Sample records for river water system

  1. Kyiv Small Rivers in Metropolis Water Objects System (United States)

    Krelshteyn, P.; Dubnytska, M.


    The article answers the question, what really are the small underground rivers with artificial watercourses: water bodies or city engineering infrastructure objects? The place of such rivers in metropolis water objects system is identified. The ecological state and the degree of urbanization of small rivers, as well as the dynamics of change in these indicators are analysed on the Kiev city example with the help of water objects cadastre. It was found that the registration of small rivers in Kyiv city is not conducted, and the summary information on such water objects is absent and is not taken into account when making managerial decisions at the urban level. To solve this problem, we propose to create some water bodies accounting system (water cadastre).

  2. Shutdown of the River Water System at the Savannah River Site: Draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This environmental impact statement (EIS) evaluates alternative approaches to and environmental impacts of shutting down the River Water System at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Five production reactors were operated at the support these facilities, the River Water System was constructed to provide cooling water to pass through heat exchangers to absorb heat from the reactor core in each of the five reactor areas (C, K, L, P, and R). The DOE Savannah River Strategic Plan directs the SRS to find ways to reduce operating costs and to determine what site infrastructure it must maintain and what infrastructure is surplus. The River Water System has been identified as a potential surplus facility. Three alternatives to reduce the River Water System operating costs are evaluated in this EIS. In addition to the No-Action Alternative, which consists of continuing to operate the River Water System, this EIS examines one alternative (the Preferred Alternative) to shut down and maintain the River Water System in a standby condition until DOE determines that a standby condition is no longer necessary, and one alternative to shut down and deactivate the River Water System. The document provides background information and introduces the River Water System at the SRS; sets forth the purpose and need for DOE action; describes the alternatives DOE is considering; describes the environment at the SRS and in the surrounding area potentially affected by the alternatives addressed and provides a detailed assessment of the potential environmental impacts of the alternatives; and identifies regulatory requirements and evaluates their applicability to the alternatives considered

  3. Study on measuring social cost of water pollution: concentrated on Han River water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Im; Min, Dong Gee; Chung, Hoe Seong; Lim, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Mee Sook [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)


    Following the economic development and the progress of urbanization, the damage on water pollution has been more serious but a social cost caused by water pollution cannot be measured. Although the need of water quality preservation is emphasized, a base material for public investment on enhancing water quality preservation is not equipped yet due to the absence of economic values of water resource. Therefore it measured a cost generated by leaving pollution not treated water quality in this study. To measure the usable value of water resource or the cost of water pollution all over the country should include a national water system, but this study is limited on the mainstream of Han River water system from North Han River through Paldang to Chamsil sluice gates. Further study on Nakdong River and Keum River water systems should be done. 74 refs., 4 figs., 51 tabs.

  4. Water quality in North American river systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, C.D.; Neitzel, D.A.


    This book is about water quality and other characteristics of selected ecosystems in North America. It is also about changes that have occurred in these ecosystems as a result of recent human activities-changes that result primarily from development and exploitation to sustain the needs of an ever-increasing population and the technical innovations that sustain it. Fish populations, hydrology, and water quality control efforts are discussed

  5. Trace element assessment in water of river kassa system, jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The value of index of geoaccumulation (Igeo) is approximately 2; for Zn and Pb which indicates, moderate contamination. Areas of the river system with anomalous value of trace element concentrations are those where mine tailings have been deposited close to the river channel or places where run off from adjoining ...

  6. Environmental and ecological water requirement of river system: a case study of Haihe-Luanhe river system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In order to reduce the environmental and ecological problems induced by water resources development and utilization, this paper proposes a concept of environmental and ecological water requirement. It is defined as the minimum water amount to be consumed by the natural water bodies to conserve its environmental and ecological functions. Based on the definition, the methods on calculating the amount of environmental and ecological water requirement are determined. In the case study on Haihe-Luanhe river system, the water requirement is divided into three parts, i.e., the basic in-stream flow, water requirement for sediment transfer and water consumption by evaporation of the lakes or everglades. The results of the calculation show that the environmental and ecological water requirement in the river system is about 124×108 m3, including 57×108 m3 for basic in-stream flow, 63×108m3 for sediment transfer and 4×l08m3 for net evaporation loss of lakes. The total amount of environmental and ecological water requirement accounts for 54% of the amount of runoff (228×108 m3). However, it should be realized that the amount of environmental and ecological water requirement must be more than that we have calculated. According to this result, we consider that the rational utilization rate of the runoff in the river systems must not be more than 40%. Since the current utilization rate of the river system, which is over 80%, has been far beyond the limitation, the problems of environment and ecology are quite serious. It is imperative to control and adjust water development and utilization to eliminate the existing problems and to avoid the potential ecological or environmental crisis.

  7. [Tritium in the Water System of the Techa River]. (United States)

    Chebotina, M Ja; Nikolin, O A


    The aim of the paper is to study modern tritium levels in various sources of the drinking water supply in the settlements situated in the riverside zone of the Techa. Almost everywhere the water entering water-conduit wells from deep slits (100-180 m) contains averagely 2-3 times higher tritium concentrations than the water from less deep personal wells, slits and springs. Tritium levels in the drinking water supply decrease with the distance from the dam; while in wells, springs and personal wells they are constant all along the river. The observed phenomenon can be explained by the fact that the river bed of the Techa is situated at a break zone of the earth crust, where the contaminated deep water penetrates from the reservoirs of the "Mayak" enterprise situated in the upper part of the regulated river bed. Less deep water sources (personal wells, slits and springs) receive predominantly flood, atmospheric and subsoil waters and are not connected with the reservoirs.

  8. Water isotope composition as a tracer for study of mixing processes in rivers. Part II. Determination of mixing degrees in the tributary-main river systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owczarczyk, A.; Wierzchnicki, R.; Zimnicki, R.; Ptaszek, S.; Palige, J.; Dobrowolski, A.


    Two river-tributary systems have been chosen for the investigation of mixing processes: the Narew River-the Bug River-Zegrzynski Reservoir and the Bugo-Narew River-the Vistula River. In both river systems, several profiles for the water sampling have been selected down to the tributary confluent line. Each sample position has been precisely determined by means of GPS. Then, the δDi have been measured in IRMS (isotope ratio mass spectroscopy). The δD distributions in selected profiles have been presented for both investigated river systems. Presented results will be applied for the verification of the mathematical model for transport and mixing in river systems

  9. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix M: Water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. Analysis of water quality begins with an account of the planning and evaluation process, and continues with a description of existing water quality conditions in the Columbia River Basin. This is followed by an explanation how the analysis was conducted. The analysis concludes with an assessment of the effects of SOR alternatives on water quality and a comparison of alternatives

  10. Uranium in river water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, M.R.; Edmond, J.M.


    The concentration of dissolved uranium has been determined in over 250 river waters from the Orinoco, Amazon, and Ganges basins. Uranium concentrations are largely determined by dissolution of limestones, although weathering of black shales represents an important additional source in some basins. In shield terrains the level of dissolved U is transport limited. Data from the Amazon indicate that floodplains do not represent a significant source of U in river waters. In addition, the authors have determined dissolved U levels in forty rivers from around the world and coupled these data with previous measurements to obtain an estimate for the global flux of dissolved U to the oceans. The average concentration of U in river waters is 1.3 nmol/kg, but this value is biased by very high levels observed in the Ganges-Brahmaputra and Yellow rivers. When these river systems are excluded from the budget, the global average falls to 0.78 nmol/kg. The global riverine U flux lies in the range of 3-6 x 10 7 mol/yr. The major uncertainty that restricts the accuracy of this estimate (and that of all other dissolved riverine fluxes) is the difficulty in obtaining representative samples from rivers which show large seasonal and annual variations in runoff and dissolved load

  11. Managing water and riparian habitats on the Bill Williams River with scientific benefit for other desert river systems (United States)

    John Hickey,; Woodrow Fields,; Andrew Hautzinger,; Steven Sesnie,; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Dick Gilbert,


    This report details modeling to: 1) codify flow-ecology relationships for riparian species of the Bill Williams River as operational guidance for water managers, 2) test the guidance under different climate scenarios, and 3) revise the operational guidance as needed to address the effects of climate change. Model applications detailed herein include the River Analysis System  (HEC-RAS) and the Ecosystem Functions Model  (HEC-EFM), which was used to generate more than three million estimates of local seedling recruitment areas. Areas were aggregated and compared to determine which scenarios generated the most seedling area per unit volume of water. Scenarios that maximized seedling area were grouped into a family of curves that serve as guidance for water managers. This work has direct connections to water management decision-making and builds upon and adds to the rich history of science-based management for the Bill Williams River, Arizona, USA. 

  12. Research on monitoring system of water resources in Shiyang River Basin based on Multi-agent (United States)

    Zhao, T. H.; Yin, Z.; Song, Y. Z.


    The Shiyang River Basin is the most populous, economy relatively develop, the highest degree of development and utilization of water resources, water conflicts the most prominent, ecological environment problems of the worst hit areas in Hexi inland river basin in Gansu province. the contradiction between people and water is aggravated constantly in the basin. This text combines multi-Agent technology with monitoring system of water resource, the establishment of a management center, telemetry Agent Federation, as well as the communication network between the composition of the Shiyang River Basin water resources monitoring system. By taking advantage of multi-agent system intelligence and communications coordination to improve the timeliness of the basin water resources monitoring.

  13. Research on monitoring system of water resources in Shiyang River Basin based on Multi-agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, T h; Yin, Z; Song, Y Z


    The Shiyang River Basin is the most populous, economy relatively develop, the highest degree of development and utilization of water resources, water conflicts the most prominent, ecological environment problems of the worst hit areas in Hexi inland river basin in Gansu province. the contradiction between people and water is aggravated constantly in the basin. This text combines multi-Agent technology with monitoring system of water resource, the establishment of a management center, telemetry Agent Federation, as well as the communication network between the composition of the Shiyang River Basin water resources monitoring system. By taking advantage of multi-agent system intelligence and communications coordination to improve the timeliness of the basin water resources monitoring.

  14. Water quality evaluation system to assess the status and the suitability of the Citarum river water to different uses. (United States)

    Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali


    Water quality degradation in the Citarum river will increase from the year to year due to increasing pollutant loads when released particularly from Bandung region of the upstream areas into the river without treatment. This will be facing the problems on water quality status to use for multi-purposes in the downstream areas. The water quality evaluation system is used to evaluate the available water condition that distinguishes into two categories, i.e., the water quality index (WQI) and water quality aptitude (WQA). The assessment of water quality for the Citarum river from 10 selected stations was found that the WQI situates in the bad category generally and the WQA ranges from the suitable quality for agriculture and livestock watering uses to the unsuitable for biological potential function, drinking water production, and leisure activities and sports in the upstream areas of Saguling dam generally.

  15. Water quality dynamics in the Boro-Thamalakane-Boteti river system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of water in aquatic systems is subject to temporal and spatial variations due to varying effects of natural and anthropogenic factors. This study assessed the dynamics of water quality in the Boro-Thamalakane-Boteti river system along an upstream–downstream gradient above and below Maun during February, ...

  16. Sr isotope tracing of multiple water sources in a complex river system, Noteć River, central Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zieliński, Mateusz, E-mail: [Institute of Geoecology and Geoinformation, Adam Mickiewicz University, Dzięgielowa 27, 61-680 Poznań (Poland); Dopieralska, Jolanta, E-mail: [Poznań Science and Technology Park, Adam Mickiewicz University Foundation, Rubież 46, 61-612 Poznań (Poland); Belka, Zdzislaw, E-mail: [Isotope Laboratory, Adam Mickiewicz University, Dzięgielowa 27, 61-680 Poznań (Poland); Walczak, Aleksandra, E-mail: [Isotope Laboratory, Adam Mickiewicz University, Dzięgielowa 27, 61-680 Poznań (Poland); Siepak, Marcin, E-mail: [Institute of Geology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Maków Polnych 16, 61-606 Poznań (Poland); Jakubowicz, Michal, E-mail: [Institute of Geoecology and Geoinformation, Adam Mickiewicz University, Dzięgielowa 27, 61-680 Poznań (Poland)


    Anthropogenic impact on surface waters and other elements in the environment was investigated in the Noteć River basin in central Poland. The approach was to trace changes in the Sr isotope composition ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr) and concentration in space and time. Systematic sampling of the river water shows a very wide range of {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios, from 0.7089 to 0.7127. This strong variation, however, is restricted to the upper course of the river, whereas the water in the lower course typically shows {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr values around 0.7104–0.7105. Variations in {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr are associated with a wide range of Sr concentrations, from 0.14 to 1.32 mg/L. We find that strong variations in {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr and Sr concentrations can be accounted for by mixing of two end-members: 1) atmospheric waters charged with Sr from the near-surface weathering and wash-out of Quaternary glaciogenic deposits, and 2) waters introduced into the river from an open pit lignite mine. The first reservoir is characterized by a low Sr content and high {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios, whereas mine waters display opposite characteristics. Anthropogenic pollution is also induced by extensive use of fertilizers which constitute the third source of Sr in the environment. The study has an important implication for future archeological studies in the region. It shows that the present-day Sr isotope signatures of river water, flora and fauna cannot be used unambiguously to determine the “baseline” for bioavailable {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr in the past. - Highlights: • Sr isotopes fingerprint water sources and their interactions in a complex river system. • Mine waters and fertilizers are critical anthropogenic additions in the river water. • Limited usage of environmental isotopic data in archeological studies. • Sr budget of the river is dynamic and temporary.

  17. Model-Aided Altimeter-Based Water Level Forecasting System in Mekong River (United States)

    Chang, C. H.; Lee, H.; Hossain, F.; Okeowo, M. A.; Basnayake, S. B.; Jayasinghe, S.; Saah, D. S.; Anderson, E.; Hwang, E.


    Mekong River, one of the massive river systems in the world, has drainage area of about 795,000 km2 covering six countries. People living in its drainage area highly rely on resources given by the river in terms of agriculture, fishery, and hydropower. Monitoring and forecasting the water level in a timely manner, is urgently needed over the Mekong River. Recently, using TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) altimetry water level measurements in India, Biancamaria et al. [2011] has demonstrated the capability of an altimeter-based flood forecasting system in Bangladesh, with RMSE from 0.6 - 0.8 m for lead times up to 5 days on 10-day basis due to T/P's repeat period. Hossain et al. [2013] further established a daily water level forecasting system in Bangladesh using observations from Jason-2 in India and HEC-RAS hydraulic model, with RMSE from 0.5 - 1.5 m and an underestimating mean bias of 0.25 - 1.25 m. However, such daily forecasting system relies on a collection of Jason-2 virtual stations (VSs) to ensure frequent sampling and data availability. Since the Mekong River is a meridional river with few number of VSs, the direct application of this system to the Mekong River becomes challenging. To address this problem, we propose a model-aided altimeter-based forecasting system. The discharge output by Variable Infiltration Capacity hydrologic model is used to reconstruct a daily water level product at upstream Jason-2 VSs based on the discharge-to-level rating curve. The reconstructed daily water level is then used to perform regression analysis with downstream in-situ water level to build regression models, which are used to forecast a daily water level. In the middle reach of the Mekong River from Nakhon Phanom to Kratie, a 3-day lead time forecasting can reach RMSE about 0.7 - 1.3 m with correlation coefficient around 0.95. For the lower reach of the Mekong River, the water flow becomes more complicated due to the reversal flow between the Tonle Sap Lake and the Mekong River

  18. Columbia River water quality monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Waste water from Hanford activities is discharged at eight points along the Hanford reach of the Columbia River. These discharges consist of backwash water from water intake screens, cooling water, river bank springs, water storage tank overflow, and fish laboratory waste water. Each discharge point is identified in an existing National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued by the EPA. Effluents from each of these outfalls are routinely monitored and reported by the operating contractors as required by their NPDES permits. Measurements of several Columbia River water quality parameters were conducted routinely during 1982 both upstream and downstream of the Hanford Site to monitor any effects on the river that may be attributable to Hanford discharges and to determine compliance with the Class A designation requirements. The measurements indicated that Hanford operations had a minimal, if any, impact on the quality of the Columbia River water

  19. Loss of the CNA I secured river water system: analysis and effect evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berra, Sandra; Guala, Mariana I.; Lorenzo, Andrea T.; Raffo Calderon, Maria C.; Urrutia, Guillermo


    In this work the evolution of the plant parameters is evaluated in the case of a loss of the secured circuit of river water (system UK). In particular the systems which are affected for this loss were studied. It was evaluated the functional degradation of these systems. (author)

  20. Water quality monitoring of Jialing-River in Chongqing using advanced ion chromatographic system. (United States)

    Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Shi, Chao-Hong; Nakagoshi, Nobukazu


    The water quality monitoring operation to evaluate the water quality of polluted river is an extremely important task for the river-watershed management/control based on the environmental policy. In this study, the novel, simple and convenient water quality monitoring of Jialing-River in Chongqing, China was carried out using an advanced ion chromatography (IC) consisting of ion-exclusion/cation-exchange chromatography (IEC/CEC) with conductivity detection for determining simultaneously the common anions such as SO4(2-), Cl(-), and NO3(-) and the cations such as Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+, the ion-exclusion chromatography (IEC) with visible detection for determining simultaneously the nutrient components such as phosphate and silicate ions, and the IEC with the enhanced conductivity detection using a post column of K+-form cation-exchange resin for determining HCO3(-)-alkalinity as an inorganic-carbon source for biomass synthesis in biological reaction process under the aerobic conditions. According to the ionic balance theory between the total equivalent concentrations of anions and cations, the water quality evaluation of the Jialing-River waters taking at different sampling sites in Chongqing metropolitan area was carried out using the advanced IC system. As a result, the effectiveness of this novel water quality monitoring methodology using the IC system was demonstrated on the several practical applications to a typical biological sewage treatment plant on Jialing-River of Chongqing.

  1. The Water Quality of the River Enborne, UK: Observations from High-Frequency Monitoring in a Rural, Lowland River System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Halliday


    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a 2-year study of water quality in the River Enborne, a rural river in lowland England. Concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus species and other chemical determinands were monitored both at high-frequency (hourly, using automated in situ instrumentation, and by manual weekly sampling and laboratory analysis. The catchment land use is largely agricultural, with a population density of 123 persons km−2. The river water is largely derived from calcareous groundwater, and there are high nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. Agricultural fertiliser is the dominant source of annual loads of both nitrogen and phosphorus. However, the data show that sewage effluent discharges have a disproportionate effect on the river nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics. At least 38% of the catchment population use septic tank systems, but the effects are hard to quantify as only 6% are officially registered, and the characteristics of the others are unknown. Only 4% of the phosphorus input and 9% of the nitrogen input is exported from the catchment by the river, highlighting the importance of catchment process understanding in predicting nutrient concentrations. High-frequency monitoring will be a key to developing this vital process understanding.

  2. Development and application of a large scale river system model for National Water Accounting in Australia (United States)

    Dutta, Dushmanta; Vaze, Jai; Kim, Shaun; Hughes, Justin; Yang, Ang; Teng, Jin; Lerat, Julien


    Existing global and continental scale river models, mainly designed for integrating with global climate models, are of very coarse spatial resolutions and lack many important hydrological processes, such as overbank flow, irrigation diversion, groundwater seepage/recharge, which operate at a much finer resolution. Thus, these models are not suitable for producing water accounts, which have become increasingly important for water resources planning and management at regional and national scales. A continental scale river system model called Australian Water Resource Assessment River System model (AWRA-R) has been developed and implemented for national water accounting in Australia using a node-link architecture. The model includes major hydrological processes, anthropogenic water utilisation and storage routing that influence the streamflow in both regulated and unregulated river systems. Two key components of the model are an irrigation model to compute water diversion for irrigation use and associated fluxes and stores and a storage-based floodplain inundation model to compute overbank flow from river to floodplain and associated floodplain fluxes and stores. The results in the Murray-Darling Basin shows highly satisfactory performance of the model with median daily Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) of 0.64 and median annual bias of less than 1% for the period of calibration (1970-1991) and median daily NSE of 0.69 and median annual bias of 12% for validation period (1992-2014). The results have demonstrated that the performance of the model is less satisfactory when the key processes such as overbank flow, groundwater seepage and irrigation diversion are switched off. The AWRA-R model, which has been operationalised by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology for continental scale water accounting, has contributed to improvements in the national water account by substantially reducing accounted different volume (gain/loss).

  3. Performance variations of river water source heat pump system according to heat exchanger capacity variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seong Ryong; Baik, Young Jin; Lee, Young Soo; Kim, Hee Hwan


    The utilization of unused energy is important because it can afford to offer a chance to increase energy efficiency of a heat pump system. One of the promising unused energy sources is river water. It can be used as a heat source in both heating and cooling effectively with its superior features as a secondary working fluids. In this study, the performance of a 5HP heat pump system using river water as a heat source is investigated by both experiment and simulation. According to system simulation results, performance improvement of condenser seems more effective than that of evaporator for better COPH. The serial connection is also preferred among several methods to improve plate type heat exchanger performance. The experimental results show that the hot water of 50∼60 .deg. C can be acquired from water heat source of 5∼9 .deg. C with COPH of 2.7∼3.5

  4. Simulation of the Regional Ground-Water-Flow System and Ground-Water/Surface-Water Interaction in the Rock River Basin, Wisconsin (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.


    A regional, two-dimensional, areal ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate the ground-water-flow system and ground-water/surface-water interaction in the Rock River Basin. The model was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Rock River Coalition. The objectives of the regional model were to improve understanding of the ground-water-flow system and to develop a tool suitable for evaluating the effects of potential regional water-management programs. The computer code GFLOW was used because of the ease with which the model can simulate ground-water/surface-water interactions, provide a framework for simulating regional ground-water-flow systems, and be refined in a stepwise fashion to incorporate new data and simulate ground-water-flow patterns at multiple scales. The ground-water-flow model described in this report simulates the major hydrogeologic features of the modeled area, including bedrock and surficial aquifers, ground-water/surface-water interactions, and ground-water withdrawals from high-capacity wells. The steady-state model treats the ground-water-flow system as a single layer with hydraulic conductivity and base elevation zones that reflect the distribution of lithologic groups above the Precambrian bedrock and a regionally significant confining unit, the Maquoketa Formation. In the eastern part of the Basin where the shale-rich Maquoketa Formation is present, deep ground-water flow in the sandstone aquifer below the Maquoketa Formation was not simulated directly, but flow into this aquifer was incorporated into the GFLOW model from previous work in southeastern Wisconsin. Recharge was constrained primarily by stream base-flow estimates and was applied uniformly within zones guided by regional infiltration estimates for soils. The model includes average ground-water withdrawals from 1997 to 2006 for municipal wells and from 1997 to 2005 for high-capacity irrigation, industrial, and commercial wells. In addition

  5. Fine-resolution Modeling of Urban-Energy Systems' Water Footprint in River Networks (United States)

    McManamay, R.; Surendran Nair, S.; Morton, A.; DeRolph, C.; Stewart, R.


    Characterizing the interplay between urbanization, energy production, and water resources is essential for ensuring sustainable population growth. In order to balance limited water supplies, competing users must account for their realized and virtual water footprint, i.e. the total direct and indirect amount of water used, respectively. Unfortunately, publicly reported US water use estimates are spatially coarse, temporally static, and completely ignore returns of water to rivers after use. These estimates are insufficient to account for the high spatial and temporal heterogeneity of water budgets in urbanizing systems. Likewise, urbanizing areas are supported by competing sources of energy production, which also have heterogeneous water footprints. Hence, a fundamental challenge of planning for sustainable urban growth and decision-making across disparate policy sectors lies in characterizing inter-dependencies among urban systems, energy producers, and water resources. A modeling framework is presented that provides a novel approach to integrate urban-energy infrastructure into a spatial accounting network that accurately measures water footprints as changes in the quantity and quality of river flows. River networks (RNs), i.e. networks of branching tributaries nested within larger rivers, provide a spatial structure to measure water budgets by modeling hydrology and accounting for use and returns from urbanizing areas and energy producers. We quantify urban-energy water footprints for Atlanta, GA and Knoxville, TN (USA) based on changes in hydrology in RNs. Although water intakes providing supply to metropolitan areas were proximate to metropolitan areas, power plants contributing to energy demand in Knoxville and Atlanta, occurred 30 and 90km outside the metropolitan boundary, respectively. Direct water footprints from urban landcover primarily comprised smaller streams whereas indirect footprints from water supply reservoirs and energy producers included

  6. A study on the formation of fouling in a heat exchanging system for Han-river water as cooling water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Sun Kyung; Suh, Sang Ho; Rho, Hyung Woon; Cho, Young Il


    Scale is formed when hard water is heated or cooled in heat transfer equipments such as heat exchangers, condensers, evaporators, cooling towers, boilers, and pipe walls. When scale deposits in a heat exchanger surface, it is traditionally called fouling. The objective of the present study is to investigate the formation of fouling in a heat exchanging system. A lab-scale heat exchanging system is built-up to observe and measure the formation of fouling experimentally. Water analyses are conducted to obtain the properties of Han river water. In the present study a microscopic observation is conducted to visualize the process of scale formation. Hardness of Han-river water is higher than that of tap water in Seoul

  7. A System Dynamics Model to Improve Water Resources Allocation in the Conchos River (United States)

    Gastelum, J. R.; Valdes, J. B.; Stewart, S.


    The Conchos river located in Chihuahua state on a semiarid region is the most important Mexican river contributing water deliveries to USA as established by the Water treaty of 1944 signed between Mexico and USA. Historically, Mexico has delivered to UNITED STATES 550 Hm3 (445,549.5 ACF) per year of water since the treaty was established, which is 25% above the yearly water volume Mexico is required to deliver. The Conchos river has contributed with 54% of the historic Mexican water treaty deliveries to the UNITED STATES, which represents the highest percentage of the 6 Mexican rivers considered on the water treaty. However, during drought situations the basin has proven to be vulnerable, for instance, because of the severe drought of the 90's, several cities in 1992 on Chihuahua state where declared disaster areas, and from 1992 to 2001 Mexico had accumulated a water treaty deficit of 2111.6 Hm3 (1,710,586 ACF). This has conduced to economic, social, and political difficulties in both countries. Because of the cited problematic and considering the poor understanding of the relationship between water supply and demand factors on the basin, a decision support system (DSS) has been developed aimed to improve the decision making process related with the water resources allocation process. This DSS has been created using System Dynamics (SD). It is a semi-distributed model and is running on monthly time step basis. For both the short and long term, three important water resources management strategies have been evaluated: several water allocation policies from reservoirs to water users; bulk water rights transfers inside and outside Irrigation Districts; and improvement of water distribution efficiencies. The model results have provided very useful regard to gain more quantitative understanding of the different strategies being implemented. They have also indicated that the different water resources alternatives change its degree of importance according to the

  8. Laboratory QA/QC improvements for small drinking water systems at Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, R.D.


    The Savannah River Site (SRS), a 310 square mile facility located near Aiken, S.C., is operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company for the US Department of Energy. SRS has 28 separate drinking water systems with average daily demands ranging from 0.0002 to 0.5 MGD. All systems utilize treated groundwater. Until recently, the water laboratories for each system operated independently. As a result, equipment, reagents, chemicals, procedures, personnel, and quality control practices differed from location to location. Due to this inconsistency, and a lack of extensive laboratory OA/QC practices at some locations, SRS auditors were not confident in the accuracy of daily water quality analyses results. The Site`s Water Services Department addressed these concerns by developing and implementing a practical laboratory QA/QC program. Basic changes were made which can be readily adopted by most small drinking water systems. Key features of the program include: Standardized and upgraded laboratory instrumentation and equipment; standardized analytical procedures based on vendor manuals and site requirements; periodic accuracy checks for all instrumentation; creation of a centralized laboratory to perform metals digestions and chlorine colorimeter accuracy checks; off-site and on-site operator training; proper storage, inventory and shelf life monitoring for reagents and chemicals. This program has enhanced the credibility and accuracy of SRS drinking water system analyses results.

  9. Development of a Reservoir System Operation Model for Water Sustainability in the Yaqui River Basin (United States)

    Mounir, A.; Che, D.; Robles-Morua, A.; Kauneckis, D.


    The arid state of Sonora, Mexico underwent the Sonora SI project to provide additional water supply to the capital of Hermosillo. The main component of the project involves an interbasin transfer from the Yaqui River Basin (YRB) to the Sonora River Basin via the Independencia aqueduct. This project has generated conflicts over water among different social sectors in the YRB. To improve the management of the Yaqui reservoir system, we developed a daily watershed model. This model allowed us to predict the amount of water available in different regions of the basin. We integrated this simulation to an optimization model which calculates the best water allocation according to water rights established in Mexico's National Water Law. We compared different precipitation forcing scenarios: (1) a network of ground observations from Mexican water agencies during the historical period of 1980-2013, (2) gridded fields from the North America Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) at 12 km resolution, and (3) we will be studying a future forecast scenario. The simulation results were compared to historical observations at the three reservoirs existing in the YRB to generate confidence in the simulation tools. Our results are presented in the form of flow duration, reliability and exceedance frequency curves that are commonly used in the water management agencies. Through this effort, we anticipate building confidence among regional stakeholders in utilizing hydrological models in the development of reservoir operation policies.

  10. Potential for water salvage by removal of non-native woody vegetation from dryland river systems (United States)

    Doody, T.M.; Nagler, P.L.; Glenn, E.P.; Moore, G.W.; Morino, K.; Hultine, K.R.; Benyon, R.G.


    Globally, expansion of non-native woody vegetation across floodplains has raised concern of increased evapotranspiration (ET) water loss with consequent reduced river flows and groundwater supplies. Water salvage programs, established to meet water supply demands by removing introduced species, show little documented evidence of program effectiveness. We use two case studies in the USA and Australia to illustrate factors that contribute to water salvage feasibility for a given ecological setting. In the USA, saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) has become widespread on western rivers, with water salvage programs attempted over a 50-year period. Some studies document riparian transpiration or ET reduction after saltcedar removal, but detectable increases in river base flow are not conclusively shown. Furthermore, measurements of riparian vegetation ET in natural settings show saltcedar ET overlaps the range measured for native riparian species, thereby constraining the possibility of water salvage by replacing saltcedar with native vegetation. In Australia, introduced willows (Salix spp.) have become widespread in riparian systems in the Murray-Darling Basin. Although large-scale removal projects have been undertaken, no attempts have been made to quantify increases in base flows. Recent studies of ET indicate that willows growing in permanently inundated stream beds have high transpiration rates, indicating water savings could be achieved from removal. In contrast, native Eucalyptus trees and willows growing on stream banks show similar ET rates with no net water salvage from replacing willows with native trees. We conclude that water salvage feasibility is highly dependent on the ecohydrological setting in which the non-native trees occur. We provide an overview of conditions favorable to water salvage. Copyright ?? 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Standard criteria for disposal of liquid radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants into surface waters (river systems)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisarev, V.V.; Tsybizov, I.S.


    Radioactive products discharge into natural water streams results in the necessity to regulate nuclear power plant discharges to ensure radiation safety (RS) for population using a river and surrounding river territory. To ensure RS it is necessary to set scientific-founded standards of permissible discharge level of liquid radioactive wastes (LRW) from nuclear power plant assuring observance of hygienic requirements for surface water puring. Volume of permissible LRW discharge into river systems must be set both with provision for concrete physical-geographycal conditions, specficity of utilizing the river and river valley and social-economical peculiarities of crtical population groups. The value of permissible LRW discharge into river systems is determined by three criterion groups: radiological, ecological and hydrological ones. By means of radiological group the internal and external irradiation doses for the whole body and its separate organs are set and RS of population is determined. Ecological criteria include a number of parameters (coefficients of accumulation, distribution and transition) determining quantitative ratios between radioactive element contents in water and separate links of biological chains: soil/water, fish/water, vegetables/water and others. Hydrological criteria determine the degree of waste dilution in rivers, control radioactive contamination of flood-lands areas and in common with ecological criteria determine radionuclide contents in soil and food products. A method of determining average annual values of LRW dilution in river waters is presented [ru

  12. Water Quality Projects Summary for the Mid-Columbia and Cumberland River Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Kevin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Witt, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hadjerioua, Boualem [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    Scheduling and operational control of hydropower systems is accompanied with a keen awareness of the management of water use, environmental effects, and policy, especially within the context of strict water rights policy and generation maximization. This is a multi-objective problem for many hydropower systems, including the Cumberland and Mid-Columbia river systems. Though each of these two systems have distinct operational philosophies, hydrologic characteristics, and system dynamics, they both share a responsibility to effectively manage hydropower and the environment, which requires state-of-the art improvements in the approaches and applications for water quality modeling. The Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory have developed tools for total dissolved gas (TDG) prediction on the Mid-Columbia River and a decision-support system used for hydropower generation and environmental optimization on the Cumberland River. In conjunction with IIHR - Hydroscience & Engineering, The University of Iowa and University of Colorado s Center for Advanced Decision Support for Water and Environmental Systems (CADSWES), ORNL has managed the development of a TDG predictive methodology at seven dams along the Mid-Columbia River and has enabled the ability to utilize this methodology for optimization of operations at these projects with the commercially available software package Riverware. ORNL has also managed the collaboration with Vanderbilt University and Lipscomb University to develop a state-of-the art method for reducing high-fidelity water quality modeling results into surrogate models which can be used effectively within the context of optimization efforts to maximize generation for a reservoir system based on environmental and policy constraints. The novel contribution of these efforts is the ability to predict water quality conditions with simplified methodologies at the same level of accuracy as more complex and resource intensive computing methods

  13. Water pollution control technology and strategy for river-lake systems: a case study in Gehu Lake and Taige Canal. (United States)

    Zhang, Yimin; Zhang, Yongchun; Gao, Yuexiang; Zhang, Houhu; Cao, Jianying; Cai, Jinbang; Kong, Xiangji


    The Taoge water system is located in the upstream of Taihu Lake basin and is characterized by its multi-connected rivers and lakes. In this paper, current analyses of hydrology, hydrodynamics and water pollution of Gehu Lake and Taige Canal are presented. Several technologies are proposed for pollution prevention and control, and water environmental protection in the Taihu Lake basin. These included water pollution control integration technology for the water systems of Gehu Lake, Taige Canal and Caoqiao River. Additionally, river-lake water quality and quantity regulation technology, ecological restoration technology for polluted and degraded water bodies, and water environmental integration management and optimization strategies were also examined. The main objectives of these strategies are to: (a) improve environmental quality of relative water bodies, prevent pollutants from entering Gehu Lake and Taige Canal, and ensure that the clean water after the pre-treatment through Gehu Lake is not polluted before entering the Taihu Lake through Taige Canal; (b) stably and efficiently intercept and decrease the pollution load entering the lake through enhancing the river outlet ecological system structure function and water self-purifying capacity, and (c) designate Gehu Lake as a regulation system for water quality and water quantity in the Taoge water system and thus guarantee the improvement of the water quality of the inflow into Taihu Lake.

  14. Induction of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of Guandu River waters in the Allium cepa system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Vieira Gomes


    Full Text Available The Guandu River is the main source of water supply for the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro and has been facing serious environmental problems due to increasing population and industrial pollution, as well as the presence of polluted tributaries. This study analyzed the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of the Guandu River’s waters, through the use of the Allium cepa test system. Collection points were chosen at the greatest confluences of pollutant sources. The sampling included two different seasons: the rainy season (January and February and the dry season (June and July. The analyses of 5000 cells per treatment showed that all the points studied had some degree of cytotoxicity and/or genotoxicity. Two sampling locations, which receive major influxes from the polluted waters of the Poços/Queimados and Cabuçu/Ipiranga Rivers, stood out for the strong presence of micronuclei, sticky chromosomes, mitotic spindle abnormalities, necrotic cells and nucleolar changes compared to the negative control. At least two locations also found changes in the mitotic index. The existence of variations in the number of cytotoxic and genotoxic changes between periods of rain and drought indicates that the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of the water pollutants varies according to time, depending on the discharges of the tributary rivers and the increase of contaminated effluents. The results highlight the importance of bio-monitoring to assist managers in the control of effluent discharge.

  15. Water-table altitude of the unconfined aquifer, Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho, October 2012. (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Water levels in 93 wells completed in the Wood River Valley aquifer system were measured during October 22–24, 2012; these wells are part of a network established...

  16. Restoring water quality in the polluted Turag-Tongi-Balu river system, Dhaka: Modelling nutrient and total coliform intervention strategies. (United States)

    Whitehead, Paul; Bussi, Gianbattista; Hossain, Mohammed Abed; Dolk, Michaela; Das, Partho; Comber, Sean; Peters, Rebecca; Charles, Katrina J; Hope, Rob; Hossain, Md Sarwar


    River water quality in rapidly urbanising Asian cities threatens to damage the resource base on which human health, economic growth and poverty reduction all depend. Dhaka reflects the challenges and opportunities for balancing these dynamic and complex trade-offs which goals can be achieved through effective policy interventions. There is a serious problem of water pollution in central Dhaka, in the Turag-Tongi-Balu River system in Bangladesh with the river system being one of the most polluted in the world at the moment. A baseline survey of water chemistry and total coliforms has been undertaken and shows dissolved oxygen close to zero in the dry season, high organic loading together with extreme levels of Ammonium-N and total coliform in the water. Models have been applied to assess hydrochemical processes in the river and evaluate alternative strategies for policy and the management of the pollution issues. In particular models of flow, Nitrate-N, Ammonium-N and indicator bacteria (total coliforms) are applied to simulate water quality in the river system. Various scenarios are explored to clean up the river system, including flow augmentation and improved effluent treatment. The model results indicate that improved effluent treatment is likely to have a more significant impact on reducing Ammonium-N and total coliforms than flow augmentation, but a combined strategy would greatly reduce the pollution problems in the Turag-Tongi-Balu River System. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. The rSPA Processes of River Water-quality Analysis System for Critical Contaminate Detection, Classification Multiple-water-quality-parameter Values and Real-time Notification


    Chalisa VEESOMMAI; Yasushi KIYOKI


    The water quality analysis is one of the most important aspects of designing environmental systems. It is necessary to realize detection and classification processes and systems for water quality analysis. The important direction is to lead to uncomplicated understanding for public utilization. This paper presents the river Sensing Processing Actuation processes (rSPA) for determination and classification of multiple-water- parameters in Chaophraya river. According to rSPA processes of multip...

  18. Water and chemical budgets in an urbanized river system under various hydrological conditions (United States)

    Brion, Natacha; Carbonnel, Vincent; Elskens, Marc; Claeys, Philippe; Verbanck, Michel A.


    Since historical times, riversides are preferential settlement places for human life and activities, ultimately leading to the development of Cities. Available water resources are not only essential to ensure human's vital functions, they are also used for the production of food, goods, and energy, as transport routes and as evacuation ways for domestic and industrial waste products. All these activities profoundly modify natural water circulation as well as water quality, with increased hydrological risks (floods, droughts,…) and chemical hazards (untreated sewage releases, industrial pollution,…) as consequence. An extreme example of strongly modified river system is the river Zenne crossing the city of Brussels. In and around the city, the river together with its connected navigation canal, determine a small vertical urbanized area (800 km2) combining extreme land-use landscapes. While the southern upstream part of this area lies in a region of intensive agricultural activities, the central part is occupied by a dense cityscape including a forested area, and the downstream part is mainly under industrial influence. In this context, we established a box-model representation of water and selected polluting chemicals (N and P, biological oxygen demand, and a selection of metals, pesticides and PAHs) budgets for the studied area under variable hydrological conditions. We first have identified the general distribution of water and pollutant tracers in the various background sources of the system: waters in streams located in the very upstream parts of the catchment, and untreated and treated sewage. Secondly we have assessed the distribution of water flows, and pollutant tracer concentrations at the boundaries of the studied water systems for different stable hydrological conditions and during flood events. Finally we will discuss water budgets and pollution tracer budgets for a yearly average hydrological situation and for dry and wet weather conditions in order

  19. System methodology application to make water resources management plan for unstudied rivers (United States)

    Dvinskikh, S. A.; Larchenko, O. V.


    Current public monitoring network is not able to involve in and to control water chemical composition of a rivers basin, and there is no coasts monitoring of water objects. As a result, the complete comprehension of rivers use and pollution is impossible. Due to this fact, a new conception of water resources management has been worked out. The conception is based on new approaches to define parameters that characterise usage potentialities and range.

  20. Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) Water Temperature Models Developed for the Missouri River Recovery Management Plan and Environmental Impact Statement (United States)


    ER D C/ EL T R- 17 -1 8 Missouri River Recovery Program (MRRP) Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) Water...Zhonglong Zhang and Billy E. Johnson September 2017 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The U.S. Army Engineer Research...and Development Center (ERDC) solves the nation’s toughest engineering and environmental challenges. ERDC develops innovative solutions in civil and

  1. Integrated and Sustainable Water Management of Red-Thai Binh Rivers System Under Change (United States)

    Giuliani, M.; Anghileri, D.; Castelletti, A.; Mason, E.; Micotti, M.; Soncini-Sessa, R.; Weber, E.


    Vietnam is currently undergoing a rapid economic and demographic development, characterized by internal migrations from the rural areas to the main cities with increasing water demands to guarantee adequate energy and food productions. Hydropower is the primary renewable energy resource in the country, accounting for 33% of the total electric power production, while agriculture contributes for 18% of the national GDP and employs 70% of the population. To cope with this heterogeneous and fast-evolving context, water resources development and management have to be reconsidered by enlarging their scope across sectors and by adopting effective tools to analyze the potential of current and projected infrastructure along with their operating strategies. This work contributes a novel decision-analytic framework based on Multi-Objective Evolutionary Direct Policy Search (MOE-DPS) to support the design of integrated and sustainable water resources management strategies in the Red-Thai Binh River system. The Red River Basin is the second largest basin of Vietnam, with a total area of about 169,000 km2, and comprises three main tributaries and several reservoirs, namely SonLa and HoaBinh on the Da River, ThacBa and TuyenQuang on the Lo River. These reservoirs are regulated for maximizing hydropower production, mitigating flood primarily in Hanoi, and guaranteeing irrigation water supply to the agricultural districts in the delta. The dimensionality of the system and the number of objectives involved increase the complexity of the problem. We address these challenges by combining the MOE-DPS framework with Gaussian radial basis functions policy approximation and the Borg MOEA, which have been demonstrated to guarantee good solutions quality in such many objective policy design problems. Results show that the proposed framework successfully identified alternative management strategies for the system, which explore different tradeoffs among the multi-sector services involved

  2. Zoning of Water Quality of Hamadan Darreh-Morad Beyg River Based on NSFWQI Index Using Geographic Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Rahmani


    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Rivers are one of the main water supply resources for various uses such as agricultural, industrial and drinking purposes. As population and consumption increase, monitoring of rivers water quality becomes an important function of environmental management field. Because Darreh-Morad Beyg river of Hamadan is a water supply for different purposes and many pollutants are discharged in it, its water quality assessment seems necessary. Zoning of pollution and depicting a detailed image of surface water resources quality using geographic information system (GIS are the key factors for the better management of these resources.Materials & Methods: This research is a cross sectional- descriptive study and river water samples were taken for 7 months from 6 sampling stations on the length of the river. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen (D.O., pH, fecal coli form, nitrate, temperature, phosphate and total solids were determined in the samples. Obtained data were analyzed by national sanitation foundation water quality index (NSFWQI and the river was zoned using GIS software.Results: Results of the analyses by NSFWQI showed the best water quality for station 1 and the worst water quality for station 6 with scores of 62.78 and 27.49, respectively.Conclusion: The NSFWQI is a suitable index for zoning of Darreh-Morad Beyg river. Monitoring of physical, chemical, bacteriological quality parameters and using water quality index in various sampling stations are used in the assessment of water pollution. It also helps the officials to correctly decide about the water uses for different purposes.

  3. Water use practices, water quality, and households' diarrheal encounters in communities along the Boro-Thamalakane-Boteti river system, Northern Botswana. (United States)

    Tubatsi, G; Bonyongo, M C; Gondwe, M


    Some rural African communities residing along rivers use the untreated river water for domestic purposes, making them vulnerable to waterborne diseases such as diarrhea. We determined water use practices and water quality, relating them to prevalence of diarrhea in communities along the Boro-Thamalakane-Boteti river system, northern Botswana. A total of 452 households were interviewed and 196 water samples collected show during February, May, September, and December 2012 in settlements of Boro, Maun, Xobe, Samedupi, Chanoga, and Motopi. Information was sought on water use practices (collection, storage, and handling) and diarrheal experience using questionnaires. Water quality was assessed for physicochemical and microbiological parameters using portable field meters and laboratory analysis, respectively. All (100%) of the river water samples collected were fecally contaminated and unsuitable for domestic use without prior treatment. Samples had Escherichia coli (E.coli) and fecal streptococci levels reaching up to 186 and 140 CFU/100 ml, respectively. Study revealed high dependence on the fecally contaminated river water with low uptake of water treatment techniques. Up to 48% of households indicated that they experience diarrhea, with most cases occurring during the early flooding season (May). Nonetheless, there was no significant relationship between river water quality and households' diarrheal experience across studied settlements (p > 0.05). Failure to treat river water before use was a significant predictor of diarrhea (p = 0.028). Even though the river water was unsafe for domestic use, results imply further recontamination of water at household level highlighting the need for simple and affordable household water treatment techniques.

  4. Grey fuzzy optimization model for water quality management of a river system (United States)

    Karmakar, Subhankar; Mujumdar, P. P.


    A grey fuzzy optimization model is developed for water quality management of river system to address uncertainty involved in fixing the membership functions for different goals of Pollution Control Agency (PCA) and dischargers. The present model, Grey Fuzzy Waste Load Allocation Model (GFWLAM), has the capability to incorporate the conflicting goals of PCA and dischargers in a deterministic framework. The imprecision associated with specifying the water quality criteria and fractional removal levels are modeled in a fuzzy mathematical framework. To address the imprecision in fixing the lower and upper bounds of membership functions, the membership functions themselves are treated as fuzzy in the model and the membership parameters are expressed as interval grey numbers, a closed and bounded interval with known lower and upper bounds but unknown distribution information. The model provides flexibility for PCA and dischargers to specify their aspirations independently, as the membership parameters for different membership functions, specified for different imprecise goals are interval grey numbers in place of a deterministic real number. In the final solution optimal fractional removal levels of the pollutants are obtained in the form of interval grey numbers. This enhances the flexibility and applicability in decision-making, as the decision-maker gets a range of optimal solutions for fixing the final decision scheme considering technical and economic feasibility of the pollutant treatment levels. Application of the GFWLAM is illustrated with case study of the Tunga-Bhadra river system in India.

  5. Operation of river systems. The Otra river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harby, A.; Vaskinn, K.A.; Wathne, M.; Heggenes, J.; Saltveit, S.J.


    The purpose of the project described in this report was to prepare an operative tool for making decisions about the operation of the power system on the river Otra (Norway) with regard to how this operation might affect the various users of the river system. Above all this affects fish, outdoor life and esthetic values. The connection between water quality and volume of discharge has been examined in a sub project. How suitable parts of the river are as habitats for trout has been simulated on a computer. From field investigation it is concluded that near the Steinfoss power station the physical conditions for trout depend on the operation of the river system. Outdoor life is not much affected downstream Vikeland. 11 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Water security evaluation in Yellow River basin (United States)

    Jiang, Guiqin; He, Liyuan; Jing, Juan


    Water security is an important basis for making water security protection strategy, which concerns regional economic and social sustainable development. In this paper, watershed water security evaluation index system including 3 levels of 5 criterion layers (water resources security, water ecological security and water environment security, water disasters prevention and control security and social economic security) and 24 indicators were constructed. The entropy weight method was used to determine the weights of the indexes in the system. The water security index of 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015 in Yellow River basin were calculated by linear weighting method based on the relative data. Results show that the water security conditions continue to improve in Yellow River basin but still in a basic security state. There is still a long way to enhance the water security in Yellow River basin, especially the water prevention and control security, the water ecological security and water environment security need to be promoted vigorously.

