthea J

    2014-01-01

    The majority of individuals report a decline in health-related quality of life following a stroke. Quality of life and factors predicting quality of life could differ in individuals from lower income countries. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the quality of life and factors influencing quality of life of community-dwelling stroke patients living in low-income, peri-urban areas in the Western Cape, South Africa. An observational, longitudinal study was used to collect data from a conveniently selected sample of first-ever stroke patients. The Rivermead Motor Assessment Scale and the Barthel Index were used to determine functional outcome and the EQ-5D was used to collect information relating to quality of life at two months and six months poststroke. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data. The total sample of 100 participants consisted of 50% men and 50% women with a mean age of 61 and a standard deviation of 10.55 years. Six-month quality of life data was analysed for 73 of the 100 participants. Of the 27 who were lost to follow-up, nine participants died, four withdrew from the study after baseline data was collected and eleven could not be followed up as they had either moved or no follow-up telephone numbers were available. A further three participants were excluded from the analysis of the EQ-5D as they were aphasic. Of these, approximately 35% had problems with mobility and self-care, whilst 42% had severe problems with everyday activities and 37.8% expressed having anxiety and depression. Quality of life at two months ( p = 0.010) and urinary incontinence ( p = 0.002) were significant predictors of quality of life at six months. Health-related quality of life was decreased in the South African stroke sample. Functional ability and urinary incontinence were the factors affecting quality of life in the sample. These factors should be considered in the rehabilitation of stroke patients in these settings.

  11. A rapid appraisal of the status of mental health support in post-rape care services in the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeemah Abrahams

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the well-known impact of rape on mental health and the widespread problem of rape in South Africa, mental health services for rape victims are scant and not a priority for acute-phase services. Survivors encounter multiple mental health struggles in this period including adherence to the post-exposure prophylaxis drugs to prevent HIV and finding support from important others. We have little information on what mental health is provided, by whom and how it is integrated into the post-rape package of care. Aim: The aim of the study was to do a rapid appraisal of mental health services for rape survivors to gain a better understanding of the current acute and long-term (secondary mental health services. Method: We conducted a qualitative study using a rapid assessment with a purposive sample of 14 rape survivors and 43 service providers recruited from post-rape sexual assault services in urban and rural Western Cape Province. Data were collected using semi-structured in-depth interviews and observations of survivor sessions with counsellors, nurses and doctors. The data were coded thematically for analysis. Results: Survivors of rape experienced a range of emotional difficulties and presented varying levels of distress and various levels of coping. Receiving support and care from others assisted them, but the poor integration of mental health within post-rape services meant few received formal mental health support or effective referrals. Multiple factors contributed to the poor integration: mental health was not given the same level of priority as other rape services (i.e. clinical care, including forensic management, the inadequate capacity of service providers to provide mental healthcare, including mental health illiteracy, the lack of continuity of care, the poor linkages to ongoing mental healthcare, and the mental health challenges caused by vicarious trauma and compassion fatigue. Conclusion: Providing effective

  12. Information and knowledge sharing trends of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faeda Mohsam

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs, especially in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, are currently facing various financial and other obstacles, which may threaten their survival. Globalisation, the lowering of trade barriers and the reduction of import tariffs have resulted in increased international competition. Businesses are thus forced to undertake continuous improvements and innovation in order to survive, to keep abreast of change and to excel.Objectives: Effective knowledge sharing and consequent knowledge management (KM have been identified as definite approaches to enhancing competitive advantage. The research therefore aimed to establish to what extent small enterprises embrace their knowledge sharing activities and whether their knowledge sharing activities are managed at all. Furthermore, it examined how their knowledge sharing can contribute to their competitive advantage.Method: A case study approach was followed for this research. Selected SMEs from the engineering sector were the subject of the case study and SME owners, directors and managers of consulting civil engineering firms were interviewed to determine whether there are mechanisms in place to ensure better knowledge sharing within SMEs.Results: In general, respondents had stated that they possessed special factors that set them above their competitors:• The company strategy and good reputation of completing projects within the required timeframe. In other words, they were well known for their track record in terms of service delivery. • Their specialty in terms of different focus areas, namely structural and civil engineering, water supply and storm water design, transportation, sewer design and storm water traffic. • The fact that they operated in silos. This means that the specialists in their specific fields operated independently in groups, separately from everyone else in the company. • Their good relationship with local authorities

  13. A comparative study of detrital zircon ages from river sediment and rocks of the Karoo Supergroup (Late Carboniferous to Jurassic), Eastern Cape Province, South Africa : implications for the tectono-sedimentary evolution of Gondwanaland’s southern continental margin

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Sc. (Geology) The Mzimvubu River, situated in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, drains essentially strata of the Late Carboniferous to Jurassic Karoo Supergroup with minor intersection of the underlying Devonian Msikaba Formation near the mouth of the river at Port St. Johns. Rock- and river sediment samples were collected at specific points from within the Mzimvubu River drainage basin, based on changes in the geology through which the rivers flow. Detrital zircon age populatio...

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM (EMAP): WESTERN STREAMS AND RIVERS STATISTICAL SUMMARY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This statistical summary reports data from the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) Western Pilot (EMAP-W). EMAP-W was a sample survey (or probability survey, often simply called 'random') of streams and rivers in 12 states of the western U.S. (Arizona, Californ...

  15. Outsourcing vaccine logistics to the private sector: The evidence and lessons learned from the Western Cape Province in South-Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydon, Patrick; Raubenheimer, Ticky; Arnot-Krüger, Michelle; Zaffran, Michel

    2015-06-26

    With few exceptions, immunization supply chains in developing countries continue to face chronic difficulties in providing uninterrupted availability of potent vaccines up to service delivery levels, and in the most efficient manner possible. As these countries struggle to keep pace with an ever growing number of vaccines, more and more Ministries of Health are considering options of engaging the private sector to manage vaccine storage, handling and distribution on their behalf. Despite this emerging trend, there is limited evidence on the benefits or challenges of this option to improve public supply chain performance for national immunization programmes. To bridge this knowledge gap, this study aims to shed light on the value proposition of outsourcing by documenting the specific experience of the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The methodology for this review rested on conducting two key supply chain assessments which allowed juxtaposing the performance of the government managed segments of the vaccine supply chain against those managed by the private sector. In particular, measures of effective vaccine management best practice and temperature control in the cold chain were analysed. In addition, the costs of engaging the private sector were analysed to get a better understanding of the economics underpinning outsourcing vaccine logistics. The results from this analysis confirmed some of the theoretical benefits of outsourcing to the private sector. Yet, if the experience in the Western Cape can be deemed a successful one, there are several policy and practice implications that developing countries should be mindful of when considering engaging the private sector. While outsourcing can help improve the performance of the vaccine supply chain, it has the potential to do the reverse if done incorrectly. The findings and lessons learnt from the Western Cape experience can serve as a step towards understanding the role of the private sector in immunization

  16. Biogeochemical alteration of dissolved organic material in the Cape Fear River Estuary as a function of freshwater discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Jennifer L.; Helms, John R.; Kieber, Robert J.; Avery, G. Brooks

    2014-08-01

    This study presents the first extensive examination of the controls on optical properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) within the Cape Fear River Estuary (CFRE) utilizing spectral slope ratios (SR). The application of SUVA254 values, absorption spectral slopes (S) and SR values has presented a distinct opportunity to observe compositional changes in CDOM in the CFRE that was not possible using bulk DOC and aCDOM(350) values alone. By comparing estuarine trends in CDOM spectral shape during both normal and historically low flow conditions, we found that diagenetic processing of CDOM in the CFRE is controlled primarily by riverine discharge rates. These findings suggest that the chromophoric fraction of DOM is altered during estuarine transport under low flow regimes but reaches the coastal ocean relatively unaltered under higher flow conditions. This highlights the tendency for autochthonous sources of DOC to offset photochemical losses and indicates that in situ DOC production can significantly contribute to the overall carbon load if discharge is low or sufficient biogeochemical alteration of the terrestrial DOM end-member occurs. This provides new insight into the usefulness of these optical properties into understanding the cycling, fate and transport of CDOM to the coastal ocean. SR values provide a simple but potentially powerful tool in understanding the flux, transport and impact of terrestrially derived organic material deposited in the coastal ocean.

  17. Serological survey of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Coxiella burnetii in rodents in north-western African islands (Canary Islands and Cape Verde).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foronda, Pilar; Plata-Luis, Josué; del Castillo-Figueruelo, Borja; Fernández-Álvarez, Ángela; Martín-Alonso, Aarón; Feliu, Carlos; Cabral, Marilena D; Valladares, Basilio

    2015-05-29

    Coxiella burnetii and Toxoplasma gondii are intracellular parasites that cause important reproductive disorders in animals and humans worldwide, resulting in high economic losses. The aim of the present study was to analyse the possible role of peridomestic small mammals in the maintenance and transmission of C. burnetii and T. gondii in the north-western African archipelagos of the Canary Islands and Cape Verde, where these species are commonly found affecting humans and farm animals. Between 2009 and 2013, 108 black rats (Rattus rattus) and 77 mice (Mus musculus) were analysed for the presence of Coxiella and Toxoplasma antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence (IFA), respectively. Our results showed a wide distribution of C. burnetii and T. gondii, except for T. gondii in Cape Verde, in both rodent species. The overall seroprevalence of C. burnetii antibodies was 12.4%; 21.1% for Cape Verde and 10.2% for the Canary Islands. With respect to T. gondii, seropositive rodents were only observed in the Canary Islands, with an overall seroprevalence of 15%. Considering the fact that both pathogens can infect a large range of hosts, including livestock and humans, the results are of public health and veterinary importance and could be used by governmental entities to manage risk factors and to prevent future cases of Q fever and toxoplasmosis.

  18. Self-enrolment antenatal health promotion data as an adjunct to maternal clinical information systems in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heekes, Alexa; Tiffin, Nicki; Dane, Pierre; Mutemaringa, Themba; Smith, Mariette; Zinyakatira, Nesbert; Barron, Peter; Seebregts, Chris; Boulle, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Information systems designed to support health promotion in pregnancy, such as the MomConnect programme, are potential sources of clinical information which can be used to identify pregnancies prospectively and early on. In this paper we demonstrate the feasibility and value of linking records collected through the MomConnect programme, to an emergent province-wide health information exchange in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, which already enumerates pregnancies from a range of other clinical data sources. MomConnect registrations were linked to pregnant women known to the public health services using the limited identifiers collected by MomConnect. Three-quarters of MomConnect registrations could be linked to existing pregnant women, decreasing over time as recording of the national identifier decreased. The MomConnect records were usually the first evidence of pregnancy in pregnancies which were subsequently confirmed by other sources. Those at lower risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes were more likely to register. In some cases, MomConnect was the only evidence of pregnancy for a patient. In addition, the MomConnect records provided gestational age information and new and more recently updated contact numbers to the existing contact registry. The pilot integration of the data in the Western Cape Province of South Africa demonstrates how a client-facing system can augment clinical information systems, especially in contexts where electronic medical records are not widely available.

  19. Western Alaska ESI: STREAMS (River and Stream Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines representing inland linear hydrography features used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Western...

  20. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Freshwater fish fauna of Krishna River at Wai, northern Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Kharat

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater fish fauna of the Krishna River at Wai, and the Dhom reservoir upstream of Wai, was studied. Fifty one species belonging to 14 families and 33 genera were recorded; 13 endemic to the Western Ghats and two to the Krishna River system. Moderate to rare populations were found for six globally threatened species: Gonoproktopterus curmuca, Labeo potail, Schismatorhynchos nukta, Tor khudree, T. mussullah and Parapsilorhynchus discophorus. Fish in this area are under threat due to two introduced species and five transplanted species, and due to other anthropogenic activities such as overfishing and organic and inorganic pollution of the river. Site based conservation action plans are needed for conservation of rare and threatened fish in this area.

  1. Morphological characteristics of Cape sugarbirds ( Promerops cafer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cape sugarbirds (Promerops cafer) are the largest nectarivores in the Western Cape and feed almost exclusively on protea nectar and associated arthropods. Helderberg Nature Reserve, Western Cape, South Africa, has a large diversity of Protea and supports breeding sugarbirds. As part of a larger study, we captured ...

  2. Water-quality characteristics for selected sites on the Cape Fear River, North Carolina, 1955-80; variability, loads, and trends of selected constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, J. Kent

    1983-01-01

    Water-quality data for selected sites in the Cape Fear River basin collected by the U.S. Geological Survey, the North Carolina Department of Natural Resources and Community Development and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill are analyzed and interpreted in this report. Emphasis is given to the Cape Fear River at Lock 1 near Kelly, where data are most complete. Other data included in the report were collected from the Cape Fear River at Lillington, the Haw River near the Jordan Dam, and the Deep River at Moncure. Available data indicate that concentrations of dissolved oxygen at study sites are almost always within U.S. Environmental Protection Agency criteria; however, on two sampling dates, the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the Cape Fear at Lock 1 fell slightly below the 5.0 mg/L recommended for fish populations. Measurements of pH from all stations were frequently below the lower limit of 6.5 pH units recommended for protection of freshwater aquatic life. Major dissolved ions detected are sodium and bicarbonate. Sodium concentration averages 8.6 mg/L and bicarbonate averages 17.5 mg/L at Lock 1. Concentrations of dissolved substances and suspended sediment decrease in the downstream direction, presumably because the more heavily populated part of the basin is near the headwaters of the system. Heavy metals, with the exceptions of cadmium and mercury, rarely exceed Environmental Protection Agency criteria for the protection of aquatic life. Concentrations of mercury in the Haw River, which exceed the recommended 0.20 mg/L needed to protect aquatic life, have frequently been reported by other authors. Several of the most toxic metals, arsenic, cadmium, and cobalt, are about five times more concentrated in water from the Haw River site than from other study sites in the basin. Iron and manganese frequently exceed North Carolina water-quality standards. Available nitrogen averages 1.21 mg/L and available phosphorus averages 0.21 mg/L at Lock 1

  3. Investigation into metal contamination of the Berg River, Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nitric acid digestion technique was used to extract metals from water, sediment and biofilm samples collected at various points (Site A . agricultural area, Site B . informal settlement and Site C . Newton pumping station) along the Berg River. Metal concentrations were determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic ...

  4. Possible impacts of sea-level rise on the Diep river/Rietvlei system, Cape-Town

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hughes, P

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Many of the Cape Province's estuaries and tidal inlets have sandy connections to the sea and are often intensively developed for industrial or residential purposes. The possible impacts of sea-level rise are of considerable interest...

  5. REPRODUCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF INDONESIA MAHSEER (Tor tambroides, Bleeker, 1854, IN TWO DIFFERENT RIVERS IN WESTERN SUMATERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Wibowo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive characteristics of mahseer, Tor. tambroides, were studied in Manna River and Batang Tarusan River, which are located on each side of Western Sumatera River. The reproductive period of T. tambroides is largely consistent with that described for the species in other areas, however monthly variations in the extent and timing of peak spawning are recorded. The analysis of the sex ratio indicates an increase in the percentage of females with size, more marked in largest sizes. Seasonal patterns in the occurrences of spawning showed that the spawning season in Manna River lasted was similar with that in Batang Tarusan River, although a second prominent increase of GSI was observed in April and September in Manna River, meanwhile the GSI of Batang Tarusan River fish were below 2 without an apparent variation. L50s of Manna River and Batang Tarusan River mahseer were estimated as 24.5 cm and 20.66 cm, respectively, indicating a high variability in size at first maturity of the mahseer population. Our study provides some important information on the reproductive biology of T. tambroides that will be helpful in similar studies and contributed to fisheries management of this species.

  6. Determination of flow losses in the Cape Fear River between B. Everett Jordan Lake and Lillington, North Carolina, 2008-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J. Curtis; McSwain, Kristen Bukowski

    2013-01-01

    During 2008-2010, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a hydrologic investigation in cooperation with the Triangle J Council of Governments Cape Fear River Flow Study Committee and the North Carolina Division of Water Resources to collect hydrologic data in the Cape Fear River between B. Everett Jordan Lake and Lillington in central North Carolina to help determine if suspected flow losses occur in the reach. Flow loss analyses were completed by summing the daily flow releases at Jordan Lake Dam with the daily discharges at Deep River at Moncure and Buckhorn Creek near Corinth, then subtracting these values from the daily discharges at Cape Fear River at Lillington. Examination of long-term records revealed that during 10,227 days of the 1983-2010 water years, 408 days (4.0 percent) had flow loss when conditions were relatively steady with respect to the previous day's records. The flow loss that occurred on these 40 days ranged from 0.49 to 2,150 cubic feet per second with a median flow loss of 37.2 cubic feet per second. The months with the highest number of days with flow losses were June (16. percent), September (16.9 percent), and October (19.4 percent). A series of synoptic discharge measurements made on six separate days in 2009 provided "snapshots" of overall flow conditions along the study reach. The largest water diversion is just downstream from the confluence of the Haw and Deep Rivers, and discharges substantially decrease in the main stem downstream from the intake point. Downstream from Buckhorn Dam, minimal gain or loss between the dam and Raven Rock State Park was noted. Analyses of discharge measurements and ratings for two streamgages-one at Deep River at Moncure and the other at Cape Fear River at Lillington-were completed to address the accuracy of the relation between stage and discharge at these sites. The ratings analyses did not indicate a particular time during the 1982-2011 water years in which a consistent bias occurred in the

  7. Stable isotope and 14C study of biogenic calcrete in a termite mound, Western Cape, South Africa, and its palaeoenvironmental significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Alastair J.; Midgley, Jeremy J.; Harris, Chris

    2009-09-01

    Late Quaternary terrestrial climate records from the semi-arid zone of the Western Cape of South Africa are rare. However, palaeoenvironmental information may be inferred from ancient termite mounds of the region. Calcrete lenses in these mounds have δ 13C and δ 18O values that show systematic changes with radiocarbon dates, which range from 33,629-36,709 to 21,676-23,256 cal yr BP. These dates confirm that these heuweltjies had been present in the landscape since the last glacial period. The decrease in δ 13C and δ 18O from 33,629-36,709 to 21,676-23,256 cal yr BP indicates that climate information is recorded by the calcretes. It is suggested that a progressive decline in air temperature and an increase in moisture availability, and a decline in abundance of C 4 or CAM plants, occurred in the region during the time heuweltjie calcite precipitated.

  8. 33 CFR 80.505 - Cape Henlopen, DE to Cape Charles, VA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to Cape Charles, VA. (a) A line drawn from the seaward extremity of Indian River Inlet North Jetty to Indian River Inlet South Jetty Light. (b) A line drawn from Ocean City Inlet Light 6, 225° true across... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Henlopen, DE to Cape Charles...

  9. Linking mortuary data improves vital statistics on cause of death of children under five years in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewald, Pam; Bradshaw, Debbie; Neethling, Ian; Martin, Lorna J; Dempers, Johan; Morden, Erna; Zinyakatira, Nesbert; Coetzee, David

    2016-01-01

    Reducing child mortality requires good information on its causes. Whilst South African vital registration data have improved, the quality of cause-of-death data remains inadequate. To improve this, data from death certificates were linked with information from forensic mortuaries in Western Cape Province. A local mortality surveillance system was established in 2007 by the Western Cape Health Department to improve data quality. Cause-of-death data were captured from copies of death notification forms collected at Department of Home Affairs Offices. Using unique identifiers, additional forensic mortuary data were linked with mortality surveillance system records. Causes of death were coded to the ICD-10 classification. Causes of death in children under five were compared with those from vital registration data for 2011. Cause-of-death data were markedly improved with additional data from forensic mortuaries. The proportion of ill-defined causes was halved (25-12%), and leading cause rankings changed. Lower respiratory tract infections moved above prematurity to rank first, accounting for 20.8% of deaths and peaking in infants aged 1-3 months. Only 11% of deaths from lower respiratory tract infections occurred in hospital, resulting in 86% being certified in forensic mortuaries. Road traffic deaths increased from 1.1-3.1% (27-75) and homicides from 3 to 28. The quality and usefulness of cause-of-death information for children in the WC was enhanced by linking mortuary and vital registration data. Given the death profile, interventions are required to prevent and manage LRTI, diarrhoea and injuries and to reduce neonatal deaths. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Lineament and Morphometric Analysis for Watershed Development of Tarali River Basin, Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrant Bartakke

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tarali river is major tributary of River Krishna, which is flowing in western India. The study area lies between latitude 17°23' to 17°38' N and longitude 73°48' to 74°7' E. The area has steep to moderate slope and elevation ranges from 584 - 1171m above mean sea level. Basin exhibits hilly and mountain terrain forming ridges and Western Ghats with deep valley, plateaus and plain. The whole area can be obtained in topographical maps i.e. 47 G/14, 47 G/15 47 K/2, 47 K/3 covering area of about 627 sq.km, acquired from Survey of India. Present study includes lineament and morphometric analysis of Tarali River basin for management and conservation of watershed.

  11. Groundwater Discharges to Rivers in the Western Canadian Oil Sands Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J.; Jasechko, S.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater discharges into rivers impacts the movement and fate of nutrients and contaminants in the environment. Understanding groundwater-surface water interactions is especially important in the western Canadian oil sands, where groundwater contamination risks are elevated and baseline water chemistry data is lacking, leading to substantial uncertainties about anthropogenic influences on local river quality. High salinity groundwater springs sourced from deep aquifers, comprised of Pleistocene-aged glacial meltwater, are known to discharge into many rivers in the oil sands. Understanding connections between deep aquifers and surficial waterways is important in order to determine natural inputs into these rivers and to assess the potential for injected wastewater or oil extraction fluids to enter surface waters. While these springs have been identified, their spatial distribution along rivers has not been fully characterized. Here we present river chemistry data collected along a number of major river corridors in the Canadian oil sands region. We show that saline groundwater springs vary spatially along the course of these rivers and tend to be concentrated where the rivers incise Devonian- or Cretaceous-aged aquifers along an evaporite dissolution front. Our results suggest that water sourced from Devonian aquifers may travel through bitumen-bearing Cretaceous units and discharge into local rivers, implying a strong groundwater-surface water connection in specialized locations. These findings indicate that oil sands process-affected waters that are injected at depth have the potential to move through these aquifers and reach the rivers at the surface at some time in the future. Groundwater-surface water interactions remain key to understanding the risks oil sands activities pose to aquatic ecosystems and downstream communities.

  12. RESERVES IN WESTERN BASINS PART IV: WIND RIVER BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Caldwell

    1998-04-01

    Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies

  13. 46 CFR 7.45 - Cape Henlopen, DE to Cape Charles, VA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cape Henlopen, DE to Cape Charles, VA. 7.45 Section 7.45... Atlantic Coast § 7.45 Cape Henlopen, DE to Cape Charles, VA. (a) A line drawn from the easternmost extremity of Indian River Inlet North Jetty to latitude 38°36.5′ N. longitude 75°02.8′ W. (Indian River...

  14. Review of the upper Cenozoic stratigraphy overlying the Columbia River Basalt Group in western Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strowd, W.B.

    1980-12-01

    This report is a synthesis of information currently available on the rocks that stratigraphically overlie the Columbia River Basalt Group in Idaho. The primary objective is to furnish a brief but comprehensive review of the literature available on upper Cenozoic rocks in western Idaho and to discuss their general stratigraphic relationships. This study also reviews the derivation of the present stratigraphy and notes weaknesses in our present understanding of the geology and the stratigraphy. This report was prepared in support of a study to evaluate the feasibility of nuclear waste storage in the Columbia River Basalt Group of the Pasco Basin, Washington

  15. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  16. Newborn follow-up after discharge from a tertiary care hospital in the Western Cape region of South Africa: a prospective observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milambo, Jean Paul Muambangu; Cho, KaWing; Okwundu, Charles; Olowoyeye, Abiola; Ndayisaba, Leonidas; Chand, Sanjay; Corden, Mark H

    2018-01-01

    Current practice in the Western Cape region of South Africa is to discharge newborns born in-hospital within 24 h following uncomplicated vaginal delivery and two days after caesarean section. Mothers are instructed to bring their newborn to a clinic after discharge for a health assessment. We sought to determine the rate of newborn follow-up visits and the potential barriers to timely follow-up. Mother-newborn dyads at Tygerberg Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa were enrolled from November 2014 to April 2015. Demographic data were obtained via questionnaire and medical records. Mothers were contacted one week after discharge to determine if they had brought their newborns for a follow-up visit, and if not, the barriers to follow-up. Factors associated with follow-up were analyzed using logistic regression. Of 972 newborns, 794 (82%) were seen at a clinic for a follow-up visit within one week of discharge. Mothers with a higher education level or whose newborns were less than 37 weeks were more likely to follow up. The follow-up rate did not differ based on hospital length of stay. Main reported barriers to follow-up included maternal illness, lack of money for transportation, and mother felt follow-up was unnecessary because newborn was healthy. Nearly 4 in 5 newborns were seen at a clinic within one week after hospital discharge, in keeping with local practice guidelines. Further research on the outcomes of this population and those who fail to follow up is needed to determine the impact of postnatal healthcare policy.

  17. Report on the first government-funded opioid substitution programme for heroin users in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michie, Graeme; Hoosain, Shuaib; Macharia, Muiruri; Weich, Lize

    2017-05-24

    Although pharmacological opioid substitution treatment (OST) is a well-established treatment modality for heroin addiction, it is a relatively recent introduction in low- and middle-income countries. To report on a pilot OST programme initiated in 2013 that was the only public-funded programme in South Africa (SA) at the time. Participants were offered standard care only (n=68) or, for the OST group (n=67), standard care plus Suboxone (Reckitt Benckiser), a synthetic partial opioid agonist, in a 12-week clinician-monitored programme. Clinical records of 135 participants in the rehabilitation programme at Sultan Bahu Rehabilitation Centre in Mitchell's Plain, Cape Town, SA, from 1 January to 31 December 2014 were reviewed. Data collected included demographics and duration in treatment (retention) as well as number of urine samples provided, positive tests or self-reported use events and dates of first positive/negative tests. Significantly more participants in the OST group (65.7%) than controls (44.1%) completed the treatment (p=0.019). Among the non-completers, retention was higher in the OST group than in the standard care group (48.2 v. 30.1 days; p=0.001). The groups did not differ in respect of number of missed appointments and time to first positive test. However, the proportion of participants testing positive was higher in the OST group (80.6%) than in the standard care group (61.8%), although the former were tested nearly three times (18.3 v. 6.6 times) more. Consequently, the positive rate (proportion of positive tests) was substantially lower in the OST group (16.8%) than in the standard care group (23.3%). The results demonstrate modest success of this pilot OST programme in terms of completion and retention and should argue for a move to increase availability of and accessibility to OSTs for the management of opioid use disorder.

  18. Hydrochemistry of rivers in an acid sulphate soil hotspot area in western Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ROOS

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available During heavy rains and snow melting, acid sulphate (AS soils on the coastal plains of Finland are flushed resulting in discharge of acidic and metal-rich waters that strongly affect small streams. In this study, the impact of AS soils occurrence and hydrological changes on water quality were determined for 21 rivers (catchment sizes between 96–4122 km2 running through an AS soil hotspot area in western central Finland. Water samples, collected at the outlet, during eight selected events, were analysed for pH, dissolved organic carbon, electrical conductivity (EC and 32 chemical elements. Based on the correlation with percentage arable land in the catchments (a rough estimate of AS soil occurrences, as up to 50% of the arable land is underlain with these soils, it was possible to categorize variables into those that are enriched in runoff from such land, depleted in runoff from such land (only one element, and not affected by land-use type in the catchments. Of the variables enriched in runoff from arable land, some were leached from AS soils during high-water flows, in particular (aluminium, boron, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, lithium, manganese, nickel, sulphur, silicon, thorium, thallium, uranium, and zinc and others occurred in highest concentrations during lower flows (calcium, EC, potassium, magnesium, sodium, rubidium and strontium. Molybdenum and phosphorus were not leached from AS soils in larger amounts than from other soils and thus related to other factors connected to the arable land. Based on the concentrations of potentially toxic metals derived from AS soils, the 21 rivers were ranked from the least (Lestijoki River, Lapväärtinjoki River and Perhonjoki River to the most (Sulvanjoki River, Vöyrinjoki River and Maalahdenjoki River heavily AS soil impacted. It has been decided that Vöyrinjoki is to be dredged along a ca. 20 km distance. This is quite alarming considering the high metal concentrations in the river.;

  19. RESULTS OF COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES OF THE UNDERGROUND HYDROSPHERE WITHIN THE WESTERN SHOULDER OF THE BAIKAL RIFT (AS EXEMPLIFIED BY THE BAYANDAI – KRESTOVSKY CAPE SITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Zh. Seminsky

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of comprehensive studies is the underground hydrosphere of the upper crust of the western shoulder of the Baikal rift, being characterized by high tectonic activity in the recent stage of tectogenesis. The studies were focused on the Bayandai – Krestovsky Cape site, considering it as a benchmark for the territory of the Western Pribiakalie (Fig. 1. The available hydrogeological survey database is used to study underground waters circulating at depth of several kilometers. Analyses of deeper waters are conducted on the basis of geophysical data. According to results of initial geological and geophysical studies [Семинский и др., 2010], the crust at the junction of the Siberian crater and the SayanBaikal folded belt is characterized by a hierarchic zoneblock structure (Fig. 2. Regardless of the scale of studies, the territory under study can be divided into sections of two types, that alternate from NW to SE and represent wide highly destructed zones and relatively monolithic blocks of the crust. The Obruchev fault system is distinguished as the main interblock zone (the 2nd hierarchic level in the study area. It represents the 50 km long NW shoulder of the Baikal rift (the1st hierarchic level and includes the Morskaya, Primorskaya and Prikhrebtovaya interplate zones (the 3rd hierarchic level. These zones are traced from depth of dozens of kilometers; at the surface, they are represented by fault structures of the highest hierarchic levels.Specific features of the current zoneblock divisibility of the crust serve as the structural basis for interpreting the materials obtained by hydrogeological studies conducted on the Bayandai – Krestovsky Cape site to research the distribution, mineralization and macrocomponent compositions of waters which represent the subsurface part of the underground lithosphere in the study area. The research is based on analyses of the underground water samples from 46 observation points

  20. Health Systems Readiness to Manage the Hypertension Epidemic in Primary Health Care Facilities in the Western Cape, South Africa: A Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuboué Tchialeu, Rodrigue Innocent; Yaya, Sanni; Labonté, Ronald

    2016-02-29

    Developing countries are undergoing a process of epidemiological transition from infectious to noncommunicable diseases, described by the United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon as ''a public health emergency in slow motion." One of the most prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa is hypertension, which is a complex chronic condition often referred to as a "silent killer" and key contributor to the development of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Hypertensive patients in this setting are estimated to increase from 74.7 million in 2008 to 125.5 million in 2025, a 68% increase. However, there is an important gap between emerging high-level policies and recommendations, and the near-absence of practical guidance and experience delivering long-term medical care for noncommunicable diseases within resource-limited health systems. To address this gap, our study will consist of field investigations to determine the minimum health systems requirements to ensure successful delivery of antihypertensive medications when scaling-up interventions to control the hypertension epidemic. A cross-sectional analytic study will be conducted in the Western Cape using a mixed-method approach with two semistructured interview guides. The first will be for health professionals involved in the care of hypertensive patients within at least 6 community health centers (3 urban and 3 rural) to understand the challenges associated with their care. The second will be to map and assess the current supply chain management system of antihypertensive medications by interviewing key informants at different levels of the processes. Finally, modeling and simulation tools will be used to understand how to estimate minimum numbers of health workers required at each supply chain interval to ensure successful delivery of medications when scaling-up interventions. Funding for the study was secured through a Doctoral Research Award in October 2014 from the International Development Research Centre

  1. Addressing adolescents’ risk and protective factors related to risky behaviours: Findings from a school-based peer-education evaluation in the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furzana Timol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peer-education programmes aim to bring about attitudinal and behavioural changes in their target audience. In the South African educational context, peer education is a favoured approach in dealing with issues such as HIV and AIDS, sexual decision-making and substance misuse. Given the reliance on peer-education programmes in the educational system, it is important to establish how well they are working. This study aims to assess the effect of an extensive, structured, time-limited, curriculum-based, peer-led educational programme on first-year high school learners in public schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Method: The curriculum called ‘Listen Up’ addresses issues such as supporting peers, sexual decision-making, healthy relationships, HIV risk, alcohol misuse and unwanted pregnancy in seven structured sessions. The programme targeted adolescents in Grade 8 growing up in what are considered to be risky environments in public schools in the Western Cape during 2012 and 2013. The intervention was evaluated based on 10 scales sourced from published literature related to the outcome indicators of future orientation, sensation-seeking, self-efficacy in sexual relations, HIV transmission knowledge, HIV prevention knowledge, HIV attitudes, sexual attitudes, decision-making, healthy relationships and social support. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse demographic and community characteristics and analyses of variance were used to detect differences between groups. The surveys were administered to a total of 7709 learners across three waves of the study in 27 peer intervention schools and eight control schools. Results: Immediately post intervention, statistically significant differences were noted for the intervention schools when compared to their baseline levels on measures of future orientation, self-efficacy in sexual relations, knowledge regarding HIV transmission, knowledge regarding HIV prevention and

  2. Addressing adolescents' risk and protective factors related to risky behaviours: Findings from a school-based peer-education evaluation in the Western Cape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timol, Furzana; Vawda, Mohammed Yacoob; Bhana, Arvin; Moolman, Benita; Makoae, Mokhantso; Swartz, Sharlene

    2016-12-01

    Peer-education programmes aim to bring about attitudinal and behavioural changes in their target audience. In the South African educational context, peer education is a favoured approach in dealing with issues such as HIV and AIDS, sexual decision-making and substance misuse. Given the reliance on peer-education programmes in the educational system, it is important to establish how well they are working. This study aims to assess the effect of an extensive, structured, time-limited, curriculum-based, peer-led educational programme on first-year high school learners in public schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The curriculum called 'Listen Up' addresses issues such as supporting peers, sexual decision-making, healthy relationships, HIV risk, alcohol misuse and unwanted pregnancy in seven structured sessions. The programme targeted adolescents in Grade 8 growing up in what are considered to be risky environments in public schools in the Western Cape during 2012 and 2013. The intervention was evaluated based on 10 scales sourced from published literature related to the outcome indicators of future orientation, sensation-seeking, self-efficacy in sexual relations, HIV transmission knowledge, HIV prevention knowledge, HIV attitudes, sexual attitudes, decision-making, healthy relationships and social support. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse demographic and community characteristics and analyses of variance were used to detect differences between groups. The surveys were administered to a total of 7709 learners across three waves of the study in 27 peer intervention schools and eight control schools. Immediately post intervention, statistically significant differences were noted for the intervention schools when compared to their baseline levels on measures of future orientation, self-efficacy in sexual relations, knowledge regarding HIV transmission, knowledge regarding HIV prevention and knowledge in terms of healthy relationships

  3. An investigation into diabetic patients’ knowl-edge of diabetes and its ocular complications in the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Clarke-Farr

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a study which  evaluated  the  knowledge  of  a  sample of diabetic patients about their disease and its ocular complications. A comprehensive ques-tionnaire  was  provided  to  diabetic  patients in  the  Cape  Town  metropolitan  district  and its  surrounds.  Specifically,  the  questionnaire aimed  to  determine  the  patient’s  knowledge of  diabetes,  their  knowledge  of  the  ocular complications of diabetes, the options for its management and treatment as well as a section considering  other  general  information  relat-ing  to  diabetes  and  its  ocular  complications. Their subject knowledge about diabetes and its ocular complications was relatively limited as only 42% of respondents knew about the exis-tence  of  two  types  of  diabetes. Twenty  nine percent of respondents believed that diabetes would not affect their eyes. Although 76% of the patients felt it very important to measure their blood sugar and 80% rated blood sugar control  as  very  important,  only  37%  of  the respondents  measured  their  blood  sugar  on a  daily  basis. A  particular  concern  was  that although  96%  of  the  respondents  felt  that  it was important to have their eyes checked regu-larly, only 30% of the respondents stated that they had actually had their eyes checked every year. The results of this investigation support the need for diabetic patients to receive better patient education about diabetes and its ocular complications. Furthermore, attention needs to be paid to expanding patient access to diabetic screenings and ocular examinations in order to manage this condition effectively.

  4. Report on the first government-funded opioid substitution programme for heroin users in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Michie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although pharmacological opioid substitution treatment (OST is a well-established treatment modality for heroin addiction, it is a relatively recent introduction in low- and middle-income countries. Objective. To report on a pilot OST programme initiated in 2013 that was the only public-funded programme in South Africa (SA at the time. Participants were offered standard care only (n=68 or, for the OST group (n=67, standard care plus Suboxone (Reckitt Benckiser, a synthetic partial opioid agonist, in a 12-week clinician-monitored programme. Methods. Clinical records of 135 participants in the rehabilitation programme at Sultan Bahu Rehabilitation Centre in Mitchell’s Plain, Cape Town, SA, from 1 January to 31 December 2014 were reviewed. Data collected included demographics and duration in treatment (retention as well as number of urine samples provided, positive tests or self-reported use events and dates of first positive/negative tests. Results. Significantly more participants in the OST group (65.7% than controls (44.1% completed the treatment (p=0.019. Among the non-completers, retention was higher in the OST group than in the standard care group (48.2 v. 30.1 days; p=0.001. The groups did not differ in respect of number of missed appointments and time to first positive test. However, the proportion of participants testing positive was higher in the OST group (80.6% than in the standard care group (61.8%, although the former were tested nearly three times (18.3 v. 6.6 times more. Consequently, the positive rate (proportion of positive tests was substantially lower in the OST group (16.8% than in the standard care group (23.3%. Conclusions. The results demonstrate modest success of this pilot OST programme in terms of completion and retention and should argue for a move to increase availability of and accessibility to OSTs for the management of opioid use disorder.

  5. Tamarisk control, water salvage, and wildlife habitat restoration along rivers in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2006-01-01

    In the latter part of the 19th century, species of the nonnative shrub tamarisk (also called saltcedar; for example, Tamarix ramosissima, T. chinensis) were introduced to the United States for use as ornamental plants for erosion control. By 1877, some naturalized populations had become established, and by the 1960s, tamarisk was present along most rivers in the semi-arid and arid parts of the West and was quite abundant along downstream ranches of the major southwest rivers such as the Colorado, Rio Grande, Gila, and Pecos. The principal period of tamarisk invasion coincided with changing physical conditions along western rivers associated with the construction and operation of dams. In many cases, these altered physical conditions appear to have been more favorable for tamarisk than native riparian competitors like cottonwoods and willows (Populus and Salix; Glenn and Nagler, 2005).

  6. Late Permian rivers draining the uplifted Cape Fold Belt: magnetostratigraphy and detrital thermochronology of Karoo Basin sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohver, E.; Schmieder, M.; Arosio, R.; Lanci, L.; Jourdan, F.; Wilson, A.; Ratcliffe, K.; Payenberg, T.; Flint, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Cape Fold Belt and Karoo Basin of southern Africa formed during the Permian orogeny that affected the 13,000 km southern margin of the Gondwanan continent. In this report, we synthesize new and recent magnetostratigraphic and geochronologic data to establish a chronostratigraphic framework for Karoo Basin sedimentation for comparison with the thermal/exhumation history of the Cape Fold Belt. The source-sink model is evaluated using new data from detrital muscovite and zircon from 2 km composite section of fluvial sandstone and mudstones deposited at ca.275 - 260 Ma. Coherent age populations of detrital zircon grains indicate rapid incorporation of contemporary volcanic ashbeds into the sedimentary record. In contrast, cooling age distributions of detrital muscovite are typically ca. 5 - 10 Ma older than the age of deposition; similar lag times are observed from modern sediments in active mountain belts. Trace element geochemical signatures demonstrate a clear shift towards crustal recycling via headland erosion in the Beaufort Group relative to the underlying Ecca Group. These observations pinpoint the age of uplift for the Cape Fold Belt, which began to function as the major sediment source for the foreland Karoo Basin with the deposition of the uppermost Ecca Group and basal Beaufort Group.

  7. A decentralised model of psychiatric care: Profile, length of stay and outcome of mental healthcare users admitted to a district-level public hospital in the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is a lack of studies assessing the profile and outcome of psychiatric patients at entry-level public hospitals that are prescribed by the Mental Health Care Act to provide a decentralised model of psychiatric care. Objective. To assess the demographic and clinical profile as well as length of stay and outcomes of mental healthcare users admitted to a district-level public hospital in the Western Cape.  Method. Demographic data, clinical diagnosis, length of stay, referral profile and outcomes of patients (N=487 admitted to Helderberg Hospital during the period 1 January 2011 - 31 December 2011 were collected.  Results. Psychotic disorders were the most prevalent (n=287, 59% diagnoses, while 228 (47% of admission episodes had comorbid/secondary diagnoses. Substance use disorders were present in 184 (38% of admission episodes, 37 (57% of readmissions and 19 (61% of abscondments. Most admission episodes (n=372, 76% were discharged without referral to specialist/tertiary care.  Conclusion. Methamphetamine use places a significant burden on the provision of mental healthcare services at entry-level care. Recommendations for improving service delivery at this district-level public hospital are provided.

  8. Social constructions of gender roles, gender-based violence and HIV/AIDS in two communities of the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strebel, A; Crawford, M; Shefer, T; Cloete, A; Henda, N; Kaufman, M; Simbayi, L; Magome, K; Kalichman, S

    2006-11-01

    The links between gender roles, gender-based violence and HIV/AIDS risk are complex and culturally specific. In this qualitative study we investigated how women and men in two black communities in the Western Cape, South Africa, constructed their gender identities and roles, how they understood gender-based violence, and what they believed about the links between gender relations and HIV risk. First we conducted 16 key informant interviews with members of relevant stakeholder organisations. Then we held eight focus group discussions with community members in single-sex groups. Key findings included the perception that although traditional gender roles were still very much in evidence, shifts in power between men and women were occurring. Also, gender-based violence was regarded as a major problem throughout communities, and was seen to be fuelled by unemployment, poverty and alcohol abuse. HIV/AIDS was regarded as particularly a problem of African communities, with strong themes of stigma, discrimination, and especially 'othering' evident. Developing effective HIV/AIDS interventions in these communities will require tackling the overlapping as well as divergent constructions of gender, gender violence and HIV which emerged in the study.

  9. Site formation processes at Pinnacle Point Cave 13B (Mossel Bay, Western Cape Province, South Africa): resolving stratigraphic and depositional complexities with micromorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkanas, Panagiotis; Goldberg, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Site PP13B is a cave located on the steep cliffs of Pinnacle Point near Mossel Bay in Western Cape Province, South Africa. The depositional sequence of the cave, predating Marine Isotopic Stage 11 (MIS 11) and continuing to present, is in the form of isolated sediment exposures with different depositional facies and vertical and lateral variations. Micromorphological analysis demonstrated that a suite of natural sedimentation processes operated during the development of the sequence ranging from water action to aeolian activity, and from speleothem formations to plant colonization and root encrustation. At the same time, anthropogenic sediments that are mainly in the form of burnt remains from combustion features (e.g., wood ash, charcoal, and burnt bone) were accumulating. Several erosional episodes have resulted in a complicated stratigraphy, as discerned from different depositional and post-depositional features. The cave is associated with a fluctuating coastal environment, frequent changes in sea level and climate controlled patterns of sedimentation, and the presence or absence of humans. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of selected aspects of the Nutrition Therapeutic Programme offered to HIV-positive women of child-bearing age in Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine T. Hansen

    2015-04-01

    Objective: To evaluate implementation of the NTP at PHCs that provide antiretroviral therapy. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted at 17 PHCs located within 3 districts of Western Cape Province. Two target groups were chosen: 32 staff members working at the sites and 21 women of child-bearing age enrolled in the NTP. Questionnaires were used to obtain data. Results: Only 2 women (10% lived in food-secure households; the rest were either at risk of hunger (29% or classified as hungry (61%. Most of the women knew they had to take the supplements to improve their nutritional status, but the majority only recalled receiving basic nutritional advice, and the information was mainly given verbally. Ten of the women had shared their supplements with others, mostly with their children. The study identified lack of clearly defined NTP responsibilities at the PHCs, causing confusion amongst the staff. Although many staff members expressed problems with the NTP, only 38% of them reported having routine evaluations regarding the programme. Conclusion: Several aspects compromised the effectiveness of the NTP, including socio- economic factors leading to clients’ non-compliance. The strategic organisation and implementation of the NTP varied between different PHCs offering antiretroviral therapy, and staff experienced difficulties with the logistics of the programme.

  11. Factors influencing specialist outreach and support services to rural populations in the Eden and Central Karoo districts of the Western Cape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoevers, Johan; Jenkins, Louis

    2015-04-21

    Access to health care often depends on where one lives. Rural populations have significantly poorer health outcomes than their urban counterparts. Specialist outreach to rural communities is one way of improving access to care. A multifaceted style of outreach improves access and health outcomes, whilst a shifted outpatients style only improves access. In principle, stakeholders agree that specialist outreach and support (O&S) to rural populations is necessary. In practice, however, factors influence whether or not O&S reaches its goals, affecting sustainability.Aim and setting: Our aim was to better understand factors associated with the success or failure of specialist O&S to rural populations in the Eden and Central Karoo districts in the Western Cape. An anonymous parallel three-stage Delphi process was followed to obtain consensus in a specialist and district hospital panel. Twenty eight specialist and 31 district hospital experts were invited, with response rates of 60.7%-71.4% and 58.1%-74.2% respectively across the three rounds. Relationships, communication and planning were found to be factors feeding into a service delivery versus capacity building tension, which affects the efficiency of O&S. The success of the O&S programme is dependent on a site-specific model that is acceptable to both the outreaching specialists and the hosting district hospital. Good communication, constructive feedback and improved planning may improve relationships and efficiency, which might lead to a more sustainable and mutually beneficial O&S system.