  7. Low flow water quality in rivers; septic tank systems and high-resolution phosphorus signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macintosh, K.A.; Jordan, P.; Cassidy, R.; Arnscheidt, J.; Ward, C.


    Rural point sources of phosphorus (P), including septic tank systems, provide a small part of the overall phosphorus budget to surface waters in agricultural catchments but can have a disproportionate impact on the low flow P concentration of receiving rivers. This has particular importance as the discharges are approximately constant into receiving waters and these have restricted dilution capacity during ecologically sensitive summer periods. In this study, a number of identified high impact septic systems were replaced with modern sequential batch reactors in three rural catchments during a monitoring period of 4 years. Sub-hourly P monitoring was conducted using bankside-analysers. Results show that strategic replacement of defective septic tank systems with modern systems and polishing filters decreased the low flow P concentration of one catchment stream by 0.032 mg TP L −1 (0.018 mg TRP L −1 ) over the 4 years. However two of the catchment mitigation efforts were offset by continued new-builds that increased the density of septic systems from 3.4 km −2 to 4.6 km −2 and 13.8 km −2 to 17.2 km −2 and subsequently increased low flow P concentrations. Future considerations for septic system mitigation should include catchment carrying capacity as well as technology changes.

  8. Anthropogenic influence on surface water quality of the Nhue and Day sub-river systems in Vietnam. (United States)

    Hanh, Pham Thi Minh; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Ba, Dang The; Hung, Nguyen Quang


    In order to investigate the temporal and spatial variations of 14 physical and chemical surface water parameters in the Nhue and Day sub-river systems of Vietnam, surface water samples were taken from 43 sampling sites during the dry and rainy seasons in 2007. The results were statistically examined by Mann-Whitney U-test and hierarchical cluster analysis. The results show that water quality of the Day River was significantly improved during the rainy season while this was not the case of the Nhue River. However, the river water did not meet the Vietnamese surface water quality standards for dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD(5)), chemical oxygen demand (COD), nutrients, total coliform, and fecal coliform. This implies that the health of local communities using untreated river water for drinking purposes as well as irrigation of vegetables may be at risk. Forty-three sampling sites were grouped into four main clusters on the basis of water quality characteristics with particular reference to geographic location and land use and revealed the contamination levels from anthropogenic sources.

  9. Adaptation potential to climate change of the Peribonka River (Quebec, Canada) water resources system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minville, M.; Krau, S.; Brissette, F.; Leconte, R.


    This study investigated the influence of climatic change on the Peribonka water resources system. The impacts of climatic change on hydroelectric power reservoir operations in the region were assessed using a set of operating rules optimized for future hydrological regimes. Thirty climate change projections from 5 climate models, 2 greenhouse gas (GHG) scenarios, and 3 temporal horizons were used in the study. Climatic change projections were then downscaled using the Delta approach and coupled to a stochastic weather generator developed to account for natural variabilities in local climates. A lumped hydrological model was used to simulate future hydrological regimes. A stochastic dynamic programming technique was then used to optimize reservoir operating rules for various time series of future river flows. The operating rules were then used in conjunction with a river system simulation tool in order to determine reservoir and hydroelectric production scenarios under different climatic change regimes. Results of the study showed significant increases in hydroelectricity production for most of the climate change projections. However, nonproductive spillage was also increased. Reservoir reliability was also reduced. tabs., figs

  10. Improving the Performance of Highly Constrained Water Resource Systems using Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms and RiverWare (United States)

    Smith, R.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Zagona, E. A.


    Instead of building new infrastructure to increase their supply reliability, water resource managers are often tasked with better management of current systems. The managers often have existing simulation models that aid their planning, and lack methods for efficiently generating and evaluating planning alternatives. This presentation discusses how multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) decision support can be used with the sophisticated water infrastructure model, RiverWare, in highly constrained water planning environments. We first discuss a study that performed a many-objective tradeoff analysis of water supply in the Tarrant Regional Water District (TRWD) in Texas. RiverWare is combined with the Borg MOEA to solve a seven objective problem that includes systemwide performance objectives and individual reservoir storage reliability. Decisions within the formulation balance supply in multiple reservoirs and control pumping between the eastern and western parts of the system. The RiverWare simulation model is forced by two stochastic hydrology scenarios to inform how management changes in wet versus dry conditions. The second part of the presentation suggests how a broader set of RiverWare-MOEA studies can inform tradeoffs in other systems, especially in political situations where multiple actors are in conflict over finite water resources. By incorporating quantitative representations of diverse parties' objectives during the search for solutions, MOEAs may provide support for negotiations and lead to more widely beneficial water management outcomes.

  11. Harmonious Development between Socio-Economy and River-Lake Water Systems in Xiangyang City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiting Zuo


    Full Text Available River-lake water systems (RLS are important carriers for matter transformation and energy transmission. Influenced by accelerated social and economic development, the structural, functional, and environmental states of RLS have been seriously damaged. It is an important problem for human beings to coordinate the contradiction between socio-economic development and the protection of RLS. In order to quantitatively study the harmonious relationship between socio-economic development and the state of RLS, the harmony theory method was used to analyze the degree of harmonious development between socio-economy and RLS in this study taking Xiangyang City as an example, and formulating corresponding harmonious optimization schemes. The results indicate that: (1 the state of RLS had a relatively small change during 2009–2014, and its spatial distribution shows a decreasing trend with the Han River as the central axis decreases on both of its sides; (2 before 2011, the driving force of socio-economic development in Xiang yang City mainly originated in the peripheral regions such as Laohekou City, Zaoyang City, and Gucheng County, but after 2011, it migrated rapidly towards Downtown, and reached the maximum in 2014; (3 when the influence of regional socio-economic development on RLS is small, socio-economic development is the main factor driving the change of the overall harmonious development degree of socio-economy and RLS. However when the influence is big, it is combined, driven by socio-economic development and the state of RLS; (4 the main factors affecting the overall harmonious degree of socio-economy and RLS in Xiangyang City include: river length, standard ratio of water quality, water consumption per capita, reservoir regulation capability, farmland irrigation water consumption per Mu (Mu is an area unit in China, 1 Mu approximately equals to 666.67 m2, and sewage treatment rate. This study can provide a reference for the future analysis of

  12. Two Case Studies to Quantify Resilience across Food-Energy-Water Systems: the Columbia River Treaty and Adaptation in Yakima River Basin Irrigation Systems (United States)

    Malek, K.; Adam, J. C.; Richey, A.; Rushi, B. R.; Stockle, C.; Yoder, J.; Barik, M.; Lee, S. Y.; Rajagopalan, K.; Brady, M.; Barber, M. E.; Boll, J.; Padowski, J.


    The U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW) plays a significant role in meeting agricultural and hydroelectric demands nationwide. Climatic and anthropogenic stressors, however, potentially threaten the productivity, resilience, and environmental health of the region. Our objective is to understand how resilience of each Food-Energy-Water (FEW) sector, and the combined Nexus, respond to exogenous perturbations and the extent to which technological and institutional advances can buffer these perturbations. In the process of taking information from complex integrated models and assessing resilience across FEW sectors, we start with two case studies: 1) Columbia River Treaty (CRT) with Canada that determines how multiple reservoirs in the Columbia River basin (CRB) are operated, and 2) climate change adaptation actions in the Yakima River basin (YRB). We discuss these case studies in terms of the similarities and contrasts related to FEW sectors and management complexities. Both the CRB and YBP systems are highly sensitive to climate change (they are both snowmelt-dominant) and already experience water conflict. The CRT is currently undergoing renegotiation; a new CRT will need to consider a much more comprehensive approach, e.g., treating environmental flows explicitly. The YRB also already experiences significant water conflict and thus the comprehensive Yakima Basin Integrated Plan (YBIP) is being pursued. We apply a new modeling framework that mechanistically captures the interactions between the FEW sectors to quantify the impacts of CRT and YBIP planning (as well as adaptation decisions taken by individuals, e.g., irrigators) on resilience in each sector. Proposed modification to the CRT may relieve impacts to multiple sectors. However, in the YRB, irrigators' actions to adapt to climate change (through investing in more efficient irrigation technology) could reduce downstream water availability for other users. Developing a process to quantify resilience to perturbations

  13. Processes at Water Intake from Mountain Rivers into Hydropower and Irrigation Systems


    Vatin Nikolai; Lavrov Nikolai; Loginov Gennadi


    In paper, researches of riverbed and hydraulic processes at the water intake from mountain rivers are observed. Classification of designs of the mountain water intake structures, based on continuity signs is offered. Perfecting of base designs of water intake structures of a mountain-foothill zone and means of their hydraulic automation is carried out. The technological, theoretical and experimental substantiation of parameters of basic elements of these designs with a glance of hydromorphome...

  14. Endangered Species and Irrigated Agriculture, Water Resource Competition in Western River Systems


    United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service


    This report characterizes several aspects of water allocation tradeoffs between fish species listed under the Federal Endangered Species Act and agriculture in the American West. The geographic intersection between endangered/threatened (E/T) fish and agricultural production reliant on surface water for irrigation is identified. Three findings are: (1) 235 counties, representing 22 percent of the West's counties, contain irrigated production that relies on water from rivers with E/T fish, ...

  15. Comparison of index systems for rating water quality in intermittent rivers. (United States)

    Perrin, Jean-Louis; Salles, Christian; Bancon-Montigny, Chrystelle; Raïs, Naoual; Chahinian, Nanée; Dowse, Lauryan; Rodier, Claire; Tournoud, Marie-George


    Water quality indexes (WQI) are a practical way to evaluate and compare the level of chemical contamination of different water bodies and to spatially and temporally compare levels of pollution. The purpose of this study was to check if these indexes are appropriate for intermittent rivers under arid and semi-arid climates. A literature review enabled the comparison of 25 water quality indexes to discern their capability to evaluate spatial (inter and intra catchment) and temporal (high and low water flow conditions) variations in water quality in three Mediterranean intermittent rivers: the River Vène (France) and the Oued Fez and the River Sebou (Morocco). Hierarchical cluster analysis identified groups of WQI with similar behavior and brought to light the 6 most distinguishing indexes. Whatever the hydrological conditions at the two sites, both the ME-MCATUHE and NCS indexes, which were developed for Morocco and Greece, and the CCMEWQI and BCWQI indexes, which were developed for non-arid or semi-arid zones, gave appropriate water quality evaluations.

  16. The study of the interactions between groundwater and Sava River water in the Ljubljansko polje aquifer system (Slovenia) (United States)

    Vrzel, Janja; Solomon, D. Kip; Blažeka, Željko; Ogrinc, Nives


    River basin aquifers are common sites for drinking water wells as bank filtration can be a cost effective pretreatment technology. A groundwater vulnerability to pollution depends on a groundwater mean residence time and on a relative contribution of river water versus local precipitation to groundwater. Environmental isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen (δ18O and δ2H), tritium (3H) and concentrations of nitrate (NO3-) were used to investigate hydrological pathways, mean residence time and interactions between surface water and groundwater in the Ljubljansko polje aquifer system in Slovenia. δ18O and δ2H values indicate a spatial variability of the influence of individual groundwater sources inside the aquifer - local precipitation and the Sava River water. Fractions of river water in groundwater depend on the depth of perforated screens in the pumping wells and their distance from the Sava River. It was estimated that groundwater at wells Kleče 11, Hrastje 3, and Hrastje 8 is mostly composed of recently infiltrated local precipitation, while the Sava River is the dominant source of groundwater at the well Jarški prod 1. Groundwater at wells Kleče 8, Kleče 12, and Jarški prod 3 contains on average between 41% and 48% of the Sava River water. The 3H and 3H/3He methods indicate short mean residence time of groundwater present at Jarški prod (2-7 years) and Hrastje (7-8 years). A small fraction (pollution.

  17. The radionuclide migration model in river system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukova, O.M.; Shiryaeva, N.M.; Myshkina, M.K.; Shagalova, Eh.D.; Denisova, V.V.; Skurat, V.V.


    It was propose the model of radionuclide migration in river system based on principle of the compartmental model at hydraulically stationary and chemically equilibrium conditions of interaction of radionuclides in system water-dredge, water-sediments. Different conditions of radioactive contamination entry in river system were considered. The model was verified on the data of radiation monitoring of Iput' river

  18. Simulating climate change and socio-economic change impacts on flows and water quality in the Mahanadi River system, India. (United States)

    Jin, Li; Whitehead, Paul G; Rodda, Harvey; Macadam, Ian; Sarkar, Sananda


    Delta systems formed by the deposition of sediments at the mouths of large catchments are vulnerable to sea level rise and other climate change impacts. Deltas often have some of the highest population densities in the world and the Mahanadi Delta in India is one of these, with a population of 39 million. The Mahanadi River is a major river in East Central India and flows through Chattisgarh and Orissa states before discharging into the Bay of Bengal. This study uses an Integrated Catchment Model (INCA) to simulate flow dynamics and water quality (nitrogen and phosphorus) and to analyze the impacts of climate change and socio-economic drivers in the Mahanadi River system. Future flows affected by large population growth, effluent discharge increases and changes in irrigation water demand from changing land uses are assessed under shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs). Model results indicate a significant increase in monsoon flows under the future climates at 2050s (2041-2060) and 2090s (2079-2098) which greatly enhances flood potential. The water availability under low flow conditions will be worsened because of increased water demand from population growth and increased irrigation in the future. Decreased concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus are expected due to increased flow hence dilution. Socio-economic scenarios have a significant impact on water quality but less impact on the river flow. For example, higher population growth, increased sewage treatment discharges, land use change and enhanced atmospheric deposition would result in the deterioration of water quality, while the upgrade of the sewage treatment works lead to improved water quality. In summary, socio-economic scenarios would change future water quality of the Mahanadi River and alter nutrient fluxes transported into the delta region. This study has serious implications for people's livelihoods in the deltaic area and could impact coastal and Bay of Bengal water ecology. Copyright © 2018

  19. Processes at Water Intake from Mountain Rivers into Hydropower and Irrigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatin Nikolai


    Full Text Available In paper, researches of riverbed and hydraulic processes at the water intake from mountain rivers are observed. Classification of designs of the mountain water intake structures, based on continuity signs is offered. Perfecting of base designs of water intake structures of a mountain-foothill zone and means of their hydraulic automation is carried out. The technological, theoretical and experimental substantiation of parameters of basic elements of these designs with a glance of hydromorphometric characteristics of the mountain rivers is given. Complex hydraulic researches of kinematic characteristics and carrying ability of a two-phase stream on water intake structures are executed. Bases of a technique of engineering calculation of the offered designs of water intake structures and the recommendation of their designing and maintenance in various hydrological regimes are developed.

  20. System of prediction and warning of floods in the water basin of Struma/ Strymonas River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimides, Theologos; Rizos, Spyros; Soulis, Kostas; Dimitrov, Dobri


    Struma is collecting waters from four countries: Bulgaria, Serbia, FYROM and Greece. Most of its basin area is located in Bulgaria and Greece, while the upper part of its basin is in Bulgaria. There are important hydro technical structures just below the Bulgarian-Greek border, and the floods generated in the Bulgarian part of the basin could significantly affect the security of those structures and their operational rules. That is why several years ago a project related to flood warning at Struma/ Strymonas river basin was formulated and its first phase was completed in 2000. The main objective of the project was to demonstrate the principal possibility for issuing reliable warnings for hazardous flood events with sufficient lead-time to organize flood mitigation measures. The project implementation team included various scientists from the Agricultural University of Athens-Greece (leader), from the Center of Remote Sensing, Bristol University-UK, and from the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology of Sofia - Bulgaria. The work program of the first project phase included a range of activities implemented by the Bulgarian and Greek team members, coordinated by the Agricultural University of Athens. Among the activities of the Project are included: a) a preliminary model for peak flood hydrographs and specifications of an early warning system, b) a real time flood forecasting by routing flood hydrographs through the system of the river and Kerkini lake, c) thematic maps of vegetation and land cover derived by satellite remote sensing, d) satellite snow monitoring in the basin, e) an adaptation of the Alladin Weather Forecast Model at the hydrological basin and scaling of the Crocus Snow Model at a preliminary stage, and f) development of a geo environmental recording system.(Author)

  1. Massive land system changes impact water quality of the Jhelum River in Kashmir Himalaya. (United States)

    Rather, Mohmmad Irshad; Rashid, Irfan; Shahi, Nuzhat; Murtaza, Khalid Omar; Hassan, Khalida; Yousuf, Abdul Rehman; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad; Shah, Irfan Yousuf


    The pristine aquatic ecosystems in the Himalayas are facing an ever increasing threat from various anthropogenic pressures which necessitate better understanding of the spatial and temporal variability of pollutants, their sources, and possible remedies. This study demonstrates the multi-disciplinary approach utilizing the multivariate statistical techniques, data from remote sensing, lab, and field-based observations for assessing the impact of massive land system changes on water quality of the river Jhelum. Land system changes over a period of 38 years have been quantified using multi-spectral satellite data to delineate the extent of different anthropogenically driven land use types that are the main non-point sources of pollution. Fifteen water quality parameters, at 12 sampling sites distributed uniformly along the length of the Jhelum, have been assessed to identify the possible sources of pollution. Our analysis indicated that 18% of the forested area has degraded into sparse forest or scrublands from 1972 to 2010, and the areas under croplands have decreased by 24% as people shifted from irrigation-intensive agriculture to orchard farming while as settlements showed a 397% increase during the observation period. One-way ANOVA revealed that all the water quality parameters had significant spatio-temporal differences (p < 0.01). Cluster analysis (CA) helped us to classify all the sampling sites into three groups. Factor analysis revealed that 91.84% of the total variance was mainly explained by five factors. Drastic changes in water quality of the Jhelum since the past three decades are manifested by increases in nitrate-nitrogen, TDS, and electric conductivity. The especially high levels of nitrogen (858 ± 405 μgL(-1)) and phosphorus (273 ± 18 μgL(-1)) in the Jhelum could be attributed to the reckless application of fertilizers, pesticides, and unplanned urbanization in the area.

  2. Evaluation of partial water reuse systems used for Atlantic salmon smolt production at the White River National Fish Hatchery (United States)

    Eight of the existing 9.1 m (30 ft) diameter circular culture tanks at the White River National Fish Hatchery in Bethel, Vermont, were retrofitted and plumbed into two 8,000 L/min partial water reuse systems to help meet the region's need for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolt production. The part...

  3. Field Operations For The "Intelligent River" Observation System: A Basin-wide Water Quality Observation System In The Savannah River Basin And Platform Supporting Related Diverse Initiatives. (United States)

    Sutton, A.; Koons, M.; O'Brien-Gayes, P.; Moorer, R.; Hallstrom, J.; Post, C.; Gayes, P. T.


    The Intelligent River (IR) initiative is an NSF sponsored study developing new data management technology for a range of basin-scale applications. The technology developed by Florida Atlantic and Clemson University established a network of real-time reporting water quality sondes; from the mountains to the estuary of the Savannah River basin. Coastal Carolina University led the field operations campaign. Ancillary studies, student projects and initiatives benefitted from the associated instrumentation, infrastructure and operational support of the IR program. This provided a vehicle for students to participate in fieldwork across the watershed and pursue individual interests. Student projects included: 1) a Multibeam sonar survey investigating channel morphology in the area of an IR sensor station and 2) field tests of developing techniques for acquiring and assimilating flood velocity data into model systems associated with a separate NSF Rapid award. The multibeam survey within the lower Savannah basin exhibited a range of complexity in bathymetry, bedforms and bottom habitat in the vicinity of one of the water quality stations. The complex morphology and bottom habitat reflect complex flow patterns, localized areas of depositional and erosive tendencies providing a valuable context for considering point-source water quality time series. Micro- Lagrangian drifters developed by ISENSE at Florida Atlantic University, a sled mounted ADCP, and particle tracking from imagery collected by a photogrammetric drone were tested and used to develop methodology for establishing velocity, direction and discharge levels to validate, initialize and assimilate data into advance models systems during future flood events. The prospect of expanding wide scale observing systems can serve as a platform to integrate small and large-scale cooperative studies across disciplines as well as basic and applied research interests. Such initiatives provide opportunities for embedded education

  4. River basins as social-ecological systems: linking levels of societal and ecosystem water metabolism in a semiarid watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Cabello


    Full Text Available River basin modeling under complexity requires analytical frameworks capable of dealing with the multiple scales and dimensions of environmental problems as well as uncertainty in the evolution of social systems. Conceptual and methodological developments can now be framed using the wide socio-eco-hydrological approach. We add hierarchy theory into the mix to discuss the conceptualization of river basins as complex, holarchic social-ecological systems. We operationalize the social-ecological systems water metabolism framework in a semiarid watershed in Spain, and add the governance dimension that shapes human-environment reciprocity. To this purpose, we integrate an eco-hydrological model with the societal metabolism accounting scheme for land use, human activity, and water use. We explore four types of interactions: between societal organization and water uses/demands, between ecosystem organization and their water requirements/supplies, between societal metabolism and aquatic ecosystem health, and between water demand and availability. Our results reveal a metabolic pattern of a high mountain rural system striving to face exodus and agricultural land abandonment with a multifunctional economy. Centuries of social-ecological evolution shaping waterscapes through traditional water management practices have influenced the eco-hydrological functioning of the basin, enabling adaptation to aridity. We found a marked spatial gradient on water supply, use pattern, and impact on water bodies from the head to the mouth of the basin. Management challenges posed by the European water regulatory framework as a new driver of social-ecological change are highlighted.

  5. Distribution, partitioning and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Daliao River water system in dry season, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Wei; He Mengchang; Yang Zhifeng; Lin Chunye; Quan Xiangchun; Men Bing


    Eighteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in 29 surface water, 29 suspended particulate matter (SPM), 28 sediment, and 10 pore water samples from Daliao River water system in dry season. The total PAH concentration ranged from 570.2 to 2318.6 ng L -1 in surface water, from 151.0 to 28483.8 ng L -1 in SPM, from 102.9 to 3419.2 ng g -1 in sediment and from 6.3 to 46.4 μg l -1 in pore water. The concentration of dissolved PAHs was higher than that of particulate PAHs at many sites, but the opposite results were generally observed at the sites of wastewater discharge. The soluble level of PAHs was much higher in the pore water than in the water column. Generally, the water column of the polluted branch streams contained higher content of PAHs than their mainstream. The environmental behaviors and fates of PAHs were examined according to some physicochemical parameters such as pH, organic carbon, SPM content, water content and grain size in sediments. Results showed that organic carbon was the primary factor controlling the distribution of the PAHs in the Daliao River water system. Partitioning of PAHs between sediment solid phase and pore water phase was studied, and the relationship between log K oc and log K ow of PAHs on some sediments and the predicted values was compared. PAHs other than naphthalene and acenaphthylene would be accumulated largely in the sediment of the Dalaio River water system. The sources of PAHs were evaluated employing ratios of specific PAHs compounds and different wastewater discharge sources, indicating that combustion was the main source of PAHs input.

  6. Evaluation of an operational water cycle prediction system for the Laurentian Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River (United States)

    Fortin, Vincent; Durnford, Dorothy; Smith, Gregory; Dyck, Sarah; Martinez, Yosvany; Mackay, Murray; Winter, Barbara


    Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) is implementing new numerical guidance products based on fully coupled numerical models to better inform the public as well as specialized users on the current and future state of various components of the water cycle, including stream flow and water levels. Outputs from this new system, named the Water Cycle Prediction System (WCPS), have been available for the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River watershed since June 2016. WCPS links together ECCC's weather forecasting model, GEM, the 2-D ice model C-ICE, the 3-D lake and ocean model NEMO, and a 2-D hydrological model, WATROUTE. Information concerning the water cycle is passed between the models at intervals varying from a few minutes to one hour. It currently produces two forecasts per day for the next three days of the complete water cycle in the Great Lakes region, the largest freshwater lake system in the world. Products include spatially-varying precipitation, evaporation, river discharge, water level anomalies, surface water temperatures, ice coverage, and surface currents. These new products are of interest to water resources and management authority, flood forecasters, hydroelectricity producers, navigation, environmental disaster managers, search and rescue teams, agriculture, and the general public. This presentation focuses on the evaluation of various elements forecasted by the system, and weighs the advantages and disadvantages of running the system fully coupled.

  7. Prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis Metacercariae in Fish from Water Systems of Seomjin-gang (River). (United States)

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Park, Mi-Yeoun; Kim, Cheon-Hyeon; Hwang, Min-Ah; No, Kyeong-Woo; Yoon, Ki-Bok; Lim, Hyun-Cheol


    The prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae ( Cs Mc) was examined in freshwater fish from the water systems of Seomjin-gang (River), the Republic of Korea. Total 1,604 fish from 7 local sites of Seomjin-gang were examined by artificial digestion methods. The metacercariae of C. sinensis were detected in 102 (39.8%) out of 256 fish (14 species) from the upper reaches of Seomjin-gang, i.e., Osucheon (22.3% in 6 fish species) in Imsil-gun, and Seomjin-gang (63.9% in 9 fish species) in Sunchang-gun, Jeollabuk-do. Their average density was 9.0 per infected fish. They were also found in 132 (48.0%) out of 275 fish (12 spp.) from the middle reaches of Seomjin-gang, i.e., Songdaecheon (58.9% in 4 fish species) in Namwon-si, Jeollabuk-do, and Seomjin-gang (45.2% in 10 fish species) in Gokseong-gun, Jeollanam-do. Their average density was 21.0 per infected fish. Cs Mc were detected in 77 (56.6%) out of 136 fish (11 species) from the lower reaches of Seomjin-gang, i.e., Seomjin-gang (73.3% in 11 fish species) in Gurye-gun, Jeollanam-do, and Namsancheon (8.6% in 1 fish species) in Hadong-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do. Their average density was 64.9 per infected fish. The metacercariae of Metorchis orientalis were also detected in 6 fish species from 4 sites of Seomjin-gang. Conclusively, it has been confirmed that Cs Mc are more or less prevalent in fish from some water systems of Seomjin-gang in Korea.

  8. A combined linear optimisation methodology for water resources allocation in Alfeios River Basin (Greece) under uncertain and vague system conditions (United States)

    Bekri, Eleni; Yannopoulos, Panayotis; Disse, Markus


    In the present study, a combined linear programming methodology, based on Li et al. (2010) and Bekri et al. (2012), is employed for optimizing water allocation under uncertain system conditions in the Alfeios River Basin, in Greece. The Alfeios River is a water resources system of great natural, ecological, social and economic importance for Western Greece, since it has the longest and highest flow rate watercourse in the Peloponnisos region. Moreover, the river basin was exposed in the last decades to a plethora of environmental stresses (e.g. hydrogeological alterations, intensively irrigated agriculture, surface and groundwater overexploitation and infrastructure developments), resulting in the degradation of its quantitative and qualitative characteristics. As in most Mediterranean countries, water resource management in Alfeios River Basin has been focused up to now on an essentially supply-driven approach. It is still characterized by a lack of effective operational strategies. Authority responsibility relationships are fragmented, and law enforcement and policy implementation are weak. The present regulated water allocation puzzle entails a mixture of hydropower generation, irrigation, drinking water supply and recreational activities. Under these conditions its water resources management is characterised by high uncertainty and by vague and imprecise data. The considered methodology has been developed in order to deal with uncertainties expressed as either probability distributions, or/and fuzzy boundary intervals, derived by associated α-cut levels. In this framework a set of deterministic submodels is studied through linear programming. The ad hoc water resources management and alternative management patterns in an Alfeios subbasin are analyzed and evaluated under various scenarios, using the above mentioned methodology, aiming to promote a sustainable and equitable water management. Li, Y.P., Huang, G.H. and S.L., Nie, (2010), Planning water resources

  9. Water resource protection in Australia: Links between land use and river health with a focus on stubble farming systems (United States)

    Bowmer, Kathleen H.


    SummaryStubble farming (conservation farming, minimum tillage, zero tillage) has increased in Australia over several decades with claims of improved productivity, landscape stability and environmental benefit including ecosystem services downstream, yet recent audits show a dramatic and general decline in river health. This review explores explanations for this apparent anomaly. Many confounding factors complicate interactions between land use and river condition and may disguise or over-ride the potential benefits of adoption of stubble systems or other improvements in agricultural land use practice. These factors include climate change and variability; land use changes including an increase in bushfires, growth of farm dams and afforestation; lag times between land use change and expression of benefits in river systems; use of inappropriate scale that disguises local benefit; variations in the extent of ecosystem resilience; impacts of river regulation; and impacts of introduced species. Additionally, the value of river condition and utility is complicated by different local or regional perceptions and by contrasting rural and urban outlooks. The use of indicators, risk frameworks and biophysical modelling may help elucidate the complex relationships between land use and downstream ecosystem impact. The strengthening of local, regional and catchment scale approaches is advocated. This includes the re-integration of land management and governance with water management and planning. It is encouraging that farmers are themselves developing systems to optimise trade-offs between on-farm activities and ecosystem service benefits. This approach needs to be supported and extended.

  10. Drought assessment in the Dongliao River basin: traditional approaches vs. generalized drought assessment index based on water resources systems (United States)

    Weng, B. S.; Yan, D. H.; Wang, H.; Liu, J. H.; Yang, Z. Y.; Qin, T. L.; Yin, J.


    Drought is firstly a resource issue, and with its development it evolves into a disaster issue. Drought events usually occur in a determinate but a random manner. Drought has become one of the major factors to affect sustainable socioeconomic development. In this paper, we propose the generalized drought assessment index (GDAI) based on water resources systems for assessing drought events. The GDAI considers water supply and water demand using a distributed hydrological model. We demonstrate the use of the proposed index in the Dongliao River basin in northeastern China. The results simulated by the GDAI are compared to observed drought disaster records in the Dongliao River basin. In addition, the temporal distribution of drought events and the spatial distribution of drought frequency from the GDAI are compared with the traditional approaches in general (i.e., standard precipitation index, Palmer drought severity index and rate of water deficit index). Then, generalized drought times, generalized drought duration, and generalized drought severity were calculated by theory of runs. Application of said runs at various drought levels (i.e., mild drought, moderate drought, severe drought, and extreme drought) during the period 1960-2010 shows that the centers of gravity of them all distribute in the middle reaches of Dongliao River basin, and change with time. The proposed methodology may help water managers in water-stressed regions to quantify the impact of drought, and consequently, to make decisions for coping with drought.

  11. The current content of artificial radionuclides in the water of the Tobol-Irtysh river system (from the mouth of the Iset River to the confluence with the Ob River)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, Alexander I. [SI RPA ' Typhoon' of the Roshydromet, 82, Lenin avenue, Obninsk, Kaluga region 249038 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail:; Chumichev, Vladimir B. [SI RPA ' Typhoon' of the Roshydromet, 82, Lenin avenue, Obninsk, Kaluga region 249038 (Russian Federation); Valetova, Nailia K. [SI RPA ' Typhoon' of the Roshydromet, 82, Lenin avenue, Obninsk, Kaluga region 249038 (Russian Federation); Katrich, Ivan Yu. [SI RPA ' Typhoon' of the Roshydromet, 82, Lenin avenue, Obninsk, Kaluga region 249038 (Russian Federation); Kabanov, Alexander I. [SI RPA ' Typhoon' of the Roshydromet, 82, Lenin avenue, Obninsk, Kaluga region 249038 (Russian Federation); Dunaev, Gennady E. [SI RPA ' Typhoon' of the Roshydromet, 82, Lenin avenue, Obninsk, Kaluga region 249038 (Russian Federation); Shkuro, Valentina N. [SI RPA ' Typhoon' of the Roshydromet, 82, Lenin avenue, Obninsk, Kaluga region 249038 (Russian Federation); Rodin, Victor M. [Tobolsk Biological Station of RAS, 15, Voikov street, Tobolsk, Tyumen region 626150 (Russian Federation); Mironenko, Alexander N. [Tobolsk Biological Station of RAS, 15, Voikov street, Tobolsk, Tyumen region 626150 (Russian Federation); Kireeva, Elena V. [Tobolsk Biological Station of RAS, 15, Voikov street, Tobolsk, Tyumen region 626150 (Russian Federation)


    Data on content of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 3}H in water of the Tobol-Irtysh part of the Techa-Iset-Tobol-Irtysh-Ob river system (through which the 'Mayak' PA radioactive wastes are transported) are presented and discussed. The data were received in 2004-2005 under the ISTC project on radioecological monitoring of the Tobol and Irtysh rivers. Monthly observations of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 3}H content in water in the area of the Tobol and Irtysh confluence have been conducted starting from May 2004. To obtain information on the investigated river system as a whole, the radioecological survey of the Tobol and Irtysh rivers at the section from the mouth of the Iset River to the confluence with the Ob River was carried out in 2004. It is shown that the impact of 'Mayak' PA waste transport by {sup 90}Sr is distinctly traced as far as the area of the Irtysh and Ob confluence.

  12. The current content of artificial radionuclides in the water of the Tobol-Irtysh river system (from the mouth of the Iset River to the confluence with the Ob River)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, Alexander I.; Chumichev, Vladimir B.; Valetova, Nailia K.; Katrich, Ivan Yu.; Kabanov, Alexander I.; Dunaev, Gennady E.; Shkuro, Valentina N.; Rodin, Victor M.; Mironenko, Alexander N.; Kireeva, Elena V.


    Data on content of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 239,240 Pu and 3 H in water of the Tobol-Irtysh part of the Techa-Iset-Tobol-Irtysh-Ob river system (through which the 'Mayak' PA radioactive wastes are transported) are presented and discussed. The data were received in 2004-2005 under the ISTC project on radioecological monitoring of the Tobol and Irtysh rivers. Monthly observations of 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 3 H content in water in the area of the Tobol and Irtysh confluence have been conducted starting from May 2004. To obtain information on the investigated river system as a whole, the radioecological survey of the Tobol and Irtysh rivers at the section from the mouth of the Iset River to the confluence with the Ob River was carried out in 2004. It is shown that the impact of 'Mayak' PA waste transport by 90 Sr is distinctly traced as far as the area of the Irtysh and Ob confluence

  13. Using tritium to document the mean transit time and sources of water contributing to a chain-of-ponds river system: Implications for resource protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartwright, I.; Morgenstern, U.


    Documenting the interaction between groundwater and rivers is fundamental to understanding hydrological systems. While many studies have examined the location and magnitude of groundwater inflows to rivers, much less is known about the transit times of water in catchments and from where in the aquifer the groundwater originates. Resolving those questions is vital for protecting riverine ecosystems, assessing the impact of contamination, and understanding the potential consequences of groundwater pumping. This study uses tritium ("3H) to evaluate the mean transit times of water contributing to Deep Creek (southeast Australia), which is a chain-of-ponds river system. "3H activities of river water vary between 1.47 and 2.91 TU with lower "3H activities recorded during cease-to-flow periods when the river comprises isolated groundwater-fed pools. Regional groundwater 1–2.5 km away from Deep Creek at depths of 7.5–46.5 m has "3H activities of between 100 years. Alternatively the variation in "3H activities can be explained by mixing of a young near-river water component with up to 50% older groundwater. The results of this study reinforce the need to protect shallow near-river groundwater from contamination in order to safeguard riverine ecosystems and also illustrate the potential pitfalls in using regional bores to characterise the geochemistry of near-river groundwater. - Highlights: • We measured tritium in river water and groundwater from a groundwater-fed river. • Transit times of the river water are years to decades. • Transit times of regional groundwater are decades to centuries. • Regional groundwater is only a minor component of the river water. • Results have implications for protection of the river and its ecosystems.

  14. Mobility and natural attenuation of metals and arsenic in acidic waters of the drainage system of Timok River from Bor copper mines (Serbia) to Danube River. (United States)

    Đorđievski, Stefan; Ishiyama, Daizo; Ogawa, Yasumasa; Stevanović, Zoran


    Bor, Krivelj, and Bela Rivers belong to the watershed of Timok River, which is a tributary of transboundary Danube River. These rivers receive metal-rich acidic wastewater from metallurgical facilities and acid mine drainage (AMD) from mine wastes around Bor copper mines. The aim of this study was to determine the mobility and natural attenuation of metals and arsenic in rivers from Bor copper mines to Danube River during the year 2015. The results showed that metallurgical facilities had the largest impact on Bor River by discharging about 400 t of Cu per year through highly acidic wastewater (pH = 2.6). The highest measured concentrations of Cu in river water and sediments were 40 mg L -1 and 1.6%, respectively. Dissolution of calcite from limestone bedrock and a high concentration of bicarbonate ions in natural river water (about 250 mg L -1 ) enhanced the neutralization of acidic river water and subsequent chemical precipitation of metals and arsenic. Decreases in the concentrations of Al, Fe, Cu, As, and Pb in river water were mainly due to precipitation on the river bed. On the other hand, dilution played an important role in the decreases in concentrations of Mn, Ni, Zn, and Cd. Chemically precipitated materials and flotation tailings containing Fe-rich minerals (fayalite, magnetite, and pyrite) were transported toward Danube River during the periods of high discharge. This study showed that processes of natural attenuation in catchments with limestone bedrock play an important role in reducing concentrations of metals and arsenic in AMD-bearing river water.

  15. Decision support system for optimally managing water resources to meet multiple objectives in the Savannah River Basin (United States)

    Roehl, Edwin A.; Conrads, Paul


    Managers of large river basins face conflicting demands for water resources such as wildlife habitat, water supply, wastewater assimilative capacity, flood control, hydroelectricity, and recreation. The Savannah River Basin, for example, has experienced three major droughts since 2000 that resulted in record low water levels in its reservoirs, impacting dependent economies for years. The Savannah River estuary contains two municipal water intakes and the ecologically sensitive freshwater tidal marshes of the Savannah National Wildlife Refuge. The Port of Savannah is the fourth busiest in the United States, and modifications to the harbor to expand ship traffic since the 1970s have caused saltwater to migrate upstream, reducing the freshwater marsh’s acreage more than 50 percent. A planned deepening of the harbor includes flow-alteration features to minimize further migration of salinity, whose effectiveness will only be known after all construction is completed.One of the challenges of large basin management is the optimization of water use through ongoing regional economic development, droughts, and climate change. This paper describes a model of the Savannah River Basin designed to continuously optimize regulated flow to meet prioritized objectives set by resource managers and stakeholders. The model was developed from historical data using machine learning, making it more accurate and adaptable to changing conditions than traditional models. The model is coupled to an optimization routine that computes the daily flow needed to most efficiently meet the water-resource management objectives. The model and optimization routine are packaged in a decision support system that makes it easy for managers and stakeholders to use. Simulation results show that flow can be regulated to substantially reduce salinity intrusions in the Savannah National Wildlife Refuge, while conserving more water in the reservoirs. A method for using the model to assess the effectiveness of

  16. A Community Multi-Omics Approach towards the Assessment of Surface Water Quality in an Urban River System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Beale


    Full Text Available A multi-omics approach was applied to an urban river system (the Brisbane River (BR, Queensland, Australia in order to investigate surface water quality and characterize the bacterial population with respect to water contaminants. To do this, bacterial metagenomic amplicon-sequencing using Illumina next-generation sequencing (NGS of the V5–V6 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene and untargeted community metabolomics using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS were utilized. The multi-omics data, in combination with fecal indicator bacteria (FIB counts, trace metal concentrations (by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS and in-situ water quality measurements collected from various locations along the BR were then used to assess the health of the river ecosystem. Sites sampled represented the transition from less affected (upstream to polluted (downstream environments along the BR. Chemometric analysis of the combined datasets indicated a clear separation between the sampled environments. Burkholderiales and Cyanobacteria were common key factors for differentiation of pristine waters. Increased sugar alcohol and short-chain fatty acid production was observed by Actinomycetales and Rhodospirillaceae that are known to form biofilms in urban polluted and brackish waters. Results from this study indicate that a multi-omics approach enables a deep understanding of the health of an aquatic ecosystem, providing insight into the bacterial diversity present and the metabolic output of the population when exposed to environmental contaminants.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jachniak


    Full Text Available In this thesis the subject of water self-purification in cascade systems of water reservoirs was engaged. The results of hydrobiological research of three dam reservoirs (Tresna, Porąbka and Czaniec, creating the Soła river dam cascade were presented. The trophic status of these reservoirs was defined on the grounds of the concentration of chlorophyll a, biomass of phytoplankton and occurrence of indicating species of planktonic algae. The results of research indicated on decreasing of water trophy in the layout from the highest into the lowest reservoir of the cascade. The average concentrations of chlorophyll a amounted appropriately 19,99 μg·dm-3, 8,74 μg·dm-3 and 4,29 μg·dm-3, instead the average biomass of phytoplankton amounted appropriately 4,1 mg·dm-3, 3,4 mg·dm-3 and 0,1 mg·dm-3. The observed species of algae confirmed occurrence of differences between reservoirs. In Tresna reservoir more species of phytoplankton indicating for eutrophy were thrived, instead in Porąbka and Czaniec reservoirs the species occurring in oligomesotrophic water thrived. Water self-purification in the Soła river dam cascade expressed decreasing of their fertility is important for water management of the region, because the Czaniec reservoir fulfill a function of water-supply reservoir.

  18. Spatially Resolving Ocean Color and Sediment Dispersion in River Plumes, Coastal Systems, and Continental Shelf Waters (United States)

    Aurin, Dirk Alexander; Mannino, Antonio; Franz, Bryan


    Satellite remote sensing of ocean color in dynamic coastal, inland, and nearshorewaters is impeded by high variability in optical constituents, demands specialized atmospheric correction, and is limited by instrument sensitivity. To accurately detect dispersion of bio-optical properties, remote sensors require ample signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to sense small variations in ocean color without saturating over bright pixels, an atmospheric correction that can accommodate significantwater-leaving radiance in the near infrared (NIR), and spatial and temporal resolution that coincides with the scales of variability in the environment. Several current and historic space-borne sensors have met these requirements with success in the open ocean, but are not optimized for highly red-reflective and heterogeneous waters such as those found near river outflows or in the presence of sediment resuspension. Here we apply analytical approaches for determining optimal spatial resolution, dominant spatial scales of variability ("patches"), and proportions of patch variability that can be resolved from four river plumes around the world between 2008 and 2011. An offshore region in the Sargasso Sea is analyzed for comparison. A method is presented for processing Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua and Terra imagery including cloud detection, stray lightmasking, faulty detector avoidance, and dynamic aerosol correction using short-wave- and near-infrared wavebands in extremely turbid regions which pose distinct optical and technical challenges. Results showthat a pixel size of approx. 520 mor smaller is generally required to resolve spatial heterogeneity in ocean color and total suspended materials in river plumes. Optimal pixel size increases with distance from shore to approx. 630 m in nearshore regions, approx 750 m on the continental shelf, and approx. 1350 m in the open ocean. Greater than 90% of the optical variability within plume regions is resolvable with

  19. In Brief: Improving Mississippi River water quality (United States)

    Showstack, Randy


    If water quality in the Mississippi River and the northern Gulf of Mexico is to improve, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) needs to take a stronger leadership role in implementing the federal Clean Water Act, according to a 16 October report from the U.S. National Research Council. The report notes that EPA has failed to use its authority to coordinate and oversee activities along the river. In addition, river states need to be more proactive and cooperative in efforts to monitor and improve water quality, and the river should be monitored and evaluated as a single system, the report indicates. Currently, the 10 states along the river conduct separate and widely varying water quality monitoring programs. ``The limited attention being given to monitoring and managing the Mississippi's water quality does not match the river's significant economic, ecological, and cultural importance,'' said committee chair David A. Dzombak, director of the Steinbrenner Institute for Environmental Education and Research at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pa. The report notes that while measures taken under the Clean Water Act have successfully reduced much point source pollution, nutrient and sediment loads from nonpoint sources continue to be significant problems. For more information, visit the Web site:

  20. Changes in the water-table altitude of the unconfined aquifer, Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho, October 2006 to October 2012. (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Water levels in 93 wells completed in the Wood River Valley aquifer system were measured during October 22–24, 2012; these wells are part of a network established...

  1. Wells measured for water-levels, unconfined and confined aquifers, Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho, October 2006 and October 2012. (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Water levels in 93 wells completed in the Wood River Valley aquifer system were measured during October 22–24, 2012; these wells are part of a network established...

  2. Analyse of pollution sources in Horna Nitra river basin using the system GeoEnviron such as instrument for groundwater and surface water pollution risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutnik, P.


    In this presentation author deals with the analyse of pollution sources in Horna Nitra river basin using the system GeoEnviron such as instrument for groundwater and surface water pollution risk assessment

  3. Lower Colorado River GRP Public Water System Intakes, Nevada, 2012, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Bureau of Safe Drinking Water (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Public Water System wells, springs an intake locations are collected and maintained by NDEP Bureau of Safe Drinking Water (BSDW). The data is kept in the Safe...

  4. Lower Colorado River GRP Public Water System Springs, Nevada, 2012, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Bureau of Safe Drinking Water (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Public Water System wells, springs an intake locations are collected and maintained by NDEP Bureau of Safe Drinking Water (BSDW). The data is kept in the Safe...

  5. Lower Colorado River GRP Public Water System Wells, Nevada, 2012, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Bureau of Safe Drinking Water (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Public Water System wells, springs an intake locations are collected and maintained by NDEP Bureau of Safe Drinking Water (BSDW). The data is kept in the Safe...

  6. Large break frequency for the SRS (Savannah River Site) production reactor process water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugherty, W.L.; Awadalla, N.G.; Sindelar, R.L.; Bush, S.H.


    The objective of this paper is to present the results and conclusions of an evaluation of the large break frequency for the process water system (primary coolant system), including the piping, reactor tank, heat exchangers, expansion joints and other process water system components. This evaluation was performed to support the ongoing PRA effort and to complement deterministic analyses addressing the credibility of a double-ended guillotine break. This evaluation encompasses three specific areas: the failure probability of large process water piping directly from imposed loads, the indirect failure probability of piping caused by the seismic-induced failure of surrounding structures, and the failure of all other process water components. The first two of these areas are discussed in detail in other papers. This paper primarily addresses the failure frequency of components other than piping, and includes the other two areas as contributions to the overall process water system break frequency

  7. A cost-effectiveness analysis of water security and water quality: impacts of climate and land-use change on the River Thames system. (United States)

    Whitehead, P G; Crossman, J; Balana, B B; Futter, M N; Comber, S; Jin, L; Skuras, D; Wade, A J; Bowes, M J; Read, D S


    The catchment of the River Thames, the principal river system in southern England, provides the main water supply for London but is highly vulnerable to changes in climate, land use and population. The river is eutrophic with significant algal blooms with phosphorus assumed to be the primary chemical indicator of ecosystem health. In the Thames Basin, phosphorus is available from point sources such as wastewater treatment plants and from diffuse sources such as agriculture. In order to predict vulnerability to future change, the integrated catchments model for phosphorus (INCA-P) has been applied to the river basin and used to assess the cost-effectiveness of a range of mitigation and adaptation strategies. It is shown that scenarios of future climate and land-use change will exacerbate the water quality problems, but a range of mitigation measures can improve the situation. A cost-effectiveness study has been undertaken to compare the economic benefits of each mitigation measure and to assess the phosphorus reductions achieved. The most effective strategy is to reduce fertilizer use by 20% together with the treatment of effluent to a high standard. Such measures will reduce the instream phosphorus concentrations to close to the EU Water Framework Directive target for the Thames.

  8. Ground-Water Budgets for the Wood River Valley Aquifer System, South-Central Idaho, 1995-2004 (United States)

    Bartolino, James R.


    The Wood River Valley contains most of the population of Blaine County and the cities of Sun Valley, Ketchum, Haley, and Bellevue. This mountain valley is underlain by the alluvial Wood River Valley aquifer system which consists of a single unconfined aquifer that underlies the entire valley, an underlying confined aquifer that is present only in the southernmost valley, and the confining unit that separates them. The entire population of the area depends on ground water for domestic supply, either from domestic or municipal-supply wells, and rapid population growth since the 1970s has caused concern about the long-term sustainability of the ground-water resource. To help address these concerns this report describes a ground-water budget developed for the Wood River Valley aquifer system for three selected time periods: average conditions for the 10-year period 1995-2004, and the single years of 1995 and 2001. The 10-year period 1995-2004 represents a range of conditions in the recent past for which measured data exist. Water years 1995 and 2001 represent the wettest and driest years, respectively, within the 10-year period based on precipitation at the Ketchum Ranger Station. Recharge or inflow to the Wood River Valley aquifer system occurs through seven main sources (from largest to smallest): infiltration from tributary canyons, streamflow loss from the Big Wood River, areal recharge from precipitation and applied irrigation water, seepage from canals and recharge pits, leakage from municipal pipes, percolation from septic systems, and subsurface inflow beneath the Big Wood River in the northern end of the valley. Total estimated mean annual inflow or recharge to the aquifer system for 1995-2004 is 270,000 acre-ft/yr (370 ft3/s). Total recharge for the wet year 1995 and the dry year 2001 is estimated to be 270,000 acre-ft/yr (370 ft3/s) and 220,000 acre-ft/yr (300 ft3/s), respectively. Discharge or outflow from the Wood River Valley aquifer system occurs through

  9. An Integrated Hydrological and Water Management Study of the Entire Nile River System - Lake Victoria to Nile Delta (United States)

    Habib, Shahid; Zaitchik, Benjamin; Alo, Clement; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Anderson, Martha; Policelli, Fritz


    The Nile basin River system spans 3 million km(exp 2) distributed over ten nations. The eight upstream riparian nations, Ethiopia, Eretria, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Congo, Tanzania and Kenya are the source of approximately 86% of the water inputs to the Nile, while the two downstream riparian countries Sudan and Egypt, presently rely on the river's flow for most of the their needs. Both climate and agriculture contribute to the complicated nature of Nile River management: precipitation in the headwaters regions of Ethiopia and Lake Victoria is variable on a seasonal and inter-annual basis, while demand for irrigation water in the arid downstream region is consistently high. The Nile is, perhaps, one of the most difficult trans-boundary water issue in the world, and this study would be the first initiative to combine NASA satellite observations with the hydrologic models study the overall water balance in a to comprehensive manner. The cornerstone application of NASA's Earth Science Research Results under this project are the NASA Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) and the USDA Atmosphere-land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model. These two complementary research results are methodologically independent methods for using NASA observations to support water resource analysis in data poor regions. Where an LDAS uses multiple sources of satellite data to inform prognostic simulations of hydrological process, ALEXI diagnoses evapotranspiration and water stress on the basis of thermal infrared satellite imagery. Specifically, this work integrates NASA Land Data Assimilation systems into the water management decision support systems that member countries of the Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) and Regional Center for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD, located in Nairobi, Kenya) use in water resource analysis, agricultural planning, and acute drought response to support sustainable development of Nile Basin water resources. The project is motivated by the recognition that

  10. Modeling of Regionalized Emissions (MoRE into Water Bodies: An Open-Source River Basin Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Fuchs


    Full Text Available An accurate budget of substance emissions is fundamental for protecting freshwater resources. In this context, the European Union asks all member states to report an emission inventory of substances for river basins. The river basin management system MoRE (Modeling of Regionalized Emissions was developed as a flexible open-source instrument which is able to model pathway-specific emissions and river loads on a catchment scale. As the reporting tool for the Federal Republic of Germany, MoRE is used to model annual emissions of nutrients, heavy metals, micropollutants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, Bis(2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP, and certain pharmaceuticals. Observed loads at gauging stations are used to validate the calculated emissions. In addition to its balancing capabilities, MoRE can consider different variants of input data and quantification approaches, in order to improve the robustness of different modeling approaches and to evaluate the quality of different input data. No programming skills are required to set up and run the model. Due to its flexible modeling base, the effect of reduction measures can be assessed. Within strategic planning processes, this is relevant for the allocation of investments or the implementation of specific measures to reduce the overall pollutant emissions into surface water bodies and therefore to meet the requirements of water policy.

  11. Mobility of major and trace elements in a coupled groundwater-surface water system: Merced River, CA (United States)

    Wildman, R. A.; Domagalski, J. L.; Hering, J. G.


    Trace element transport in coupled surface water/groundwater systems is controlled not only by advective flow, but also by redox reactions that affect the partitioning of various elements between mobile and immobile phases. These processes have been examined in the context of a field project conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. The Merced River flows out of Yosemite National Park and the Sierra Nevada foothills and into California's Central Valley, where it joins the San Joaquin River. Our field site is approximately twenty river kilometers from the confluence with the San Joaquin River. This deep alluvial plain has minimal topography. Agricultural development characterizes the land surrounding this reach of river; consequently, the hydrology is heavily influenced by irrigation. Riverbed groundwater samples were collected from ten wells aligned in two transects across the river located approximately 100 m apart. The wells were sampled from depths of 0.5 m, 1 m, and 3 m below the sediment-water interface. Groundwater flowpath samples were taken from wells positioned on a path perpendicular to the river and located 100 m, 500 m, and 1000 m from the river. The saturated groundwater system exists from 7 to 40 m below the surface and is confined below by a clay layer. Each well location samples from 3-5 depths in this surface aquifer. Samples were collected in December 2003, March-April, June-July, and October 2004. This served to provide an evenly-spaced sampling frequency over the course of a year, and also to allow observation of trends coinciding with the onset of winter, the spring runoff, and early and late summer irrigation. An initial survey of the elements in the riverbed samples was conducted using Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Elements for further study were selected based on variability in this survey, either with respect to depth or location, as well as to

  12. Water quality index for assessment of water quality of river ravi at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water quality of River Ravi, a tributary of Indus River System was evaluated by Water Quality Index (WQI) technique. A water quality index provides a single number that expresses overall water quality at a certain location and time based on several water quality parameters. The objective of an index is to turn complex water ...

  13. The impact of river water intrusion on trace metal cycling in karst aquifers: an example from the Floridan aquifer system at Madison Blue Spring, Florida (United States)

    Brown, A. L.; Martin, J. B.; Screaton, E.; Spellman, P.; Gulley, J.


    Springs located adjacent to rivers can serve as recharge points for aquifers when allogenic runoff increases river stage above the hydraulic head of the spring, forcing river water into the spring vent. Depending on relative compositions of the recharged water and groundwater, the recharged river water could be a source of dissolved trace metals to the aquifer, could mobilize solid phases such as metal oxide coatings, or both. Whether metals are mobilized or precipitated should depend on changes in redox and pH conditions as dissolved oxygen and organic carbon react following intrusion of the river water. To assess how river intrusion events affect metal cycling in springs, we monitored a small recharge event in April 2011 into Madison Blue Spring, which discharges to the Withlacoochee River in north-central Florida. Madison Blue Spring is the entrance to a phreatic cave system that includes over 7.8 km of surveyed conduits. During the event, river stage increased over base flow conditions for approximately 25 days by a maximum of 8%. Intrusion of the river water was monitored with conductivity, temperature and depth sensors that were installed within the cave system and adjacent wells. Decreased specific conductivity within the cave system occurred for approximately 20 days, reflecting the length of time that river water was present in the cave system. During this time, grab samples were collected seven times over a period of 34 days for measurements of major ion and trace metal concentrations at the spring vent and at Martz sink, a karst window connected to the conduit system approximately 150 meters from the spring vent. Relative fractions of surface water and groundwater were estimated based on Cl concentrations of the samples, assuming conservative two end-member mixing during the event. This mixing model indicates that maximum river water contribution to the groundwater system was approximately 20%. River water had concentrations of iron, manganese, and other

  14. Pharmaceuticals as emerging organic contaminants in Umgeni River water system, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. (United States)

    Agunbiade, Foluso O; Moodley, Brenda


    The occurrences of pharmaceuticals and personal care products as emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) have been reported in several countries of the world except from African countries. This study was therefore conducted to investigate the occurrence of nine antibiotics, five antipyretics, atenolol, bezafibrate, and caffeine in wastewater and surface water samples from the Umgeni River. The water samples were extracted with solid-phase extraction using hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) and C-18 cartridges for the acidic and neutral drugs, respectively. The quantification was carried out with high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) using the standard addition method. The method limits of detections were in the range of 0.14-0.97 μg/L while the recoveries were between 53.8 and 108.1 %. The wastewater had 100 % occurrence of the analytes studied, with caffeine having the highest concentration at 61 ± 5 μg/L and nalidixic acid being the most observed antibiotic at 31 ± 3 μg/L. The waste treatment process reduced the influent concentrations by 43.0-94.2 % before discharge except for atenolol removal that is lower. The concentrations of the analytes were lower in the surface water with most compounds having concentrations below 10 μg/L except acetaminophen and atenolol. The estuary mouth and Blue Lagoon had the highest concentrations of some of the compounds in surface water which depict downstream load. The factors governing the fate and mobility of these compounds in this environment are not fully understood yet and will require further studies.

  15. Optimizing Water Use and Hydropower Production in Operational Reservoir System Scheduling with RiverWare (United States)

    Magee, T. M.; Zagona, E. A.


    Practical operational optimization of multipurpose reservoir systems is challenging for several reasons. Each purpose has its own constraints which may conflict with those of other purposes. While hydropower generation typically provides the bulk of the revenue, it is also among the lowest priority purposes. Each river system has important details that are specific to the location such as hydrology, reservoir storage capacity, physical limitations, bottlenecks, and the continuing evolution of operational policy. In addition, reservoir operations models include discrete, nonlinear, and nonconvex physical processes and if-then operating policies. Typically, the forecast horizon for scheduling needs to be extended far into the future to avoid near term (e.g., a few hours or a day) scheduling decisions that result in undesirable future states; this makes the computational effort much larger than may be expected. Put together, these challenges lead to large and customized mathematical optimization problems which must be solved efficiently to be of practical use. In addition, the solution process must be robust in an operational setting. We discuss a unique modeling approach in RiverWare that meets these challenges in an operational setting. The approach combines a Preemptive Linear Goal Programming optimization model to handle prioritized policies complimented by preprocessing and postprocessing with Rulebased Simulation to improve the solution with regard to nonlinearities, discrete issues, and if-then logic. An interactive policy language with a graphical user interface allows modelers to customize both the optimization and simulation based on the unique aspects of the policy for their system while the routine physical aspect of operations are modeled automatically. The modeler is aided by a set of compiled predefined functions and functions shared by other modelers. We illustrate the success of the approach with examples from daily use at the Tennessee Valley

  16. 2010 Hudson River Shallow Water Sediment Cores (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hudson River Shallow Water Mapping project characterizes the bottom of the Hudson River Estuary in shallow water (<3 m). The characterization includes...

  17. Spatial and temporal distribution of microplastics in water and sediments of a freshwater system (Antuã River, Portugal). (United States)

    Rodrigues, M O; Abrantes, N; Gonçalves, F J M; Nogueira, H; Marques, J C; Gonçalves, A M M


    Microplastics (particles with a sizemicroplastics in freshwater systems is less understood than in marine environment. Hence, the present study aims to provide new insights into microplastics abundances and distribution in Antuã River (Portugal) by applying the isolation method of wet peroxide oxidation with addition of zinc chloride to water and sediment samples collected in March and October 2016, in three sampling sites. The abundance of microplastics in water ranged from 5 to 8.3mgm -3 or 58-193itemsm -3 in March and from 5.8-51.7mgm -3 or 71-1265itemsm -3 in October. In sediments, the abundance ranged from 13.5-52.7mgkg -1 or 100-629itemskg -1 in March and from 2.6-71.4mgkg -1 or 18-514itemskg -1 in October. The water and sediment samples with the greatest abundances were from São João da Madeira and Aguincheira, respectively. Spatio-temporal distribution showed different pattern according to methodological approaches, seasonal and hydrodynamic conditions and the proximity to urban/industry areas. Analysis of plastics by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy underline polyethylene and polypropylene as the most common polymer types identified in this work. The low medium high oxidation ratio was 56:22:22 (%) in March and 61:31:8 (%) in October. Foams and fibers were the most abundant type in São João da Madeira, while fibers and fragments were the most abundant in Aguincheira and Estarreja in water and sediment samples, respectively. This study emphasizes the importance of rivers as carriage systems of microplastics. Further studies should be performed to identify point sources in order to mitigate the microplastics contamination in aquatic systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Employment of the generalized adsorption model for the prediction of the solid-water distribution of radiocesium in the river-estuary-ocean system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Qiaohui; Takahashi, Yoshio


    Since last century, a large amount of radiocesium (RCs) released from atomic weapon tests and nuclear accidents, such as in Chernobyl and Fukushima, was directly introduced into the environment through atmospheric transportation and deposition on land surface soil, discharged into river systems by erosion effects during rainfall, and finally released into the ocean. In this study, a generalized adsorption model (GAM) for Cs + was employed to estimate the solid-water distribution of Cs + in the river-estuary-ocean system. The results confirmed that the capacity of each adsorption site of river sediments, i.e., interlayer site, type II site, and planar site, can be precisely optimized through the adsorption isotherm of Cs + on the river sediments combined with the radiocesium interception potential (RIP) and cation exchange capacity (CEC). According to the GAM, the main contributor for Cs + adsorption is the frayed edge site rather than others due to the very low concentration of Cs + in the river-estuary-ocean system. The different solid-water distribution of Cs + in the river-estuary-ocean system was dominantly controlled by the salinity in the aqueous phase. Therefore, Cs + should be highly reactive with strong adsorptive character to particulate matter in the river system, whereas a conservative distribution must be dominant in ocean with much weaker affinity to particulate matter because of the high salinity. - Highlights: • A new method to extend the utility range of GAM from illite to natural samples. • GAM was adapted to quantitatively explore the transportation of radiocesium in river in rive-estuary-ocean system. • High reactivity in river water and conservative behavior in seawater were clarified.

  19. A system dynamics simulation model for sustainable water resources management and agricultural development in the Volta River Basin, Ghana. (United States)

    Kotir, Julius H; Smith, Carl; Brown, Greg; Marshall, Nadine; Johnstone, Ron


    In a rapidly changing water resources system, dynamic models based on the notion of systems thinking can serve as useful analytical tools for scientists and policy-makers to study changes in key system variables over time. In this paper, an integrated system dynamics simulation model was developed using a system dynamics modelling approach to examine the feedback processes and interaction between the population, the water resource, and the agricultural production sub-sectors of the Volta River Basin in West Africa. The objective of the model is to provide a learning tool for policy-makers to improve their understanding of the long-term dynamic behaviour of the basin, and as a decision support tool for exploring plausible policy scenarios necessary for sustainable water resource management and agricultural development. Structural and behavioural pattern tests, and statistical test were used to evaluate and validate the performance of the model. The results showed that the simulated outputs agreed well with the observed reality of the system. A sensitivity analysis also indicated that the model is reliable and robust to uncertainties in the major parameters. Results of the business as usual scenario showed that total population, agricultural, domestic, and industrial water demands will continue to increase over the simulated period. Besides business as usual, three additional policy scenarios were simulated to assess their impact on water demands, crop yield, and net-farm income. These were the development of the water infrastructure (scenario 1), cropland expansion (scenario 2) and dry conditions (scenario 3). The results showed that scenario 1 would provide the maximum benefit to people living in the basin. Overall, the model results could help inform planning and investment decisions within the basin to enhance food security, livelihoods development, socio-economic growth, and sustainable management of natural resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All

  20. Information retrieval system: impacts of water-level changes on uses of federal storage reservoirs of the Columbia River.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fickeisen, D.H.; Cowley, P.J.; Neitzel, D.A.; Simmons, M.A.


    A project undertaken to provide the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) with information needed to conduct environmental assessments and meet requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Regional Act) is described. Access to information on environmental effects would help BPA fulfill its responsibilities to coordinate power generation on the Columbia River system, protect uses of the river system (e.g., irrigation, recreation, navigation), and enhance fish and wildlife production. Staff members at BPA identified the need to compile and index information resources that would help answer environmental impact questions. A computer retrieval system that would provide ready access to the information was envisioned. This project was supported by BPA to provide an initial step toward a compilation of environmental impact information. Scientists at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) identified, gathered, and evaluated information related to environmental effects of water level on uses of five study reservoirs and developed and implemented and environmental data retrieval system, which provides for automated storage and retrieval of annotated citations to published and unpublished information. The data retrieval system is operating on BPA's computer facility and includes the reservoir water-level environmental data. This project was divided into several tasks, some of which were conducted simultaneously to meet project deadlines. The tasks were to identify uses of the five study reservoirs, compile and evaluate reservoir information, develop a data entry and retrieval system, identify and analyze research needs, and document the data retrieval system and train users. Additional details of the project are described in several appendixes.

  1. Potential for Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems Applications for Identifying Groundwater-Surface Water Exchange in a Meandering River Reach (United States)

    Pai, H.; Malenda, H. F.; Briggs, M. A.; Singha, K.; González-Pinzón, R.; Gooseff, M. N.; Tyler, S. W.


    The exchange of groundwater and surface water (GW-SW), including dissolved constituents and energy, represents a critical yet challenging characterization problem for hydrogeologists and stream ecologists. Here we describe the use of a suite of high spatial resolution remote sensing techniques, collected using a small unmanned aircraft system (sUAS), to provide novel and complementary data to analyze GW-SW exchange. sUAS provided centimeter-scale resolution topography and water surface elevations, which are often drivers of exchange along the river corridor. Additionally, sUAS-based vegetation imagery, vegetation-top elevation, and normalized difference vegetation index mapping indicated GW-SW exchange patterns that are difficult to characterize from the land surface and may not be resolved from coarser satellite-based imagery. We combined these data with estimates of sediment hydraulic conductivity to provide a direct estimate of GW "shortcutting" through meander necks, which was corroborated by temperature data at the riverbed interface.

  2. A web-based Tamsui River flood early-warning system with correction of real-time water stage using monitoring data (United States)

    Liao, H. Y.; Lin, Y. J.; Chang, H. K.; Shang, R. K.; Kuo, H. C.; Lai, J. S.; Tan, Y. C.


    Taiwan encounters heavy rainfalls frequently. There are three to four typhoons striking Taiwan every year. To provide lead time for reducing flood damage, this study attempt to build a flood early-warning system (FEWS) in Tanshui River using time series correction techniques. The predicted rainfall is used as the input for the rainfall-runoff model. Then, the discharges calculated by the rainfall-runoff model is converted to the 1-D river routing model. The 1-D river routing model will output the simulating water stages in 487 cross sections for the future 48-hr. The downstream water stage at the estuary in 1-D river routing model is provided by storm surge simulation. Next, the water stages of 487 cross sections are corrected by time series model such as autoregressive (AR) model using real-time water stage measurements to improve the predicted accuracy. The results of simulated water stages are displayed on a web-based platform. In addition, the models can be performed remotely by any users with web browsers through a user interface. The on-line video surveillance images, real-time monitoring water stages, and rainfalls can also be shown on this platform. If the simulated water stage exceeds the embankments of Tanshui River, the alerting lights of FEWS will be flashing on the screen. This platform runs periodically and automatically to generate the simulation graphic data of flood water stages for flood disaster prevention and decision making.

  3. Modeling human-water-systems: towards a comprehensive and spatially distributed assessment of co-evolutions for river basins in Central Europe


    P. Krahe; E. Nilson; M. Knoche; A.-D. Ebner von Eschenbach


    In the context of river basin and flood risk management there is a growing need to improve the understanding of and the feedbacks between the driving forces “climate and socio-economy” and water systems. We make use of a variety of data resources to illustrate interrelationships between different constituents of the human-water-systems. Taking water storage for energy production as an example we present a first analysis on the co-evolution of socio-economic and hydrological ...

  4. Performance of the constructed wetland system for the treatment of water from the corumbataí river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kleiber Pessoa Borges


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the constructed wetland system for the treatment of water from the Corumbataí river simulated on a laboratory scale. The parameters analyzed at different points of the system were ammonia, biochemical demand for oxygen (BDO, chemical demand for oxygen (CDO, chlorides, apparent color, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, magnesium (Mg, sodium (Na, potassium (K, silicon (Si, total phosphorous, total coliforms and Escherichia coli, total dissolved solids (TDS, turbidity, and macrophyte biomass. The results demonstrated that this alternative water treatment system was effective in removing the microorganisms (total coliforms and E. coli, among other parameters analyzed, for varying periods of the treatment, promoting notable improvement in the quality of the water treated from the Corumbataí River.Na intenção de reduzir nutrientes e microrganismos das águas de rio, foi estudado um processo alternativo de tratamento, como o sistema construído de áreas alagadas (CWs, em escala de laboratório. Os parâmetros analisados em diferentes pontos do sistema utilizado foram amônia, demanda bioquímica de oxigênio (DBO, demanda química de oxigênio (DQO, cloretos, cor aparente, condutividade, oxigênio dissolvido, magnesium (Mg, sodium (Na, potassium (K, silicium (Si, fósforo total, coliformes totais e Escherichia coli, sólidos totais dissolvidos (TDS, turbidez e biomassa da macrófita. Os resultados demonstraram que este sistema alternativo de tratamento de água do rio Corumbataí foi eficiente na remoção dos microrganismos: coliformes totais e Escherichia coli dentre outros parâmetros analisados, em diferentes tempos de tratamento, promovendo melhoria acentuada na qualidade da água tratada.

  5. Development of water quality objectives and management systems for the lower Athabasca River in the oil sands area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noton, L.; McEachern, P.


    This paper addressed environmental concerns related to the increased oil sands activity along the lower Athabasca River in northeastern Alberta. The concerns include potential effects on water quality of the river even though wastewaters do not currently reach the Athabasca River, nor do they have any significant effects. However, as the industry expands, there is concern that releases of wastewater may increase significantly. A multi-stakeholder group called the Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA) has addressed some of these environmental management issues in the Athabasca area by establishing a water quality task group that examines water quality protection and management activities. The task group intends to develop and recommend water quality objectives and management options on the lower Athabasca River. Their 4 part process includes: (1) defining the problem, (2) setting goals, (3) measuring performance, and (4) managing and adapting to potential impacts. The group has identified and defined about 35 water quality variables of potential concern. It has also identified the uses of water it wants to protect and intends to prevent the degradation of water quality. A plan for developing site specific water quality objectives has been established following a review of water quality guidelines. Performance will be measured using water quality models that simulate full development scenarios. The modelling work will be instrumental in designing management schemes for any potential impacts

  6. Enhancing the Predicting Accuracy of the Water Stage Using a Physical-Based Model and an Artificial Neural Network-Genetic Algorithm in a River System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Cheng Liu


    Full Text Available Accurate simulations of river stages during typhoon events are critically important for flood control and are necessary for disaster prevention and water resources management in Taiwan. This study applies two artificial neural network (ANN models, including the back propagation neural network (BPNN and genetic algorithm neural network (GANN techniques, to improve predictions from a one-dimensional flood routing hydrodynamic model regarding the water stages during typhoon events in the Danshuei River system in northern Taiwan. The hydrodynamic model is driven by freshwater discharges at the upstream boundary conditions and by the water levels at the downstream boundary condition. The model provides a sound physical basis for simulating water stages along the river. The simulated results of the hydrodynamic model show that the model cannot reproduce the water stages at different stations during typhoon events for the model calibration and verification phases. The BPNN and GANN models can improve the simulated water stages compared with the performance of the hydrodynamic model. The GANN model satisfactorily predicts water stages during the training and verification phases and exhibits the lowest values of mean absolute error, root-mean-square error and peak error compared with the simulated results at different stations using the hydrodynamic model and the BPNN model. Comparison of the simulated results shows that the GANN model can be successfully applied to predict the water stages of the Danshuei River system during typhoon events.

  7. The Columbia River System Inside Story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Columbia River is one of the greatest natural resources in the western United States. The river and its tributaries touch the lives of nearly every resident of the Pacific Northwest—from fostering world-famous Pacific salmon to supplying clean natural fuel for 50 to 65 percent of the region’s electrical generation. Since early in the 20th century, public and private agencies have labored to capture the benefits of this dynamic river. Today, dozens of major water resource projects throughout the region are fed by the waters of the Columbia Basin river system.

  8. Ground-water flow directions and estimation of aquifer hydraulic properties in the lower Great Miami River Buried Valley aquifer system, Hamilton Area, Ohio (United States)

    Sheets, Rodney A.; Bossenbroek, Karen E.


    The Great Miami River Buried Valley Aquifer System is one of the most productive sources of potable water in the Midwest, yielding as much as 3,000 gallons per minute to wells. Many water-supply wells tapping this aquifer system are purposely placed near rivers to take advantage of induced infiltration from the rivers. The City of Hamilton's North Well Field consists of 10 wells near the Great Miami River, all completed in the lower Great Miami River Buried Valley Aquifer System. A well-drilling program and a multiple-well aquifer test were done to investigate ground-water flow directions and to estimate aquifer hydraulic properties in the lower part of the Great Miami River Buried Valley Aquifer System. Descriptions of lithology from 10 well borings indicate varying amounts and thickness of clay or till, and therefore, varying levels of potential aquifer confinement. Borings also indicate that the aquifer properties can change dramatically over relatively short distances. Grain-size analyses indicate an average bulk hydraulic conductivity value of aquifer materials of 240 feet per day; the geometric mean of hydraulic conductivity values of aquifer material was 89 feet per day. Median grain sizes of aquifer material and clay units were 1.3 millimeters and 0.1 millimeters, respectively. Water levels in the Hamilton North Well Field are affected by stream stage in the Great Miami River and barometric pressure. Bank storage in response to stream stage is evident. Results from a multiple-well aquifer test at the well field indicate, as do the lithologic descriptions, that the aquifer is semiconfined in some areas and unconfined in others. Transmissivity and storage coefficient of the semiconfined part of the aquifer were 50,000 feet squared per day and 5x10-4, respectively. The average hydraulic conductivity (450 feet per day) based on the aquifer test is reasonable for glacial outwash but is higher than calculated from grain-size analyses, implying a scale effect

  9. Tidal-Fluvial and Estuarine Processes in the Lower Columbia River: II. Water Level Models, Floodplain Wetland Inundation, and System Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay, David A.; Borde, Amy B.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.


    Spatially varying water-level regimes are a factor controlling estuarine and tidal-fluvial wetland vegetation patterns. As described in Part I, water levels in the Lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE) are influenced by tides, river flow, hydropower operations, and coastal processes. In Part II, regression models based on tidal theory are used to quantify the role of these processes in determining water levels in the mainstem river and floodplain wetlands, and to provide 21-year inundation hindcasts. Analyses are conducted at 19 LCRE mainstem channel stations and 23 tidally exposed floodplain wetland stations. Sum exceedance values (SEVs) are used to compare wetland hydrologic regimes at different locations on the river floodplain. A new predictive tool is introduced and validated, the potential SEV (pSEV), which can reduce the need for extensive new data collection in wetland restoration planning. Models of water levels and inundation frequency distinguish four zones encompassing eight reaches. The system zones are the wave- and current-dominated Entrance to river kilometer (rkm) 5; the Estuary (rkm-5 to 87), comprised of a lower reach with salinity, the energy minimum (where the turbidity maximum normally occurs), and an upper estuary reach without salinity; the Tidal River (rkm-87 to 229), with lower, middle, and upper reaches in which river flow becomes increasingly dominant over tides in determining water levels; and the steep and weakly tidal Cascade (rkm-229 to 234) immediately downstream from Bonneville Dam. The same zonation is seen in the water levels of floodplain stations, with considerable modification of tidal properties. The system zones and reaches defined here reflect geological features and their boundaries are congruent with five wetland vegetation zones

  10. Estimates of ground-water pumpage from the Yakima River Basin aquifer system, Washington, 1960-2000 (United States)

    Vaccaro, J.J.; Sumioka, S.S.


    and August and during 2000, was about 100 cubic feet per second each month averaged over the Yakima River Basin aquifer system. During 2000, non-standby/reserve pumpage associated with ground-water rights was estimated to total 253,454 acre-feet, or about 198,290 acre-feet less than the appropriated quantity. The unused part of the appropriated value is about equivalent to the irrigation pumpage for primary rights.

  11. RiverHeath: Neighborhood Loop Geothermal Exchange System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geall, Mark [RiverHeath LLC, Appleton, WI (United States)


    The goal of the RiverHeath project is to develop a geothermal exchange system at lower capital infrastructure cost than current geothermal exchange systems. The RiverHeath system features an innovative design that incorporates use of the adjacent river through river-based heat exchange plates. The flowing water provides a tremendous amount of heat transfer. As a result, the installation cost of this geothermal exchange system is lower than more traditional vertical bore systems. Many urban areas are located along rivers and other waterways. RiverHeath will serve as a template for other projects adjacent to the water.

  12. Ichthyoplankton entrainment study at the SRS Savannah River water intakes for Westinghouse Savannah River Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paller, M.


    Cooling water for L and K Reactors and makeup water for Par Pond is pumped from the Savannah River at the 1G, 3G, and 5G pump houses. Ichthyoplankton (drifting fish larvae and eggs) from the river are entrained into the reactor cooling systems with the river water and passed through the reactor's heat exchangers where temperatures may reach 70 degrees C during full power operation. Ichthyoplankton mortality under such conditions is assumed to be 100 percent. The number of ichthyoplankton entrained into the cooling system depends on a variety of variables, including time of year, density and distribution of ichthyoplankton in the river, discharge levels in the river, and the volume of water withdrawn by the pumps. Entrainment at the 1 G pump house, which is immediately downstream from the confluence of Upper Three Runs Creek and the Savannah River, is also influenced by discharge rates and ichthyoplankton densities in Upper Three Runs Creek. Because of the anticipated restart of several SRS reactors and the growing concern surrounding striped bass and American shad stocks in the Savannah River, the Department of Energy requested that the Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Savannah River Laboratory sample ichthyoplankton at the SRS Savannah River intakes. Dams ampersand Moore, Inc., under a contract with Westinghouse Savannah River Company performed the sampling and data analysis for the ESS

  13. The use of IFIM for evaluating effects of a flow alternative on fish habitat in a river system with competing water demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.J.; Chadwick, J.W.; Canton, S.P.; Conklin, D.J. Jr.; Chrisp, E.Y.


    This paper reports on the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) which was used to evaluate instream fish habitat in the Platte River in central Nebraska. The IFIM analysis presented herein incorporates water temperature modeling and water quality, fish species composition and distribution, physical habitat data and 43 years of flow records. The Platte River system has competing water demands from hydropower, agricultural irrigation, municipal uses, recreation and most recently from recommended instream flows for fish and wildlife resources. IFIM was the tool used to develop the data base required for a comprehensive instream flow analysis of the system. When compared to the baseline flow regime, and alternative flow regime significantly increased modelled fish habitat area during critical periods of the year. The time series results demonstrated that the flow alternative would be beneficial to the existing fish resources, while still providing water for power production and irrigation

  14. River water quality modelling: II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanahan, P.; Henze, Mogens; Koncsos, L.


    The U.S. EPA QUAL2E model is currently the standard for river water quality modelling. While QUAL2E is adequate for the regulatory situation for which it was developed (the U.S. wasteload allocation process), there is a need for a more comprehensive framework for research and teaching. Moreover......, QUAL2E and similar models do not address a number of practical problems such as stormwater-flow events, nonpoint source pollution, and transient streamflow. Limitations in model formulation affect the ability to close mass balances, to represent sessile bacteria and other benthic processes......, and to achieve robust model calibration. Mass balance problems arise from failure to account for mass in the sediment as well as in the water column and due to the fundamental imprecision of BOD as a state variable. (C) 1998 IAWQ Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  15. Colorado River Sewer System Joint Venture to Upgrade Wastewater System (United States)

    SAN FRANCISCO -Today, the Colorado River Sewer System Joint Venture, located in Parker, Ariz. entered into an agreement with the EPA to upgrade their wastewater treatment system to meet stringent water quality standards. The cost of the upgrade is ap

  16. Application of the multi-dimensional surface water modeling system at Bridge 339, Copper River Highway, Alaska (United States)

    Brabets, Timothy P.; Conaway, Jeffrey S.


    The Copper River Basin, the sixth largest watershed in Alaska, drains an area of 24,200 square miles. This large, glacier-fed river flows across a wide alluvial fan before it enters the Gulf of Alaska. Bridges along the Copper River Highway, which traverses the alluvial fan, have been impacted by channel migration. Due to a major channel change in 2001, Bridge 339 at Mile 36 of the highway has undergone excessive scour, resulting in damage to its abutments and approaches. During the snow- and ice-melt runoff season, which typically extends from mid-May to September, the design discharge for the bridge often is exceeded. The approach channel shifts continuously, and during our study it has shifted back and forth from the left bank to a course along the right bank nearly parallel to the road.Maintenance at Bridge 339 has been costly and will continue to be so if no action is taken. Possible solutions to the scour and erosion problem include (1) constructing a guide bank to redirect flow, (2) dredging approximately 1,000 feet of channel above the bridge to align flow perpendicular to the bridge, and (3) extending the bridge. The USGS Multi-Dimensional Surface Water Modeling System (MD_SWMS) was used to assess these possible solutions. The major limitation of modeling these scenarios was the inability to predict ongoing channel migration. We used a hybrid dataset of surveyed and synthetic bathymetry in the approach channel, which provided the best approximation of this dynamic system. Under existing conditions and at the highest measured discharge and stage of 32,500 ft3/s and 51.08 ft, respectively, the velocities and shear stresses simulated by MD_SWMS indicate scour and erosion will continue. Construction of a 250-foot-long guide bank would not improve conditions because it is not long enough. Dredging a channel upstream of Bridge 339 would help align the flow perpendicular to Bridge 339, but because of the mobility of the channel bed, the dredged channel would

  17. Ground-Water System in the Chimacum Creek Basin and Surface Water/Ground Water Interaction in Chimacum and Tarboo Creeks and the Big and Little Quilcene Rivers, Eastern Jefferson County, Washington (United States)

    Simonds, F. William; Longpre, Claire I.; Justin, Greg B.


    throughout most of the year and the lower reaches have little or no gains. The Big Quilcene River generally gains water from the shallow ground-water system after it emerges from a bedrock canyon and loses water from the town of Quilcene to the mouth of the river in Quilcene Bay. The Little Quilcene River generally loses water to the shallow ground-water system, although two localized areas were found to have gaining conditions. The Big Quilcene and Little Quilcene Rivers incur significant losses on the alluvial plain at the head of Quilcene Bay. Each of the creeks examined had a unique pattern of gaining and losing reaches, owing to the hydraulic conductivity of the streambed material and the relative altitude of the surrounding water table. Although the magnitudes of gains and losses varied seasonally, the spatial distribution did not vary greatly, suggesting that patterns of gains and losses in surface-water systems depend greatly on the geology underlying the streambed.

  18. Water Quality Conditions in the Missouri River Mainstem System: 2008 Report (United States)


    conditions, and defines the influence of District Projects on smface water quality. 3) Establish and maintain su·ong working partnerships and...Peck Reservoir) Yes Aquatic Life Drinking Water Supply Warmwater Fishery Riparian Alteration (AL, WWF ) Arsenic (AL, DWS, WWF ) Copper (AL, WWF

  19. Water Quality Conditions in the Missouri River Mainstem System. 2009 Report (United States)


    14  2.3.2  Photosynthesis ...provide time for bacterial die-off, chemical degradation, reduced flow rates, and sediment settling. 1.6 PRIORITIZATION OF DISTRICT-WIDE WATER...macrophytes) remove CO2 from the water to form organic matter through photosynthesis during the day. During the night when aquatic plants respire and

  20. Human impacts on river water quality- comparative research in the catchment areas of the Tone River and the Mur River- (United States)

    Kogure, K.


    Human activities in river basin affect river water quality as water discharges into river with pollutant after we use it. By detecting pollutants source, pathway, and influential factor of human activities, it will be possible to consider proper river basin management. In this study, material flow analysis was done first and then nutrient emission modeling by MONERIS was conducted. So as to clarify land use contribution and climate condition, comparison of Japanese and European river basin area has been made. The model MONERIS (MOdelling Nutrient Emissions in RIver Systems; Behrendt et al., 2000) was applied to estimate the nutrient emissions in the Danube river basin by point sources and various diffuse pathways. Work for the Mur River Basin in Austria was already carried out by the Institute of Water Quality, Resources and Waste Management at the Vienna University of Technology. This study treats data collection, modelling for the Tone River in Japan, and comparative analysis for these two river basins. The estimation of the nutrient emissions was carried out for 11 different sub catchment areas covering the Tone River Basin for the time period 2000 to 2006. TN emissions into the Tone river basin were 51 kt/y. 67% was via ground water and dominant for all sub catchments. Urban area was also important emission pathway. Human effect is observed in urban structure and agricultural activity. Water supply and sewer system make urban water cycle with pipeline structure. Excess evapotranspiration in arable land is also influential in water cycle. As share of arable land is 37% and there provides agricultural products, it is thought that N emission from agricultural activity is main pollution source. Assumption case of 10% N surplus was simulated and the result was 99% identical to the actual. Even though N surplus reduction does not show drastic impact on N emission, it is of importance to reduce excess of fertilization and to encourage effective agricultural activity

  1. The UN System for Environmental-Economic Accounts for Water (SEEA-W and groundwater management: the experience of the Arno River Basin Authority within the PAWA project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Mazzanti


    Full Text Available The Pilot Arno Water Accounts (PAWA project was recently funded under the Call “Preparatory Action on Development of Prevention Activities to Halt Desertification in Europe” of the Directorate- General for the Environment of the European Commission to promote preventive actions to manage water scarcity and drought phenomena and to meet one of the main goals under European environmental legislation: the effective and sustainable management of water resources. The partners involved in the implementation of the PAWA project (ISPRA, Arno River Basin Authority, SEMIDE/EMWIS will carry out a pilot initiative in the Arno River Basin, an area severely affected by water scarcity and droughts phenomena and characterized by water withdrawals and land use changes. In the area a large experience about water balance application was already performed, for example in the context of the Water Framework Directive Common Implementation Strategy. Moving from this knowledge, the objective of the project is the definition of water accounting processing based on the UN System of Environmental Economic Accounts for Water, with the final goal to optimize a list of effective measures to face water scarcity phenomena. By the end of project (March 2015 the PAWA partnership aims at preparing physical water stock accounts, using the best available data resulting from field measurements or models, on a monthly step for the period 1999–201. The quality of each dataset will be assessed; tables, maps and graphs will be produced as outputs of the projects in cooperation with local stakeholders and players of the water sector. Furthermore, water accounts will be used to assess the potential impact of various measures related to water resource efficient exploitation in the most vulnerable sub-basins; their tolerability will be tested during workshops with stakeholders. Finally, water efficiency targets for potential future integration into Arno River Basin Management Plan

  2. Elements of an environmental decision support system for seasonal wetland salt management in a river basin subjected to water quality regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T.


    Seasonally managed wetlands in the Grasslands Basin on the west-side of California's San Joaquin Valley provide food and shelter for migratory wildfowl during winter months and sport for waterfowl hunters during the annual duck season. Surface water supply to these wetlands contain salt which, when drained to the San Joaquin River during the annual drawdown period, can negatively impact water quality and cause concern to downstream agricultural riparian water diverters. Recent environmental regulation, limiting discharges salinity to the San Joaquin River and primarily targeting agricultural non-point sources, now also targets return flows from seasonally managed wetlands. Real-time water quality management has been advocated as a means of continuously matching salt loads discharged from agricultural, wetland and municipal operations to the assimilative capacity of the San Joaquin River. Past attempts to build environmental monitoring and decision support systems (EDSS's) to implement this concept have enjoyed limited success for reasons that are discussed in this paper. These reasons are discussed in the context of more general challenges facing the successful implementation of a comprehensive environmental monitoring, modelling and decision support system for the San Joaquin River Basin.

  3. Water Quality Conditions in the Missouri River Mainstem System 2007 Report (United States)


    conditions, and defmes the influence of District projects on smface water quality. 3) Establish and maintain su·ong working partnerships and...Drinking Water Supply Warmwater Fishery Riparian Alteration (AL, WWF ) Arsenic (AL, DWS, WWF ) Copper (AL, WWF ) No No ----- Pallid sturgeon recovery...dependent upon the continuance of a monitoring partnership with the Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality. c Special Study will be implemented, as

  4. Water quality control in Third River Reservoir (Argentina using geographical information systems and linear regression models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ledesma


    Full Text Available Water quality is traditionally monitored and evaluated based upon field data collected at limited locations. The storage capacity of reservoirs is reduced by deposits of suspended matter. The major factors affecting surface water quality are suspended sediments, chlorophyll and nutrients. Modeling and monitoring the biogeochemical status of reservoirs can be done through data from remote sensors. Since the improvement of sensors’ spatial and spectral resolutions, satellites have been used to monitor the interior areas of bodies of water. Water quality parameters, such as chlorophyll-a concentration and secchi disk depth, were found to have a high correlation with transformed spectral variables derived from bands 1, 2, 3 and 4 of LANDSAT 5TM satellite. We created models of estimated responses in regard to values of chlorophyll-a. To do so, we used population models of single and multiple linear regression, whose parameters are associated with the reflectance data of bands 2 and 4 of the sub-image of the satellite, as well as the data of chlorophyll-a obtained in 25 selected stations. According to the physico-chemical analyzes performed, the characteristics of the water in the reservoir of Rio Tercero, correspond to somewhat hard freshwater with calcium bicarbonate. The water was classified as usable as a source of plant treatment, excellent for irrigation because of its low salinity and low residual sodium carbonate content, but unsuitable for animal consumption because of its low salt content.

  5. Working with Decision Makers to Improve Energy-Water System Resiliency in the Lower Hudson River Basin (United States)

    Fellows, J. D.; Schoonen, M. A.; Pullen, J.; González, J. E.; Saleh, F.; Bhatt, V.


    Nearly half of the 180 million people living in the eastern U.S. reside in coastal watershed or shoreline counties. The population density of these areas continues to increase, driving an increase in energy-water (EW) system demand and expansion of critical infrastructure. Along with population, these areas are also being stressed by environmental and technology stresses, including climate change. We have been working with decision makers in the Lower Hudson River Basin (LHRB) to develop the tools and data needed to better understand and improve the resiliency of LHRB EW systems facing these kinds of stresses. The LHRB represents: 1) a coastal environment subject to sea level rise that is among the fastest in the East; 2) one of the steepest gradients in population density in the US, with Manhattan the most densely populated coastal county in the nation; 3) a EWN infrastructure serving the largest metropolitan area in the US and the financial center of the world; 4) a history of environmental impacts, ranging from heatwaves, hurricanes to localized storms, that can be used to hindcast; and 5) a wealth of historic and real-time data, extensive monitoring facilities and existing specific sector models that can be leveraged. This presentation will focus on the lessons learned working with the LHRB decision makers.

  6. Screening of multiple hormonal activities in surface water and sediment from the Pearl River system, South China, using effect-directed in vitro bioassays. (United States)

    Zhao, Jian-Liang; Ying, Guang-Guo; Yang, Bin; Liu, Shan; Zhou, Li-Jun; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Lai, Hua-Jie


    This paper reports screening of multiple hormonal activities (estrogenic and androgenic activities, antiestrogenic and antiandrogenic activities) for surface water and sediment from the Pearl River system (Liuxi, Zhujiang, and Shijing rivers) in South China, using in vitro recombinant yeast bioassays. The detection frequencies for estrogenic and antiandrogenic activities were both 100% in surface water and 81 and 93% in sediment, respectively. The levels of estrogenic activity were 0.23 to 324 ng 17β-estradiol equivalent concentration (EEQ)/L in surface water and 0 to 101 ng EEQ/g in sediment. Antiandrogenic activities were in the range of 20.4 to 935 × 10(3) ng flutamide equivalent concentration (FEQ)/L in surface water and 0 to 154 × 10(3) ng FEQ/g in sediment. Moreover, estrogenic activity and antiandrogenic activity in sediment showed good correlation (R(2) = 0.7187), suggesting that the agonists of estrogen receptor and the antagonists of androgen receptor co-occurred in sediment. The detection frequencies for androgenic and antiestrogenic activities were 41 and 29% in surface water and 61 and 4% in sediment, respectively. The levels of androgenic activities were 0 to 45.4 ng dihydrotestosterone equivalent concentration (DEQ)/L in surface water, and the potency was very weak in the only detected sediment site. The levels of antiestrogenic activity were 0 to 1,296 × 10(3) ng tamoxifen equivalent concentration (TEQ)/L in surface water and 0 to 89.5 × 10(3) ng TEQ/g in sediment. The Shijing River displayed higher levels of hormonal activities than the Zhujiang and Liuxi rivers, indicating that the Shijing River had been suffering from heavy contamination with endocrine-disrupting chemicals. The equivalent concentrations of hormonal activities in some sites were greater than the lowest-observed-effect concentrations reported in the literature, suggesting potential adverse effects on aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  7. Sustainable River Water Quality Management in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Al-Mamun


    Full Text Available Ecological status of Malaysia is not as bad as many other developing nations in the world. However, despite the enforcement of the Environmental Quality Act (EQA in 1974, the water quality of Malaysian inland water (especially rivers is following deteriorating trend. The rivers are mainly polluted due to the point and non-point pollution sources. Point sources are monitored and controlled by the Department of Environment (DOE, whereas a significant amount of pollutants is contributed by untreated sullage and storm runoff. Nevertheless, it is not too late to take some bold steps for the effective control of non-point source pollution and untreated sullage discharge, which play significant roles on the status of the rivers. This paper reviews the existing procedures and guidelines related to protection of the river water quality in Malaysia.  There is a good possibility that the sewage and effluent discharge limits in the Environmental Quality Act (EQA may pose hindrance against achieving good quality water in the rivers as required by the National Water Quality Standards (NWQS. For instance, Ammoniacal Nitrogen (NH3-N is identified as one of the main pollutants to render many of the rivers polluted but it was not considered in the EQA as a monitoring parameter until the new regulations published in 2009.  Surprisingly, the new regulation for sewage and industrial effluent limits set allowable NH3-N concentration quite high (5 mg/L, which may result in low Water Quality Index (WQI values for the river water. The water environment is a dynamic system. Periodical review of the monitoring requirements, detecting emerging pollutants in sewage, effluent and runoff, and proper revision of water quality standards are necessary for the management of sustainable water resources in the country. ABSTRAK: Satus ekologi Malaysia tidak seburuk kebanyakan negara membangun lain di dunia. Walaupun Akta Kualiti Alam Sekitar (EQA dikuatkuasakan pada tahun 1974

  8. Water quality of the river Damanganga (Gujarat)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Narvekar, P.V.; Sarma, R.V.; Desai, B.N.

    Water quality (pH, suspended solids, chlorides, DO, BOD, reactive and total phosphorus, nitrates and boron) of River Damanganga which receives 0.2 mld of industrial waste into its fresh water zone through Pimparia River and 3.7 mld in its tidal zone...

  9. An integrated environmental decision support system for water pollution control based on TMDL--A case study in the Beiyun River watershed. (United States)

    Zhang, Shanghong; Li, Yueqiang; Zhang, Tianxiang; Peng, Yang


    This paper details the development and application of an integrated environmental decision support system (EDSS) for water pollution control based on total maximum daily load (TMDL). The system includes an infrastructure, simulation, and application platforms. Using the water pollution control of Beiyun River in China as a case study, the key development processes and technologies of the EDSS are discussed including relations and links between various environmental simulation models, and model integration, visualization and real-time simulation methods. A loose coupling method is used to connect the environmental models, and an XML file is used to complete data exchange between different models. Project configuration and scheme configuration are used for simulation data organization. The integration approach is easy to implement and enables different development languages and reuse of existing models. The EDSS has been applied to water environment management of Beiyun River, and can be applied to other geographic regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Surveillance of Water Quality in the Songhuajiang River System in Heilongjiang Province - Pre-feasibility study - 1995. Travel report from Heilongjiang Province, China, Oct./Nov


    Wathne, B.