  12. BIOINDICATION USING VEGETATION OF THREE REGULATED RIVERS UNDER AGRO-INDUSTRIAL PRESSURE IN WESTERN FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. BERNEZ

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The longitudinal changes of richness and composition of aquatic plants have been studied from headwaters to the fifth stream order in three near-by rivers or Western Brittany (France, the Orne, Sélune and Rance. All rivers were regulated years ago with dams located on the lower third of the studies river stretches. A shifting evolution of the macrophyte richness was revealed in a previous study along the river continuum, related 10 habitat heterogeneity. influences of regulated sectors and geological changes. Nutrient enrichment and organic pollution influences were the main secondary gradients. On this basis we improved a methodology to complete a biotic index used in Europe for water trophy assessment, following the European water frame work directive the IBMR based on aquatic plant survey: a validation with classical statistical tests and a comparison to a canonical analysis were performed. Finally this approach permitted to make a proposition of adaptation of the index to the Local particularities of each three high anthropised rivers

  13. BIOINDICATION USING VEGETATION OF THREE REGULATED RIVERS UNDER AGRO-INDUSTRIAL PRESSURE IN WESTERN FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. LE COEUR

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The longitudinal changes of richness and composition of aquatic plants have been studied from headwaters to the fifth stream order in three near-by rivers or Western Brittany (France, the Orne, Sélune and Rance. All rivers were regulated years ago with dams located on the lower third of the studies river stretches. A shifting evolution of the macrophyte richness was revealed in a previous study along the river continuum, related 10 habitat heterogeneity. influences of regulated sectors and geological changes. Nutrient enrichment and organic pollution influences were the main secondary gradients. On this basis we improved a methodology to complete a biotic index used in Europe for water trophy assessment, following the European water frame work directive the IBMR based on aquatic plant survey: a validation with classical statistical tests and a comparison to a canonical analysis were performed. Finally this approach permitted to make a proposition of adaptation of the index to the Local particularities of each three high anthropised rivers

  14. Predictability of Western Himalayan river flow: melt seasonal inflow into Bhakra Reservoir in northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Snowmelt-dominated streamflow of the Western Himalayan rivers is an important water resource during the dry pre-monsoon spring months to meet the irrigation and hydropower needs in northern India. Here we study the seasonal prediction of melt-dominated total inflow into the Bhakra Dam in northern India based on statistical relationships with meteorological variables during the preceding winter. Total inflow into the Bhakra Dam includes the Satluj River flow together with a flow diversion from its tributary, the Beas River. Both are tributaries of the Indus River that originate from the Western Himalayas, which is an under-studied region. Average measured winter snow volume at the upper-elevation stations and corresponding lower-elevation rainfall and temperature of the Satluj River basin were considered as empirical predictors. Akaike information criteria (AIC and Bayesian information criteria (BIC were used to select the best subset of inputs from all the possible combinations of predictors for a multiple linear regression framework. To test for potential issues arising due to multicollinearity of the predictor variables, cross-validated prediction skills of the best subset were also compared with the prediction skills of principal component regression (PCR and partial least squares regression (PLSR techniques, which yielded broadly similar results. As a whole, the forecasts of the melt season at the end of winter and as the melt season commences were shown to have potential skill for guiding the development of stochastic optimization models to manage the trade-off between irrigation and hydropower releases versus flood control during the annual fill cycle of the Bhakra Reservoir, a major energy and irrigation source in the region.

  15. Impact of raized bogs on export of carbon and river water chemical composition in Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voistinova, Elena

    2010-05-01

    Bogs play an important role in functioning of the biosphere. Specific geochemical environment of the bogs results in formation of the special biogeochemical cycle of the elements. Processes of decay and transformation of organic material define the reductive conditions of bog water, form and migratory mobility of the chemical elements. Particular interest in recent years is aroused by the question of content and dynamics of the carbon in bog and river water according to indicated natural and climatic changes on the territory. The most important parts of the carbon balance in bog ecosystems together with processes of exhalation from deposit surface in the form of CO2 is its export with river water. The results of research carried out in scientific station "Vasyugansky" in south taiga subzone of Western Siberia showed that chemical composition of raised bog water includes high amounts of total iron (2,13 mg/l), ammonium ions (5,33 mg/l), humic and fulvic acids (5,21 mg/l and 45,8 mg/l), dissolved organic carbon (69,1 mg/l), COD (236,93 mgO/l), there are low mineralization and indicators of pH. Carbon comes in bog water in organic compounds: carboxylic acids, phenols, aromatic and paraffin hydrocarbons, organic phosphates, phthalates and other compounds. Formation of river waters composition in the Western Siberia takes place in the following context: high level of bogged river catchments (sometimes up to 70%), excess humidification and low heat provision. Basing on the results of study of hydrochemical runoff in small and medium rivers with different levels of bogged in river catchments (Chaya, Bakchar, Klyuch, Gavrilovka) it was noted that raised bog influence on river waters chemical composition shows in ion runoff decrease, organic substances runoff increase, increase of amounts of total iron, ammonium irons and water pH indicators decrease. Study of humic matters migration is very important in the context of formation of flexible complexes of humic and fulvic

  16. The malagarasi river does not form an absolute barrier to chimpanzee movement in Western Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex K Piel

    Full Text Available The Malagarasi River has long been thought to be a barrier to chimpanzee movements in western Tanzania. This potential geographic boundary could affect chimpanzee ranging behavior, population connectivity and pathogen transmission, and thus has implications for conservation strategies and government policy. Indeed, based on mitochondrial DNA sequence comparisons it was recently argued that chimpanzees from communities to the north and to the south of the Malagarasi are surprisingly distantly related, suggesting that the river prevents gene flow. To investigate this, we conducted a survey along the Malagarasi River. We found a ford comprised of rocks that researchers could cross on foot. On a trail leading to this ford, we collected 13 fresh fecal samples containing chimpanzee DNA, two of which tested positive for SIVcpz. We also found chimpanzee feces within the riverbed. Taken together, this evidence suggests that the Malagarasi River is not an absolute barrier to chimpanzee movements and communities from the areas to the north and south should be considered a single population. These results have important consequences for our understanding of gene flow, disease dynamics and conservation management.

  17. Reflections on clinical practice whilst developing a portfolio of evidence: Perceptions of undergraduate nursing students in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoire Ticha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to develop clinical judgement, nurses should be encouraged to become analytical and critical thinkers. Development of a portfolio of evidence (PoE of reflection on clinical experiences is one of the strategies that can be used to enhance analytical and critical thinking amongst nursing students. Students’ perceptions of the process are important in order to encourage their reflective practice. PoE compilation at a school of nursing at a university in the Western Cape includes evidence of students’ clinical learning which they present in a portfolio. The students are expected to reflect on their clinical learning experiences and include these reflections in their portfolios. Objective: To describe the perceptions of fourth-year nursing students regarding reflective practice whilst compiling their PoEs. Method: A qualitative design was used to explore the perceptions of registered fourth-year nursing students with regard to their reflective practice whilst compiling their PoEs. Purposive sampling was used for selection of participants. Three focus group discussions were held, each consisting of six to eight participants. Data saturation was reached during the third meeting. Tesch’s method of data analysis was used. Results: Findings revealed that reflection enabled the learners to gain experience and identify challenges related to the expected events and tasks carried out at the hospitals and in the classroom whilst developing their PoE. Conclusion: The compilation of a PoE was a good teaching and learning strategy, and the skills, experience and knowledge that the participants in this study acquired boosted their self-esteem, confidence and critical thinking. Reflection also assisted in self-directed learning.

  18. Performance in grade 12 mathematics and science predicts student nurses' performance in first year science modules at a university in the Western Cape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mthimunye, Katlego D T; Daniels, Felicity M

    2017-10-26

    The demand for highly qualified and skilled nurses is increasing in South Africa as well as around the world. Having a background in science can create a significant advantage for students wishing to enrol for an undergraduate nursing qualification because nursing as profession is grounded in scientific evidence. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive validity of grade 12 mathematics and science on the academic performance of first year student nurses in science modules. A quantitative research method using a cross-sectional predictive design was employed in this study. The participants included first year Bachelor of Nursing students enrolled at a university in the Western Cape, South Africa. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed to analyse the data by using the IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences versions 24. Descriptive analysis of all variables was performed as well as the Spearman's rank correlation test to describe the relationship among the study variables. Standard multiple linear regressions analysis was performed to determine the predictive validity of grade 12 mathematics and science on the academic performance of first year student nurses in science modules. The results of this study showed that grade 12 physical science is not a significant predictor (p > 0.062) of performance in first year science modules. The multiple linear regression revealed that grade 12 mathematics and life science grades explained 37.1% to 38.1% (R2 = 0.381 and adj R2 = 0.371) of the variation in the first year science grade distributions. Based on the results of the study it is evident that performance in grade 12 mathematics (β = 2.997) and life science (β = 3.175) subjects is a significant predictor (p < 0.001) of the performance in first year science modules for student nurses at the university identified for this study.

  19. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used to manage High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Bitterfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Denver; Gibson, Diana; Johnson, Quinton

    2016-12-24

    The aim of this study was to identify and document medicinal plants used to manage High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Bitterfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa. One hundred and twelve (112) respondents were interviewed between August 2014 and September 2015 through semi-structured surveys to gather data on the percentage of people who had been diagnosed with High Blood Pressure and/or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and to determine the frequency of medicinal plant and allopathic medicine use. Twelve (12) key respondents were subsequently selected, using a non-probability snowball sampling method. They were interviewed in-depth concerning their plant practices and assisted with plant collection. Twenty-four plant (24) species belonging to 15 families were identified for the management of High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The most frequently reported families were Asteraceae (20.8%), Lamiaceae (16.67%), Crassulaceae (8.33%) and Aizoaceae (8.33%). The remaining (45.54%) were evenly split over eleven families- Fabaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Anacardiaceae, Capparaceae, Geraniaceae, Apiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Apocynaceae, Rutaceae, Asphodelaceae and Thymelaeaceae. The most commonly used plant species overall was Lessertia frutescens (96.55%). The most frequently used plant parts included leaves (57.63%) roots/bulbs (15.25%) and stems (11.86%), mostly prepared as infusions or decoctions for oral administration. Medicinal plants are widely used by High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus sufferers. They employ diverse plant species to manage both conditions. In addition, some sufferers often use prescribed allopathic medication, as well as medicinal plants, but at different intervals. Despite high usage the plants identified are not currently threatened (Red Data list status: least concern). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A cross-sectional survey to compare the competence of learners registered for the Baccalaureus Curationis programme using different learning approaches at the University of the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta Z. le Roux

    2012-02-01

    The results of the study indicated that progression in competence did not occur as learners progressed through higher levels of their training, except during the third-year of study. However, the study’s results confirmed the strengths of the Case-based clinical reasoning approach to teaching and learning. This approach is able to combine the strengths of the traditional methods, which dealt with large class sizes and that had a focus on learner centred learning, with a focus on clinical practice. This approach provides realistic opportunities for learners to experiment with solutions to dilemmas encountered in real life situations, from the protected and safe environment of the classroom. The first-year learners who were observed in this study, who although novices, were exposed to Case-based teaching approaches and showed more self-perceived competence than learners in later years. This occurred in spite of the limited exposure of the first-year learners to real life clinical situations. The outcome of this study recommends that more studies are conducted, in the School of Nursing at the University of the Western Cape (UWC, to explore teaching and learning approaches that fully maximise the clinical and theoretical competencies of the learners. The outcome further recommends that learner-centred teaching approaches, such as Case-based method, are applied to all year levels of study in the B.Cur programme, due to its proven value when it was applied to first-year learners. The Case-based clinical reasoning approach to learning, that has been implemented at the school, promotes competence and self confidence in learners and has enhanced their sense of responsibility to be actively involved in their own learning.

  1. Substance abuse treatment engagement, completion and short-term outcomes in the Western Cape province, South Africa: Findings from the Service Quality Measures Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Bronwyn; Williams, Petal Petersen; Govender, Rajen; Manderscheid, Ron; Koch, J Randy

    2018-04-01

    Optimizing the effectiveness of substance use disorder (SUD) treatment is critical in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) with limited opportunities for SUD treatment. This is the first study to identify targets for interventions to improve the quality of SUD treatment in a LMIC. We explored correlates of three indicators of treatment quality (treatment engagement, completion and abstinence at treatment exit) using data from a SUD performance measurement system implemented in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The sample included data from 1094 adult treatment episodes representing 53% of the treatment episodes in 2016. Using multivariate logistic regression analyses, we modeled socio-demographic, substance use and program correlates of treatment engagement, completion, and abstinence at treatment exit. Overall, 59% of patients completed treatment (48% of patients from outpatient services). Treatment completion was associated with greater likelihood of abstinence at treatment exit. Patients were more likely to complete treatment if they engaged in treatment, were older, and had more severe drug problems (characterized by daily drug use and heroin problems) and attended programs of shorter duration. Residential treatment was associated with greater likelihood of treatment engagement, completion, and abstinence at treatment exit. Improving rates of outpatient treatment completion will enhance the effectiveness of South Africa's SUD treatment system. Interventions that promote engagement in treatment, particularly among younger patients; reduce program length through referral to step-down continuing care; and ensure better matching of drug problem to treatment level and type could improve rates of treatment completion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Nutrition, modernity and the archaeological record: coastal resources and nutrition among Middle Stone Age hunter-gatherers on the Western Cape coast of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, Katharine; Parkington, John E; Marais, Adrian D; Braun, David R

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we assess the nutritional value of some marine and terrestrial food resources available to Middle Stone Age hunter-gatherers in the Western Cape of South Africa with respect to an important macronutrient (protein) and an essential micronutrient (iron) and introduce a framework for assessing the relative utility of marine and terrestrial resources. Whilst the ability to extract nutrients from the environment has always been a lynchpin in archaeologists' reconstructions of human evolution, a recent paradigm shift has recognized the role of marine resources in encephalization. Nutritional research indicates that marine ecosystems are the best source for long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids essential for proper brain development, and excavations at securely dated archaeological sites in South Africa provide firm evidence for the exploitation of marine resources by Middle Stone Age hunter-gatherers from at least Marine Isotope Stage 5 (130 ka), and possibly even earlier. Because marine molluscs are abundant, predictably located and easily harvested, they would have been readily available to all members of the community, in contrast to terrestrial resources. The improving archaeological record gives important clues to resource choice, but many more nutritional observations are needed to determine the extent to which marine resources could have met the nutrient requirements of prehistoric people. Our observations indicate that marine and terrestrial fauna are both excellent sources of protein, and that marine molluscs have higher iron concentrations than we expected for invertebrate fauna. We calculate the number of individual food items from a selection of marine and terrestrial species needed to provide the protein and iron requirements of a hypothetical group of hunter-gatherers, identify contrasts in peoples' requirements for and access to nutrients and resources, and discuss the implications for prehistoric subsistence strategies and human evolution

  3. An introductory survey of helminth control practices in South Africa and anthelmintic resistance on Thoroughbred stud farms in the Western Cape Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Matthee

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-one per cent of 110 questionnaires, designed for obtaining information on helminth control practices and management on Thoroughbred stud farms in South Africa, were completed by farmers during 2000. The number of horses per farm included in the questionnaire survey ranged from 15 to 410. Foals, yearlings and adult horses were treated with anthelmintics at a mean of 7.3+ / -3.0, 6.6+ / -2.7 and 5.3+ / -2.3 times per year, respectively. An average of 3.4 different drugs were used annually, with ivermectin being used by most farmers during 1997-2000. On 43% of farms the weights of horses were estimated by weigh band and 45% of farmers estimated visually, while both were used on 7% of farms and scales on the remaining 5%. Doses were based on average group weight on 50% of the farms and on individual weights on 46%. Forty-three per cent of farmers performed faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRT. Most farmers rotated horses between pastures and treated new horses at introduction. Faecal removal was practiced on 61% of farms and less than 50% of farmers used alternate grazing with ruminants. Faecal egg count reduction tests were done on 283 horses, using oxibendazole, ivermectin and moxidectin on 10, 9 and 5 farms, respectively, in the Western Cape Province during 2001. While the efficacy of oxibendazole was estimated by FECRT to range from 0-88% and moxidectin from 99-100%, ivermectin resulted in a 100% reduction in egg counts. Only cyathostome larvae were recovered from post-treatment faecal cultures.

  4. HIV-1 subtypes B and C unique recombinant forms (URFs and transmitted drug resistance identified in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Brendon Jacobs

    Full Text Available South Africa has the largest worldwide HIV/AIDS population with 5.6 million people infected and at least 2 million people on antiretroviral therapy. The majority of these infections are caused by HIV-1 subtype C. Using genotyping methods we characterized HIV-1 subtypes of the gag p24 and pol PR and RT fragments, from a cohort of female participants in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. These participants were recruited as part of a study to assess the combined brain and behavioural effects of HIV and early childhood trauma. The partial HIV-1 gag and pol fragments of 84 participants were amplified by PCR and sequenced. Different online tools and manual phylogenetic analysis were used for HIV-1 subtyping. Online tools included: REGA HIV Subtyping tool version 3; Recombinant Identification Program (RIP; Context-based Modeling for Expeditious Typing (COMET; jumping profile Hidden Markov Models (jpHMM webserver; and subtype classification using evolutionary algorithms (SCUEAL. HIV-1 subtype C predominates within the cohort with a prevalence of 93.8%. We also show, for the first time, the presence of circulating BC strains in at least 4.6% of our study cohort. In addition, we detected transmitted resistance associated mutations in 4.6% of analysed sequences. With tourism and migration rates to South Africa currently very high, we are detecting more and more HIV-1 URFs within our study populations. It is still unclear what role these unique strains will play in terms of long term antiretroviral treatment and what challenges they will pose to vaccine development. Nevertheless, it remains vitally important to monitor the HIV-1 diversity in South Africa and worldwide as the face of the epidemic is continually changing.

  5. Plutonium distribution and remobilization in sediments of the Rhone River mouth (North-Western Mediterranean)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lansard, B.

    2004-06-01

    % of the Pu discharged over the 40 past years by the Marcoule reprocessing plant, are currently trapped in the sediments off the Rhone River mouth. Plutonium remobilization is potentially an important process but dispersion of contaminated sediments appeared to be limited in space. These results suggest a low exportation of particulate matter introduced by the Rhone River towards the continental shelf of the Gulf of Lions and the North-Western Mediterranean basin. (author)

  6. Trace element transport in western Siberian rivers across a permafrost gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Manasypov, Rinat M.; Loiko, Sergey V.; Krickov, Ivan A.; Kopysov, Sergey G.; Kolesnichenko, Larisa G.; Vorobyev, Sergey N.; Kirpotin, Sergey N.

    2016-03-01

    Towards a better understanding of trace element (TE) transport in permafrost-affected Earth surface environments, we sampled ˜ 60 large and small rivers (important region. No statistically significant effect of the basin size on most TE concentrations was evidenced. Two groups of elements were distinguished: (1) elements that show the same trend throughout the year and (2) elements that show seasonal differences. The first group included elements decreasing northward during all seasons (Sr, Mo, U, As, Sb) marking the underground water influence of river feeding. The elements of the second group exhibited variable behavior in the course of the year. A northward increase during spring period was mostly pronounced for Fe, Al, Co, Zn and Ba and may stem from a combination of enhanced leaching from the topsoil and vegetation and bottom waters of the lakes (spring overturn). A springtime northward decrease was observed for Ni, Cu, Zr and Rb. The increase in element concentration northward was observed for Ti, Ga, Zr and Th only in winter, whereas Fe, Al, rare earth elements (REEs), Pb, Zr, and Hf increased northward in both spring and winter, which could be linked to leaching from peat and transport in the form of Fe-rich colloids. A southward increase in summer was strongly visible for Fe, Ni, Ba, Rb and V, probably due to peat/moss release (Ni, Ba, Rb) or groundwater feeding (Fe, V). Finally, B, Li, Cr, V, Mn, Zn, Cd, and Cs did not show any distinct trend from S to N. The order of landscape component impact on TE concentration in rivers was lakes > bogs > forest. The lakes decreased export of Mn and Co in summer and Ni, Cu, and Rb in spring, presumably due to biotic processes. The lakes enriched the rivers in insoluble lithogenic elements in summer and winter, likely due to TE mobilization from unfrozen mineral sediments. The rank of environmental factors on TE concentration in western Siberian rivers was latitude (three permafrost zones) > season > watershed size

  7. Suspended sediment, turbidity, and stream water temperature in the Sauk River Basin, western Washington, water years 2012-16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Kristin L.; Curran, Christopher A.; Anderson, Scott W.; Morris, Scott T.; Moran, Patrick W.; Reams, Katherine A.

    2017-11-01

    The Sauk River is a federally designated Wild and Scenic River that drains a relatively undisturbed landscape along the western slope of the North Cascade Mountain Range, Washington, which includes the glaciated volcano, Glacier Peak. Naturally high sediment loads characteristic of basins draining volcanoes like Glacier Peak make the Sauk River a dominant contributor of sediment to the downstream main stem river, the Skagit River. Additionally, the Sauk River serves as important spawning and rearing habitat for several salmonid species in the greater Skagit River system. Because of the importance of sediment to morphology, flow-conveyance, and ecosystem condition, there is interest in understanding the magnitude and timing of suspended sediment and turbidity from the Sauk River system and its principal tributaries, the White Chuck and Suiattle Rivers, to the Skagit River.Suspended-sediment measurements, turbidity data, and water temperature data were collected at two U.S. Geological Survey streamgages in the upper and middle reaches of the Sauk River over a 4-year period extending from October 2011 to September 2015, and at a downstream location in the lower river for a 5-year period extending from October 2011 to September 2016. Over the collective 5-year study period, mean annual suspended-sediment loads at the three streamgages on the upper, middle, and lower Sauk River streamgages were 94,200 metric tons (t), 203,000 t, and 940,000 t streamgages, respectively. Fine (smaller than 0.0625 millimeter) total suspended-sediment load averaged 49 percent at the upper Sauk River streamgage, 42 percent at the middle Sauk River streamgage, and 34 percent at the lower Sauk River streamgage.

  8. Effect of slope failures on river-network pattern: A river piracy case study from the flysch belt of the Outer Western Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroň, Ivo; Bíl, Michal; Bábek, Ondřej; Smolková, Veronika; Pánek, Tomáš; Macur, Lukáš

    2014-06-01

    Landslides are important geomorphic agents in various mountainous settings. We document here a case of river piracy from the upper part of the Malá Brodská Valley in the Vsetínské Mts., Czech Republic (Rača Unit of the flysch Magura Group of Nappes, flysch belt of the Outer Western Carpathians) controlled by mass movement processes. Based on the field geological, geomorphological and geophysical data, we found out that the landslide accumulations pushed the more active river of out of two subparallel river channels with different erosion activity westwards and forced intensive lateral erosion towards the recently abandoned valley. Apart from the landslide processes, the presence of the N-striking fault, accentuated by higher flow rates of the eastern channel as a result of its larger catchment area, were the most critical factors of the river piracy. As a consequence of the river piracy, intensive retrograde erosion in the elbow of capture and also within the upper portion of the western catchment occurred. Deposits of two landslide dams document recent minimum erosion rates to be 18.8 mm.ky- 1 in the western (captured) catchment, and 3.6 mm.ky- 1 in the eastern catchment respectively. The maximum age of the river piracy is estimated to be of the late Glacial and/or the early Holocene.

  9. Treponemal disease in the middle Archaic to early Woodland periods of the western Tennessee River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Maria Ostendorf

    2006-10-01

    The high frequency of late prehistoric New World treponemal disease is attributable to the demographic changes concomitant with the adoption of agriculture. However, these demographic changes in group mobility and site density episodically preceded intensive plant domestication, suggesting possible staggered temporal change in observed treponemal disease case frequency. Thirteen convincing and an additional two probable (N = 581) cases of treponemal disease were identified in an eight-site skeletal sample spanning the Middle (6,000-3,000 BCE) to Late (2,500-ca. 1,000 to 500 BCE) Archaic and Early Woodland (500 BCE-0 CE) periods from the western Tennessee River Valley. Treponemal disease cases are infrequent in both the Middle (3/115, 2.6%) and Late (2 to 4 cases, subsistence economy across the Archaic-Woodland temporal boundary in the western Tennessee River Valley remained, as elsewhere, based on intensive hunting and collecting, the demographic corollaries of treponemal disease would apparently not be met. However, the traditional horizon marker of the Woodland period is the adoption of pottery, an activity associated with sedentism.

  10. Long-term ecosystem monitoring and assessment of the Detroit River and Western Lake Erie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartig, J H; Zarull, M A; Ciborowski, J J H; Gannon, J E; Wilke, E; Norwood, G; Vincent, A N

    2009-11-01

    Over 35 years of US and Canadian pollution prevention and control efforts have led to substantial improvements in environmental quality of the Detroit River and western Lake Erie. However, the available information also shows that much remains to be done. Improvements in environmental quality have resulted in significant ecological recovery, including increasing populations of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), peregrine falcons (Falco columbarius), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), walleye (Sander vitreus), and burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia spp.). Although this recovery is remarkable, many challenges remain, including population growth, transportation expansion, and land use changes; nonpoint source pollution; toxic substances contamination; habitat loss and degradation; introduction of exotic species; and greenhouse gases and global warming. Research/monitoring must be sustained for effective management. Priority research and monitoring needs include: demonstrating and quantifying cause-effect relationships; establishing quantitative endpoints and desired future states; determining cumulative impacts and how indicators relate; improving modeling and prediction; prioritizing geographic areas for protection and restoration; and fostering long-term monitoring for adaptive management. Key management agencies, universities, and environmental and conservation organizations should pool resources and undertake comprehensive and integrative assessments of the health of the Detroit River and western Lake Erie at least every 5 years to practice adaptive management for long-term sustainability.

  11. Trace elements transport in western Siberia rivers across a permafrost gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrovsky, O. S.; Manasypov, R. M.; Loiko, S.; Krickov, I. A.; Kopysov, S. G.; Kolesnichenko, L. G.; Vorobyev, S. N.; Kirpotin, S. N.

    2015-11-01

    decreased significantly northward during all seasons. Overall, the rank of environmental factors on TE concentration in western Siberian rivers was latitude (3 permafrost zones) > season > watershed size. The effect of the latitude was minimal in spring for most TE but highly visible for Sr, Mo, Sb and U. The main factors controlling the shift of river feeding from surface and subsurface flow to deep underground flow in the permafrost-bearing zone were the depth of the active (unfrozen) seasonal layer and its position in organic or mineral horizons of the soil profile. In the permafrost-free zone, the relative role of carbonate mineral-bearing base rock feeding vs. bog water feeding determined the pattern of trace element concentration and fluxes in rivers of various size as a function of season. Comparison of obtained TE fluxes in WSL rivers with those of other subarctic rivers demonstrated reasonable agreement for most trace elements; the lithology of base rocks was the major factor controlling the magnitude of TE fluxes. The climate change in western Siberia and permafrost boundary migration will affect essentially the elements controlled by underground water feeding (DIC, alkaline-earth elements (Ca, Sr), oxyanions (Mo, Sb, As) and U). The thickening of the active layer may increase the export of trivalent and tetravalent hydrolysates in the form of organo-ferric colloids. Plant litter-originated divalent metals present as organic complexes may be retained via adsorption on mineral horizon. However, due to various counterbalanced processes controlling element source and sinks in plants - peat - mineral soil - river systems, the overall impact of the permafrost thaw on TE export from the land to the ocean may be smaller than that foreseen by merely active layer thickening and permafrost boundary shift.

  12. Human influence on the sedimentation in the delta of the river Kyroenjoki, western Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkilae, R.

    1999-01-01

    Human activities in the drainage basin of the river Kyroenjoki, Western Finland, have greatly influenced the hydrology and sediment load of the river. The main factors have been agriculture, forestry, peat mining and watercourse works. Also sewage from towns and small-scale industry has increased the nutrient transport to the delta of the river. The aim of this study was to assess factors influencing the sedimentary conditions, sediment accumulation rates and sediment quality in the delta of the river. The sediment studies were carried out in 1983-1988 in the delta. The drainage basin of the river Kyroenjoki covers 5030 km 2 in the middle boreal vegetation zone. The river channel has been cleared many times since the 1600s to prevent floods and to allow agriculture on the adjoining land. Extensive cultivation of the paludified Litorina clay plains along the river has also continued for centuries. Forestry drainage of mires covered almost all the mires of the basin in 1960s and 1970s. Since 1963, four reservoirs and four hydroelectric power stations with daily regulation of water have been built. The estuary of the river was echo sounded, and on the basis of the results the delta was delimited, and areas of accumulation and erosion were separated. Samples of the sediment surface from 65 sites and long cores from 8 sites in the delta of the river Kyroenjoki were analysed for water content, organic content, C, N, P, Ca, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd and Hg. The sediment from Nabbviken Bay in the delta was dated on the basis of annual laminae. The chemical analyses showed that the organic matter and heavy metal content have increased during recent decades. The heavy metal content was clearly lower than in areas polluted by industrial works. The phosphorus content of the sediment was very high. The sedimentation rate in the delta increased from the 1930s to the 1950s, due to increased land reclamation for agriculture and forestry drainage, and then decreased in the beginning

  13. Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity Pancam 'super resolution' mosaic of the approximately 6 m (20 foot) high cliff face of the Cape Verde promontory was taken by the rover from inside Victoria Crater, during the rover's descent into Duck Bay. Super-resolution is an imaging technique which utilizes information from multiple pictures of the same target in order to generate an image with a higher resolution than any of the individual images. Cape Verde is a geologically rich outcrop and is teaching scientists about how rocks at Victoria crater were modified since they were deposited long ago. This image complements super resolution mosaics obtained at Cape St. Mary and Cape St. Vincent and is consistent with the hypothesis that Victoria crater is located in the middle of what used to be an ancient sand dune field. Many rover team scientists are hoping to be able to eventually drive the rover closer to these layered rocks in the hopes of measuring their chemistry and mineralogy. This is a Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity Panoramic Camera image mosaic acquired on sols 1342 and 1356 (November 2 and 17, 2007), and was constructed from a mathematical combination of 64 different blue filter (480 nm) images.

  14. "HealthKick": formative assessment of the health environment in low-resource primary schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, Anniza; Steyn, Nelia P; Draper, Catherine E; Fourie, Jean M; Barkhuizen, Gerhard; Lombard, Carl J; Dalais, Lucinda; Abrahams, Zulfa; Lambert, Estelle V

    2012-09-17

    This study evaluated the primary school environment in terms of being conducive to good nutrition practices, sufficient physical activity and prevention of nicotine use, with the view of planning a school-based health intervention. A sample of 100 urban and rural disadvantaged schools was randomly selected from two education districts of the Western Cape Education Department, South Africa. A situation analysis, which comprised an interview with the school principal and completion of an observation schedule of the school environment, was done at all schools. Schools, on average, had 560 learners and 16 educators. Principals perceived the top health priorities for learners to be an unhealthy diet (50%) and to far lesser degree, lack of physical activity (24%) and underweight (16%). They cited lack of physical activity (33%) and non-communicable diseases (NCDs; 24%) as the main health priorities for educators, while substance abuse (66%) and tobacco use (31%) were prioritised for parents. Main barriers to health promotion programmes included lack of financial resources and too little time in the time table. The most common items sold at the school tuck shops were crisps (100%), and then sweets (96%), while vendors mainly sold sweets (92%), crisps (89%), and ice lollies (38%). Very few schools (8%) had policies governing the type of food items sold at school. Twenty-six of the 100 schools that were visited had vegetable gardens. All schools reported having physical activity and physical education in their time tables, however, not all of them offered this activity outside the class room. Extramural sport offered at schools mainly included athletics, netball, and rugby, with cricket and soccer being offered less frequently. The formative findings of this study contribute to the knowledge of key environmental and policy determinants that may play a role in the health behaviour of learners, their parents and their educators. Evidently, these show that school environments

  15. Patterns of prevalent HPV and STI co-infections and associated factors among HIV-negative young Western Cape, South African women: the EVRI trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Lynette J; Pokharel, Ubin; Sudenga, Staci L; Botha, Matthys H; Zeier, Michele; Abrahamsen, Martha E; Glashoff, Richard H; Engelbrecht, Susan; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F; van der Laan, Louvina E; Kipping, Siegfried; Taylor, Douglas; Giuliano, Anna R

    2018-02-01

    To estimate the prevalence and describe the patterns of concurrent human papillomavirus (HPV) and STIs and associated factors among HIV-negative young Western Cape, South African women participating in the Efficacy of HPV Vaccine to Reduce HIV Infection (EVRI) trial. HIV-negative women aged 16-24 years old were enrolled in the EVRI trial (NCT01489527) and randomised to receive the licensed four-valent HPV vaccine or placebo. At study entry, participants were clinically evaluated for five STIs: herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and disease-causing HPV genotypes (6/11/16/18/31/33/35/39/45/51/52/56/58/59/68). Demographic and sexual history characteristics were compared among women with STI co-infections, single infection and no infection using Pearson χ 2 and Mann-Whitney tests. ORs were calculated to evaluate factors associated with STI co-infection prevalence. Among 388 young women, STI co-infection prevalence was high: 47% had ≥2 concurrent STIs, 36% had a single STI and 17% had none of the five evaluated STIs. HPV/HSV-2 (26%) was the most prevalent co-infection detected followed by HPV/HSV-2/ Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) (17%) and HPV/CT (15%). Co-infection prevalence was independently associated with alcohol use (adjusted OR=2.01, 95% CI 1.00 to 4.06) and having a sexual partner with an STI (adjusted OR=6.96, 95% CI 1.53 to 30.08). Among high-risk young women from underserved communities such as in Southern Africa, a multicomponent prevention strategy that integrates medical and behavioural interventions targeting both men and women is essential to prevent acquisition of concurrent STI infections and consequent disease. NCT01489527; Post-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Scaling up ART adherence clubs in the public sector health system in the Western Cape, South Africa: a study of the institutionalisation of a pilot innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Hayley; McKenzie, Andrew; Jacobs, Tanya; Ullauri, Angelica

    2018-04-25

    In 2011, a decision was made to scale up a pilot innovation involving 'adherence clubs' as a form of differentiated care for HIV positive people in the public sector antiretroviral therapy programme in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. In 2016 we were involved in the qualitative aspect of an evaluation of the adherence club model, the overall objective of which was to assess the health outcomes for patients accessing clubs through epidemiological analysis, and to conduct a health systems analysis to evaluate how the model of care performed at scale. In this paper we adopt a complex adaptive systems lens to analyse planned organisational change through intervention in a state health system. We explore the challenges associated with taking to scale a pilot that began as a relatively simple innovation by a non-governmental organisation. Our analysis reveals how a programme initially representing a simple, unitary system in terms of management and clinical governance had evolved into a complex, differentiated care system. An innovation that was assessed as an excellent idea and received political backing, worked well whilst supported on a small scale. However, as scaling up progressed, challenges have emerged at the same time as support has waned. We identified a 'tipping point' at which the system was more likely to fail, as vulnerabilities magnified and the capacity for adaptation was exceeded. Yet the study also revealed the impressive capacity that a health system can have for catalysing novel approaches. We argue that innovation in largescale, complex programmes in health systems is a continuous process that requires ongoing support and attention to new innovation as challenges emerge. Rapid scaling up is also likely to require recourse to further resources, and a culture of iterative learning to address emerging challenges and mitigate complex system errors. These are necessary steps to the future success of adherence clubs as a cornerstone of

  17. “HealthKick”: Formative assessment of the health environment in low-resource primary schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Villiers Anniza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluated the primary school environment in terms of being conducive to good nutrition practices, sufficient physical activity and prevention of nicotine use, with the view of planning a school-based health intervention. Methods A sample of 100 urban and rural disadvantaged schools was randomly selected from two education districts of the Western Cape Education Department, South Africa. A situation analysis, which comprised an interview with the school principal and completion of an observation schedule of the school environment, was done at all schools. Results Schools, on average, had 560 learners and 16 educators. Principals perceived the top health priorities for learners to be an unhealthy diet (50% and to far lesser degree, lack of physical activity (24% and underweight (16%. They cited lack of physical activity (33% and non-communicable diseases (NCDs; 24% as the main health priorities for educators, while substance abuse (66% and tobacco use (31% were prioritised for parents. Main barriers to health promotion programmes included lack of financial resources and too little time in the time table. The most common items sold at the school tuck shops were crisps (100%, and then sweets (96%, while vendors mainly sold sweets (92%, crisps (89%, and ice lollies (38%. Very few schools (8% had policies governing the type of food items sold at school. Twenty-six of the 100 schools that were visited had vegetable gardens. All schools reported having physical activity and physical education in their time tables, however, not all of them offered this activity outside the class room. Extramural sport offered at schools mainly included athletics, netball, and rugby, with cricket and soccer being offered less frequently. Conclusion The formative findings of this study contribute to the knowledge of key environmental and policy determinants that may play a role in the health behaviour of learners, their parents and their

  18. Addressing the intersection between alcohol consumption and antiretroviral treatment: needs assessment and design of interventions for primary healthcare workers, the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, M; Chersich, M; Temmerman, M; Parry, C D

    2016-10-26

    At the points where an infectious disease and risk factors for poor health intersect, while health problems may be compounded, there is also an opportunity to provide health services. Where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and alcohol consumption intersect include infection with HIV, onward transmission of HIV, impact on HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) disease progression, and premature death. The levels of knowledge and attitudes relating to the health and treatment outcomes of HIV and AIDS and the concurrent consumption of alcohol need to be determined. This study aimed to ascertain the knowledge, attitudes and practices of primary healthcare workers concerning the concurrent consumption of alcohol of clinic attendees who are prescribed antiretroviral drugs. An assessment of the exchange of information on the subject between clinic attendees and primary healthcare providers forms an important aspect of the research. A further objective of this study is an assessment of the level of alcohol consumption of people living with HIV and AIDS attending public health facilities in the Western Cape Province in South Africa, to which end, the study reviewed health workers' perceptions of the problem's extent. A final objective is to contribute to the development of evidence-based guidelines for AIDS patients who consume alcohol when on ARVs. The overall study purpose is to optimise antiretroviral health outcomes for all people living with HIV and AIDS, but with specific reference to the clinic attendees studied in this research. Overall the research study utilised mixed methods. Three group-specific questionnaires were administered between September 2013 and May 2014. The resulting qualitative data presented here supplements the results of the quantitative data questionnaires for HIV and AIDS clinic attendees, which have been analysed and written up separately. This arm of the research study comprised two, separate, semi-structured sets of

  19. A prospective cohort study on ambient air pollution and respiratory morbidities including childhood asthma in adolescents from the western Cape Province: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaniyan, Toyib; Jeebhay, Mohamed; Röösli, Martin; Naidoo, Rajen; Baatjies, Roslynn; Künzil, Nino; Tsai, Ming; Davey, Mark; de Hoogh, Kees; Berman, Dilys; Parker, Bhawoodien; Leaner, Joy; Dalvie, Mohamed Aqiel

    2017-09-16

    There is evidence from existing literature that ambient air pollutant exposure in early childhood likely plays an important role in asthma exacerbation and other respiratory symptoms, with greater effect among asthmatic children. However, there is inconclusive evidence on the role of ambient air pollutant exposures in relation to increasing asthma prevalence as well as asthma induction in children. At the population level, little is known about the potential synergistic effects between pollen allergens and air pollutants since this type of association poses challenges in uncontrolled real life settings. In particular, data from sub-Sahara Africa is scarce and virtually absent among populations residing in informal residential settlements. A prospective cohort study of 600 school children residing in four informal settlement areas with varying potential ambient air pollutant exposure levels in the Western Cape in South Africa is carried-out. The study has two follow-up periods of at least six-months apart including an embedded panel study in summer and winter. The exposure assessment component models temporal and spatial variability of air quality in the four study areas over the study duration using land-use regression modelling (LUR). Additionally, daily pollen levels (mould spores, tree, grass and weed pollen) in the study areas are recorded. In the panel study asthma symptoms and serial peak flow measurements is recorded three times daily to determine short-term serial airway changes in relation to varying ambient air quality and pollen over 10-days during winter and summer. The health outcome component of the cohort study include; the presence of asthma using a standardised ISAAC questionnaire, spirometry, fractional exhaled nitric-oxide (FeNO) and the presence of atopy (Phadiatop). This research applies state of the art exposure assessment approaches to characterize the effects of ambient air pollutants on childhood respiratory health, with a specific focus on

  20. The challenges of reshaping disease specific and care oriented community based services towards comprehensive goals: a situation appraisal in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Helen; Schaay, Nikki; Dudley, Lilian; Goliath, Charlyn; Qukula, Tobeka

    2015-09-30

    Similar to other countries in the region, South Africa is currently reorienting a loosely structured and highly diverse community care system that evolved around HIV and TB, into a formalized, comprehensive and integrated primary health care outreach programme, based on community health workers (CHWs). While the difficulties of establishing national CHW programmes are well described, the reshaping of disease specific and care oriented community services, based outside the formal health system, poses particular challenges. This paper is an in-depth case study of the challenges of implementing reforms to community based services (CBS) in one province of South Africa. A multi-method situation appraisal of CBS in the Western Cape Province was conducted over eight months in close collaboration with provincial stakeholders. The appraisal mapped the roles and service delivery, human resource, financing and governance arrangements of an extensive non-governmental organisation (NGO) contracted and CHW based service delivery infrastructure that emerged over 15-20 years in this province. It also gathered the perspectives of a wide range of actors - including communities, users, NGOs, PHC providers and managers - on the current state and future visions of CBS. While there was wide support for new approaches to CBS, there are a number of challenges to achieving this. Although largely government funded, the community based delivery platform remains marginal to the formal public primary health care (PHC) and district health systems. CHW roles evolved from a system of home based care and are limited in scope. There is a high turnover of cadres, and support systems (supervision, monitoring, financing, training), coordination between CHWs, NGOs and PHC facilities, and sub-district capacity for planning and management of CBS are all poorly developed. Reorienting community based services that have their origins in care responses to HIV and TB presents an inter-related set of resource

  1. A cross-sectional survey to compare the competence of learners registered for the Baccalaureus Curationis programme using different learning approaches at the University of the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta Z. le Roux

    2011-09-01

    exposure of the first-year learners to real life clinical situations. The outcome of this study recommends that more studies are conducted, in the School of Nursing at the University of the Western Cape (UWC, to explore teaching and learning approaches that fully maximise the clinical and theoretical competencies of the learners. The outcome further recommends that learner-centred teaching approaches, such as Case-based method, are applied to all year levels of study in the B.Cur programme, due to its proven value when it was applied to first-year learners. The Case-based clinical reasoning approach to learning, that has been implemented at the school, promotes competence and self confidence in learners and has enhanced their sense of responsibility to be actively involved in their own learning.

  2. A prospective cohort study on ambient air pollution and respiratory morbidities including childhood asthma in adolescents from the western Cape Province: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyib Olaniyan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence from existing literature that ambient air pollutant exposure in early childhood likely plays an important role in asthma exacerbation and other respiratory symptoms, with greater effect among asthmatic children. However, there is inconclusive evidence on the role of ambient air pollutant exposures in relation to increasing asthma prevalence as well as asthma induction in children. At the population level, little is known about the potential synergistic effects between pollen allergens and air pollutants since this type of association poses challenges in uncontrolled real life settings. In particular, data from sub-Sahara Africa is scarce and virtually absent among populations residing in informal residential settlements. Methods/design A prospective cohort study of 600 school children residing in four informal settlement areas with varying potential ambient air pollutant exposure levels in the Western Cape in South Africa is carried-out. The study has two follow-up periods of at least six-months apart including an embedded panel study in summer and winter. The exposure assessment component models temporal and spatial variability of air quality in the four study areas over the study duration using land-use regression modelling (LUR. Additionally, daily pollen levels (mould spores, tree, grass and weed pollen in the study areas are recorded. In the panel study asthma symptoms and serial peak flow measurements is recorded three times daily to determine short-term serial airway changes in relation to varying ambient air quality and pollen over 10-days during winter and summer. The health outcome component of the cohort study include; the presence of asthma using a standardised ISAAC questionnaire, spirometry, fractional exhaled nitric-oxide (FeNO and the presence of atopy (Phadiatop. Discussion This research applies state of the art exposure assessment approaches to characterize the effects of ambient air

  3. Implementation of the HealthKick intervention in primary schools in low-income settings in the Western Cape Province, South Africa: a process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, Anniza; Steyn, Nelia P; Draper, Catherine E; Hill, Jillian; Dalais, Lucinda; Fourie, Jean; Lombard, Carl; Barkhuizen, Gerhard; Lambert, Estelle V

    2015-08-22

    The HealthKick intervention, introduced at eight primary schools in low-income settings in the Western Cape Province, South Africa, aimed to promote healthy lifestyles among learners, their families and school staff. Eight schools from similar settings without any active intervention served as controls. The Action Planning Process (APP) guided school staff through a process that enabled them to assess areas for action; identify specific priorities; and set their own goals regarding nutrition and physical activity at their schools. Educators were introduced to the APP and trained to undertake this at their schools by holding workshops. Four action areas were covered, which included the school nutrition environment; physical activity and sport environment; staff health; and chronic disease and diabetes awareness. Intervention schools also received a toolkit comprising an educator's manual containing planning guides, printed resource materials and a container with physical activity equipment. To facilitate the APP, a champion was identified at each school to drive the APP and liaise with the project team. Over the three-years a record was kept of activities planned and those accomplished. At the end of the intervention, focus group discussions were held with school staff at each school to capture perceptions about the APP and intervention activities. Overall uptake of events offered by the research team was 65.6% in 2009, 75% in 2010 and 62.5% in 2011. Over the three-year intervention, the school food and nutrition environment action area scored the highest, with 55.5% of planned actions being undertaken. In the chronic disease and diabetes awareness area 54.2% actions were completed, while in the school physical activity and sport environment and staff health activity areas 25.9 and 20% were completed respectively. According to educators, the low level of implementation of APP activities was because of a lack of parental involvement, time and available resources

  4. Planktonic copepod community in the neritic area south western part of Tunis bay influenced by Meliane river supplies (south western Mediterranean sea)

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Lamine, Y.; Daly Yahia Kefi, O.; Daly Yahia, N.