    A request for co-operation on a system for water quality surveillance of Songhuajiang River System in Heilongjiang Province, China, was received by NIVA from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the Heilongjiang Province. Funds were made available from NORAD, to initiate a co-operative work with the EPA. T. Skancke, NORGIT Centre, and B. M. Wathne, NIVA, travelled to Harbin, capital of Heilongjiang Province, to make a pre-feasibility study and project plans for further co-operation. T...

  11. A Comprehensive plan of improving water quality considering water system - concentrated on a basin of the Han River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jee Yong; Moon, Hyun Joo; Yum, Kyu Jin; Kim, Eun Jung; Lee, Young Soon; Kim, Kang Suk; Lee, Chang Hee; Shin, Eun Sung; Kim, Jee Hoon [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)


    The contents of this study are following: reviewing the present policy on land use in basin to improve the water quality of water supply source in Paldang and so on; improvement policy on land use in basin; management scheme of pollutant into Paldang; the variety and quantity of toxic substances, a control of particular pollutant; management of polluted deposit in Paldang; the control of efficient environment investment in upper stream of Paldang; financial assistance for damaged region; and purchasing land of sensitivity region for protecting water supply. 32 refs., 13 figs., 124 tabs.

  12. Optimisation of flux calculation in rivers from discrete water quality surveys, a step towards an expert system (United States)

    Raymond, S.; Moatar, F.; Meybeck, M.; Bustillo, V.


    Good estimates of fluxes of suspended particulate matter (SPM), total dissolved solids (TDS) and nutrients and contaminants are required for both Earth System science and river basin management. However, in most cases discrete sampling (weekly to monthly) is the rule. Few flux calculation methods are commonly used, yet their performances, i.e. uncertainties for given frequencies, at given stations and for each water quality variables, remain unknown. Based on a rare set of 1085 station-year of daily flux record for SPM, TDS and nutrients (dissolved and total), the performance of 9 calculations methods is explored. Discrete surveys at various frequencies (3days to 30 days) are simulated by Monte-Carlo sorting (100 runs) on which the 9 fluxes are calculated (annual and interannual). At this stage, the sub-daily variations of fluxes for the medium and large basins are not considered. The dataset for SPM corresponds to 55 stations (600 to 600 000 km2 basin area), 34 stations (700 to 1000000 km2) for TDS and for nutrients we consider 9 stations for NO3-, NH4+, PO43- and Ptot (600 to 30 000 km2). About 80% of the dataset originates from US records (USGS and Lake Erie tributaries survey) and 20% from French stations, this covering a wide range of hydrological and geochemical conditions in the temperate zone. Each sorted flux is compared to known fluxes established on daily records: percentiles of their relative errors (e10, e50 and e90) are used to determine the biases (e50) and the imprecisions (e90-e10) (Walling and Webb, 1981) which are then compared for each of the 6 water quality variables, for each flux methods and for various simulated survey frequencies. The calculation methods include 5 rating-curve approaches (linear"M1", "M2", Phillipps et al, 1999) with and without Ferguson correction (Ferguson, 1987), polynomial, truncated at discharges exceeding median annual or long-term water discharge), 2 methods based on hydrograph separation (Phillips et al, 1999

  13. River water quality modelling under drought situations – the Turia River case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Paredes-Arquiola


    Full Text Available Drought and water shortage effects are normally exacerbated due to collateral impacts on water quality, since low streamflow affects water quality in rivers and water uses depend on it. One of the most common problems during drought conditions is maintaining a good water quality while securing the water supply to demands. This research analyses the case of the Turia River Water Resource System located in Eastern Spain. Its main water demand comes as urban demand from Valencia City, which intake is located in the final stretch of the river, where streamflow may become very low during droughts. As a result, during drought conditions concentrations of pathogens and other contaminants increase, compromising the water supply to Valencia City. In order to define possible solutions for the above-mentioned problem, we have developed an integrated model for simulating water management and water quality in the Turia River Basin to propose solutions for water quality problems under water scarcity. For this purpose, the Decision Support System Shell AQUATOOL has been used. The results demonstrate the importance of applying environmental flows as a measure of reducing pollutant's concentration depending on the evolution of a drought event and the state of the water resources system.

  14. Methods and tools to simulate the effect of economic instruments in complex water resources systems. Application to the Jucar river basin. (United States)

    Lopez-Nicolas, Antonio; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel


    The main challenge of the BLUEPRINT to safeguard Europe's water resources (EC, 2012) is to guarantee that enough good quality water is available for people's needs, the economy and the environment. In this sense, economic policy instruments such as water pricing policies and water markets can be applied to enhance efficient use of water. This paper presents a method based on hydro-economic tools to assess the effect of economic instruments on water resource systems. Hydro-economic models allow integrated analysis of water supply, demand and infrastructure operation at the river basin scale, by simultaneously combining engineering, hydrologic and economic aspects of water resources management. The method made use of the simulation and optimization hydroeconomic tools SIMGAMS and OPTIGAMS. The simulation tool SIMGAMS allocates water resources among the users according to priorities and operating rules, and evaluate economic scarcity costs of the system by using economic demand functions. The model's objective function is designed so that the system aims to meet the operational targets (ranked according to priorities) at each month while following the system operating rules. The optimization tool OPTIGAMS allocates water resources based on an economic efficiency criterion: maximize net benefits, or alternatively, minimizing the total water scarcity and operating cost of water use. SIMGAS allows to simulate incentive water pricing policies based on marginal resource opportunity costs (MROC; Pulido-Velazquez et al., 2013). Storage-dependent step pricing functions are derived from the time series of MROC values at a certain reservoir in the system. These water pricing policies are defined based on water availability in the system (scarcity pricing), so that when water storage is high, the MROC is low, while low storage (drought periods) will be associated to high MROC and therefore, high prices. We also illustrate the use of OPTIGAMS to simulate the effect of ideal water

  15. Mechanisms of Resilience in Common-pool Resource Management Systems: an Agent-based Model of Water Use in a River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Schlüter


    Full Text Available The concept of resilience is widely promoted as a promising notion to guide new approaches to ecosystem and resource management that try to enhance a system's capacity to cope with change. A variety of mechanisms of resilience specific for different systems have been proposed. In the context of resource management those include but are not limited to the diversity of response options and flexibility of the social system to adaptively respond to changes on an adequate scale. However, implementation of resilience-based management in specific real-world systems has often proven difficult because of a limited understanding of suitable interventions and their impact on the resilience of the coupled social-ecological system. We propose an agent-based modeling approach to explore system characteristics and mechanisms of resilience in a complex resource management system, based on a case study of water use in the Amudarya River, which is a semiarid river basin. Water resources in its delta are used to sustain irrigated agriculture as well as aquatic ecosystems that provide fish and other ecosystem services. The three subsystems of the social-ecological system, i.e., the social system, the irrigation system, and an aquatic ecosystem, are linked by resource flows and the allocation decision making of actors on different levels. Simulation experiments are carried out to compare the resilience of different institutional settings of water management to changes in the variability and uncertainty of water availability. The aim is to investigate the influence of (1 the organizational structure of water management, (2 information on water availability, and (3 the diversity of water uses on the resilience of the system to short and long-term water scarcity. In this paper, the model concept and first simulation results are presented. As a first illustration of the approach the performances of a centralized and a decentralized regime are compared under different

  16. Klang River water quality modelling using music (United States)

    Zahari, Nazirul Mubin; Zawawi, Mohd Hafiz; Muda, Zakaria Che; Sidek, Lariyah Mohd; Fauzi, Nurfazila Mohd; Othman, Mohd Edzham Fareez; Ahmad, Zulkepply


    Water is an essential resource that sustains life on earth; changes in the natural quality and distribution of water have ecological impacts that can sometimes be devastating. Recently, Malaysia is facing many environmental issues regarding water pollution. The main causes of river pollution are rapid urbanization, arising from the development of residential, commercial, industrial sites, infrastructural facilities and others. The purpose of the study was to predict the water quality of the Connaught Bridge Power Station (CBPS), Klang River. Besides that, affects to the low tide and high tide and. to forecast the pollutant concentrations of the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Total Suspended Solid (TSS) for existing land use of the catchment area through water quality modeling (by using the MUSIC software). Besides that, to identifying an integrated urban stormwater treatment system (Best Management Practice or BMPs) to achieve optimal performance in improving the water quality of the catchment using the MUSIC software in catchment areas having tropical climates. Result from MUSIC Model such as BOD5 at station 1 can be reduce the concentration from Class IV to become Class III. Whereas, for TSS concentration from Class III to become Class II at the station 1. The model predicted a mean TSS reduction of 0.17%, TP reduction of 0.14%, TN reduction of 0.48% and BOD5 reduction of 0.31% for Station 1 Thus, from the result after purposed BMPs the water quality is safe to use because basically water quality monitoring is important due to threat such as activities are harmful to aquatic organisms and public health.

  17. River water pollution condition in upper part of Brantas River and Bengawan Solo River (United States)

    Roosmini, D.; Septiono, M. A.; Putri, N. E.; Shabrina, H. M.; Salami, I. R. S.; Ariesyady, H. D.


    Wastewater and solid waste from both domestic and industry have been known to give burden on river water quality. Most of river water quality problem in Indonesia has start in the upper part of river due to anthropogenic activities, due to inappropriate land use management including the poor wastewater infrastructure. Base on Upper Citarum River Water pollution problem, it is interesting to study the other main river in Java Island. Bengawan Solo River and Brantas River were chosen as the sample in this study. Parameters assessed in this study are as follows: TSS, TDS, pH, DO, and hexavalent chromium. The status of river water quality are assess using STORET method. Based on (five) parameters, STORET value showed that in Brantas River, Pagerluyung monitoring point had the worst quality relatively compared to other monitoring point in Brantas River with exceeding copper, lead and tin compared to the stream standard in East Java Provincial Regulation No. 2 in 2008. Brantas River was categorized as lightly polluted river based on monitoring period 2011-2015 in 5 monitoring points, namely Pendem, Sengguruh, Kademangan, Meritjan and Kertosono.

  18. Co-creating Understanding in Water Use & Agricultural Resilience in a Multi-scale Natural-human System: Sacramento River Valley--California's Water Heartland in Transition (United States)

    Fairbanks, D. H.; Brimlowe, J.; Chaudry, A.; Gray, K.; Greene, T.; Guzley, R.; Hatfield, C.; Houk, E.; Le Page, C.


    The Sacramento River Valley (SRV), valued for its $2.5 billion agricultural production and its biodiversity, is the main supplier of California's water, servicing 25 million people. . Despite rapid changes to the region, little is known about the collective motivations and consequences of land and water use decisions, or the social and environmental vulnerability and resilience of the SRV. The overarching research goal is to examine whether the SRV can continue to supply clean water for California and accommodate agricultural production and biodiversity while coping with climate change and population growth. Without understanding these issues, the resources of the SRV face an uncertain future. The defining goal is to construct a framework that integrates cross-disciplinary and diverse stakeholder perspectives in order to develop a comprehensive understanding of how SRV stakeholders make land and water use decisions. Traditional approaches for modeling have failed to take into consideration multi-scale stakeholder input. Currently there is no effective method to facilitate producers and government agencies in developing a shared representation to address the issues that face the region. To address this gap, researchers and stakeholders are working together to collect and consolidate disconnected knowledge held by stakeholder groups (agencies, irrigation districts, and producers) into a holistic conceptual model of how stakeholders view and make decisions with land and water use under various management systems. Our approach integrates a top-down approach (agency stakeholders) for larger scale management decisions with a conceptual co-creation and data gathering bottom-up approach with local agricultural producer stakeholders for input water and landuse decisions. Land use change models that combine a top-down approach with a bottom-up stakeholder approach are rare and yet essential to understanding how the social process of land use change and ecosystem function are

  19. Sedimentation and Its Impacts/Effects on River System and Reservoir Water Quality: case Study of Mazowe Catchment, Zimbabwe (United States)

    Tundu, Colleta; Tumbare, Michael James; Kileshye Onema, Jean-Marie


    Sediment delivery into water sources and bodies results in the reduction of water quantity and quality, increasing costs of water purification whilst reducing the available water for various other uses. The paper gives an analysis of sedimentation in one of Zimbabwe's seven rivers, the Mazowe Catchment, and its impact on water quality. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model was used to compute soil lost from the catchment as a result of soil erosion. The model was used in conjunction with GIS remotely sensed data and limited ground observations. The estimated annual soil loss in the catchment indicates soil loss ranging from 0 to 65 t ha yr-1. Bathymetric survey at Chimhanda Dam showed that the capacity of the dam had reduced by 39 % as a result of sedimentation and the annual sediment deposition into Chimhanda Dam was estimated to be 330 t with a specific yield of 226 t km-2 yr-1. Relationship between selected water quality parameters, TSS, DO, NO3, pH, TDS, turbidity and sediment yield for selected water sampling points and Chimhanda Dam was analyzed. It was established that there is a strong positive relationship between the sediment yield and the water quality parameters. Sediment yield showed high positive correlation with turbidity (0.63) and TDS (0.64). Water quality data from Chimhanda treatment plant water works revealed that the quality of water is deteriorating as a result of increase in sediment accumulation in the dam. The study concluded that sedimentation can affect the water quality of water sources.

  20. Impacts of climate change and socio-economic scenarios on flow and water quality of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM) river systems: low flow and flood statistics. (United States)

    Whitehead, P G; Barbour, E; Futter, M N; Sarkar, S; Rodda, H; Caesar, J; Butterfield, D; Jin, L; Sinha, R; Nicholls, R; Salehin, M


    The potential impacts of climate change and socio-economic change on flow and water quality in rivers worldwide is a key area of interest. The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) is one of the largest river basins in the world serving a population of over 650 million, and is of vital concern to India and Bangladesh as it provides fresh water for people, agriculture, industry, conservation and for the delta system downstream. This paper seeks to assess future changes in flow and water quality utilising a modelling approach as a means of assessment in a very complex system. The INCA-N model has been applied to the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna river systems to simulate flow and water quality along the rivers under a range of future climate conditions. Three model realisations of the Met Office Hadley Centre global and regional climate models were selected from 17 perturbed model runs to evaluate a range of potential futures in climate. In addition, the models have also been evaluated using socio-economic scenarios, comprising (1) a business as usual future, (2) a more sustainable future, and (3) a less sustainable future. Model results for the 2050s and the 2090s indicate a significant increase in monsoon flows under the future climates, with enhanced flood potential. Low flows are predicted to fall with extended drought periods, which could have impacts on water and sediment supply, irrigated agriculture and saline intrusion. In contrast, the socio-economic changes had relatively little impact on flows, except under the low flow regimes where increased irrigation could further reduce water availability. However, should large scale water transfers upstream of Bangladesh be constructed, these have the potential to reduce flows and divert water away from the delta region depending on the volume and timing of the transfers. This could have significant implications for the delta in terms of saline intrusion, water supply, agriculture and maintaining crucial ecosystems such

  1. The Columbia River System : the Inside Story.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.


    The Columbia Ricer is one of the greatest natural resources in the western United States. The river and its tributaries touch the lives of nearly every resident of the Northwest-from providing the world-famous Pacific salmon to supplying the clean natural fuel for over 75 percent of the region's electrical generation. Since early in the century, public and private agencies have labored to capture the benefits of this dynamic river. Today, dozens of major water resource projects throughout the region are fed by the waters of the Columbia Basin river system. And through cooperative efforts, the floods that periodically threaten developments near the river can be controlled. This publication presents a detailed explanation of the planning and operation of the multiple-use dams and reservoirs of the Columbia River system. It describes the river system, those who operate and use it, the agreements and policies that guide system operation, and annual planning for multiple-use operation.

  2. Water Quality Assessment of the Buffalo River, Arkansas, United States (United States)

    Bolin, K. L.; Ruhl, L. S.


    The Buffalo River was established as a National River by the U.S. Congress in 1972, and runs approximately 150 miles from Newton County, Arkansas to Baxter County where it joins the White River. The Buffalo National River is the one of the last free flowing rivers in the continental U.S. with a rich cultural and political history surrounding it. The geology surrounding the river can be characterized by its karst environment, which has led to the many caves, depressions, and sinkholes found along the river. Karst environments are more susceptible to groundwater pollution so drainage from septic systems is a major concern for towns along the river. There are also numerous abandoned mines in the Buffalo River watershed, especially in the Rush area, which was mined for lead and zinc. Additionally, an increase in livestock production in the area is also a concern for increased nitrate and phosphate, along with fertilizer runoff from agricultural areas. The purpose of this study was to determine the water quality changes along the Buffalo River from human and environmental influences. Samples at six different locations along the river were collected along with parameters such as pH, conductivity, salinity, and temperature during several trips in the summer of 2017. Water samples were analyzed for cations and anions by IC, trace metals by ICPMS, and Escherichia coli with agar plate colony counts. The results were used to map geochemical changes in the Buffalo River watershed, and calculate enrichment factors of constituents (like nitrate, phosphate, and trace elements) as the water flowed downstream.

  3. Dynamic water accounting in heavily committed river basins (United States)

    Tilmant, Amaury; Marques, Guilherme


    Many river basins throughout the world are increasingly under pressure as water demands keep rising due to population growth, industrialization, urbanization and rising living standards. In the past, the typical answer to meet those demands focused on the supply-side and involved the construction of hydraulic infrastructures to capture more water from surface water bodies and from aquifers. As river basins were being more and more developed, downstream water users and ecosystems have become increasingly dependant on the management actions taken by upstream users. The increased interconnectedness between water users, aquatic ecosystems and the built environment is further compounded by climate change and its impact on the water cycle. Those pressures mean that it has become increasingly important to measure and account for changes in water fluxes and their corresponding economic value as they progress throughout the river system. Such basin water accounting should provide policy makers with important information regarding the relative contribution of each water user, infrastructure and management decision to the overall economic value of the river basin. This paper presents a dynamic water accounting approach whereby the entire river basin is considered as a value chain with multiple services including production and storage. Water users and reservoirs operators are considered as economic agents who can exchange water with their hydraulic neighbors at a price corresponding to the marginal value of water. Effective water accounting is made possible by keeping track of all water fluxes and their corresponding transactions using the results of a hydro-economic model. The proposed approach is illustrated with the Eastern Nile River basin in Africa.

  4. Multielement analysis of water in Yodo River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamuro, Tetsuo; Mizohata, Akira; Matsunami, Tadao; Matsuda, Yatsuka


    Yodo River is a major source of water supplies in the Osaka district. Three tributaries including Katsura River flow into this river at close positions. It is known that the Katsura River is considerably polluted due to the sewage treatment in Kyoto City. Following the previous survey in September, 1970, a similar survey by neutron activation has been carried out on the pollution of the Yodo River in October, 1977, by increasing the number of sampling points. Because it is reported that the pollution of the Katsura River has been largely lowered from that in the previous survey, the purpose was to grasp the present situation of the water pollution of the Yodo River due to metal elemens and others, and further to examine in relation of material balance. The procedures used were, first, the evaporation and solidification of sample water, and then neutron activation analysis. The correlation among the concentrations of elements, the pattern of the concentrations of elements, the material balance along the Yodo River, etc. are described in this paper. (J.P.N.)

  5. Studies of Columbia River water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Johanson, P.A.; Baca, R.G.; Hilty, E.L.


    The program to study the water quality of the Columbia River consists of two separate segments: sediment and radionuclide transport and temperature analysis. Quasi-two dimensional (longitudinal and vertical directions) mathematical simulation models were developed for determining radionuclide inventories, their variations with time, and movements of sediments and individual radionuclides in the freshwater region of the Columbia River below Priest Rapids Dam. These codes are presently being applied to the river reach between Priest Rapids and McNary Dams for the initial sensitivity analysis. In addition, true two-dimensional (longitudinal and lateral directions) models were formulated and are presently being programmed to provide more detailed information on sediment and radionuclide behavior in the river. For the temperature analysis program, river water temperature data supplied by the U. S. Geological Survey for six ERDA-sponsored temperature recording stations have been analyzed and cataloged on storage devices associated with ERDA's CDC 6600 located at Richland, Washington

  6. Transboundary water issues: The Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Debasri; Goswami, A.B.; Bose, Balaram


    Sharing of water of transboundary rivers among riparian nations has become a cause of major concern in different parts of the globe for quite sometime. The issue in the recent decades has been transformed into a source of international tensions and disputes resulting in strained relationships between riparian nations. Conflicts over sharing of water of the international rivers, like the Tigris, Euphrates and Jordan in the Middle East, the Nile in Northern Africa, the Mekong in South-East Asia, the Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna in the Indian subcontinent are widely known. The present paper discusses the water sharing -issue in the Ganga- Brahmaputra-Meghna basin located in the Indian sub continent covering five sovereign countries (namely India, Nepal, China, Bhutan and Bangladesh). Rapidly growing population, expanding agricultural and industrial activities besides the impacts of climate change have resulted in stressed condition in the arena of fresh water availability in the basin. Again occurrence of arsenic in sub-surface water in the lower reaches of the basin in India and Bangladesh has also added a new dimension to the problem. All the rivers of the GBM system exhibit wide variations between peak and lean flows as major part of the basin belongs to the monsoon region, where 80%-90 % of annual rainfall is concentrated in 4-5 months of South -West monsoon in the subcontinent. Over and above, the rivers in GBM system carry huge loads of sediments along with the floodwater and receive huge quantum of different kinds of wastes contaminating the water of the rivers. Again high rate of sedimentation of the major rivers and their tributaries have been affecting not only the carrying capacity of the rivers but also drastically reduced their retention capacity. Almost every year during monsoon about 27% and nearly 60% of the GBM basin lying in India and Bangladesh respectively experience flood. The year round navigation in many rivers has also been affected. All these have

  7. Simulating Water Resource Disputes of Transboundary River: A Case Study of the Zhanghe River Basin, China (United States)

    Yuan, Liang; He, Weijun; Liao, Zaiyi; Mulugeta Degefu, Dagmawi; An, Min; Zhang, Zhaofang


    Water resource disputes within transboundary river basin has been hindering the sustainable use of water resources and efficient management of environment. The problem is characterized by a complex information feedback loop that involves socio-economic and environmental systems. This paper presents a system dynamics based model that can simulate the dynamics of water demand, water supply, water adequacy and water allocation instability within a river basin. It was used for a case study in the Zhanghe River basin of China. The base scenario has been investigated for the time period between 2000 and 2050. The result shows that the Chinese national government should change the water allocation scheme of downstream Zhanghe River established in 1989, more water need to be allocated to the downstream cities and the actual allocation should be adjusted to reflect the need associated with the socio-economic and environmental changes within the region, and system dynamics improves the understanding of concepts and system interactions by offering a comprehensive and integrated view of the physical, social, economic, environmental, and political systems.

  8. Optimizing Water Allocation under Uncertain System Conditions for Water and Agriculture Future Scenarios in Alfeios River Basin (Greece—Part B: Fuzzy-Boundary Intervals Combined with Multi-Stage Stochastic Programming Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Bekri


    Full Text Available Optimal water allocation within a river basin still remains a great modeling challenge for engineers due to various hydrosystem complexities, parameter uncertainties and their interactions. Conventional deterministic optimization approaches have given their place to stochastic, fuzzy and interval-parameter programming approaches and their hybrid combinations for overcoming these difficulties. In many countries, including Mediterranean countries, water resources management is characterized by uncertain, imprecise and limited data because of the absence of permanent measuring systems, inefficient river monitoring and fragmentation of authority responsibilities. A fuzzy-boundary-interval linear programming methodology developed by Li et al. (2010 is selected and applied in the Alfeios river basin (Greece for optimal water allocation under uncertain system conditions. This methodology combines an ordinary multi-stage stochastic programming with uncertainties expressed as fuzzy-boundary intervals. Upper- and lower-bound solution intervals for optimized water allocation targets and probabilistic water allocations and shortages are estimated under a baseline scenario and four water and agricultural policy future scenarios for an optimistic and a pessimistic attitude of the decision makers. In this work, the uncertainty of the random water inflows is incorporated through the simultaneous generation of stochastic equal-probability hydrologic scenarios at various inflow positions instead of using a scenario-tree approach in the original methodology.

  9. River water infiltration enhances denitrification efficiency in riparian groundwater. (United States)

    Trauth, Nico; Musolff, Andreas; Knöller, Kay; Kaden, Ute S; Keller, Toralf; Werban, Ulrike; Fleckenstein, Jan H


    Nitrate contamination in ground- and surface water is a persistent problem in countries with intense agriculture. The transition zone between rivers and their riparian aquifers, where river water and groundwater interact, may play an important role in mediating nitrate exports, as it can facilitate intensive denitrification, which permanently removes nitrate from the aquatic system. However, the in-situ factors controlling riparian denitrification are not fully understood, as they are often strongly linked and their effects superimpose each other. In this study, we present the evaluation of hydrochemical and isotopic data from a 2-year sampling period of river water and groundwater in the riparian zone along a 3rd order river in Central Germany. Based on bi- and multivariate statistics (Spearman's rank correlation and partial least squares regression) we can show, that highest rates for oxygen consumption and denitrification in the riparian aquifer occur where the fraction of infiltrated river water and at the same time groundwater temperature, are high. River discharge and depth to groundwater are additional explanatory variables for those reaction rates, but of minor importance. Our data and analyses suggest that at locations in the riparian aquifer, which show significant river water infiltration, heterotrophic microbial reactions in the riparian zone may be fueled by bioavailable organic carbon derived from the river water. We conclude that interactions between rivers and riparian groundwater are likely to be a key control of nitrate removal and should be considered as a measure to mitigate high nitrate exports from agricultural catchments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Klamath River Basin water-quality data (United States)

    Smith, Cassandra D.; Rounds, Stewart A.; Orzol, Leonard L.; Sobieszczyk, Steven


    The Klamath River Basin stretches from the mountains and inland basins of south-central Oregon and northern California to the Pacific Ocean, spanning multiple climatic regions and encompassing a variety of ecosystems. Water quantity and water quality are important topics in the basin, because water is a critical resource for farming and municipal use, power generation, and for the support of wildlife, aquatic ecosystems, and endangered species. Upper Klamath Lake is the largest freshwater lake in Oregon (112 square miles) and is known for its seasonal algal blooms. The Klamath River has dams for hydropower and the upper basin requires irrigation water to support agriculture and grazing. Multiple species of endangered fish inhabit the rivers and lakes, and the marshes are key stops on the Pacific flyway for migrating birds. For these and other reasons, the water resources in this basin have been studied and monitored to support their management distribution.

  11. Hydrological and Water Quality Characteristics of Rivers Feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    declining water flows, making most rivers ephemeral or intermittent resulting into water reservoirs storing ... bearing system in the district (Malawi Government, 2006). .... Methodology (BBM) is used and in this methodology, assessments are based on videographic ...... Dams and Development, A New Framework for Decision.

  12. The quality of our Nation's waters: water quality in the Mississippi embayment-Texas coastal uplands aquifer system and Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer, south-central United States, 1994-2008 (United States)

    Kingsbury, James A.; Barlow, Jeannie R.; Katz, Brian G.; Welch, Heather L.; Tollett, Roland W.; Fahlquist, Lynne S.


    About 8 million people rely on groundwater from the Mississippi embayment—Texas coastal uplands aquifer system for drinking water. The Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer also provides drinking water for domestic use in rural areas but is of primary importance to the region as a source of water for irrigation. Irrigation withdrawals from this aquifer are among the largest in the Nation and play a key role in the economy of the area, where annual crop sales total more than $7 billion. The reliance of the region on both aquifers for drinking water and irrigation highlights the importance of long-term management to sustain the availability and quality of these resources.

  13. Petroleum hydrocarbons in a water-sediment system from Yellow River estuary and adjacent coastal area, China: Distribution pattern, risk assessment and sources. (United States)

    Wang, Min; Wang, Chuanyuan; Li, Yuanwei


    Aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs), biomarker and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations of surface water and sediment samples collected from Yellow River Estuary and adjacent coastal area in China were measured to determine their spatial distributions, analyze their sources and evaluate the ecological risk of PAHs in the water-sediment system. The spatial distributions of n-alkane in sediments are mainly controlled by the mixing inputs of terrigenous and marine components. In comparison with AHs, the total concentrations of Σ16PAHs in surface sediments from a transect of the offshore area were noticeably higher than that of the riverine and estuary areas. Additionally, the AHs and total PAHs concentrations all indicated an overall pattern of a seaward decrease. The PAHs concentrations during the dry season (mainly in the form of dissolved phase) were higher than that of PAHs (mainly dissolved phase and particulate phase form) in the flooding season. In comparison with global concentration levels of PAHs, the level of PAHs in suspended particulate matter and sediments from the Yellow River Estuary was lower than those from other countries, while the concentration of PAHs in the dissolved phase were in the middle range. Petroleum contamination, mainly from oil exploration and discharge of pollutants from rivers, was the main source of n-alkanes. The PAHs in the river were mostly of petrogenic origin, while those in the estuarial and marine areas originated mainly from pyrogenic sources. The results of the toxicology assessment suggested that the PAHs in sediments from Yellow River Estuary and adjacent coastal area exhibited a low potential eco-toxicological contamination level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Experiments with Interaction between the National Water Model and the Reservoir System Simulation Model: A Case Study of Russian River Basin (United States)

    Kim, J.; Johnson, L.; Cifelli, R.; Chandra, C. V.; Gochis, D.; McCreight, J. L.; Yates, D. N.; Read, L.; Flowers, T.; Cosgrove, B.


    NOAA National Water Center (NWC) in partnership with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and other academic partners have produced operational hydrologic predictions for the nation using a new National Water Model (NWM) that is based on the community WRF-Hydro modeling system since the summer of 2016 (Gochis et al., 2015). The NWM produces a variety of hydrologic analysis and prediction products, including gridded fields of soil moisture, snowpack, shallow groundwater levels, inundated area depths, evapotranspiration as well as estimates of river flow and velocity for approximately 2.7 million river reaches. Also included in the NWM are representations for more than 1,200 reservoirs which are linked into the national channel network defined by the USGS NHDPlusv2.0 hydrography dataset. Despite the unprecedented spatial and temporal coverage of the NWM, many known deficiencies exist, including the representation of lakes and reservoirs. This study addresses the implementation of a reservoir assimilation scheme through coupling of a reservoir simulation model to represent the influence of managed flows. We examine the use of the reservoir operations to dynamically update lake/reservoir storage volume states, characterize flow characteristics of river reaches flowing into and out of lakes and reservoirs, and incorporate enhanced reservoir operating rules for the reservoir model options within the NWM. Model experiments focus on a pilot reservoir domain-Lake Mendocino, CA, and its contributing watershed, the East Fork Russian River. This reservoir is modeled using United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) HEC-ResSim developed for application to examine forecast informed reservoir operations (FIRO) in the Russian River basin.

  15. The effect of feeding frequency, water temperature, and stocking density on the growth of river puffer Takifugu obscurus reared in a zero-exchange water system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwang-Yeol Yoo


    Full Text Available Abstract The effects of daily feeding frequency (Exp I, water temperature (Exp II, and stocking density (Exp III on the growth of river puffer, Takifugu obscurus, juvenile fish of 10 and 40 g in body weight were examined to develop effective techniques to produce river puffer in a non-exchange water system. In Exp I, fish were fed commercial floating feed with 45 % protein one to five times per day to apparent satiation each by hand daily for 8 weeks at 25 °C. In both the 10- and 40-g size groups, the final body weight, daily feed consumption, and weight gain of fish fed one meal per day were significantly lower than those of fish fed five meals per day (P < 0.05. However, there were no significant differences in the final body weight, daily feed consumption, and weight gain among fish fed two, three, and five meals per day. Feed efficiency showed decreasing tendency with increasing size of fish. In Exp II, fish of 10 and 40 g in initial body weight were reared with the commercial feed at 15–30 °C for 8 weeks. The weight gain of fish increased with raising water temperature up to 25 °C and decreased drastically at 30 °C for both sizes. The Q10 of specific growth rate was decreased with raising water temperature from 5.04 (temperature interval, 15–20 °C to 0.66 (25–30 °C for the 10-g fish and from 4.98 to 0.31 for the 40-g fish. In Exp III, the effect of stocking density on growth was examined with fish of 10 and 40 g in initial body weight. The final body weight for initial stocking densities of 4, 8, and 12 kg/m3 was significantly higher than that of 20 kg/m3 for the 10-g fish, and the final stocking density reached 10.1, 19.2, 28.7, and 39.9 kg/m3, respectively. For the 40-g fish, the final body weight for initial stocking densities of 3 and 6 kg/m3 was significantly higher than that of 9 and 15 kg/m3 and the final stocking density reached 7.38, 13.5, 17.1, and 27.5 kg/m3, respectively (P < 0.05. In both

  16. Agricultural water conservation programs in the lower Colorado River Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, J.


    Rice irrigation is the largest user of water within the area served by the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA), accounting for approximately 75 percent of total annual surface and ground water demands. In an average year, about 30 percent of surface water supplied to rice irrigation is satisfied with water released from the storage in the Highland Lakes located at the upstream reaches of the Lower Colorado River and its tributaries. During a severe drought, the demand for stored water could be as much as 70 percent of annual rice irrigation demand. LCRA owns and operates two irrigation canal systems which together supply water to irrigate 60,000 acres of rice each year. These irrigation systems are the Lakeside and Gulf Coast Irrigation Divisions. The Lakeside system is located in Colorado and Wharton Counties and the Gulf Coast system is located in Wharton and Matagorda Counties. In the 1987 and 1989, the Lower Colorado River Authority Board of Directors authorized implementation and funding for Canal Rehabilitation Project and Irrigation Water Measurement Project respectively. These two projects are key initiatives to agricultural water conservation goals established in the LCRA Water Management Plan and Water Conservation Policy. In addition LCRA participated actively in agricultural water conservation research projects and technology transfer activities

  17. Water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riess, R.


    The present paper describes the coolant chemistry and its consequences for 1300 MWsub(e) KWU PWR plants. Some selected systems, i.e. primary heat transport system, steam water cycle and cooling water arrangements, are chosen for this description. Various aspects of coolant chemistry regarding general corrosion, selective types of corrosion and deposits on heat transfer surfaces have been discussed. The water supply systems necessary to fulfill the requirements of the coolant chemistry are discussed as well. It has been concluded that a good operating performance can only be achieved when - beside other factors - the water chemistry has been given sufficient consideration. (orig./RW)

  18. Water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riess, R.


    The present paper describes the coolant chemistry and its consequences for 1300 MWsub(e) KWU PWR plants. Some selected systems, i.e. primary heat transport system, steam water cycle and cooling water arrangements, are chosen for this description. Various aspects of coolant chemistry regarding general corrosion, selective types of corrosion and deposits on heat transfer surface have been discussed. The water supply systems necessary to fulfill the requirements of the coolant chemistry are discussed as well. It has been concluded that a good operating performance can only be achieved when - beside other factors - the water chemistry has been given sufficient consideration. (orig./RW)

  19. Development of flaw evaluation and acceptance procedures for flaw indications in the cooling water system at the Savannah River site K reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandon, S.; Bamford, W.H.; Cowfer, C.D.; Ostrowski, R.


    This paper describes the methodology used in determining the criteria for acceptance of inspection indications in the K-Reactor Cooling Water System at the Savannah River Plant. These criteria have been developed in a manner consistent with the development of similar criteria in the ASME Code Section XI for commercial light water reactors, but with a realistic treatment of the operating conditions in the cooling water system. The technical basis for the development of these criteria called ''Acceptance Standards'' is contained in this paper. A second portion of this paper contains the methodology used in the construction of flaw evaluation charts which have been developed for each specific line size in the cooling water system. The charts provide the results of detailed fracture mechanics calculations which have been completed to determine the largest flaw which can be accepted in the cooling water system without repair. These charts are designed for use in conjunction with in-service inspections of the cooling water system, and only require inspection results to determine acceptability

  20. Modeling human-water-systems: towards a comprehensive and spatially distributed assessment of co-evolutions for river basins in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Krahe


    Full Text Available In the context of river basin and flood risk management there is a growing need to improve the understanding of and the feedbacks between the driving forces “climate and socio-economy” and water systems. We make use of a variety of data resources to illustrate interrelationships between different constituents of the human-water-systems. Taking water storage for energy production as an example we present a first analysis on the co-evolution of socio-economic and hydrological indicators. The findings will serve as for the development of conceptual, but fully coupled socio-hydrological models for selected sectors and regions. These models will be used to generate integrated scenarios of the climate and socio-economic change.

  1. An Optimization Waste Load Allocation Model in River Systems (United States)

    Amirpoor Daylami, A.; jarihani, A. A.; Aminisola, K.


    In many river systems, increasing of the waste discharge leads to increasing pollution of these water bodies. While the capacity of the river flow for pollution acceptance is limited and the ability of river to clean itself is restricted, the dischargers have to release their waste into the river after a primary pollution treatment process. Waste Load Allocation as a well-known water quality control strategy is used to determine the optimal pollutant removal at a number of point sources along the river. This paper aim at developing a new approach for treatment and management of wastewater inputs into the river systems, such that water quality standards in these receiving waters are met. In this study, inspired by the fact that cooperation among some single point source waste dischargers can lead to a more waste acceptance capacity and/or more optimum quality control in a river, an efficient approach was implemented to determine both primary waste water treatment levels and/or the best releasing points of the waste into the river. In this methodology, a genetic algorithm is used as an optimization tool to calculate optimal fraction removal levels of each one of single or shared discharger. Besides, a sub-model embedded to optimization model was used to simulate water quality of the river in each one of discharging scenarios based on the modified Streeter and Phelps quality equations. The practical application of the model is illustrated with a case study of the Gharesoo river system in west of Iran.

  2. Transfer mechanisms in cultivated soils of waste radionuclides from electronuclear power plants in the system river--irrigated soil--underground water level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saas, A; Grauby, A


    From symposinm on environmentl behavior of radionuclides released in the nuclear industry; Aix-en-Provence, France (14 May 1973). The location of nuclear power plants by rivers whose waters are used for irrigation and industrial and domestic consumption necessities a profound study of the river-irrigated soil- ground water system. Mechanisms of radionuclide transport in cultivated soil are considered under three principal aspects: the effect of the quality of the river water, of the irrigation channels, and of the ground water level on the mobility of the radionuclides in the soil; the influence of the type of soil (the four types of soils considered are acid brown soil, calcic brown soil, chalky brown soil, and chalky alluvial soil); and the distribution of radionuclides in the soil (hydrosoluble forms can contminate the ground water level and these are the forms in which they are taken up by plants. A study was made on the following nuclides: /sup 22/Na, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 85/Sr, /Sup 54/Mn, /Sup 59/Fe, /Sup 60/ Co, /sup 65/Zn, /sup 124/Sb, /sup 141 in the cultivated soils permit the evaluation of the risks of contmination of the food chain and of the underground water. This study also showed new perspectives of the behavior of radionuclides as a function of their contmination of the organo-mineral wastes of industrial and domestic origin. This pollution interfers largely with the formation of stble complexes carried by the river to irrigated soils. The quality of the water determines the distribution of the radionuclides in the profile. The hydrosoluble complex persists in the soil and migrates toward the underground water level if they are not biodegradable. The stability of these forms as a function of the soil pH and of its physicochemical characteristics, as well as that of the radionuclides considered, permit the formulation of a new balance of the radionuclides in soils. The formulation of new proposals for the contml of nuclear sites is discussed. (tr-auth)

  3. Transit time measurement of Juqueri river waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plata Bedmar, E.; Garcia A, E.; Albuquerque, A.M. de; Sanchez, W.


    The time of travel of the Juqueri River water through the east branch of the Pirapora Reservoir was measured using radioactive tracers (6 Ci 131 I in Kl Solution). The changes in Juqueri River flow rate were also measured during the run. The center of mass of the radioactive cloud was used for the time of travel calculations. Six measurements of the Juqueri River flow rate were perfomed in different days, using the total count method. Fifty, millicuries of 131 I were used in each run. The results of time travel obtained under non-steady conditions, and their correction for steady state are also discussed

  4. Isotope geochemistry and fluxes of carbon and organic matter in tropical small mountainous river systems and adjacent coastal waters of the Caribbean (United States)

    Moyer, Ryan; Bauer, James; Grottoli, Andrea


    Recent studies have shown that small mountainous rivers (SMRs) may act as sources of aged and/or refractory carbon (C) to the coastal ocean, which may increase organic C burial at sea and subsidize coastal food webs and heterotrophy. However, the characteristics and spatial and temporal variability of C and organic matter (OM) exported from tropical SMR systems remain poorly constrained. To address this, the abundance and isotopic character (δ13C and Δ14C) of the three major C pools were measured in two Puerto Rico SMRs with catchments dominated by different land uses (agricultural vs. non-agricultural recovering forest). The abundance and character of C pools in associated estuaries and adjacent coastal waters were also examined. Riverine dissolved and particulate organic C (DOC and POC, respectively) concentrations were highly variable with respect to land use and sampling month, while dissolved inorganic C (DIC) was significantly higher at all times in the agricultural catchment. In both systems, riverine DOC and POC ranged from modern to highly aged (2,340 years before present), while DIC was always modern. The agricultural river and irrigation canals contained very old DOC (1,184 and 2,340 years before present, respectively), which is consistent with findings in temperate SMRs and indicates that these tropical SMRs provide a source of aged DOC to the ocean. During months of high river discharge, OM in estuarine and coastal waters had C isotope signatures reflective of direct terrestrial input, indicating that relatively unaltered OM is transported to the coastal ocean at these times. This is also consistent with findings in temperate SMRs and indicates that C transported to the coastal ocean by SMRs may differ from that of larger rivers because it is exported from smaller catchments that have steeper terrains and fewer land-use types.

  5. The Lower Sevier River Basin Crop Monitor and Forecast Decision Support System: Exploiting Landsat Imagery to Provide Continuous Information to Farmers and Water Managers (United States)

    Torres-Rua, A. F.; Walker, W. R.; McKee, M.


    The last century has seen a large number of innovations in agriculture such as better policies for water control and management, upgraded water conveyance, irrigation, distribution, and monitoring systems, and better weather forecasting products. In spite of this, irrigation management and irrigation water deliveries by farmers/water managers is still based on factors like water share amounts, tradition, and past experience on irrigation. These factors are not necessarily related to the actual crop water use; they are followed because of the absence of related information provided in a timely manner at an affordable cost. Thus, it is necessary to develop means to deliver continuous and personalized information about crop water requirements to water users/managers at the field and irrigation system levels so managers at these levels can better quantify the required versus available water for irrigation during the irrigation season. This study presents a new decision support system (DSS) platform that addresses the absence of information on actual crop water requirements and crop performance by providing continuous updated farm-based crop water use along with other farm performance indicators such as crop yield and farm management to irrigators and water managers. This DSS exploits the periodicity of the Landsat Satellite Mission (8 to 16 days, depending on the period of interest) to provide remote monitoring at the individual field and irrigation system levels. The Landsat satellite images are converted into information about crop water use, yield performance and field management through application of state-of-the-art semi-physical and statistical algorithms that provide this information at a pixel basis that are ultimately aggregated to field and irrigation system levels. A version of the DSS has been implemented for the agricultural lands in the Lower Sevier River, Utah, and has been operational since the beginning of the 2013 irrigation season. The main goal of

  6. The impact of industries on surface water quality of River Ona and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of water from two rivers (River Ona and River Alaro) in Oluyole ... were higher in the industrial zones than those found in the upstream of both rivers. ... Key words: River Ona, River Alaro, industrial discharges, surface water quality.

  7. Madawaska River water management review : issues, concerns, solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Public consultations were held by the Public Advisory Committee, the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (MNR) and Ontario Hydro (OH) Working Group and Steering Committee, in an effort to develop a water management system for the Madawaska River, that would address public interests such as public safety, maintenance of the aquatic ecosystem and hydroelectric power generation. Provision of long-term opportunities for broad public involvement in the river's management was an additional objective. The report emphasizes the importance of limiting conflicts between hydroelectric generation and recreation/tourism on the Madawaska River, which runs within the Madawaska Highlands, Algonquin Provincial Park and the Upper Ottawa Valley. The major competing uses for water management in the Madawaska River are: (1) hydroelectric generation, (2) flood control, (3) recreation and tourism, and (4) fish and aquatic ecosystems. Each of these are described in detail, with details of the responses to the issue description and recommended actions

  8. Water quality and treatment of river bank filtrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. W. J. M. de Vet


    Full Text Available In drinking water production, river bank filtration has the advantages of dampening peak concentrations of many dissolved components, substantially removing many micropollutants and removing, virtually completely, the pathogens and suspended solids. The production aquifer is not only fed by the river bank infiltrate but also by water percolating through covering layers. In the polder areas, these top layers consist of peat and deposits from river sediments and sea intrusions.

    This paper discusses the origin and fate of macro components in river bank filtrate, based on extensive full-scale measurements in well fields and treatment systems of the Drinking Water Company Oasen in the Netherlands. First, it clarifies and illustrates redox reactions and the mixing of river bank filtrate and PW as the dominant processes determining the raw water quality for drinking water production. Next, full-scale results are elaborated on to evaluate trickling filtration as an efficient and proven one-step process to remove methane, iron, ammonium and manganese. The interaction of methane and manganese removal with nitrification in these systems is further analyzed. Methane is mostly stripped during trickling filtration and its removal hardly interferes with nitrification. Under specific conditions, microbial manganese removal may play a dominant role.

  9. The Adsorption Langmuir Model of Transfer Metal Ti, V and Mn on System Water-Sediment in Along Side Code River, Yogyakarta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rini Jati Wardani; Muzakky; Agus Taftazani


    The adsorption langmuir model of transfer metal Ti, V and Mn on system water-sediment in along side Code river, Yogyakarta has been studied. For that purpose, the study is to make prediction about adsorption langmuir model of identified metal Ti, V and Mn from upstream until downstream samples water and sediment in along side Code river. The factor influenced of langmuir adsorption on transfer metal Ti, V and Mn in system water-sediment is Total Suspended Solid (TSS). The analysis showed that between TSS with metal concentration in sediment have linear correlation. The result of calculation from curve of langmuir isotherm, showed for Ti has R 2 = 0.8006 with capacities of adsorption = 0.5 mol/l and energy of adsorption = 13.286 J/mol, V has R 2 = 0.9883 with capacities of adsorption = 0.0137 mol/l and energy of adsorption = 16.64 J/mol, Mn has R 2 = 0.9624 with capacities of adsorption 0.152 mol/l and energy of adsorption = 10.51 J/mol. The conclusion from this topic about adsorption langmuir for metal Ti, V and Mn according to energy of langmuir adsorption by chemisorption process above 10 J/mo. (author)

  10. Controlling The Surface Water of Shatt Al Arab River by using Sluice Gates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Naseh Ahmed Hamdan


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to find hydrodynamic simulations of river water by controlging gates in Shatt Al Arab river. This river is formed by the meeting of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers near the city of Qurna in the south of Iraq, and it pours into the Arabian Gulf. Hydrodynamic simulations give a proper understanding performance and optimize utilization of the gates controlging the water level. Three different sluice gates opening cases simulate the water surface level using HEC-RAS in Shatt Al Arab river. These cases where being studied within two situations of Tide (the highest high water level and the lowest low water level within the downstream of Shatt Al Arab river. The study also deals with six cases of flow rates in upstream of Shatt Al Arab river. Hec-Ras model is produced by US Army for analyzing river system. This model could simulate steady and unsteady open channel flow.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The centralized sewerage systems and wastewater treatment facilities were constructed in Tbilisi in the middle of the previous century. Nowadays only mechanical treatment stage operates in wastewater treatment facilities of Tbilisi. Moreover, collected wastewater from the sewerage systems often drains without any treatment directly into the small rivers located in Tbilisi area. These rivers feed the main water artery of our capital – river Mtkvari and play an important role in its salt balance. As a result of study of hydro-chemical parameters of Tbilisi small rivers were identified Water Pollution Index (WPI and assessment of small rivers pollution by sewage waters was carried out. It was established that small rivers of Tbilisi belong to the IV and V classes, i.e. less polluted and polluted rivers, while according to the content of fecal matter in the river water they are ranged in the class of polluted and most polluted.