    2012-01-01

    The Tunis bay is located in the North Estern coast of Tunisia and receives in its Western part flows from Meliane River. Our study aims to describe the composition and the spatiotemporal distribution of planktonic copepods in the bay in order to identify the effect of the Meliane River supplies on the community. A grid of 19 stations was investigated monthly from July 2004 to December 2004 using a 160 μm mesh size plankton net, towed obliquely from the bottom to the surface. The planktonic co...

  5. Occurrences of Organochlorine Pesticides along the Course of the Buffalo River in the Eastern Cape of South Africa and Its Health Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrazaq Yahaya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Most organochlorine pesticides (OCPs which are increasingly used in agriculture and industry are not biodegradable and thereby persist in the environment for a very long period of time. They are capable of negatively impacting the health of humans and biota when present in a higher concentration than recommended. This study evaluated the concentrations of 17 OCPs in surface water samples collected from six sampling sites along the course of the Buffalo River in Eastern Cape, South Africa, between December 2015 and May 2016. The samples were subjected to solvent extraction, followed by florisil clean up, and analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with an electron capture detector. The individual concentrations of OCPs detected ranged from

  6. Agribusiness geothermal energy utilization potential of Klamath and Western Snake River Basins, Oregon. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.

    1978-03-01

    Resource assessment and methods of direct utilization for existing and prospective food processing plants have been determined in two geothermal resource areas in Oregon. Ore-Ida Foods, Inc. and Amalgamated Sugar Company in the Snake River Basin; Western Polymer Corporation (potato starch extraction) and three prospective industries--vegetable dehydration, alfalfa drying and greenhouses--in the Klamath Basin have been analyzed for direct utilization of geothermal fluids. Existing geologic knowledge has been integrated to indicate locations, depth, quality, and estimated productivity of the geothermal reservoirs. Energy-economic needs and balances, along with cost and energy savings associated with field development, delivery systems, in-plant applications and fluid disposal have been calculated for interested industrial representatives.

  7. History of bioengineering techniques for erosion control in rivers in Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evette, Andre; Labonne, Sophie; Rey, Freddy; Liebault, Frederic; Jancke, Oliver; Girel, Jacky

    2009-06-01

    Living plants have been used for a very long time throughout the world in structures against soil erosion, as traces have been found dating back to the first century BC. Widely practiced in Western Europe during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, bioengineering was somewhat abandoned in the middle of the twentieth century, before seeing a resurgence in recent times. Based on an extensive bibliography, this article examines the different forms of bioengineering techniques used in the past to manage rivers and riverbanks, mainly in Europe. We compare techniques using living material according to their strength of protection against erosion. Many techniques are described, both singly and in combination, ranging from tree planting or sowing seeds on riverbanks to dams made of fascine or wattle fences. The recent appearance of new materials has led to the development of new techniques, associated with an evolution in the perception of riverbanks.

  8. Shifting dominance of riparian Populus and Tamarix along gradients of flow alteration in western North American rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    David M. Merritt; N. Leroy Poff

    2010-01-01

    Tamarix ramosissima is a naturalized, nonnative plant species which has become widespread along riparian corridors throughout the western United States. We test the hypothesis that the distribution and success of Tamarix result from human modification of river-flow regimes. We conducted a natural experiment in eight...

  9. Climatic and geologic controls on suspended sediment flux in the Sutlej River Valley, western Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wulf

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The sediment flux through Himalayan rivers directly impacts water quality and is important for sustaining agriculture as well as maintaining drinking-water and hydropower generation. Despite the recent increase in demand for these resources, little is known about the triggers and sources of extreme sediment flux events, which lower water quality and account for extensive hydropower reservoir filling and turbine abrasion. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the spatiotemporal trends in suspended sediment flux based on daily data during the past decade (2001–2009 from four sites along the Sutlej River and from four of its main tributaries. In conjunction with satellite data depicting rainfall and snow cover, air temperature and earthquake records, and field observations, we infer climatic and geologic controls of peak suspended sediment concentration (SSC events. Our study identifies three key findings: First, peak SSC events (≥ 99th SSC percentile coincide frequently (57–80% with heavy rainstorms and account for about 30% of the suspended sediment flux in the semi-arid to arid interior of the orogen. Second, we observe an increase of suspended sediment flux from the Tibetan Plateau to the Himalayan Front at mean annual timescales. This sediment-flux gradient suggests that averaged, modern erosion in the western Himalaya is most pronounced at frontal regions, which are characterized by high monsoonal rainfall and thick soil cover. Third, in seven of eight catchments, we find an anticlockwise hysteresis loop of annual sediment flux variations with respect to river discharge, which appears to be related to enhanced glacial sediment evacuation during late summer. Our analysis emphasizes the importance of unconsolidated sediments in the high-elevation sector that can easily be mobilized by hydrometeorological events and higher glacial-meltwater contributions. In future climate change scenarios, including continuous glacial retreat and

  10. Mid-21st century projections of hydroclimate in Western Himalayas and Satluj River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Sarita; Kar, Sarat C.; Bhatla, R.

    2018-02-01

    The Himalayan climate system is sensitive to global warming and climate change. Regional hydrology and the downstream water flow in the rivers of Himalayan origin may change due to variations in snow and glacier melt in the region. This study examines the mid-21st century climate projections over western Himalayas from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate models under Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). All the global climate models used in the present analysis indicate that the study region would be warmer by mid-century. The temperature trends from all the models studied here are statistically significant at 95% confidence interval. Multi-model ensemble spreads show that there are large differences among the models in their projections of future climate with spread in temperature ranging from about 1.5 °C to 5 °C over various areas of western Himalayas in all the seasons. Spread in precipitation projections lies between 0.3 and 1 mm/day in all the seasons. Major shift in the timing of evaporation maxima and minima is noticed. The GFDL_ESM2G model products have been downscaled to Satluj River basin using the weather research and forecast (WRF) model and impact of climate change on streamflow has been studied. The reduction of precipitation during JJAS is expected to be > 3-6 mm/day in RCP8.5 as compared to present climate. It is expected that precipitation amount shall increase over Satluj basin in future (mid-21st century) The soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) model has been used to simulate the Satluj streamflow for the present and future climate using GFDL_ESM2G precipitation and temperature data as well as the WRF model downscaled data. The computations using the global model data show that total annual discharge from Satluj will be less in future than that in present climate, especially in peak discharge season (JJAS). The SWAT model with downscaled output indicates that during

  11. Changing Snow Cover and Stream Discharge in the Western United States - Wind River Range, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.; Barton, Jonathan S.; Riggs, George A.

    2011-01-01

    Earlier onset of springtime weather has been documented in the western United States over at least the last 50 years. Because the majority (>70%) of the water supply in the western U.S. comes from snowmelt, analysis of the declining spring snowpack has important implications for the management of water resources. We studied ten years of Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow-cover products, 40 years of stream discharge and meteorological station data and 30 years of snow-water equivalent (SWE) SNOw Telemetry (SNOTEL) data in the Wind River Range (WRR), Wyoming. Results show increasing air temperatures for.the 40-year study period. Discharge from streams in WRR drainage basins show lower annual discharge and earlier snowmelt in the decade of the 2000s than in the previous three decades. Changes in streamflow may be related to increasing air temperatures which are probably contributing to a reduction in snow cover, although no trend of either increasingly lower streamflow or earlier snowmelt was observed within the decade of the 2000s. And SWE on 1 April does not show an expected downward trend from 1980 to 2009. The extent of snow cover derived from the lowest-elevation zone of the WRR study area is strongly correlated (r=0.91) with stream discharge on 1 May during the decade of the 2000s. The strong relationship between snow cover and streamflow indicates that MODIS snow-cover maps can be used to improve management of water resources in the drought-prone western U.S.

  12. The Impact of Computer and Mathematics Software Usage on Performance of School Leavers in the Western Cape Province of South Africa: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Garth Spencer; Hardman, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    In this study the impact of computer immersion on performance of school leavers Senior Certificate mathematics scores was investigated across 31 schools in the EMDC East education district of Cape Town, South Africa by comparing performance between two groups: a control and an experimental group. The experimental group (14 high schools) had access…

  13. Moisture sources of the Atmospheric Rivers making landfall in western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Ricardo M.; Ramos, Alexandre M.; Nieto, Raquel; Tomé, Ricardo; Gimeno, Luis; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Lavers, David A.

    2017-04-01

    An automated atmospheric river (AR) detection algorithm is used for the North Atlantic Ocean basin, allowing the identification of the major ARs affecting western European coasts between 1979 and 2012. The entire western coast of Europe was divided into five domains, namely the Iberian Peninsula (9.75W, 36-43.75N), France (4.5W, 43.75-50N), UK (4.5W, 50-59N), southern Scandinavia and the Netherlands (5.25E, 50-59N), and northern Scandinavia (5.25E, 59-70N). Following the identification of the main ARs that made landfall in western Europe, a Lagrangian analysis was then applied in order to identify the main areas where the moisture uptake was anomalous and contributed to the ARs reaching each domain. The Lagrangian data set used was obtained from the FLEXPART model global simulation from 1979 to 2012. The results show that, in general, for all regions considered, the major climatological areas for the anomalous moisture uptake extend along the subtropical North Atlantic, from the Florida Peninsula (northward of 20N) to each sink region, with the nearest coast to each sink region always appearing as a local maximum. In addition, during AR events the Atlantic subtropical source is reinforced and displaced, with a slight northward movement of the sources found when the sink region is positioned at higher latitudes. In conclusion, the results confirm not only the anomalous advection of moisture linked to ARs from subtropical ocean areas but also the existence of a tropical source, together with midlatitude anomaly sources at some locations closer to AR landfalls (Ramos et al., 2016). References: Ramos et al., (2016) Atmospheric rivers moisture sources from a Lagrangian perspective, Earth Syst. Dynam., 7, 371-384. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the project IMDROFLOOD - Improving Drought and Flood Early Warning, Forecasting and Mitigation using real-time hydroclimatic indicators (WaterJPI/0004/2014) funded by Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia

  14. Cape anchovy Engraulis capensis spawn mainly east of Cape Point ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    In the southern Benguela, successful recruitment of Cape anchovy Engraulis capensis is ... Based on the total area of 16–19°C water on the western Agulhas. Bank, Richardson et al. .... in the zone, φ the new value, and β is a relaxation pa-.

  15. Heat treatment as a universal technical solution for silcrete use? A comparison between silcrete from the Western Cape (South Africa and the Kalahari (Botswana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schmidt

    Full Text Available Heat treatment was one of the first transformative technologies in the southern African Middle Stone Age (MSA, with many studies in the Cape coastal zone of South Africa identifying it as an essential step in the preparation of silcrete prior to its use in stone tool manufacture. To date, however, no studies have investigated whether heat treatment is necessary for all silcrete types, and how geographically widespread heat treatment was in the subcontinent. The aim of this study is to investigate experimentally whether heat treatment continued further north into the Kalahari Desert of Botswana and northernmost South Africa, the closest area with major silcrete outcrops to the Cape. For this we analyse the thermal transformations of silcrete from both regions, proposing a comprehensive model of the chemical, crystallographic and 'water'-related processes taking place upon heat treatment. For the first time, we also explore the mobility of minor and trace elements during heat treatment and introduce a previously undescribed mechanism-steam leaching-causing depletion of a limited number of elements. The results of this comparative study reveal the Cape and Kalahari silcrete to respond fundamentally differently to heat treatment. While the former can be significantly improved by heat, the latter is deteriorated in terms of knapping quality. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the role of fire as a technical solution in MSA stone tool knapping, and for the extension of its use in southern Africa. Silcrete heat treatment-at least in the form we understand it today-may have been a strictly regional phenomenon, confined to a narrow zone along the west and south coast of the Cape. On the basis of our findings, silcrete heat treatment should not be added as a new trait on the list of behaviours that characterise the MSA of the southern African subcontinent.

  16. Mineralogy and geothermometry of high-temperature rhyolites from the central and western Snake River Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honjo, N.; Bonnichsen, B.; Leeman, W.P.; Stormer, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    Voluminous mid-Miocene rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs and lava flows are exposed along the northern and southern margins of the central and western Snake River Plain. These rhyolites are essentially anhydrous with the general mineral assemblage of plagioclase ??sanidine ?? quartz + augite + pigeonite ?? hypersthene ?? fayalitic olivine + Fe-Ti oxides + apatite + zircon which provides an opportunity to compare feldspar, pyroxene, and Fe-Ti oxide equilibration temperatures for the same rocks. Estimated pyroxene equilibration temperatures (based on the geothermometers of Lindsley and coworkers) range from 850 to 1000??C, and these are well correlated with whole-rock compositions. With the exception of one sample, agreement between the two-pyroxene thermometers tested is well within 50??C. Fe-Ti oxide geothermometers applied to fresh magnetite and ilmenite generally yield temperatures about 50 to 100??C lower than the pyroxene temperatures, and erratic results are obtained if these minerals exhibit effects of subsolidus oxidation and exsolution. Results of feldspar thermometry are more complicated, and reflect uncertainties in the thermometer calibrations as well as in the degree of attainment of equilibrium between plagioclase and sanidine. In general, temperatures obtained using the Ghiorso (1984) and Green and Usdansky (1986) feldspar thermometers agree with the pyroxene temperatures within the respective uncertainties. However, uncertainties in the feldspar temperatures are the larger of the two (and exceed ??60??C for many samples). The feldspar thermometer of Fuhrman and Lindsley (1988) produces systematically lower temperatures for many of the samples studied. The estimated pyroxene temperatures are considered most representative of actual magmatic temperatures for these rhyolites. This range of temperatures is significantly higher than those for rhyolites from many other suites, and is consistent with the hypothesis that the Snake River Plain rhyolitic magmas formed

  17. Holy flux: Spatial and temporal variation in massive pulses of emerging insect biomass from western U.S. rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, David; Wesner, Jeff S.; Zuellig, Robert E.; Kowalski, Dan A.; Kondratieff, Matt C.

    2018-01-01

    The river stonefly, Pteronarcys californica (aka salmonfly), is an iconic insect in rivers of western North America due to its large size and its support of economically important species like wild trout (Nehring et al. 2011). Their emergence generates a large economic subsidy to local communities, as anglers from around the world travel to western rivers to fish the salmonfly “hatch” (e.g., Willoughby 2013). Salmonflies, which have a 4-yr lifespan in the central Rocky Mountains (Nehring et al. 2011), emerge en masse during 1 week in late spring (Sheldon 1999), and more than 20 terrestrial species, including humans, are known to eat adult salmonflies (Muttkowski 1925, Sutton 1985, Rockwell et al. 2009). How they influence populations of insectivores or the broader river-riparian ecosystem is unknown; this itself is an issue because salmonflies are disappearing from some rivers (Nehring et al. 2011).

  18. Scenarios of atmospheric rivers affecting Western Europe during the XXI Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Ricardo M.; Ramos, Alexandre M.; Tomé, Ricardo; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2017-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events in Europe during the winter half of the year have major socio-economic impacts associated with floods, landslides, extensive property damage and life losses. In recent years, a number of works have shed new light on the role played by Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) in the occurrence of extreme precipitation events in Europe as was the case in major historical floods in Duero (Pereira et al., 2016) and Tagus (Trigo et al., 2015) rivers in Iberia. We analyse ARs reaching Europe, for the extended winter months (October to March), in simulations from six CMIP5 global climate models (CGMs) to quantify possible changes during the current century, with emphasis in five western European prone coastal areas. ARs are represented reasonably well in GCMs for recent climate conditions (1980-2005). Increased vertically integrated horizontal water transport is found for 2074- 2099 (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) compared to 1980-2005, while the number of ARs is projected to double on average for the same period. These changes are robust between models and are associated with higher air temperatures and thus enhanced atmospheric moisture content, together with higher precipitation associated with extra-tropical cyclones. This suggests an increased risk of intense precipitation and floods along the Atlantic European Coasts from the Iberian Peninsula to Scandinavia (Ramos et al., 2016). References: Pereira et al., (2016) Spatial impact and triggering conditions of the exceptional hydro-geomorphological event of December 1909 in Iberia, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 371-390. Ramos et al., (2016) Projected changes in atmospheric rivers affecting Europe in CMIP5 models, Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, 9315-9323. Trigo et al., (2015) The record precipitation and flood event in Iberia in December 1876: description and synoptic analysis, Front. Earth Sci. 2:3. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the project FORLAND - Hydrogeomorphologic risk in Portugal: driving forces

  19. Linking Watershed Nitrogen Sources with Nitrogen Dynamics in Rivers of Western Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobota, D. J.; Compton, J.; Goodwin, K. E.

    2012-12-01

    We constructed contemporary nitrogen (N) budgets for 25 river basins in the Willamette River Basin (WRB) of western Oregon, USA, to improve the understanding of how recent trends in human-driven N loading have influenced riverine N dynamics in the region. Nearly 20% of WRB stream length is currently in fair or poor condition because of high N concentrations. Additionally, nitrate contamination of drinking water affects at least 8,000 people in the WRB. We hypothesized that 1) the majority of N inputs in the WRB would originate from agricultural activities in lowland portions of watersheds, 2) annual riverine N yield (kg/ha/yr) would correspond to annual per area watershed N inputs, and 3) riverine N yields would be seasonal and highest during winter due to the region's Mediterranean climate. We calculated average annual N inputs for each study basin by summing newly available datasets describing spatially explicit N inputs of synthetic fertilizer, atmospheric deposition, crop biological N2 fixation, biological N2 fixation by red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.), livestock manure, and point sources for the period 1996 - 2007. Annual and seasonal riverine N exports were estimated with the USGS model LOADEST calibrated to N concentration data collected during the study period. We estimated that two-thirds of total N input to the WRB study basins in the 2000s came from synthetic fertilizer application. Nearly all fertilizer application occurred on the lowlands near watershed mouths. We found a wide range of riverine N yields from the study basins, ranging from one to 70 kg N/ha/yr. Across the study basins, N export was more strongly correlated to fertilizer application rates than to percent of agricultural area in the watershed. Low watershed N yields reflected a high proportion of watershed area in the forested Cascade Mountain Range, which received low N inputs mainly from atmospheric deposition. N yields from study basins were strongly seasonal, with at least 50%, and

  20. Comparison of nectar foraging efficiency in the Cape honeybee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-03-17

    Mar 17, 1987 ... Comparison of nectar foraging efficiency in the Cape honeybee, Apis mellifera capensis Escholtz, and the African honeybee, Apis mellifera adansonii Latreille,. , in the western Cape Province. P.V. W-Worswick*. Department of Zoology, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700 Republic of South Africa.

  1. Qualitative Interpretation Of Aerogravity And Aeromagnetic Survey Data Over The South Western Part Of The Volta River Basin Of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    George Hinson; Aboagye Menyeh; David Dotse Wemegah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The study area South western part of Volta River Basin of Ghana covering an area of 8570 km2 which is one-eleventh the area of the Volta River basin of Ghana has been subjected to numerous academic research works but geophysical survey works because of virtual perceptive reasons. It is now believed to overly mineral-rich geological structures hence the use of magnetic and gravity survey methods to bring out these mineral-rich geological structures.Geographically it study area is loca...

  2. Siltation and Pollution of Rivers in the Western Highlands of Cameroon: a Consequence of Farmland Erosion and Runoff

    OpenAIRE

    Djoukeng, Henri Grisseur; Tankou, Christopher Mubeteneh; Degré, Aurore

    2015-01-01

    In the Western Highlands agro-ecological zone of Cameroon, rivers are constantly silted and polluted with eroded sediment and waste from cultivated land. This study characterizes and quantifies the amount of material coming from plots cultivated in the Méloh Watershed. In a natural rocky-bottomed well measuring 0.90 m deep, 3 m long, and 2.5 m wide, for a period of three years we performed the collection, differentiation, and measurement of trapped sediment in the cultivated part of river tha...

  3. The anthropogenic nature of present-day low energy rivers in western France and implications for current restoration projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lespez, L.; Viel, V.; Rollet, A. J.; Delahaye, D.

    2015-12-01

    As in other European countries, western France has seen an increase in river restoration projects. In this paper, we examine the restoration goals, methods and objectives with respect to the long-term trajectory and understanding of the contemporary dynamics of the small low energy rivers typical of the lowlands of Western Europe. The exhaustive geomorphological, paleoenvironmental and historical research conducted in the Seulles river basin (Normandy) provides very accurate documentation of the nature and place of the different legacies in the fluvial systems we have inherited. The sedimentation rate in the Seulles valley bottom has multiplied by a factor of 20 since the end of the Bronze Age and has generated dramatic changes in fluvial forms. Hydraulic control of the rivers and valley bottoms drainage throughout the last millennium has channelized rivers within these deposits. The single meandering channel which characterizes this river today is the legacy of the delayed and complex effects of long term exploitation of the river basin and the fluvial system. Bring to light that the "naturalness" of the restored rivers might be questioned. Our research emphasizes the gap between the poor knowledge of the functioning of these rivers and the concrete objectives of the restoration works undertaken, including dam and weir removal. Account of the long-term history of fluvial systems is required, not only to produce a pedagogic history of the "river degradation" but more fundamentally (i) to situate the current functioning of the fluvial system in a trajectory to try to identify thresholds and anticipate the potential turning points in a context of climate and land use change, (ii) to understand the role of morphosedimentary legacies on the current dynamics, (iii) to open the discussion on reference functioning or expected states and (iv) to open discussion on the sustainability of ecological restoration. To conclude, we point out the necessity to take into account the

  4. Assessment of Environmental Flows for the Rivers of Western Ganges Delta with Special Reference to Indian Sundarban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, T.; Hazra, S.; Ghosh, S.; Barman, B. C.

    2016-12-01

    The Indian Sundarban, situated on the western tide-dominated part of the Ganges delta was formed by the sedimentation of the Ganges and its tributaries. Freshwater is a scarce resource in the Sundarban though it is traversed by rivers. Most of the rivers of Western Ganges Delta, which used to nourish the Sundarban, have become defunct with the passage of time. To ensure sustainable flow and to enhance the flow-dependent ecosystem services in this region, assessment of environmental flows within the system is required. A pilot assessment of environment flows, supported by IUCN has been carried out in some specific river reaches of Western Ganges Delta under the present study. The holistic Building Block Methodology (BBM) has been modified and used for the assessment of environmental flows. In the modified BBM, three distinctive blocks namely Hydro-Morphology, Ecology and Socio-Economy have been selected and indicators like Ganges Dolphin (Platanista gangetica), Sundari tree (Heritiera fomes) and Hilsa fish (Tenualosa ilisha) etc. have been determined to assess the environmental flows. As the discharge data of the selected rivers are restricted in the public domain, the SWAT model has been run to generate the discharge data of the classified rivers. The Hydraulic model, HEC-RAS has been calibrated in the selected River reaches to assess the habitat availability and its changes for indicator species under different flow condition. The study reveals that River Bhagirathi-Hugli requires 150-427 cumec additional water in monsoon and 850-1127 cumec additional water in post-monsoon months for Hilsa migration, whereas 327-486 cumec additional water in pre-monsoon and dry season and 227-386 cumec additional water in post-monsoon months are required for Dolphin movement. Flow requirement of river Ichhamati has also been estimated under the present study. The total required flow for the Sundarban ecosystem to reduce the salinity level from 30ppt to 14ppt during the dry and pre

  5. Geochemical evolution of groundwater in the Western Delta region of River Godavari, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nageswara Rao, P. V.; Appa Rao, S.; Subba Rao, N.

    2017-05-01

    The present study on geochemical evolution of groundwater is taken up to assess the controlling processes of water chemistry in the Western Delta region of the River Godavari (Andhra Pradesh), which is one of the major rice-producing centers in India. The study region is underlain by coarse sand with black clay (buried channels), black silty clay of recent origin (floodplain) and gray/white fine sand of modern beach sediment of marine source (coastal zone), including brown silty clay with fine sand (paleo-beach ridges). Groundwater is mostly brackish and very hard. It is characterized by Na+ > Mg2+ > Ca2+:HCO3 - > Cl- > SO4 2- > NO3 -, Na+ > Mg2+ > Ca2+:Cl- > HCO3 - > SO4 2-, and Mg2+ > Na+ > Ca2+ > or Cl- > or > SO4 2- facies. The ionic relations (Ca2+ + Mg2+:HCO3 -, Ca2+ + Mg2+:SO4 2- + HCO3 -, Na+ + K+:TC, Na+ + K+:Cl- + SO4 2-, HCO3 -:TC, HCO3 -:Ca2+ + Mg2+, Na+:Cl- and Na+:Ca2+) indicate that the rock weathering, mineral dissolution, evaporation and ion exchange are the processes to control the aquifer chemistry. Anthropogenic and marine sources are also the supplementary factors for brackish water quality. These observations are further supported by Gibbs mechanisms that control the water chemistry. Thus, the study suggests that the initial quality of groundwater of geogenic origin has been subsequently modified by the influences of anthropogenic and marine sources.

  6. Mercury Pollution Studies of Some Rivers Draining the Bibiani-Anwiaso-Bekwai Mining Community of South Western Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    V.K. Nartey; L.K. Doamekpor; S. Sarpong-Kumankuma; T. Akabzaa; F.K. Nyame; J.K. Kutor; D. Adotey

    2011-01-01

    The project assessed the extent of mercury pollution of some rivers that drain the Bibiani-Anwiaso- Bekwai district which is a typical mining community in the south western part of Ghana. In the study, surfacewater and sediment samples were collected from seven streams that drain this mining community and analyzed for total mercury, organic mercury and elemental mercury. Mercury concentrations of non-filtered water was determined using the ICP-OES after reduction with stannous chloride (SnCl2...

  7. Changes in the channel-bed level of the western Carpathian rivers over the last 40years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijowska-Strugała, Małgorzata; Bucała-Hrabia, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Channel-bed level is constantly changing in time and space, and the process is dependent on both natural and anthropogenic factors. In mountain areas this is one of the more visible morphological processes. The main aim of the research was to analyze the dynamics of the position of river channel beds. Three rivers located within the western part of Polish Carpathians were chosen for the analysis: the Ropa river, the Kamienica Nawojowska river and the Ochotnica river. They are typical rivers for the Beskidy Mountains, medium Flysch mountains. To assess changes in the position of channel bed long-term series of data of minimum water stages in the river were used. The Ropa river is the biggest left tributary of the Wisłoka river (basin a of the upper Vistula River). The total length of the river amounts to 80 km, its gradient equals 58.9‰ and the water basin area amounts to 974 km2. The Kamienica Nawojowska river, with a length of 32.2 km is a right tributary of Dunajec river. The average decrease for the entire watercourse is 18.1‰. The catchment area is 238 km2. The Ochotnica river is 22.7 km long and it is a left tributary of the Dunajec river. The average slope for the entire watercourse is 36.1‰. The Ochotnica river characterized by deep valleys (catchment area 107.6 km2). Analysis of trends in minimum annual water stages in the alluvial Ropa river channel throughout the multi-year period of 1995-2014 shows an increasing trend amounting to 0.8 cm/year. In the Kamienica Nawojowska river the tendency of incision was observed starting from the 1960 to 2014. Average annual rate of increase of the minimum stages was between 0.4 to 1.2 cm/year. On the basis of the analysis of the minimum water levels in the years 1972-2011 two periods can be seen with different tendencies to change the position of the Ochotnica channel bottom. The first covers the years 1972-1996, where aggradation (3.9 cm/year) was the predominant process while in the period 1997-2011 incision

  8. Using Sentinel-2A multispectral imagery to explore for deep groundwater resources in the Ceres-Tankwa Karoo, Western Cape, South Africa: Significance for the 'water-energy(-food) nexus' in an arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnady, Chris; Wise, Edward; Hartnady, Michael; Olianti, Camille; Hay, E. Rowena

    2017-04-01

    The Ceres-Tankwa region is an arid region in the south-western part of the main Karoo Basin, underlain by folded and faulted strata of the Cape and lower Karoo Supergroups in the syntaxis zone between the Western and Southern branches of the Cape Fold Belt. Explored for oil in the mid-1960s, with the drilling of the >3000 m deep KL1/65 borehole, the area recently attracted attention as a potential shale-gas prospect with the drilling in 2015 of the 671 m-deep KZF-1 research borehole on the farm Zandfontein (de Kock et al, 2016). KZF-1 encountered no positive indication of methane gas in the carbonaceous shale target but intersected a strong flow of deep groundwater from fractures in the basal Dwyka tillite. The accidental discovery of deep artesian groundwater, probably originating from the underlying Cape Supergroup aquifers and of significantly better quality than the shallow aquifer utilised by local farmers, has important implications for future development here. Using 13-channel multispectral data from the European Space Agency satellite Sentinel-2A, a false-colour composite image, centred about the KZF-1 location, was assembled by combination of selected spectral band-ratios. Stratigraphic layering and associated folding within the hitherto undivided, pelitic Tierberg Formation (Ecca Group), is revealed in striking new detail, together with narrow lines of stratal offset corresponding to previously unmapped faults. KZF-1 is evidently sited within an anomalous NE/SW-striking belt, unlike the general NNW/SSE strike of Cape-Karoo sequence strata in the north-western part of the image. Associated with a notable strike change of a lower Tierberg marker unit, subparallel to and aligned with a similar trend in the Swartruggens mountain foothills to the SW, a deep-seated, controlling, NE/SW-striking fault structure may continue downwards from the lower Karoo units into the underlying Cape strata, providing hydraulic connection. With the looming threat of global

  9. Freshwater shrimps (Macrobrachium depressimanum and Macrobrachium jelskii) as biomonitors of Hg availability in the Madeira River Basin, Western Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, R C F; Holanda, I B B; De Carvalho, D P; Almeida, R; Souza, C M M; Lacerda, L D; Bastos, W R

    2018-01-10

    Total mercury (THg) concentrations measured in two freshwater shrimp species (Macrobrachium depressimanum and Macrobrachium jelskii) showed a relationship with the location of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) from the Madeira River Basin, Western Amazon. Between August 2009 and May 2010, 212 shrimp samples were collected in the confluence of the Madeira River with three of its tributaries (Western Amazon). THg concentration was quantified in the exoskeleton, hepatopancreas and muscle tissue of the shrimps by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry. There were no significant differences between the two shrimp species when samples came from the Madeira River, but Hg concentrations were significantly lower in a tributary outside the influence of the gold mining area. Average THg concentrations were higher in the hepatopancreas (up to 160.0 ng g -1 ) and lower in the exoskeleton and muscle tissue (10.0-35.0 ng g -1 and Madeira River respond to local environmental levels of Hg and can be considered as biomonitors for environmental Hg at this spatial scale. These organisms are important for moving Hg up food webs including those that harbor economic significant fish species and thus enhancing human exposure.

  10. Mesozooplankton Graze on Cyanobacteria in the Amazon River Plume and Western Tropical North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon J. Conroy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Diazotrophic cyanobacteria, those capable of fixing di-nitrogen (N2, are considered one of the major sources of new nitrogen (N in the oligotrophic tropical ocean, but direct incorporation of diazotrophic N into food webs has not been fully examined. In the Amazon River-influenced western tropical North Atlantic (WTNA, diatom diazotroph associations (DDAs and the filamentous colonial diazotrophs Trichodesmium have seasonally high abundances. We sampled epipelagic mesozooplankton in the Amazon River plume and WTNA in May–June 2010 to investigate direct grazing by mesozooplankton on two DDA populations: Richelia associated with Rhizosolenia diatoms (het-1 and Hemiaulus diatoms (het-2, and on Trichodesmium using highly specific qPCR assays targeting nitrogenase genes (nifH. Both DDAs and Trichodesmium occurred in zooplankton gut contents, with higher detection of het-2 predominantly in calanoid copepods (2.33–16.76 nifH copies organism-1. Abundance of Trichodesmium was low (2.21–4.03 nifH copies organism-1, but they were consistently detected at high salinity stations (>35 in calanoid copepods. This suggests direct grazing on DDAs, Trichodesmium filaments and colonies, or consumption as part of sinking aggregates, is common. In parallel with the qPCR approach, a next generation sequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes identified that cyanobacterial assemblage associated with zooplankton guts was dominated by the non-diazotrophic unicellular phylotypes Synechococcus (56% and Prochlorococcus (26%. However, in two separate calanoid copepod samples, two unicellular diazotrophs Candidatus Atelocyanobacterium thalassa (UCYN-A and Crocosphaera watsonii (UCYN-B were present, respectively, as a small component of cyanobacterial assemblages (<2%. This study represents the first evidence of consumption of DDAs, Trichodesmium, and unicellular cyanobacteria by calanoid copepods in an area of the WTNA known for high carbon export. These diazotroph populations

  11. Cape fearless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This article describes the Ilita Labantu (IL) group in South Africa, that is working to reduce child abuse and violence against women. The group started in 1989, with the aim of reducing child rape and sexual assaults in five townships in Cape Town. Child rape is perpetuated by myths sustained by witch doctors and indigenous medicine that promote child rape as a cure-all for symptoms ranging from poverty to AIDS. IL has four satellite groups that educate rape and abuse victims and potential victims. It is assumed that girls are potential victims because of their early unawareness that gender is tied to some patterns of behavior. IL trained mass media groups to educate the general public. IL distributes public information materials on how to identify domestic violence and abuse and how to identify potential rapists within households. Materials are distributed to individuals in community programs and in training programs. Child survivors make presentations in playgroups in a nonthreatening way. IL interacts with courts of law, police stations, hospitals, and schools. The group refers 25-35 cases per day. The group is working on setting up private rooms in police stations where rape victims can make confidential complaints without public attention. IL also works to promote the use of alternative strategies for solving family conflicts.

  12. The distribution of thiamin and pyridoxine in the western tropical North Atlantic Amazon River plume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Pualani Barada

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available B-vitamins are recognized as essential organic growth factors for many organisms, although little is known about their abundance and distribution in marine ecosystems. Despite their metabolic functions regulating important enzymatic reactions, the methodology to directly measure different B-vitamins in aquatic environments has only recently been developed. Here, we present the first direct measurements of two B-vitamins, thiamin (B1 and pyridoxine (B6, in the Amazon River plume-influenced Western Tropical North Atlantic (WTNA Ocean, an area known to have high productivity, carbon (C and dinitrogen (N2 fixation, and C sequestration. The vitamins B1 and B6 ranged in concentrations from undetectable to 230 pM and 40 pM, respectively. Significantly higher concentrations were measured in the surface plume water at some stations and variation with salinity was observed, suggesting a possible riverine influence on those B-vitamins. The influences of vitamins B1 and B6 on biogeochemical processes such as C and N2 fixation were investigated using a linear-regression model that indicated that the availability of those organic factors could affect these rates in the WTNA. In fact, significant increases in C fixation and N2 fixation were observed with increasing vitamin B1 concentrations at some low and mesohaline stations (stations 9.1 and 1; p value <0.017 and <0.03, respectively. N2 fixation was also found to have a significant positive correlation with B1 concentrations at station 1 (p value = 0.029, as well as vitamin B6 at station 9.1 (p value <0.017. This work suggests that there can be a dynamic interplay between essential biogeochemical rates (C and N2 fixation and B-vitamins, drawing attention to potential roles of B-vitamins in ecosystem dynamics, community structure, and global biogeochemistry.

  13. Grazing by Zooplankton on Diazotrophs in the Amazon River Plume and Western Tropical North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, B.; Steinberg, D. K.; Song, B.; Foster, R.

    2016-02-01

    Organisms capable of fixing di-nitrogen (N2), known as diazotrophs, are important primary producers and a potentially significant source for new nitrogen entering the planktonic food web. However, limited evidence exists for zooplankton grazing on diazotrophs compared to other primary producers. In the western tropical North Atlantic Ocean (WTNA), the Amazon River plume creates a niche for symbiotic diatom-diazotroph associations (DDAs) which can form large blooms. In adjacent non-plume-influenced waters, the colonial cyanobacterium Trichodesmium is abundant. In order to reveal zooplankton-diazotroph grazing interactions and determine the fate of newly fixed nitrogen, gut contents of zooplankton captured in these two regions were compared based on quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay of nitrogenase genes (nifH), and their microbiomes compared using next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis of 16S rRNA genes. We sampled individual copepods from discrete depth intervals (0-25m and 25-50m) and in two size classes (0.5-1mm and 1-2mm) for analysis. A modified DNA extraction protocol was developed and 54 extracts were used as templates in nifH qPCR assays for the larger size fraction diazotrophs (>10µm): Trichodesmium, and Hemiaulus or Rhizosolenia (diatoms)-Richelia (diazotroph) associations. Copepod gut content nifH copies ranged from 1.6 to 13.6 copies individual-1 for the assay targeting the Hemiaulus-Richelia DDA and from 1.1 to 3.0 copies individual-1 for Trichodesmium. 16S NGS conducted on 35 extracts with an Ion Torrent PGM and mothur revealed that cyanobacteria sequences accounted for up to 20% of sequences per extract. Our results show that both DDAs and Trichodesmium are prey for zooplankton, and that new nitrogen moves through the food web via these grazing interactions. These interactions should be considered in future explorations of the global ocean nitrogen cycle.

  14. Impacts of changing climate and snow cover on the flow regime of Jhelum River, Western Himalayas

    KAUST Repository

    Azmat, Muhammad

    2016-11-17

    This study examines the change in climate variables and snow cover dynamics and their impact on the hydrological regime of the Jhelum River basin in Western Himalayas. This study utilized daily streamflow records from Mangla dam, spanning a time period of 19 years (1995–2013), along with precipitation and temperature data over 52 years (1961–2013) from 12 different climate stations in the catchment. Additionally, moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) remote sensing product MOD10A2 was utilized to analyze the change in snow cover dynamics during 2000–2013. The Pearson and Kendall rank correlation tests were used to scrutinize snow cover trends and correlation between temperature, precipitation, snow cover area (SCA) and streamflows records. Basin-wide trend analysis showed a slightly increasing tendency in temperature (τ = 0.098) and precipitation (τ = 0.094), during the years 1961–2013. The changes in streamflow indicated a positive (r > 0.12) relationship with respect to temperature but variable trends (r = −0.45–0.41) with respect to precipitation during both the winter and monsoon seasons. This indicates that temperature has a significant impact on the hydrological regime of the basin. MODIS data-based investigations suggested an expansion in SCA during 2000–2013. The changes in SCA of high-altitude zones (>2000 m a.s.l.) depicted a stronger positive correlation with climate variables and streamflow compared with those obtained for low-altitude regions (<2000 m a.s.l.). Overall, these results signify that high-altitude areas contribute to the streamflow largely in the form of snow- and glacier-melt during the early summer season. The streamflow is then further augmented by monsoon rainfall in the low-elevation regions during late summer.

  15. Winter precipitation characteristics in western US related to atmospheric river landfalls: observations and model evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Guan, B.; Waliser, D. E.; Ferraro, R. D.; Case, J. L.; Iguchi, T.; Kemp, E.; Putman, W.; Wang, W.; Wu, D.; Tian, B.

    2018-01-01

    Winter precipitation (PR) characteristics in western United States (WUS) related to atmospheric river (AR) landfalls are examined using the observation-based PRISM data. The observed AR-related precipitation characteristics are in turn used to evaluate model precipitation data from the NASA MERRA2 reanalysis and from seven dynamical downscaling simulations driven by the MERRA2. Multiple metrics including mean bias, Taylor diagram, and two skill scores are used to measure model performance for three climatological sub-regions in WUS, Pacific Northwest (PNW), Pacific Southwest (PSW) and Great Basin (GB). All model data well represent the winter-mean PR with spatial pattern correlations of 0.8 or higher with PRISM for the three sub-regions. Higher spatial resolutions and/or the use of spectral nudging generally yield higher skill scores in simulating the geographical distribution of PR for the entire winter. The PRISM data shows that the AR-related fraction of winter PR and associated daily PR PDFs in each region vary strongly for landfall locations; AR landfalls in the northern WUS coast (NC) affect mostly PNW while those in the southern WUS coast (SC) affect both PSW and GB. NC (SC) landfalls increase the frequency of heavy PR in PNW (PSW and GB) but reduce it in PSW (PNW). All model data reasonably represent these observed variations in the AR-related winter PR fractions and the daily PR PDFs according to AR landfall locations. However, unlike for the entire winter period, no systematic effects of resolution and/or spectral nudging are identified in these AR-related PR characteristics. Dynamical downscaling in this study generally yield positive added values to the MERRA2 PR in the AR-related PR fraction for most sub-regions and landfall locations, most noticeably for PSW by NU-WRF. The downscaling also generate positive added value in p95 for PNW, but negative values for PSW and GB due to overestimation of heavy precipitation events.

  16. AIDS-Related Endemic Mycoses in Western Cape, South Africa, and Clinical Mimics: A Cross-Sectional Study of Adults With Advanced HIV and Recent-Onset, Widespread Skin Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris; Lehloenya, Rannakoe; Claasens, Saskya; Spengane, Zandile; Prozesky, Hans; Burton, Rosie; Parker, Arifa; Wasserman, Sean; Meintjes, Graeme; Mendelson, Marc; Taljaard, Jantjie; Schneider, Johann W; Beylis, Natalie; Maloba, Bonnie; Govender, Nelesh P; Colebunders, Robert; Dlamini, Sipho

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Skin lesions are common in advanced HIV infection and are sometimes caused by serious diseases like systemic mycoses (SM). AIDS-related SM endemic to Western Cape, South Africa, include emergomycosis (formerly disseminated emmonsiosis), histoplasmosis, and sporotrichosis. We previously reported that 95% of patients with AIDS-related emergomycosis had skin lesions, although these were frequently overlooked or misdiagnosed clinically. Prospective studies are needed to characterize skin lesions of SM in South Africa and to help distinguish these from common HIV-related dermatoses. Methods We prospectively enrolled HIV-infected adult patients living in Western Cape, South Africa, with CD4 counts ≤100 cells/μL and widespread skin lesions present ≤6 months that were deemed clinically compatible with SM. We obtained skin biopsies for histopathology and fungal culture and collected epidemiological and clinical data. Results Of 34 patients enrolled and in whom a diagnosis could be made, 25 had proven SM: 14 had emergomycosis, and 3 each had histoplasmosis and sporotrichosis; for 5 additional patients, the fungal species could not be identified. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) had been initiated in the preceding 4 weeks for 11/25 (44%) patients with SM (vs no patients without SM). Plaques and scale crust occurred more frequently in patients with SM (96% vs 25%, P = .0002; and 67% vs 13%, P = .01, respectively). Conclusions Recent ART initiation and presence of plaques or scale crust should make clinicians consider SM in patients with advanced HIV infection in this geographic area. Clinical overlap between SM and other dermatoses makes early skin biopsy critical for timely diagnosis and treatment. PMID:29164168

  17. A Flash Flood Study on the Small Montaneous River Catchments in Western Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Győri, Maria-Mihaela; Haidu, Ionel; Humbert, Joël

    2013-04-01

    The present study focuses on flash flood modeling on several mountaneous catchments situated in Western Romania by the use of two methodologies, when rainfall and catchment characteristics are known. Hence, the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) Method and the Rational Method will be employed for the generation of the 1%, 2% and 10% historical flash flood hydrographs on the basis of data spanning from 1989-2009. The SCS Method has been applied on the three gauged catchments in the study area: Petris, Troas and Monorostia making use of the existing interconnection between GIS and the rainfall-runoff models. The DEM, soil data and land use preprocessing in GIS allowed a determination of the hydrologic parameters needed for the rainfall-runoff model, with special emphasis on determining the time of concentration, Lag time and the weighted Curve Number according to Antecedent Moisture Conditions II, adapted for the Romanian territory. HEC-HMS rainfall-runoff model (Hydrologic Engineering Center- Hydrologic Modeling System) facilitates the historical 1%, 2% and 10% flash flood hydrograph generation for the three afore mentioned watersheds. The model is calibrated against measured streamflow data from the three existing gauging stations. The results show a good match between the resulted hydrographs and the observed hydrographs under the form of the Peak Weighted Error RMS values. The hydrographs generated by surface runoff on the ungauged catchments in the area is based on an automation of a workflow in GIS, built with ArcGIS Model Builder graphical interface, as a large part of the functions needed were available as ArcGIS tools. The several components of this model calculate: the runoff depth in mm, the runoff coefficient, the travel time and finally the discharge module which is an application of the rational method, allowing the discharge computation for every cell within the catchment. The result consists of discharges for each isochrones that will be subsequently

  18. Water temperature profiles for reaches of the Raging River during summer baseflow, King County, western Washington, July 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Opatz, Chad C.

    2016-03-22

    Re-introducing wood into rivers where it was historically removed is one approach to improving habitat conditions in rivers of the Pacific Northwest. The Raging River drainage basin, which flows into the Snoqualmie River at Fall City, western Washington, was largely logged during the 20th century and wood was removed from its channel. To improve habitat conditions for several species of anadromous salmonids that spawn and rear in the Raging River, King County Department of Transportation placed untethered log jams in a 250-meter reach where wood was historically removed. The U.S. Geological Survey measured longitudinal profiles of near-streambed temperature during summer baseflow along 1,026 meters of channel upstream, downstream, and within the area of wood placements. These measurements were part of an effort by King County to monitor the geomorphic and biological responses to these wood placements. Near-streambed temperatures averaged over about 1-meter intervals were measured with a fiber‑optic distributed temperature sensor every 30 minutes for 7 days between July 7 and 13, 2015. Vertical temperature profiles were measured coincident with the longitudinal temperature profile at four locations at 0 centimeters (cm) (at the streambed), and 35 and 70 cm beneath the streambed to document thermal dynamics of the hyporheic zone and surface water in the study reach.

  19. RANGE AND DENSITY OF ALIEN FISH IN WESTERN STREAMS AND RIVERS, US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alien fish have become increasingly prevalent in Western U.S. waters. The EPA Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program's Western Pilot (12 western states), which is based upon a probabilistic design, provides an opportunity to make inferences about the range and density of...

  20. Modeling of extreme freshwater outflow from the north-eastern Japanese river basins to western Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troselj, Josko; Sayama, Takahiro; Varlamov, Sergey M.; Sasaki, Toshiharu; Racault, Marie-Fanny; Takara, Kaoru; Miyazawa, Yasumasa; Kuroki, Ryusuke; Yamagata, Toshio; Yamashiki, Yosuke

    2017-12-01

    This study demonstrates the importance of accurate extreme discharge input in hydrological and oceanographic combined modeling by introducing two extreme typhoon events. We investigated the effects of extreme freshwater outflow events from river mouths on sea surface salinity distribution (SSS) in the coastal zone of the north-eastern Japan. Previous studies have used observed discharge at the river mouth, as well as seasonally averaged inter-annual, annual, monthly or daily simulated data. Here, we reproduced the hourly peak discharge during two typhoon events for a targeted set of nine rivers and compared their impact on SSS in the coastal zone based on observed, climatological and simulated freshwater outflows in conjunction with verification of the results using satellite remote-sensing data. We created a set of hourly simulated freshwater outflow data from nine first-class Japanese river basins flowing to the western Pacific Ocean for the two targeted typhoon events (Chataan and Roke) and used it with the integrated hydrological (CDRMV3.1.1) and oceanographic (JCOPE-T) model, to compare the case using climatological mean monthly discharges as freshwater input from rivers with the case using our hydrological model simulated discharges. By using the CDRMV model optimized with the SCE-UA method, we successfully reproduced hindcasts for peak discharges of extreme typhoon events at the river mouths and could consider multiple river basin locations. Modeled SSS results were verified by comparison with Chlorophyll-a distribution, observed by satellite remote sensing. The projection of SSS in the coastal zone became more realistic than without including extreme freshwater outflow. These results suggest that our hydrological models with optimized model parameters calibrated to the Typhoon Roke and Chataan cases can be successfully used to predict runoff values from other extreme precipitation events with similar physical characteristics. Proper simulation of extreme

  1. Potential impacts of climate change on flow regime and fish habitat in mountain rivers of the south-western Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, Christina; Soulis, Konstantinos; Muñoz-Mas, Rafael; Martinez-Capel, Francisco; Zogaris, Stamatis; Ntoanidis, Lazaros; Dimitriou, Elias

    2016-01-01

    The climate change in the Mediterranean area is expected to have significant impacts on the aquatic ecosystems and particular in the mountain rivers and streams that often host important species such as the Salmo farioides, Karaman 1938. These impacts will most possibly affect the habitat availability for various aquatic species resulting to an essential alteration of the water requirements, either for dams or other water abstractions, in order to maintain the essential levels of ecological flow for the rivers. The main scope of this study was to assess potential climate change impacts on the hydrological patterns and typical biota for a south-western Balkan mountain river, the Acheloos. The altered flow regimes under different emission scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) were estimated using a hydrological model and based on regional climate simulations over the study area. The Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) methodology was then used to assess the potential streamflow alterations in the studied river due to predicted climate change conditions. A fish habitat simulation method integrating univariate habitat suitability curves and hydraulic modeling techniques were used to assess the impacts on the relationships between the aquatic biota and hydrological status utilizing a sentinel species, the West Balkan trout. The most prominent effects of the climate change scenarios depict severe flow reductions that are likely to occur especially during the summer flows, changing the duration and depressing the magnitude of the natural low flow conditions. Weighted Usable Area-flow curves indicated the limitation of suitable habitat for the native trout. Finally, this preliminary application highlighted the potential of science-based hydrological and habitat simulation approaches that are relevant to both biological quality elements (fish) and current EU Water policy to serve as efficient tools for the estimation of possible climate

  2. Shifting dominance of riparian Populus and Tamarix along gradients of flow alteration in western North American rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, David M; Poff, N LeRoy

    2010-01-01

    Tamarix ramosissima is a naturalized, nonnative plant species which has become widespread along riparian corridors throughout the western United States. We test the hypothesis that the distribution and success of Tamarix result from human modification of river-flow regimes. We conducted a natural experiment in eight ecoregions in arid and semiarid portions of the western United States, measuring Tamarix and native Populus recruitment and abundance at 64 sites along 13 perennial rivers spanning a range of altered flow regimes. We quantified biologically relevant attributes of flow alteration as an integrated measure (the index of flow modification, IFM), which was then used to explain between-site variation in abundance and recruitment of native and nonnative riparian plant species. We found the likelihood of successful recruitment of Tamarix to be highest along unregulated river reaches and to remain high across a gradient of regulated flows. Recruitment probability for Populus, in contrast, was highest under free-flowing conditions and declined abruptly under even slight flow modification (IFM > 0.1). Adult Tamarix was most abundant at intermediate levels of IFM. Populus abundance declined sharply with modest flow regulation (IFM > 0.2) and was not present at the most flow-regulated sites. Dominance of Tamarix was highest along rivers with the most altered flow regimes. At the 16 least regulated sites, Tamarix and Populus were equally abundant. Given observed patterns of Tamarix recruitment and abundance, we infer that Tamarix would likely have naturalized, spread, and established widely in riparian communities in the absence of dam construction, diversions, and flow regulation in western North America. However, Tamarix dominance over native species would likely be less extensive in the absence of human alteration of river-flow regimes. Restoration that combines active mechanical removal of established stands of Tamarix with a program of flow releases conducive to

  3. Ensuring water supply for all towns and villages in the Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Cape and Western Cape Provinces of South Africa. ER Hay1, K .... The current water balance (see Fig. 1) and the .... in selected towns in the Eastern and Western Cape. Town .... work in order to reduce the risk of failure in the water supply to the town. .... Asset management, to prolong the life of the infrastructure.

  4. "It's important to take your medication everyday okay?" An evaluation of counselling by lay counsellors for ARV adherence support in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewing, S; Mathews, C; Schaay, N; Cloete, A; Louw, J; Simbayi, L

    2013-01-01

    There is growing interest in standard care programmes for antiretroviral (ARV) adherence support. In South Africa, individual counselling following ARV initiation is a main strategy for supporting adherence in the public sector. Egan's client-centred "Skilled Helper" counselling model is the predominant model used in HIV counselling in this context. This study evaluated counselling delivered by lay ARV adherence counsellors in Cape Town in terms of adherence to Egan's model. Thirty-eight transcripts of counselling sessions with non-adherent patients were analysed based on the methods of content analysis. These sessions were conducted by 30 counsellors. Generally counsellors' practice adhered neither to Egan's model nor a client-centred approach. Inconsistent with evidence-based approaches to counselling for ARV adherence support, counsellors mainly used information-giving and advice as strategies for addressing clients' non-adherence. Recommendations for improving practice are made. The question as to how appropriate strategies from developed countries are for this setting is also raised.

  5. USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS TECHNIQUES TO DETECT CHANGES TO THE PRINCE ALFRED HAMLET CONSERVATION AREA IN THE WESTERN CAPE, SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Duncan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and identifying the spatial-temporal changes in the natural environment is crucial for monitoring and evaluating conservation efforts, as well as understanding the impact of human activities on natural resources, informing responsible land management, and promoting better decision-making. Conservation areas are often under pressure from expanding farming and related industry, invasive alien vegetation, and an ever-increasing human settlement footprint. This study focuses on detecting changes to the Prince Alfred Hamlet commonage, near Ceres in the Cape Floral Kingdom. It was chosen for its high conservation value and significance as a critical water source area. The study area includes a fast-growing human settlement footprint in a highly productive farming landscape. There are conflicting development needs as well as risks to agricultural production, and both of these threaten the integrity of the ecosystems which supply underlying services to both demands on the land. Using a multi-disciplinary approach and high-resolution satellite imagery, land use and land cover changes can be detected and classified, and the results used to support the conservation of biodiversity and wildlife, and protect our natural resources. The aim of this research is to study the efficacy of using remote sensing and GIS techniques to detect changes to critical conservation areas where disturbances can be understood, and therefore better managed and mitigated before these areas are degraded beyond repair.

  6. Small-scale Fisheries Governance and Understanding the Snoek (Thyrsites atun Supply Chain in the Ocean View Fishing Community, Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moenieba Isaacs

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Postapartheid fisheries reform in South Africa, through the Marine Living Resources Act (MLRA 18 of 1998, used individual transferable quotas (ITQs to broaden resource access through allocating quotas to new entrants, even though the system has been created to reduce capacity through a reduction in the number of active fishers. The formal action space created through fisheries reform in South Africa left many artisanal fishers to operate in the informal action spaces, selling Thyrsites atun (snoek to poor communities to sustain their livelihoods. Artisanal fishers were not recognized by MLRA of 1998 and through class action case brought against the ITQ system, and in out of court settlement with the claimants in 2007, 1000 interim relief permits will be allocated to artisanal fishes and the development of a new small-scale fisheries policy for South Africa. In this case study of a fishing community in Ocean View, Cape Town I examine a snoek fishery that operates differently, through a community supply chain and informal markets, than that of the high value ITQ regulated species, yet plays a significant role in the livelihoods of artisanal fishers and in the food security of poor households. The findings of this case study show the failures of existing policy frameworks and the implications for the implementation of the new small-scale fisheries policy in South Africa.

  7. Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques to Detect Changes to the Prince Alfred Hamlet Conservation Area in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, P.; Lewarne, M.

    2016-06-01

    Understanding and identifying the spatial-temporal changes in the natural environment is crucial for monitoring and evaluating conservation efforts, as well as understanding the impact of human activities on natural resources, informing responsible land management, and promoting better decision-making. Conservation areas are often under pressure from expanding farming and related industry, invasive alien vegetation, and an ever-increasing human settlement footprint. This study focuses on detecting changes to the Prince Alfred Hamlet commonage, near Ceres in the Cape Floral Kingdom. It was chosen for its high conservation value and significance as a critical water source area. The study area includes a fast-growing human settlement footprint in a highly productive farming landscape. There are conflicting development needs as well as risks to agricultural production, and both of these threaten the integrity of the ecosystems which supply underlying services to both demands on the land. Using a multi-disciplinary approach and high-resolution satellite imagery, land use and land cover changes can be detected and classified, and the results used to support the conservation of biodiversity and wildlife, and protect our natural resources. The aim of this research is to study the efficacy of using remote sensing and GIS techniques to detect changes to critical conservation areas where disturbances can be understood, and therefore better managed and mitigated before these areas are degraded beyond repair.

  8. Alluvial flash-flood stratigraphy of a large dryland river: the Luni River, Thar Desert, Western India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carling, Paul; Leclair, Suzanne; Robinson, Ruth

    2017-04-01

    Detailed descriptions of the fluvial architecture of large dryland rivers are few, which hinders the understanding of stratigraphic development in aggradational settings. The aim of this study was to obtain new generic insight of the fluvial dynamics and resultant stratigraphy of such a river. The novelty of this investigation is that an unusually extensive and deep section across a major active dryland river was logged and the dated stratigraphy related to the behaviour of the discharge regimen. The results should help improve understanding of the stratigraphic development in modern dryland rivers and in characterizing oil, gas and groundwater reservoirs in the dryland geological record more generally. The Luni River is the largest river in the Thar desert, India, but yet details of the channel stratigraphy are sparse. Discharges can reach 14,000 m3s-1 but the bed is dry most of the year. GPS positioning and mm-resolution surveys within a 700m long, 5m deep trench enabled logging and photography of the strata associations, dated using optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL). The deposits consist of planar, sandy, upper-stage plane bed lamination and low-angle stratification, sandwiching less-frequent dune trough cross-sets. Mud clasts are abundant at any elevation. Water-ripple cross-sets or silt-clay layers occur rarely, usually near the top of sections. Aeolian dune cross-sets also appear sparsely at higher elevations. Consequently, the majority of preserved strata are due to supercritical flows. Localized deep scour causes massive collapse and soft-sediment deformation. Scour holes are infilled by rapidly-deposited massive sands adjacent to older bedded-deposits. Within bedform phase diagrams, estimated hydraulic parameters indicate a dominance of the upper-stage plane bed state, but the presence of dune cross-sets is also related to the flood hydrograph. Repeated deep scour results in units of deposition of different OSL ages (50 to 500 years BP) found at

  9. Mass-movement deposits in the lacustrine Eocene Green River Formation, Piceance Basin, western Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Mercier, Tracey J.

    2015-01-01

    The Eocene Green River Formation was deposited in two large Eocene saline lakes, Lake Uinta in the Uinta and Piceance Basins and Lake Gosiute in the Greater Green River Basin. Here we will discuss mass-movement deposits in just the Piceance Basin part of Lake Uinta.

  10. Road kills of amphibians in different land use areas from Sharavathi river basin, central Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Seshadri

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A survey of amphibian mortality on roads was carried out in the Sharavathi river basin in the central Western Ghats. Road kills in three different land use areas: agricultural fields, water bodies and forests were recorded for four days along three 100m stretches in each type of area. One-hundred-and-forty-four individuals belonging to two orders, eight families, 11 genera and 13 species were recorded in the survey. Kills/km observed were: in forest 55, agricultural fields 38 and water bodies 27, for an overall average of 40 kills/km. Kill species compositions varied significantly between land use areas, but not overall kill rates.

  11. Simulation of daily streamflow for 12 river basins in western Iowa using the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Daniel E.; Haj, Adel E.; Risley, John C.

    2017-10-24

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Iowa Department of Natural Resources, constructed Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System models to estimate daily streamflow for 12 river basins in western Iowa that drain into the Missouri River. The Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System is a deterministic, distributed-parameter, physical-process-based modeling system developed to evaluate the response of streamflow and general drainage basin hydrology to various combinations of climate and land use. Calibration periods for each basin varied depending on the period of record available for daily mean streamflow measurements at U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations.A geographic information system tool was used to delineate each basin and estimate initial values for model parameters based on basin physical and geographical features. A U.S. Geological Survey automatic calibration tool that uses a shuffled complex evolution algorithm was used for initial calibration, and then manual modifications were made to parameter values to complete the calibration of each basin model. The main objective of the calibration was to match daily discharge values of simulated streamflow to measured daily discharge values. The Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System model was calibrated at 42 sites located in the 12 river basins in western Iowa.The accuracy of the simulated daily streamflow values at the 42 calibration sites varied by river and by site. The models were satisfactory at 36 of the sites based on statistical results. Unsatisfactory performance at the six other sites can be attributed to several factors: (1) low flow, no flow, and flashy flow conditions in headwater subbasins having a small drainage area; (2) poor representation of the groundwater and storage components of flow within a basin; (3) lack of accounting for basin withdrawals and water use; and (4) limited availability and accuracy of meteorological input data. The Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System

  12. Fish assemblage structure and habitat associations in a large western river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C.D.; Quist, Michael C.; Hardy, R. S.

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal gradients of fish assemblage and habitat structure were investigated in the Kootenai River of northern Idaho. A total of 43 500-m river reaches was sampled repeatedly with several techniques (boat-mounted electrofishing, hoop nets and benthic trawls) in the summers of 2012 and 2013. Differences in habitat and fish assemblage structure were apparent along the longitudinal gradient of the Kootenai River. Habitat characteristics (e.g. depth, substrate composition and water velocity) were related to fish assemblage structure in three different geomorphic river sections. Upper river sections were characterized by native salmonids (e.g. mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni), whereas native cyprinids (peamouth Mylocheilus caurinus, northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis) and non-native fishes (pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus, yellow perch Perca flavescens) were common in the downstream section. Overall, a general pattern of species addition from upstream to downstream sections was discovered and is likely related to increased habitat complexity and additions of non-native species in downstream sections. Assemblage structure of the upper sections were similar, but were both dissimilar to the lower section of the Kootenai River. Species-specific hurdle regressions indicated the relationships among habitat characteristics and the predicted probability of occurrence and relative abundance varied by species. Understanding fish assemblage structure in relation to habitat could improve conservation efforts of rare fishes and improve management of coldwater river systems.

  13. Imitation modeling of ice dams (case study of Tom’ River, Western Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Zemtsov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The factors of ice jam formations in the lower flow of the Tom River (Siberia are investigated. A length of the main channel under investigation is about 120 km. Approaches to solution of the problem of the jam formation control and, as a consequence, the jam induced floods are considered on the basis of the imitative computer modeling of stream dynamics and ice jams. The simulation makes it possible to analyze different scenarios of initial forcing and to predict reactions of the river bed system to the effects. On the basis of 1D models developed in the HEC-RAS 4.0 modeling system for the Tom River at the city of Tomsk we investigated a possibility of the ice jam localization, probability of which at different parts of river flow varies in time according to change of the river water discharge, stream hydraulics, and ice cover thickness. The 2D hydrodynamic model of the Tom River channel system in the SMS 9.2 modeling system has been developed. It allows simulating effects of ice jams located in different sections of the river flow on the run-off redistribution between the main channel and other river branches. It makes possible to estimate hazards and risks of ice jam floods and probable effects of ice jams on formation of the river channel system. As a result it becomes possible to regulate the safe spring ice transit through populated areas.Analysis of factors of the ice jam formations has demonstrated that due to increasing anthropogenic influence changes of hydro-meteorological and geomorphologic conditions lead to more frequent occurrence of jam floods for the last 25 years as compared to previous 40-year period. The imitative computer models are proposed to be used for planning anti-jam measures since they make possible to create a whole system of the channel structure, a relief of channel and floodplain, a flow velocity field including dangerous hydrologic processes. Similar system would allow predicting both consequences of local

  14. Appraisal of the surficial aquifers in the Pomme de Terre and Chippewa River Valleys, western Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukup, W.G.; Gillies, D.C.; Myette, C.F.

    1984-01-01

    The surf icial sands in the Pomme de Terre and Chippewa River valleys in Grant, Pope, Stevens, and Swift Counties have been studied to determine the occurrence, availability, and quality of ground water in these aquifers.

  15. Cape Kennedy Thunderstorms Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cape Kennedy Thunderstorms Data contains an account of all thunderstorms reported in weather observations taken at Cape Kennedy Air Force Station, Florida between...

  16. Palaeontological evidence for the last temporal occurrence of the ancient western Amazonian river outflow into the Caribbean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orangel Aguilera

    Full Text Available Fossil catfishes from fluvio-lacustrine facies of late Miocene Urumaco, early Pliocene Castilletes and late Pliocene San Gregorio formations provide evidence of a hydrographic connection in what is today desert regions of northern Colombia and Venezuela. New discoveries and reevaluation of existing materials leads to the recognition of two new records of the pimelodid Brachyplatystoma cf. vaillantii, and of three distinct doradid taxa: Doraops sp., Rhinodoras sp., and an unidentified third form. The presence of fossil goliath long-whiskered catfishes and thorny catfishes are indicative of the persistence of a fluvial drainage system inflow into the South Caribbean during the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary, complementary to the previous western Amazonian hydrographic system described from the Middle Miocene Villavieja Formation in central Colombia and Late Miocene Urumaco Formation in northwestern Venezuela. The Pliocene Castilletes and San Gregorio formations potentially represent the last lithostratigraphic units related with an ancient western Amazonian fish fauna and that drainage system in the Caribbean. Alternatively, it may preserve faunas from a smaller, peripheral river basin that was cut off earlier from the Amazon-Orinoco, today found in the Maracaibo basin and the Magdalena Rivers.

  17. The western pond turtle (Clemmys marmorata) in the Mojave River, California, USA: Highly adapted survivor or tenuous relict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovich, J.; Meyer, K.

    2002-01-01

    Aspects of the ecology of populations of the western pond turtle Clemmys marmorata were investigated in the Mojave River of the central Mojave Desert, California, U.S.A. One population occupied man-made ponds and the other occurred in natural ponds in the flood plain of the Mojave River. Both habitats are severely degraded as a result of ground water depletion from human activities along the river and one is infested with the exotic shrub saltcedar Tamarix ramosissima. Mean female carapace length (CL) was significantly greater (14.4 cm) than that of males (13.7 cm). Live juveniles were not detected during the period of study. Shelled eggs were visible in X-radiographs from 26 May to 14 July. Mean clutch size was 4.46 and ranged from 3 to 6 eggs. Clutch size did not vary between 1998 and 1999 but was significantly correlated with CL for both years combined, increasing at the rate of 0.548 eggs/cm CL. Gravid female CL ranged from 13.3-16.0 cm. Some females nested in both years. Mean X-ray egg width (21.8 mm) was not significantly correlated with CL or clutch size. X-ray egg width differed more among clutches than within, whether including CL as a co-variate or not. Nesting migrations occurred from 6 June to 8 July with minimum round trip distances ranging from 17.5-585 m with a mean of 195 m. Mean estimated time of departure as measured at the drift fence was 18:13. Most females returned to the ponds in the early morning. Nesting migrations required females to be out of the water for estimated periods of 0.83 to 86 h. The destination of nesting females was typically fluvial sand bars in the channel of the dry riverbed. Overall, the ecology of C. marmorata in the Mojave River is very similar to that reported for populations in less severe habitats along the west coast of the United States. Notable exceptions include long nesting migrations to sandbars in the dry river channel, a possible result of human modifications to the environment, and an apparent lack of

  18. Uranium favorability of tertiary sedimentary rocks of the western Okanogan highlands and of the upper Columbia River valley, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marjaniemi, D.K.; Robins, J.W.

    1975-08-01

    Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the northern portions of the western Okanogan highlands and in the upper Columbia River valley were investigated during a regional study to determine the favorability for potential uranium resources of the Tertiary sedimentary rocks of northeastern Washington. This project involved measurement and sampling of surface sections, collection of samples from isolated outcrops, and chemical and mineralogical analyses of samples. No portion of the project area of this report is rated of high or of medium favorability for potential uranium resources. Low favorability ratings are given to Oroville, Tonasket, and Pine Creek areas of the Okanogan River valley; to the Republic graben; and to the William Lakes, Colville, and Sheep Creek areas of the upper Columbia River valley. All these areas contain some fluvial, poorly sorted feldspathic or arkosic sandstones and conglomerates. These rocks are characterized by very low permeability and a consistently high siliceous matrix suggesting very low initial permeability. There are no known uranium deposits in any of these areas, and low level uranium anomalies are rare

  19. Management of human-induced salinization in the Berg River catchment (South Africa)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jovanovic, Nebojsa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Impacts on Salinity in Western Cape Waters. Water Research Commission Report No. K5/1503, Pretoria, South Africa. In press. Figure 1: Location and 20 m Digital Elevation Model of the Berg River basin. The red square indicates the approximate position..., and German Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF) for funding, SA Rock Drill, Caren Jarmain (University of KwaZulu Natal), University of the Western Cape, farmers, United States Geological Survey Historic land uses: ?Pre-1700 savanna, nomadic...

  20. Assessing the value of Western Cape Provincial Government health administrative data and electronic pharmacy records in ascertaining medicine use during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Mehta

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. In African settings, where there is a high disease burden, there is a need to improve the science of documenting and analysing accurate information regarding medicine exposures in women immediately before and during pregnancy to assess the extent of use and safety in pregnant women and their unborn children.Objectives. To compare evidence of medicine use during pregnancy, as documented in paper-based clinical records (maternity case records (MCRs against electronic health information resources (Provincial Health Data Centre (PHDC and assess the level of concordance between the two as part of baseline investigations before piloting a provincial pregnancy exposure registry and birth defect surveillance system. The PHDC consolidates electronic clinical and pharmacy data.Methods. A folder review of completed pregnancies between November 2013 and January 2016 was conducted on randomly selected MCRs from midwife-run obstetric units and a secondary maternity hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. Medication exposures in the MCR were captured and compared with a customised PHDC data extract. The type and timing of drug exposures were compared. Total exposures were compiled from all data sources.Results. Two hundred and six MCRs from three facilities were sampled: 83 women had documented antiretroviral therapy (ART exposure; all but 1 (1% had been recorded in the PHDC extract. There was no evidence of ART use in the MCRs of 4 (5% cases, despite evidence in the PHDC. There were imprecise drug names in the MCRs of 14 (17% ART patients, discordant dates of onset between the MCRs and PHDC extracts in 10/83 (12% and inaccurate medicine names and incorrect dates in 1 (1% case each. Nine of 10 (90% women who were administered antituberculosis medication were recorded in the PHDC extract. Ten of 21 (48% isoniazid preventive therapy treatments appeared in the MCRs and PHDC; 9 (42% in the PHDC only and 2 (10% in the MCRs only. Half (n=18/36 of all

  1. Prevalence of indicator and pathogenic bacteria in a tropical river of Western Ghats, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincy, M. V.; Brilliant, R.; Pradeepkumar, A. P.

    2017-05-01

    The Meenachil, the only river that flows through the heart of the Kottayam district of Kerala state, India was selected for the study. The present study has been carried out with an objective to systematically examine the prevalence of indicator and pathogenic microorganisms and to compare the microbiological quality of the river water during the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Water samples from 44 different sites during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons were collected for the analysis. During the pre-monsoon period, the faecal coliform count ranged from 230 to 110,000 MPN/100 ml while there was a variation from 200 to 4600 MPN/100 ml during the post-monsoon period. When the faecal streptococci count was analysed, it ranged from 140 to 110,000 MPN/100 ml during the pre-monsoon and 70 to 4600 MPN/100 ml during the post-monsoon seasons, respectively. All the samples collected were found to have total viable count (TVC) higher than those prescribed by Bureau of Indian Standards (ISI 1991). Total viable counts were found in the range of 1.1 × 102 to 32 × 102 cfu/ml in the pre-monsoon and 1.0 × 102 to 26 × 102 cfu/ml in the post-monsoon. The presence of faecal indicator bacteria, Escherichia coli and potentially pathogenic bacteria, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Salmonella enterica in the Meenachil River indicates that the bacteriological quality of the Meenachil River is poor. Moreover, it sheds light to the fact that raw sewage is being dumped into the Meenachil River. Urban runoffs and effluents of rubber factories appear to be the important sources of faecal contamination in the river. From this study, we conclude that these water bodies pose significant public health hazards. Adequate sanitary infrastructure will help in preventing source water contamination. Besides this, public health education aimed at improving personal, household and community hygiene is urgent.

  2. Use of a constucted wetland to reduce nonpoint-source pesticide contamination of the Lourens River, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralf Schulz

    2000-01-01

    The Lourens River, Western Cape, South Africa, and its tributaries situated in an intensively cultivated orchard area receive pesticide contamination during rainfall-induced runoff and during spraydrift. A 0.44-ha constructed wetland, built in 1991 in one of the tributaries (summer flow 0.03 m3 per second), was studied in order to assess its effectiveness in reducing...

  3. 76 FR 38302 - Safety Zone; Cape Charles Fireworks, Cape Charles Harbor, Cape Charles, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... the Town of Cape Charles will sponsor a fireworks display on the shoreline of the navigable waters of...-AA00 Safety Zone; Cape Charles Fireworks, Cape Charles Harbor, Cape Charles, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard... navigable waters of Cape Charles City Harbor in Cape Charles, VA in support of the Fourth of July Fireworks...

  4. 77 FR 29929 - Safety Zone; Town of Cape Charles Fireworks, Cape Charles Harbor, Cape Charles, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... section of this notice. Basis and Purpose On July 4, 2012 the Town of Cape Charles will sponsor a...-AA00 Safety Zone; Town of Cape Charles Fireworks, Cape Charles Harbor, Cape Charles, VA AGENCY: Coast... temporary safety zone on the waters of Cape Charles City Harbor in Cape Charles, VA in support of the Fourth...

  5. What does an enabling environment for infant and young child nutrition look like at implementation level? Perspectives from a multi-stakeholder process in the Breede Valley Sub-District, Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Plessis, L M; McLachlan, M H; Drimie, S E

    2018-02-13

    Breede Valley is a sub-district of the Cape Winelands district, Western Cape Province, South Africa. The administrative capital of the district is situated in the semi-rural town Worcester. Findings of a baseline survey in Worcester revealed poor infant feeding practices and childhood under- and overnutrition, with particular concern over high levels of stunting and low dietary diversity. Maternal overweight and obesity was high. These characteristics made the site suitable to study multi-sectoral arrangements for infant and young child nutrition (IYCN). The purpose of this study was to explore elements of an enabling environment with key stakeholders aimed at improving IYCN at implementation level. Focus group discussions and interviews were conducted with representatives from two vulnerable communities; local and district government; higher education institutions; business; and the media in the Breede Valley. Audio recordings were transcribed and data were analysed with the Atlas.TI software programme. The participants viewed knowledge and evidence about the first 1000 days of life as important to address IYCN. The impact of early, optimal nutrition on health and intellectual development resonated with them. The IYCN narrative in the Breede Valley could therefore be framed around nutrition's development impact in a well-structured advocacy campaign. Participants felt that capacity and resources were constrained by many competing agendas spreading public resources thinly, leaving limited scope for promotion and prevention activities. "People" were viewed as a resource, and building partnerships and relationships, could bridge some shortfalls in capacity. Conversations about politics and governance elicited strong opinions about what should be done through direct intervention, policy formulation and legislation. A lead government agency could not be identified for taking the IYCN agenda forward, due to its complexity. Participants proposed it should be referred to

  6. River Basin Scale Management and Governance: Competing Interests for Western Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Eric

    2015-04-01

    One of the most significant issues in regard to how social scientists understand environmental and resource management is the question of scale: what is the appropriate scale at which to consider environmental problems, and associated stakeholders (including hydrologists) and their interests, in order to "govern" them? Issues of scale touch on the reality of political boundaries, from the international to the local, and their overlap and conflict across jurisdictions. This presentation will consider the questions of environmental management and governance at the river basin scale through the case of the Boise River Basin (BRB), in southwest Idaho. The river basin scale provides a viable, and generalizable, unit of analysis with which to consider theoretical and empirical questions associated with governance and the role of hydrological science in decision making. As a unit of analysis, the "river basin" is common among engineers and hydrologists. Indeed, hydrological data is often collected and assessed at the basin level, not at an institutional or jurisdictional level. In the case of the BRB much is known from the technical perspective, such as infrastructure and engineering factors, who manages the river and how, and economic perspectives, in regard to benefits in support of major agricultural interests in the region. The same level of knowledge cannot be said about the political and societal factors, and related concepts of institutions and power. Compounding the situation is the increasing probability of climate change impacts in the American West. The geographic focus on the Boise River Basin provides a compelling example of what the future might hold in the American West, and how resource managers and other vested interests make or influence river basin policy in the region. The BRB represents a complex and dynamic environment covering approximately 4,100 square miles of land. The BRB is a highly managed basin, with multiple dams and diversions, and is

  7. The "Cape Times"'s Portrayal of School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wet, Corene

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the "Cape Times"'s portrayal of school violence in the Western Cape (WC), South Africa, reporting on findings from a qualitative content analysis of 41 news articles retrieved from the SA Media database. The findings shed light on the victims and their victimisation, the perpetrators, as well as the context of the…

  8. The “Mari” Hypothesis in the Study of the Toponymy of the Oka and Unzha Rivers and the Western Borders of the Old Mari Toponymic Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg V. Smirnov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Referring to toponymic data, the article aims to verify the hypothesis of the western origin of the Mari people who, presumably, migrated to their present-day settlement area from the territory of Kostroma Region and the Oka River basin. The author critically examines the possibility of Mari origin of some place names in the territory in question, namely, of hydronyms ending in -ingir'. To verify the “Mari” hypothesis, the author uses the method of ethnic modelling which consists in the isolation of typical toponymic stems in present-day Mari toponymy and searching for their traces in the substrate toponymy of the studied area. The analysis leads to conclude that it is unlikely that the toponymy of the western part of Kostroma Region and the Oka River basin could be of Mari origin. The area of distribution of typical Mari place names does not display any evidence of Mari substrate or superstrate to the west of the Kerzhanets River basin. On the Western bank of the Volga, some traces of substratal Mari toponymy can be found along the banks of the Sura River as far as the city of Alatyr, however, no Mari “residue” can be found west of the Sura. The absence of Mari substrate in the toponymy of the Oka and Unzha Rivers area makes it possible to refute the hypothesis of the western origin of the Mari and their migration from the area of Gorodets and Dyakovo archaeological cultures. At the same time, the study of phonetic correspondences reflected in place names reveals evidence of close kinship of the substratal dialects of Western Kostroma Region, the low Oka and Klyazma Rivers area with the Mari (Proto-Mari language.

  9. The possibilities of using the granodiorite of Kosovska River, village of Chanishte (western Macedonia), as an architectural stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spasovski, Ortse

    2011-01-01

    The granodiorite of the Kosovska River, western Macedonia, has been examined in order to determine the possibility to be used as an architectural stone. The analyses themselves as well as the laboratory testings have been done on samples of granodiorite. The samples were taken from the surface parts, and the results from their physical and mechanical examination have shown that rock mass itself satisfies all requirements form the use as architectural stone according to the state standards of R. Macedonia. Also the quality of the stone is greater in the deeper parts of the terrain where the influences from the outside have a very small effect. This stone does not have highly decorative features but it has a very fine granual structure which has a positive effect for the technical characteristics and for the being a subject for processing. (Author)

  10. Influence of the permafrost boundary on dissolved organic matter characteristics in rivers within the Boreal and Taiga plains of western Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olefeldt, D; Turetsky, M R; Persson, A

    2014-01-01

    Catchment export of terrestrial dissolved organic matter (DOM) and its downstream degradation in aquatic ecosystems are important components of landscape scale carbon balances. In order to assess the influence of peatland permafrost on river DOM characteristics, we sampled 65 rivers along a 900 km transect crossing into the southern discontinuous permafrost zone on the Boreal and Tundra Plains of western Canada. Catchment peatland cover and catchment location north or south of the permafrost boundary were found together to have strong influences on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and DOM chemical composition. River DOC concentrations increased with catchment peatland cover, but were consistently lower for catchments north of the permafrost boundary. In contrast, protein fluorescence (PARAFAC analysis), was unrelated to catchment peatland cover but increased significantly in rivers north of the permafrost boundary. Humic and fulvic acid contribution to DOM fluorescence was lower in rivers draining catchments with large lakes than in other rivers, consistent with extensive photodegradation, but humic and fulvic acid fluorescence were also lower in rivers north of the permafrost boundary than in rivers to the south. We hypothesize that shifts in river DOM characteristics when crossing the permafrost boundary are related to the influence of permafrost on peatland hydrological connectivity to stream networks, peatland DOM characteristics and differences in DOM degradation within aquatic ecosystems. (paper)

  11. SOUTH-WESTERN APUSENI MOUNTAINS SMALL RIVERS SEASONAL HYDROLOGICAL FLOW REGIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOROCOVSCHI V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The researched area overlaps the territory belonging to Crişul Alb and Crişul Negru river basins. The study is based on processing and interpretation data from 33 hydrometric stations of which 18 stations control hydrographic basins with surfaces of less than 150 km2. To highlight the seasonal hydrological flow regime, we took into account three time periods (1950-1967, 1950-2009 and 1970-2009. For all rivers the highest flow values appear during springtime, while the smallest contribution to the multiannual average volume is realized in autumn. The time variation of seasonal flow was highlighted by analysis and variation of extreme values coefficients and also by analysing seasonal flow trends that appeared in all three time periods.

  12. Endangered Species and Irrigated Agriculture, Water Resource Competition in Western River Systems

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service

    1995-01-01

    This report characterizes several aspects of water allocation tradeoffs between fish species listed under the Federal Endangered Species Act and agriculture in the American West. The geographic intersection between endangered/threatened (E/T) fish and agricultural production reliant on surface water for irrigation is identified. Three findings are: (1) 235 counties, representing 22 percent of the West's counties, contain irrigated production that relies on water from rivers with E/T fish, ...

  13. Freshwater fish faunas, habitats and conservation challenges in the Caribbean river basins of north-western South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Segura, L F; Galvis-Vergara, G; Cala-Cala, P; García-Alzate, C A; López-Casas, S; Ríos-Pulgarín, M I; Arango, G A; Mancera-Rodríguez, N J; Gutiérrez-Bonilla, F; Álvarez-León, R

    2016-07-01

    The remarkable fish diversity in the Caribbean rivers of north-western South America evolved under the influences of the dramatic environmental changes of neogene northern South America, including the Quechua Orogeny and Pleistocene climate oscillations. Although this region is not the richest in South America, endemism is very high. Fish assemblage structure is unique to each of the four aquatic systems identified (rivers, streams, floodplain lakes and reservoirs) and community dynamics are highly synchronized with the mono-modal or bi-modal flooding pulse of the rainy seasons. The highly seasonal multispecies fishery is based on migratory species. Freshwater fish conservation is a challenge for Colombian environmental institutions because the Caribbean trans-Andean basins are the focus of the economic development of Colombian society, so management measures must be directed to protect aquatic habitat and their connectivity. These two management strategies are the only way for helping fish species conservation and sustainable fisheries. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  14. Spatiotemporal Variation and Risk Assessment of Pesticides in Water of the Lower Catchment Basin of Acheloos River, Western Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatis, Nikolaos; Hela, Dimitra; Triantafyllidis, Vassilios; Konstantinou, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    A three-year monitoring survey (March 2005–February 2008) was conducted to investigate, on monthly basis, the presence of thirty pesticides belonging to various categories and metabolites, in Acheloos River (Western Greece), one of the most important water resources in Greece. Six sampling stations along the river were established. Water analyses were performed using solid-phase extraction combined with gas chromatography with flame thermionic detector and mass spectrometry. Statistical analysis using one-way ANOVA and Duncan's multiple range test (P < 0.05) was used to compare annual mean concentrations of pesticides, seasonal and spatial distribution. In general, the highest mean concentrations of the pesticides were recorded at the three stations downstream. The greatest average concentrations were determined during spring and summer in agreement with the pesticide application period. The observed lower concentrations after 2006 reflect the land-use change because of the elimination of tobacco, the main cultivation of the area for many decades. The compounds most frequently detected were diazinon (78.6%), DEA (69.3%), and fenthion (52.6%). Environmental risk assessment using risk quotient (RQ) approach showed high risk for six insecticides in 2005 and one in 2007. A compliance with the European Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) was observed for the priority pesticides. PMID:24453814

  15. Permafrost and lakes control river isotope composition across a boreal Arctic transect in the Western Siberian lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala-aho, P.; Soulsby, C.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Kirpotin, S. N.; Karlsson, J.; Serikova, S.; Manasypov, R.; Lim, A.; Krickov, I.; Kolesnichenko, L. G.; Laudon, H.; Tetzlaff, D.

    2018-03-01

    The Western Siberian Lowlands (WSL) store large quantities of organic carbon that will be exposed and mobilized by the thawing of permafrost. The fate of mobilized carbon, however, is not well understood, partly because of inadequate knowledge of hydrological controls in the region which has a vast low-relief surface area, extensive lake and wetland coverage and gradually increasing permafrost influence. We used stable water isotopes to improve our understanding of dominant landscape controls on the hydrology of the WSL. We sampled rivers along a 1700 km South-North transect from permafrost-free to continuous permafrost repeatedly over three years, and derived isotope proxies for catchment hydrological responsiveness and connectivity. We found correlations between the isotope proxies and catchment characteristics, suggesting that lakes and wetlands are intimately connected to rivers, and that permafrost increases the responsiveness of the catchment to rainfall and snowmelt events, reducing catchment mean transit times. Our work provides rare isotope-based field evidence that permafrost and lakes/wetlands influence hydrological pathways across a wide range of spatial scales (10-105 km2) and permafrost coverage (0%-70%). This has important implications, because both permafrost extent and lake/wetland coverage are affected by permafrost thaw in the changing climate. Changes in these hydrological landscape controls are likely to alter carbon export and emission via inland waters, which may be of global significance.

  16. Hydrogeology of confined-drift aquifers near the Pomme de Terre and Chippewa rivers, western Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delin, G.N.

    1986-01-01

    Confined-drift aquifers in a 1,380-square-mile area of western Minnesota range in thickness from less than 10 feet to 114 feet. Transmissivities range from less than 1,000 square feet per day to over 16,000 square feet per day and theoretical well yields range from less than 100 gallons per minute to more than 1,800 gallons per minute.

  17. Spatiotemporal Trends of Heavy Metals in Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins (Sousa chinensis) from the Western Pearl River Estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Duan; Yu, Ri-Qing; Karczmarski, Leszek; Ding, Yulong; Zhang, Haifei; Sun, Yong; Zhang, Mei; Wu, Yuping

    2017-02-07

    We assessed the spatiotemporal trends of the concentrations of 11 heavy metals (HMs) in the liver and kidney of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) from western Pearl River Estuary (PRE) during 2004-2015. The hepatic levels of Cr, As, and Cu in these dolphins were among the highest reported for cetaceans globally, and the levels of Zn, Cu, and Hg were sufficiently high to cause toxicological effects in some of the animals. Between same age-sex groups, dolphins from Lingdingyang were significantly more contaminated with Hg, Se, and V than those from the West-four region, while the opposite was true for Cd. Generalized additive mixed models showed that most metals had significant but dissimilar temporal trends over a 10-year period. The concentrations of Cu and Zn increased significantly in recent years, corresponding to the high input of these metals in the region. Body-length-adjusted Cd levels peaked in 2012, accompanied by the highest annual number of dolphin stranding events. In contrast to the significant decrease in HM levels in the dolphins in Hong Kong waters (the eastern reaches of the PRE), the elevated metal exposure in the western PRE raises serious concerns.

  18. Changes in atmospheric rivers and moisture transport over the Northeast Pacific and western North America in response to ENSO diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Mi; Zhou, Yang; Alexander, Michael A.

    2017-03-01

    The year-to-year changes in atmospheric rivers (ARs) and moisture transport over the northeast Pacific and western North America are investigated during December to February (DJF) from 1979/80 to 2015/16. Changes in AR frequency, intensity, and landfall characteristics are compared between three ENSO phases: central Pacific El Niño (CPEN), eastern Pacific El Niño (EPEN), and La Niña (NINA). During EPEN events, the subtropical jet extends to the south and east with an anomalous cyclonic flow around a deeper Aleutian Low. More moisture is transported towards North America and AR frequency is increased over western North America. In CPEN events, the Aleutian low shifts further southward relative to its position in EPEN, resulting in an increase in the frequency and intensity of landfalling ARs over the southwestern US. In NINA events, the landfalling AR frequency is reduced associated with anomalous anticyclonic circulation over the eastern North Pacific. We diagnose the contribution of multiple factors to the seasonal mean moisture transport using moisture budgets. During the three ENSO phases, the change in low-frequency circulation (dynamical process) is the leading contributor to the seasonal mean moisture flux divergence, while the contributions of the synoptic anomalies and the change in moisture anomaly (thermodynamic process) are not significant along the west coast of North America.

  19. Radionuclides in ground water of the Carson River Basin, western Nevada and eastern California, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J.M.; Welch, A.H.; Lico, M.S.; Hughes, J.L.; Whitney, R.