  12. Timing of warm water refuge use in Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge by manatees—Results and insights from Global Positioning System telemetry data (United States)

    Slone, Daniel H.; Butler, Susan M.; Reid, James P.; Haase, Catherine G.


    Managers at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge (CRNWR) desire to update their management plan regarding the operation of select springs including Three Sisters Springs. They wish to refine existing parameters used to predict the presence of federally threatened Trichechus manatus latirostris (Florida manatee) in the springs and thereby improve their manatee management options. The U.S. Geological Survey Sirenia Project has been tracking manatees in the CRNWR area since 2006 with floating Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite-monitored telemetry tags. Analyzing movements of these tagged manatees will provide valuable insight into their habitat use patterns.A total of 136 GPS telemetry bouts were available for this project, representing 730,009 locations generated from 40 manatees tagged in the Gulf of Mexico north of Tampa, Florida. Dates from October through March were included to correspond to the times that cold ambient temperatures were expected, thus requiring a need for manatee thermoregulation and a physiologic need for warm water. Water level (tide) and water temperatures were obtained for the study from Salt River, Crystal River mouth, Bagley Cove, Kings Bay mouth, and Magnolia Spring. Polygons were drawn to subdivide the manatee locations into areas around the most-used springs (Three Sisters/Idiots Delight, House/Hunter/Jurassic, Magnolia and King), Kings Bay, Crystal/Salt Rivers and the Gulf of Mexico.Manatees were found in the Crystal or Salt Rivers or in the Gulf of Mexico when ambient temperatures were warmer (>20 °C), while they were found in or near the springs (especially Three Sisters Springs) at colder ambient water temperatures. There was a trend of manatees entering springs early in the morning and leaving in the afternoon. There was a strong association of manatee movements in and out of the Three Sisters/Idiots Delight polygon with tide cycles: manatees were more likely to enter the Three Sisters

  13. Effects of Climate Change in the Water Balance of a Modified River Watershed System in Central Illinois (United States)

    Honings, J.; Seyoum, W. M.


    Understanding the response of water cycle dynamics to climate change and human activity is essential for best management of water resources. This study used the USDA Soil-Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to measure and predict major water balance variables including stream discharge, potential aquifer recharge, and surface storage in a small-scale watershed ( 2,930 km²) in Central Illinois. The Mackinaw River drains the study watershed, which is predominantly tile-drained agricultural land. Two reservoirs, Evergreen Lake and Lake Bloomington, and the Mahomet Aquifer in the watershed are used for public water supply. Tiles modify watershed hydrology by efficiently draining water from saturated soil to streams, which increases total streamflow and reduces direct aquifer recharge from precipitation. To assess how the watershed is affected by future climate change, this study used high-resolution climate projection data ( 12 km) in a calibrated and validated SWAT hydrologic model. Using General Circulation Models, four (4) representative concentration pathways (RCPs) developed by the IPCC Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Fifth Assessment Report (CMIP5) were used for prediction of precipitation, mean, minimum, and maximum temperature for the watershed. Temperature predictions for 2050 were warmer for RCPs 2.6 and 8.0 (+0.69°C and +1.8°C), coinciding with increased precipitation rates (+2.5% and +4.3%). End of century projections indicate warmer mean temperatures (+0.66°C and +4.9°C) for RCPs 2.6 and 8.0. By 2099, precipitation predictions are wetter for RCP 8.0 (+10%), but drier for RCP 2.6 (-2%) from the baseline. Preliminary model calibration (R2 value = 0.7) results showed an annual average watershed yield of 32.8 m³/s at the outlet with average potential recharge of 18% of total precipitation. Tile flow comprises 10 to 30% of total flow in the watershed simulations. Predicted hydrologic variables for the extreme scenarios at mid- and end of century indicate

  14. Water System Adaptations To Hydrological Changes: Module 4, Water Quality Response to Land-use and Precipitation Changes : Case Study of Ohio River Valley, USA (United States)

    This course focuses on water system adaptation to short-term and long-term climate and hydrologic stressors that affect water availability, water quality, security, and resilience. The course is organized into 15 sequential modules. The lectures will be augmented by weekly assign...

  15. Microelement Exploration Water Flow of Rimnik River


    , N. Bajraktari; , B. Baraj; , T. Arbneshi; , S. Jusufi


    Compared to the increasing need on qualitative water use, many water şows are subject to a rising pollution by urban and industrial untreated water discharge, and in some cases by incidental run-offs. Besides them, there is also a great impact made by disseminated agricultural pollution and air and soil rinsing after atmospheric rainfalls. The main purpose of this paper is the micro-element exploration in water and sediments, along the water şow of Rimnik River. Some of the heavy metals: Pb, ...

  16. [Water environmental capacity calculation model for the rivers in drinking water source conservation area]. (United States)

    Chen, Ding-jiang; Lü, Jun; Shen, Ye-na; Jin, Shu-quan; Shi, Yi-ming


    Based on the one-dimension model for water environmental capacity (WEC) in river, a new model for the WEC estimation in river-reservoir system was developed in drinking water source conservation area (DWSCA). In the new model, the concept was introduced that the water quality target of the rivers in DWSCA was determined by the water quality demand of reservoir for drinking water source. It implied that the WEC of the reservoir could be used as the water quality control target at the reach-end of the upstream rivers in DWSCA so that the problems for WEC estimation might be avoided that the differences of the standards for a water quality control target between in river and in reservoir, such as the criterions differences for total phosphorus (TP)/total nitrogen (TN) between in reservoir and in river according to the National Surface Water Quality Standard of China (GB 3838-2002), and the difference of designed hydrology conditions for WEC estimation between in reservoir and in river. The new model described the quantitative relationship between the WEC of drinking water source and of the river, and it factually expressed the continuity and interplay of these low water areas. As a case study, WEC for the rivers in DWSCA of Laohutan reservoir located in southeast China was estimated using the new model. Results indicated that the WEC for TN and TP was 65.05 t x a(-1) and 5.05 t x a(-1) in the rivers of the DWSCA, respectively. According to the WEC of Laohutan reservoir and current TN and TP quantity that entered into the rivers, about 33.86 t x a(-1) of current TN quantity should be reduced in the DWSCA, while there was 2.23 t x a(-1) of residual WEC of TP in the rivers. The modeling method was also widely applicable for the continuous water bodies with different water quality targets, especially for the situation of higher water quality control target in downstream water body than that in upstream.

  17. Evaluation of Ravi river water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K.; Ali, W.


    Investigation from 1989 to 1998 on river Ravi pollution was carried out to study the effects of wastewater discharges on its water quality in relation to its various water use. The sources of pollution entering the river between Syphon (20 Km upstream) and Balloki Head works (75 Km downstream) includes Upper Chenab Canal (U.C.) which bring industrial effluents through Deg municipal swage from the city of Lahore. Investigation revealed that the flow in the river are highly variable with time during the year U.C. canal with a capacity of 220 m/sup 3//S at the tail and Qadiarabad (Q.B.) Link canal with a capacity of 410 m3/S are mainly responsible for higher flows during dry season. A desecrating trend has been observed in the D.O. Levels indicating increasing pollution. Over times D.O values are above 4 mg/l indicating recovery due to dilution biodegradation and aeration. An increasing trend has been observed in Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), suspended solids, total dissolved solids and indicator organisms. Even with the discharges of pollutions from U.C. canal, Hudiara Nullah and city sewage, BOD at Balloki was unexpectedly low. It was investigated that because of pollution free Q.B. link canal which joins the river just before Balloki Head works makes the water diluted, which accounted for low BOD. Water of river Ravi meet the chemical water quality requirement for irrigation. However the water quality does not meet the coliform and faecal coliform criteria for most water use. (orig../A.B.)

  18. Modeling and assessing field irrigation water use in a canal system of Hetao, upper Yellow River basin: Application to maize, sunflower and watermelon (United States)

    Ren, Dongyang; Xu, Xu; Hao, Yuanyuan; Huang, Guanhua


    Water saving in irrigation is a key issue in the upper Yellow River basin. Excessive irrigation leads to water waste, water table rising and increased salinity. Land fragmentation associated with a large dispersion of crops adds to the agro-hydrological complexity of the irrigation system. The model HYDRUS-1D, coupled with the FAO-56 dual crop coefficient approach (dualKc), was applied to simulate the water and salt movement processes. Field experiments were conducted for maize, sunflower and watermelon crops in the command area of a typical irrigation canal system in Hetao Irrigation District during 2012 and 2013. The model was calibrated and validated in three crop fields using two-year experimental data. Simulations of soil moisture, salinity concentration and crop yield fitted well with the observations. The irrigation water use was then evaluated and results showed that large amounts of irrigation water percolated due to over-irrigation but their reuse through capillary rise was also quite large. That reuse was facilitated by the dispersion of crops throughout largely fragmented field, thus with fields reusing water percolated from nearby areas due to the rapid lateral migration of groundwater. Beneficial water use could be improved when taking this aspect into account, which was not considered in previous researches. The non-beneficial evaporation and salt accumulation into the root zone were found to significantly increase during non-growth periods due to the shallow water tables. It could be concluded that when applying water saving measures, close attention should be paid to cropping pattern distribution and groundwater control in association with irrigation scheduling and technique improvement.

  19. An assessment of water quality of Angaw River in Southeastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical and bacteriological water quality of the Angaw river were investigated at three different locations on the river. A range of water quality variables were measured in the river over a period of 12 months. The river was characterized by high ionic content. Relatively higher levels of ionic constituents occurred at ...

  20. RIVER-RAD, Radionuclide Transport in Surface Waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    1 - Description of program or function: RIVER-RAD assesses the potential fate of radionuclides released to rivers. The model is simplified in nature and is intended to provide guidance in determining the potential importance of the surface water pathway, relevant transport mechanisms, and key radionuclides in estimating radiological dose to man. 2 - Method of solution: A compartmental linear transfer model is used in RIVER-RAD. The river system model in the code is divided into reaches (compartments) of equal size, each with a sediment compartment below it. The movement of radionuclides is represented by a series of transfers between the reaches, and between the water and sediment compartments of each reach. Within each reach (for both the water and sediment compartments), the radionuclides are assumed to be uniformly mixed. Upward volatilization is allowed from the water compartment, and the transfer of radionuclides between the reaches is determined by the flow rate of the river. Settling and resuspension velocities determine the transfer of absorbed radionuclides between the water and sediment compartments. Radioactive decay and decay-product buildup are incorporated into all transport calculations for all radionuclide chains specified by the user. Each nuclide may have unique input and removal rates. Volatilization and radiological decay are considered as linear rate constants in the model. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: None noted

  1. Measurement of Iodine-129 concentration in environmental water samples around Fukushima area - Role of river system in the global iodine cycle (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Tokuyama, Hironori; Miyake, Yasuto; Honda, Maki; Yamagata, Takeyasu; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki


    According to Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, vast amount of radioactive nuclides including radioactive iodine were spilled out into the environment. There is no question about that detailed observation of distribution of radioactive nuclides and evaluation of the radiation exposure of residents is extremely important. On the other hand, from the view of an elemental dynamics in the environment, this event can be considered as a spike of the radioactive isotope. It is also the case for the iodine. A rare isotope Iodine-129 was widely distributed in a very short time by the FDNPP accident. Iodine-129 directly landing on the soil surface had been trapped in the upper layer of the soil and the depth profile should indicate the migration in and the interaction with the soil. If Iodine-129 was trapped in the woods, it seems to take rather longer time to landing on the ground. Either way, a certain portion of the Iodine-129 should be moving downward and finally washed out by the groundwater or river with a certain rate and transported into the sea. The concentration of Iodine-129 in environmental water samples taken from rivers and ponds are considered to reflect the iodine transportation process by the fluvial system. For the detailed discussion of the role of the fluvial system in the global iodine cycle, Iodine-129 concentration of various water samples collected from Fukushima area was measured by means of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. The results ranged from 3E06 atoms/L to 3E09 atoms/L. Samples from Abukuma area (South West of FDNPP) showed lower concentration. On the other hand, samples collected from North West part (Iitate village and Minami Soma region) showed higher concentration (more than 1E8 atoms/L). Delayed enhancement of Iodine-129 concentration over a year in river systems surrounded by woods was also observed which is considered to correspond to the delayed release from the woods.

  2. Importance of boreal rivers in providing iron to marine waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma S Kritzberg

    Full Text Available This study reports increasing iron concentrations in rivers draining into the Baltic Sea. Given the decisive role of iron to the structure and biogeochemical function of aquatic ecosystems, this trend is likely one with far reaching consequences to the receiving system. What those consequences may be depends on the fate of the iron in estuarine mixing. We here assess the stability of riverine iron by mixing water from seven boreal rivers with artificial sea salts. The results show a gradual loss of iron from suspension with increasing salinity. However, the capacity of the different river waters to maintain iron in suspension varied greatly, i.e. between 1 and 54% of iron was in suspension at a salinity of 30. The variability was best explained by iron:organic carbon ratios in the riverine waters--the lower the ratio the more iron remained in suspension. Water with an initially low iron:organic carbon ratio could keep even higher than ambient concentrations of Fe in suspension across the salinity gradient, as shown in experiments with iron amendments. Moreover, there was a positive relationship between the molecular size of the riverine organic matter and the amount of iron in suspension. In all, the results point towards a remarkably high transport capacity of iron from boreal rivers, suggesting that increasing concentrations of iron in river mouths may result in higher concentrations of potentially bioavailable iron in the marine system.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    obtained in this work, the river water is safe for the aquatic life therein. ... environmental issue in developing countries. ... of these ions to enhance water quality of this ... IN SOKOTO-RIMA RIVER SYSTEM IN NORTH IN WESTERN NIGERIA.

  4. Impact of Yangtze river water transfer on the water quality of the Lixia river watershed, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxue Ma

    Full Text Available To improve water quality and reduce the negative impacts of sudden inputs of water pollution in the Lixia River watershed, China, a series of experimental water transfers from the Yangtze River to the Lixia River were conducted from 2 December 2006 to 7 January 2007. Water samples were collected every six days at 55 monitoring sites during this period. Eight water parameters (water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO, chemical oxygen demand (COD, potassium permanganate index (CODMn, ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N, electrical conductivity (EC, and water transparency (WT were analyzed to determine changes in nutrient concentrations during water transfers. The comprehensive pollution index (Pi and single-factor (Si evaluation methods were applied to evaluate spatio-temporal patterns of water quality during water transfers. Water quality parameters displayed different spatial and temporal distribution patterns within the watershed. Water quality was improved significantly by the water transfers, especially for sites closer to water intake points. The degree of improvement is positively related to rates of transfer inflow and drainage outflow. The effects differed for different water quality parameters at each site and at different water transfer times. There were notable decreases in NH4+-N, DO, COD, and CODMn across the entire watershed. However, positive effects on EC and pH were not observed. It is concluded that freshwater transfers from the Yangtze River can be used as an emergency measure to flush pollutants from the Lixia River watershed. Improved understanding of the effects of water transfers on water quality can help the development and implementation of effective strategies to improve water quality within this watershed.

  5. Maintaining healthy rivers and lakes through water diversion from Yangtze River to Taihu Lake in Taihu Basin


    Wu Haoyun; Hu Yan


    On the basis of the Taihu water resources assessment, an analysis of the importance and rationality of the water diversion from the Yangtze River to Taihu Lake in solving the water problem and establishing a harmonious eco-environment in the Taihu Basin is performed. The water quantity and water quality conjunctive dispatching decision-making support system, which ensures flood control, water supply and eco-aimed dispatching, is built by combining the water diversion with flood control dispat...

  6. Tritium in the Savannah River Estuary and adjacent marine waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.W.


    The tritium distribution in the Savannah River estuary and adjacent marine waters was measured to provide information on the dilution, mixing, and movement of Savannah River water in this region. The Savannah River marine region was chosen because the average tritium concentration in this river is 5 pCi/ml, whereas other rivers in the southeastern United States average less than 0.5 pCi/ml. The increased tritium concentration in the Savannah River is due to releases from the Savannah River Plant of the Department of Energy. Tritium measurements have proved particularly effective in estimating the flushing time of the Savannah River estuary (2.4 days) and in delineating the relative contribution to the water masses in Ossabaw and Port Royal Sounds from the River and from sea water. Ossabaw and Port Royal Sounds are located approximately 20 km south and north of the Savannah River estuary, respectively

  7. Tritium in the Savannah River estuary and adjacent marine waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.W.


    The tritium distribution in the Savannah River estuary and adjacent marine waters was measured to provide information on the dilution, mixing and movement of Savannah River water in this region. The Savannah River marine region was chosen because the average tritium concentration in this river is approximately 5 pCi/ml, whereas other rivers in the southeastern United States of America average less than 0.5 pCi/ml. The increased tritium concentration in the Savannah River is due to releases from the Savannah River Plant of the Department of Energy. Tritium measurements have proved particularly effective in estimating the flushing time of the Savannah River estuary (2.4 days) and in delineating the relative contribution to the water masses in Ossabaw and Port Royal Sounds from the river and from sea-water. Ossabaw and Port Royal Sounds are located approximately 20 km south and north of the Savannah River estuary respectively. (author)

  8. Long-term changes in river system hydrology in Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang


    Full Text Available Climate change and human actives are recognized as a topical issue that change long-term water budget, flow-frequency, and storage-frequency characteristics of different river systems. Texas is characterized by extreme hydrologic variability both spatially and temporally. Meanwhile, population and economic growth and accompanying water resources development projects have greatly impacted river flows throughout Texas. The relative effects of climate change, water resources development, water use, and other factors on long-term changes in river flow, reservoir storage, evaporation, water use, and other components of the water budgets of different river basins of Texas have been simulated in this research using the monthly version of the Water Rights Analysis Package (WRAP modelling system with input databases sets from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ and Texas Water Development Board (TWDB. The results show that long-term changes are minimal from analysis monthly precipitation depths. Evaporation rates vary greatly seasonally and for much of the state appear to have a gradually upward trend. River/reservoir system water budgets and river flow characteristics have changed significantly during the past 75 years in response to water resources development and use.

  9. Particulate matter characterization of Cauca River water in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez Marin, Juan Pablo; van Halem, D.; Rietveld, L.C.


    The particulate matter composition in the Upper Cauca River section was studied, considering the importance of this river for the water supply of Cali, Colombia, and the implications that the turbidity of this water source has had for the city's water treatment. Additionally, the upstream Palo River

  10. Modeling a complex system of multipurpose reservoirs under prospective scenarios (hydrology, water uses, water management): the case of the Durance River basin (South Eastern France, 12 800 km2) (United States)

    Monteil, Céline; Hendrickx, Frédéric; Samie, René; Sauquet, Eric


    but also evapotranspiration process. However changes in total precipitation are highly uncertain. The six tested rainfall-runoff models project reduced flows, especially in the spring and summer seasons. Depending on the socio-economic scenarios and the area, the downstream total water needs could decrease or remain stable. Considering the present day constraints, these changes would lead to a decrease in energy production (mainly due to reduced annual inflows) and to less flexibility for hydropower management during winter peak energy demand. Results of the R²D² 2050 project suggest also that the downscaling methods still fail to reproduce some crucial aspects of the climate at regional scale. Unexpected biases are propagated along the chain of models. The key issue to simulate accurately reservoir operations under present and future climate conditions is the filling curves that depict the balance between water supply and demand. Probabilistic filling curves were calibrated here to meet the constraint on water level in summer objective nine years over ten. A large proportion of regional climates generated over the baseline period lead to unrealistic curves, pointing out higher levels of requirement in models output to assess global change impacts on water management systems like on the Durance River basin.

  11. Cost-effective solutions for water quality improvement in the Dommel river supported by sewer-WWTP-river integrated modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benedetti, L.; Langeveld, J.; Nieuwenhuijzen, van A.F.; Jonge, de J.; Weijers, S.; Klein, de J.J.M.; Nopens, I.; Flameling, T.; Zanten, van O.


    This project aims at finding cost-efficient sets of measures to meet the Water Framework Directive (WFD) derived goals for the Dommel River (The Netherlands). Within the project, both acute and long-term impacts of the urban wastewater system on the chemical and ecological quality of the river are

  12. Modeling of Water Quality 'Almendares River'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domínguez Catasús, Judith


    The river Almendares, one of the most important water bodies of the Havana City, is very polluted. The analysis of parameters as dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand is very helpful for the studies aimed to the recovery of the river. There is a growing recognition around the word that the water quality models are very useful tools to plan sanitary strategies for the handling of the contamination. In the present work, the advective, steady- state Streeter and Phelps model was validated to simulate the effect of the multiple-point and distributed sources on the carbonaceous oxygen demand, NH4 and dissolved oxygen. For modeling purposes the section of the river located between the point where the waste water treatment station Maria del Carmen discharges to the river and the Bridge El Bosque, was divided in 11 segments. The use of the 99mTc and the Rodamine WT as tracers allowed determining the hydrodynamic parameters necessary for modeling purposes. The validated model allows to predict the effect of the sanitary strategies on the water quality of the river. The main conclusions are: 1. The model Streeter and Phelps calibrated and validated in the Almendares between the confluence of the channel 'María del Carmen' and bridge the Forest of Havana, described in more than 90% The behavior of the dissolved oxygen and BODn (in terms of ammonia), and more than 85%, the carbonaceous demand oxygen, which characterizes the process of purification. 2. Model validation Streeter and Phelps, indicates that implicit conceptual model is appropriate. This refers primarily to the considerations relating to the calculation of the kinetic constants and the DOS, the segmentation used, to the location of the discharges and the Standing been about them, to the river morphology and hydrodynamic parameters . 3. The calibration procedure Streeter and Phelps model that determines the least-squares Kr-Kd pair that best fits the OD and uses this Kr to model BOD gets four% increase in

  13. Production of poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid by microorganisms accumulated from river water using a two-stage perfusion culture system. (United States)

    Morimoto, T; Tashiro, F; Nagashima, H; Nishizawa, K; Nagata, F; Yokogawa, Y; Suzuki, T


    The perfusion culture system using a shaken ceramic membrane flask (SCMF) was employed to accumulate microorganisms separated from river water and to produce poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB). Using a two-step culture method with a single SCMF, river microorganisms were cultured by separately feeding four representative carbon sources, n-propanol, lactic acid, methanol, and formic acid. After 140 h culture, the cell concentration and PHB content respectively reached 43 g/l and 35% when a propanol medium was fed. Using a two-stage perfusion culture with twin SCMFs, the seed cell mass was increased in the first SCMF and then supplied to the second flask for PHB production. As a consequence, the cellular PHB content rose to 51% in the second SCMF, while the cell concentration gradually increased to 25 g/l after 175 h perfusion culture. These results demonstrated the utility of the two-stage perfusion culture system for developing a cheap means of producing PHB coincident with wastewater treatment.

  14. Studying groundwater and surface water interactions using airborne remote sensing in Heihe River basin, northwest China (United States)

    Liu, C.; Liu, J.; Hu, Y.; Zheng, C.


    Managing surface water and groundwater as a unified system is important for water resource exploitation and aquatic ecosystem conservation. The unified approach to water management needs accurate characterization of surface water and groundwater interactions. Temperature is a natural tracer for identifying surface water and groundwater interactions, and the use of remote sensing techniques facilitates basin-scale temperature measurement. This study focuses on the Heihe River basin, the second largest inland river basin in the arid and semi-arid northwest of China where surface water and groundwater undergoes dynamic exchanges. The spatially continuous river-surface temperature of the midstream section of the Heihe River was obtained by using an airborne pushbroom hyperspectral thermal sensor system. By using the hot spot analysis toolkit in the ArcGIS software, abnormally cold water zones were identified as indicators of the spatial pattern of groundwater discharge to the river.

  15. Studying groundwater and surface water interactions using airborne remote sensing in Heihe River basin, northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Liu


    Full Text Available Managing surface water and groundwater as a unified system is important for water resource exploitation and aquatic ecosystem conservation. The unified approach to water management needs accurate characterization of surface water and groundwater interactions. Temperature is a natural tracer for identifying surface water and groundwater interactions, and the use of remote sensing techniques facilitates basin-scale temperature measurement. This study focuses on the Heihe River basin, the second largest inland river basin in the arid and semi-arid northwest of China where surface water and groundwater undergoes dynamic exchanges. The spatially continuous river-surface temperature of the midstream section of the Heihe River was obtained by using an airborne pushbroom hyperspectral thermal sensor system. By using the hot spot analysis toolkit in the ArcGIS software, abnormally cold water zones were identified as indicators of the spatial pattern of groundwater discharge to the river.

  16. Mitigation and enhancement techniques for the Upper Mississippi River system and other large river systems (United States)

    Schnick, Rosalie A.; Morton, John M.; Mochalski, Jeffrey C.; Beall, Jonathan T.


    Extensive information is provided on techniques that can reduce or eliminate the negative impact of man's activities (particularly those related to navigation) on large river systems, with special reference to the Upper Mississippi River. These techniques should help resource managers who are concerned with such river systems to establish sound environmental programs. Discussion of each technique or group of techniques include (1) situation to be mitigated or enhanced; (2) description of technique; (3) impacts on the environment; (4) costs; and (5) evaluation for use on the Upper Mississippi River Systems. The techniques are divided into four primary categories: Bank Stabilization Techniques, Dredging and Disposal of Dredged Material, Fishery Management Techniques, and Wildlife Management Techniques. Because techniques have been grouped by function, rather than by structure, some structures are discussed in several contexts. For example, gabions are discussed for use in revetments, river training structures, and breakwaters. The measures covered under Bank Stabilization Techniques include the use of riprap revetments, other revetments, bulkheads, river training structures, breakwater structures, chemical soil stabilizers, erosion-control mattings, and filter fabrics; the planting of vegetation; the creation of islands; the creation of berms or enrichment of beaches; and the control of water level and boat traffic. The discussions of Dredging and the Disposal of Dredged Material consider dredges, dredging methods, and disposal of dredged material. The following subjects are considered under Fishery Management Techniques: fish attractors; spawning structures; nursery ponds, coves, and marshes; fish screens and barriers; fish passage; water control structures; management of water levels and flows; wing dam modification; side channel modification; aeration techniques; control of nuisance aquatic plants; and manipulated of fish populations. Wildlife Management

  17. The Missing Link: the Role of Floodplain Tie Channels in Connecting Off River Water Bodies to Lowland Rivers (United States)

    Rowland, J. C.; Dietrich, W. E.; Day, G.


    Along lowland river systems across the globe the exchange of water, sediment, carbon, nutrients and biota between main stem rivers and off-river water bodies (ORWB) is facilitated by the presence of stable secondary channels referred to here as tie channels. Sixty five percent of the ORWB along the middle Fly River in Papua New Guinea connect to the river through such channels. A similar percentage of the 37 ORWB located between Baton Rouge and Memphis on the lower Mississippi River at one time were linked to the river by tie or batture (as they are locally known) channels. Levee construction and other alterations aimed at flood control or navigation on the Mississippi have left only a handful of lakes connected to the river, of these, most are heavily altered by dredging or other modifications. Tie channels were also once common along major tributaries to the Mississippi, such as the Red River. In the much less disturbed Alaskan environment, tie channels are still common, especially along Birch Creek and the Koyukuk and Black rivers. Our studies on the Mississippi River, in Alaska and in Papua New Guinea indicate that tie channels possess a common channel form that is stable and self-maintaining for hundreds to possibly a thousand years. Tie channels exhibit narrow width to depth ratios (~ 5.5) and consistently scale in cross-sectional dimensions to the size of the lake into which they flow. Variations in river and lake stage drive flow bi-directionally through tie channels. A local high or sill in the bed of tie channels controls the degree and duration of connection between the river and ORWB, with many lakes becoming isolated during periods of low stage. The life-span of a tie channel depends on the rate of sediment loading to the ORWB. Our research indicates that this rate directly corresponds to the sediment loading in the main stem river. Along the Fly River, for example, a 5 to 7 fold increase in the river sediment load has resulted increases of 6 to 17

  18. Maintaining healthy rivers and lakes through water diversion from Yangtze River to Taihu Lake in Taihu Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Haoyun


    Full Text Available On the basis of the Taihu water resources assessment, an analysis of the importance and rationality of the water diversion from the Yangtze River to Taihu Lake in solving the water problem and establishing a harmonious eco-environment in the Taihu Basin is performed. The water quantity and water quality conjunctive dispatching decision-making support system, which ensures flood control, water supply and eco-aimed dispatching, is built by combining the water diversion with flood control dispatching and strengthening water resources monitoring and forecasting. With the practice and effect assessment, measures such as setting the integrated basin management format, further developing water diversion and improving the hydraulic engineering projects system and water monitoring system are proposed in order to maintain healthy rivers and guarantee the development of the economy and society in the Taihu Basin.

  19. Chemometric investigations on the differentiated evaluation of element trace analysis in river waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einax, J.; Geiss, S.


    The combination of sequential leaching methods for a first assessment of the kind of species in river sediments with multivariate-statistical methods (like factor analysis) for identifying anthropogenic and/or geogenic loading is useful for the differentiated characterization of the pollution state of a river. Electrochemical investigations, planned on the basis of statistical design and following empirical modelling, enables quantitative conclusions on the binding forms of heavy metals in river waters. Deposition-remobilisation effects of heavy metals in the complex system river water-river sediment can be described by PLS modelling. (orig.)

  20. 77 FR 23120 - Special Local Regulations; Lowcountry Splash Open Water Swim, Wando River and Cooper River, Mount... (United States)


    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Lowcountry Splash Open Water Swim, Wando River and Cooper River, Mount... establishing special local regulations on the waters of the Wando River and Cooper River in Mount Pleasant... River and Cooper River along the shoreline of Mount Pleasant, South Carolina. The Lowcountry Splash...

  1. Global River Discharge and Water Temperature under Climate Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Franssen, W.H.P.; Yearsley, J.R.; Ludwig, F.; Haddeland, I.; Lettenmaier, D.P.; Kabat, P.


    Climate change will affect hydrologic and thermal regimes of rivers, having a direct impact on freshwater ecosystems and human water use. Here we assess the impact of climate change on global river flows and river water temperatures, and identify regions that might become more critical for

  2. Tracing the spatial propagation of river inlet water into an agricultural polder area using anthropogenic gadolinium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rozemeijer


    Full Text Available Diverting river water into agricultural areas or nature reserves is a frequently applied management strategy to prevent fresh water shortage. However, the river water might have negative consequences for chemical and ecological water quality in the receiving water bodies. This study aimed to obtain a spatial image of the diverted river water propagation into a hydrologically complex polder area, the polder Quarles van Ufford in The Netherlands. We used anthropogenic gadolinium (Gd-anomaly as a tracer for river water that was diverted into the polder. A clear reduction in the river water contribution was found between very dry conditions on 5 August 2010 and very wet conditions on 22 October. Despite the large river water impact on 5 August, the diverted river water did not propagate up into the small agricultural headwater ditches. Gadolinium proved to be an effective tracer for diverted river water in a polder system. We applied our results to upgrade the interpretation of water quality monitoring data and to validate an integrated nutrient transport model.

  3. Distribution of radioactive constituents in river waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, M.; Elejalde, C.; Legarda, F.; Romero, F.


    For a research project on the distribution and evaluation of natural and artificial radioactive constituents in ecological segments of Biscay (northeast spain), the amounts of nuclides present in the main river waters were measured. Radioactive procedures include i) total alpha and beta indexes with a gas flow detector, dry residues near to 2 and 10 mg/ cm sup 2, respectively and counting periods of 1000 mn, ii) gamma emitters with a low level gamma spectrometer (Ge-HP detector + 8000 channels analyser) using the dry residue from 8 litres and a counting period of 4 days and iii) statistical treatment of data at 95% confidence.In this paper, ten water samples from the nervion river basin are included. Physical and chemical parameters of samples were also determined by standard procedures, because there is a sharp change in the composition of this river in the first part of the course. Radioactive constituents were identified as follows: a sample has a detectable alpha index, all samples contains beta emitters with a high variability, natural nuclides from uranium and thorium families were detected in some cases. A parallel behaviour is found between samples where K-40 and Cs-137 were found. The paper tries at last to find relations among chemical and radioactive constituents by the application of multivariate statistical methods, specially for the case of Cs-137, the only artificial nuclide identified in this work. 1 tab., 2 figs., 5 refs. (author)

  4. Industrial pollution and the management of river water quality: a model of Kelani River, Sri Lanka. (United States)

    Gunawardena, Asha; Wijeratne, E M S; White, Ben; Hailu, Atakelty; Pandit, Ram


    Water quality of the Kelani River has become a critical issue in Sri Lanka due to the high cost of maintaining drinking water standards and the market and non-market costs of deteriorating river ecosystem services. By integrating a catchment model with a river model of water quality, we developed a method to estimate the effect of pollution sources on ambient water quality. Using integrated model simulations, we estimate (1) the relative contribution from point (industrial and domestic) and non-point sources (river catchment) to river water quality and (2) pollutant transfer coefficients for zones along the lower section of the river. Transfer coefficients provide the basis for policy analyses in relation to the location of new industries and the setting of priorities for industrial pollution control. They also offer valuable information to design socially optimal economic policy to manage industrialized river catchments.

  5. The Influence of Water Conservancy Projects on River Network Connectivity, A Case of Luanhe River Basin (United States)

    Li, Z.; Li, C.


    Connectivity is one of the most important characteristics of a river, which is derived from the natural water cycle and determine the renewability of river water. The water conservancy project can change the connectivity of natural river networks, and directly threaten the health and stability of the river ecosystem. Based on the method of Dendritic Connectivity Index (DCI), the impacts from sluices and dams on the connectivity of river network are deeply discussed herein. DCI quantitatively evaluate the connectivity of river networks based on the number of water conservancy facilities, the connectivity of fish and geographical location. The results show that the number of water conservancy facilities and their location in the river basin have a great influence on the connectivity of the river network. With the increase of the number of sluices and dams, DCI is decreasing gradually, but its decreasing range is becoming smaller and smaller. The dam located in the middle of the river network cuts the upper and lower parts of the whole river network, and destroys the connectivity of the river network more seriously. Therefore, this method can be widely applied to the comparison of different alternatives during planning of river basins and then provide a reference for the site selection and design of the water conservancy project and facility concerned.

  6. Water quality of Cisadane River based on watershed segmentation (United States)

    Effendi, Hefni; Ayu Permatasari, Prita; Muslimah, Sri; Mursalin


    The growth of population and industrialization combined with land development along river cause water pollution and environmental deterioration. Cisadane River is one of the river in Indonesia where urbanization, industrialization, and agricultural are extremely main sources of pollution. Cisadane River is an interesting case for investigating the effect of land use to water quality and comparing water quality in every river segment. The main objectives with this study were to examine if there is a correlation between land use and water quality in Cisadane River and there is a difference in water quality between the upstream section of Cisadane River compared with its downstream section. This study compared water quality with land use condition in each segment of river. Land use classification showed that river segment that has more undeveloped area has better water quality compared to river segment with developed area. in general, BOD and COD values have increased from upstream to downstream. However, BOD and COD values do not show a steady increase in each segment Water quality is closely related to the surrounding land use.Therefore, it can not be concluded that the water quality downstream is worse than in the upstream area.

  7. Water utilization in the Snake River Basin (United States)

    Hoyt, William Glenn; Stabler, Herman


    The purpose of this report is to describe the present utilization of the water in the Snake River Basin with special reference to irrigation and power and to present essential facts concerning possible future utilization. No detailed plan of development is suggested. An attempt has been made, however, to discuss features that should be taken into account in the formulation of a definite plan of development. On account of the size of the area involved, which is practically as large as the New England States and New York combined, and the magnitude of present development and future possibilities, considerable details have of necessity been omitted. The records of stream flow in the basin are contained in the reports on surface water supply published annually by the Geological Survey. These records are of the greatest value in connection with the present and future regulation and utilization of the basin's largest asset water.

  8. Influence of flood risk management measures on socio-economic and ecological vulnerabilities in a large water system - A case study of Lake Vänern and the Göta älv River, Sweden (United States)

    Nyberg, L.; Blumenthal, B.; Johansson, M.


    An important feature of flood risk management is to integrate ecological, economical and social aspects on prevention and mitigation measures. Protective measures could potentially be in conflict with sound functions of ecosystems or cause conflicts in upstream/downstream relations. A case study of a large water system in south-western Sweden - Lake Vänern and the Göta älv River - was used to analyse the relation between socio-economic and ecological vulnerabilities and to identify opposing interests regarding water level fluctuations and high-water-level situations in the lake. Lake Vänern with its area of 5,500 km2 is the largest lake in Sweden and within the European Union. The Göta älv River runs from the lake outlet 90 km down to the sea at Gothenburg. The total catchment area upstream of the river mouth is 51,000 km2. Vänern and Göta älv are used for hydropower production, shipping, tourism, fishing, drinking water supply, as waste water recipient, etc. The risk system is complex with flood risks in the lake and in Gothenburg which are connected to landslide risks and industrial risks in the river valley, and where the drinking water supply for 700,000 persons in the Gothenburg region is at stake. Because of the landslide risks along the downstream river, the water discharge from Lake Vänern is limited. During periods of high inflow to the lake, situations of high water-levels last at least for six months. Substantial increases in precipitation during the 21st century, according to IPCC, will give a corresponding increase in flood risks.

  9. Susquehanna River Basin Hydrologic Observing System (SRBHOS) (United States)

    Reed, P. M.; Duffy, C. J.; Dressler, K. A.


    In response to the NSF-CUAHSI initiative for a national network of Hydrologic Observatories, we propose to initiate the Susquehanna River Basin Hydrologic Observing System (SRBHOS), as the northeast node. The Susquehanna has a drainage area of 71, 410 km2. From the headwaters near Cooperstown, NY, the river is formed within the glaciated Appalachian Plateau physiographic province, crossing the Valley and Ridge, then the Piedmont, before finishing its' 444 mile journey in the Coastal Plain of the Chesapeake Bay. The Susquehanna is the major source of water and nutrients to the Chesapeake. It has a rich history in resource development (logging, mining, coal, agriculture, urban and heavy industry), with an unusual resilience to environmental degradation, which continues today. The shallow Susquehanna is one of the most flood-ravaged rivers in the US with a decadal regularity of major damage from hurricane floods and rain-on-snow events. As a result of this history, it has an enormous infrastructure for climate, surface water and groundwater monitoring already in place, including the nations only regional groundwater monitoring system for drought detection. Thirty-six research institutions have formed the SRBHOS partnership to collaborate on a basin-wide network design for a new scientific observing system. Researchers at the partner universities have conducted major NSF research projects within the basin, setting the stage and showing the need for a new terrestrial hydrologic observing system. The ultimate goal of SRBHOS is to close water, energy and solute budgets from the boundary layer to the water table, extending across plot, hillslope, watershed, and river basin scales. SRBHOS is organized around an existing network of testbeds (legacy watershed sites) run by the partner universities, and research institutions. The design of the observing system, when complete, will address fundamental science questions within major physiographic regions of the basin. A nested

  10. Water quality of the Chhoti Gandak River using principal component ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ; therefore water samples were collected to analyse its quality along the entire length of Chhoti Gandak. River. The principal components of water quality are controlled by lithology, gentle slope gradient, poor drainage, long residence of water, ...

  11. Clinch river breeder reactor plant steam generator water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hoesen, D.; Lowe, P.A.


    The recent problems experienced by some LWR Steam Generators have drawn attention to the importance of system water quality and water/ steam side corrosion. Several of these reactor plants have encountered steam generator failures due to accelerated tube corrosion caused, in part, by poor water quality and corrosion control. The CRBRP management is aware of these problems, and the implications that they have for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CPBRP) Steam Generator System (SGS). Consequently, programs are being implemented which will: 1) investigate the corrosion mechanisms which may be present in the CRBRP SGS; 2) assure steam generator integrity under design and anticipated off-normal water quality conditions; and 3) assure that the design water quality levels are maintained at all times. However, in order to understand the approach being used to examine this potential problem, it is first necessary to look at the CRBRP SGS and the corrosion mechanisms which may be present

  12. Clinch river breeder reactor plant steam generator water quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoesen, D; Lowe, P A


    The recent problems experienced by some LWR Steam Generators have drawn attention to the importance of system water quality and water/ steam side corrosion. Several of these reactor plants have encountered steam generator failures due to accelerated tube corrosion caused, in part, by poor water quality and corrosion control. The CRBRP management is aware of these problems, and the implications that they have for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CPBRP) Steam Generator System (SGS). Consequently, programs are being implemented which will: (1) investigate the corrosion mechanisms which may be present in the CRBRP SGS; (2) assure steam generator integrity under design and anticipated off-normal water quality conditions; and (3) assure that the design water quality levels are maintained at all times. However, in order to understand the approach being used to examine this potential problem, it is first necessary to look at the CRBRP SGS and the corrosion mechanisms which may be present.

  13. A geomorphological characterisation of river systems in South Africa: A case study of the Sabie River (United States)

    Eze, Peter N.; Knight, Jasper


    Fluvial geomorphology affects river character, behaviour, evolution, trajectory of change and recovery potential, and as such affects biophysical interactions within a catchment. Water bodies in South Africa, in common with many other water-stressed parts of the world, are generally under threat due to increasing natural and anthropogenic influences including aridity, siltation and pollution, as well as climate and environmental change. This study reports on a case study to characterise the geomorphology of different river systems in South Africa, with the aim of better understanding their properties, controls, and implications for biophysical interactions including water quality, biodiversity (aquatic and riparian), and human activity within the catchment. The approach adopted is based on the River Styles® framework (RSF), a geomorphology-based approach developed for rivers in New Zealand and Australia, but applied here for the first time to South Africa. Based on analysis of remote sensing imagery, SRTM-2 digital topographic data and field observations on sites through the entire river system, six geomorphic elements were identified along the Sabie River, northeast South Africa (gorge, bedrock-forced meander, low-moderate sinuosity planform controlled sand bed, meandering sand bed, low sinuosity fine grained sand bed, and floodouts), using the RSF classification scheme and based on the RSF procedural tree of Brierley and Fryirs (2005). Previous geomorphological studies along the Sabie River have shown that different reaches respond differently to episodic floods; we use these data to link river geomorphological character (as defined by the RSF) to the hydrodynamic conditions and processes giving rise to such character. This RSF approach can be used to develop a new management approach for river systems that considers their functional biophysical behaviour within individual reaches, rather than considering them as homogeneous and uniform systems.

  14. California GAMA Special Study: Importance of River Water Recharge to Selected Groundwater Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, Ate [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moran, Jean E. [California State Univ. East Bay (CalState), Hayward, CA (United States); Singleton, Michael J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Esser, Bradley K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    River recharge represents 63%, 86% and 46% of modern groundwater in the Mojave Desert, Owens Valley, and San Joaquin Valley, respectively. In pre-modern groundwater, river recharge represents a lower fraction: 36%, 46%, and 24% respectively. The importance of river water recharge in the San Joaquin valley has nearly doubled and is likely the result of a total increase of recharge of 40%, caused by river water irrigation return flows. This emphasizes the importance of recharge of river water via irrigation for renewal of groundwater resources. Mountain front recharge and local precipitation contribute to recharge of desert groundwater basins in part as the result of geological features focusing scarce precipitation promoting infiltration. River water recharges groundwater systems under lower temperatures and with larger water table fluctuations than local precipitation recharge. Surface storage is limited in time and volume, as evidenced by cold river recharge temperatures resulting from fast recharge, compared to the large capacity for subsurface storage. Groundwater banking of seasonal surface water flows therefore appears to be a natural and promising method for increasing the resilience of water supply systems. The distinct isotopic and noble gas signatures of river water recharge, compared to local precipitation recharge, reflecting the source and mechanism of recharge, are valuable constraints for numerical flow models.

  15. Stable isotope content of South African river water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talma, A.S.


    Variations of the isotopic ratios 18 O/ 16 O and D/H in natural waters reflect the variety of processes to which the water was subjected within the hydrological cycle. Time series of the 18 O content of the major South African rivers over a few years have been obtained in order to characterise the main features of these variations in both time and space. Regionally the average '1 8 O content of river water reflects that of the prevailing rains within the catchment. 18 O variations with time are mainly correlated with river flow rates. Impoundments upstream and management of river flows reduce this correlation. Isotope variations along the course of a river show the effects of inflow from smaller streams and evaporation in the river or its impoundments. These observations indicate the use of isotopic methods to study the evaporation and mixing of river water and its interaction with the surrounding environment

  16. An advanced modelling tool for simulating complex river systems. (United States)

    Trancoso, Ana Rosa; Braunschweig, Frank; Chambel Leitão, Pedro; Obermann, Matthias; Neves, Ramiro


    The present paper describes MOHID River Network (MRN), a 1D hydrodynamic model for river networks as part of MOHID Water Modelling System, which is a modular system for the simulation of water bodies (hydrodynamics and water constituents). MRN is capable of simulating water quality in the aquatic and benthic phase and its development was especially focused on the reproduction of processes occurring in temporary river networks (flush events, pools formation, and transmission losses). Further, unlike many other models, it allows the quantification of settled materials at the channel bed also over periods when the river falls dry. These features are very important to secure mass conservation in highly varying flows of temporary rivers. The water quality models existing in MOHID are base on well-known ecological models, such as WASP and ERSEM, the latter allowing explicit parameterization of C, N, P, Si, and O cycles. MRN can be coupled to the basin model, MOHID Land, with computes runoff and porous media transport, allowing for the dynamic exchange of water and materials between the river and surroundings, or it can be used as a standalone model, receiving discharges at any specified nodes (ASCII files of time series with arbitrary time step). These features account for spatial gradients in precipitation which can be significant in Mediterranean-like basins. An interface has been already developed for SWAT basin model.

  17. Performance of single-pass and by-pass multi-step multi-soil-layering systems for low-(C/N)-ratio polluted river water treatment. (United States)

    Wei, Cai-Jie; Wu, Wei-Zhong


    Two kinds of hybrid two-step multi-soil-layering (MSL) systems loaded with different filter medias (zeolite-ceramsite MSL-1 and ceramsite-red clay MSL-2) were set-up for the low-(C/N)-ratio polluted river water treatment. A long-term pollutant removal performance of these two kinds of MSL systems was evaluated for 214 days. By-pass was employed in MSL systems to evaluate its effect on nitrogen removal enhancement. Zeolite-ceramsite single-pass MSL-1 system owns outstanding ammonia removal capability (24 g NH 4 + -Nm -2 d -1 ), 3 times higher than MSL-2 without zeolite under low aeration rate condition (0.8 × 10 4  L m -2 .h -1 ). Aeration rate up to 1.6 × 10 4  L m -2 .h -1 well satisfied the requirement of complete nitrification in first unit of both two MSLs. However, weak denitrification in second unit was commonly observed. By-pass of 50% influent into second unit can improve about 20% TN removal rate for both MSL-1 and MSL-2. Complete nitrification and denitrification was achieved in by-pass MSL systems after addition of carbon source with the resulting C/N ratio up to 2.5. The characters of biofilms distributed in different sections inside MSL-1 system well illustrated the nitrogen removal mechanism inside MSL systems. Two kinds of MSLs are both promising as an appealing nitrifying biofilm reactor. Recirculation can be considered further for by-pass MSL-2 system to ensure a complete ammonia removal. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of high-resolution imagery acquired from an unmanned aircraft system for fluvial mapping and estimating water-surface velocity in rivers (United States)

    Kinzel, P. J.; Bauer, M.; Feller, M.; Holmquist-Johnson, C.; Preston, T.


    The use of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) for environmental monitoring in the United States is anticipated to increase in the coming years as the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) further develops guidelines to permit their integration into the National Airspace System. The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Unmanned Aircraft Systems Project Office routinely obtains Certificates of Authorization from the FAA for utilizing UAS technology for a variety of natural resource applications for the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI). We evaluated the use of a small UAS along two reaches of the Platte River near Overton Nebraska, USA, to determine the accuracy of the system for mapping the extent and elevation of emergent sandbars and to test the ability of a hovering UAS to identify and track tracers to estimate water-surface velocity. The UAS used in our study is the Honeywell Tarantula Hawk RQ16 (T-Hawk), developed for the U.S. Army as a reconnaissance and surveillance platform. The T-Hawk has been recently modified by USGS, and certified for airworthiness by the DOI - Office of Aviation Services, to accommodate a higher-resolution imaging payload than was originally deployed with the system. The T-Hawk is currently outfitted with a Canon PowerShot SX230 HS with a 12.1 megapixel resolution and intervalometer to record images at a user defined time step. To increase the accuracy of photogrammetric products, orthoimagery and DEMs using structure-from-motion (SFM) software, we utilized ground control points in the study reaches and acquired imagery using flight lines at various altitudes (200-400 feet above ground level) and oriented both parallel and perpendicular to the river. Our results show that the mean error in the elevations derived from SFM in the upstream reach was 17 centimeters and horizontal accuracy was 6 centimeters when compared to 4 randomly distributed targets surveyed on emergent sandbars. In addition to the targets, multiple transects were

  19. Biomarker as an Indicator of River Water Quality Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwina Roosmini


    Full Text Available Generally physical and chemical methods are use in river water quality monitoring; currently biomarker is developed as alternative biomonitoring method. The aim of this study is to look at the probability using aquatic species in monitoring river water pollutants exposure. This study was done by using Hyposarcus pardalis as biomarker to analyze river water quality in Upstream Citarum River. Hyposarcus pardalis were taken along the river at five sampling point and look at the Cu and Zn concentration. Results from this study show that there was an indication that river water quality has been degrading along the river from upstream to downstream. Zn concentration in Hyposarcus pardalis were increasing as well as Cu concentration. The increase of Zn concentration in Hyposarcus pardalis indicating that the river was polluted by Zn. Secondary data and observation at sampling location shown that textile was the dominant industry which may contribute the Zn concentration in river as they received the effluent. Cu is use in metal coating process, as well as textile industry metal industries were identified at Majalaya, Bantar Panjang, Dayeuh Kolot and Katapang in Bandung-Indonesia. As a receiving water from many activities along the river, upstream Citarum River water quality become degrading as the increasing of heavy metal Zn and Cu concentration in Hyposarcus pardalis.

  20. Microbiological characteristics of waters in the major rivers in Kainji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    As a result water of the four rivers in the park is not potable during the ... drinking and domestic use. ... Water quality standards are usually expressed in term ... sence of pathogens and thus health hazard (Sandy and ... Table 2. Bacteriological examination of waters in the Rivers in Kainji Lake National Park during Wet ...

  1. Assessment of the hydraulic connection between ground water and the Peace River, west-central Florida (United States)

    Lewelling, B.R.; Tihansky, A.B.; Kindinger, J.L.


    The hydraulic connection between the Peace River and the underlying aquifers along the length of the Peace River from Bartow to Arcadia was assessed to evaluate flow exchanges between these hydrologic systems. Methods included an evaluation of hydrologic and geologic records and seismic-reflection profiles, seepage investigations, and thermal infrared imagery interpretation. Along the upper Peace River, a progressive long-term decline in streamflow has occurred since 1931 due to a lowering of the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer by as much as 60 feet because of intensive ground-water withdrawals for phosphate mining and agriculture. Another effect from lowering the potentiometric surface has been the cessation of flow at several springs located near and within the Peace River channel, including Kissengen Spring, that once averaged a flow of about 19 million gallons a day. The lowering of ground-water head resulted in flow reversals at locations where streamflow enters sinkholes along the streambed and floodplain. Hydrogeologic conditions along the Peace River vary from Bartow to Arcadia. Three distinctive hydrogeologic areas along the Peace River were delineated: (1) the upper Peace River near Bartow, where ground-water recharge occurs; (2) the middle Peace River near Bowling Green, where reversals of hydraulic gradients occur; and (3) the lower Peace River near Arcadia, where ground-water discharge occurs. Seismic-reflection data were used to identify geologic features that could serve as potential conduits for surface-water and ground-water exchange. Depending on the hydrologic regime, this exchange could be recharge of surface water into the aquifer system or discharge of ground water into the stream channel. Geologic features that would provide pathways for water movement were identified in the seismic record; they varied from buried irregular surfaces to large-scale subsidence flexures and vertical fractures or enlarged solution conduits

  2. Potability Evaluation of Selected River Waters in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on the seasonal variation of physiochemical and microbial characteristics of three selected river water in Ebonyi State for human consumption. The three selected rivers studied were Iyioka, Idima and Ubei Rivers. Data were generated using Direct Reading Engineering method (DREM), Gravimetric ...

  3. Monitoring and Assessment of Youshui River Water Quality in Youyang (United States)

    Wang, Xue-qin; Wen, Juan; Chen, Ping-hua; Liu, Na-na


    By monitoring the water quality of Youshui River from January 2016 to December 2016, according to the indicator grading and the assessment standard of water quality, the formulas for 3 types water quality indexes are established. These 3 types water quality indexes, the single indicator index Ai, single moment index Ak and the comprehensive water quality index A, were used to quantitatively evaluate the quality of single indicator, the water quality and the change of water quality with time. The results show that, both total phosphorus and fecal coliform indicators exceeded the standard, while the other 16 indicators measured up to the standard. The water quality index of Youshui River is 0.93 and the grade of water quality comprehensive assessment is level 2, which indicated that the water quality of Youshui River is good, and there is room for further improvement. To this end, several protection measures for Youshui River environmental management and pollution treatment are proposed.

  4. Lower Snake River Little Goose and Lower Granite Locks and Dams: Adult Fishway Systems Emergency Auxiliary Water Supply

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wielick, Rolf


    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Endangered Species Act, Biological Opinion issued March 2, 1995, require the US Army Corps of Engineers to develop an emergency auxiliary water supply (EAWS...

  5. Water Resources Data. Ohio - Water Year 1992. Volume 1. Ohio River Basin excluding project data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.L. Shindel; J.H. Klingler; J.P. Mangus; L.E. Trimble


    Water-resources data for the 1992 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 121 gaging stations, 336 wells, and 72 partial-record sites; and water levels at 312 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the US Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. Volume 1 covers the central and southern parts of Ohio, emphasizing the Ohio River Basin. (See Order Number DE95010451 for Volume 2 covering the northern part of Ohio.)

  6. Sharing water and benefits in transboundary river basins (United States)

    Arjoon, Diane; Tilmant, Amaury; Herrmann, Markus


    The equitable sharing of benefits in transboundary river basins is necessary to solve disputes among riparian countries and to reach a consensus on basin-wide development and management activities. Benefit-sharing arrangements must be collaboratively developed to be perceived not only as efficient, but also as equitable in order to be considered acceptable to all riparian countries. The current literature mainly describes what is meant by the term benefit sharing in the context of transboundary river basins and discusses this from a conceptual point of view, but falls short of providing practical, institutional arrangements that ensure maximum economic welfare as well as collaboratively developed methods for encouraging the equitable sharing of benefits. In this study, we define an institutional arrangement that distributes welfare in a river basin by maximizing the economic benefits of water use and then sharing these benefits in an equitable manner using a method developed through stakeholder involvement. We describe a methodology in which (i) a hydrological model is used to allocate scarce water resources, in an economically efficient manner, to water users in a transboundary basin, (ii) water users are obliged to pay for water, and (iii) the total of these water charges is equitably redistributed as monetary compensation to users in an amount determined through the application of a sharing method developed by stakeholder input, thus based on a stakeholder vision of fairness, using an axiomatic approach. With the proposed benefit-sharing mechanism, the efficiency-equity trade-off still exists, but the extent of the imbalance is reduced because benefits are maximized and redistributed according to a key that has been collectively agreed upon by the participants. The whole system is overseen by a river basin authority. The methodology is applied to the Eastern Nile River basin as a case study. The described technique not only ensures economic efficiency, but may

  7. The occurrence of Aeromonas in drinking water, tap water and the Porsuk River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merih Kivanc


    Full Text Available The occurrence of Aeromonas spp. in the Porsuk River, public drinking water and tap water in the City of Eskisehir (Turkey was monitored. Fresh water samples were collected from several sampling sites during a period of one year. Total 102 typical colonies of Aeromonas spp. were submitted to biochemical tests for species differentiation and of 60 isolates were confirmed by biochemical tests. Further identifications of isolates were carried out first with the VITEK system (BioMe˜rieux and then selected isolates from different phenotypes (VITEK types were identified using the DuPont Qualicon RiboPrinter® system. Aeromonas spp. was detected only in the samples from the Porsuk River. According to the results obtained with the VITEK system, our isolates were 13% Aeromonas hydrophila, 37% Aeromonas caviae, 35% Pseudomonas putida, and 15% Pseudomonas acidovorans. In addition Pseudomonas sp., Pseudomonas maltophila, Aeromonas salmonicida, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Aeromonas media species were determined using the RiboPrinter® system. The samples taken from the Porsuk River were found to contain very diverse Aeromonas populations that can pose a risk for the residents of the city. On the other hand, drinking water and tap water of the City are free from Aeromonas pathogens and seem to be reliable water sources for the community.

  8. Influence factors analysis of water environmental quality of main rivers in Tianjin (United States)

    Li, Ran; Bao, Jingling; Zou, Di; Shi, Fang


    According to the evaluation results of the water environment quality of main rivers in Tianjin in 1986-2015, this paper analyzed the current situation of water environmental quality of main rivers in Tianjin retrospectively, established the index system and multiple factors analysis through selecting factors influencing the water environmental quality of main rivers from the economy, industry and nature aspects with the combination method of principal component analysis and linear regression. The results showed that water consumption, sewage discharge and water resources were the main factors influencing the pollution of main rivers. Therefore, optimizing the utilization of water resources, improving utilization efficiency and reducing effluent discharge are important measures to reduce the pollution of surface water environment.

  9. Radium-226 in waters of the Amazon river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirshova, M.P.; Vinogradova, A.S.; Popov, N.I.


    Analysis of the Amazon river waters for 226 Ra content is carried out. Exploration works are carried out in the framework of the soviet investigations of the Amazon river in 1983 by the Academy of Science of USSR on board a research ship ''Professor Schtokman'' with the agreement and participation of brazilian scientists. Radium determination has been carried out in reference with equilibrium radon preliminary accumulated in samples (30 y) tightly closed. The general 226 Ra concentrations observed in the Amazon waters exceed 4-6 times the values known before relating to a ''diluted'' element fraction. It happens due to the presence of the river suspended matter in the water analysed; it is a carrier of additional quantities of 226 Ra, and considerable. The mixture zone of river and ocean waters is shown to be no ''geochemical barrier'' on the way to the ocean for river radium inlike the other microelements of the river run-off

  10. Nitrogen and Organics Removal during Riverbank Filtration along a Reclaimed Water Restored River in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyan Pan


    Full Text Available Reclaimed water has been widely used to restore rivers and lakes in water scarce areas as well as in Beijing municipality, China. However, refilling the rivers with reclaimed water may result in groundwater pollution. A three-year field monitoring program was conducted to assess the effect of a riverbank filtration (RBF system on the removal of nitrogen and organics from the Qingyang River of Beijing, which is replenished with reclaimed water. Water samples from the river, sediment, and groundwater were collected for NO3-N, NH4-N, and chemical oxygen demand (COD was measured. The results indicate that about 85% of NO3-N was removed from the riverbed sediments. Approximate 92% of NH4-N was removed during the infiltration of water from river to aquifer. On average, 54% of COD was removed by RBF. The attenuation of NO3-N through RBF to the groundwater varied among seasons and was strongly related to water temperature. On the other hand, no obvious temporal variability was identified in the removal of COD. These results suggest that the RBF system is an effective barrier against NO3-N, NH4-N and COD in the Qingyang River, as well as those rivers with similar geological and climatic conditions refilled with reclaimed water.

  11. Suspended sediment, turbidity, and stream water temperature in the Sauk River Basin, western Washington, water years 2012-16 (United States)

    Jaeger, Kristin L.; Curran, Christopher A.; Anderson, Scott W.; Morris, Scott T.; Moran, Patrick W.; Reams, Katherine A.


    The Sauk River is a federally designated Wild and Scenic River that drains a relatively undisturbed landscape along the western slope of the North Cascade Mountain Range, Washington, which includes the glaciated volcano, Glacier Peak. Naturally high sediment loads characteristic of basins draining volcanoes like Glacier Peak make the Sauk River a dominant contributor of sediment to the downstream main stem river, the Skagit River. Additionally, the Sauk River serves as important spawning and rearing habitat for several salmonid species in the greater Skagit River system. Because of the importance of sediment to morphology, flow-conveyance, and ecosystem condition, there is interest in understanding the magnitude and timing of suspended sediment and turbidity from the Sauk River system and its principal tributaries, the White Chuck and Suiattle Rivers, to the Skagit River.Suspended-sediment measurements, turbidity data, and water temperature data were collected at two U.S. Geological Survey streamgages in the upper and middle reaches of the Sauk River over a 4-year period extending from October 2011 to September 2015, and at a downstream location in the lower river for a 5-year period extending from October 2011 to September 2016. Over the collective 5-year study period, mean annual suspended-sediment loads at the three streamgages on the upper, middle, and lower Sauk River streamgages were 94,200 metric tons (t), 203,000 t, and 940,000 t streamgages, respectively. Fine (smaller than 0.0625 millimeter) total suspended-sediment load averaged 49 percent at the upper Sauk River streamgage, 42 percent at the middle Sauk River streamgage, and 34 percent at the lower Sauk River streamgage.

  12. Documentation of input datasets for the soil-water balance groundwater recharge model of the Upper Colorado River Basin (United States)

    Tillman, Fred D.


    The Colorado River and its tributaries supply water to more than 35 million people in the United States and 3 million people in Mexico, irrigating more than 4.5 million acres of farmland, and generating about 12 billion kilowatt hours of hydroelectric power annually. The Upper Colorado River Basin, encompassing more than 110,000 square miles (mi2), contains the headwaters of the Colorado River (also known as the River) and is an important source of snowmelt runoff to the River. Groundwater discharge also is an important source of water in the River and its tributaries, with estimates ranging from 21 to 58 percent of streamflow in the upper basin. Planning for the sustainable management of the Colorado River in future climates requires an understanding of the Upper Colorado River Basin groundwater system. This report documents input datasets for a Soil-Water Balance groundwater recharge model that was developed for the Upper Colorado River Basin.

  13. Final Opportunity to Rehabilitate an Urban River as a Water Source for Mexico City (United States)

    Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa; Pérez-Ortiz, Gustavo; Orta-Ledesma, María Teresa; Armas-Vargas, Felipe; Tapia, Marco A.; Solano-Ortiz, Rosa; Silva, Miguel A.; Yañez-Noguez, Isaura; López-Vidal, Yolanda; Díaz-Ávalos, Carlos


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount and quality of water in the Magdalena-Eslava river system and to propose alternatives for sustainable water use. The system is the last urban river in the vicinity of Mexico City that supplies surface water to the urban area. Historical flow data were analyzed (1973–2010), along with the physicochemical and bacteriological attributes, documenting the evolution of these variables over the course of five years (2008–2012) in both dry and rainy seasons. The analyses show that the flow regime has been significantly altered. The physicochemical variables show significant differences between the natural area, where the river originates, and the urban area, where the river receives untreated wastewater. Nutrient and conductivity concentrations in the river were equivalent to domestic wastewater. Fecal pollution indicators and various pathogens were present in elevated densities, demonstrating a threat to the population living near the river. Estimates of the value of the water lost as a result of mixing clean and contaminated water are presented. This urban river should be rehabilitated as a sustainability practice, and if possible, these efforts should be replicated in other areas. Because of the public health issues and in view of the population exposure where the river flows through the city, the river should be improved aesthetically and should be treated to allow its ecosystem services to recover. This river represents an iconic case for Mexico City because it connects the natural and urban areas in a socio-ecological system that can potentially provide clean water for human consumption. Contaminated water could be treated and reused for irrigation in one of the green areas of the city. Wastewater treatment plants and the operation of the existing purification plants are urgent priorities that could lead to better, more sustainable water use practices in Mexico City. PMID:25054805

  14. Final opportunity to rehabilitate an urban river as a water source for Mexico City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Mazari-Hiriart

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount and quality of water in the Magdalena-Eslava river system and to propose alternatives for sustainable water use. The system is the last urban river in the vicinity of Mexico City that supplies surface water to the urban area. Historical flow data were analyzed (1973-2010, along with the physicochemical and bacteriological attributes, documenting the evolution of these variables over the course of five years (2008-2012 in both dry and rainy seasons. The analyses show that the flow regime has been significantly altered. The physicochemical variables show significant differences between the natural area, where the river originates, and the urban area, where the river receives untreated wastewater. Nutrient and conductivity concentrations in the river were equivalent to domestic wastewater. Fecal pollution indicators and various pathogens were present in elevated densities, demonstrating a threat to the population living near the river. Estimates of the value of the water lost as a result of mixing clean and contaminated water are presented. This urban river should be rehabilitated as a sustainability practice, and if possible, these efforts should be replicated in other areas. Because of the public health issues and in view of the population exposure where the river flows through the city, the river should be improved aesthetically and should be treated to allow its ecosystem services to recover. This river represents an iconic case for Mexico City because it connects the natural and urban areas in a socio-ecological system that can potentially provide clean water for human consumption. Contaminated water could be treated and reused for irrigation in one of the green areas of the city. Wastewater treatment plants and the operation of the existing purification plants are urgent priorities that could lead to better, more sustainable water use practices in Mexico City.

  15. Final opportunity to rehabilitate an urban river as a water source for Mexico City. (United States)

    Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa; Pérez-Ortiz, Gustavo; Orta-Ledesma, María Teresa; Armas-Vargas, Felipe; Tapia, Marco A; Solano-Ortiz, Rosa; Silva, Miguel A; Yañez-Noguez, Isaura; López-Vidal, Yolanda; Díaz-Ávalos, Carlos


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount and quality of water in the Magdalena-Eslava river system and to propose alternatives for sustainable water use. The system is the last urban river in the vicinity of Mexico City that supplies surface water to the urban area. Historical flow data were analyzed (1973-2010), along with the physicochemical and bacteriological attributes, documenting the evolution of these variables over the course of five years (2008-2012) in both dry and rainy seasons. The analyses show that the flow regime has been significantly altered. The physicochemical variables show significant differences between the natural area, where the river originates, and the urban area, where the river receives untreated wastewater. Nutrient and conductivity concentrations in the river were equivalent to domestic wastewater. Fecal pollution indicators and various pathogens were present in elevated densities, demonstrating a threat to the population living near the river. Estimates of the value of the water lost as a result of mixing clean and contaminated water are presented. This urban river should be rehabilitated as a sustainability practice, and if possible, these efforts should be replicated in other areas. Because of the public health issues and in view of the population exposure where the river flows through the city, the river should be improved aesthetically and should be treated to allow its ecosystem services to recover. This river represents an iconic case for Mexico City because it connects the natural and urban areas in a socio-ecological system that can potentially provide clean water for human consumption. Contaminated water could be treated and reused for irrigation in one of the green areas of the city. Wastewater treatment plants and the operation of the existing purification plants are urgent priorities that could lead to better, more sustainable water use practices in Mexico City.

  16. Concentration of tritium in precipitation and river water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatani, Kunio


    The concentration of tritium in precipitation and river water has been measured sice 1973 in Aichi, Japan. The tritium in water samples was enriched by electrolysis, and measured by liquid scintillation counting. The concentration of tritium in precipitation decreased from 27 TU in 1973 to 17 TU in 1979, and showed seasonal variation. During this period, there was a rise of concentration because of Chinese nuclear detonation. The concentration of tritium in river water gradually decreased from 44 TU in 1973 to 24 TU in 1979, and the seasonal variation was not observed. Based on the observed values, the relation among precipitation, river water and ground water was analyzed. (J.P.N.)

  17. Water resource management model for a river basin


    Jelisejevienė, Emilija


    The objective is to develop river basin management model that ensures integrated analysis of existing water resource problems and promotes implementation of sustainable development principles in water resources management.

  18. Anthropogenic impacts on the water quality of Aba River, southeast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anthropogenic impacts on the water quality of Aba River, southeast Nigeria. ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... of Aba River, southeast Nigeria was studied in four stations from November 2014 to August 2015 to identify the major anthropogenic activities and their impact on the water quality.

  19. Assessment of water quality of Obueyinomo River, Ovia North East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high WQI values in all the stations studied which exceeded the benchmark of 100 showed that the water from this river is unfit for drinking purposes and should be treated before consumption by inhabitants of the area. Keywords: Physicochemical parameters, River, Water quality index, Contamination ...

  20. An Assessment of Regional Water Resources and Agricultural Sustainability in the Mississippi River Alluvial Aquifer System of Mississippi and Arkansas Under Current and Future Climate (United States)

    Rigby, J.; Reba, M.


    The Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Plain is a highly productive agricultural region for rice, soy beans, and cotton that depends heavily on irrigation. Development of the Mississippi River Alluvial Aquifer (MRAA), one of the more prolific agricultural aquifers in the country, has traditionally been the primary source for irrigation in the region yielding over 1,100 Mgal/day to irrigation wells. Increasingly, the realities of changing climate and rapidly declining water tables have highlighted the necessity for new water management practices. Tail-water recovery and reuse is a rapidly expanding practice due in part to the efforts and cost-sharing of the NRCS, but regional studies of the potential for such practices to alleviate groundwater mining under current and future climate are lacking. While regional studies of aquifer geology have long been available, including assessments of regional groundwater flow, much about the aquifer is still not well understood including controls on recharge rates, a crucial component of water management design. We review the trends in regional availability of surface and groundwater resources, their current status, and the effects of recent changes in management practices on groundwater decline in Mississippi and Arkansas. Global and regional climate projections are used to assess scenarios of sustainable aquifer use under current land use and management along with the potential for more widely practiced surface water capture and reuse to alleviate groundwater decline. Finally, we highlight crucial knowledge gaps and challenges associated with the development of water management practices for sustainable agricultural use in the region.

  1. Tidal Influence on Water Quality of Kapuas Kecil River Downstream (United States)

    Purnaini, Rizki; Sudarmadji; Purwono, Suryo


    The Kapuas Kecil River is strongly influenced by tidal, in the dry season the intrusion of surface water is often a problem for the WTP because it causes the change of raw water quality to be processed. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of sea tides on water quality of the Kapuas Kecil River. The study was conducted in Kapuas River downstream along ± 30 km from the upper boundary to the estuary. Water sampling is carried out during the dry and rainy season, when the tidal conditions at 7 (seven) locations of the monitoring station. Descriptive analysis methods and regression-correlation statistics are used to determine the effect of tides on water quality in Kapuas River downstream. In general, the water quality of the Kapuas Kecil River has exceeded the criteria of first class water quality, ie water that can be used for drinking water. The status of water quality of the Kapuas Kecil River based on the pollution index calculation shows the condition of the river is "mild to medium pollutants". The result of multiple linear regression analysis got the value of coefficient of determination (adjusted R square) = 0,760, which in whole show that independent variable (tidal and distance) influence to dependent variable (value of TDS) equal to 76%.

  2. Framework for Assessing Water Resource Sustainability in River Basins (United States)

    Borden, J.; Goodwin, P.; Swanson, D.


    As the anthropogenic footprint increases on Earth, the wise use, maintenance, and protection of freshwater resources will be a key element in the sustainability of development. Borne from efforts to promote sustainable development of water resources is Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM), which promotes efficiency of water resources, equity in water allocation across different social and economic groups, and environmental sustainability. Methodologies supporting IWRM implementation have largely focused on the overall process, but have had limited attention on the evaluation methods for ecologic, economic, and social conditions (the sustainability criterion). Thus, assessment frameworks are needed to support the analysis of water resources and evaluation of sustainable solutions in the IWRM process. To address this need, the River Basin Analysis Framework (RBAF) provides a structure for understanding water related issues and testing the sustainability of proposed solutions in river basins. The RBAF merges three approaches: the UN GEO 4 DPSIR approach, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment approach, and the principles of sustainable development. Merging these approaches enables users to understand the spatiotemporal interactions between the hydrologic and ecologic systems, evaluate the impacts of disturbances (drivers, pressures) on the ecosystem goods and services (EGS) and constituents of human well-being (HWB), and identify and employ analytical methods and indicators in the assessments. The RBAF is comprised of a conceptual component (RBAF-C) and an analytical component (RBAF-A). For each disturbance type, the RBAF-C shows the potential directional change in the hydrologic cycle (peak flows, seasonality, etc.), EGS (drinking water supply, water purification, recreational opportunities, etc.), and HWB (safety, health, access to a basic materials), thus allowing users insight into potential impacts as well as providing technical guidance on the methods and

  3. Impact-based integrated real-time control for improvement of the Dommel River water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, J.; Benedetti, L.; Klein, de J.J.M.; Nopens, I.; Amerlinck, Y.; Nieuwenhuijzen, van A.F.; Flameling, T.; Zanten, van O.; Weijers, S.


    The KALLISTO project aims at finding cost-efficient sets of measures to meet the Water Framework Directive (WFD) derived goals for the river Dommel. Within the project, both acute and long term impacts of the urban wastewater system on the chemical and ecological quality of the river are studied

  4. Impact of river restoration on groundwater - surface water - interactions (United States)

    Kurth, Anne-Marie; Schirmer, Mario


    Sensing (DTS), a fibre optical method for temperature determination over long distances (Selker et al., 2006). Thermal signatures were determined in a small urban stream before and after restoration and compared to streams in natural and near-natural settings. BWG BUNDESAMT FÜR WASSER UND GEOLOGIE, 2003. Die Geschichte des Hochwasserschutzes in der Schweiz. Bericht des BWG, Serie Wasser. Biel. 208 p. EA ENVIRONMENT AGENCY (UK), 2009. The Hyporheic Handbook: A handbook on the groundwater-surface water interface and hyporheic zone for environment managers. Bristol. 280 p. ANDREA, F., GSCHÖPF, C., BLASCHKE, A.P., WEIGELHOFER, G., AND RECKENDORFER, W., 2012. Ecological niche models for the evaluation of management options in urban floodplain - conservation vs. restoration purposes. Environ. Sci. Policy, PALMER, M.A., BERNHARDT, E.S., ALLAN, J.D., LAKE, P.S., ALEXANDER, G., BROOKS, S., CARR, J., CLAYTON, S., DAHM, C.N., FOLLSTAD SHAH, J., GALAT, D.L., LOSS, S.G., GOODWIN, P., HART, D.D., HASSETT, B., JENKINSON, R., KONDOLF, G.M., LAVE, R., MEYER, J.L., O`DONNELL, T.K., PAGANO, L. AND SUDDUTH, E., 2005. Standards for ecologically successful river restoration. Journal of Applied Ecology, 42, pp. 208 - 217. DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2005.01004.x. WORTLEY, L., HERO, J-M., HOWES, M., 2013. Evaluating Ecological Restoration Success: A Review of the Literature. Restoration Ecology, 21 (5), pp. 537 - 543. DOI 10.1111/rec.12028. SELKER, J.S., THEVENAZ, L., HUWALD, H., MALLET, A., LUXEMBURG, W., VAN DE GIESEN, N., STEJSKAL, M., ZEMAN, J., WESTHOFF, M., AND PARLANGE, M.B., 2006. Distributed fibre-optic temperature sensing for hydrologic systems. Water Resources Research, 42(12), W12202.

  5. Benchmarking wide swath altimetry-based river discharge estimation algorithms for the Ganges river system (United States)

    Bonnema, Matthew G.; Sikder, Safat; Hossain, Faisal; Durand, Michael; Gleason, Colin J.; Bjerklie, David M.


    The objective of this study is to compare the effectiveness of three algorithms that estimate discharge from remotely sensed observables (river width, water surface height, and water surface slope) in anticipation of the forthcoming NASA/CNES Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission. SWOT promises to provide these measurements simultaneously, and the river discharge algorithms included here are designed to work with these data. Two algorithms were built around Manning's equation, the Metropolis Manning (MetroMan) method, and the Mean Flow and Geomorphology (MFG) method, and one approach uses hydraulic geometry to estimate discharge, the at-many-stations hydraulic geometry (AMHG) method. A well-calibrated and ground-truthed hydrodynamic model of the Ganges river system (HEC-RAS) was used as reference for three rivers from the Ganges River Delta: the main stem of Ganges, the Arial-Khan, and the Mohananda Rivers. The high seasonal variability of these rivers due to the Monsoon presented a unique opportunity to thoroughly assess the discharge algorithms in light of typical monsoon regime rivers. It was found that the MFG method provides the most accurate discharge estimations in most cases, with an average relative root-mean-squared error (RRMSE) across all three reaches of 35.5%. It is followed closely by the Metropolis Manning algorithm, with an average RRMSE of 51.5%. However, the MFG method's reliance on knowledge of prior river discharge limits its application on ungauged rivers. In terms of input data requirement at ungauged regions with no prior records, the Metropolis Manning algorithm provides a more practical alternative over a region that is lacking in historical observations as the algorithm requires less ancillary data. The AMHG algorithm, while requiring the least prior river data, provided the least accurate discharge measurements with an average wet and dry season RRMSE of 79.8% and 119.1%, respectively, across all rivers studied. This poor

  6. Chemical composition of the mineral waters of the Congo River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tshiashala, M.D.; Lumu, B.M.; Lobo, K.K.; Tshisumpa, M.; Wembo, L.S.


    Atomic absorption spectrophotometry has been applied to river Congo waters for a global monitoring of trace element contents. 15 elements Ag, Au, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb and Zn have been determined in samples collected at 2 sites along the river Congo. Results are compared with those observed in other river waters collected in Kinshasa and elsewhere and for compliance with the international quality standards elaborated by the Who, USA and SSRU. The waters of river Congo have been found less mineralized than those of river Niger. They are of the same order of magnitude than those observed in some local rivers such as Ndjili, Lubudi, Funa, Tshangu and Tshenke.

  7. Columbia River system operation review. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Columbia River and its tributaries are the primary water system in the Pacific Northwest, draining some 219,000 square miles in seven states and another 39,500 square miles in British Columbia. Beginning in the 1930's, the Columbia River has been significantly modified by construction of 30 major dams on the river and its tributaries, along with dozens of non-Federal projects. Construction and subsequent operation of these water development projects have contributed to eight primary uses of the river system, including navigation, flood control, irrigation, electric power generation, fish migration, fish and wildlife habitat, recreation, and water supply and quality considerations. Increasing stress on the water development of the Columbia River and its tributaries has led primary Federal agencies to undertake intensive analysis and evaluation of the operation of these projects. These agencies are the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation, who operate the large Federal dams on the river, and the Bonneville Power Administration who sells the power generated at the dams. This review, termed the System Operation Review (SOR), has as its ultimate goal to define a strategy for future operation of the major Columbia River projects which effectively considers the needs of all river uses. This volume, Appendix D: Cultural resources appendix, Technical imput includes the following: Development of geomorphology based framework for cultural resources management, Dworshak Reservoir, Idaho; Impact profiles for SOR reservoirs; comments from the following Native American tribes: Burns Paiute Tribe; Coville Confederated Tribes; Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Indian Reservation; Confederated Tribes and bands of the Yakama Indian Nation (comments); Nez Perce Tribe; Coeur D'Alene Tribe; Spokane Tribe of Indians; The confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation

  8. Compliance of the Savannah River Plant P-Reactor cooling system with environmental regulations. Demonstrations in accordance with Sections 316(a) and (b) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, E.W.


    This document presents demonstrations under Sections 316(a) and (b) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 for the P-Reactor cooling system at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The demonstrations were mandated when the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for the SRP was renewed and the compliance point for meeting South Carolina Class B water quality criteria in the P-Reactor cooling system was moved from below Par Pond to the reactor cooling water outfall, No. P-109. Extensive operating, environmental, and biological data, covering most of the current P-Reactor cooling system history from 1958 to the present are discussed. No significant adverse effects were attributed to the thermal effluent discharged to Par Pond or the pumping of cooling water from Par Pond to P Reactor. It was conluded that Par Pond, the principal reservoir in the cooling system for P Reactor, contains balanced indigenous biological communities that meet all criteria commonly used in defining such communities. Par Pond compares favorably with all types of reservoirs in South Carolina and with cooling lakes and reservoirs throughout the southeast in terms of balanced communities of phytoplankton, macrophytes, zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, fish, and other vertebrate wildlife. The report provides the basis for negotiations between the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) and the Department of Energy - Savannah River (DOE-SR) to identify a mixing zone which would relocate the present compliance point for Class B water quality criteria for the P-Reactor cooling system

  9. Water pollution control in river basin by interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, N.B.; Chen, H.W. [National Cheng-Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Environmental Engineering; Shaw, D.G.; Yang, C.H. [Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Inst. of Economics


    The potential conflict between protection of water quality and economic development by different uses of land within river basins is a common problem in regional planning. Many studies have applied multiobjective decision analysis under uncertainty to problems of this kind. This paper presents the interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective mixed integer programming (IFIMOMIP) model to evaluate optimal strategies of wastewater treatment levels within a river system by considering the uncertainties in decision analysis. The interactive fuzzy interval multiobjective mixed integer programming approach is illustrated in a case study for the evaluation of optimal wastewater treatment strategies for water pollution control in a river basin. In particular, it demonstrates how different types of uncertainty in a water pollution control system can be quantified and combined through the use of interval numbers and membership functions. The results indicate that such an approach is useful for handling system complexity and generating more flexible policies for water quality management in river basins.

  10. The treatment of river water by reverse osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, N.J.; Jenkins, M.A.; Coates, A.


    The suitability of rod, spirally would and hollow fibre reverse osmosis systems has been assessed for the treatment of River Trent water to produce water of boiler feed quality. Particular attention has been paid to the effects of the suspended solids level of the influent water supply on operating and cleaning regimes. The best performance was given by the rod-type membranes which could be used with relatively dirty water if suitable chemical and/or physical cleaning techniques were applied. However, even this system, requires some form of clarification of the raw supply, and this affects capital and overall running costs. The hollow fibre membrane, which cannot be readily cleaned required an excessively clean water supply to avoid rapid and irreversible loss of output and is unlikely to have full-scale application on this, or similar, water. The spirally wound membranes, whilst not so susceptible to suspended solids as the hollow fibre system, did not tolerate dirty water, and required the raw water to be clarified to a level that is unlikely to be continuously guaranteed. In its current stage of development reverse osmosis is unlikely to give a cost advantage over the main cation/anion exchange stage of present water treatment plant, even for the treatment of waters relatively high in dissolved salts (500 mg kg -1 ). Moreover, conventional pretreatment and final mixed ion-exchange beds would still be required to produce water of boiler feed quality. Reverse osmosis does, however, remove organic species and non reactive silicon; its selection is likely to be dictated by such requirements or where space is at a premium e.g. extensions to existing water treatment plants. (orig.) [de

  11. Evaluation of Ensemble Water Supply and Demands Forecasts for Water Management in the Klamath River Basin (United States)

    Broman, D.; Gangopadhyay, S.; McGuire, M.; Wood, A.; Leady, Z.; Tansey, M. K.; Nelson, K.; Dahm, K.


    The Upper Klamath River Basin in south central Oregon and north central California is home to the Klamath Irrigation Project, which is operated by the Bureau of Reclamation and provides water to around 200,000 acres of agricultural lands. The project is managed in consideration of not only water deliveries to irrigators, but also wildlife refuge water demands, biological opinion requirements for Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed fish, and Tribal Trust responsibilities. Climate change has the potential to impact water management in terms of volume and timing of water and the ability to meet multiple objectives. Current operations use a spreadsheet-based decision support tool, with water supply forecasts from the National Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and California-Nevada River Forecast Center (CNRFC). This tool is currently limited in its ability to incorporate in ensemble forecasts, which offer the potential for improved operations by quantifying forecast uncertainty. To address these limitations, this study has worked to develop a RiverWare based water resource systems model, flexible enough to use across multiple decision time-scales, from short-term operations out to long-range planning. Systems model development has been accompanied by operational system development to handle data management and multiple modeling components. Using a set of ensemble hindcasts, this study seeks to answer several questions: A) Do a new set of ensemble streamflow forecasts have additional skill beyond what?, and allow for improved decision making under changing conditions? B) Do net irrigation water requirement forecasts developed in this project to quantify agricultural demands and reservoir evaporation forecasts provide additional benefits to decision making beyond water supply forecasts? C) What benefit do ensemble forecasts have in the context of water management decisions?

  12. Assessing impact of urbanization on river water quality in the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone, China. (United States)

    Ouyang, Tingping; Zhu, Zhaoyu; Kuang, Yaoqiu


    The Pearl River Delta Economic Zone is one of the most developed regions in China. It has been undergoing a rapid urbanization since the reformation and opening of China in 1978. This process plays a significant impact on the urban environment, particularly river water quality. The main goal of this present study is to assess the impact of urban activities especially urbanization on river water quality for the study area. Some Landsat TM images from 2000 were used to map the areas for different pollution levels of urban river sections for the study area. In addition, an improved equalized synthetic pollution index method was utilized to assess the field analytical results. The results indicate that there is a positive correlation between the rapidity of urbanization and the pollution levels of urban river water. Compared to the rural river water, urban river water was polluted more seriously. During the urban development process, urbanization and urban activities had a significant negative impact on the river water quality.

  13. River flow controls on tides an tide-mean water level profiles in a tidel freshwater river

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassi, M.G.; Hoitink, A.J.F.


    [1] Tidal rivers feature oscillatory and steady gradients in the water surface, controlled by interactions between river flow and tides. The river discharge attenuates the tidal motion, and tidal motion increases tidal-mean friction in the river, which may act as a barrier to the river discharge.

  14. Lower Charles River Bathymetry: 108 Years of Fresh Water (United States)

    Yoder, M.; Sacarny, M.


    The Lower Charles River is a heavily utilized urban river that runs between Cambridge and Boston in Massachusetts. The recreational usage of the river is dependent on adequate water depths, but there have been no definitive prior studies on the sedimentation rate of the Lower Charles River. The river transitioned from tidal to a freshwater basin in 1908 due to the construction of the (old) Charles River Dam. Water surface height on the Lower Charles River is maintained within ±1 foot through controlled discharge at the new Charles River Dam. The current study area for historical comparisons is from the old Charles River Dam to the Boston University Bridge. This study conducted a bathymetric survey of the Lower Charles River, digitized three prior surveys in the study area, calculated volumes and depth distributions for each survey, and estimated sedimentation rates from fits to the volumes over time. The oldest chart digitized was produced in 1902 during dam construction deliberations. The average sedimentation rate is estimated as 5-10 mm/year, which implies 1.8-3.5 feet sedimentation since 1908. Sedimentation rates and distributions are necessary to develop comprehensive management plans for the river and there is evidence to suggest that sedimentation rates in the shallow upstream areas are higher than the inferred rates in the study area.

  15. Water quality assessment of the Sinos River, Southern Brazil. (United States)

    Blume, K K; Macedo, J C; Meneguzzi, A; Silva, L B; Quevedo, D M; Rodrigues, M A S


    The Sinos River basin is located Northeast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (29º 20' to 30º 10' S and 50º 15' to 51º20'W), Southern Brazil, covering two geomorphologic provinces: the Southern plateau and central depression. It is part of the Guaíba basin and has an area of approximately 800 km², encompassing 32 municipalities. The objective of this study was to monitor water quality in the Sinos River, the largest river in this basin. Water samples were collected at four selected sites in the Sinos River, and the following parameters were analysed: pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD₅), turbidity, fecal coliforms, total dissolved solids, temperature, nitrate, nitrite, phosphorous, chromium, lead, aluminum, zinc, iron, and copper. The results were analysed based on Resolution No. 357/2005 of the Brazilian National Environmental Council (CONAMA) regarding regulatory limits for residues in water. A second analysis was performed based on a water quality index (WQI) used by the Sinos River Basin Management Committee (COMITESINOS). Poor water quality in the Sinos River presents a worrying scenario for the region, since this river is the main source of water supply for the urban core. Health conditions found in the Sinos River, mainly in its lower reaches, are worrying and a strong indicator of human activities on the basin.

  16. Water quality assessment of the Sinos River, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KK. Blume

    Full Text Available The Sinos River basin is located Northeast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (29º 20' to 30º 10' S and 50º 15' to 51º20'W, Southern Brazil, covering two geomorphologic provinces: the Southern plateau and central depression. It is part of the Guaíba basin and has an area of approximately 800 km², encompassing 32 municipalities. The objective of this study was to monitor water quality in the Sinos River, the largest river in this basin. Water samples were collected at four selected sites in the Sinos River, and the following parameters were analysed: pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, turbidity, fecal coliforms, total dissolved solids, temperature, nitrate, nitrite, phosphorous, chromium, lead, aluminum, zinc, iron, and copper. The results were analysed based on Resolution No. 357/2005 of the Brazilian National Environmental Council (CONAMA regarding regulatory limits for residues in water. A second analysis was performed based on a water quality index (WQI used by the Sinos River Basin Management Committee (COMITESINOS. Poor water quality in the Sinos River presents a worrying scenario for the region, since this river is the main source of water supply for the urban core. Health conditions found in the Sinos River, mainly in its lower reaches, are worrying and a strong indicator of human activities on the basin.

  17. Evaluation Of Water Quality At River Bian In Merauke Papua (United States)

    Djaja, Irba; Purwanto, P.; Sunoko, H. R.


    River Bian in Merauke Regency has been utilized by local people in Papua (the Marind) who live along the river for fulfilling their daily needs, such as shower, cloth and dish washing, and even defecation, waste disposal, including domestic waste, as well as for ceremonial activities related to the locally traditional culture. Change in land use for other necessities and domestic activities of the local people have mounted pressures on the status of the River Bian, thus decreasing the quality of the river. This study had objectives to find out and to analyze river water quality and water quality status of the River Bian, and its compliance with water quality standards for ideal use. The study determined sample point by a purposive sampling method, taking the water samples with a grab method. The analysis of the water quality was performed by standard and pollution index methods. The study revealed that the water quality of River Bian, concerning BOD, at the station 3 had exceeded quality threshold. COD parameter for all stations had exceeded the quality threshold for class III. At three stations, there was a decreasing value due to increasing PI, as found at the stations 1, 2, and 3. In other words, River Bian had been lightly contaminated.

  18. Evaluation Of Water Quality At River Bian In Merauke Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djaja Irba


    Full Text Available River Bian in Merauke Regency has been utilized by local people in Papua (the Marind who live along the river for fulfilling their daily needs, such as shower, cloth and dish washing, and even defecation, waste disposal, including domestic waste, as well as for ceremonial activities related to the locally traditional culture. Change in land use for other necessities and domestic activities of the local people have mounted pressures on the status of the River Bian, thus decreasing the quality of the river. This study had objectives to find out and to analyze river water quality and water quality status of the River Bian, and its compliance with water quality standards for ideal use. The study determined sample point by a purposive sampling method, taking the water samples with a grab method. The analysis of the water quality was performed by standard and pollution index methods. The study revealed that the water quality of River Bian, concerning BOD, at the station 3 had exceeded quality threshold. COD parameter for all stations had exceeded the quality threshold for class III. At three stations, there was a decreasing value due to increasing PI, as found at the stations 1, 2, and 3. In other words, River Bian had been lightly contaminated.

  19. River Debris Management System using Off-Grid Photovoltaic Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadon Intan Mastura


    Full Text Available In Malaysia, Malacca River has long been the tourism attraction in Malacca. However, due to negligence, the river has been polluted by the litters thrown by tourists and even local residents, thus reflects a negative perception on Malacca. Therefore, this paper discusses about a fully automated river debris management system development using a stand-alone photovoltaic system. The concept design is to be stand alone in the river and automatically pull debris towards it for disposal. An off-grid stand-alone photovoltaic solar panel is used as renewable energy source connected to water pump and Arduino Uno microcontroller. The water pump rotates a water wheel and at the same time moves a conveyor belt; which is connected to the water wheel by a gear for debris collection. The solar system sizing suitable for the whole system is shown in this paper. The dumpster barge is equipped with an infrared sensor to monitor maximum height for debris, and instruct Arduino Uno to turn off the water pump. This system is able to power up using solar energy on sunny days and using battery otherwise.

  20. Water Governance Decentralisation and River Basin Management Reforms in Hierarchical Systems: Do They Work for Water Treatment Policy in Mexico’s Tlaxcala Atoyac Sub-Basin?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casiano Flores, Cesar Augusto; Vikolainen, Vera; Bressers, Johannes T.A.


    In the last decades, policy reforms, new instruments development, and economic resources investment have taken place in water sanitation in Mexico; however, the intended goals have not been accomplished. The percentage of treated wastewater as intended in the last two federal water plans has not

  1. Organic compounds in White River water used for public supply near Indianapolis, Indiana, 2002-05 (United States)

    Lathrop, Tim; Moran, Dan


    The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) characterized the occurrence of 277 organic compounds in source water (stream water collected before treatment) and finished water (treated water before distribution) from the White River North treatment plant, one of several community water systems that use the White River as its primary water supply (fig. 1). Samples were collected at least monthly during 2002-05 and included 30 source- and 13 finished-water samples. The samples were analyzed for pesticides and selected pesticide degradates (or 'breakdown products'), solvents, gasoline hydrocarbons, disinfection by-products, personal-care and domestic-use products, and other organic compounds. Community water systems are required to monitor for compounds regulated under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Most of the compounds tested in this study are not regulated under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) federal drinking-water standards (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2007a). The White River study is part of the ongoing Source Water-Quality Assessment (SWQA) investigation of community water systems that withdraw from rivers across the United States. More detailed information and references on the sampling-design methodology, specific compounds monitored, and the national study are described by Carter and others (2007).

  2. Water stress in global transboundary river basins : Significance of upstream water use on downstream stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munia, H.; Guillaume, J. H A; Mirumachi, N.; Porkka, M.; Wada, Y.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341387819; Kummu, M.


    Growing population and water demand have increased pressure on water resources in various parts of the globe, including many transboundary river basins. While the impacts of upstream water use on downstream water availability have been analysed in many of these international river basins, this has

  3. Water quality in Italy: Po River and its tributaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosa, G.; Marchetti, R.


    For Italy's Po River hydrological basin, artificial reservoirs have a great importance; water reserve is about 1600 million cubic meters for the hydroelectric reservoirs and about 76 million cubic meters for irrigation. The principal factors determining the water quality of the Po River and its tributaries are examined. Organic micropollutants, metals and the microbial load are the principal parameters altering the quality of the waters; dilution is the prevailing factor reducing this contamination

  4. 77 FR 45653 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project... (United States)


    ... Basin Conservation Advisory Group, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, established by the... Water Conservation Program. DATES: The meeting will be held on Tuesday, August 21, 2012, from 1 p.m. to... the implementation of the Water Conservation Program, including the applicable water conservation...

  5. Interaction of water components in the semi-arid Huasco and Limarí river basins, North Central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Strauch


    Full Text Available For sustainable water resource management in semi-arid regions, sound information is required about interactions between the different components of the water system: rain/snow precipitation, surface/subsurface run-off, groundwater recharge. Exemplarily, the Huasco and Limarí river basins as water stressed river catchments have been studied by isotope and hydrochemical methods for (i the origin of water, (ii water quality, (iii relations of surface and groundwater.

    Applying the complex multi-isotopic and hydrochemical methodology to the water components of the Huasco and Limarí basins, a differentiation of water components concerning subsurface flow and river water along the catchment area and by anthropogenic impacts are detected. Sulphate and nitrate concentrations indicate remarkable input from mining and agricultural activities along the river catchment.