    1993-01-01

    Ground water is the main source of domestic and public supply in the Carson River Basin. Ground water originates as precipitation primarily in the Sierra Nevada in the western part of Carson and Eagle Valleys, and flows down gradient in the direction of the Carson River through Dayton and Churchill Valleys to a terminal sink in the Carson Desert. Because radionuclides dissolved in ground water can pose a threat to human health, the distribution and sources of several naturally occurring radionuclides that contribute to gross-alpha and gross-beta activities in the study area were investigated. Generally, alpha and beta activities and U concentration increase from the up-gradient to down-gradient hydrographic areas of the Carson River Basin, whereas 222Rn concentration decreases. Both 226Ra and 228Ra concentrations are similar throughout the study area. Alpha and beta activities and U concentration commonly exceed 100 pCi/l in the Carson Desert at the distal end of the flow system. Radon-222 commonly exceeds 2,000 pCi/l in the western part of Carson and Eagle Valleys adjacent to the Sierra Nevada. Radium-226 and 228Ra concentrations are processes. Thus, U is transported as dissolved and adsorbed species. A rise in the water table in the Carson Desert because of irrigation has resulted in the oxidation of U-rich organic matter and dissolution of U-bearing coatings on sediments, producing unusually high U concentration in the ground water. Alpha activity in the ground water is almost entirely from the decay of U dissolved in the water. Beta activity in ground water samples is primarily from the decay of 40K dissolved in the water and ingrowth of 238U progeny in the sample before analysis. Approximately one-half of the measured beta activity may not be present in ground water in the aquifer, but instead is produced in the sample after collection and before analysis. Potassium-40 is primarily from the dissolution of K-containing minerals, probably K-feldspar and biotite

  20. Impact assessment of oil spills on sediments in Vasyugan River Basin (Western Siberia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorobyov, D.S.

    2005-01-01

    Vasyugan River (more than 1100 km of length and 65000 km 2 of catchment totally) is right tributary of Ob River. Exploration and development of oil fields have provided in the area since 1970's. Long-term project for hydro-ecological investigation of Vasyugan River Basin was provided during 1992-2002. Main aim of the project was study of distribution and spatial dynamics of bottom invertebrate communities (population density, biomass) affected by oil contamination for tasks of environmental monitoring. Samples of sediments were assessed hydro-biologically (zoo-benthos) and chemically (petroleum hydrocarbons). Concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons (non-polar hydrocarbons) in bottom sediments in oil fields were significantly different depending on texture and organic matter content: detritus - 370 mg/kg; silt - 89 mg/kg; silty-sand - 37 mg/kg. The significant correlation between concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons and organic matter content in sediments was found (? = 0,94). Concentration of in bottom sediments depended on destination from and age of developed oil fields: 300 mg/kg (areas of oil fields developed more than 20 years); 77 mg/kg (areas of oil fields developed less than 10 years); 59 mg/kg (estuary of Vasyugan, 400 km far from main sources of contamination at least). Population of zoo-benthos is increasing depending on extension of destination from source of contamination. The phenomena can be explained by stream transport and accumulation of PAH. Population of oligochaeta and mollusks in sediments increase depending on extension from sources of contamination (p<0,05). (author)

  1. Organically complexed copper, zinc, and chelating agents in the rivers of Western Puerto Rico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, J.R.; Echevarria, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    The method for determining soluble chelators gives their concentration in copper-equivalent chelating capacity units in fresh or slightly brackish (less than 3 percent salinity) water. The mean concentration of chelators in the Rio Guanajibo for December 1973 and January 1974 was 0.4 mg of copper per liter of water (N = 21, SD = 0.2) and for February 1974, 0.9 mg/liter (N = 8, SD = 0.4). The combined mean for the Rio Anasco and Culebrinas was 0.5 mg/liter (N = 7, SD = 0.4) in January and February 1974. The mean concentration of ionic copper was 0.5 μg/liter (N = 7, SD = 0.6) and of ionic zinc, 0.2 μg/liter (N = 8, SD = 0.1) in the Rio Guanajibo from November 1972 to February 1973. The concentration of organically bound copper was 0.3 μ/liter (N = 7, SD = 0.2) and that of organically bound zinc was 0.6 μg/liter (N = 8, SD = 0.6); this indicates that there was more than a sufficient quantity of chelator available in the river to complex all the soluble copper. The presence of a high ratio of Ca 2+ to Cu 2+ probably prevents the formation of larger concentrations of organically complexed copper. The mean concentration of chelating agents in the Guanajibo River seems to be directly related to the increased organic input from municipalities and a sugar mill. The concentration of chelators in tropical rivers appears to be higher than that found in Canadian lakes. The mean concentration for particulate organic carbon (POC) was 3653 μg atoms/liter (SD = 3653, N = 29). The dissolved reactive phosphate (DRP) ranged from a mean of 1.1 μg atom/liter. No significant correlation could be found between POC, DRP, and the concentration of chelators

  2. Untangling the Impacts of Climate Variability on Atmospheric Rivers and Western U.S. Precipitation Using PERSIANN-CONNECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellars, S. L.; Gao, X.; Hsu, K. L.; Sorooshian, S.; McCabe-Glynn, S.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric Rivers (ARs), the large plumes of moisture transported from the tropics, impact many aspects of society in the Western U.S. When ARs make landfall, they are often associated with torrential rains, swollen rivers, flash flooding, and mudslides. We demonstrate that by viewing precipitation events associated with ARs as "objects", calculating their physical characteristics (mean intensity (mm/hr), speed (km/hr), etc.), assigning environmental characteristics (e.g. phase of the El Nino Southern Oscillation) for each system, and then performing empirical analyses, we can reveal interactions between different climate phenomena. To perform this analysis, we use a unique object oriented data set based on the gridded, satellite precipitation data from the Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN) algorithm known as PERSIANN-CONNECT, for the period 3/2000 to 12/2010. The data is segmented into 4D objects (longitude, latitude, time and intensity). Each of the segmented precipitation systems is described by over 72 characteristics. A search of the PERSIANN-CONNECT database for all Western U.S. large-scale precipitation systems returns 626 systems. Out of the 626 large-scale precipitation systems, 200 occurred at the same time as documented Western U.S. land falling ARs (a list of ARs provided by Dr. Martin Ralph). Here we report the physical and environmental characteristics for these 200 storms including a comparison to the 426 non-AR storms. We also report results of an analysis of the δ18O measurements collected from Giant Forest, Sequoia National Park in the Southwestern Sierra Nevada Mountains (McCabe-Glynn et al., in prep.) for the 200 AR precipitation systems. For an overall assessment of the impacts of climate variability on all 626 precipitation systems, we focus on ENSO, and show that during El Nino/La Nina, as compared with Neutral phases of ENSO, the systems are larger (9505, 9097, vs. 6075km

  3. Alcohol Use, Working Conditions, Job Benefits, and the Legacy of the “Dop” System among Farm Workers in the Western Cape Province, South Africa: Hope Despite High Levels of Risky Drinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Phillip Gossage

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study describes alcohol consumption in five Western Cape Province communities. Cross-sectional data from a community household sample (n = 591 describe the alcohol use patterns of adult males and females, and farm workers vs. others. Data reveal that men were more likely to be current drinkers than women, 75.1% vs. 65.8% (p = 0.033; farm laborers were more likely to be current drinkers than individuals in other occupations 83.1% vs. 66.8% (p = 0.004. Group, binge drinking on weekends was the norm; men were more likely to be binge drinkers in the past week than women 59.8% vs. 48.8% (p = 0.086; farm workers were more likely to binge than others 75.0% vs. 47.5% (p < 0.001. The legacy of “Dop” contributes to current risky drinking behaviors. Farm owners or managers were interviewed on 11 farms, they described working conditions on their farms and how the legacy of “Dop” is reflected in the current use of alcohol by their workers. “Dop” was given to farm workers in the past on six of the 11 farms, but was discontinued for different reasons. There is zero tolerance for coming to work intoxicated; farm owners encourage responsible use of alcohol and assist farm workers in getting help for alcohol problems when necessary. The farm owners report some positive initiatives, were ahead of the movement to provide meaningful wages, and provide other important amenities. Further research is needed to assess whether progressive practices on some farms will reduce harmful alcohol use.

  4. Prevalence and predictors of problematic alcohol use, risky sexual practices and other negative consequences associated with alcohol use among safety and security employees in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker Burnhams, Nadine; Parry, Charles; Laubscher, Ria; London, Leslie

    2014-03-04

    Harmful alcohol use can compromise worker health and productivity. Persons employed in safety-sensitive occupations are particularly vulnerable to hazardous alcohol use and its associated risks. This study describes the patterns of harmful alcohol use, related HIV risks and risk factors for the harmful use of alcohol among a sample of employees in South Africa working in the safety and security sector. A cross-sectional study that formed the baseline for a clustered randomized control trial was undertaken in 2011. A random sample of 325 employees employed within a safety and security sector of a local municipality in the Western Cape Province of South Africa participated in the study. Data were collected by means of an 18-page self-administered structured questionnaire and analyzed using SAS/STAT software version 9.2. For all significance testing, the F-statistic and p-values are reported. Three hundred and twenty-five employees were surveyed. Findings suggest that more than half (76.1%) of the 78.9% of participants who consumed alcohol engaged in binge drinking, with close to a quarter reporting a CAGE score greater than the cut-off of 2, indicating potentially hazardous drinking patterns. The study further found that employees who use alcohol are more likely to engage in risky sexual practices when under the influence. A favorable drinking climate (p safety-sensitive occupations at the workplace. It suggests that persons employed within such positions are at high risk for developing alcohol-related disorders and for contracting HIV. This study highlights the need for testing a comprehensive package of services designed to prevent hazardous alcohol use among safety and security employees.

  5. Geohydrology and water quality of the North Platte River alluvial aquifer, Garden County, Western Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Gregory V.; Cannia, James C.

    1995-01-01

    In 1993, a 3-year study was begun to describe the geohydrology and water quality of the North Platte River alluvial aquifer near Oshkosh, Garden County, Nebraska. The study's objectives are to evaluate the geohydrologic characteristics of the alluvial aquifer and to establish a network of observation wells for long-term monitoring of temporal variations and spatial distributions of nitrate and major-ion concentrations. Monitor wells were installed at 11 sites near Oshkosh. The geohydrology of the aquifer was characterized based on water-level measurements and two short-term aquifer tests. Bimonthly water samples were collected and analyzed for pH, specific conductivity, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and nutrients that included dissolved nitrate. Concentrations of major ions were defined from analyses of semiannual water samples. Analyses of the geohydrologic and water-quality data indicate that the aquifer is vulnerable to nitrate contamination. These data also show that nitrate concentrations in ground water flowing into and out of the study area are less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum Concentration Level of 10 milligrams per liter for drinking water. Ground water from Lost Creek Valley may be mixing with ground water in the North Platte River Valley, somewhat moderating nitrate concentrations near Oshkosh.

  6. Spatial and temporal variations of loads and sources of total and dissolved Phosphorus in a set of rivers (Western France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legeay, Pierre-Louis; Moatar, Florentina; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal; Gruau, Gérard

    2015-04-01

    In intensive agricultural regions with important livestock farming, long-term land application of Phosphorus (P) both as chemical fertilizer and animal wastes, have resulted in elevated P contents in soils. Since we know that high P concentrations in rivers is of major concern, few studies have been done at to assess the spatiotemporal variability of P loads in rivers and apportionment of point and nonpoint source in total loads. Here we focus on Brittany (Western France) where even though P is a great issue in terms of human and drinking water safety (cyano-toxins), environmental protection and economic costs for Brittany with regards to the periodic proliferations of cyanobacteria that occur every year in this region, no regional-scale systematic study has been carried out so far. We selected a set of small rivers (stream order 3-5) with homogeneous agriculture and granitic catchment. By gathering data from three water quality monitoring networks, covering more than 100 measurements stations, we provide a regional-scale quantification of the spatiotemporal variability of dissolved P (DP) and total P (TP) interannual loads from 1992 to 2012. Build on mean P load in low flows and statistical significance tests, we developed a new indicator, called 'low flow P load' (LFP-load), which allows us to determine the importance of domestic and industrial P sources in total P load and to assess their spatiotemporal variability compared to agricultural sources. The calculation and the map representation of DP and TP interannual load variations allow identification of the greatest and lowest P contributory catchments over the study period and the way P loads of Brittany rivers have evolved through time. Both mean DP and TP loads have been divided by more than two over the last 20 years. Mean LFDP-load decreased by more than 60% and mean LFTP-load by more than 45% on average over the same period showing that this marked temporal decrease in total load is largely due to the

  7. Socio-hydrologic Perspectives of the Co-evolution of Humans and Water in the Tarim River Basin, Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Tian, Fuqiang; Hu, Heping; Liu, Dengfeng; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2013-04-01

    Socio-hydrology studies the co-evolution of coupled human-water systems, which is of great importance for long-term sustainable water resource management in basins suffering from serious eco-environmental degradation. Process socio-hydrology can benefit from the exploring the patterns of historical co-evolution of coupled human-water systems as a way to discovering the organizing principles that may underpin their co-evolution. As a self-organized entity, the human-water system in a river basin would evolve into certain steady states over a sufficiently long time but then could also experience sudden shifts due to internal or external disturbances that exceed system thresholds. In this study, we discuss three steady states (also called stages in the social sciences, including natural, human exploitation and recovery stages) and transitions between these during the past 1500 years in the Tarim River Basin of Western China, which a rich history of civilization including its place in the famous Silk Road that connected China to Europe. Specifically, during the natural stage with a sound environment that existed before the 19th century, shifts in the ecohydrological regime were mainly caused by environmental changes such river channel migration and climate change. During the human exploitation stages in the 5th and again in the 19th-20th centuries, however, humans gradually became the main drivers for system evolution, during which the basin experienced rapid population growth, fast socio-economic development and intense human activities. By the 1970s, after 200 years of colonization, the Tarim River Basin evolved into a new regime with vulnerable ecosystem and water system, and suffered from serious water shortages and desertification. Human society then began to take a critical look into the effects of their activities and reappraise the impact of human development on the ecohydrological system, which eventually led the basin into a treatment and recovery stage

  8. [Prevalence of arterial hypertension in communities along the Madeira River, Western Brazilian Amazon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Beatriz Fátima Alves de; Mourão, Dennys de Souza; Gomes, Núbia; Costa, Janaina Mara C; Souza, Andreia Vasconcelos de; Bastos, Wanderley Rodrigues; Fonseca, Marlon de Freitas; Mariani, Carolina Fiorillo; Abbad, Guilherme; Hacon, Sandra S

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence of hypertension among adults (n = 841) in communities along the Madeira River in the Brazilian Amazon, prior to startup of the Santo Antônio Hydroelectric Plant. The study gathered information on sociodemographic conditions, history of diseases, habits, fish consumption, and anthropometric parameters. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and the respective confidence intervals. Among the riverine communities, 26% (95%CI: 23%-29%) of adults presented hypertension (29% in men [95%CI: 24%-33%] and 23% in women [95%CI: 19%-27%]). Factors associated with hypertension were age, BMI, and place of residence in men and age, triglycerides, and blood glucose in women. The findings can contribute to strategies for state and municipal health services to monitor and prevent cardiovascular events.

  9. 76 FR 27970 - Safety Zone; Cape Charles Fireworks, Cape Charles Harbor, Cape Charles, VA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Charles will sponsor a fireworks display on the shoreline of the navigable waters of Cape Charles City...[deg]01'30'' W (NAD 1983). This safety zone will be established in the vicinity of Cape Charles, VA...-AA00 Safety Zone; Cape Charles Fireworks, Cape Charles Harbor, Cape Charles, VA. AGENCY: Coast Guard...

  10. northern Sandveld, Western Cape, South Afric

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    out in the area assessing hydrological, ecological and botanical components. The area is ... Introduction. In order to optimally manage a groundwater resource that is being ..... groundwater recharge, such as direct measurement, Darcian ap-.

  11. Tuberculosis drug resistance in the Western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    selective primary isolation of mycobacterial strains.' M. tuberculosis was ..... 15 In developing countries, however, a different picture is seen, with rates for initial isoniazid ... require attention to caseholding and prevention of defaulting, which will ...

  12. Van Willebrand's disease in the Western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    agglutinate normal platelets but does not have an effect on platelets from patients with VWD. The ristocetin co-factor. (RiCo~ assay measures the ability of plasma to agglutinate fixed platelets and is therefore regarded as an indirect measure of VWF activity. Qualitative analysis of VWF antigen. 0JWF-Ag) is required for ...

  13. Assessment of the Incidence of Enteric Adenovirus Species and Serotypes in Surface Waters in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa: Tyume River as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Sibanda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available TaqMan real-time PCR was used for the detection and quantitation of adenoviruses in Tyume River water samples over a 12-month period. A total of 72 samples were analysed, and 22 samples were positive for adenovirus. Of the positive samples, 18 were collected from downstream sampling points. Among the downstream sampling points, adenovirus detection rate increased with distance downstream, being 28%, 33%, and 39% for Alice, Drayini, and Manqulweni, respectively. The Alice sampling site had the highest concentrations of adenovirus ranging between 6.54×103 genome copies/L and 8.49×104 genome copies/L. The observed trend could have been expected considering the level of anthropogenic activities in areas along the lower stretch of Tyume River, with the major one being the effluent of treated and semi treated sewage from wastewater treatment facilities. Adenovirus detection was sporadic at most sampling sites. Multiplex conventional PCR was used for the detection of clinically important adenovirus species B, C, and F and their serotypes. Species C and F adenoviruses were detected in 77% and 18% of the samples, respectively. Most adenovirus positive samples were obtained from areas of increased population densities. The presence of adenoviruses may confirm the risk of its transmission to the human population.

  14. Quantifying potential water savings from clearing invasive alien Eucalyptus camaldulensis using in situ and high resolution remote sensing data in the Berg River Catchment, Western Cape, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dzikiti, Sebinasi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available pulse velocity sap flow gauges while evapotranspiration (ET) at the cleared site was measured using an energy balance system comprising a boundary layer scintillometer, weather station and additional energy balance sensors. Daily peak transpiration by a...

  15. Qualitative Interpretation Of Aerogravity And Aeromagnetic Survey Data Over The South Western Part Of The Volta River Basin Of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Hinson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study area South western part of Volta River Basin of Ghana covering an area of 8570 km2 which is one-eleventh the area of the Volta River basin of Ghana has been subjected to numerous academic research works but geophysical survey works because of virtual perceptive reasons. It is now believed to overly mineral-rich geological structures hence the use of magnetic and gravity survey methods to bring out these mineral-rich geological structures.Geographically it study area is located at the south western part of the Voltaian basin at latitudes 07o 00 N and 08o 00 N and longitudes 02o 00 W and 01o 00 W respectively. Airborne gravity and magnetic survey methods were employed in the data collection. The field data correction and error reduction were applied to the two raw data on the field after which Geosoft Oasis Montaj 7.01 Encom Profile Analysis P.A 11 and 13 Model Vision 12 and ArcGIS 10.0 were used to process enhance e.g. reduce to pole at low latitude first vertical derivative etc. model the reduced and corrected airborne magnetic data and also to produce maps from them data. Low-to-moderate-to-high gravity and magnetic anomalies were obtained in the complete Bouguer anomaly CBA and total magnetic intensity TMI reduced to pole at low latitude with many of these anomalies trending NE-SW by which the Birimian Metasediments and Metavolcanics can be said to be part of the causative structures of these anomalies with cross-cut NW-SE faults. From the quantitative point of view the intrusive granitic bodies of the study area have a mean depth location of 1.7 km while the isolated anomaly is located at a depth of 1.4 km computed from Euler deconvolution. The NE-SW trending anomalies show the trend direction of their causative structures which are the basement rocks and the basinal intrusive bodies.

  16. A geological and hydrogeochemical investigation of the uranium potential of an area between the Orange and Kuruman Rivers, northwestern Cape Province. V.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, M.

    1980-04-01

    An extensive geological, hydrological and hydrochemical study was conducted to determine the uranium potential of an area which includes the greater part of the Gordonia District and part of the bordering Kuruman District. The area is situated between 21 and 22 degrees east, the Kuruman River in the north and the Orange River in the south. All berohole information germane to the area, such as Government and private drill records have been studied. As a result of this study maps of the area have been compiled, showing surface and pre-Karoo geology, the pre-Karoo and pre-Kalahari topography and the thickness of the Karoo and post-Karoo cover. Contour maps of water levels were compiled from which a regional east-west flow pattern was deduced, indicating a large groundwater basin which could be divided into four smaller basins. Hydrochemical studies substantiate the inferred flow pattern of the groundwater. Of prime importance in this investigation was the study of the distribution of uranium in the groundwater of the area and its association with the various lithologies encountered. Radiometric borehole logging of all accessible boreholes in the most promising areas delineated by this study confirmed the presence of uranium mineralisation in the depositional basins (in particular the Dwyka Tillite Formation) west of the granite-gneiss ridge. Uranium mineralisation in surficial deposits was also discovered as a result of the reassessment of radiometric airborne data obtained previously. It is concluded that potential economic uranium deposits may exist in the Dwyka Tillite Formation northwest of Upington and in the surficial diatomaceous earth deposits on the farm Rus-en-Vrede [af

  17. The Influence of Second-Hand Cigarette Smoke Exposure during Childhood and Active Cigarette Smoking on Crohn's Disease Phenotype Defined by the Montreal Classification Scheme in a Western Cape Population, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawanda Chivese

    Full Text Available Smoking may worsen the disease outcomes in patients with Crohn's disease (CD, however the effect of exposure to second-hand cigarette smoke during childhood is unclear. In South Africa, no such literature exists. The aim of this study was to investigate whether disease phenotype, at time of diagnosis of CD, was associated with exposure to second-hand cigarette during childhood and active cigarette smoking habits.A cross sectional examination of all consecutive CD patients seen during the period September 2011-January 2013 at 2 large inflammatory bowel disease centers in the Western Cape, South Africa was performed. Data were collected via review of patient case notes, interviewer-administered questionnaire and clinical examination by the attending gastroenterologist. Disease phenotype (behavior and location was evaluated at time of diagnosis, according to the Montreal Classification scheme. In addition, disease behavior was stratified as 'complicated' or 'uncomplicated', using predefined definitions. Passive cigarette smoke exposure was evaluated during 3 age intervals: 0-5, 6-10, and 11-18 years.One hundred and ninety four CD patients were identified. Cigarette smoking during the 6 months prior to, or at time of diagnosis was significantly associated with ileo-colonic (L3 disease (RRR = 3.63; 95% CI, 1.32-9.98, p = 0.012 and ileal (L1 disease (RRR = 3.54; 95% CI, 1.06-11.83, p = 0.040 compared with colonic disease. In smokers, childhood passive cigarette smoke exposure during the 0-5 years age interval was significantly associated with ileo-colonic CD location (RRR = 21.3; 95% CI, 1.16-391.55, p = 0.040. No significant association between smoking habits and disease behavior at diagnosis, whether defined by the Montreal scheme, or stratified as 'complicated' vs 'uncomplicated', was observed.Smoking habits were associated with ileo-colonic (L3 and ileal (L1 disease at time of diagnosis in a South African cohort.

  18. A new Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary locality in the western powder River basin, Wyoming: biological and geological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, D.J.; Brown, J.L.; Attrep, M.; Orth, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    A newly discovered Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary locality in the western Powder River basin, Wyoming, is characterized by a palynologically defined extinction horizon, a fern-spore abundance anomaly, a strong iridium anomaly, and shock-metamorphosed quartz grains. Detailed microstratigraphic analyses show that about one third of the palynoflora (mostly angiosperm pollen) disappeared abruptly, placing the K-T boundary within a distinctive, 1- to 2-cm-thick claystone layer. Shocked quartz grains are concentrated at the top of this layer, and although fern-spore and iridium concentrations are high in this layer, they reach their maximum concentrations in a 2-cm-thick carbonaceous claystone that overlies the boundary claystone layer. The evidence supports the theory that the K-T boundary event was associated with the impact of an extraterrestrial body or bodies. Palynological analyses of samples from the K-T boundary interval document extensive changes in the flora that resulted from the boundary event. The palynologically and geochemically defined K-T boundary provides a unique time-line of use in regional basin analysis. ?? 1992.

  19. The 1988 INEL [Idaho National Engineering Laboratory] microearthquake survey near the western edge of the eastern Snake River Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, S.M.; Anderson, D.M.; Carpenter, G.S.; Gilbert, H.K.; Martin, S.M.; Permann, P.J.

    1989-08-01

    A network of seventeen analog recording seismograph, spaced approximately 2 km apart, were operated from May to November, 1988 near the western edge of the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) to record small magnitude microearthquakes. Two three-component digital seismographs were also installed to record the microearthquake activity for analysis of earthquake source parameters and any regional earthquakes for possible analysis of the localized site and crustal effects of the ESRP on earthquake ground motions. We determined near-surface crustal velocities for this area that were slightly lower than the near-surface crustal velocities presently used in routine locations of events recorded by the INEL Seismic Network from five 100 lb surface blasts. During the survey period, only two earthquakes were located near the network area. One of the events occurred in May and was recorded by four of the portable seismic stations and two of the permanent INEL Seismic Network stations. It had a coda magnitude (M c ) of approximately 0.3. The other event was recorded by seventeen portable analog stations and three of the permanent INEL Seismic Network stations. We located this microearthquake, M c =0.5, about 2 km west of Howe, Idaho, off of the ESRP. We determined an unconstrained focal mechanism for this event, which could be interpreted as normal faulting striking N 44 degree W or strike-slip faulting on a plane striking either N 44 degree W or N 47 degree E. 26 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Uncovering the role of the East Asian jet stream and heterogeneities in atmospheric rivers affecting the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Villarini, Gabriele

    2018-01-30

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) exert major socioeconomic repercussions along the US West Coast by inducing heavy rainfall, flooding, strong winds, and storm surge. Despite the significant societal and economic repercussions of these storms, our understanding of the physical drivers responsible for their interannual variability is limited, with different climate modes identified as possible mechanisms. Here we show that the Pacific-Japan (PJ) teleconnections/patterns and the East Asian subtropical jet (EASJ) exhibit a strong linkage with the total frequency of ARs making landfall over the western United States, much stronger than the other potential climate modes previously considered. While our findings indicate that the PJ pattern and EASJ are the most relevant climate modes driving the overall AR activity, we also uncover heterogeneities in AR tracks. Specifically, we show that not all ARs making landfall along the West Coast come from a single population, but rather that it is possible to stratify these storms into three clusters. While the PJ pattern and EASJ are major drivers of AR activity for two clusters, the cluster that primarily affects the US Southwest is largely driven by other climate modes [El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Atlantic meridional mode (AMM), the Pacific-North America (PNA) teleconnection pattern, and the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO)]. Therefore, important regional differences exist and this information can substantially enhance our ability to predict and prepare for these storms and their impacts.

  1. Landslide activity as a threat to infrastructure in river valleys - An example from outer Western Carpathians (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuszczyńska, Katarzyna; Wistuba, Małgorzata; Malik, Ireneusz

    2017-11-01

    Intensive development of the area of Polish Carpathians increases the scale of landslide risk. Thus detecting landslide hazards and risks became important issue for spatial planning in the area. We applied dendrochronological methods and GIS analysis for better understanding of landslide activity and related hazards in the test area (3,75 km2): Salomonka valley and nearby slopes in the Beskid Żywiecki Mts., Outer Western Carpathians, southern Poland. We applied eccentricity index of radial growth of trees to date past landslide events. Dendrochronological results allowed us to determine the mean frequency of landsliding at each sampling point which were next interpolated into a map of landslide hazard. In total we took samples at 46 points. In each point we sampled 3 coniferous trees. Landslide hazard map shows a medium (23 sampling points) and low (20 sampling points) level of landslide activity for most of the area. The highest level of activity was recorded for the largest landslide. Results of the dendrochronological study suggest that all landslides reaching downslope to Salomonka valley floor are active. LiDAR-based analysis of relief shows that there is an active coupling between those landslides and river channel. Thus channel damming and formation of an episodic lake are probable. The hazard of flooding valley floor upstream of active landslides should be included in the local spatial planning system and crisis management system.

  2. Dating of river terraces along Lefthand Creek, western High Plains, Colorado, reveals punctuated incision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Melissa A.; Anderson, Robert S.; Gray, Harrison J.; Mahan, Shannon A.

    2017-10-01

    The response of erosional landscapes to Quaternary climate oscillations is recorded in fluvial terraces whose quantitative interpretation requires numerical ages. We investigate gravel-capped strath terraces along the western edge of Colorado's High Plains to constrain the incision history of this shale-dominated landscape. We use 10Be and 26Al cosmogenic radionuclides (CRNs), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), and thermally transferred OSL (TT-OSL) to date three strath terraces, all beveled in shale bedrock and then deposited upon by Lefthand Creek, which drains the crystalline core of the Front Range. Our study reveals: (i) a long history (hundreds of thousands of years) of fluvial occupation of the second highest terrace, T2 (Table Mountain), with fluvial abandonment at 92 ± 3 ka; (ii) a brief occupation of a narrow and spatially confined terrace, T3, at 98 ± 7 ka; and (iii) a 10-25 thousand year period of cutting and fluvial occupation of a lower terrace, T4, marked by the deposition of a lower alluvial unit between 59 and 68 ka, followed by deposition of an upper alluvial package at 40 ± 3 ka. In conjunction with other recent CRN studies of strath terraces along the Colorado Front Range (Riihimaki et al., 2006; Dühnforth et al., 2012), our data reveal that long periods of lateral planation and fluvial occupation of strath terraces, sometimes lasting several glacial-interglacial cycles, are punctuated by brief episodes of rapid vertical bedrock incision. These data call into question what a singular terrace age represents, as the strath may be cut at one time (its cutting-age) and the terrace surface may be abandoned at a much later time (its abandonment age), and challenge models of strath terraces that appeal to simple pacing by the glacial-interglacial cycles.

  3. Cape Kennedy Weather Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digitized data taken from original weather observations taken at Cape Kennedy Air Force Station, Florida. Elements recorded are wind speed and direction,...

  4. THE CHANGES IN THE POPULATION OF THEODOXUS FLUVIATILIS IN THE RIVER TYWA WESTERN POMERANIA (POMORZE ZACHODNIE IN THE BACKGROUND OF THE ABIOTIC HABITAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Zamkowski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the research on the concentration and biomass of the gastropod Theodoxus fluviatilis found in the river Tywa (Western Pomerania. It has been stated that the strongest influence on the size of the concentration of those species had the following elements of habitat: the kind of the bed, amount of food, depth of water, degree of its transformation. However, the interrelation between the concentration of species and their biomass has not been noticed.

  5. The changing hydro-ecological dynamics of rivers and deltas of the Western Indian Ocean: Anthropogenic and environmental drivers, local adaptation and policy response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvail, Stéphanie; Hamerlynck, Olivier; Paron, Paolo; Hervé, Dominique; Nyingi, Wanja D.; Leone, Michele

    2017-10-01

    The rivers flowing into the Western Indian Ocean have steep headwater gradients and carry high sediment loads. In combination with strong tides and seasonal rainfall, these rivers create dynamic deltas with biodiversity-rich and productive ecosystems that, through flooding, have sustained indigenous use systems for centuries. However, river catchments are rapidly changing due to deforestation. Hydropower dams also increasingly alter flood characteristics, reduce sediment supply and contribute to coastal erosion. These impacts are compounded by climate change. Altogether, these changes affect the livelihoods of the delta users. Here, based on prior works that we and others have conducted in the region, we analyse the drivers of these hydro-ecological changes. We then provide recommendations for improved dam design and operations to sustain the underlying delta-building processes, the ecosystem values and the needs of the users.

  6. Impact of river discharge on the coastal water pH and pCO2 levels during the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) years in the western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Paul, Y.S.; Vani, D.G.; Murty, V.S.N.

    > levels in the coastal western BoB. It could be envisioned that the enhanced acidity in the coastal waters due to variations in river discharge and phases of IOD may significantly modify the coastal ecosystem that requires careful evaluation...

  7. Recent findings regarding non-native or poorly known diatom taxa in north-western Italian rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Falasco

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Diatoms of the major rivers of North-Western Italy were investigated to highlight the presence of species of particular ecological interest but not as yet recorded. The survey area included streams belonging to seven different hydroecoregions (HERs with a wide range of physical characteristics. Between 2008 and 2010, 200 samples were taken for the study of the diatom community composition, while a larger set of samples was examined to determine the presence or absence of the nuisance diatom species Didymosphenia geminata (Lyngbye Schmidt. A specific field study was performed in two rivers characterized by persistent blooms of this species to evaluate the effects of its proliferation on the benthic communities. D. geminata was present in almost 20% of the samples. From a comparison with published data, we can confirm that D. geminata has recently been expanding its ecological range, as it has been found also in mesotrophic lowlands water. In some instances the formation of massive proliferation has been recorded. The calculation of autecological values confirmed its preference for oligotrophic waters with low mineral content and organic loading, although with a wider ecological amplitude than recorded in the first studies on this species. Another four taxa of particular interest were detected: Achnanthidium subhudsonis (Hustedt Kobayasi (in 15 sites, Cymbella tropica Krammer (11 sites, Mayamaea cahabaensis Morales and Manoylov (2 sites and Reimeria uniseriata Sala, Guerrero and Ferrario (18 sites. The first three species must be considered new records for Northern Italy. A. subhudsonis and C. tropica reached up to 20% relative abundance. From the analysis of their distribution and autecological values, we can assert that A. subhudsonis and M. cahabaensis show a preference for high values of nitrogen, this latter preferring also quite high values of total phosphorus. C. tropica prefers intermediate values of nitrogen nutrients and R. uniseriata is

  8. Ozone and fine particle in the western Yangtze River Delta: an overview of 1 yr data at the SORPES station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Ding

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an overview of 1 yr measurements of ozone (O3 and fine particular matter (PM2.5 and related trace gases at a recently developed regional background site, the Station for Observing Regional Processes of the Earth System (SORPES, in the western part of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD in eastern China. Ozone and PM2.5 showed strong seasonal cycles but with contrast patterns: O3 reached a maximum in warm seasons but PM2.5 in cold seasons. Correlation analysis suggests a VOC-sensitive regime for O3 chemistry and a formation of secondary aerosols under conditions of high O3 in summer. Compared with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in China, our measurements report 15 days of O3 exceedance and 148 days of PM2.5 exceedance during the 1 yr period, suggesting a severe air pollution situation in this region. Case studies for typical O3 and PM2.5 episodes demonstrated that these episodes were generally associated with an air mass transport pathway over the mid-YRD, i.e., along the Nanjing–Shanghai axis with its city clusters, and showed that synoptic weather played an important role in air pollution, especially for O3. Agricultural burning activities caused high PM2.5 and O3 pollution during harvest seasons, especially in June. A calculation of potential source contributions based on Lagrangian dispersion simulations suggests that emissions from the YRD contributed to over 70% of the O3 precursor CO, with a majority from the mid-YRD. North-YRD and the North China Plain are the main contributors to PM2.5 pollution in this region. This work shows an important environmental impact from industrialization and urbanization in the YRD region, and suggests an urgent need for improving air quality in these areas through collaborative control measures among different administrative regions.

  9. Water temperature effects from simulated dam operations and structures in the Middle Fork Willamette River, western Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccola, Norman L.; Turner, Daniel F.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2016-09-14

    Significant FindingsStreamflow and water temperature in the Middle Fork Willamette River (MFWR), western Oregon, have been regulated and altered since the construction of Lookout Point, Dexter, and Hills Creek Dams in 1954 and 1961, respectively. Each year, summer releases from the dams typically are cooler than pre-dam conditions, with the reverse (warmer than pre-dam conditions) occurring in autumn. This pattern has been detrimental to habitat of endangered Upper Willamette River (UWR) Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and UWR winter steelhead (O. mykiss) throughout multiple life stages. In this study, scenarios testing different dam-operation strategies and hypothetical dam-outlet structures were simulated using CE-QUAL-W2 hydrodynamic/temperature models of the MFWR system from Hills Creek Lake (HCR) to Lookout Point (LOP) and Dexter (DEX) Lakes to explore and understand the efficacy of potential flow and temperature mitigation options.Model scenarios were run in constructed wet, normal, and dry hydrologic calendar years, and designed to minimize the effects of Hills Creek and Lookout Point Dams on river temperature by prioritizing warmer lake surface releases in May–August and cooler, deep releases in September–December. Operational scenarios consisted of a range of modified release rate rules, relaxation of power-generation constraints, variations in the timing of refill and drawdown, and maintenance of different summer maximum lake levels at HCR and LOP. Structural scenarios included various combinations of hypothetical floating outlets near the lake surface and hypothetical new outlets at depth. Scenario results were compared to scenarios using existing operational rules that give temperature management some priority (Base), scenarios using pre-2012 operational rules that prioritized power generation over temperature management (NoBlend), and estimated temperatures from a without-dams condition (WoDams).Results of the tested model scenarios led

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener patterns in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting in the Housatonic River watershed, western Massachusetts, USA, using a novel statistical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custer, Christine M.; Read, Lorraine B.

    2006-01-01

    A novel application of a commonly used statistical approach was used to examine differences in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener patterns among locations and sample matrices in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting in the Housatonic River watershed in western Massachusetts, USA. The most prevalent PCB congeners in tree swallow tissue samples from the Housatonic River watershed were Ballsmitter Zell numbers 153, 138, 180, 187, 149, 101, and 170. These congeners were seven of the eight most prevalent congeners in Aroclor[reg] 1260, the PCB mixture that was the primary source of contamination in the Housatonic River system. Using paired-Euclidean distances and tolerance limits, it was demonstrated that congener patterns in swallow tissues from sites on the main stem of the Housatonic River were more similar to one another than to two sites upstream of the contamination or from a nearby reference area. The congener patterns also differed between the reference area and the two upstream tributaries and between the two tributaries. These pattern differences were the same in both pipper (eggs or just hatched nestlings) and 12-day-old nestling samples. Lower-chlorinated congeners appeared to be metabolized in nestlings and pippers compared to diet, and metabolized more in pippers compared to nestlings. Euclidean distances and tolerance limits provide a simple and statistically valid method to compare PCB congener patterns among groups. - Polychlorinated biphenyl congener patterns in swallows differed between the main stem of the Housatonic River, MA and other locations in the watershed

  11. Comparison of benthos and plankton for selected areas of concern and non-areas of concern in western Lake Michigan Rivers and Harbors in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikenberry, Barbara C. Scudder; Bell, Amanda H.; Olds, Hayley T.; Burns, Daniel J.

    2016-07-25

    Recent data are lacking to assess whether impairments still exist at four of Wisconsin’s largest Lake Michigan harbors that were designated as Areas of Concern (AOCs) in the late 1980s due to sediment contamination and multiple Beneficial Use Impairments (BUIs), such as those affecting benthos (macroinvertebrates) and plankton (zooplankton and phytoplankton) communities. During three seasonal sampling events (“seasons”) in May through August 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey collected sediment benthos and water plankton at the four AOCs as well as six less-degraded non-AOCs along the western Lake Michigan shoreline to assess whether AOC communities were degraded in comparison to non-AOC communities. The four AOCs are the Lower Menominee River, the Lower Green Bay and Fox River, the Sheboygan River, and the Milwaukee Estuary. Due to their size and complexity, multiple locations or “subsites” were sampled within the Lower Green Bay and Fox River AOC (Lower Green Bay, the Fox River near Allouez, and the Fox River near De Pere) and within the Milwaukee Estuary AOC (the Milwaukee River, the Menomonee River, and the Milwaukee Harbor) and single locations were sampled at the other AOCs and non-AOCs. The six non-AOCs are the Escanaba River in Michigan, and the Oconto River, Ahnapee River, Kewaunee River, Manitowoc River, and Root River in Wisconsin. Benthos samples were collected by using Hester-Dendy artificial substrates deployed for 30 days and by using a dredge sampler; zooplankton were collected by net and phytoplankton by whole-water sampler. Except for the Lower Green Bay and Milwaukee Harbor locations, communities at each AOC were compared to all non-AOCs as a group and to paired non-AOCs using taxa relative abundances and metrics, including richness, diversity, and an Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI, for Hester-Dendy samples only). Benthos samples collected during one or more seasons were rated as degraded for at least one metric at all AOCs. In the

  12. Composition and biogeography of forest patches on the inland mountains of the southern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Geldenhuys

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Patterns in species richness of 23 small, isolated forests on the inland mountains of the southern Cape were studied. Species richness of woody plants and vines of the Kouga-Baviaanskloof Forests was higher than in the western mountain complexes, where species richness in the more southern Rooiberg and Kamanassie Mountains was higher than in the Swartberg range. The Rooiberg, a dry mountain with small forests far away from the coastal source area, had more species than, and contained many species which are absent from, the larger, moister forests of the Kamanassie which are closest to the coastal source areas. Neither altitude nor distance from the source area, the forests south of the coastal mountains, nor long-distance dispersal, adequately explained the variation in species richness. The variations are best explained in terms of dispersal corridors along the Gouritz and Gamtoos River systems which connect the coastal forests with the inland mountains. The distribution patterns of four species groups in relation to the geomorphological history of the two river systems provide relative dates for the expansion and contraction of temperate forest, subtropical forest and subtropical transitional thicket in the southern Cape.

  13. Factors affecting the occurrence of saugers in small, high-elevation rivers near the western edge of the species' natural distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadio, C.J.; Hubert, W.A.; Johnson, Kevin; Oberlie, D.; Dufek, D.

    2005-01-01

    Factors affecting the occurrence of saugers Sander canadensis were studied throughout the Wind River basin, a high-elevation watershed (> 1,440 m above mean sea level) on the western periphery of the species' natural distribution in central Wyoming. Adult saugers appeared to have a contiguous distribution over 170 km of streams among four rivers in the watershed. The upstream boundaries of sauger distribution were influenced by summer water temperatures and channel slopes in two rivers and by water diversion dams that created barriers to upstream movement in the other two rivers. Models that included summer water temperature, maximum water depth, habitat type (pool or run), dominant substrate, and alkalinity accounted for the variation in sauger occurrence across the watershed within the areas of sauger distribution. Water temperature was the most important basin-scale habitat feature associated with sauger occurrence, and maximum depth was the most important site-specific habitat feature. Saugers were found in a larger proportion of pools than runs in all segments of the watershed and occurred almost exclusively in pools in upstream segments of the watershed. Suitable summer water temperatures and deep, low-velocity habitat were available to support saugers over a large portion of the Wind River watershed. Future management of saugers in the Wind River watershed, as well as in other small river systems within the species' native range, should involve (1) preserving natural fluvial processes to maintain the summer water temperatures and physical habitat features needed by saugers and (2) assuring that barriers to movement do not reduce upstream boundaries of populations.

  14. The Cape Times's portrayal of school violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corene de Wet

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the Cape Times's portrayal of school violence in the Western Cape (WC, South Africa, reporting on findings from a qualitative content analysis of 41 news articles retrieved from the SA Media database. The findings shed light on the victims and their victimisation, the perpetrators, as well as the context of the violence, identifying gangsterism, as well as school administrative and community factors as the reasons for violence in WC schools. It is argued that school violence and gangsterism are inextricably linked to the Cape Flats in particular, and that the interaction of forms of inequality and oppression such as racism, class privilege and gender oppression are structural root causes for school violence in this area of the WC. The study highlights the negative consequences of school violence on teaching and learning and on the economy. It is concluded that even if the Cape Times paints an exaggerated and atypical picture of violence in the gang-riddled parts of the WC, the detrimental effects thereof on the regions cannot be denied. The study therefore recommends a holistic approach to addressing the structural root causes of school violence where it takes place in the WC.

  15. The Western Borderlands of the Bulgar Ulus of the Golden Horde (based on materials of sites located on the left bank of the lower Sura river area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gribov Nikolay N.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research of medieval settlements Kurmysh-4 and Murzitsyy-1, located on the left bank of the Sura river in Nizhny Novgorod oblast. The sites were discovered and surveyed in 2007-2009. These are large unfortified settlements, founded in the border area between the Russian lands and the Bulgar Ulus in the 14th century. According to written sources, the Lower Sura river area belonged to the Nizhny Novgorod princes at the time. The sites reveal a number of urban features, such as a large area, multiethnic population, traces of varied craft and trade activities. The data obtained during the preliminary investigation of these sites make it possible to add new features regarding the specificity of populating the Western borderlands of the Bulgar Ulus in the Golden Horde period.

  16. An endangered new species of seasonal killifish of the genus Austrolebias (Cyprinodontiformes: Aplocheiloidei) from the Bermejo river basin in the Western Chacoan Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Felipe; Terán, Guillermo Enrique; Calviño, Pablo; García, Ignacio; Cardoso, Yamila; García, Graciela

    2018-01-01

    Austrolebias wichi, new species, is herein described from seasonal ponds of the Bermejo river basin in the Western Chacoan district in northwestern Argentina. This species was found in a single pond, a paleochannel of the Bermejo River, which is seriously disturbed by soybean plantations surrounding it. Despite intensive sampling in the area, this species was only registered in this pond where it was relatively scarce. Therefore, we consider this species as critically endangered. This species is the sister species of A. patriciae in our phylogenetic analyses and is similar, in a general external aspect, to A. varzeae and A. carvalhoi. It can be distinguished among the species of Austrolebias by its unique color pattern in males. Additionally, from A. varzeae by presenting a supraorbital band equal or longer than the infraorbital band (vs. shorter) and from A. patriciae by the convex dorsal profile of head (vs. concave). Further diagnostic characters and additional comments on its ecology and reproduction are provided.