    The 2H-18O relations of river water and groundwater of both catchments point to the behaviour of river waters originated in an arid to semi-arid environment.

    Consequently, the groundwater from several production wells in the lower parts of the catchments is related to the rivers where the wells located, however, it can be distinguished from the river water. Using the hydrological water balance and the isotope mixing model, the interaction between surface and subsurface flows and river flow is estimated.

  6. Hydrological and Water Quality Characteristics of Rivers Feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FDC analysis showed that over 80% of the time, all rivers in the study area would not meet the target community's water demand, without the dams in place. Water quality assessments show biological contamination as the major water quality problem. Significant seasonal variation in water quality is evident, with the dry ...

  7. Quality of water in the White River and Lake Tapps, Pierce County, Washington, May-December 2010 (United States)

    Embrey, S.S.; Wagner, R.J.; Huffman, R.L.; Vanderpool-Kimura, A. M.; Foreman, J.R.


    The White River and Lake Tapps are part of a hydropower system completed in 1911–12. The system begins with a diversion dam on the White River that routes a portion of White River water into the southeastern end of Lake Tapps, which functioned as a storage reservoir for power generation. The stored water passed through the hydroelectric facilities at the northwestern end of the lake and returned to the White River through the powerhouse tailrace. Power generation ceased in January 2004, which altered the hydrology of the system by reducing volumes of water diverted out of the river, stored, and released through the powerhouse. This study conducted from May to December 2010 created a set of baseline data collected under a new flow regime for selected reaches of the White River, the White River Canal (Inflow), Lake Tapps Diversion (Tailrace) at the powerhouse, and Lake Tapps.

  8. Surveying drinking water quality (Balikhlou River, Ardabil Province, Iran) (United States)

    Aalipour erdi, Mehdi; Gasempour niari, Hassan; Mousavi Meshkini, Seyyed Reza; Foroug, Somayeh


    Considering the importance of Balikhlou River as one of the most important water sources of Ardabil, Nir and Sarein cities, maintaining water quality of this river is the most important goals in provincial and national levels. This river includes a wide area that provides agricultural, industrial and drinking water for the residents. Thus, surveying the quality of this river is important in planning and managing of region. This study examined the quality of river through eight physicochemical parameters (SO4, No3, BOD5, TDS, turbidity, pH, EC, COD) in two high- and low-water seasons by international and national standards in 2013. For this purpose, a review along the river has been done in five stations using t test and SPSS software. Model results showed that the amount difference in TDS and EC with WHO standards, and TDS rates with Iran standards in low-water seasons, pH and EC with WHO standards in high-water seasons, is not significant in high-water season; but for pH and SO4 parameters, turbidity and NO3 in both standards and EC value with WHO standard in low-water season and pH, EC, SO4 parameters and turbidity and NO3 in high-water season have significant difference from 5 to 1%, this shows the ideal limit and lowness of parameters for different usage.

  9. Preliminary checklists for applying SERCON (System for Evaluating Rivers for Conservation to rivers in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodorović Ivana


    Full Text Available This paper describes the first steps in gathering biological data to assess the conservation value of rivers in Serbia, using SERCON (System for Evaluating Rivers for Conservation. SERCON was developed in the UK to improve consistency in assessments of river ‘quality’ by using a scoring system to evaluate habitat features and species groups, catchment characteristics, and the potential impacts to which river systems may be subjected. This paper provides checklists for aquatic, semiaquatic and marginal plants, macroinvertebrates, fish and birds associated with rivers in Serbia, collated from a wide range of published and unpublished sources. These lists should be regarded as provisional because few wide-ranging biological surveys have been carried out specifically on Serbian rivers; further revisions are likely as more information becomes available in future. Ultimately, the work will benefit regulators and decision-makers with responsibility for river management under the new Water Law, and contribute to river protection and conservation in Serbia. [Acknowledgments. The hydromorphology dataset was prepared for the project ‘Biosensing Technologies and Global System for Long-Term Research and Integrated Management of Ecosystems’ (Biosensing tehnologije i globalni sistem za kontinuirana istraživanja i integrisano upravljanje ekosistema III 043002 grant, while the biodiversity dataset was prepared the project Plant biodiversity of Serbia and the Balkans – assessment, sustainable use and protection (Biodiverzitet biljnog sveta Srbije i Balkanskog poluostrva – procena, održivo korišćenje i zaštita 173030 Grant, supported by Ministry of Education and Science, Republic of Serbia

  10. Water quality assessment of the rivers in bauxite mining area at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water quality assessment of the rivers in bauxite mining area at Kuantan Pahang. ... mining area. Water samples were collected at Kuantan River, Riau River, Pinang River and Pandan Rivers. ... All these rivvers were classified into class II based on INWQS and required conventional treatment for water supply purposes.

  11. [Major ion chemistry of surface water in the Xilin River Basin and the possible controls]. (United States)

    Tang, Xi-Wen; Wu, Jin-Kui


    Under the increasing pressure of water shortage and steppe degradation, information on the hydrological cycle in the steppe region in Inner Mongolia is urgently needed. Major ions are widely used to identify the hydrological processes in a river basin. Based on the analysis results of 239 river water samples collected in 13 sections along the Xilin River system during 2006 to 2008, combined with data from groundwater and precipitation samples collected in the same period and the meteorological and hydrological data in the Xilin River Basin, hydrochemical characteristics and the chemistry of major ions of the Xilin River water have been studied by means of Piper triangle plots and Gibbs diagrams. The results showed that: (1) the total dissolved solid (TDS) in river water mainly ranged between 136.7 mg x L(-1) and 376.5 mg x L(-1), and (2) it had an increasing trend along the river flow path. (3) The major cations and anions of river water were Ca2+ and HCO3-, respectively, and the chemical type of the river water varied from HCO3- -Ca2+ in the headwater area to HCO(3-)-Ca2+ Mg2+ in the lower part. (4) The variation in the concentration of major irons in surface water was not significant at the temporal scale. Usually, the concentration values of major irons were much higher in May than those in other months during the runoff season, while the values were a bit lower in 2007 than those in 2006 and 2008. Except for SO4(2-), the concentrations of other ions such as Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, K+, Cl- and HCO3- showed a upward trend along the river flow path. Comparing major ion concentrations of the river water with those of local groundwater and precipitation, the concentration in river water was between those of precipitation and groundwater but was much closer to the concentration of groundwater. This indicated that the surface water was recharged by a mixture of precipitation and groundwater, and groundwater showed a larger impact. The Gibbs plot revealed that the chemical

  12. Water quality study of Sunter River in Jakarta, Indonesia (United States)

    Martinus, Y.; Astono, W.; Hendrawan, D.


    Sunter River flows in the city of Jakarta with the designation of river water for agricultural purposes, and can be utilized for urban business and hydroelectric power industry. This study aims to determine the Sunter River water quality based on physical and chemical parameters. Water sampling was conducted 2 times which done in April and May with 5 sampling stations for measuring. The samples was analayzed in the laboratory according SNI methods for parameters BOD, COD, PO4 3-, NO3, Oil & Grease and Detergents. The quality status of Sunter River is determined by the Pollutant Index method. The results show that the water quality of Sunter River is influenced by organic parameter as dominant pollutant with COD concentration ranging from 48 mg/l - 182.4 mg/l and BOD concentration ranging from 14.69 mg/L - 98.91 mg/L. The Pollution Index calculation results show that the water quality status of Sunter River is moderate polluted with IP 6.47. The source of pollutants generally comes from the urban drainage channels, tributaries, and slaughtering industry. The results of this study expected to be use by the government to improve the water quality of Sunter River for better environment.

  13. Managing water quality under drought conditions in the Llobregat River Basin. (United States)

    Momblanch, Andrea; Paredes-Arquiola, Javier; Munné, Antoni; Manzano, Andreu; Arnau, Javier; Andreu, Joaquín


    The primary effects of droughts on river basins include both depleted quantity and quality of the available water resources, which can render water resources useless for human needs and simultaneously damage the environment. Isolated water quality analyses limit the action measures that can be proposed. Thus, an integrated evaluation of water management and quality is warranted. In this study, a methodology consisting of two coordinated models is used to combine aspects of water resource allocation and water quality assessment. Water management addresses water allocation issues by considering the storage, transport and consumption elements. Moreover, the water quality model generates time series of concentrations for several pollutants according to the water quality of the runoff and the demand discharges. These two modules are part of the AQUATOOL decision support system shell for water resource management. This tool facilitates the analysis of the effects of water management and quality alternatives and scenarios on the relevant variables in a river basin. This paper illustrates the development of an integrated model for the Llobregat River Basin. The analysis examines the drought from 2004 to 2008, which is an example of a period when the water system was quantitative and qualitatively stressed. The performed simulations encompass a wide variety of water management and water quality measures; the results provide data for making informed decisions. Moreover, the results demonstrated the importance of combining these measures depending on the evolution of a drought event and the state of the water resources system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Water Accounting Plus (WA+) - a water accounting procedure for complex river basins based on satellite measurements (United States)

    Karimi, P.; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.; Molden, D.


    Coping with the issue of water scarcity and growing competition for water among different sectors requires proper water management strategies and decision processes. A pre-requisite is a clear understanding of the basin hydrological processes, manageable and unmanageable water flows, the interaction with land use and opportunities to mitigate the negative effects and increase the benefits of water depletion on society. Currently, water professionals do not have a common framework that links hydrological flows to user groups of water and their benefits. The absence of a standard hydrological and water management summary is causing confusion and wrong decisions. The non-availability of water flow data is one of the underpinning reasons for not having operational water accounting systems for river basins in place. In this paper we introduce Water Accounting Plus (WA+), which is a new framework designed to provide explicit spatial information on water depletion and net withdrawal processes in complex river basins. The influence of land use on the water cycle is described explicitly by defining land use groups with common characteristics. Analogous to financial accounting, WA+ presents four sheets including (i) a resource base sheet, (ii) a consumption sheet, (iii) a productivity sheet, and (iv) a withdrawal sheet. Every sheet encompasses a set of indicators that summarize the overall water resources situation. The impact of external (e.g. climate change) and internal influences (e.g. infrastructure building) can be estimated by studying the changes in these WA+ indicators. Satellite measurements can be used for 3 out of the 4 sheets, but is not a precondition for implementing WA+ framework. Data from hydrological models and water allocation models can also be used as inputs to WA+.

  15. Situation analysis of water quality in the Umtata River catchment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Umtata River was characterised by using standard physico-chemical and microbiological methods to assess the present water quality in the river. The results indicated high turbidity, gross microbiological and cadmium pollution. Turbidity values ranged from 0.28 NTU to 1 899 NTU highlighting the known problem of ...

  16. Mississippi National River and Recreation Area Water Trail Plan. (United States)


    The Water Trail Plan describes the current conditions of and future plans for the Mississippi National River and Recreation Area (NRRA), a 72-mile stretch of the Mississippi River running through the Twin Cities region of Minnesota. In 2012, the NRRA...

  17. Studying groundwater and surface water interactions using airborne remote sensing in Heihe River basin, northwest China


    Liu, C.; Liu, J.; Hu, Y.; Zheng, C.


    Managing surface water and groundwater as a unified system is important for water resource exploitation and aquatic ecosystem conservation. The unified approach to water management needs accurate characterization of surface water and groundwater interactions. Temperature is a natural tracer for identifying surface water and groundwater interactions, and the use of remote sensing techniques facilitates basin-scale temperature measurement. This study focuses on the Heihe River basin, the second...

  18. Development of a database-driven system for simulating water temperature in the lower Yakima River main stem, Washington, for various climate scenarios (United States)

    Voss, Frank; Maule, Alec


    A model for simulating daily maximum and mean water temperatures was developed by linking two existing models: one developed by the U.S. Geological Survey and one developed by the Bureau of Reclamation. The study area included the lower Yakima River main stem between the Roza Dam and West Richland, Washington. To automate execution of the labor-intensive models, a database-driven model automation program was developed to decrease operation costs, to reduce user error, and to provide the capability to perform simulations quickly for multiple management and climate change scenarios. Microsoft© SQL Server 2008 R2 Integration Services packages were developed to (1) integrate climate, flow, and stream geometry data from diverse sources (such as weather stations, a hydrologic model, and field measurements) into a single relational database; (2) programmatically generate heavily formatted model input files; (3) iteratively run water temperature simulations; (4) process simulation results for export to other models; and (5) create a database-driven infrastructure that facilitated experimentation with a variety of scenarios, node permutations, weather data, and hydrologic conditions while minimizing costs of running the model with various model configurations. As a proof-of-concept exercise, water temperatures were simulated for a "Current Conditions" scenario, where local weather data from 1980 through 2005 were used as input, and for "Plus 1" and "Plus 2" climate warming scenarios, where the average annual air temperatures used in the Current Conditions scenario were increased by 1degree Celsius (°C) and by 2°C, respectively. Average monthly mean daily water temperatures simulated for the Current Conditions scenario were compared to measured values at the Bureau of Reclamation Hydromet gage at Kiona, Washington, for 2002-05. Differences ranged between 1.9° and 1.1°C for February, March, May, and June, and were less than 0.8°C for the remaining months of the year

  19. Water-energy-food nexus in Large Asian River Basins


    Keskinen, Marko; Varis, Olli


    The water-energy-food nexus ("nexus") is promoted as an approach to look at the linkages between water, energy and food. The articles of Water's Special Issue "Water-Energy-Food Nexus in Large Asian River Basins" look at the applicability of the nexus approach in different regions and rivers basins in Asia. The articles provide practical examples of the various roles and importance of water-energy-food linkages, but also discuss the theoretical aspects related to the nexus. While it is eviden...

  20. Water quality and treatment of river bank filtrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vet, W.W.J.M.; Van Genuchten, C.C.A.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Van Dijk, J.C.


    In drinking water production, river bank filtration has the advantages of dampening peak concentrations of many dissolved components, substantially removing many micropollutants and removing, virtually completely, the pathogens and suspended solids. The production aquifer is not only fed by the

  1. Water quality and treatment of river bank filtrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vet, W.W.J.M.; Van Genuchten, C.C.A.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Van Dijk, J.C.


    In drinking water production, river bank filtration has the advantages of dampening peak concentrations of many dissolved components, substantially removing many micropollutants and removing, virtually completely, the pathogens and suspended solids. The production aquifer is not only fed by the

  2. St. Louis River water quality assessment 2012, 2013 (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — St. Louis River Area of Concern surface water nutrient (TP, TN, NOx-N, NH4-N), dissolved oxygen, and particulate (TSS, chlorophyll a) concentration data from 2012...

  3. 2012 Suwannee River Water Management District (SRWMD) Lidar: Bradford (FL) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — USGS - Suwannee River Water Management District Contract No.G10PC00093, Task Order No.G12PD00242 Prime Contractor: Digital Aerial Solutions (DAS) Sub-Contractor:...

  4. Santa Lucia River basin. Development of water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The main objective of this study was to orient the development of water resources of the Santa Lucia River basin to maximum benefit in accordance with the priorities established by Government in relation to the National Development Plans

  5. Potability Evaluation of Selected River Waters in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Water contains physiochemical materials and microbial organisms which are ... wide variety of organic and inorganic solid wastes and salts. A river is a ... in the determination of all the metallic elements such as Lead .... Architects Building.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, the ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of the approximately 57 million gallons of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in September 2003. ORP has approved a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. The ORP has established contracts to implement this strategy to establish a basic capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategy for completion of the mission uses a number of interrelated activities. The ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) for treatment and disposal; (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) and about half of the low-activity waste (LAW) contained in the tank farms, and maximizing its capability and capacity; (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability or a second WTP LAW Facility that can safely treat about half of the LAW contained in the tank farms; (4) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for transuranic (TRU) tank waste for shipment to and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); (5) Deploying interim storage capacity for the immobilized HLW and shipping that waste to Yucca Mountain for disposal; (6) Operating the Integrated Disposal Facility for the disposal of immobilized LAW, along with the associated secondary waste, (7) Closing the SST and DST tank farms, ancillary facilities, and al1 waste


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, the ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of the approximately 57 million gallons of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in September 2003. ORP has approved a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. The ORP has established contracts to implement this strategy to establish a basic capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategy for completion of the mission uses a number of interrelated activities. The ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) for treatment and disposal; (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) and about half of the low-activity waste (LAW) contained in the tank farms, and maximizing its capability and capacity; (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability or a second WTP LAW Facility that can safely treat about half of the LAW contained in the tank farms; (4) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for transuranic (TRU) tank waste for shipment to and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); (5) Deploying interim storage capacity for the immobilized HLW and shipping that waste to Yucca Mountain for disposal; (6) Operating the Integrated Disposal Facility for the disposal of immobilized LAW, along with the associated secondary waste, (7) Closing the SST and DST tank farms, ancillary facilities, and al1 waste

  8. Effects of Coordinated Operation of Weirs and Reservoirs on the Water Quality of the Geum River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Min Ahn


    Full Text Available Multifunctional weirs can be used to maintain water supply during dry seasons and to improve downstream water quality during drought conditions through discharge based on retained flux. Sixteen multifunctional weirs were recently constructed in four river systems as part of the Four Rivers Restoration Project. In this study, three multifunctional weirs in the Geum River Basin were investigated to analyze the environmental effects of multifunctional weir operation on downstream flow. To determine seasonal vulnerability to drought, the basin was evaluated using the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI. Furthermore, the downstream flow regime and the effect on water quality improvement of a coordinated dam–multifunctional weir operation controlled by: (a a rainfall–runoff model; (b a reservoir optimization model; and (c a water quality model, were examined. A runoff estimate at each major location in the Geum River Basin was performed using the water quality model, and examined variation in downstream water quality depending on the operational scenario of each irrigation facility such as dams and weirs. Although the water quality was improved by the coordinated operation of the dams and weirs, when the discharged water quality is poor, the downstream water quality is not improved. Therefore, it is necessary to first improve the discharged water quality on the lower Geum River. Improvement of the water quality of main stream in the Geum River is important, but water quality from tributaries should also be improved. By applying the estimated runoff data to the reservoir optimization model, these scenarios will be utilized as basic parameters for assessing the optimal operation of the river.

  9. Migration of radionuclides through a river system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunaga, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    Migration behavior of several atmospherically-derived radionuclides in a river watershed was studied. A main interest was in their relocation from the ground soil of the watershed to a downstream region through a river. Studied radionuclides are: {sup 137}Cs generated by weapon tests in the atmosphere; {sup 210}Pb and {sup 7}Be of naturally occurring radionuclides; {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am released by the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Dominance of the form in suspended solid in river water (particulate form) was qualified for the radionuclides in the Kuji river watershed. An importance of discharge in flooding was also confirmed. A historical budget analysis for weapon test derived {sup 137}Cs was presented for the Hi-i river watershed and its accompanied lake sediment (Lake Shinji). The work afforded a scheme of a fate of {sup 137}Cs after falling on the ground soil and on the lake surface. Several controlling factors, which can influence on the chemical form of radionuclides discharged to a river, were also investigated in the vicinity of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. A special attention was paid on the association of the radionuclides with dissolved species in water. Preferential association of Pu and Am isotopes to a large molecular size of dissolved matrices, probably of humic substances, was suggested. (author)

  10. Water mass interaction in the confluence zone of the Daning River and the Yangtze River--a driving force for algal growth in the Three Gorges Reservoir. (United States)

    Holbach, Andreas; Wang, Lijing; Chen, Hao; Hu, Wei; Schleicher, Nina; Zheng, Binghui; Norra, Stefan


    Increasing eutrophication and algal bloom events in the Yangtze River Three Gorges Reservoir, China, are widely discussed with regard to changed hydrodynamics and nutrient transport and distribution processes. Insights into water exchange and interaction processes between water masses related to large-scale water level fluctuations in the reservoir are crucial to understand water quality and eutrophication dynamics. Therefore, confluence zones of tributaries with the Yangtze River main stream are dedicated key interfaces. In this study, water quality data were recorded in situ and on-line in varying depths with the MINIBAT towed underwater multi-sensor system in the confluence zone of the Daning River and the Yangtze River close to Wushan City during 1 week in August 2011. Geostatistical evaluation of the water quality data was performed, and results were compared to phosphorus contents of selective water samples. The strongly rising water level throughout the measurement period caused Yangtze River water masses to flow upstream into the tributary and supply their higher nutrient and particulate loads into the tributary water body. Rapid algal growth and sedimentation occurred immediately when hydrodynamic conditions in the confluence zone became more serene again. Consequently, water from the Yangtze River main stream can play a key role in providing nutrients to the algal bloom stricken water bodies of its tributaries.

  11. Platform for monitoring water and solid fluxes in mountainous rivers (United States)

    Nord, Guillaume; Esteves, Michel; Aubert, Coralie; Belleudy, Philippe; Coulaud, Catherine; Bois, Jérôme; Geay, Thomas; Gratiot, Nicolas; Legout, Cédric; Mercier, Bernard; Némery, Julien; Michielin, Yoann


    The project aims to develop a platform that electronically integrates a set of existing sensors for the continuous measurement at high temporal frequency of water and solid fluxes (bed load and suspension), characteristics of suspended solids (distribution in particle size, settling velocity of the particles) and other variables on water quality (color, nutrient concentration). The project is preferentially intended for rivers in mountainous catchments draining areas from 10 to 1000 km², with high suspended sediment concentrations (maxima between 10 and 300 g/l) and highly dynamic behavior, water discharge varying of several orders of magnitude in a short period of time (a few hours). The measurement of water and solid fluxes in this type of river remains a challenge and, to date, there is no built-in device on the market to continuously monitor all these variables. The development of this platform is based on a long experience of measurement of sediment fluxes in rivers within the French Critical Zone Observatories (, especially in the Draix-Bléone ( and OHMCV ( observatories. The choice was made to integrate in the platform instruments already available on the market and currently used by the scientific community (water level radar, surface velocity radar, turbidity sensor, automatic water sampler, video camera) and to include also newly developed instruments (System for the Characterization of Aggregates and Flocs - see EGU2016-8542 - and hydrophone) or commercial instruments (spectrophotometer and radiometer) to be tested in surface water with high suspended sediment concentration. Priority is given to non-intrusive instruments due to their robustness in this type of environment with high destructive potential. Development work includes the construction of a platform prototype "smart" and remotely configurable for implantation in an isolated environment (absence of electric

  12. Radar sounding of bedrock and water table at Chalk River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annan, A.P.; Davis, J.L.


    When a spill of radioactive waste occurs, one of the main concerns is the flow pattern of ground water in the area of the spill. Ground probing radar is a relatively new geophysical technique which can provide high resolution data on the surficial geology and water distribution. The results of some preliminary radar experiments conducted at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL) of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Chalk River, Ontario are presented. (auth)

  13. Main tributary influence on the River Vardar water quantity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unevska, Blaga; Stojov, Vasko; Milevski, Josif


    Hydrology in all catchments is defined like complex of geophysics and hydro-geologic parameters. Regular defining on the hydrological parameters is essential for planning, improving and developing management on every country. The main aim of this topic is to demonstrate disparity disposal on water resources in Republic of Macedonia depending on the different catchments areas. Here will be talk about different percentage of tributaries, which have influence on river Vardar. River Vardar is main recipient on water in Macedonia.(Author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Skorbiłowicz


    Full Text Available Creating the buffer zones is a function intended to designate an area in particular, of a constant distance around the spatial objects. The aim of the study was to create maps as thematic layers, which served to identify areas of existing and potential contamination of surface water and other environmental elements. Among others, it made possible to localize the areas potentially affected by the surface water pollution due to transport; localize the areas potentially affected by the surface water pollution due to the discharge of sewage from human settlements; localize the zones with mitigated impact of communication emissions due to the natural protection of forests taking the form of so-called geochemical barriers. The spatial analyzes allowed to generate model-zones of the existing and potential threat of water pollution in the Narew river catchment. Designated danger zones can be verified by studies as well as they can be very helpful in determining the monitoring network and for water quality modeling process.

  15. Adaptive capacity and water governance in the Keiskamma River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa, being a semi-arid country, faces water resource constraints. The projected impacts of climate change in the Keiskamma River Catchment, Eastern Cape Province, are, for example, changes in rainfall with effects on streamflow, salt water intrusion, decreasing water quality due to runoff and erosion, and droughts ...


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certa, P.J.; Kirkbride, R.A.; Hohl, T.M.; Empey, P.A.; Wells, M.N.


    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of approximately 57 million gallons 1 of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure2 of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in May 2008. ORP has made a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. ORP has contracts in place to implement the strategy for completion of the mission and establish the capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategl involves a number of interrelated activities. ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by the following: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) and delivering the waste to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) fraction contained in the tank farms. About one-third of the low-activity waste (LAW) fraction separated from the HLW fraction in the WTP will be immobilized in the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility. (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability assumed to be a second LAW vitrification facility that can safely treat about two-thirds of the LAW contained in the tank farms. (4) Developing and deploying supplemental pretreatment capability currently assumed to be an Aluminum Removal Facility (ARF) using a lithium hydrotalcite process to mitigate sodium management issues. (5) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) tank waste for possible shipment to and disposal


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of approximately 57 million gallons 1 of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure2 of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in May 2008. ORP has made a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. ORP has contracts in place to implement the strategy for completion of the mission and establish the capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategl involves a number of interrelated activities. ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by the following: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) and delivering the waste to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) fraction contained in the tank farms. About one-third of the low-activity waste (LAW) fraction separated from the HLW fraction in the WTP will be immobilized in the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility. (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability assumed to be a second LAW vitrification facility that can safely treat about two-thirds of the LAW contained in the tank farms. (4) Developing and deploying supplemental pretreatment capability currently assumed to be an Aluminum Removal Facility (ARF) using a lithium hydrotalcite process to mitigate sodium management issues. (5) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) tank waste for possible shipment to and

  18. The main factors of water pollution in Danube River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Gasparotti


    Full Text Available The paper proposed herewith aims to give an overview on the pollution along the Danube River. Water quality in Danube River basin (DRB is under a great pressure due to the diverse range of the human activities including large urban center, industrial, agriculture, transport and mining activities. The most important aspects of the water pollution are: organic, nutrient and microbial pollution, , hazardous substances, and hydro-morphological alteration. Analysis of the pressures on the Danube River showed that a large part of the Danube River is subject to multiple pressures and there are important risks for not reaching good ecological status and good chemical status of the water in the foreseeable future. In 2009, the evaluation based on the results of the Trans National Monitoring Network showed for the length of water bodies from the Danube River basin that 22% achieved good ecological status or ecological potential and 45% river water bodies achieved good chemical status. Another important issue is related to the policy of water pollution.

  19. Operational Management System for Regulated Water Systems (United States)

    van Loenen, A.; van Dijk, M.; van Verseveld, W.; Berger, H.


    Most of the Dutch large rivers, canals and lakes are controlled by the Dutch water authorities. The main reasons concern safety, navigation and fresh water supply. Historically the separate water bodies have been controlled locally. For optimizating management of these water systems an integrated approach was required. Presented is a platform which integrates data from all control objects for monitoring and control purposes. The Operational Management System for Regulated Water Systems (IWP) is an implementation of Delft-FEWS which supports operational control of water systems and actively gives advice. One of the main characteristics of IWP is that is real-time collects, transforms and presents different types of data, which all add to the operational water management. Next to that, hydrodynamic models and intelligent decision support tools are added to support the water managers during their daily control activities. An important advantage of IWP is that it uses the Delft-FEWS framework, therefore processes like central data collection, transformations, data processing and presentation are simply configured. At all control locations the same information is readily available. The operational water management itself gains from this information, but it can also contribute to cost efficiency (no unnecessary pumping), better use of available storage and advise during (water polution) calamities.

  20. Experimental investigation on water quality standard of Yangtze River water source heat pump. (United States)

    Qin, Zenghu; Tong, Mingwei; Kun, Lin


    Due to the surface water in the upper reaches of Yangtze River in China containing large amounts of silt and algae, high content of microorganisms and suspended solids, the water in Yangtze River cannot be used for cooling a heat pump directly. In this paper, the possibility of using Yangtze River, which goes through Chongqing, a city in southwest China, as a heat source-sink was investigated. Water temperature and quality of the Yangtze River in the Chongqing area were analyzed and the performance of water source heat pump units in different sediment concentrations, turbidity and algae material conditions were tested experimentally, and the water quality standards, in particular surface water conditions, in the Yangtze River region that adapt to energy-efficient heat pumps were also proposed. The experimental results show that the coefficient of performance heat pump falls by 3.73% to the greatest extent, and the fouling resistance of cooling water in the heat exchanger increases up to 25.6% in different water conditions. When the sediment concentration and the turbidity in the river water are no more than 100 g/m3 and 50 NTU respectively, the performance of the heat pump is better, which can be used as a suitable river water quality standard for river water source heat pumps.

  1. Spatial and seasonal distribution of selected antibiotics in surface waters of the Pearl Rivers, China. (United States)

    Yang, Ji-Feng; Ying, Guang-Guo; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Tao, Ran; Su, Hao-Chang; Liu, You-Sheng


    The distribution and occurrence of 15 antibiotics in surface water of the Pearl River System (Liuxi River, Shijing River and Zhujiang River) and effluents of four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were investigated in two sampling events representing wet season and dry season by using rapid resolution liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS) in positive ionization mode. Only eight antibiotics (sulfadiazine, sulfapyridine, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, roxithromycin, erythromycin-H₂O and norfloxacin) were detected in the water samples of the three rivers and the effluents. The detection frequencies and levels of antibiotics in the dry season were higher than those in the wet season. This could be attributed to the dilution effects in the wet season and relatively lower temperature in the dry season under which antibiotics could persist for a longer period. The levels of the detected antibiotics in different sites are generally in a decreasing order as follows: Shijing River ≥WWTP effluent ≥Zhujiang River ≥ Liuxi River. Risk assessment based on the calculated risk quotients showed that only erythromycin-H₂O and roxithromycin detected in the Pearl Rivers might have adverse effects on aquatic organisms.

  2. Water quality index for Al-Gharraf River, southern Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam Hussein Ewaid


    Full Text Available The Water Quality Index has been developed mathematically to evaluate the water quality of Al-Gharraf River, the main branch of the Tigris River in the south of Iraq. Water samples were collected monthly from five sampling stations during 2015–2016, and 11 parameters were analyzed: biological oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, the concentration of hydrogen ions, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, phosphates, nitrates, chlorides, as well as turbidity, total hardness, electrical conductivity and alkalinity. The index classified the river water, without including turbidity as a parameter, as good for drinking at the first station, poor at stations 2, 3, 4 and very poor at station 5. When turbidity was included, the index classified the river water as unsuitable for drinking purposes in the entire river. The study highlights the importance of applying the water quality indices which indicate the total effect of the ecological factors on surface water quality and which give a simple interpretation of the monitoring data to help local people in improving water quality.

  3. A parsimonious dynamic model for river water quality assessment. (United States)

    Mannina, Giorgio; Viviani, Gaspare


    Water quality modelling is of crucial importance for the assessment of physical, chemical, and biological changes in water bodies. Mathematical approaches to water modelling have become more prevalent over recent years. Different model types ranging from detailed physical models to simplified conceptual models are available. Actually, a possible middle ground between detailed and simplified models may be parsimonious models that represent the simplest approach that fits the application. The appropriate modelling approach depends on the research goal as well as on data available for correct model application. When there is inadequate data, it is mandatory to focus on a simple river water quality model rather than detailed ones. The study presents a parsimonious river water quality model to evaluate the propagation of pollutants in natural rivers. The model is made up of two sub-models: a quantity one and a quality one. The model employs a river schematisation that considers different stretches according to the geometric characteristics and to the gradient of the river bed. Each stretch is represented with a conceptual model of a series of linear channels and reservoirs. The channels determine the delay in the pollution wave and the reservoirs cause its dispersion. To assess the river water quality, the model employs four state variables: DO, BOD, NH(4), and NO. The model was applied to the Savena River (Italy), which is the focus of a European-financed project in which quantity and quality data were gathered. A sensitivity analysis of the model output to the model input or parameters was done based on the Generalised Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation methodology. The results demonstrate the suitability of such a model as a tool for river water quality management.

  4. Water quality evaluation of Al-Gharraf river by two water quality indices (United States)

    Ewaid, Salam Hussein


    Water quality of Al-Gharraf river, the largest branch of Tigris River south of Iraq, was evaluated by the National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index (NFS WQI) and the Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPI) depending on 13 physical, chemical, and biological parameters of water quality measured monthly at ten stations on the river during 2015. The NSF-WQI range obtained for the sampling sites was 61-70 indicating a medium water quality. The HPI value was 98.6 slightly below the critical value for drinking water of 100, and the water quality in the upstream stations is better than downstream due to decrease in water and the accumulation of contaminants along the river. This study explains the significance of applying the water quality indices that show the aggregate impact of ecological factors in charge of water pollution of surface water and which permits translation of the monitoring data to assist the decision makers.

  5. Stabilization of Aley river water content by forest stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Paramonov


    Full Text Available Aley river basin is one of the most developed territories in West Siberia. Initially, the development here was related to the development of ore mining in the Altai. Currently it is associated mainly with the agricultural orientation of economic development. The intensive involvement of basin lands into the economic turnover for the last 100 years contributed to the formation of a number of environmental problems, such as water and wind erosion, loss of soil fertility and salinization, and desertification of the territory. Besides, the decrease of Aley river water content due to natural and anthropogenic reasons was observed. A specific feature of water management in Aley river basin is a significant amount of water resources used for irrigation purposes and agricultural water supply. To ensure the economic and drinking water supply, two reservoirs and a number of ponds have been constructed and operate in the basin. Forest ecosystems of the basin are considered from the viewpoint of preservation and restoration of small rivers. The ability of forest to accumulate solid precipitation and intercept them during the snowmelt for a longer time reduces the surface drainage and promotes transfer into the subsurface flow, significantly influencing the water content of permanent watercourses, is shown. The state of protective forest plantations in Aley river basin is analyzed. Aley river tributaries are compared by area, the length of water flow, and forest coverage of the basin. It is proposed to regulate the runoff through drastic actions on the increase of forest cover in the plain and especially in the mountainous parts of the basin. Measures to increase the forest cover within water protection zones, afforestation of temporary and permanent river basins, and the protection of agricultural soil fertility are worked out.

  6. The Vistula River and water management in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Szablowski


    Full Text Available This article attempts to show how much in agriculture depends on appropriate water resources. The Kujawsko-Pomorskie Voivodeship is exposed to a significant deficiency of water resources. In addition, it experiences severe droughts, repeating in the period 1951–2006 on average every two years. The Vistula River flowing across the Voivodeship creates great chances for improved management conditions. These opportunities have been discussed on the example of investments, developed concepts of surface water management, agricultural irrigation programme and the opportunity of using the water resources of a planned second reservoir on the Vistula River below Włocławek.

  7. Tritium in surface water of the Yenisei river Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondareva, L.G.; Bolsunovsky, A.Ya.


    The paper reports an investigation of the tritium content in the surface waters of the Yenisei River basin near the Mining-and-Chemical Combine (MCC). In 2001-2003 the maximum tritium concentration in the Yenisei River did not exceed 4±1 Bq/L. It has been found that there are surface waters containing enhanced tritium, up to 168 Bq/L, as compared with the background values for the Yenisei River. There are two possible sources of tritium input. First, the last operating reactor of the MCC, which still uses the Yenisei water as coolant. Second, tritium may come from the deep aquifers at the Severny testing site. For the first time tritium has been found in two aquatic plant species of the Yenisei River with maximal tritium concentration 304 Bq/Kg wet weight. Concentration factors of tritium for aquatic plants are much higher than 1

  8. Links between river water acidity, land use and hydrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarinen, T.; Celebi, A.; Kloeve, B. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Water Resources and Environmental Eng. Lab.], Email:


    In western Finland, acid leaching to watercourses is mainly due to drainage of acid sulphate (As) soils. This study examined how different land-use and land-cover types affect water acidity in the northwestern coastal region of Finland, which has abundant drained AS soils and peatlands. Sampling conducted in different hydrological conditions in studied river basins revealed two different catchment types: catchments dominated by drained forested peatlands and catchments used by agriculture. Low pH and high electric conductivity (EC) were typical in rivers affected by agriculture. In rivers dominated by forested peatlands and wetlands, EC was considerably lower. During spring and autumn high runoff events, water quality was poor and showed large spatial variation. Thus it is important to ensure that in river basin status assessment, sampling is carried out in different hydrological situations and in also water from some tributaries is sampled. (orig.)

  9. Deep waters : the Ottawa River and Canada's nuclear adventure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krenz, F.H.K.


    Deep Waters is an intimate account of the principal events and personalities involved in the successful development of the Canadian nuclear power system (CANDU), an achievement that is arguably one of Canada's greatest scientific and technical successes of the twentieth century. The author tells the stories of the people involved and the problems they faced and overcame and also relates the history of the development of the town of Deep River, built exclusively for the scientists and employees of the Chalk River Project and describes the impact of the Project on the traditional communities of the Ottawa Valley. Public understanding of nuclear power has remained confused, yet decisions about whether and how to use it are of vital importance to Canadians today - and will increase in importance as we seek to maintain our standard of living without doing irreparable damage to the environment around us. Deep Waters examines the issues involved in the use of nuclear power without over-emphasizing its positive aspects or avoiding its negative aspects.

  10. Exploring Future Water Shortage for Large River Basins under Different Water Allocation Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Dan; Yao, Mingtian; Ludwig, Fulco; Kabat, Pavel; Huang, He Qing; Hutjes, Ronald W.A.; Werners, Saskia E.


    Climate change and socio-economic development increase variations in water availability and water use in the Pearl River Basin (PRB), China. This can potentially result in conflicts over water resources between water users, and cause water shortage in the dry season. To assess and manage water

  11. Prolonged river water pollution due to variable-density flow and solute transport in the riverbed (United States)

    Jin, Guangqiu; Tang, Hongwu; Li, Ling; Barry, D. A.


    A laboratory experiment and numerical modeling were used to examine effects of density gradients on hyporheic flow and solute transport under the condition of a solute pulse input to a river with regular bed forms. Relatively low-density gradients due to an initial salt pulse concentration of 1.55 kg m-3 applied in the experiment were found to modulate significantly the pore-water flow and solute transport in the riverbed. Such density gradients increased downward flow and solute transport in the riverbed by factors up to 1.6. This resulted in a 12.2% increase in the total salt transfer from the water column to the riverbed over the salt pulse period. As the solute pulse passed, the effect of the density gradients reversed, slowing down the release of the solute back to the river water by a factor of 3.7. Numerical modeling indicated that these density effects intensified as salt concentrations in the water column increased. Simulations further showed that the density gradients might even lead to unstable flow and result in solute fingers in the bed of large bed forms. The slow release of solute from the bed back to the river led to a long tail of solute concentration in the river water. These findings have implications for assessment of impact of pollution events on river systems, in particular, long-term effects on both the river water and riverbed due to the hyporheic exchange.

  12. Integrated modeling of water quantity and quality in the Araguari River basin, Brazil


    Salla, Marcio Ricardo; Paredes-Arquiola, Javier; Solera, Abel; Álvarez, Joaquín Andreu; Pereira, Carlos Eugênio; Alamy Filho, José Eduardo; De Oliveira, André Luiz


    The Araguari River basin has a huge water resource potential. However, population and industrial growth have generated numerous private and collective conflicts of interest in the multiple uses of water, resulting in the need for integrated management of water quantity and quality at the basin scale. This study used the AQUATOOL Decision Support System. The water balance performed by the SIMGES module for the period of October 2006 to September 2011 provided a good representation of the reali...

  13. Scale-dependent effects of land cover on water physico-chemistry and diatom-based metrics in a major river system, the Adour-Garonne basin (South Western France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tudesque, Loïc; Tisseuil, Clément; Lek, Sovan


    The scale dependence of ecological phenomena remains a central issue in ecology. Particularly in aquatic ecology, the consideration of the accurate spatial scale in assessing the effects of landscape factors on stream condition is critical. In this context, our study aimed at assessing the relationships between multi-spatial scale land cover patterns and a variety of water quality and diatom metrics measured at the stream reach level. This investigation was conducted in a major European river system, the Adour-Garonne river basin, characterized by a wide range of ecological conditions. Redundancy analysis (RDA) and variance partitioning techniques were used to disentangle the different relationships between land cover, water-chemistry and diatom metrics. Our results revealed a top-down “cascade effect” indirectly linking diatom metrics to land cover patterns through water physico-chemistry, which occurred at the largest spatial scales. In general, the strength of the relationships between land cover, physico-chemistry, and diatoms was shown to increase with the spatial scale, from the local to the basin scale, emphasizing the importance of continuous processes of accumulation throughout the river gradient. Unexpectedly, we established that the influence of land cover on the diatom metric was of primary importance both at the basin and local scale, as a result of discontinuous but not necessarily antagonist processes. The most detailed spatial grain of the Corine land cover classification appeared as the most relevant spatial grain to relate land cover to water chemistry and diatoms. Our findings provide suitable information to improve the implementation of effective diatom-based monitoring programs, especially within the scope of the European Water Framework Directive. - Highlights: •The spatial scale dependence of the “cascade effect” in a river system has been demonstrated. •The strength of the relationships between land cover and diatoms through

  14. 河流水生态修复阈值界定指标体系初步构建%The preliminary structure of definition index system for river water ecological restoration threshold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于鲁冀; 吕晓燕; 宋思远; 梁静; 王小青


    pollution load, there were very few study on the threshold of ecological restoration. The studies on index system of river ecological restoration threshold had yet appeared. By analyzing the importance of threshold in river ecological restoration, it pointed out that the determination of the river restoration threshold was the basis of degraded river ecological restoration and provided a scientific basis and decision support for the area to restore the river ecosystem. What’s more, it was urgent needs for the development of the water environment management. On the basis, it put forward the river ecological restoration threshold concept which was to define to which degradation extent should the river ecological systems need to be restored according to river ecosystem natural properties and functions of river and needs of regional socio-economic development, If the degree of degradation were more than the ecological restoration threshold, it will need manual restoration. Otherwise, it will not need restoration. Through summarizing index system construction principles, screening methods and threshold calculation methods, this paper put forward the technical route of river ecological restoration threshold. Combining frequency analysis method with theory analysis method, index system and threshold calculation method system of river ecological restoration threshold were initially built on six elements (physical structure, hydrological conditions, water quality, aquatic organisms, stream function and social economic) which influenced river restoration. This laid the foundation for next quantitative screening and threshold calculation of river ecological restoration threshold index system.

  15. Hydrogeologic data for the Big River-Mishnock River stream-aquifer system, central Rhode Island (United States)

    Craft, P.A.


    Hydrogeology, ground-water development alternatives, and water quality in the BigMishnock stream-aquifer system in central Rhode Island are being investigated as part of a long-term cooperative program between the Rhode Island Water Resources Board and the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate the ground-water resources throughout Rhode Island. The study area includes the Big River drainage basin and that portion of the Mishnock River drainage basin upstream from the Mishnock River at State Route 3. This report presents geologic data and hydrologic and water-quality data for ground and surface water. Ground-water data were collected from July 1996 through September 1998 from a network of observation wells consisting of existing wells and wells installed for this study, which provided a broad distribution of data-collection sites throughout the study area. Streambed piezometers were used to obtain differences in head data between surface-water levels and ground-water levels to help evaluate stream-aquifer interactions throughout the study area. The types of data presented include monthly ground-water levels, average daily ground-water withdrawals, drawdown data from aquifer tests, and water-quality data. Historical water-level data from other wells within the study area also are presented in this report. Surface-water data were obtained from a network consisting of surface-water impoundments, such as ponds and reservoirs, existing and newly established partial-record stream-discharge sites, and synoptic surface-water-quality sites. Water levels were collected monthly from the surface-water impoundments. Stream-discharge measurements were made at partial-record sites to provide measurements of inflow, outflow, and internal flow throughout the study area. Specific conductance was measured monthly at partial-record sites during the study, and also during the fall and spring of 1997 and 1998 at 41 synoptic sites throughout the study area. General geologic data, such as

  16. Hydrology, Water Quality, and Surface- and Ground-Water Interactions in the Upper Hillsborough River Watershed, West-Central Florida (United States)

    Trommer, J.T.; Sacks, L.A.; Kuniansky, E.L.


    A study of the Hillsborough River watershed was conducted between October 1999 through September 2003 to characterize the hydrology, water quality, and interaction between the surface and ground water in the highly karstic uppermost part of the watershed. Information such as locations of ground-water recharge and discharge, depth of the flow system interacting with the stream, and water quality in the watershed can aid in prudent water-management decisions. The upper Hillsborough River watershed covers a 220-square-mile area upstream from Hillsborough River State Park where the watershed is relatively undeveloped. The watershed contains a second order magnitude spring, many karst features, poorly drained swamps, marshes, upland flatwoods, and ridge areas. The upper Hillsborough River watershed is subdivided into two major subbasins, namely, the upper Hillsborough River subbasin, and the Blackwater Creek subbasin. The Blackwater Creek subbasin includes the Itchepackesassa Creek subbasin, which in turn includes the East Canal subbasin. The upper Hillsborough River watershed is underlain by thick sequences of carbonate rock that are covered by thin surficial deposits of unconsolidated sand and sandy clay. The clay layer is breached in many places because of the karst nature of the underlying limestone, and the highly variable degree of confinement between the Upper Floridan and surficial aquifers throughout the watershed. Potentiometric-surface maps indicate good hydraulic connection between the Upper Floridan aquifer and the Hillsborough River, and a poorer connection with Blackwater and Itchepackesassa Creeks. Similar water level elevations and fluctuations in the Upper Floridan and surficial aquifers at paired wells also indicate good hydraulic connection. Calcium was the dominant ion in ground water from all wells sampled in the watershed. Nitrate concentrations were near or below the detection limit in all except two wells that may have been affected by

  17. Assessment of denitrification process in lower Ishikari river system, Japan. (United States)

    Jha, Pawan Kumar; Minagawa, Masao


    Sediment denitrification rate and its role in removal of dissolved nitrate load in lower Ishikari river system were examined. Denitrification rate were measured using acetylene inhibition technique on the sediment samples collected during August 2009-July 2010. The denitrification rate varied from 0.001 to 1.9 μg Ng(-1) DM h(-1) with an average value of 0.21 μg Ng(-1) DM h(-1) in lower Ishikari river system. Denitrification rate showed positive correlation with dissolved nitrate concentration in the river basin, indicating overlying water column supplied nitrate for the sediment denitrification processes. Nutrient enrichment experiments result showed that denitrification rate increased significantly with addition of nitrate in case of samples collected from Barato Lake however no such increase was observed in the samples collected from Ishikari river main channel and its major tributaries indicating that factors other than substrate concentration such as population of denitrifier and hydrological properties of stream channel including channel depth and flow velocity may affects the denitrification rate in lower Ishikari river system. Denitrification rate showed no significant increase with the addition of labile carbon (glucose), indicating that sediment samples had sufficient organic matter to sustain denitrification activity. The result of nutrient spiraling model indicates that in- stream denitrification process removes on an average 5%d(-1) of dissolve nitrate load in Ishikari river. This study was carried out to fill the gap present in the availability of riverine denitrification rate measurement and its role in nitrogen budget from Japanese rivers characterize by small river length and high flow rate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Study on Water Surface Profiles of Rivers with Constriction (United States)

    Qian, Chaochao; Yamada, Tadashi


    Water surface profile of rivers with constrictions is precious in both classic hydraulics and river management practice. This study was conducted to clarify the essences of the water surface profiles. 3 cases of experiments and 1D numerical calculations with different discharges were made in the study and analysis solutions of the non-linear basic equation of surface profile in varied flow without considering friction were derived. The manning's number was kept in the same in each case by using crosspiece roughness. We found a new type of water surface profile of varied flow from the results of 1D numerical calculation and that of experiments and named it as Mc curve because of its mild condition with constriction segment. This kind of curves appears as a nature phenomenon ubiquitously. The process of water surface forming is dynamic and bore occurs at the upper side of constriction during increasing discharge before the surface profile formed. As a theoretical work, 3 analysis solutions were derived included 2 physical-meaning solutions in the study by using Man-Machine system. One of the derived physical-meaning solutions was confirmed that it is validity by comparing to the results of 1D numerical calculation and that of experiments. The solution represents a flow profile from under critical condition at the upper side to super critical condition at the down side of constriction segment. The other derived physical-meaning solution represents a flow profile from super critical condition at the upper side to under critical condition at the down side of constriction segment. These two kinds of flow profiles exist in the nature but no theoretical solution can express the phenomenon. We find the depth distribution only concerned with unit width discharge distribution and critical depth under a constant discharge from the derived solutions. Therefor, the profile can be gained simply and precisely by using the theoretical solutions instead of numerical calculation even

  19. Investigations of effects of thermal discharges in Rhine river waters. Part of a coordinated programme on the physical and biological effects of cooling systems and thermal discharges at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schikarski, W.