  17. A case study on the diagnosis and consequences of flash floods in south-western Romania: The upper basin of Desnatui River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morosanu Gabriela Adina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the flash floods that may appear in a representative river basin occupying the south-western Romania and also feature an example of the most recent flash flood from 2005-2006, more specifically, its causes and consequences. In order to accomplish the objectives, hydrological data were used to identify the characteristics of the floods. Finally, the case study of the flash flood was delivered through the field research, observational method, discussion with the authorities and investigation of the meteorological and hydrological available data. The research offers an insight on the dimension of damages triggered by a flash flood event, based on the statistical data provided by the village hall and the few remaining places preserving the traces of the floods (houses, bridges. Because we could not provide all the necessary data in order to determine the frequency and scale of such risk phenomena, the analysis is assessed on general hydrological statistics of flood events between 1964 to 2011. By leading the research, it resulted that the specific feature of the upper basin of Desnatui River is its temporary drainage and that in the periods of high flow, the capacity of the river channels is diminshed and the floods may occur. The paper succeeds to revive the insufficient scientific concerns on this kind of hydrological risks issued in the space occupied by the upper basin of Desnatui River and eventually, to supply the need for such study in the context of modern hydrological research preoccupations.

  18. The study of genetic diversity and population structure of Vimba vimba persa (Pallas, 1814 populations in the Eastern and Western coastline of the Caspian sea (Havigh River and GorganRoud River using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Mohamadian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity of Vimba vimba persa was investigated using microsatellite markers from two regions of the Iranian coastline of southern Caspian sea (Havigh River in Guilan province, GorganRoud River in Golestan province. The purpose of this research was the study of Vimba vimba persa’s possible populations related to genetic diversity and population structure in the Caspian sea and introducing the useful genetic markers. To investigate the genetic structure of Vimba vimba persa populations, we sampled 50 specimens of Vimba vimba persa caught by beach seine from GorganRoud River in Golestan Province (30 specimens and Havigh River in the Guilan Province (20 specimens. Genomic DNA was extracted from fin tissue by phenol-Chlorophorm method and PCR reaction was accomplished with 17 microsatellite primers 10 of which were amplified with reasonable polymorphism. Means of alleles were on 6.75 averages, observed and expected heterozygosity averages were 0.817 and 0.735, respectively. Most cases, significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p≤0.01. According to the Fst values, there are two significant populations of Vimba vimba persa in the eastern and western coasts of the Caspian Sea which restocking of these species should be considered. Based on the survey revealed, since the population of this species is decreasing with its high genetic diversity, the Caspian Vimba had an enormous diversity in the past.

  19. Cape Town's central city development: A strategy of partnership and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cape Town's Central City (see Figures. 1 and 2), located between the city's harbour and the iconic slopes of Table. Mountain, has a vital role to play in transforming the wider metropolitan region into a more inclusive and opportunistic urban area. Stretching from Woodstock and Salt. River into the CBD and out into Green.

  20. The subtidal gully fish community of the eastern Cape and the role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-02-25

    Feb 25, 1988 ... The subtidal gully fish community of the eastern Cape and the ... relation to previous studies of intertidal pools in the eastern and western Cape, ... transient species, particularly two species in the family ..... schooling species (27%) made up the balance. ..... consistent with other work that has shown greater.

  1. Evaluation of availability of water from drift aquifers near the Pomme de Terre and Chippewa rivers, western Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delin, G.N.

    1987-01-01

    Ground-water flow in the confined- and unconfined-drift aquifers near Appleton and Benson, Minnesota, was simulated with a three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water-flow model. Model results indicate that 98 percent of the total inflow to the modeled area is from precipitation. Of the total outflow, 38 percent is ground-water discharge to the Pom me de Terre and Chippewa Rivers, 36 percent is evapotranspiration, 17 percent is ground-water pumpage, and 8 percent is ground-water discharge to the Minnesota River.

  2. Properties and CAPE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; O'Connell, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The role of properties in the solution of Computer Aided Process Engineering (CAPE) problems is described in terms of current trend, future challenges and important issues. Three distinct roles of properties in CAFE have been identified - a service role, a service plus advice role and a service......, advice plus solve role. The CAFE problems solved under each of these roles are described together with simple illustrative examples. Finally, the paper describes how some of the future problems related to integration of synthesis, design and control might be dealt with efficiently and reliably through co......-operative CAFE and properties methodologies. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  3. 76 FR 52266 - Safety Zone; Coast Guard Exercise, Detroit River, Ambassador Bridge to the Western Tip of Belle Isle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... rule under Executive Order 13045, Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks. This rule is not an economically significant rule and does not create an environmental risk to... temporary safety zone in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone on the Detroit River, from the Ambassador...

  4. Uranium isotopes in rivers, estuaries and adjacent coastal sediments of western India: their weathering, transport and oceanic budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borole, D.V.; Krishnaswami, S.; Somayajulu, B.L.K.

    1982-01-01

    The two major river systems on the west coast of India, Narbada and Tapti, their estuaries and the coastal Arabian sea sediments have been extensively studied for their uranium concentrations and 234 U/ 238 U activity ratios. The 238 U concentrations in the aqueous phase of these river systems exhibit a strong positive correlation with the sum of the major cations, and with the HCO 3 - ion contents. The abundance ratio of dissolved U to the sum of the major cations in these waters is similar to their ratio in typical crustal rocks. In the estuaries, both 238 U and its great-grand daughter 234 U behave conservatively beyond chlorosities 0.14 g/l. A review of the uranium isotope measurements in river waters yield a discharge weighted-average 238 U concentration of 0.22 μg/l with a 234 U/ 238 U activity ratio of 1.20 +-0.06. The residence time of uranium isotopes in the oceans estimated from the 238 U concentration and the 234 U/ 238 U A.R. of the rivers yield conflicting results; the material balance of uranium isotopes in the marine environment still remains a paradox. If the disparity between the results is real, then an additional 234 U flux of about 0.25 dpm/cm 2 .10 3 yr into the oceans is necessitated. (author)

  5. Intensified oxygen minimum zone on the western shelf of Bay of Bengal during summer monsoon: Influence of river discharge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Krishna, M.S.; Viswanadham, R.; Rao, G.D.; Rao, V.D.; Sridevi, B.; Kumar, B.S.K.; Prasad, V.R.; Subbaiah, Ch.V.; Acharyya, T.; Bandopadhyay, D.

    monsoon 2001. Deep Sea Res. II, 50, 881–896. McAullife, C. (1971). GC Determination of solutes by multiple phase equilibration. Chemical Technology, 1, 46-50. Milliman, J.D., and R.H. Meade (1983). World-wide delivery of river sediment...

  6. The 2014 Karnali River Floods in Western Nepal: Making Community Based Early Warning Systems Work When Data Is Lacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugar, S.; MacClune, K.; Venkateswaran, K.; Yadav, S.; Szoenyi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Implementing Community Based Flood Early Warning System (EWS) in developing countries like Nepal is challenging. Complex topography and geology combined with a sparse network of river and rainfall gauges and little predictive meteorological capacity both nationally and regionally dramatically constrain EWS options. This paper provides a synopsis of the hydrological and meteorological conditions that led to flooding in the Karnali River, West Nepal during mid-August 2014, and analyses the effectiveness of flood EWS in the region. On August 14-15, 2014, a large, slow moving weather system deposited record breaking rainfall in the foothills of the Karnali River catchment. Precipitation depths of 200 to 500 mm were recorded over a 24-hour period, which led to rapid rise of river heights. At the Chisapani river gauge station used for the existing EWS, where the Karnali River exits the Himalaya onto the Indo-Gangetic Plain, water levels rapidly exceeded the 11 meter danger level. Between 3 to 6 am, water levels rose from 11 to 16. 1 meters, well beyond the design height of 15 meters. Analysis suggests that 2014 floods may have been a one-in-1000 year event. Starting with the onset of intense rainfall, the Chisapani gauge reader was in regular communication with downstream stakeholders and communities providing them with timely information regarding rising water level. This provided people just enough time to move to safe places with their livestock and key assets. Though households still lost substantial assets, without the EWS, floodwaters would have caught communities completely unaware and damage would almost certainly have been much worse. In particular, despite the complications associated with access to the Chisapani gauge and failure of critical communication nodes during the floods, EWS was instrumental in saving lives. This study explores both the details of the flood event and performance of the early warning system, and identifies lessons learned to help

  7. Rediscovery Of The Northern Mole Vole, Ellobius Talpinus (Rodentia, Cricetidae, At The Western Bank Of The Dnipro River, Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusin M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ellobius talpinus was supposed to become extinct from the westernbank of the river Dnipro. Aft er 50 years the species was found again in Dnipropetrovsk and Kherson Region. The brief description of the current distribution of the northern mole vole to the west of the Dnipro is given. Altogether 11 localities were found. The rediscovered populations may be treated as endangered in the region.

  8. The Humansdorp Cape Griffon Site

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ZeldaH

    Figure 1. The cliff north-west of the town of Humansdorp, Eastern Cape, South Africa, where a small group of Cape Griffons Gyps coprotheres roosted, and reportedly bred, until the end of the. 19 th century. The trees seen in the picture are all alien, invasive, black wattles Acacia mearnsii. (Photo: A Boshoff).

  9. Water Resources Status and Availability Assessment in Current and Future Climate Change Scenarios for Beas River Basin of North Western Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, S. P.; Thakur, P. K.; Garg, V.; Nikam, B. R.; Chouksey, A.; Dhote, P.; Bhattacharya, T.

    2016-10-01

    The water resources status and availability of any river basin is of primary importance for overall and sustainable development of any river basin. This study has been done in Beas river basin which is located in North Western Himalaya for assessing the status of water resources in present and future climate change scenarios. In this study hydrological modelling approach has been used for quantifying the water balance components of Beas river basin upto Pandoh. The variable infiltration capacity (VIC) model has been used in energy balance mode for Beas river basin at 1km grid scale. The VIC model has been run with snow elevation zones files to simulate the snow module of VIC. The model was run with National Centre for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) forcing data (Tmax, Tmin, Rainfall and wind speed at 0.5degree resolution) from 1 Jan. 1999 to 31 Dec 2006 for calibration purpose. The additional component of glacier melt was added into overall river runoff using semi-empirical approach utilizing air temperature and glacier type and extent data. The ground water component is computed from overall recharge of ground water by water balance approach. The overall water balance approach is validated with river discharge data provided by Bhakra Beas Management Board (BBMB) from 1994-2014. VIC routing module was used to assess pixel wise flow availability at daily, monthly and annual time scales. The mean monthly flow at Pandoh during study period varied from 19 - 1581 m3/s from VIC and 50 to 1556 m3/sec from observation data, with minimum water flow occurring in month of January and maximum flow in month of August with annual R2 of 0.68. The future climate change data is taken from CORDEX database. The climate model of NOAA-GFDL-ESM2M for IPCC RCP scenario 4.5 and 8.5 were used for South Asia at 0.44 deg. grid from year 2006 to 2100. The climate forcing data for VIC model was prepared using daily maximum and minimum near surface air temperature, daily precipitation and

  10. WATER RESOURCES STATUS AND AVAILABILITY ASSESSMENT IN CURRENT AND FUTURE CLIMATE CHANGE SCENARIOS FOR BEAS RIVER BASIN OF NORTH WESTERN HIMALAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Aggarwal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The water resources status and availability of any river basin is of primary importance for overall and sustainable development of any river basin. This study has been done in Beas river basin which is located in North Western Himalaya for assessing the status of water resources in present and future climate change scenarios. In this study hydrological modelling approach has been used for quantifying the water balance components of Beas river basin upto Pandoh. The variable infiltration capacity (VIC model has been used in energy balance mode for Beas river basin at 1km grid scale. The VIC model has been run with snow elevation zones files to simulate the snow module of VIC. The model was run with National Centre for Environmental Prediction (NCEP forcing data (Tmax, Tmin, Rainfall and wind speed at 0.5degree resolution from 1 Jan. 1999 to 31 Dec 2006 for calibration purpose. The additional component of glacier melt was added into overall river runoff using semi-empirical approach utilizing air temperature and glacier type and extent data. The ground water component is computed from overall recharge of ground water by water balance approach. The overall water balance approach is validated with river discharge data provided by Bhakra Beas Management Board (BBMB from 1994-2014. VIC routing module was used to assess pixel wise flow availability at daily, monthly and annual time scales. The mean monthly flow at Pandoh during study period varied from 19 - 1581 m3/s from VIC and 50 to 1556 m3/sec from observation data, with minimum water flow occurring in month of January and maximum flow in month of August with annual R2 of 0.68. The future climate change data is taken from CORDEX database. The climate model of NOAA-GFDL-ESM2M for IPCC RCP scenario 4.5 and 8.5 were used for South Asia at 0.44 deg. grid from year 2006 to 2100. The climate forcing data for VIC model was prepared using daily maximum and minimum near surface air temperature, daily

  11. 33 CFR 80.525 - Cape Lookout, NC to Cape Fear, NC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Lookout, NC to Cape Fear, NC... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Fifth District § 80.525 Cape Lookout, NC to Cape Fear... southeast side of the Inlet. (g) Except as provided elsewhere in this section from Cape Lookout to Cape Fear...

  12. Allegheny County Major Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains locations of major rivers that flow through Allegheny County. These shapes have been taken from the Hydrology dataset. The Ohio River,...

  13. Sciaenidae fish of the Caeté River estuary, Northern Brazil: mitochondrial DNA suggests explosive radiation for the Western Atlantic assemblage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Vinson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sciaenids are fish which are normally abundant in tropical estuaries of the western Atlantic. Studies on the Caeté river estuary in the northern Brazilian state of Pará have revealed that in this area Sciaenidae is the dominant family, comprising almost 50% of all teleosts sampled. In this paper we present the results of the first phylogenetic study on South American estuarine sciaenids, during which we obtained mitochondrial gene 16S sequences from 15 species belonging to eight genera occurring in the Caeté estuary. Intergeneric nucleotide divergences varied from 5 to 15%, Lonchurus and Menticirrhus being the most divergent lineages. Nucleotide divergences were quite variable amongst species of the same genus, ranging from 1.2% (Stellifer microps x Stellifer naso to 8.4% (Menticirrhus americanus x Menticirrhus littoralis. Cladograms based on maximum parsimony, minimum evolution and maximum likelihood depicted an explosive diversification pattern for the western Atlantic sciaenid assemblage. Our analysis further reveals a very close relationship between Bairdiella and Stellifer, a monophyletic clade which emerged during the more recent diversification events of the Sciaenidae family. The phylogenetic reconstruction suggests the need for a revision of the taxonomy and nomenclature of the Bairdiella/Stellifer group.

  14. Impact of catastrophic events on small mountainous rivers: Temporal and spatial variations in suspended- and dissolved-solid fluxes along the Choshui River, central western Taiwan, during typhoon Mindulle, July 2-6, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliman, J. D.; Lee, T. Y.; Huang, J. C.; Kao, S. J.

    2017-05-01

    Small mountainous rivers deliver disproportionately large quantities of suspended and dissolved solids to the global ocean, often in response to catastrophic events such as earthquakes or floods. Here we report on the impact of a major flood on the Choshui River, central-western Taiwan, generated by typhoon Mindulle, July 2-6, 2004, five years after the nearby Mw 7.6 Chichi earthquake. Water samples taken at 3-h intervals at three stations along main stem, as well as from two downriver tributaries, allow us to delineate the temporal and spatial variability in concentrations and fluxes of suspended and dissolved constituents within the middle and lower portions of the river in response to this flood. High suspended-sediment concentrations, some as high as 200 g/l, reflected the rapid erosion of landslide scars and debris deposits generated by super-typhoon Herb in 1996 and the 1999 Chichi earthquake. Dissolved-solid and suspended-sediment discharges totaled 0.22 and 70 million tons (mt), 50 mt of which were discharged in just two days. Particulate organic carbon (POC) discharge, most of which was pre-modern in age, was 195,000 t. More than half of the discharged water, POC and dissolved solids came from upriver, whereas about 70% of the suspended sediment and 60% of the dissolved nitrate came from two downriver tributaries, the Chenyoulan and Qingshui rivers. Spatial and temporal differences in the character and discharge of suspended and dissolved solids within and between rivers in the Choshui drainage basin reflect different geologies, landslide histories, the effects of human impact, and the abrupt draining of the Tsaoling landslide lake in the Qingshui basin, as well as the possible shifting of importance of groundwater vs. overland flow. Neither wind-blown pollutants nor sea salts appear to have contributed significantly to dissolved solid character or discharge. Sediment contribution from the landslides in the Chenyoulan basin generated by super-typhoon Herb

  15. The new Wallula CO2 project may revive the old Columbia River Basalt (western USA) nuclear-waste repository project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Michael O.

    2018-02-01

    A novel CO2 sequestration project at Wallula, Washington, USA, makes ample use of the geoscientific data collection of the old nuclear waste repository project at the Hanford Site nearby. Both projects target the Columbia River Basalt (CRB). The new publicity for the old project comes at a time when the approach to high-level nuclear waste disposal has undergone fundamental changes. The emphasis now is on a technical barrier that is chemically compatible with the host rock. In the ideal case, the waste container is in thermodynamic equilibrium with the host-rock groundwater regime. The CRB groundwater has what it takes to represent the ideal case.

  16. Contraceptive use and associated factors among adolescents on Santiago Island - Cape Verde - Western Africa Uso de métodos anticoncepcionais e fatores associados em adolescentes da Ilha de Santiago - Cabo Verde - África Ocidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mendes Tavares

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to estimate the prevalence of contraceptive use and associated factors among adolescents attending public schools on Santiago Island, Cape Verde. METHODS: a cross-sectional study was carried out with 368 sexually active adolescents aged 13-17years attending eight public elementary and high schools, randomly selected, on Santiago Island, Cape Verde, between January and March 2007. Poisson regression with robust variance was used for the multiple analysis of risk factors, at a 5% level of significance. RESULTS: among 368 adolescents, 69.3% reported having used a contraceptive method during the last act of sexual intercourse. The most frequently used method were condom (94.9% and pill (26.4%. Factors significantly and positively associated with contraceptive use were: living in the capital (PR=1.23; CI95%: 1.07; 1.39; having dated and had sexual intercourse (PR =1.53; CI95%: 1.14;2.06; and having more than nine years of schooling (PR=1.19; CI95%: 1.02; 1.38. CONCLUSIONS: more educated adolescents who studied in Praia (the capital city and were dating at the time of the study were more likely to use contraception. The high prevalence of condom use and the association between contraception use and years of schooling among adolescents may indicate that sexual and reproductive health policies have produced positive outcomes that may account for the decrease in HIV infection.OBJETIVO: estimar a prevalência do uso de métodos anticoncepcionais (MAC e fatores associados entre adolescentes de escola pública na ilha de Santiago em Cabo Verde. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal, realizado entre janeiro e março de 2007, com amostra aleatória de 368 adolescentes de 13 a 17 anos de idade, com vida sexual ativa, provenientes de oito escolas secundárias públicas da ilha de Santiago. Para análise múltipla dos fatores de risco foi utilizada a regressão de Poisson ajustada pela estimativa robusta de variância considerando-se nível de signific

  17. A Summary of Fish Data in Six Reaches of The Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutreuter, Steve

    1997-01-01

    .... The six LTRMP study reaches are Pools 4 (excluding Lake Pepin), 8, 13, and 26 of the Upper Mississippi River, an unimpounded reach of the Mississippi River near Cape Girardeau, Missouri, and the La Grange Pool of the Illinois River...

  18. Feasibility of Pulse Oximetry Pre-discharge Screening Implementation for detecting Critical Congenital heart Lesions in newborns in a secondary level maternity hospital in the Western Cape, South Africa: The 'POPSICLe' study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Niekerk, A M; Cullis, R M; Linley, L L; Zühlke, L

    2016-07-07

    Early detection of critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) through newborn pulse oximetry (POx) screening is an effective strategy for reducing paediatric morbidity and mortality rates and has been adopted by much of the developed world. To document the feasibility of implementing pre-discharge POx screening in well babies born at Mowbray Maternity Hospital, a busy government hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. Parent and staff acceptance was assessed. We conducted a prospective study of predischarge POx screening in one postnatal ward, following informed parental consent. During the 4-month study period, 1 017 of 2 256 babies discharged (45.1%) were offered POx screening and 1 001 were screened; 94.0% of tests took <3 minutes to perform, 4.3% 3 - 5 minutes and 1.7% >5 minutes. Eighteen patients needed second screens and three required third screens. Only 3.1% protocol errors were made, all without consequence. The vast majority (91.6%) of nursing staff reported insufficient time to perform the study screening in addition to their daily tasks, but ~75% felt that with a full nursing staff complement and if done routinely (not part of a study), pre-discharge POx screening could be successfully instituted at our facility. Over 98% of the mothers had positive comments. Two babies failed screening and required echocardiograms; one was diagnosed with CCHD and the other with neonatal sepsis. The sensitivity and specificity were 50% (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3 - 98.7%) and 99.9% (95% CI 99.4 - 100%), respectively, with a percentage correct of 99.8%. POx screening was supported and accepted by staff and parents. If there are no nursing staff shortages and if it is done routinely before discharge, not as part of a study, we conclude that POx screening could be implemented successfully without excessive false positives or errors, or any additional burden to cardiology services.

  19. Importance of inorganic geochemical characteristics on assessment of shale gas potential in the Devonian Horn River Formation of western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Kyung; Shinn, Young Jae; Choi, Jiyoung; Lee, Hyun Suk

    2017-04-01

    The gas generation and storage potentials of shale has mostly been assessed by original TOC (TOCo) and original kerogen type. However, in the Horn River Formation, organic geochemical tools and analysis are barely sufficient for assessing the TOCo and original kerogen type because residual carbon contents represent up to 90% of TOC in shales. Major and trace elements are used as proxies for the bottom water oxygen level, for terrestrial sediment input and for productivity, which is related with variation of kerogen type. By using the inorganic geochemical proxies, we attempt to assess original kerogen type in shale gas formation and suggest its implication for HIo (original Hydrogen Index) estimation. The estimated HIo in this study allows us to calculate a reliable TOCo. These results provide new insights into the accurate estimation of the hydrocarbon potential of shale gas resources. The inorganic geochemical proxies indicate vertical variations of productivity (EX-SiO2 and Baauth), terrestrial sediment input (Al2O3, Zr, Hf, and Nb) and oxygen content in bottom water during deposition (Moauth, Uauth and Th/U), which represent the temporal changes in the mixing ratio between Type II and III kerogens. The Horn River Formation has different HIo values calculated from EX-SiO2 (biogenic origin) and it is ranked by HIo value in descending order: Evie and Muskwa members (500-700 mgHC/gTOC) > middle Otterpark Member (400-500 mgHC/gTOC) > upper Otterpark Member (300-400 mgHC/gTOC) > lower Otterpark Member (200 mgHC/gTOC). Based on the original kerogen type and TOCo, the gas generation and storage potentials of the Evie, middle Otterpark and Muskwa members are higher than those of other members. The source rock potential is excellent for the Evie Member with a remarkable difference between TOCo and measured TOC.

  20. GREENHOUSE-GROWN CAPE GOOSEBERRY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    /2006 S 4,00. Printed in Uganda. All rights reserved O2006, African Crop Science Society. SHORT COMMINICATION. EFFECT OF GIBBERRELLIC ACID ON GROWTH AND FRUIT YIELD OF. GREENHOUSE-GROWN CAPE GOOSEBERRY.

  1. Southern San Andreas Fault Slip History Refined Using Pliocene Colorado River Deposits in the Western Salton Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, R. J.; Bennett, S. E. K.; Housen, B. A.

    2016-12-01

    Tectonic reconstructions of Pacific-North America plate motion in the Salton Trough region (Bennett et al., 2016) are constrained by: (1) late Miocene volcanic rocks that record 255 +/-10 km of transform offset across the northern Gulf of California since 6 Ma (average 42 mm/yr; Oskin and Stock, 2003); and (2) GPS data that show modern rates of 50-52 mm/yr between Pacific and North America plates, and 46-48 mm/yr between Baja California (BC) and North America (NAM) (Plattner et al., 2007). New data from Pliocene Colorado River deposits in the Salton Trough provide an important additional constraint on the geologic history of slip on the southern San Andreas Fault (SAF). The Arroyo Diablo Formation (ADF) in the San Felipe Hills SW of the Salton Sea contains abundant cross-bedded channel sandstones deformed in the dextral Clark fault zone. The ADF ranges in age from 4.3 to 2.8 Ma in the Fish Creek-Vallecito basin, and in the Borrego Badlands its upper contact with the Borrego Formation is 2.9 Ma based on our new magnetostratigraphy. ADF paleocurrent data from a 20-km wide, NW-oriented belt near Salton City record overall transport to the SW (corrected for bedding dip, N=165), with directions ranging from NW to SE. Spatial domain analysis reveals radial divergence of paleoflow to the: W and NW in the NW domain; SW in the central domain; and S in the SE domain. Data near Borrego Sink, which restores to south of Salton City after removing offset on the San Jacinto fault zone, show overall transport to the SE. Pliocene patterns of radial paleoflow divergence strongly resemble downstream bifurcation of fluvial distributary channels on the modern Colorado River delta SW of Yuma, and indicate that Salton City has translated 120-130 km NW along the SAF since 3 Ma. We propose a model in which post-6 Ma BC-NAM relative motion gradually accelerated to 50 mm/yr by 4 Ma, continued at 50 mm/yr from 4-1 Ma, and decreased to 46 mm/yr from 1-0 Ma (split equally between the SAF and

  2. Asthma triggers on the Cheyenne River Indian Reservation in western South Dakota: the Breathing Relief Education and Tribal Health Empowerment (BREATHE) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Rae; Wallace, James

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to better understand asthma triggers and possible causes of exacerbations among BREATHE participants on the Cheyenne River Indian Reservation in western South Dakota. To qualify for enrollment, participants had to have physician-diagnosed asthma, be uncontrolled and have persistent symptoms. Participants were asked to identify their top two asthma triggers throughout their one-year enrollment during initial visits and subsequent phone follow-ups. In addition, participant's medical records were reviewed for visits to the emergency department (ED) to demonstrate asthma exacerbations. In 2008, 127 interviews were conducted with 45 enrolled participants for a total of 254 results. Overall, the three most common self reported triggers were cold air, dust and smoke and these comprised nearly half (48.4 percent) of all reports. Dust was reported in 16.5 percent of interviews and ranked among the top four for every season. Smoke (12.6 percent) and cold air (19.3 percent) were leaders in all seasons except summer, but humid air, pollens and strong odors were unique to summer. Exercise/activity ranked high during the winter and spring, but was reported less in summer and fall. There was no identifiable trend in ER visits by season. People with asthma living on the Cheyenne River Indian Reservation or other locations with similar community and geographic demographics are most likely to suffer an asthma exacerbation from exposure to cold air, dust, smoke and exercise/activity. Asthma education is necessary on all levels, but information on avoidance and control of these most common reported triggers is especially important.

  3. Hydrogeology and simulation of groundwater flow and analysis of projected water use for the Canadian River alluvial aquifer, western and central Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, John H.; Mashburn, Shana L.; Graves, Grant M.; Peterson, Steven M.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Fuhrig, Leland T.; Wagner, Derrick L.; Sanford, Jon E.

    2017-02-13

    This report describes a study of the hydrogeology and simulation of groundwater flow for the Canadian River alluvial aquifer in western and central Oklahoma conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board. The report (1) quantifies the groundwater resources of the Canadian River alluvial aquifer by developing a conceptual model, (2) summarizes the general water quality of the Canadian River alluvial aquifer groundwater by using data collected during August and September 2013, (3) evaluates the effects of estimated equal proportionate share (EPS) on aquifer storage and streamflow for time periods of 20, 40, and 50 years into the future by using numerical groundwater-flow models, and (4) evaluates the effects of present-day groundwater pumping over a 50-year period and sustained hypothetical drought conditions over a 10-year period on stream base flow and groundwater in storage by using numerical flow models. The Canadian River alluvial aquifer is a Quaternary-age alluvial and terrace unit consisting of beds of clay, silt, sand, and fine gravel sediments unconformably overlying Tertiary-, Permian-, and Pennsylvanian-age sedimentary rocks. For groundwater-flow modeling purposes, the Canadian River was divided into Reach I, extending from the Texas border to the Canadian River at the Bridgeport, Okla., streamgage (07228500), and Reach II, extending downstream from the Canadian River at the Bridgeport, Okla., streamgage (07228500), to the confluence of the river with Eufaula Lake. The Canadian River alluvial aquifer spans multiple climate divisions, ranging from semiarid in the west to humid subtropical in the east. The average annual precipitation in the study area from 1896 to 2014 was 34.4 inches per year (in/yr).A hydrogeologic framework of the Canadian River alluvial aquifer was developed that includes the areal and vertical extent of the aquifer and the distribution, texture variability, and hydraulic properties of

  4. Phosphorous as the major yield limiting nutrient for maize in the river basin areas of western Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanu Bhakta Pokharel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize is a heavy feeder crop but not always higher quantity of chemical fertilizers leads for higher grain yield. Objective of the study was to identify the major yield limiting macro nutrient for maize in the river basis areas. Field experiments were conducted at four locations viz. Dasharathpur, Ramghat, Mehelkuna, and Gumi VDCs of Surkhet district, under research command areas of Agriculture Research Station, Surkhet. Different doses of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium fertilizers were applied. Planting was done in the summer season of 2010 and 2011. All field experiments were laid out in randomized complete block designs with three replications at each site and year. Deuti variety of maize was used in the experiment. Days to tasseling, silking, and physiological maturity due to fertilizer application were found significant. One week earlier silking, tasseling, and physiological maturity was observed due to use of 100:100 kg ha-1 nitrogen and phosphorous as compared to the most late maturity with application of 100 kg nitrogen ha-1. The highest grain yield (6802 kg ha-1 was found with application of 100:100 kg nitrogen and phosphorous ha-1 and the lowest grain yield (4174 kg ha-1 was found with the normal recommended fertilizer dose. Phosphorous was observed as the major yield limiting factor in this study.

  5. Marine littoral diatoms from the Gordon’s bay region of False Bay, Cape Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Giffen, MH

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available and Comic/i for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria (Received: 5.2. 1970) The Gordon?s Bay region occupies the north western corner of False Bay, a large rectangular bay, bounded on the west by the Cape Peninsula ending at Cape Point...

  6. The need for nuclear power at the Cape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myburgh, R.P.A.

    1980-01-01

    The paper gives an indication of the growth of electrical power usage in the Western Cape. In planning to increase the supply of electricity to the Western Cape several factors had to be taken into account. It appeared that the cost to construct a nuclear power plant and the generation of nuclear power compares well with other methods of power generation. Before the construction of Koeberg was started, extensive investigations were undertaken to find a suitable site. Factors taken into account in the investigation included population density, geology and transport facilities. The safety of nuclear power plants are discussed. Mention is made of safeguards inherent in the design of a nuclear power plant. It appears that the possibility of radioactive effluent reaching the atmosphere as result of an accident or malfunctioning of a nuclear plant is very small as there are various safety systems designed to prevent it. Radioactive waste disposal is also discussed

  7. Water uptake by two river red gum ( Eucalyptus camaldulensis) clones in a discharge site plantation in the Western Australian wheatbelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, John K.; Morgan, Anne L.; Akilan, Kandia; Farrell, Richard C. C.; Bell, David T.

    1997-12-01

    The heat-pulse technique was used to estimate year-long water uptake in a discharge zone plantation of 9-year-old clonal Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. near Wubin, Western Australia. Water uptake matched rainfall closely during weter months but exceeded rainfall as the dry season progressed. Average annual water uptake (1148 mm) exceeded rainfall (432 mm) by about 2.7 fold and approached 56% of pan evaporation for the area. The data suggest that at least 37% (i.e. ( {1}/{2.7}) × 100 ) of the lower catchment discharge zone should be planted to prevent the rise of groundwater. Water uptake varied with soil environment, season and genotype. Upslope trees used more water than did downslope trees. Water uptake was higher in E. camaldulensis clone M80 than in clone M66 until late spring. The difference reversed as summer progressed. Both clones, however, have the potential to dry out the landscape when potential evapotranspiration exceeds rainfall. This variation in water uptake within the species indicates the potential for manipulating plantation uptake by matching tree characteristics to site characteristics. Controlled experiments on the heat-pulse technique indicated accuracy errors of approximately 10%. This, combined with the ability to obtain long-term, continuous data and the superior logistics of use of the heat-pulse technique, suggests that results obtained by it would be much more reliable than those achieved by the ventilated chamber technique.

  8. Environmental and socioeconomic assessment of impacts by mining activities-a case study in the Certej River catchment, Western Carpathians, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobrist, Jürg; Sima, Mihaela; Dogaru, Diana; Senila, Marin; Yang, Hong; Popescu, Claudia; Roman, Cecilia; Bela, Abraham; Frei, Linda; Dold, Bernhard; Balteanu, Dan

    2009-08-01

    In the region of the Apuseni Mountains, part of the Western Carpathians in Romania, metal mining activities have a long-standing tradition. These mining industries created a clearly beneficial economic development in the region. But their activities also caused impairments to the environment, such as acid mine drainage (AMD) resulting in long-lasting heavy metal pollution of waters and sediments. The study, established in the context of the ESTROM programme, investigated the impact of metal mining activities both from environmental and socioeconomic perspectives and tried to incorporate the results of the two approaches into an integrated proposition for mitigation of mining-related issues. The small Certej catchment, situated in the Southern Apuseni Mountains, covers an area of 78 km(2). About 4,500 inhabitants are living in the basin, in which metal mining was the main economic sector. An open pit and several abandoned underground mines are producing heavy metal-loaded acidic water that is discharged untreated into the main river. The solid wastes of mineral processing plants were deposited in several dumps and tailings impoundment embodying the acidic water-producing mineral pyrite. The natural science team collected samples from surface waters, drinking water from dug wells and from groundwater. Filtered and total heavy metals, both after enrichment, and major cations were analysed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Major anions in waters, measured by ion chromatography, alkalinity and acidity were determined by titration. Solid samples were taken from river sediments and from the largest tailings dam. The latter were characterised by X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction. Heavy metals in sediments were analysed after digestion. Simultaneously, the socioeconomic team performed a household survey to evaluate the perception of people related to the river and drinking water pollution by way of a logistic regression analysis

  9. Population dynamics of freshwater oyster Etheria elliptica (Bivalvia: Etheriidae in the Pendjari River (Benin-Western Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akélé G.D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Etheria elliptica (Bivalvia: Etheriidae is the only freshwater oyster occurring in Africa. The current study provides the first data on the population structure, growth, age, mortality and exploitation status of this species in the Pendjari River. E. elliptica length-frequency data were collected monthly from January to December 2009 and analyzed with FiSAT software. Population parameters including the asymptotic length (L∞ and growth coefficient (K were assessed to evaluate the stock status. The recruitment pattern was modeled with a FiSAT routine. The asymptotic length (L∞ was 14.75 cm, while the growth coefficient (K was 0.38 year-1. The growth performance index (ø′ reached 1.92. Specimens of Etheria elliptica reached a mean size of 4.66 cm and 6.41 cm at the end of one year and 1.5 years, respectively. We estimated total mortality (Z, natural mortality (M and fishing mortality (F to be 2.90 year-1, 1.16 year-1 and 1.74 year-1, respectively. The recruitment pattern was continuous over the year with one major peak event during the rainy season (July. The exploitation rate (E = 0.60 revealed that the freshwater oyster was probably facing overexploitation due to lack of a minimum limit size and also due to an increase in the harvesting effort. Therefore, efficient management methods were urgently required to conserve the species. The return of empty shells into the water to increase the recruitment surface, rotation planning among harvesting sites and the imposition of a minimum limit size were recommendations made in order to ensure the sustainable exploitation of wild stocks.

  10. Astronomically-Forced Lake Expansion and Contraction Cycles: Sr Isotopic Evidence from the Eocene Green River Formation, Western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddouh, M.; Meyers, S. R.; Carroll, A.; Beard, B. L.; Johnson, C.

    2014-12-01

    87Sr/86Sr ratio from ancient lake deposits offer a unique insight into the astronomical forcing of lake expansion and contraction, by recording changes in runoff/groundwater provenance. We present new high-resolution 87Sr/86Sr data from the upper Wilkins Peak Member, to investigate linkages between astronomical forcing, water sources, and lake level in a classic rhythmic succession. Fifty-one 87Sr/86Sr ratios from White Mountain core #1 were acquired with a sampling interval of ~30 cm starting from the top of alluvial "I" bed to the lower Laney Member. The 87Sr/86Sr data show a strong and significant negative correlation with oil-yield, a traditional proxy for paleolake level and organic productivity. Application of a radioisotopic time scale, using previously dated ash beds, reveals that both 87Sr/86Sr and oil yield have a strong 20 kyr rhythm. The 87Sr/86Sr data more clearly express a longer period 100 kyr signal, similar to the Laskar 10D eccentricity solution. Using our nominal radioisotopic time scale, the Laskar 10D solution and 87Sr/86Sr data suggest that highest lake levels and greatest organic enrichment are attained during greatest precession and eccentricity. Regional geologic studies and modern river water analyses have shown that less radiogenic waters mostly originate west of the basin, where drainage is strongly influenced by thick Paleozoic and Mesozoic marine carbonate units. Decreased in 87Sr/86Sr therefore imply greater relative water contributions from the Sevier orogenic highlands, relative to lower relief, more radiogenic ranges lying to the east. We therefore propose that highstands of Lake Gosiute record increased penetration of Pacific moisture, related either to increased El Niño frequency or southward displacement of major storm tracks. We hypothesize that the occurrence of wetter winters caused expansion of Lake Gosiute, deposition of organic carbon rich facies, and decreased lake water 87Sr/86Sr.

  11. Changes of glacier, glacier-fed rivers and lakes in Altai Tavan Bogd National Park, Western Mongolia, based on multispectral satellite data from 1990 to 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsaikhan, B.; Lkhamjav, O.; Batsaikhan, N.

    2017-12-01

    Impacts on glaciers and water resource management have been altering through climate changes in Mongolia territory characterized by dry and semi-arid climate with low precipitation. Melting glaciers are early indicators of climate change unlike the response of the forests which is slower and takes place over a long period of time. Mountain glaciers are important environmental components of local, regional, and global hydrological cycles. The study calculates an overview of changes for glacier, glacier-fed rivers and lakes in Altai Tavan Bogd mountain, the Western Mongolia, based on the indexes of multispectral data and the methods typically applied in glacier studies. Were utilized an integrated approach of Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI) and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) to combine Landsat, MODIS imagery and digital elevation model, to identify glacier cover are and quantify water storage change in lakes, and compared that with and climate parameters including precipitation, land surface temperature, evaporation, moisture. Our results show that melts of glacier at the study area has contributed to significantly increase of water storage of lakes in valley of The Altai Tavan Bogd mountain. There is hydrologic connection that lake basin is directly fed by glacier meltwater.

  12. Characterization and assessment of potential environmental risk of tailings stored in seven impoundments in the Aries river basin, Western Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to examine the potential environmental risk of tailings resulted after precious and base metal ores processing, stored in seven impoundments located in the Aries river basin, Romania. The tailings were characterized by mineralogical and elemental composition, contamination indices, acid rock drainage generation potential and water leachability of hazardous/priority hazardous metals and ions. Multivariate statistical methods were used for data interpretation. Results Tailings were found to be highly contaminated with several hazardous/priority hazardous metals (As, Cu, Cd, Pb), and pose potential contamination risk for soil, sediments, surface and groundwater. Two out of the seven studied impoundments does not satisfy the criteria required for inert wastes, shows acid rock drainage potential and thus can contaminate the surface and groundwater. Three impoundments were found to be highly contaminated with As, Pb and Cd, two with As and other two with Cu. The tailings impoundments were grouped based on the enrichment factor, geoaccumulation index, contamination factor and contamination degree of 7 hazardous/priority hazardous metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) considered typical for the studied tailings. Principal component analysis showed that 47% of the elemental variability was attributable to alkaline silicate rocks, 31% to acidic S-containing minerals, 12% to carbonate minerals and 5% to biogenic elements. Leachability of metals and ions was ascribed in proportion of 61% to silicates, 11% to acidic minerals and 6% to the organic matter. A variability of 18% was attributed to leachability of biogenic elements (Na, K, Cl-, NO3-) with no potential environmental risk. Pattern recognition by agglomerative hierarchical clustering emphasized the grouping of impoundments in agreement with their contamination degree and acid rock drainage generation potential. Conclusions Tailings stored in the studied impoundments were found to

  13. Characterization and assessment of potential environmental risk of tailings stored in seven impoundments in the Aries river basin, Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levei Erika

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to examine the potential environmental risk of tailings resulted after precious and base metal ores processing, stored in seven impoundments located in the Aries river basin, Romania. The tailings were characterized by mineralogical and elemental composition, contamination indices, acid rock drainage generation potential and water leachability of hazardous/priority hazardous metals and ions. Multivariate statistical methods were used for data interpretation. Results Tailings were found to be highly contaminated with several hazardous/priority hazardous metals (As, Cu, Cd, Pb, and pose potential contamination risk for soil, sediments, surface and groundwater. Two out of the seven studied impoundments does not satisfy the criteria required for inert wastes, shows acid rock drainage potential and thus can contaminate the surface and groundwater. Three impoundments were found to be highly contaminated with As, Pb and Cd, two with As and other two with Cu. The tailings impoundments were grouped based on the enrichment factor, geoaccumulation index, contamination factor and contamination degree of 7 hazardous/priority hazardous metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn considered typical for the studied tailings. Principal component analysis showed that 47% of the elemental variability was attributable to alkaline silicate rocks, 31% to acidic S-containing minerals, 12% to carbonate minerals and 5% to biogenic elements. Leachability of metals and ions was ascribed in proportion of 61% to silicates, 11% to acidic minerals and 6% to the organic matter. A variability of 18% was attributed to leachability of biogenic elements (Na, K, Cl-, NO3- with no potential environmental risk. Pattern recognition by agglomerative hierarchical clustering emphasized the grouping of impoundments in agreement with their contamination degree and acid rock drainage generation potential. Conclusions Tailings stored in the studied

  14. Natural versus anthropogenic dispersion of metals to the environment in the Wulik River area, western Brooks Range, northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, K.D.; Hudson, T.

    2007-01-01

    Zinc-lead-silver mineral deposits in the Wulik River region, Alaska, contain an enormous accumulation of Zn. In addition to the giant deposits at Red Dog, at least nine other deposits are known. Natural weathering of these deposits has dispersed metals over a wide region over a long period of time (c. 10 000 years) through transport by stream and groundwater, stream sediments, formation of soils, and perhaps wind-blown atmospheric deposition from weathering of naturally enriched Pb-Zn surface deposits. Anthropogenic input also contributes metals to the environment. Mining of the Red Dog deposit, which began in 1989, produces fine-grained galena and sphalerite concentrates that are transported from the mine site by truck to a storage port facility. Wind-blown dispersion of concentrate dust along the road and around the port facility has been a source of local metal-rich surficial materials. Geochemical and mineralogical characteristics provide a means of distinguishing the natural versus anthropogenic metal sources. Soils over deposits have patterns of increasing metal contents with depth and proximity to the metal-bearing source, whereas ore concentrate dust is localized at the surface. The acidity produced by weathering of the sulphide deposits creates an environment in which elements such as Se and Mo are stable whereas Ca is not. Consequently, high Mo (up to 29 ppm) and Se (up to 17 ppm) and low Ca (<0.4%) concentrations characterize surficial materials near natural deposits. Acidic conditions also yield high Pb-Zn ratios (up to 70) because sphalerite is preferentially dissolved and Zn is mobilized during chemical weathering. In natural materials, secondary jarosite and anglesite are developed, and minor galena is etched and rounded due to a history of chemical and mechanical weathering. In contrast, dust-bearing samples have Pb/Zn ratios that are 0.4 or less, Ca contents are higher (0.2 to 3.6%), and Mo (<10 ppm) and Se (not detected) concentrations are low

  15. A description of pharmacological analgesia administration by public sector advanced life support paramedics in the City of Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Matthews

    2017-03-01

    Discussion: Pre-hospital acute pain management in the Western Cape does not appear to conform to best practice as Advanced Life Support providers in the Western Cape use low doses of morphine. Chest pain is an important reason for drug administration in acute pre-hospital pain. Multimodal analgesia is not a feature of care in this pre-hospital service. The development of a Clinical Practice Guideline for and training in pre-hospital pain should be viewed as imperative.

  16. The Gediz River fluvial archive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maddy, D.; Veldkamp, A.; Demir, T.; Gorp, van W.; Wijbrans, J.R.; Hinsbergen, van D.J.J.; Dekkers, M.J.; Schreve, D.; Schoorl, J.M.; Scaife, R.

    2017-01-01

    The Gediz River, one of the principal rivers of Western Anatolia, has an extensive Pleistocene fluvial archive that potentially offers a unique window into fluvial system behaviour on the western margins of Asia during the Quaternary. In this paper we review our work on the Quaternary Gediz River

  17. A Vegetation Database for the Colorado River Ecosystem from Glen Canyon Dam to the Western Boundary of Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Barbara E.; Davis, Philip A.; Weber, Robert M.; Rundall, Jill M.

    2008-01-01

    A vegetation database of the riparian vegetation located within the Colorado River ecosystem (CRE), a subsection of the Colorado River between Glen Canyon Dam and the western boundary of Grand Canyon National Park, was constructed using four-band image mosaics acquired in May 2002. A digital line scanner was flown over the Colorado River corridor in Arizona by ISTAR Americas, using a Leica ADS-40 digital camera to acquire a digital surface model and four-band image mosaics (blue, green, red, and near-infrared) for vegetation mapping. The primary objective of this mapping project was to develop a digital inventory map of vegetation to enable patch- and landscape-scale change detection, and to establish randomized sampling points for ground surveys of terrestrial fauna (principally, but not exclusively, birds). The vegetation base map was constructed through a combination of ground surveys to identify vegetation classes, image processing, and automated supervised classification procedures. Analysis of the imagery and subsequent supervised classification involved multiple steps to evaluate band quality, band ratios, and vegetation texture and density. Identification of vegetation classes involved collection of cover data throughout the river corridor and subsequent analysis using two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN). Vegetation was classified into six vegetation classes, following the National Vegetation Classification Standard, based on cover dominance. This analysis indicated that total area covered by all vegetation within the CRE was 3,346 ha. Considering the six vegetation classes, the sparse shrub (SS) class accounted for the greatest amount of vegetation (627 ha) followed by Pluchea (PLSE) and Tamarix (TARA) at 494 and 366 ha, respectively. The wetland (WTLD) and Prosopis-Acacia (PRGL) classes both had similar areal cover values (227 and 213 ha, respectively). Baccharis-Salix (BAXX) was the least represented at 94 ha. Accuracy assessment of the

  18. 1996 Annual Status Report. A Summary of Fish Data in Six Reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burkhardt, Randy

    1997-01-01

    .... The six LTRMP study reaches are Pools 4 (excluding Lake Pepin), 8, 13, and 26 of the Upper Mississippi River, an unimpounded reach of the Mississippi River near Cape Girardeau, Missouri, and the La Grange Pool of the Illinois River...

  19. Capacitively Coupled Resistivity Survey of Selected Irrigation Canals Within the North Platte River Valley, Western Nebraska and Eastern Wyoming, 2004 and 2007-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Bethany L.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Vrabel, Joseph; Imig, Brian H.; Payne, Jason; Tompkins, Ryan E.

    2009-01-01

    Due to water resources of portions of the North Platte River basin being designated as over-appropriated by the State of Nebraska Department of Natural Resources (DNR), the North Platte Natural Resources District (NPNRD), in cooperation with the DNR, is developing an Integrated Management Plan (IMP) for groundwater and surface water in the NPNRD. As part of the IMP, a three-dimensional numerical finite difference groundwater-flow model is being developed to evaluate the effectiveness of using leakage of water from selected irrigation canal systems to manage groundwater recharge. To determine the relative leakage potential of the upper 8 m of the selected irrigation canals within the North Platte River valley in western Nebraska and eastern Wyoming, the U.S. Geological Survey performed a land-based capacitively coupled (CC) resistivity survey along nearly 630 km of 13 canals and 2 laterals in 2004 and from 2007 to 2009. These 13 canals were selected from the 27 irrigation canals in the North Platte valley due to their location, size, irrigated area, and relation to the active North Platte valley flood plain and related paleochannels and terrace deposits where most of the saturated thickness in the alluvium exists. The resistivity data were then compared to continuous cores at 62 test holes down to a maximum depth of 8 m. Borehole electrical conductivity (EC) measurements at 36 of those test holes were done to correlate resistivity values with grain sizes in order to determine potential vertical leakage along the canals as recharge to the underlying alluvial aquifer. The data acquired in 2004, as well as the 25 test hole cores from 2004, are presented elsewhere. These data were reprocessed using the same updated processing and inversion algorithms used on the 2007 through 2009 datasets, providing a consistent and complete dataset for all collection periods. Thirty-seven test hole cores and borehole electrical conductivity measurements were acquired based on the 2008

  20. A conceptual socio-hydrological model of the co-evolution of humans and water: case study of the Tarim River basin, western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D.; Tian, F.; Lin, M.; Sivapalan, M.

    2015-02-01

    The complex interactions and feedbacks between humans and water are critically important issues but remain poorly understood in the newly proposed discipline of socio-hydrology (Sivapalan et al., 2012). An exploratory model with the appropriate level of simplification can be valuable for improving our understanding of the co-evolution and self-organization of socio-hydrological systems driven by interactions and feedbacks operating at different scales. In this study, a simplified conceptual socio-hydrological model based on logistic growth curves is developed for the Tarim River basin in western China and is used to illustrate the explanatory power of such a co-evolutionary model. The study area is the main stream of the Tarim River, which is divided into two modeling units. The socio-hydrological system is composed of four sub-systems, i.e., the hydrological, ecological, economic, and social sub-systems. In each modeling unit, the hydrological equation focusing on water balance is coupled to the other three evolutionary equations to represent the dynamics of the social sub-system (denoted by population), the economic sub-system (denoted by irrigated crop area ratio), and the ecological sub-system (denoted by natural vegetation cover), each of which is expressed in terms of a logistic growth curve. Four feedback loops are identified to represent the complex interactions among different sub-systems and different spatial units, of which two are inner loops occurring within each separate unit and the other two are outer loops linking the two modeling units. The feedback mechanisms are incorporated into the constitutive relations for model parameters, i.e., the colonization and mortality rates in the logistic growth curves that are jointly determined by the state variables of all sub-systems. The co-evolution of the Tarim socio-hydrological system is then analyzed with this conceptual model to gain insights into the overall system dynamics and its sensitivity to the

  1. Preliminary report on the geology and gold mineralization of the South Pass granite-greenstone terrain, Wind River Mountains, western Wyoming (US)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausel, W. D.

    1986-01-01

    The South Pass granite-greenstone terrain lies near the southern tip of the Wind River Mountains of western Wyoming. This Archean supracrustal pile has been Wyoming's most prolific source of gold and iron ore. From 1962 to 1983, more than 90 million tons of iron ore were recovered from oxide-facies banded iron formation, and an estimated 325,000 ounces of gold were mined from metagreywacke-hosted shears and associated placers. Precambrian rocks at South Pass are unconformably overlain by Paleozoic sediments along the northeast flank, and a Tertiary pediment buries Archean supracrustals on the west and south. To the northwest, the supracrustals terminate against granodiorite of the Louis Lake batholith; to the east, the supracrustals terminate against granite of the Granite Mountains batholith. The Louis Lake granodiorite is approximately 2,630 + or - 20 m.y. old, and the Granite Mountains granite averages 2,600 m.y. old. The geometry of the greenstone belt is best expressed as a synform that has been modified by complex faulting and folding. Metamorphism is amphibolite grade surrounding a small island of greenschist facies rocks. The younger of the Archean supracrustal successions is the Miners Delight Formation. This unit yielded a Rb-Sr isochron of 2,800 m.y. A sample of galena from the Snowbird Mine within the Miners Delight Formation yielded a model age averaging 2,750 m.y. The Snowbird mineralization appears to be syngenetic and is hosted by metavolcanics of calc-alkaline affinity. Discussion follows.

  2. Continuous Flow of Upper Labrador Sea Water around Cape Hatteras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Magdalena; Muglia, Mike; Bahr, Frank; Bane, John

    2018-03-14

    Six velocity sections straddling Cape Hatteras show a deep counterflow rounding the Cape wedged beneath the poleward flowing Gulf Stream and the continental slope. This counterflow is likely the upper part of the equatorward-flowing Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC). Hydrographic data suggest that the equatorward flow sampled by the shipboard 38 kHz ADCP comprises the Upper Labrador Sea Water (ULSW) layer and top of the Classical Labrador Sea Water (CLSW) layer. Continuous DWBC flow around the Cape implied by the closely-spaced velocity sections here is also corroborated by the trajectory of an Argo float. These findings contrast with previous studies based on floats and tracers in which the lightest DWBC constituents did not follow the boundary to cross under the Gulf Stream at Cape Hatteras but were diverted into the interior as the DWBC encountered the Gulf Stream in the crossover region. Additionally, our six quasi-synoptic velocity sections confirm that the Gulf Stream intensified markedly at that time as it approached the separation point and flowed into deeper waters. Downstream increases were observed not only in the poleward transport across the sections but also in the current's maximum speed.

  3. demand for their determinations in the Western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-04-01

    Apr 1, 2004 ... Drug abuse is as relevant today as ever. ... throughout the year, with a peak in the last quarter. Ethanol level was ... Pieter van der Bijl, 4th-year medical student ... imately 9 000 in 2002) is therefore probably the best available.

  4. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Western Cape Liquor Act in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This study will examine the intervention in Khayelitsha in order to assess whether physical interventions (such as the relocation of outlets), ... The research findings may motivate other South African provinces to invest in similar strategies.

  5. The literacy of Geography teachers in the Western Cape Province

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    professional development programmes and support interventions in teacher ... multiple ecological and social issues linked to them, none of which can be ... adaptation (adjustment in natural or human systems in response to real or potential climatic stimuli and their ... American and Asian countries, is highly vulnerable.

  6. Four decades of water recycling in Atlantis (Western Cape, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    careful management of the artificial recharge and abstraction for balancing water levels. Water quality ... Challenges related to iron fouling of production boreholes are also described. ...... Chapter 9. In: National Engineering Handbook.

  7. Assessing the value of Western Cape Provincial Government health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of medicines during pregnancy is poorly described in African ... There was no evidence of ART use in the MCRs of 4 (5%) cases, despite evidence ..... Pregnancy exposure registries: Academic opportunities and industry responsibility.

  8. A case study in the Western Cape Province, So

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrition research should not lose touch with reality and ought to be ... School and supermarket environments, as well as the food industry, can play a pivotal role in ..... explained that time constraints, mostly as a result of them working, resulted ...

  9. Quality of asthma care: Western Cape Province, South Africa | Mash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Asthma is the eighth leading contributor to the burden of disease in South Africa, but has received less attention than other chronic diseases. The Asthma Guidelines Implementation Project (AGIP) was established to improve the impact of the South African guidelines for chronic asthma in adults and ...

  10. Brucellosis in childhood in the Western Cape | Hendricks | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diagnosis was made on the basis of a positive serological titre (> 1:160) for Brucella abortus. The prozone phenomenon was encountered in 6 cases; however, the Coombs test confirmed the diagnosis in these cases. Children under 7 years were treated with co-trimoxazole and rifampicin and those over 7 years with ...

  11. Tuberous sclerosis complex in the Western Cape, South Africa: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    107, No. 4. IN PRACTICE. Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetically inherited condition that manifests with benign non-invasive hamartomas in multiple .... Corticosteroids are the recommended treatment for infants with epileptic ...

  12. The critical care nursing workforce in Western Cape hospitals - a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. A global shortage of registered nurses (RNs) has been reported internationally, and confirmed in South Africa by the National Audit of Critical Care services. Critical care nurses (CCNs) especially are in great demand and short supply. Purpose. The purpose of this study was to quantify the nursing workforce ...

  13. Who is the nutrition workforce in the Western Cape?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-12-21

    Dec 21, 2010 ... Steyn NP, Chief Research Specialist, Centre for the Study of the Social and Environmental .... Administrative officers, including clerks and financial officers ..... generalists, it is not clear what the role of the different cadres of.

  14. Who is the nutrition workforce in the Western Cape? | Goeiman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hospital and district dietitians experienced common problems, as well as specific differences. Regarding problems, both categories referred to limited resources, inadequate number of available posts, and lack of acknowledgement and support from administrative and supply chain management. District dietitians were also ...

  15. Temporality and Patterns of ART Adherence in the Western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Friends and neighbours offered food or money but she was reluctant to ..... Ophelia's inability to provide a utility bill) prevented it from even being processed ... birthed in the industrial economies of the North (shaky as they may be for marginal.

  16. Managing climate risk in South Africa's Western Cape | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-05

    Jan 5, 2011 ... Climate change scenarios consistently predict even less rainfall in this ... Climate, and Sustainable Development; the International Research Institute; and ... School of Bioresources Engineering and Environmental Hydrology.

  17. Learners' experiences of learning support in selected Western Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The learning support assisted in meeting learners' academic, social and emotional needs by addressing barriers to learning, creating conducive learning environments, enhancing learners' self-esteem and improving learners' academic performance. Keywords: academic needs; academic performance; barriers to learning; ...

  18. (Bitis; Viperidae) from the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-02-25

    Feb 25, 1997 ... Dwarf adders of the genus Bitis are popular in the interna- tional pet trade in reptiles, and although ... dwarf adder, B. schneideri) are already threatened, in pan, by illegal collecting for this trade (Branch .... between the eyes at the anterior edge of the orbit; I I right, 12 left circumorbitals; two scale rows ...

  19. Notification ofpesticide poisoning in the western Cape, 1987 - 1991

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    which included accidents arising outside of work- place production (44%) ... secondary prevention ofpoisonings. In a separate .... Accident on farm 60 ence elsewhere in South Africa12,I4,., and overseas,I",6,17 suggests that notification consistently underestimates the extent of acute poisoning events. This underrepon-.

  20. An assessment of asthmatic patients at four Western Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To identify the profile of asthmatic patients visiting community pharmacies and to assess the appropriateness of their current asthma therapy. Design. Patients were identified as either chronic, newly diagnosed or undiagnosed. Asthma status was assessed from their current symptom and medication profiles and ...

  1. An assessment of asthmatic patients at four Western Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To identify the profile of asthmatic patients visiting community pharmacies and to assess the appropriateness of their current asthma therapy. Design. Patients were identified as either chronic, newly diagnosed or undiagnosed. Asthma status was assessed from their current symptom and medication profiles and.

  2. Early diagnosis of prostate cancer in the Western Cape | Heyns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Early stage prostate cancer does not cause symptoms, and even metastatic disease may exist for years without causing symptoms or signs. Whereas early stage prostate cancer can be cured with radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy, the prognosis of patients with locally advanced or metastatic cancer is ...

  3. Sustainable safety volunteerism in the Strand, Western Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opperwjj

    contributed to national campaigns, such as the 16 Days of Activism Against Women and Child ... volunteers in the provision of community safety services. ... multiplicity of attributes, experiences, emotions, motivations and behaviours that one may ... Carpenter and Knowles Myers (2010) suggest that pro-social behaviour is ...

  4. Health care achievement and challenges in the Western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    our citizens: (I) the introduction of free primary health care. (PHC) services has made ... Representatives, House of Delegates, House of Assembly. (which operated ... produce the Provincial Health Plan with its 26 task team reports, which have ...

  5. The pattern of childhood in the western Cape | Roberts | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An analysis of poisoning cases treated at the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital dUring 1987 and of calls received on the poisons line is presented. Treatment of 1116 children was undertaken and 922 telephone calls were logged. Of the patients treated, 60% had ingested a drug and 30% had drunk paraffin.

  6. Sustainable safety volunteerism in the Strand, Western Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a growing recognition of the relevance and even centrality of volunteerism to adequate collective responses to poverty, housing and the promotion of human rights and, more recently, safety. Volunteerism by members of poor global South communities within their own communities has, however, remained relatively ...

  7. Yersinia enterocolitica in the Western Cape | Finlayson | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 47, No 1 (1973) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should ...

  8. Brucellosis in childhood in the Western Cape | Hendricks | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 85, No 3 (1995) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should ...

  9. Geographical Information System based assessment of spatiotemporal characteristics of groundwater quality of upland sub-watersheds of Meenachil River, parts of Western Ghats, Kottayam District, Kerala, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijith, H.; Satheesh, R.

    2007-09-01

    Hydrogeochemistry of groundwater in upland sub-watersheds of Meenachil river, parts of Western Ghats, Kottayam, Kerala, India was used to assess the quality of groundwater for determining its suitability for drinking and agricultural purposes. The study area is dominated by rocks of Archaean age, and Charnonckite is dominated over other rocks. Rubber plantation dominated over other types of the vegetation in the area. Though the study area receives heavy rainfall, it frequently faces water scarcity as well as water quality problems. Hence, a Geographical Information System (GIS) based assessment of spatiotemporal behaviour of groundwater quality has been carried out in the region. Twenty-eight water samples were collected from different wells and analysed for major chemical constituents both in monsoon and post-monsoon seasons to determine the quality variation. Physical and chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), total hardness (TH), chloride (Cl), nitrate (NO3) and phosphate (PO4) were determined. A surface map was prepared in the ArcGIS 8.3 (spatial analyst module) to assess the quality in terms of spatial variation, and it showed that the high and low regions of water quality varied spatially during the study period. The influence of lithology over the quality of groundwater is negligible in this region because majority of the area comes under single lithology, i.e. charnockite, and it was found that the extensive use of fertilizers and pesticides in the rubber, tea and other agricultural practices influenced the groundwater quality of the region. According to the overall assessment of the basin, all the parameters analysed are below the desirable limits of WHO and Indian standards for drinking water. Hence, considering the pH, the groundwater in the study area is not suitable for drinking but can be used for irrigation, industrial and domestic purposes. The spatial analysis of groundwater quality patterns of the study area shows

  10. Trace gases, aerosols and their interactions with synoptic weather: An overview of in-situ measurements at the SORPES Station in the western Yangtze River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, A.; Fu, C.; Yang, X.; Petaja, T.; Kerminen, V.; Kulmala, M. T.

    2013-12-01

    This work presents an overview of 1 yr measurements of ozone (O3) and fine particular matter (PM2.5) and related trace gases at a recently developed regional background site, the Station for Observing Regional Processes of the Earth System (SORPES), in the western part of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) in eastern China. Ozone and PM2.5 showed strong seasonal cycles but with contrast patterns: O3 reached a maximum in warm seasons but PM2.5 in cold seasons. Correlation analysis suggests a VOC-sensitive regime for O3 chemistry and a formation of secondary aerosols under conditions of high O3 in summer. Compared with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in China, our measurements report 15 days of O3 exceedance and 148 days of PM2.5 exceedance during the 1 yr period, suggesting a severe air pollution situation in this region. A calculation of potential source contributions based on Lagrangian dispersion simulations suggests that emissions from the YRD contributed to over 70% of the O3 precursor CO, with a majority from the mid-YRD. North-YRD and the North China Plain are the main contributors to PM2.5pollution in this region. Case studies for typical O3 and PM2.5 episodes showed that synoptic weather played an important role in air pollution, especially for O3. Observation during the typical biomass burning seasons also shows clear air pollution - weather interactions. For the typical episode occurred on 10 June, 2012, the measurement suggest that the mixed agricultural burning plumes with fossil fuel combustion pollution resulted in a decrease of solar radiation by more than 70 %, of sensible heat flux over 85 %, a temperature drop by almost 10 K, and a change 10 of rainfall during daytime and nighttime. This work shows an important environmental impact from industrialization and urbanization in the YRD region, and suggests an urgent need for improving air quality in these areas through collaborative control measures among different administrative regions, and

  11. Accumulated state assessment of the Yukon River watershed: part II quantitative effects-based analysis integrating Western science and traditional ecological knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Monique G; Wilson, Julie E; Waterhouse, Jon

    2013-07-01

    This article is the second in a 2-part series assessing the accumulated state of the transboundary Yukon River (YR) basin in northern Canada and the United States. The determination of accumulated state based on available long-term (LT) discharge and water quality data is the first step in watershed cumulative effect assessment in the absence of sufficient biological monitoring data. Long-term trends in water quantity and quality were determined and a benchmark against which to measure change was defined for 5 major reaches along the YR for nitrate, total and dissolved organic carbon (TOC and DOC, respectively), total phosphate (TP), orthophosphate, pH, and specific conductivity. Deviations from the reference condition were identified as "hot moments" in time, nested within a reach. Significant increasing LT trends in discharge were found on the Canadian portion of the YR. There were significant LT decreases in nitrate, TOC, and TP at the Headwater reach, and significant increases in nitrate and specific conductivity at the Lower reach. Deviations from reference condition were found in all water quality variables but most notably during the ice-free period of the YR (May-Sept) and in the Lower reach. The greatest magnitudes of outliers were found during the spring freshet. This study also incorporated traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) into its assessment of accumulated state. In the summer of 2007 the YR Inter Tribal Watershed Council organized a team of people to paddle down the length of the YR as part of a "Healing Journey," where both Western Science and TEK paradigms were used. Water quality data were continuously collected and stories were shared between the team and communities along the YR. Healing Journey data were compared to the LT reference conditions and showed the summer of 2007 was abnormal compared to the LT water quality. This study showed the importance of establishing a reference condition by reach and season for key indicators of water

  12. Distribution of invasive and native riparian woody plants across the western USA in relation to climate, river flow, floodplain geometry and patterns of introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan McShane,; Daniel Auerbach,; Friedman, Jonathan M.; Auble, Gregor T.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Michael Merigliano,; Scott, Michael L.; N. Leroy Poff,

    2015-01-01

    Management of riparian plant invasions across the landscape requires understanding the combined influence of climate, hydrology, geologic constraints and patterns of introduction. We measured abundance of nine riparian woody taxa at 456 stream gages across the western USA. We constructed conditional inference recursive binary partitioning models to discriminate the influence of eleven environmental variables on plant occurrence and abundance, focusing on the two most abundant non-native taxa, Tamarix spp. and Elaeagnus angustifolia, and their native competitor Populus deltoides. River reaches in this study were distributed along a composite gradient from cooler, wetter higher-elevation reaches with higher stream power and earlier snowmelt flood peaks to warmer, drier lower-elevation reaches with lower power and later peaks. Plant distributions were strongly related to climate, hydrologic and geomorphic factors, and introduction history. The strongest associations were with temperature and then precipitation. Among hydrologic and geomorphic variables, stream power, peak flow timing and 10-yr flood magnitude had stronger associations than did peak flow predictability, low-flow magnitude, mean annual flow and channel confinement. Nearby intentional planting of Elaeagnus was the best predictor of its occurrence, but planting of Tamarix was rare. Higher temperatures were associated with greater abundance of Tamarix relative to P. deltoides, and greater abundance of P. deltoides relative toElaeagnus. Populus deltoides abundance was more strongly related to peak flow timing than was that of Elaeagnus or Tamarix. Higher stream power and larger 10-yr floods were associated with greater abundance of P. deltoides and Tamarix relative to Elaeagnus. Therefore, increases in temperature could increase abundance of Tamarix and decrease that of Elaeagnus relative to P. deltoides, changes in peak flow timing caused by climate change or dam operations could

  13. Plutonium distribution and remobilization in sediments of the Rhone River mouth (North-Western Mediterranean); Distribution et remobilisation du plutonium dans les sediments du prodelta du Rhone (Mediterranee nord-occidentale)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansard, B

    2004-06-15

    plutonium budget determined for the study area indicates that at least 85 % of the Pu discharged over the 40 past years by the Marcoule reprocessing plant, are currently trapped in the sediments off the Rhone River mouth. Plutonium remobilization is potentially an important process but dispersion of contaminated sediments appeared to be limited in space. These results suggest a low exportation of particulate matter introduced by the Rhone River towards the continental shelf of the Gulf of Lions and the North-Western Mediterranean basin. (author)

  14. The diets of littoral fish from the Cape Peninsula | Bennett | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intertidal fish communities in the south·western Cape have a high density and biomass, implying that the fish are important consumers in the ntertidal zone. Stomach content analyses of 20 species were undertaken to ascertain which food resources are most heavily exploited and the extent to which the co-existing fish ...

  15. The profile of disability grant applicants in Bishop Lavis, Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Disability grants in South Africa increased from 600 000 in 2000 to almost 1.3 million in 2004. This rise can be attributed to the HIV/ AIDS epidemic, South Africa's high rate of unemployment and possibly an increased awareness of constitutional rights. The Western Cape, which has a disability prevalence of ...

  16. Composition and biogeography of forest patches on the inland mountains of the southern Cape

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Geldenhuys, CJ

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Patterns in species richness of 23 small, isolated forests on the inland mountains of the southern Cape were studied. Species richness of woody plants and vines of the Kouga-Baviaanskloof Forests was higher than in the western mountain complexes...

  17. AMPR BRIGHTNESS TEMPERATURE CAPE EXPERIMENT V2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) was deployed during the Convection and Precipitation/Electrification Experiment (CaPE). AMPR data...

  18. 46 CFR 7.55 - Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC. 7.55 Section 7.55 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.55 Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC. (a) A line drawn from Rudee Inlet Jetty Light “2” to...

  19. Investigation of Alaska's uranium potential. Part 1. Reconnaissance program, West-Central Alaska and Copper River basin. Part 2. Uranium and thorium in granitic and alkaline rocks in Western Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eakins, G.R.; Jones, B.K.; Forbes, R.B.

    1977-02-01

    A 6-week reconnaissance program was conducted in west-central Alaska and in the Copper River basin--Chitina River valley area to aid in determining the uranium potential of the state. Division personnel also submitted samples from the Healy, Eagle, and Charley River quadrangles. Collected were 916 stream-sediment samples and 427 bedrock samples for uranium, thorium, and potassium oxide determinations, and 565 water samples for uranium analyses. A statistical analysis of the determinations was made using a computer at the University of Alaska. Thresholds, anomalies, and U:Th ratios were calculated for eight separate regions. Anomalous values of the U, Th, and K 2 O, and radiometric measurements are discussed. A combination of all uranium exploration techniques is needed to locate potential uranium deposits in Alaska. Correlations between aerial and ground radiometric surveys and geochemical surveys were often lacking, indicating that each method may or may not be effective, depending on local conditions. One hundred and eight rock samples were selected from traverses across five plutons in western Alaska and analyzed for uranium, thorium, and potassium. The highest uranium concentrations detected were 86 and 92 ppM from a mineralized dike intrusion zone in the Selawik Lake Complex. Analysis of individual plutons yields strong correlations between mineralogy and radioactivity. The mineralogical variable that correlates with uranium or thorium varies from one pluton to the next. Based on these correlations, mineralogical guidelines are offered for the selection of uranium enriched variants in four of the five plutons

  20. Sediment provenance in contractional orogens: The detrital zircon record from modern rivers in the Andean fold-thrust belt and foreland basin of western Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaldi, Tomas N.; Horton, Brian K.; McKenzie, N. Ryan; Stockli, Daniel F.; Odlum, Margaret L.

    2017-12-01

    This study analyzes detrital zircon U-Pb age populations from Andean rivers to assess whether active synorogenic sedimentation accurately records proportional contributions from varied bedrock source units across different drainage areas. Samples of modern river sand were collected from west-central Argentina (28-33°S), where the Andes are characterized by active uplift and deposition in diverse contractional provinces, including (1) hinterland, (2) wedge-top, (3) proximal foreland, and (4) distal broken foreland basin settings. Potential controls on sediment provenance were evaluated by comparing river U-Pb age distributions with predicted age spectra generated by a sediment mixing model weighted by relative catchment exposure (outcrop) areas for different source units. Several statistical measures (similarity, likeness, and cross-correlation) are employed to compare how well the area-weighted model predicts modern river age populations. (1) Hinterland basin provenance is influenced by local relief generated along thrust-bounded ranges and high zircon fertility of exposed crystalline basement. (2) Wedge-top (piggyback) basin provenance is controlled by variable lithologic durability among thrust-belt bedrock sources and recycled basin sediments. (3) Proximal foreland (foredeep) basin provenance of rivers and fluvial megafans accurately reflect regional bedrock distributions, with limited effects of zircon fertility and lithologic durability in large (>20,000 km2) second-order drainage systems. (4) In distal broken segments of the foreland basin, regional provenance signatures from thrust-belt and hinterland areas are diluted by local contributions from foreland basement-cored uplifts.

  1. Youth ministry as an agency of youth development for the vulnerable youth of the Cape Flats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth Aziz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Religiosity has a profound role and influence on youth development within a community. Religiosity promotes risk reduction and positive moral characteristics and thus remains an avenue of opportunity for transformation in considering the lived experiences of vulnerable young people living on the Cape Flats in the Western Cape, South Africa. The Cape Flats is an area that is overwhelmed with unemployment, poverty, gang violence, chemical substance abuse and a general societal abandonment of young people. It is out of dire hopelessness that a meaningful relationship with God can be experienced by youth. The Cape Flats is, therefore, a fertile space for an intervention of religiosity. This article will research how the agency of youth ministry as a positive youth development can assist in youth development within a community in tension like that of the Cape Flats. While youth development is a broad category for consideration and research, this article will primarily focus on identity formation of young people, in particular, the vulnerable youth living on the Cape Flats.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The agency of youth ministry, in an evangelical epistemology, should seek to address the influencers on adolescent identity formation, as one�s identity has a direct bearing on faith formation. The potential outcome of the article would allow the youth ministry to take serious the impact of the lived realities of youth and adjust their programmatic designs and outcomes, in relation to youth faith formation.

  2. Concentrations of selected metals in Quaternary-age fluvial deposits along the lower Cheyenne and middle Belle Fourche Rivers, western South Dakota, 2009-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, John F.; Hoogestraat, Galen K.

    2012-01-01

    The headwaters of the Cheyenne and Belle Fourche Rivers drain the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming, an area that has been affected by mining and ore-milling operations since the discovery of gold in 1875. A tributary to the Belle Fourche River is Whitewood Creek, which drains the area of the Homestake Mine, a gold mine that operated from 1876 to 2001. Tailings discharged into Whitewood Creek contained arsenopyrite, an arsenic-rich variety of pyrite associated with gold ore, and mercury used as an amalgam during the gold-extraction process. Approximately 18 percent of the tailings that were discharged remain in fluvial deposits on the flood plain along Whitewood Creek, and approximately 25 percent remain in fluvial deposits on the flood plain along the Belle Fourche River, downstream from Whitewood Creek. In 1983, a 29-kilometer (18-mile) reach of Whitewood Creek and the adjacent flood plain was included in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Priority List of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, commonly referred to as a "Superfund site." Listing of this reach of Whitewood Creek was primarily in response to arsenic toxicity of fluvial deposits on the flood plain. Lands along the lower Cheyenne River were transferred to adjoining States and Tribes in response to the Water Resources Development Act (WRDA) of 1999. An amendment in 2000 to WRDA required a study of sediment contamination of the Cheyenne River. In response to the WRDA amendment, the U.S. Geological Survey completed field sampling of reference sites (not affected by mine-tailing disposal) along the lower Belle Fourche and lower Cheyenne Rivers. Reference sites were located on stream terraces that were elevated well above historical stream stages to ensure no contamination from historical mining activity. Sampling of potentially contaminated sites was performed on transects of the active flood plain and adjacent terraces that could

  3. The major floods in the Amazonas river and tributaries (Western Amazon Basin) during the 1970-2012 period : a focus on the 2012 flood

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, J. C.; Ronchail, J.; Frappart, F.; Lavado, W.; Santini, William; Guyot, Jean-Loup

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the authors analyze the origin of the extreme floods in the Peruvian Amazonas River during the 1970-2012 period, focusing on the recent April 2012 flooding (55 400 m(3) s(-1)). Several hydrological variables, such as rainfall, terrestrial water storage, and discharge, point out that the unprecedented 2012 flood is mainly related to an early and abundant wet season over the north of the basin. Thus, the peak of the Maranon River, the northern contributor of the Amazonas, occurred...

  4. Oral receptivity of Aedes aegypti from Cape Verde for yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazeille, Marie; Yébakima, André; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Andriamahefazafy, Barrysson; Correira, Artur; Rodrigues, Julio Monteiro; Veiga, Antonio; Moreira, Antonio; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Grandadam, Marc; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2013-01-01

    At the end of 2009, 21,313 cases of dengue-3 virus (DENV-3) were reported in the islands of Cape Verde, an archipelago located in the Atlantic Ocean 570 km from the coast of western Africa. It was the first dengue outbreak ever reported in Cape Verde. Mosquitoes collected in July 2010 in the city of Praia, on the island of Santiago, were identified morphologically as Aedes aegypti formosus. Using experimental oral infections, we found that this vector showed a moderate ability to transmit the epidemic dengue-3 virus, but was highly susceptible to chikungunya and yellow fever viruses.

  5. VARIATIONS IN THE SPECTRAL PROPERTIES OF FRESHWATER AND ESTUARINE CDOM CAUSED BY PARTITIONING ONTO RIVER AND ESTUARINE SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The optical properties and geochemical cycling of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) are altered by its sorption to freshwater and estuarine sediments. Measured partition coefficients (Kp) of Satilla River (Georgia) and Cape Fear River estuary (North Carolina) CDOM ran...

  6. Validation of SMOS L1C and L2 Products and Important Parameters of the Retrieval Algorithm in the Skjern River Catchment, Western Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bircher, Simone; Skou, Niels; Kerr, Yann H.

    2013-01-01

    -band Microwave Emission of the Biosphere (L-MEB) model with initial guesses on the two parameters (derived from ECMWF products and ECOCLIMAP Leaf Area Index, respectively) and other auxiliary input. This paper presents the validation work carried out in the Skjern River Catchment, Denmark. L1C/L2 data...

  7. CAPE suppresses migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells via activation of non-canonical Wnt signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Jen-Chih; Lin, Ching-Yu; Su, Liang-Chen; Fu, Hsiao-Hui; Yang, Shiaw-Der; Chuu, Chih-Pin

    2016-06-21

    Prostate cancer (PCa) was the fifth most common cancer overall in the world. More than 80% of patients died from PCa developed bone metastases. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a main bioactive component of honeybee hive propolis. Transwell and wound healing assays demonstrated that CAPE treatment suppressed the migration and invasion of PC-3 and DU-145 PCa cells. Gelatin zymography and Western blotting indicated that CAPE treatment reduced the abundance and activity of MMP-9 and MMP-2. Analysis using Micro-Western Array (MWA), a high-throughput antibody-based proteomics platform with 264 antibodies detecting signaling proteins involved in important pathways indicated that CAPE treatment induced receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (ROR2) in non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway but suppressed abundance of β-catenin, NF-κB activity, PI3K-Akt signaling, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Overexpression or knockdown of ROR2 suppressed or enhanced cell migration of PC-3 cells, respectively. TCF-LEF promoter binding assay revealed that CAPE treatment reduced canonical Wnt signaling. Intraperitoneal injection of CAPE reduced the metastasis of PC-3 xenografts in tail vein injection nude mice model. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that CAPE treatment increased abundance of ROR2 and Wnt5a but decreased protein expression of Ki67, Frizzle 4, NF-κB p65, MMP-9, Snail, β-catenin, and phosphorylation of IκBα. Clinical evidences suggested that genes affected by CAPE treatment (CTNNB1, RELA, FZD5, DVL3, MAPK9, SNAl1, ROR2, SMAD4, NFKBIA, DUSP6, and PLCB3) correlate with the aggressiveness of PCa. Our study suggested that CAPE may be a potential therapeutic agent for patients with advanced PCa.

  8. Evaluation And Characterization Of Trace Metals Contamination In The Surface Sediment Using Pollution Load Index PLI And Geo-Accumulation Index Igeo Of Ona River Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evaluation and Characterization of Trace Metal Contamination in the Surface Sediment Using Pollution Load Index PLI and Geo-accumulation Index Igeo Index of Ona River was conducted for six months. From the result of this study the mean values of lead ranged between 0.004 mgkg and 0.330 mgkg while the mean iron was highest 5.05 mgkg in station 4 and lowest 2.26 mgkg in station 5. The mean chromium value ranged from 0.007 mgkg station 1 and 2 to 0.021 mgkg station 3 and 4. The mean copper was highest 3.97 mgkg in station 1 and lowest 0.008 mgkg in station 2. Analysis of variance ANOVA revealed the same trend in spatial variation of these heavy metals. There was a significant difference P 0.05 in lead chromium and copper among the study sampling stations and insignificant difference P0.05 in iron among the study sampling station. The PLI values recorded for all the stations were below 1. Thus the sediment of the study stretch that Ona River is unpolluted. The Igeo values for chromium and iron fall in class 0 in all the five sampling stations indicating that there is no pollution from these metals in the Ona River sediments lead fall in class 3 in station 4indicating moderately to heavily contaminated condition and class 0in station 1 2 3 and 5 and copper fall in class 3 in station 4 and 5 in class 6 in station 3 indicating extremely contaminated condition. The Igeo values were consistent with those derived for PLI. All trace metals had concentrations below the EPA regulatory limits for sediment except iron. From the results of this study sediment quality reflects the impacts of anthropogenic activities on quality of the river. However the continuous build-up of the metal contaminants can be checked if relevant government agencies ensure strict compliant of industrial standards which stipulate treatment of industrial waste before discharging such contaminated effluentswastes into River. Therefore perpetual assessment is highly recommended

  9. Detailed cross sections of the Eocene Green River Formation along the north and east margins of the Piceance Basin, western Colorado, using measured sections and drill hole information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents two detailed cross sections of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado, constructed from eight detailed measured sections, fourteen core holes, and two rotary holes. The Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin contains the world’s largest known oil shale deposit with more than 1.5 billion barrels of oil in place. It was deposited in Lake Uinta, a long-lived saline lake that once covered much of the Piceance Basin and the Uinta Basin to the west. The cross sections extend across the northern and eastern margins of the Piceance Basin and are intended to aid in correlating between surface sections and the subsurface in the basin.

  10. Dating of major normal fault systems using thermochronology: An example from the Raft River detachment, Basin and Range, western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, M.L.; Snee, L.W.; Blythe, A.E.

    2000-01-01

    Application of thermochronological techniques to major normal fault systems can resolve the timing of initiation and duration of extension, rates of motion on detachment faults, timing of ductile mylonite formation and passage of rocks through the crystal-plastic to brittle transition, and multiple events of extensional unroofing. Here we determine the above for the top-to-the-east Raft River detachment fault and shear zone by study of spatial gradients in 40Ar/39Ar and fission track cooling ages of footwall rocks and cooling histories and by comparison of cooling histories with deformation temperatures. Mica 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages indicate that extension-related cooling began at ???25-20 Ma, and apatite fission track ages show that motion on the Raft River detachment proceeded until ???7.4 Ma. Collective cooling curves show acceleration of cooling rates during extension, from 5-10??C/m.y. to rates in excess of 70-100??C/m.y. The apparent slip rate along the Raft River detachment, recorded in spatial gradients of apatite fission track ages, is 7 mm/yr between 13.5 and 7.4 Ma and is interpreted to record the rate of migration of a rolling hinge. Microstructural study of footwall mylonite indicates that deformation conditions were no higher than middle greenschist facies and that deformation occurred during cooling to cataclastic conditions. These data show that the shear zone and detachment fault represent a continuum produced by progressive exhumation and shearing during Miocene extension and preclude the possibility of a Mesozoic age for the ductile shear zone. Moderately rapid cooling in middle Eocene time likely records exhumation resulting from an older, oppositely rooted, extensional shear zone along the west side of the Grouse Creek, Raft River, and Albion Mountains. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Colemanus keeleyorum (Braconidae, Ichneutinae s. l.: a new genus and species of Eocene wasp from the Green River Formation of western North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of Ichneutinae s. l., Colemanus keeleyorum Fisher, is described from the Eocene Green River Formation in Colorado, USA. Colemanus was placed on a phylogenetic hypothesis using morphological data. Using a parsimony criterion, Colemanus is placed within Proteropini (Ichneutinae s. l.. Reconstructions of well-preserved regions (mesosomal dorsum and wings are included. A previously described species from lower Oligocene Baltic amber is transferred to Colemanus, resulting in the new combination C. contortus (Brues, 1933.

  12. Rangewide phylogeography and landscape genetics of the Western U.S. endemic frog Rana boylii (Ranidae): Implications for the conservation of frogs and rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, A.J.; Spinks, P.Q.; Fellers, G.M.; Shaffer, H.B.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic data are increasingly being used in conservation planning for declining species. We sampled both the ecological and distributional limits of the foothill yellow-legged frog, Rana boylii to characterize mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in this declining, riverine amphibian. We evaluated 1525 base pairs (bp) of cytochrome b and ND2 fragments for 77 individuals from 34 localities using phylogenetic and population genetic analyses. We constructed gene trees using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference, and quantified genetic variance (using AMOVA and partial Mantel tests) within and among hydrologic regions and river basins. Several moderately supported, geographically-cohesive mtDNA clades were recovered for R. boylii. While genetic variation was low among populations in the largest, most inclusive clade, samples from localities at the edges of the geographic range demonstrated substantial genetic divergence from each other and from more central populations. Hydrologic regions and river basins, which represent likely dispersal corridors for R. boylii, accounted for significant levels of genetic variation. These results suggest that both rivers and larger hydrologic and geographic regions should be used in conservation planning for R. boylii. ?? 2010 US Government.

  13. An evaluation of the zooplankton community at the Sheboygan River Area of Concern and non-Area of Concern comparison sites in western Lake Michigan rivers and harbors in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, Hayley T.; Scudder Eikenberry, Barbara C.; Burns, Daniel J.; Bell, Amanda H.

    2017-12-22

    The Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs) are considered to be the most severely degraded areas within the Great Lakes basin, as defined in the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement and amendments. Among the 43 designated AOCs are four Lake Michigan AOCs in the State of Wisconsin. The smallest of these AOCs is the Sheboygan River AOC, which was designated as an AOC because of sediment contamination from polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and heavy metals. The Sheboygan River AOC has 9 of 14 possible Beneficial Use Impairments (BUIs), which must be addressed to improve overall water-quality, and to ultimately delist the AOC. One of the BUIs associated with this AOC is the “degradation of phytoplankton and zooplankton populations,” which can be removed from the list of impairments when it has been determined that zooplankton community composition and structure at the AOC do not differ significantly from communities at non-AOC comparison sites. In 2012 and 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey collected plankton (phytoplankton and zooplankton) community samples at the Sheboygan River AOC and selected non-AOC sites as part of a larger Great Lakes Restoration Initiative study evaluating both the benthos and plankton communities in all four of Wisconsin’s Lake Michigan AOCs. Although neither richness nor diversity of phytoplankton or zooplankton in the Sheboygan River AOC were found to differ significantly from the non-AOC sites in 2012, results from the 2014 data indicated that zooplankton diversity was significantly lower, and so rated as degraded, when compared to the Manitowoc and Kewaunee Rivers, two non-AOC sites of similar size, land use, and close geographic proximity.As a follow-up to the 2014 results, zooplankton samples were collected at the same locations in the AOC and non-AOC sites during three sampling trips in spring, summer, and fall 2016. An analysis of similarity indicated

  14. Analysis of in situ water velocity distributions in the lowland river floodplain covered by grassland and reed marsh habitats - a case study of the bypass channel of Warta River (Western Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laks Ireneusz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of in situ measurements of velocity distribution in the floodplain of the lowland river has been carried out. The survey area was located on a bypass channel of the Warta River (West of Poland which is filled with water only in case of flood waves. The floodplain is covered by grassland and reed marsh habitats. The velocity measurements were performed with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP in a cross-section with a bed reinforced with concrete slabs. The measured velocities have reflected the differentiated impact of various vegetation types on the loss of water flow energy. The statistical analyses have proven a relationship between the local velocities and the type of plant communities.

  15. RECURRENT CONVULSIONS IN CAPE TOWN CHILDREN*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1970-11-03

    Nov 3, 1970 ... Child Health, Medical School, University of Cape Town studied and the .... Sex Distribution (Table III) ... family history in children with brain damage is surprisingly high. .... nized that more male infants develop the respiratory.

  16. The Cape doctor 1807-1910: perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Howard

    2004-01-01

    This chapter contrasts the Cape doctor in 1807 and in 1910, and finds that, in a whole variety of ways, the differences between the two were not of degree but of kind. Underlying this sea-change was the germ revolution of the late Victorian era, which transformed the Cape doctor out of all recognition, thereby laying important foundations for the development of the twentieth-century South African doctor.

  17. A new Cyrtanthus species(Amaryllidaceae: Cyrtantheae endemic to the Albany Centre, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Snijman

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Cyrtanthus macmasteri Snijman is a rare new species from the Albany Centre of endemism. Eastern Cape. South Africa. Most closely related to C.  galpinii Baker, and autumn-flowering species with a single or rarely-flowered inflorescence from the northern regions of southern Africa. C macmasteri is distinguished by a 3 to 6-flowered inflorescence. It grows on steep banks of the Great Kei River and its tributaries and flowers in summer.

  18. Sleep in the Cape Mole Rat: A Short-Sleeping Subterranean Rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Jean-Leigh; Gravett, Nadine; Bhagwandin, Adhil; Bennett, Nigel C; Archer, Elizabeth K; Manger, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    The Cape mole rat Georychus capensis is a solitary subterranean rodent found in the western and southern Cape of South Africa. This approximately 200-gram bathyergid rodent shows a nocturnal circadian rhythm, but sleep in this species is yet to be investigated. Using telemetric recordings of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) in conjunction with video recordings, we were able to show that the Cape mole rat, like all other rodents, has sleep periods composed of both rapid eye movement (REM) and slow-wave (non-REM) sleep. These mole rats spent on average 15.4 h awake, 7.1 h in non-REM sleep and 1.5 h in REM sleep each day. Cape mole rats sleep substantially less than other similarly sized terrestrial rodents but have a similar percentage of total sleep time occupied by REM sleep. In addition, the duration of both non-REM and REM sleep episodes was markedly shorter in the Cape mole rat than has been observed in terrestrial rodents. Interestingly, these features (total sleep time and episode duration) are similar to those observed in another subterranean bathyergid mole rat, i.e. Fukomys mechowii. Thus, there appears to be a bathyergid type of sleep amongst the rodents that may be related to their environment and the effect of this on their circadian rhythm. Investigating further species of bathyergid mole rats may fully define the emerging picture of sleep in these subterranean African rodents. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Characterization of mineral coatings associated with a Pleistocene-Holocene rock art style: The Northern Running Figures of the East Alligator River region, western Arnhem Land, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Penelope L; Troitzsch, Ulrike; Jones, Tristen

    2017-02-01

    This data article contains mineralogic and chemical data from mineral coatings associated with rock art from the East Alligator River region. The coatings were collected adjacent to a rock art style known as the "Northern Running Figures" for the purposes of radiocarbon dating (doi:10.1016/j.jasrep.2016.11.016; (T. Jones, V. Levchenko, P.L. King, U. Troitzsch, D. Wesley, 2017) [1]). This contribution includes raw and processed powder X-ray Diffraction data, Scanning Electron Microscopy energy dispersive spectroscopy data, and Fourier Transform infrared spectral data.

  20. Atmospheric aerosol characterisation at Cape Grim and Global Warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, D.D.; Garton, D.

    1998-01-01

    The Australia Global Baseline monitoring station at Cape Grim in north western Tasmania is operated by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. ANSTO has been sampling, measuring and characterising fine particles of 2.5 μm diameters and less (PM2.5) at Cape Grim since the middle of 1992. Accelerator based ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques [2-41 have been used to identify over 25 different elemental species present in over 500 filters collected to date. The elements measured by PIXE, PIGME, ERDA and RBS include, H, C, N, O, F, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb. Of the measured elements not listed the majority occurred at concentrations below 10 ng/m 3 . The average monthly mass variations over the 5 year period from 1992 to 1997 are given. The average non-soil potassium was 92% of the total potassium, showing that the vast majority of fine potassium was associated with smoke from biomass burning. The highest lead value of 542 ng/m 3 occurred on 21 June 1992 and was associated with 337 ng/m 3 of bromine which, after correction for bromine in sea salt (Na was 3 ), was about the correct ratio to be associated with combustion of leaded petrol in motor vehicles

  1. From disasters to decisions: Cape Canaveral Marine Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, K.A.

    1997-01-01

    Five years ago, in August 1992, a tropical depression off the western coast of Africa formed, intensifying and gathering storm clouds as it began its journey westward. By the time it reached the US mainland, it had become a full-fledged hurricane -- Hurricane Andrew -- that blasted over south Florida and into south-central Louisiana. In Florida City, Fla., things went from bad to worse. One piece of metal debris -- airborne from the hurricane's 145 mile-per-hour winds -- punctured an oil tank, triggering a rapidly spreading oil spill that needed to be contained, and fast. The tank had a mechanism whereby oil was replenished when the container was less than full; so as oil was sucked out by the high winds, more came pouring in. In addition, a berm that would have somewhat contained the spill was stuck in open position. Enter Cape Canaveral Marine Services, Inc., (CCMS, Cape Canaveral, Fla.), an environmental services company well-versed in emergency spill response activities. Within seven weeks, CCMS had cleaned up and mitigated the impacts of the spill. Although the job posed significant challenges, the company was uniquely situated to respond quickly, efficiently, and effectively. After all, it had already been in the business for 20 years

  2. Western Sufism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Mark

    Western Sufism is sometimes dismissed as a relatively recent "new age" phenomenon, but in this book, Mark Sedgwick argues that it actually has very deep roots, both in the Muslim world and in the West. In fact, although the first significant Western Sufi organization was not established until 1915......, the first Western discussion of Sufism was printed in 1480, and Western interest in some of the ideas that are central to Sufi thought goes back to the thirteenth century. Sedgwick starts with the earliest origins of Western Sufism in late antique Neoplatonism and early Arab philosophy, and traces later......, the year in which the first Western Sufi order based not on the heritage of the European Middle Ages, Renaissance and Enlightenment, but rather on purely Islamic models, was founded. Later developments in this and other orders are also covered. Western Sufism shows the influence of these origins...

  3. BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITY STRUCTURE IN THE UPPER HYDROGRAPHIC BASIN OF CERNA RIVER IN RELATION TO WATER QUALITY (WEST AND SOUTH-WESTERN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORINA TUDORESCU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of an hydrographic basin may be reflected by the composition of benthic macroinvertebrates communities as they can be influenced by the quality degradations of physical and chemical water parameters. The structure of the benthic community in the upper basin of the Cerna river was characterized by the presence of 13 groups. Abundance and frequency values recorded for benthic communities varied according to the physical-chemical conditions specific to each sample collecting station. Plecoptera, Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Amphipoda were influenced by changes in water quality, changes that were reflected in the composition and structure of such communities with low levels of abundance, reaching extinction in some areas of the basin.

  4. Life cycle and production of Baetis rhodani in a regulated river in Western Norway: comparison of pre- and post-regulation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raddum, G.G.; Fjellheim, A.

    1993-01-01

    The benthic invertebrate fauna of the lowland part of the Aurland River was investigated in 1966-7 over a full year cycle. The watershed was built out for hydropower production during 1979-83. In this study the life cycle and production of Baetis rhodani from pre-regulated conditions (1966-7) was compared with two types of post-regulation streams(1988-9). Before regulation the water flow was high during May-June and in autumn, combined with heavy rainfall. The lowest flow was in winter and early spring. The pre-regulated temperature was low in winter, increasing from April to a maximum in August (10-14 o C). After regulation one part of the river received reduced flow and increased summer temperatures (upper part) and one received hypolimnion release and reduced summer temperatures (lower part). In the upper part the density of B.rhodani increased between 10 and 20 times. The reason for this seems to be increased temperature, reduced accidental drift of larvae and increased amount of stored organic material on the bottom. In the lower part the density increase was two to five times and the production two times higher after regulation. The lower increase in production than density was due to a much higher proportion of small larvae. B.rhodani had mainly an univoltine life cycle before regulation, but a small part of the population was bivoltine. After regulation the species was univoltine in the lower part. In the upper part the life cycle was about one month faster, but no clear indication of bivoltinism was seen. The absence of the second generation is due to low temperatures and probably a lack of signals connected with temperature. (Author)

  5. Geologic history of Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1976-01-01

    Cape Cod, a sandy peninsula built mostly during the Ice Age, juts into the Atlantic Ocean like a crooked arm. Because of its exposed location, Cape Cod was visited by many early explorers. Although clear-cut evidence is lacking, the Vikings may have sighted this land about 1,000 years ago. It was visited by Samuel de Champlain in 1605, and his detailed descriptions and charts have helped present-day scientists to determine the rate of growth of Nauset Beach marsh and Nauset spit. Bartholomew Gosnold, a lesser known explorer, settled for a short time on the Elizabeth Islands to the southwest and gave Cape Cod its name in 1602. The Pilgrims first landed in America on the tip of Lower Cape Cod after they were turned back from their more southerly destination by shoals between Cape Cod and Nantucket Island. On Cape Cod they found potable water and food and had their first fight with the natives. The Pilgrims, however, decided that this land was too isolated, too exposed, and too sandy to support them, and they sailed across Cape Cod Bay to establish Plymouth. These features remain today. Small villages are separated by large areas of forest, dune, beach, and marsh. This unspoiled natural beauty makes Cape Cod one of the most favored vacation areas for the people living in the thickly settled Northeastern States. Cape Cod is of particular interest to geologists because it was formed by glaciers very recently in terms of geologic time. During the Great Ice Age, (the Pleistocene Epoch which began 2 to 3 million years ago), glaciers advanced from the north into the temperate regions of the Earth. Glacial ice covered the land at least four times. Each advance was accompanied by a worldwide lowering of sea level because the source of the ice was water from the seas. When the glaciers melted, the climate and sea level were probably much like they are today. In fact, some scientists believe that the Earth is presently between glacial episodes and that ice once again will

  6. Modeling the Effects of Reservoir Releases on the Bed Material Sediment Flux of the Colorado River in western Colorado and eastern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitlick, J.; Bizzi, S.; Schmitt, R. J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Warm-water reaches of the upper Colorado River have historically provided important habitat for four endangered fishes. Over time these habitats have been altered or lost due to reductions in peak flows and sediment loads caused by reservoir operations. In an effort to reverse these trends, controlled reservoir releases are now used to enhance sediment transport and restore channel complexity. In this presentation, we discuss the development of a sediment routing model designed to assess how changes in water and sediment supply can affect the mass balance of sediment. The model is formulated for ten reaches of the Colorado River spanning 250 km where values of bankfull discharge, width, and reach-average slope have been measured. Bed surface grain size distributions (GSDs) have also been measured throughout the study area; these distributions are used as a test of the model, not as input, except as an upstream boundary condition. In modeling fluxes and GSDs, we assume that the bed load transport capacity is determined by local hydraulic conditions and bed surface grain sizes. Estimates of the bankfull bed load transport capacity in each reach are computed for 14 size fractions of the surface bed material, and the fractional transport rates are summed to get the total transport capacity. In the adjacent reach, fluxes of each size fraction from upstream are used to determine the mean grain size, and the fractional transport capacity of that reach. Calculations proceed downstream and illustrate how linked changes in discharge, shear stress and mean grain size affect (1) the total bed load transport capacity, and (2) the size distribution of the bed surface sediment. The results show that model-derived GSDs match measured GSDs very closely, except for two reaches in the lower part of the study area where slope is affected by uplift associated with salt diapirs; here the model significantly overestimates the transport capacity in relation to the supply. Except for these

  7. Depth to water in the western Snake River Plain and surrounding tributary valleys, southwestern Idaho and eastern Oregon, calculated using water levels from 1980 to 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, Molly A.

    1991-01-01

    The vulnerability of ground water to contamination in Idaho is being assessed by the ISHW/DEQ (Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, Division of Environmental Quality), using a modified version of the Environmental Protection Agency DRASTIC methods (Allers and others, 1985). The project was designed as a technique to: (1) Assign priorities for development of ground-water management and monitoring programs; (2) build support for, and public awareness of, vulnerability of ground water to contamination; (3) assist in the development of regulatory programs; and (4) provide access to technical data through the use of a GIS (geographic information system) (C. Grantham, Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, written commun., 1989). Digital representation of first-encountered water below land surface is an important element in evaluating vulnerability of ground water to contamination. Depth-to-water values were developed using existing data and computer software to construct a GIS data set to be combined with a soils data set developed by the SCS (Soul Conservation Service) and the IDHW/WQB (Idaho Department of Health and Welfare/Water Quality Bureau), and a recharge data set developed by the IDWR/RSF (idaho Department of Water Resources/Remote Sensing Facility). The USGS (U.S. Geological Survey) has developed digital depth-to-water values for eleven 1:100,00-scale quadrangles on the eastern Snake River Plain and surrounding tributary valleys.

  8. Spatial-temporal variation of surface water quality in the downstream region of the Jakara River, north-western Nigeria: A statistical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Adamu; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Ramli, Mohammad Firuz; Juahir, Hafizan

    2012-01-01

    The pollution status of the downstream section of the Jakara River was investigated. Dissolved oxygen (DO), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)), chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SS), pH, conductivity, salinity, temperature, nitrogen in the form of ammonia (NH(3)), turbidity, dissolved solids (DS), total solids (TS), nitrates (NO(3)), chloride (Cl) and phosphates (PO(3-)(4)) were evaluated, using both dry and wet season samples, as a measure of variation in surface water quality in the area. The results obtained from the analyses were correlated using Pearson's correlation matrix, principal component analysis (PCA) and paired sample t-tests. Positive correlations were observed for BOD(5), NH(3), COD, and SS, turbidity, conductivity, salinity, DS, TS for dry and wet seasons, respectively. PCA was used to investigate the origin of each water quality parameter, and yielded 5 varimax factors for each of dry and wet seasons, with 70.7 % and 83.1 % total variance, respectively. A paired sample t-test confirmed that the surface water quality varies significantly between dry and wet season samples (P < 0.01). The source of pollution in the area was concluded to be of anthropogenic origin in the dry season and natural origins in the wet season.

  9. Assessment of metal pollution in the river of Martil emerging in the western Moroccan Mediterranean. Mobility and impact of human activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raissouni M.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is part of a monitoring of the evolution of variations in time and space contents of metallic elements of surface waters of the river of Martil between two sampling campaigns (May 2010 and May 2011. The comparison of the results of metal analyzes of the two campaigns show different variations of the contents of metallic elements. The magnesium content increased almost 10 times, which highlights the intensity of activities that caused this increase for one year only. The concentrations of nickel and lead fell below standards and indicate a water medium to high quality, as the concentrations of aluminum, zinc and copper, which have been reduced compared to the 2010 campaign and are still very low and do not pose a threat so large. The concentration of cadmium also decreased slightly but remains high above the standard set which is 5 mg / l, which raises some concern about this element and its possible sources. For iron, its concentration was doubled, which is why it is a beginning of water contamination because the recorded values are between 1 and 2, indicating an average water quality.

  10. Characterization of salinity loads and selenium loads in the Smith Fork Creek region of the Lower Gunnison River Basin, western Colorado, 2008-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Rodney J.; Linard, Joshua I.; Hobza, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    The lower Gunnison River Basin of the Colorado River Basin has elevated salinity and selenium levels. The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of June 24, 1974 (Public Law 93–320, amended by Public Law 98–569), authorized investigation of the Lower Gunnison Basin Unit Salinity Control Project by the U.S. Department of the Interior. The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) and the Natural Resources Conservation Service are responsible for assessing and implementing measures to reduce salinity and selenium loading in the Colorado River Basin. Cost-sharing programs help farmers, ranchers, and canal companies improve the efficiency of water delivery systems and irrigation practices. The delivery systems (irrigation canals) have been identified as potential sources of seepage, which can contribute to salinity loading. Reclamation wants to identify seepage from irrigation systems in order to maximize the effectiveness of the various salinity-control methods, such as polyacrylamide lining and piping of irrigation canals programs. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Reclamation, developed a study to characterize the salinity and selenium loading of seven subbasins in the Smith Fork Creek region and identify where control efforts can be maximized to reduce salinity and selenium loading. Total salinity loads ranged from 27.9±19.1 tons per year (t/yr) to 87,500±80,500 t/yr. The four natural subbasins—BkKm, RCG1, RCG2, and SF1—had total salinity loads of 27.9±19.1 t/yr, 371±248 t/yr, 2,180±1,590 t/yr, and 4,200±2,720 t/yr, respectively. The agriculturally influenced sites had salinity loads that ranged from 7,580±6,900 t/yr to 87,500±80,500 t/yr. Salinity loads for the subbasins AL1, B1, CK1, SF2, and SF3 were 7,580±6,900 t/yr; 28,300±26,700 t/yr; 48,700±36,100 t/yr; 87,500±80,900 t/yr; and 52,200±31,800 t/yr, respectively. The agricultural salinity load was separated into three components: tail water, deep percolation, and canal seepage

  11. Outbreak of Sporotrichosis, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Kynan T.; Whittle, Amanda J.; Altman, Shelley A.; Speers, David J.

    2007-01-01

    A cluster of sporotrichosis cases occurred in the Busselton-Margaret River region of Western Australia from 2000 to 2003. Epidemiologic investigation and mycologic culture for Sporothrix schenckii implicated hay initially distributed through a commercial hay supplier as the source of the outbreak. Declining infection rates have occurred after various community measures were instigated. PMID:17953099

  12. Assessment of organic contaminants in sediments of the western Oder estuary and rivers of West Pomerania; Organische Schadstoffbelastung in Sedimenten des westlichen Oderaestuars und dessen vorpommerschen Zufluessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannenberger, D.; Witt, G.; Lerz, A.; Trost, E. [Rostock Univ., Warnemuende (Germany). Inst. fuer Ostseeforschung

    1997-12-01

    Preliminary investigations were made in 1994 and 1995 of organic micro-contaminants in sediments of coastal waters of Mecklenburg-West Pomerania. On this basis a new, more detailed sampling strategy was developed to investigate contamination levels of selected area of the western Oderhaff and various revers (Peene, Uecker, Randow, Zarow and Ziese). Distribution patterns of chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in sediment samples were investigated. (orig.) [Deutsch] Status-Quo-Untersuchungen zur Belastung der Oberflaechensedimente mit organischen Schadstoffen in den Kuestengewaessern Mecklenburg-Vorpommerns wurden erstmalig 1994 und 1995 im Rahmen eines Projektes mit dem Landesamt fuer Umwelt und Natur Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (LAUN) durchgefuehrt. Auf Grund der vorliegenden Ergebnisse aus den Jahren 1994 und 1995 wurde eine neue Messstrategie entwickelt. Dabei sollen ausgewaehlte Gebiete der inneren Kuestengewaesser eingehender, das heisst in einem engeren Stationsraster, beprobt werden. Ziel dieser Untersuchungen war es, Aussagen ueber die Belastungssituation eines Gewaessers machen zu koennen. Die vorliegende Publikation umfasst die Darstellung und Diskussion der Ergebnisse zur organischen Schadstoffbelastung der Oberflaechensedimente im wesentlichen Oderaestuar (Kleines Haff, Peenestrom) und in dessen vorpommerschen Zufluessen (Peene, Uecker, Randow, Zarow, Ziese). In den Sedimentproben wurden die Verteilungsmuster von chlorierten Kohlenwasserstoffen (CKW) und polycyclischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAH) untersucht. (orig.)

  13. 76 FR 22719 - Cape Wind Energy Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... Energy Project AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE), Interior..., or disapprove a Construction and Operations Plan (COP) for the Cape Wind Energy Project located on..., easements, or rights-of-way for renewable energy projects on the OCS. The Secretary delegated that authority...

  14. Some Lexical Aspects of Cape Muslim Afrikaans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It looks at the role of the literary tradition of Arabic-. Afrikaans and the Islamic .... That these words continued to be used in Cape Muslim Afrikaans, in both sec- ular and religiOUS ...... In tenns of the Arabie dictionary. (Hans Wehr 1980: 68), ...

  15. neonatal bacterial meningitis in Cape Town children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    neonatal bacterial meningitis in Cape Town children. Bacterial meningitis is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in South Africa. However, comprehensive regional or national epidemiological data, essential for rational public health interventions, are lacking. The purpose of this 1-year prospective study, from.

  16. April 1992 Cape Mendocino, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On April 25, 1992 at 11:06 am local time (April 25 at 18:06 GMT), a magnitude 7.1 earthquake occurred in the Cape Mendocino area. Two additional earthquakes,...

  17. Assessment of susceptibility to earth-flow landslide using logistic regression and multivariate adaptive regression splines: A case of the Belice River basin (western Sicily, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conoscenti, Christian; Ciaccio, Marilena; Caraballo-Arias, Nathalie Almaru; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Álvaro; Rotigliano, Edoardo; Agnesi, Valerio

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, terrain susceptibility to earth-flow occurrence was evaluated by using geographic information systems (GIS) and two statistical methods: Logistic regression (LR) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS). LR has been already demonstrated to provide reliable predictions of earth-flow occurrence, whereas MARS, as far as we know, has never been used to generate earth-flow susceptibility models. The experiment was carried out in a basin of western Sicily (Italy), which extends for 51 km2 and is severely affected by earth-flows. In total, we mapped 1376 earth-flows, covering an area of 4.59 km2. To explore the effect of pre-failure topography on earth-flow spatial distribution, we performed a reconstruction of topography before the landslide occurrence. This was achieved by preparing a digital terrain model (DTM) where altitude of areas hosting landslides was interpolated from the adjacent undisturbed land surface by using the algorithm topo-to-raster. This DTM was exploited to extract 15 morphological and hydrological variables that, in addition to outcropping lithology, were employed as explanatory variables of earth-flow spatial distribution. The predictive skill of the earth-flow susceptibility models and the robustness of the procedure were tested by preparing five datasets, each including a different subset of landslides and stable areas. The accuracy of the predictive models was evaluated by drawing receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and by calculating the area under the ROC curve (AUC). The results demonstrate that the overall accuracy of LR and MARS earth-flow susceptibility models is from excellent to outstanding. However, AUC values of the validation datasets attest to a higher predictive power of MARS-models (AUC between 0.881 and 0.912) with respect to LR-models (AUC between 0.823 and 0.870). The adopted procedure proved to be resistant to overfitting and stable when changes of the learning and validation samples are

  18. Stock-environment recruitment analysis for Namibian Cape hake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stock-environment recruitment analysis for Namibian Cape hake Merluccius capensis. ... The factors modulating recruitment success of Cape hake Merluccius capensis in Namibian waters are still unresolved. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  19. Over the past decades, the Cape anchovy Engraulis capensis has ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Data on the thermal structure, copepod biomass and production, and total number of eggs of the Cape anchovy ... To identify factors controlling the area of this water mass, a cluster ...... thesis, University of Cape Town: [vii] + 278 pp. SHANNON ...

  20. Responses of aquatic communities to physical and chemical parameters in agriculturally impacted coastal river systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Petersen, Chantel

    2017-04-05

    Full Text Available assemblages of macroinvertebrates and algae down a longitudinal gradient and; (ii) to determine the environmental variables that affect assemblage distribution. The study occurs in agriculturally influenced coastal rivers in the southern Cape, South Africa...

  1. A 'private adventure'? John Herschel's Cape voyage and the production of the 'Cape Results'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruskin, Steven William

    2002-07-01

    This dissertation considers the life of John Herschel (1792 1871) from the years 1833 to 1847. In 1833 Herschel sailed from London to Cape Town, southern Africa, to undertake (at his own expense) an astronomical exploration of the southern heavens, as well as a terrestrial exploration of the area around Cape Town. After his return to England in 1838, he was highly esteemed and became Britain's most recognized scientist. In 1847 his southern hemisphere astronomical observations were published as the Cape Results. The main argument of this dissertation is that Herschel's voyage, and the publication of the Cape Results, in addition to their contemporary scientific importance, were also significant for nineteenth-century politics and culture. This dissertation is a two-part dissertation. The first part is entitled “John Herschel's Cape Voyage: Private Science, Public Imagination, and the Ambitions of Empire”; and the second part, “The Production of the Cape Results.” In the first part it is demonstrated that the reason for Herschel's cultural renown was the popular notion that his voyage to the Cape was a project aligned with the imperial ambitions of the British government. By leaving England for one of its colonies, and pursuing there a significant scientific project, Herschel was seen in the same light as other British men of science who had also undertaken voyages of exploration and discovery. It is then demonstrated, in the second part of this work, that the production of the Cape Results, in part because of Herschel's status as Britain's scientific figurehead, was a significant political and cultural event. In addition to the narrow area of Herschel scholarship, this dissertation touches on other areas of research in the history of science as well: science and culture, science and empire, science and politics, and what has been called the “new” history of scientific books.

  2. FOGO-2014: Monitoring the Fogo 2014 Eruption, Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Rui; Faria, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Fogo volcano, located in the Cape Verde Archipelago offshore Western Africa, is a complete stratovolcano system that was created by the Cape Verde hotspot, forming the island of Fogo. The top (Pico do Fogo) reaches ~2830m above sea level, and raises ~1100m above Chã das Caldeiras, an almost flat circular area with approximately 10 kilometres in the north-south direction and 7 kilometres in the east-west direction. Chã das Caldeiras, surrounded towards the West by the ~1000m high Bordeira rampart, has been inhabited since the early 20th Century, because it is one of the most productive agricultural areas in this semi-arid country. Fogo volcano erupted on November 23, 2014 (~10:00UTC) on a subsidiary vent of the main cone, after 19 years of inactivity. C4G (Collaboratory for Geosciences), a distributed research infrastructure created in 2014 in the framework of the Portuguese Roadmap for Strategic Research Infrastructures, immediately offered support to the Cape Verdean authorities, with the goal of complementing the permanent geophysical monitoring network operated in Fogo island by INMG, the Cape Verdean Meteorological and Geophysical Institute. This permanent network is composed of seven seismographic stations and three tiltmeter stations, and the data is transmitted in real time to the INMG geophysical laboratory in São Vicente Island, where it is analysed on a routine basis. Pre-eruptive activity started to be detected by the permanent monitoring network on October 2014, with earthquakes occurring at depths larger than 15 km. These events led to a first volcanic warning to the Cape Verdean Civil Protection Agency. On November 22 several volcano-tectonic earthquakes were recorded at shallow depths, indicating shallow fracturing. On the basis of this activity, INMG issued a formal alert of an impending eruption to the Civil Protection Agency, ~24 hours before the onset of the eruption. Volcanic tremor and clear tiltmeter signals were recorded about one hour

  3. Westerns fra hele verden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2014-01-01

    Om den amerikanske western, spaghettiwesterns, kommunistiske westerns og danske westerns - i forbindelse med Kristian Levrings The Salvation (2014).......Om den amerikanske western, spaghettiwesterns, kommunistiske westerns og danske westerns - i forbindelse med Kristian Levrings The Salvation (2014)....

  4. Surviving gangs, violence and racism in cape town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz

    Surviving Gangs, Violence and Racism in Cape Town offers an ethnographic study of young men in Cape Town and considers how they stay safe in when growing up in post-apartheid South Africa. Breaking away from previous studies looking at structural inequality and differences, this unique book focus...... they move between "black" or "coloured" township areas and the "white" suburbs of Cape Town....

  5. Hydrodynamics of the Bot river estuary revisited

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, L

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past 20 years management of the Bot/Kleinmond estuarine system in the south-western Cape has been based on the premise that, barring intervention, the estuary was naturally evolving into a freshwater coastal lake. This paper presents...

  6. A historical overview of the Western Province Senior Schools Sports ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First a brief overview of multi-coded school sport organization in Cape Town is present ed. Next, the emergence of the Western Province Senior Schools Sport Union (WPSSSU) and how this organization differed with all existing patterns of school sport management is explored. The ideology underpinning this organization, ...

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC RIGHT WHALE SPRING FEEDING HABITAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Great South Channel region of the southwestern Gulf of Maine, between George's Bank and Cape Cod, is the primary spring feeding ground for the western North Atlantic population of the I northern right whale, E. glacialis .Since this whale is so endangered, it is critical to i...

  8. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of western prairie clover collections from the western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishor Bhattarai; B. Shaun Bushman; Douglas A. Johnson; John G. Carman

    2010-01-01

    Few North American legumes are available for rangeland revegetation in the semiarid western United States. Western prairie clover (Dalea ornata [Douglas ex Hook.] Eaton & J. Wright) is a perennial legume with desirable forage characteristics and is distributed in the northern Great Basin, Snake River Basin, and southern Columbia Plateau. Understanding the...

  9. Columbia River ESI: REPTILES (Reptile and Amphibian Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for western pond turtles and western painted turtles in Columbia River. Vector polygons in this data set...

  10. 1994 Annual Status Report. A Summary of Fish Data in Six Reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutreuter, Steve

    1997-01-01

    .... The six LTRMP study reaches are Pools 4 (excluding Lake Pepin), 8,13, and 26 of the Upper Mississippi River, an unimpounded reach of the Mississippi River near Cape Girardeau, Missouri and the La Grange Pool of the Illinois River...

  11. Intraplate seismicity across the Cape Verde swell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vales, Dina; Matias, Luís.; Haberland, Christian; Silveira, Graça.; Weber, Michael; Carrilho, Fernando; Dias, Nuno

    2010-05-01

    The Cape Verde Archipelago ((15-17°N, 23-26°W) is located within the African plate, about 500km west of Senegal, in the African coast. The islands are located astride the Cape Verde mid-plate topographic swell, one of the largest features of its type in the world's ocean basins. The origin of this Cape Verde swell is still in debate. Previous determinations of the elastic thickness (Te) reveal a normal Te and a modest heat flow anomaly which suggest that the swell cannot be fully explained by uplift due to thermal reheating of the lithosphere by an underlying ‘‘hot spot'' and that other, deep-seated, mantle processes must be involved. The CV-PLUME (An investigation on the geometry and deep signature of the Cape Verde mantle plume) project intends to shape the geometry and deep origin of the Cape Verde mantle plume, via a combined study of seismic, magnetic, gravimetric and geochemical observations. Through this study we intend to characterize the structure beneath the archipelago from the surface down to the deep mantle. The core of this 3-year project was a temporary deployment of 39 Very Broad Band seismometers, across all the inhabited islands, to recorder local and teleseismic earthquakes. These instruments were operational from November 2007 to September 2008. In this work we report on the preliminary results obtained from the CV-PLUME network on the characterization of the local and regional seismicity. To detect the small magnitude seismic events the continuous data stream was screened using spectrograms. This proved to be a very robust technique in the face of the high short-period noise recorded by many of the stations, particularly during day time. The 10 month observation time showed that the background seismic activity in the Archipelago and surrounding area is low, with only a very few events recorded by the complete network. However, two clusters of earthquakes were detected close to the Brava Island, one to the NW and a second one, more active

  12. New and interesting marine and littoral diatoms from sea point, near Cape Town, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Giffen, MH

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available Steenbras, South Western Cape and mentions that the species had not until then been re corded from South African waters. ? 591, 592. C. serpentina var. pusilla (GREvILLE) PERAGALLO. ? Small individuals of this variety, sometimes less than the 25?SO... ~ given for length (1-lusTaD 1. C.: 50) are easily overlooked when both C. serpentina var. pusilla and C. an,gu/osa are present in a sample. They can only be distin guished by counting the striae viz. 14?20 in 10 it for C. angulosa and 22?25 in 10...

  13. Account of the littoral diatoms from Langebaan, Saldanha bay, Cape province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Giffen, MH

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available collec ted in a small bay near the holiday resort of Langebaan (long. 18,02 E, lat. 33,05 5) on the eastern shore of Saldanha Bay. Saldanha Bay is situated on the western coast of South Africa some 110 km north of Cape Town, and forms a long narrow... per annum about 79% during April to September (i.e. winter rainfall). The region can therefore be regarded as semi-desert. The salinity of the sea water at Langebaan was 35 0/00. The average temperature range of the air in summer is from 16.5? C...

  14. River engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, M.

    1993-01-01

    One dimension models - basic eauations, analytical models, numberical models. One dimensional models -suspended load, roughness and resistance of river beds. Solving river problems - tools, flood mitigation, bank protection.

  15. Great deal achieved at Cape's nuclear island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Since the civil engineering contract commenced a great deal has been achieved at Escom's Koeberg nuclear power station north of Cape Town. About 50 percent of the civil work has now been done and the entire project remains on schedule for a January 1982 start-up on nuclear reactor unit number one and a January 1983 start-up on unit two. Final handover is scheduled for January 1984. Completion of the civil works is scheduled for December 1981. The construction of the Koeberg nuclear power station is discussed, as well as the contractors for the civil engineering work

  16. Patterns of plant speciation in the Cape floristic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Niet, Timotheüs; Johnson, Steven D

    2009-04-01

    Plant species have accumulated in the Cape region of southern Africa to a much greater degree than in areas of equivalent size in the rest of the subcontinent. Although this could be a consequence simply of lower extinction rates in the Cape, most researchers have invoked high rates of ecological speciation, driven by unique aspects of the Cape environment, as the primary explanation for this richness. To assess these ideas, we analyzed the frequencies of ecological shifts among 188 sister species pairs obtained from molecular phylogenies of eight Cape clades. Ecological shifts were evident in 80% of sister species pairs, with general habitat, pollinator, and fire-survival strategy shifts being especially frequent. Contrary to an established idea that shifts in soil type are frequently associated with speciation of Cape taxa, these shifts were relatively rare, occurring in just 17% of species pairs. More cases of sister species divergence are accompanied solely by floral than by vegetative diversification, suggesting an important role for pollinator-driven speciation. In an analysis of two large orchid genera that have radiated in both the Cape and the rest of southern Africa, the frequency of ecological shifts (general habitat, soil type, altitude and flowering time), did not differ between sister species pairs in the Cape region and those outside it. Despite suggestions that Cape plants tend to have small range sizes and show fine-scale patterns of speciation, range size did not differ significantly between species in the Cape and those outside it. We conclude that ecological speciation is likely to have been important for radiation of the Cape flora, but there is no evidence as yet for special "Cape" patterns of ecological speciation.

  17. Western Alaska ESI: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for airports, mining sites, area boundaries, and scenic rivers in Western Alaska. Vector points and lines in this data...

  18. The Cape Town Statement on Geoethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Capua, Giuseppe; Peppoloni, Silvia; Bobrowsky, Peter

    2017-04-01

    The interest of geoscientists in (geo)ethical aspects of geoscience knowledge, education, research and practice is rising and today geoethics has a significant visibility. This prominence is the result of hard work done in the last 4 years by the IAPG - International Association for Promoting Geoethics (http://www.geoethics.org), a not-for-profit, multidisciplinary, scientific network (with more than 1350 members in 107 countries) established for widening the discussion and creating awareness about problems of ethics applied to the geosciences. IAPG has produced a strong conceptual substratum on which to base the future development of geoethics, by clarifying the meaning of the word Geoethics, formalizing its definition, and identifying a framework of reference values on which the geoscience community can base more effective codes of conduct. IAPG members have published numerous books and articles in peer reviewed international journals, and organized scientific sessions to bring geoethics at the most important geoscience conferences. Geoethical issues have been included in the European project ENVRI-Plus, dedicated to the environmental and solid Earth research infrastructures. Moreover, the most prestigious geoscience organizations around the world now recognize geoethics as an important issue that warrants attention. This success was confirmed by the high quality of contents and the large participation of scientists in the 6 technical sessions and single panel session on geoethics organized by IAPG at the 35th IGC - International Geological Congress, held in 2016 in Cape Town (South Africa), with the cooperative work of different geoscience organizations (IUGS-TGGP - Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism; GSL - Geological Society of London; EFG - European Federation of Geologists; EGS - EuroGeoSurveys; AGI - American Geosciences Institute; AGU - American Geophysical Union, and AAWG - African Association of Women in Geosciences). IAPG considers the 35th

  19. Collaborative Modeling to Assess Drought   Resiliency of Snow‐Fed River Dependent  Communities in the Western United States:   A Case Study in the Truckee‐Carson River System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta Singletary

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the drought resilience of snow‐fed river dependent communities in the arid  Western United States has taken on critical importance in response to changing climatic conditions.  The process of assessing drought resiliency involves understanding the extent to which snow‐fed  dependent communities can absorb the effects of uncertain and variable water supplies while  acknowledging and encouraging their capacity for adaptation. Participatory research approaches  are particularly well suited to assess resiliency in this context because they rely upon local water  managers’ knowledge and perspectives. The research presented here provides measured insight  into local water managers’ perceptions of drought resiliency in the Truckee‐Carson River System in  northwestern Nevada. These findings are reported in the context of the collaborative modeling  research design developed for this case study. The objectives of this study are: (1 to define  resiliency and present a rationale for a participatory approach to assess drought resiliency in  snow‐fed arid river basins in the Western United States; (2 to outline collaborative modeling as a  participatory research design developed for the Truckee‐Carson River System case study area; (3  to  describe  the  development and implementation of a resiliency  assessment  undertaken  to  implement this research design; (4 to highlight selected results of the assessment, summarizing  interviews with 66 water managers in the case study area; (5 to discuss the use of assessment  findings to inform collaborative modeling toward adaptation strategies; and (6 to review lessons  learned  to  date  from  the  collaborative  modeling  case  study  and  note

  20. Ekman estimates of upwelling at cape columbine based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ekman estimates of upwelling at cape columbine based on measurements of longshore wind from a 35-year time-series. AS Johnson, G Nelson. Abstract. Cape Columbine is a prominent headland on the south-west coast of Africa at approximately 32°50´S, where there is a substantial upwelling tongue, enhancing the ...

  1. cutaneous manifestatio s of tuberculosis i the wester cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lEA WALKER, M.B., CH.B. (CAPE TOWN). Department of Dermatology, University of Cape Town and Croote Schuur Ho pital. Skin tuberculosis has been chosen as the subject of ... are fairly representative of the total number of skin cases seeking advice. .... results of vitamin D2 in the treatment of lupus."5-7. At -about the ...

  2. Comparison of age determination techniques for known-age Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Known-age teeth were used to validate age determination techniques for the Cape fur seal (Arctocephalus ... The reliability with which age can be estimated for the Cape fur seal has also been improved. ... The acid solution, with a volume at least 10 times that of ... old female [0 show (he absence of GLGs in the cemenlUnl.

  3. The Cape commercial linefishery consists of about 2 500 vessels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    assessing the ecosystem effects of fishing and evaluating the benefits of ... Such information would assist in the ... Traditional Cape linefish may be broadly divided into ... gressively farther offshore (and into deeper. Griffiths: ... (Griffiths 1997c); this process controls avail- ... of shallow-water Cape hake Merluccius capensis,.

  4. The 1992 measles epidemic in Cape Town - a changing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over the last 6 years there has been a decline in the incidence of measles in Cape Town. However, during August 1992 an outbreak occurred, with cases reported at many schools in children presumably immunised. The objectives of this study were to characterise the epidemic in Cape Town and to determine possible ...

  5. Risk factors for meningococcal disease in Cape Town | Moodley ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the risk factors associated with meningococcal disease among children living in Cape Town. Design. A case-control study was conducted from October 1993 to January 1995. Setting. The study population consisted of all children tmder the age of 14 years who were resident in the Cape Town ...

  6. Tourism Policies and the Space Economy of the Eastern Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The key objective of this paper is to x-ray the situation in the tourism development process of the post-1994 tourism sector of the Eastern Cape Province. This paper uses empirical data to examine the extent to which actors in the Eastern Cape tourism sector interpreted the national tourism policies. The White Paper on ...

  7. Aspects of the digestion in the Cape porcupine | van Jaarsveld ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The digestive capabilities of the Cape porcupine (Hystrix africaeaustralis) were studied using captive and field animals. The stomach contents comprised 6,47% of the body mass and had a low pH (2,0).The Cape porcupine also has a long small intestine (670 em). The large stomach and small intestine form a very efficient ...

  8. Short Communications: First record of freshwater fish on the Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During a non-exhaustive survey of freshwater bodies on five islands of the archipelago, the first presence of a freshwater fish was recorded. Using barcoding sequences, the species was identified as the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a highly invasive species alien to the Cape Verdean Islands. Key words: Cape Verde, guppy, ...

  9. Determination of characteristics maximal runoff Mountain Rivers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ovcharuk V and Todorova O

    Odessa State Environmental University, Ukraine. Received: 03 December 2015 / Accepted: 23 April 2016 / Published online: 01 May 2016. ABSTRACT. This article has been examined maximum runoff of the rivers of the Crimean Mountains. The rivers flow through the western and eastern part of the northern slope Crimean ...

  10. Leptospira interrogans in Rodents from Cape Verde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plata-Luis, Josué; Foronda, Pilar; Martín-Alonso, Aaron; Feliu, Carlos; Alves, Joana; Gil, Horacio; Valladares, Basilio

    2016-11-01

    Leptospirosis is an important worldwide zoonotic disease that can infect both animals and humans. In most cases, leptospirosis is a nonspecific self-limiting illness, but some patients can develop a severe form with a high mortality. This study was carried out in Santiago Island, Cape Verde, in 2012-2013. A total of 62 wild rodents (Rattus rattus and Mus domesticus) were analyzed. The lipL32 gene, present only in pathogenic Leptospira spp., was amplified by PCR, and 16 samples were positive (25.8%). In both rodent species, Leptospira interrogans was identified. The results show the presence of pathogenic Leptospira in the three localities analyzed in Santiago. The presence of L. interrogans demonstrates a serious health risk for the population, since this species has been associated with the most severe form of leptospirosis, the Weil's disease in humans, a severe infection with jaundice, renal failure, and hemorrhage.

  11. Adaptive capacity and water governance in the Keiskamma River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa, being a semi-arid country, faces water resource constraints. The projected impacts of climate change in the Keiskamma River Catchment, Eastern Cape Province, are, for example, changes in rainfall with effects on streamflow, salt water intrusion, decreasing water quality due to runoff and erosion, and droughts ...

  12. Western blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Biji T; Scofield, R Hal

    2006-04-01

    Western blotting (protein blotting or immunoblotting) is a powerful and important procedure for the immunodetection of proteins post-electrophoresis, particularly proteins that are of low abundance. Since the inception of the protocol for protein transfer from an electrophoresed gel to a membrane in 1979, protein blotting has evolved greatly. The scientific community is now confronted with a variety of ways and means to carry out this transfer. This review describes the various procedures that have been used to transfer proteins from a gel to a membrane based on the principles of simple diffusion, vacuum-assisted solvent flow and electrophoretic elution. Finally, a brief description of methods generally used to detect antigens on blots is also described.

  13. Rising synchrony controls western North American ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan A. Black; Peter van der Sleen; Emanuele Di Lorenzo; Daniel Griffin; William J. Sydeman; Jason B. Dunham; Ryan R. Rykaczewski; Marisol García-Reyes; Mohammad Safeeq; Ivan Arismendi; Steven J. Bograd

    2018-01-01

    Along the western margin of North America, the winter expression of the North Pacific High (NPH) strongly influences interannual variability in coastal upwelling, storm track position, precipitation, and river discharge. Coherence among these factors induces covariance among physical and biological processes across adjacent marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we...

  14. Charles River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the efforts of the US EPA, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the municipalities within the Charles River Watershed and nongovernmental organizations to improve the water quality of the Charles River.

  15. Uranium favorability of tertiary sedimentary rocks of the western Okanogan highlands and of the upper Columbia River valley, Washington. [Measurement and sampling of surface sections, collection of samples from isolated outcrops, and chemical and mineralogical analyses of samples; no known uranium deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marjaniemi, D.K.; Robins, J.W.

    1975-08-01

    Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the northern portions of the western Okanogan highlands and in the upper Columbia River valley were investigated during a regional study to determine the favorability for potential uranium resources of the Tertiary sedimentary rocks of northeastern Washington. This project involved measurement and sampling of surface sections, collection of samples from isolated outcrops, and chemical and mineralogical analyses of samples. No portion of the project area of this report is rated of high or of medium favorability for potential uranium resources. Low favorability ratings are given to Oroville, Tonasket, and Pine Creek areas of the Okanogan River valley; to the Republic graben; and to the William Lakes, Colville, and Sheep Creek areas of the upper Columbia River valley. All these areas contain some fluvial, poorly sorted feldspathic or arkosic sandstones and conglomerates. These rocks are characterized by very low permeability and a consistently high siliceous matrix suggesting very low initial permeability. There are no known uranium deposits in any of these areas, and low level uranium anomalies are rare.

  16. Sources and fate of organic matter in suspended and bottom sediments of the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries, Western India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shynu, R; Rao, V.P.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Kessarkar, P.M.; ManiMurali, R

    in western India during wet and dry seasons, to characterize the sources of organic matter (OM) in these systems. Unlike major rivers, SPM concentrations increase seaward with a general trend of decreasing particulate organic carbon (POC) in these rivers...

  17. LEVELS OF SOME ANIONS IN SOKOTO-RIMA RIVER SYSTEM IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    obtained in this work, the river water is safe for the aquatic life therein. ... environmental issue in developing countries. ... of these ions to enhance water quality of this ... IN SOKOTO-RIMA RIVER SYSTEM IN NORTH IN WESTERN NIGERIA.

  18. "They must understand we are people": Pregnancy and maternity service use among signing Deaf women in Cape Town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gichane, Margaret W; Heap, Marion; Fontes, Mayara; London, Leslie

    2017-07-01

    Women with disabilities are at disproportionate risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes, however, there is limited information on their pregnancy histories. This mixed-methods study focuses on signing Deaf women whose access to health care may be compromised by language barriers related to their disability. To describe and compare the pregnancy outcomes and maternity service use of a sample of signing Deaf women of child-bearing age in Cape Town to the population of the Western Cape of South Africa. We interviewed 42 Deaf women selected by non-probability snowball sampling, using a structured questionnaire in South African Sign Language in Cape Town in July 2016. Average parity of the sample was similar to that of the Western Cape population. Most women had one or two children (74%). Thirty-one percent of women had experienced a miscarriage and 19% had terminated a pregnancy. Almost all women (96%) attended at least one antenatal appointment during their pregnancies, and all deliveries occurred at a health facility. Women primarily relied on writing to communicate during antenatal visits and labor/delivery. The majority of women reported communication issues due to limited interpretation services, and some reported experiencing mistreatment from hospital staff. This study provides novel information on the pregnancy histories of Deaf women. While maternal service usage was high, the quality of services were inadequate with reports of linguistic barriers and mistreatment. Findings suggest the need to improve maternity care for Deaf women through implementing interpretation services and providing sensitivity training to health care providers. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Simulation Of Aqua-Ammonia Refrigeration System Using The Cape-Open To Cape-Open COCO Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janavi Gohil

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have simulated a flow sheet of aqua ammonia refrigeration system using Cape Open simulator. The main aim of writing this paper is to compare the results obtained from thermodynamic simulation of aqua ammonia refrigeration system and the results obtained from the flow sheet simulation in Cape-Open to Cape-Open COCO simulator. The corresponding COP values obtained from both the sources are calculated and compared. With the error being very minute the calculations using simulator prove to be more efficient and timesaving when compared to the results obtained by calculations done using tedious thermodynamic simulations and constant mass balance for different process conditions.

  20. GRIP BARBADOS/CAPE VERDE RADIOSONDE V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRIP Barbados/Cape Verde radiosonde data set consists of generally two soundings per day (06Z and 12Z) launched from Barbados, and one sounding per day (12Z)...