    The report envisages two aspects of cooling systems: heat exchange between water and atmosphere; cooling tower plume modelling. The author gives the estimated ''cooling capacity'' of German rivers and estuaries and describes a station at Rheinhausen, measuring directly the heat exchange between the river Rhine and the atmosphere. The influence of meteorological and topographical parameters is discussed and the total incertainty in extrapolating formular is assessed. A number of field studies have been carried out to measure plume behaviour of cooling towers and to provide the data basis for comparison of existing models. The average plume rise is well predicted. The experimental programme carried out in Germany since 1973 is described. The one dimensional models TOWER and SAUNA.S are in agreement with experimental results except for short plumes. The last plume model WALKURE shows considerable improvement. It is specially suited for the calculations of the cooling tower plume behaviour under influence of temperature and humidity stratifications in the ambient atmosphere

  20. Optimizing Irrigation Water Allocation under Multiple Sources of Uncertainty in an Arid River Basin (United States)

    Wei, Y.; Tang, D.; Gao, H.; Ding, Y.


    Population growth and climate change add additional pressures affecting water resources management strategies for meeting demands from different economic sectors. It is especially challenging in arid regions where fresh water is limited. For instance, in the Tailanhe River Basin (Xinjiang, China), a compromise must be made between water suppliers and users during drought years. This study presents a multi-objective irrigation water allocation model to cope with water scarcity in arid river basins. To deal with the uncertainties from multiple sources in the water allocation system (e.g., variations of available water amount, crop yield, crop prices, and water price), the model employs a interval linear programming approach. The multi-objective optimization model developed from this study is characterized by integrating eco-system service theory into water-saving measures. For evaluation purposes, the model is used to construct an optimal allocation system for irrigation areas fed by the Tailan River (Xinjiang Province, China). The objective functions to be optimized are formulated based on these irrigation areas' economic, social, and ecological benefits. The optimal irrigation water allocation plans are made under different hydroclimate conditions (wet year, normal year, and dry year), with multiple sources of uncertainty represented. The modeling tool and results are valuable for advising decision making by the local water authority—and the agricultural community—especially on measures for coping with water scarcity (by incorporating uncertain factors associated with crop production planning).

  1. Arsenic occurrence in water bodies in Kharaa river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzaya T


    Full Text Available Distribution of arsenic (As and its compound and related toxicology are serious concerns nowadays. Gold mining activity is one of the anthropogenic sources of environmental contamination regarding As and other heavy metals. In Mongolia, the most productive gold mining sites are placed in the Kharaa river basin. A hundred water samples were collected from river, spring and deep wells in this river basin. Along with total As and its species-As(III and As(V, examination of concentration levels of other key parameters, 21 heavy metals with pH, total hardness, electric conductivity, anion and cations, was also carried out. In respect to the permissible limit formulated by the Mongolian National Drinking water quality standard (MNS 0900:2005, As10 µg/l, the present study showed that most of samples were found no contamination. In Kharaa river basin, an average concentration of total As in surface water was 4.04 µg/l with wide range in 0.07−30.30 µg/l whereas it was 2.24 µg/l in groundwater. As analysis in surface water in licensed area of Gatsuurt gold mining showed a mean concentration with 24.90 µg/l presenting higher value than that of value in river basin by 6 orders of magnitude and it was 2 times higher than permissible level as well. In Boroo river nearby Boroo gold mining area, As concentration in water was ranged in 6.05−6.25 µg/l. Ammonia pollution may have present at estuary of Zuunmod river in Mandal sum with above the permissible level described in national water quality standard. Geological formation of the rocks and minerals affected to change of heavy metal concentration, especially As and uranium (U at spring water nearby Gatsuurt-Boroo improved road.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Introduction: Dischange of domestic, agricultural and industrial waste water into the rivers increase chemical substances such as nitrate and phosphate. These chemical changes increase algal population. High density of algae may cause changes in color, odor and taste of water. Some of the algae such as Oscillatoria, Microcystis and Anabeana produce toxins and in high concentrations may kill fishes. While Zayandehrud river is considered as one of the main water supply sources for drinking water and valuable water resources of Isfahan Province, water quality control of this river is important. The study of algae of the river in relation with the concentration of nitrate and phosphate is the purpose of this research project. Methods: To perform this projects, seven sampling stations from "Pole Vahid" to .Pole choom. were selected. Grab methods were used for sampling of the river water. 147 water samples were collected in one year of the study.The samples were analyzed for phosphate, nitrate and genera of the algae. Nitrate and phosphate of the water samples were determined using Phenol Disulfonic Acid and Stanous chloride methods, respectively. The genera of the algae were detennined using the keys. Results and Disccusion:The result of the study showed that the frequency of the algae increased with increasing nitrate and phosphate. Overall.35 genera of algae in the area of the study were observed, which six of them were indicators of water pollution. Minimum frequency of indicators of pollution was observed in the enterance of Isfahan city and maximum frequency was observed after the discharge of municipal water from waste water treatment plant (pole Choom.

  3. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Mohamed Megahed


    Full Text Available Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD. PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt.

  4. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt. (United States)

    Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Elbana, Mariam Hassan; Nabawy, Ehab; Mahmoud, Hend A


    Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt.

  5. Analyses of flow modification on water quality on Nechako River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, A.C.; James, C.B.; Edinger, J.E.


    Alcan Smelters and Chemicals Ltd. initiated construction of the final phase of the Kemano Completion Project in north-central British Columbia to divert additional water from the Nechako Reservoir to the existing powerhouse. The Nechako Reservoir was created by the construction of the Kenney Dam in Nechako Canyon, a natural barrier to salmon migration. The Nechako River downstream of Nechako Canyon supports important runs of sockeye and chinook salmon. This additional diversion of Nechako River flow creates the potential of high water temperatures and increased thermal stress to migrating sockeye salmon enroute to their spawning grounds in Nechako River tributaries. To achieve specific downstream water temperature objectives during sockeye salmon migration each summer, a two-level outlet facility adjacent to Kenney Dam is to be constructed to release cooling water at 10 C to the Nechako River. Results of mathematical modeling of Nechako River water temperatures show that, based on specified design criteria, a maximum Kenney Dam release of 167 m 3 /s at 10 C would be required to meet the downstream water temperature objectives

  6. Nitrogen dynamics in the tidal freshwater Potomac River, Maryland and Virginia, water years 1979-81: A water-quality study of the tidal Potomac River and estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shutz, D.J.


    On an annual basis, river supplied nitrate is the predominant form of N supplied to the tidal Potomac River from external sources. Much of the nitrate is associated with high flows that have rapid transit times through the tidal river. After the fall of 1980, initiation of advanced wastewater treatment at the Blue Plains Sewage Treatment Plant (STPP) reduced ammonia loading to the river by 90% and increased nitrate loading by a similar percentage. As a result, concentrations of ammonia during the 1981 low flow period were 1.50 mg/L as N. Despite the reduced availability of ammonia, 15-N uptake studies showed that phytoplankton preferred ammonia to nitrate unless ammonia concentrations were < 0.10 mg/L as N. Nitrification studies during 1981 using a 14-C uptake technique indicate that rates did not vary with sample location, except for one sample from the head of the tidal river, where the rates were much higher. Process models were used in conjunction with mass-balance determinations and individual process studies to estimate rates of processes that were not directly measured. It is estimated that denitrification removed 10 times as much nitrate from the water column during the summer of 1981 as during the summer of 1980. Sedimentation of particulate N is estimated to be the largest sink for N from the water column and was approximately equal to the external annual loading of all N constituents on a daily basis. In summer, when river flows usually are low, the tidal Potomac River appears to be a partially closed system rather than one dominated by transport. Nitrogen constituents, primarily from point sources, are taken up by phytoplankton converted to organic matter, and sedimented from the water column. Some of this N eventually becomes available again by means of benthic exchange. Removal, by transport, out of the tidal river is significant only during winter. 70 refs., 20 figs., 10 tabs

  7. Water and Benefit Sharing in Transboundary River Basins (United States)

    Arjoon, D.; Tilmant, A.; Herrmann, M.


    Growing water scarcity underlies the importance of cooperation for the effective management of river basins, particularly in the context of international rivers in which unidirectional externalities can lead to asymmetric relationships between riparian countries. Studies have shown that significant economic benefits can be expected through basin-wide cooperation, however, the equitable partitioning of these benefits over the basin is less well studied and tends to overlook the importance of stakeholder input in the definition of equitability. In this study, an institutional arrangement to maximize welfare and then share the scarcity cost in a river basin is proposed. A river basin authority plays the role of a bulk water market operator, efficiently allocating bulk water to the users and collecting bulk water charges which are then equitably redistributed among water users. This highly regulated market restrains the behaviour of water users to control externalities and to ensure basin-wide coordination, enhanced efficiency, and the equitable redistribution of the scarcity cost. The institutional arrangement is implemented using the Eastern Nile River basin as a case study. The importance of this arrangement is that it can be adopted for application in negotiations to cooperate in trans-boundary river basins. The benefit sharing solution proposed is more likely to be perceived as equitable because water users help define the sharing rule. As a result, the definition of the sharing rule is not in question, as it would be if existing rules, such as bankruptcy rules or cooperative game theory solutions, are applied, with their inherent definitions of fairness. Results of the case study show that the sharing rule is predictable. Water users can expect to receive between 93.5% and 95% of their uncontested benefits (benefits that they expect to receive if water was not rationed), depending on the hydrologic scenario.

  8. Hydrologic properties and ground-water flow systems of the Paleozoic rocks in the upper Colorado River basin in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, excluding the San Juan Basin (United States)

    Geldon, Arthur L.


    The hydrologic properties and ground-water flow systems of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in the Upper Colorado River Basin were investigated under the Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) program of the U.S. Geological Survey in anticipation of the development of water supplies from bedrock aquifers to fulfill the region's growing water demands. The study area, in parts of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, covers about 100,000 square miles. It includes parts of four physiographic provinces--the Middle Rocky Mountains, Wyoming Basin, Southern Rocky Mountains, and Colorado Plateaus. A variety of landforms, including mountains, plateaus, mesas, cuestas, plains, badlands, and canyons, are present. Altitudes range from 3,100 to 14,500 feet. Precipitation is distributed orographically and ranges from less than 6 inches per year at lower altitudes to more than 60 inches per year in some mountainous areas. Most of the infrequent precipitation at altitudes of less than 6,000 feet is consumed by evapotranspiration. The Colorado and Green Rivers are the principal streams: the 1964-82 average discharge of the Colorado River where it leaves the Upper Colorado River Basin is 12,170 cubic feet per second (a decrease of 5,680 cubic feet per second since construction of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963). On the basis of their predominant lithologic and hydrologic properties, the Paleozoic rocks are classified into four aquifers and three confining units. The Flathead aquifer, Gros Ventre confining unit, Bighorn aquifer, Elbert-Parting confining unit, and Madison aquifer (Redwall-Leadville and Darwin-Humbug zones) make up the Four Corners aquifer system. A thick sequence, composed mostly of Mississippian and Pennsylvanian shale, anhydrite, halite, and carbonate rocks--the Four Corners confining unit (Belden-Molas and Paradox-Eagle Valley subunits)--overlies the Four Corners aquifer system in most areas and inhibits vertical ground-water flow between the Four Corners aquifer

  9. Precipitation and stream water stable isotope data from the Marys River, Oregon in water year 2015. (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Water stable isotope data collected from a range of streams throughout the Marys River basin in water year 2015, and precipitation data collected within the basin at...

  10. Quality of surface waters in the lower Columbia River Basin (United States)

    Santos, John F.


    This report, made during 1959-60, provides reconnaissance data on the quality of waters in the lower Columbia River basin ; information on present and future water problems in the basin; and data that can be employed both in water-use studies and in planning future industrial, municipal, and agricultural expansion within this area. The lower Columbia River basin consists of approximately 46,000 square miles downstream from the confluence of the Snake and Columbia Rivers The region can be divided into three geographic areas. The first is the heavily forested, sparsely populated mountain regions in which quality of water in general is related to geologic and climatological factors. The second is a semiarid plateau east of the Cascade Mountains; there differences in geology and precipitation, together with more intensive use of available water for irrigation, bring about marked differences in water quality. The third is the Willamette-Puget trough area in which are concentrated most of the industry and population and in which water quality is influenced by sewage and industrial waste disposal. The majority of the streams in the lower Columbia River basin are calcium magnesium bicarbonate waters. In general, the rivers rising in the. Coast Range and on the west slope of the Cascade Range contain less than 100 parts per million of dissolved solids, and hardness of the water is less than 50 parts per million. Headwater reaches of the streams on the east slope of the Cascade Range are similar to those on the west slope; but, downstream, irrigation return flows cause the dissolved-solids content and hardness to increase. Most of the waters, however, remain calcium magnesium bicarbonate in type. The highest observed dissolved-solids concentrations and also some changes in chemical composition occur in the streams draining the more arid parts of the area. In these parts, irrigation is chiefly responsible for increasing the dissolved-solids concentration and altering the

  11. Flood Forecasting in River System Using ANFIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, Nazrin; Choudhury, P.


    The aim of the present study is to investigate applicability of artificial intelligence techniques such as ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System) in forecasting flood flow in a river system. The proposed technique combines the learning ability of neural network with the transparent linguistic representation of fuzzy system. The technique is applied to forecast discharge at a downstream station using flow information at various upstream stations. A total of three years data has been selected for the implementation of this model. ANFIS models with various input structures and membership functions are constructed, trained and tested to evaluate efficiency of the models. Statistical indices such as Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Correlation Coefficient (CORR) and Coefficient of Efficiency (CE) are used to evaluate performance of the ANFIS models in forecasting river flood. The values of the indices show that ANFIS model can accurately and reliably be used to forecast flood in a river system.

  12. Physicochemical typology of water of a middle atlas river (Morocco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work studies the characteristics and physicochemical typology of Sidi Rachid River, known by its wealth of the Salmonidae fish: Salmo trutta macrostigma ... whose high levels indicate an organic pollution, during some times of the year, coming seemingly from the Ras Elma fish farm waste water, the water quality is ...

  13. Water quality of Flag Boshielo Dam, Olifants River, South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing demands for water, discharge of effluents, and variable rainfall have a negative impact on water quality in the Olifants River. Crocodile and fish mortalities attributed to pansteatitis, in Loskop Dam and downstream in the Kruger National Park (KNP), have highlighted the serious effects these impacts are having on ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 11, 2013 ... Benthic macroinvertebrate based assessment of water quality in the ... of the upper Awash River had low water quality status which is likely to be ..... Frydenborg, R., McCarron, E., White, J.S. and ... A framework for biological.

  15. UMTRA water sampling and analysis plan, Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papusch, R.


    The purpose of this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) is to provide a basis for groundwater and surface water sampling at the Green River Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. This WSAP identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the monitoring locations

  16. Control options for river water quality improvement: a case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a simple conceptual dynamic river water quality model, the effects of different basin-wide water quality management options on downstream water quality improvements in a semi-arid river, the Crocodile River (South Africa) were investigated. When a river is impacted by high rates of freshwater withdrawal (in its ...

  17. A Computed River Flow-Based Turbine Controller on a Programmable Logic Controller for Run-Off River Hydroelectric Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razali Jidin


    Full Text Available The main feature of a run-off river hydroelectric system is a small size intake pond that overspills when river flow is more than turbines’ intake. As river flow fluctuates, a large proportion of the potential energy is wasted due to the spillages which can occur when turbines are operated manually. Manual operation is often adopted due to unreliability of water level-based controllers at many remote and unmanned run-off river hydropower plants. In order to overcome these issues, this paper proposes a novel method by developing a controller that derives turbine output set points from computed mass flow rate of rivers that feed the hydroelectric system. The computed flow is derived by summation of pond volume difference with numerical integration of both turbine discharge flows and spillages. This approach of estimating river flow allows the use of existing sensors rather than requiring the installation of new ones. All computations, including the numerical integration, have been realized as ladder logics on a programmable logic controller. The implemented controller manages the dynamic changes in the flow rate of the river better than the old point-level based controller, with the aid of a newly installed water level sensor. The computed mass flow rate of the river also allows the controller to straightforwardly determine the number of turbines to be in service with considerations of turbine efficiencies and auxiliary power conservation.

  18. Saprobiological analysis of water of the river Krivaja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cikotić


    Full Text Available During one-year research of zoobenthos macroinvertebrates of the river Krivaja 133 taxons were found with total number of 12,766 entities. Sampling was conducted using kick sampling method that corresponded to the type of running waters such as the river Krivaja. For the purpose of water quality evaluation biotic and saprobity indexes were applied in accordance with taxon of collected organisms. The measured values of saprobity index indicated mild to medium water pollution, i.e. oligo-beta mezosaprobity water. The measured values of Shannon-Weaver diversity index indicated high diversity of organisms, thus good conditions of life in water of the Krivaja and its clean water flow.Applied saprobity and biotic indexes in this research should be aguideline for a future research of our water flows in standardization of waterbio-monitoring legislation in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  19. Integrated hydrological and water quality model for river management: A case study on Lena River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, André, E-mail:; Botelho, Cidália; Boaventura, Rui A.R.; Vilar, Vítor J.P., E-mail:


    The Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF) model was used to assess the impact of wastewater discharges on the water quality of a Lis River tributary (Lena River), a 176 km{sup 2} watershed in Leiria region, Portugal. The model parameters obtained in this study, could potentially serve as reference values for the calibration of other watersheds in the area or with similar climatic characteristics, which don't have enough data for calibration. Water quality constituents modeled in this study included temperature, fecal coliforms, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, nitrates, orthophosphates and pH. The results were found to be close to the average observed values for all parameters studied for both calibration and validation periods with percent bias values between − 26% and 23% for calibration and − 30% and 51% for validation for all parameters, with fecal coliforms showing the highest deviation. The model revealed a poor water quality in Lena River for the entire simulation period, according to the Council Directive concerning the surface water quality intended for drinking water abstraction in the Member States (75/440/EEC). Fecal coliforms, orthophosphates and nitrates were found to be 99, 82 and 46% above the limit established in the Directive. HSPF was used to predict the impact of point and nonpoint pollution sources on the water quality of Lena River. Winter and summer scenarios were also addressed to evaluate water quality in high and low flow conditions. A maximum daily load was calculated to determine the reduction needed to comply with the Council Directive 75/440/EEC. The study showed that Lena River is fairly polluted calling for awareness at behavioral change of waste management in order to prevent the escalation of these effects with especially attention to fecal coliforms. - Highlights: • An integrated hydrological and water quality model for river management is presented. • An insight into the

  20. Integrated waste load allocation for river water pollution control under uncertainty: a case study of Tuojiang River, China. (United States)

    Xu, Jiuping; Hou, Shuhua; Yao, Liming; Li, Chaozhi


    This paper presents a bi-level optimization waste load allocation programming model under a fuzzy random environment to assist integrated river pollution control. Taking account of the leader-follower decision-making in the water function zones framework, the proposed approach examines the decision making feedback relationships and conflict coordination between the river basin authority and the regional Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) based on the Stackelberg-Nash equilibrium strategy. In the pollution control system, the river basin authority, as the leader, allocates equitable emissions rights to different subareas, and the then subarea EPA, as the followers, reallocates the limited resources to various functional zones to minimize pollution costs. This research also considers the uncertainty in the water pollution management, and the uncertain input information is expressed as fuzzy random variables. The proposed methodological approach is then applied to Tuojiang River in China and the bi-level linear programming model solutions are achieved using the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker condition. Based on the waste load allocation scheme results and various scenario analyses and discussion, some operational policies are proposed to assist decision makers (DMs) cope with waste load allocation problem for integrated river pollution control for the overall benefits.

  1. Key issues for determining the exploitable water resources in a Mediterranean river basin. (United States)

    Pedro-Monzonís, María; Ferrer, Javier; Solera, Abel; Estrela, Teodoro; Paredes-Arquiola, Javier


    One of the major difficulties in water planning is to determine the water availability in a water resource system in order to distribute water sustainably. In this paper, we analyze the key issues for determining the exploitable water resources as an indicator of water availability in a Mediterranean river basin. Historically, these territories are characterized by heavily regulated water resources and the extensive use of unconventional resources (desalination and wastewater reuse); hence, emulating the hydrological cycle is not enough. This analysis considers the Jucar River Basin as a case study. We have analyzed the different possible combinations between the streamflow time series, the length of the simulation period and the reliability criteria. As expected, the results show a wide dispersion, proving the great influence of the reliability criteria used for the quantification and localization of the exploitable water resources in the system. Therefore, it is considered risky to provide a single value to represent the water availability in the Jucar water resource system. In this sense, it is necessary that policymakers and stakeholders make a decision about the methodology used to determine the exploitable water resources in a river basin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Potability Evaluation of Selected River Waters in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. I. Awu


    Full Text Available The study focused on the seasonal variation of physiochemical and microbial characteristics of three selected river water in Ebonyi State for human consumption. The three selected rivers studied were Iyioka, Idima and Ubei Rivers. Data were generated using Direct Reading Engineering method (DREM, Gravimetric method, Titrimetric method, Spectrophotometric method, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric method, and Total Viable count for physiochemical and microbiological analysis. The generated data was further subjected to statistical analysis using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA on difference between means of parameters and graphical method to determine the spatial variation of the water quality characteristics. The time variations of the water quality characteristics as compared with the spatial variations showed that for some variables, there was statistical difference between the means of parameters with respect to time and space at various levels of significance. These include Phosphorus (5%, Copper (1%, Iron (5%, Nickel (5%, Cadmium (1%, Salinity (1%, Bacteria (1% for time variation; and Sulphate (1%, Chemical Oxygen (5%,Nickel (1%, Arsenic (1%, Zinc (1%, Cadmium (1%, Bacteria (1% for spatial variations during dry season and Chemical Oxygen (5%, Nickel (1%, for spatial variation during rainy season. Based on the World Health Organization and Standard Organization of Nigeria guidelines for drinking water, the results of microbial analysis also indicated that the selected river waters were polluted with disease causing microorganisms, such as E.Coliform, Salmonella, Bacillus Subtilis. Therefore, the river waters are not good for drinking. The consumers of water obtained from the three rivers are likely to suffer the following: typhoid, fever, intestinal problem, diarrhea, skin rash, cholera. Necessary recommendations such as treating the water with bio-sand filter before use, amongst others, were made.

  3. Water in the March river radioactively contaminated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englander, A.G.


    A curve of the tritium contamination of the March river measured in Austria from 1976 to 1989 is shown. The conjecture is put forward that this contamination is caused by the Dukovani power plant in the neighbouring CSFR. Further measurements are called for

  4. Application of water quality models to rivers in Johor (United States)

    Chii, Puah Lih; Rahman, Haliza Abd.


    River pollution is one the most common hazard in many countries in the world, which includes Malaysia. Many rivers have been polluted because of the rapid growth in industrialization to support the country's growing population and economy. Domestic and industrial sewage, agricultural wastes have polluted the rivers and will affect the water quality. Based on the Malaysia Environment Quality Report 2007, the Department of Environment (DOE) has described that one of the major pollutants is Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD). Data from DOE in 2004, based on BOD, 18 river basins were classified polluted, 37 river basins were slightly polluted and 65 river basins were in clean condition. In this paper, two models are fitted the data of rivers in Johor state namely Streeter-Phelps model and nonlinear regression (NLR) model. The BOD concentration data for the two rivers in Johor state from year 1981 to year 1990 is analyzed. To estimate the parameters for the Streeter-Phelps model and NLR model, this study focuses on the weighted least squares and Gauss-Newton method respectively. Based on the value of Mean Square Error, NLR model is a better model compared to Streeter-Phelps model.

  5. Trace metal pollution in Umtata River | Fatoki | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dissolved trace metals, i.e Fe, Mn, Al, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were determined in the Umtata River. High levels of Al, Cd, Pb, Zn and. Cu were observed, which may affect the “health” of the aquatic ecosystem. The high levels of Al, Cd and Pb may also affect the health of the rural community that uses the river water directly for ...

  6. Human impact on the microbiological water quality of the rivers


    P?ll, Em?ke; Niculae, Mihaela; Kiss, Timea; ?andru, Carmen Dana; Sp?nu, Marina


    Microbiological contamination is an important water-quality problem worldwide. Human impact on this category of contamination is significant and several human-related activities, and also the population explosion, have affected and are still affecting dramatically the aquatic environment. Extensive industrialization and agriculture have led to increased pollution and hydromorphological changes in many river basins. The Danube river is one of the most affected by these changes where human invo...

  7. Assessment of river quality in a subtropical Austral river system: a combined approach using benthic diatoms and macroinvertebrates (United States)

    Nhiwatiwa, Tamuka; Dalu, Tatenda; Sithole, Tatenda


    River systems constitute areas of high human population densities owing to their favourable conditions for agriculture, water supply and transportation network. Despite human dependence on river systems, anthropogenic activities severely degrade water quality. The main aim of this study was to assess the river health of Ngamo River using diatom and macroinvertebrate community structure based on multivariate analyses and community metrics. Ammonia, pH, salinity, total phosphorus and temperature were found to be significantly different among the study seasons. The diatom and macroinvertebrate taxa richness increased downstream suggesting an improvement in water as we moved away from the pollution point sources. Canonical correspondence analyses identified nutrients (total nitrogen and reactive phosphorus) as important variables structuring diatom and macroinvertebrate community. The community metrics and diversity indices for both bioindicators highlighted that the water quality of the river system was very poor. These findings indicate that both methods can be used for water quality assessments, e.g. sewage and agricultural pollution, and they show high potential for use during water quality monitoring programmes in other regions.

  8. Evaluation of river water genotoxicity using the piscine micronucleus test. (United States)

    Ergene, Serap; Cavaş, Tolga; Celik, Ayla; Köleli, Nurcan; Aymak, Cemil


    The Berdan River, which empties into the Mediterranean Sea on the east coast of Turkey, receives discharges of industrial and municipal waste. In the present study, the in vivo piscine micronucleus (MN) test was used to evaluate the genotoxicity of water samples collected from different locations along the Berdan River. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were exposed in the laboratory for 2, 4, and 6 days, and micronuclei were evaluated in peripheral blood erythrocytes, gill cells, and caudal fin epithelial cells. A single dose of 5 mg/L cyclophosphamide was used as a positive control. In addition to micronuclei, nuclear abnormalities (NAs), such as binucleated cells and blebbed, notched, and lobed nuclei, were assessed in the erythrocytes, and chemical analyses were carried out to determine the amount of heavy metals in the water samples. MN and NA frequencies were significantly elevated (up to 2- to 3-fold) in fish exposed to river water samples taken downstream of potential discharges, and the elevated responses in gill and fin cells were related to the concentration of heavy metals in the water. MN frequencies (expressed as micronucleated cells/1,000 cells), in both treated and untreated fish, were greatest in gill cells (range: 0.80-3.70), and generally lower in erythrocytes (range: 0.50-2.80), and fin cells (range: 0.45-1.70). The results of this study indicate that the Berdan River is contaminated with genotoxic pollutants and that the genotoxicity is related to the discharge of wastes into the river water.

  9. Savannah River Plant remote environmental monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, J.F.


    The SRP remote environmental monitoring system consists of separations facilities stack monitors, production reactor stack monitors, twelve site perimeter monitors, river and stream monitors, a geostationary operational environmental satellite (GOES) data link, reactor cooling lake thermal monitors, meteorological tower system, Weather Information and Display (WIND) system computer, and the VANTAGE data base management system. The remote environmental monitoring system when fully implemented will provide automatic monitoring of key stack releases and automatic inclusion of these source terms in the emergency response codes

  10. Hospital and urban effluent waters as a source of accumulation of toxic metals in the sediment receiving system of the Cauvery River, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India. (United States)

    Devarajan, Naresh; Laffite, Amandine; Ngelikoto, Patience; Elongo, Vicky; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Mubedi, Josué I; Piana, Pius T M; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John


    Hospital and urban effluents contain a variety of toxic and/or persistent substances in a wide range of concentrations, and most of these compounds belong to the group of emerging contaminants. The release of these substances into the aquatic ecosystem can lead to the pollution of water resources and may place aquatic organisms and human health at risk. Sediments receiving untreated and urban effluent waters from the city of Tiruchirappalli in the state of Tamil Nadu, India, are analyzed for potential environmental and human health risks. The sediment samples were collected from five hospital outlet pipes (HOP) and from the Cauvery River Basin (CRB) both of which receive untreated municipal effluent waters (Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India). The samples were characterized for grain size, organic matter, toxic metals, and ecotoxicity. The results highlight the high concentration of toxic metals in HOP, reaching values (mg kg(-1)) of 1851 (Cr), 210 (Cu), 986 (Zn), 82 (Pb), and 17 (Hg). In contrast, the metal concentrations in sediments from CRB were lower than the values found in the HOP (except for Cu, Pb), with maximum values (mg kg(-1)) of 75 (Cr), 906 (Cu), 649 (Zn), 111 (Pb), and 0.99 (Hg). The metal concentrations in all sampling sites largely exceed the Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) and the Probable Effect Concentration (PEC) for the Protection of Aquatic Life recommendation. The ecotoxicity test with ostracods exposed to the sediment samples presents a mortality rate ranging from 22 to 100 % (in sediments from HOP) and 18-87 % (in sediments from CRB). The results of this study show the variation of toxic metal levels as well as toxicity in sediment composition related to both the type of hospital and the sampling period. The method of elimination of hospital and urban effluents leads to the pollution of water resources and may place aquatic organisms and human health at risk.

  11. Service water chemical cleaning at River Bend gets results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brice, T.O.; Glover, W.A.


    The largest known Service Water System (SWS) chemical cleaning ever performed at a nuclear plant was successfully completed at, River Bend Station. Corrosion product buildup was observed during system inspections in the first operating cycle and the first refueling outage in 1987. Under deposit corrosion was followed with microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) occurring as a later stage under deposits. The heavy corrosion caused blockage of heat exchanger tubes, fouling of valve seats, and general flow blockage throughout the system. Various options were evaluated for restoring the SWS back to an acceptable long term operating condition. The large scale chemical cleaning performed arrested the corrosion by removing the deposits down to the bare metal surfaces and leaving behind a protective passivation layer. After the cleaning, the open recirculating SWS was converted to a closed system. The implementation of a molybdate/nitrate water treatment program with a copper corrosion inhibitor maintained at a high pH (8.5--10.5) has significantly reduced corrosion rates in the closed system. This should extend the life of the SWS piping for the remaining life of the plant. Several field tests were conducted to qualify the process and demonstrate its ability to achieve acceptable cleaning results prior to being used on a larger scale. In the summer of 1992, temporary and permanent modifications were installed to divide the SWS into two separate cleaning loops for the system wide cleaning. The SWS chemical was successfully performed and completed on schedule during the fourth refueling outage. Post cleaning inspections at various locations throughout the Service Water System showed the process to be very effective at complete deposit removal

  12. Resilience in Transboundary Water Governance: the Okavango River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia O. Green


    Full Text Available When the availability of a vital resource varies between times of overabundance and extreme scarcity, management regimes must manifest flexibility and authority to adapt while maintaining legitimacy. Unfortunately, the need for adaptability often conflicts with the desire for certainty in legal and regulatory regimes, and laws that fail to account for variability often result in conflict when the inevitable disturbance occurs. Additional keys to resilience are collaboration among physical scientists, political actors, local leaders, and other stakeholders, and, when the commons is shared among sovereign states, collaboration between and among institutions with authority to act at different scales or with respect to different aspects of an ecological system. At the scale of transboundary river basins, where treaties govern water utilization, particular treaty mechanisms can reduce conflict potential by fostering collaboration and accounting for change. One necessary element is a mechanism for coordination and collaboration at the scale of the basin. This could be satisfied by mechanisms ranging from informal networks to the establishment of an international commission to jointly manage water, but a mechanism for collaboration at the basin scale alone does not ensure sound water management. To better guide resource management, study of applied resilience theory has revealed a number of management practices that are integral for adaptive governance. Here, we describe key resilience principles for treaty design and adaptive governance and then apply the principles to a case study of one transboundary basin where the need and willingness to manage collaboratively and iteratively is high - the Okavango River Basin of southwest Africa. This descriptive and applied approach should be particularly instructive for treaty negotiators, transboundary resource managers, and should aid program developers.

  13. Transport behavior of radioactive caesium from forests contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident through river water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iijima, K.; Funaki, H.; Ohyama, T.; Niizato, T.; Sato, H.; Yui, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan)


    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has carried out 'the project on the Long-term Assessment of Transport of Radioactive Contaminant in the Environment of Fukushima (F-TRACE project)' since the end of 2012. Radioactive caesium (Cs) has been distributed by the fallout by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F-NPP) accident, and forests in mountain areas have large amount of inventory of radioactive Cs and cover relatively large part of contaminated area of Fukushima. In this project, the transport behavior of radioactive Cs from the forests to biosphere and sea is evaluated by computer simulation based on the results of field observation and laboratory experiments. The results are used to predict evolution of effective dose of the residents in the affected area due to the transport, specify the dominant pathway of Cs, and propose effective methodology to constrain the transport along the pathway. This study reports the specific transport behavior of Cs observed in the basins of five rivers by means of the field investigation and laboratory experiments during the first year of the project. Radioactive Cs located at the crown was considered to be transported to the soil surface by litter fall, stem flow and canopy drip in the Japanese cedar tree forests. Even after two years since the accident, more than 90% of radioactive Cs was still been remained within 5 cm depth from the top of the soil, indicating that the distribution coefficient of radioactive Cs onto the specific minerals such as clay was significantly high. In the river, relatively higher dose rate was observed at the flood channel where fine-grained soil particles were trapped by growing vegetation, while low dose rate was observed beside the river channel where coarse sand or gravel accumulated. The results suggested that fine-grained soil particles containing minerals adsorbing large amount of radioactive Cs were transported in high water level and trapped by the vegetation. In the dam

  14. A licence to discharge cooling waters in tidal rivers, examplified by the 'Nuclear Power Station Unterweser'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, H.


    Illustrated by the example of the lower Weser, aspects for automatic control, supervision measurements, and measurements for the securing of evidence, all in connection with cooling water discharges, are presented. The particularities of tidal rivers and the conditions for measuring systems resulting therefrom are explained. The cooling water discharge of the Kernkraftwerk Unterweser has been assigned an extensive measurement system for the automatic compilation of hydrologic data. The measurement systems design, the measurement stations, and the central station are described. (orig.) [de

  15. Riverine input of organic carbon and nitrogen in water-sediment system from the Yellow River estuary reach to the coastal zone of Bohai Sea, China (United States)

    Wang, Chuanyuan; Lv, Yingchun; Li, Yuanwei


    The temporal-spatial distribution of the carbon and nitrogen contents and their isotopic compositions of suspended matter and sediments from the Yellow River estuary reach (YRER), the estuary to the offshore area were measured to identify the source of organic matter. The higher relative abundances of suspended and sedimentary carbon and nitrogen (POC, TOC, PN and TN) in the offshore marine area compared to those of the riverine and estuarine areas may be due to the cumulative and biological activity impact. The organic matter in surface sediments of YRER, the estuary and offshore area of Bohai Sea is basically the mixture of continental derived material and marine material. The values of δ13Csed fluctuate from values indicative of a land source (- 22.50‰ ± 0.31) to those indicative of a sea source (- 22.80‰ ± 0.38), which can be attributed to the fine particle size and decrease in terrigenous inputs to the offshore marine area. Contrary to the slight increase of POC and PN during the dry season, TOC and TN contents of the surface sediments during the flood season (October) were higher than those during the dry season (April). The seasonal differences in water discharge and suspended sediment discharge of the Yellow River Estuary may result in seasonal variability in TOC, POC, TN and PN concentrations in some degree. Overall, the surface sediments in the offshore area of Bohai Sea are dominated by marine derived organic carbon, which on average, accounts for 58-82% of TOC when a two end-member mixing model is applied to the isotopic data.

  16. Residence times and mixing of water in river banks: implications for recharge and groundwater - surface water exchange (United States)

    Unland, N. P.; Cartwright, I.; Cendón, D. I.; Chisari, R.


    The residence time of groundwater within 50 m of the Tambo River, South East Australia, has been estimated through the combined use of 3H and 14C. Groundwater residence times increase towards the Tambo River which implies a gaining river system and not increasing bank storage with proximity to the Tambo River. Major ion concentrations and δ2H and δ18O values of bank water also indicate that bank infiltration does not significantly impact groundwater chemistry under baseflow and post-flood conditions, suggesting that the gaining nature of the river may be driving the return of bank storage water back into the Tambo River within days of peak flood conditions. The covariance between 3H and 14C indicates the leakage and mixing between old (~17 200 yr) groundwater from a semi-confined aquifer and younger groundwater (bank storage, as rapid pressure propagation into the semi-confined aquifer during flooding will minimise bank infiltration. This study illustrates the complex nature of river groundwater interactions and the potential downfall in assuming simple or idealised conditions when conducting hydrogeological studies.

  17. Global modelling of river water quality under climate change (United States)

    van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Franssen, Wietse H. P.; Yearsley, John R.


    Climate change will pose challenges on the quality of freshwater resources for human use and ecosystems for instance by changing the dilution capacity and by affecting the rate of chemical processes in rivers. Here we assess the impacts of climate change and induced streamflow changes on a selection of water quality parameters for river basins globally. We used the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model and a newly developed global water quality module for salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand. The modelling framework was validated using observed records of streamflow, water temperature, chloride, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand for 1981-2010. VIC and the water quality module were then forced with an ensemble of bias-corrected General Circulation Model (GCM) output for the representative concentration pathways RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 to study water quality trends and identify critical regions (hotspots) of water quality deterioration for the 21st century.

  18. Water Quality Assessment of Ayeyarwady River in Myanmar (United States)

    Thatoe Nwe Win, Thanda; Bogaard, Thom; van de Giesen, Nick


    Myanmar's socio-economic activities, urbanisation, industrial operations and agricultural production have increased rapidly in recent years. With the increase of socio-economic development and climate change impacts, there is an increasing threat on quantity and quality of water resources. In Myanmar, some of the drinking water coverage still comes from unimproved sources including rivers. The Ayeyarwady River is the main river in Myanmar draining most of the country's area. The use of chemical fertilizer in the agriculture, the mining activities in the catchment area, wastewater effluents from the industries and communities and other development activities generate pollutants of different nature. Therefore water quality monitoring is of utmost importance. In Myanmar, there are many government organizations linked to water quality management. Each water organization monitors water quality for their own purposes. The monitoring is haphazard, short term and based on individual interest and the available equipment. The monitoring is not properly coordinated and a quality assurance programme is not incorporated in most of the work. As a result, comprehensive data on the water quality of rivers in Myanmar is not available. To provide basic information, action is needed at all management levels. The need for comprehensive and accurate assessments of trends in water quality has been recognized. For such an assessment, reliable monitoring data are essential. The objective of our work is to set-up a multi-objective surface water quality monitoring programme. The need for a scientifically designed network to monitor the Ayeyarwady river water quality is obvious as only limited and scattered data on water quality is available. However, the set-up should also take into account the current socio-economic situation and should be flexible to adjust after first years of monitoring. Additionally, a state-of-the-art baseline river water quality sampling program is required which

  19. Understanding Socio-Hydrology System in the Kissimmee River Basin (United States)

    Chen, X.; Wang, D.; Tian, F.; Sivapalan, M.


    This study is to develop a conceptual socio-hydrology model for the Kissimmee River Basin. The Kissimmee River located in Florida was channelized in mid-20 century for flood protection. However, the environmental issues caused by channelization led Floridians to conduct a restoration project recently, focusing on wetland recovery. As a complex coupled human-water system, Kissimmee River Basin shows the typical socio-hydrology interactions. Hypothetically, the major reason to drive the system from channelization to restoration is that the community sensitivity towards the environment has changed from controlling to restoring. The model developed in this study includes 5 components: water balance, flood risk, wetland area, crop land area, and community sensitivity. Furthermore, urban population and rural population in the basin have different community sensitivities towards the hydrologic system. The urban population, who live further away from the river are more sensitive to wetland restoration; while the rural population, who live closer to the river are more sensitive to flood protection. The power dynamics between the two groups and its impact on management decision making is described in the model. The model is calibrated based on the observed watershed outflow, wetland area and crop land area. The results show that the overall focus of community sensitivity has changed from flood protection to wetland restoration in the past 60 years in Kissimmee River Basin, which confirms the study hypothesis. There are two main reasons for the community sensitivity change. Firstly, people's flood memory is fading because of the effective flood protection, while the continuously shrinking wetland and the decreasing bird and fish population draw more and more attention. Secondly, in the last 60 years, the urban population in Florida drastically increased compared with a much slower increase of rural population. As a result, the community sensitivity of urban population towards

  20. A decision support system to find the best water allocation strategies in a Mediterranean river basin in future scenarios of global change (United States)

    Del Vasto-Terrientes, L.; Kumar, V.; Chao, T.-C.; Valls, A.


    Global change refers to climate changes, but also demographic, technological and economic changes. Predicted water scarcity will be critical in the coastal Mediterranean region, especially for provision to mid-sized and large-sized cities. This paper studies the case of the city of Tarragona, located at the Mediterranean area of north-eastern Spain (Catalonia). Several scenarios have been constructed to evaluate different sectorial water allocation policies to mitigate the water scarcity induced by global change. Future water supply and demand predictions have been made for three time spans. The decision support system presented is based on the outranking model, which constructs a partial pre-order based on pairwise preference relations among all the possible actions. The system analyses a hierarchical structure of criteria, including environmental and economic criteria. We compare several adaptation measures including alternative water sources, inter-basin water transfer and sectorial demand management coming from industry, agriculture and domestic sectors. Results indicate that the most appropriate water allocation strategies depend on the severity of the global change effects.

  1. Surface water / groundwater interactions and their spatial variability, an example from the Avon River, South-East Australia (United States)

    Hofmann, Harald; Cartwright, Ian; Gilfedder, Benjamin


    Understanding the interaction between river water and regional groundwater has significant importance for water management and resource allocation. The dynamics of groundwater/surface water interactions also have implications for ecosystems, pollutant transport, and the quality and quantity of water supply for domestic, agriculture and recreational purposes. After general assumptions and for management purposes rivers are classified in loosing or gaining rivers. However, many streams alternate between gaining and loosing conditions on a range of temporal and spatial scales due to factors including: 1) river water levels in relation to groundwater head; 2) the relative response of the groundwater and river system to rainfall; 3) heterogeneities in alluvial sediments that can lead to alternation of areas of exfiltration and infiltration along a river stretch; and 4) differences in near river reservoirs, such parafluvial flow and bank storage. Spatial variability of groundwater discharge to rivers is rarely accounted for as it is assumed that groundwater discharge is constant over river stretches and only changes with the seasonal river water levels. Riverbank storage and parafluvial flow are generally not taken in consideration. Bank storage has short-term cycles and can contribute significantly to the total discharge, especially after flood events. In this study we used hydrogeochemistry to constrain spatial and temporal differences in gaining and loosing conditions in rivers and investigate potential sources. Environmental tracers, such as major ion chemistry, stables isotopes and Radon are useful tools to characterise these sources. Surface water and ground water samples were taken in the Avon River in the Gippsland Basin, Southwest Australia. Increasing TDS along the flow path from 70 to 250 mg/l, show that the Avon is a net gaining stream. The radon concentration along the river is variable and does not show a general increase downstream, but isolated peaks in

  2. Zirconium/niobium-95 determined in Hudson River water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsalata, P.; Cohen, N.


    Zirconium 95 and Niobium 95 are the fission products detected in greatest abundance in Hudson River water following the atmospheric testing of a nuclear device in N.W. China in 1980. Water samples, collected continuously and on a 'grab' basis, and processed monthly, have been studied to determine 95 Zr and 95 Nb concentrations, and plotted against collection time. Total precipitation values for each month, averaged over the whole Hudson River are also plotted. Airborne concentration data were obtained from sites in Lower Manhattan and Chester, N.J. A maximum value for 95 Zr in the Hudson River was found for February 1981. Half-time removal of 95 Zr from water was also calculated. (U.K.)

  3. Relationship between land use and water quality in Pesanggrahan River (United States)

    Effendi, Hefni; Muslimah, Sri; Ayu Permatasari, Prita


    Pesanggrahan River watershed has several activities such as residential and commercial area in its catchment area. The purpose of this study was to analyse water quality related to spatial land use in Pesanggrahan River using GIS Analysis. River water quality in some locations, did not meet water quality standard of class III. From pollution load estimation it was revealed that segment 2 (Bogor City) has the highest BOD, COD, and TSS of 15,043 kg/day, 25,619 kg/day, and 18,104 kg/day respectively. On the other hand, the most developed area in Pesanggrahan Watershed is located in segment 7 (24.5%). Hence, it can be concluded that although an area has a fairly small developed area, high urban activity can cause high BOD, COD, and TSS.

  4. Modeling Flood & Drought Scenario for Water Management in Porali River Basin, Balochistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaib Ahmed


    Full Text Available Recent history shows that floods have become a frequently occurring disaster in Balochistan, especially during monsoon season. Two rivers, river Porali and river Kud overflows, inundating its banks and causing destruction to cultivated land and property. This study is an attempt to identify flood prone areas of Porali river basin for future flood scenario and propose possible reservoir locations for excess flood water storage. Computer-based models Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF and HEC-river analysis system (HEC-RAS are used as tools to simulate existing and future flood and drought scenarios. Models are calibrated and validated using data from 3 weather stations, namely Wadh, Bela, and Uthal and stream flow data from two gauging stations. The highest and the lowest 10 years of precipitation data are extracted, from historic dataset of all stations, to attain future flooding and drought scenarios, respectively. Flood inundation map is generated highlighting agricultural prone land and settlements of the watershed. Using Digital Elevation Model (DEM and volume of water calculated from the flood scenario, possible locations for reservoirs are marked that can store excess water for the use in drought years. Flow and volume of water has also been simulated for drought scenario. Analyses show that 3 × 109 m3 of water available due to immense flooding that is sufficient for the survival for one drought year, as the volume of water for latter scenario is 2.9 × 108m3.

  5. Drinking Water Distribution Systems (United States)

    Learn about an overview of drinking water distribution systems, the factors that degrade water quality in the distribution system, assessments of risk, future research about these risks, and how to reduce cross-connection control risk.

  6. Evaluation of water quality index for River Sabarmati, Gujarat, India (United States)

    Shah, Kosha A.; Joshi, Geeta S.


    An attempt has been made to develop water quality index (WQI), using six water quality parameters pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, electrical conductivity, nitrate nitrogen and total coliform measured at three different stations along the Sabarmati river basin from the year 2005 to 2008. Rating scale is developed based on the tolerance limits of inland waters and health point of view. Weighted arithmetic water quality index method was used to find WQI along the stretch of the river basin. It was observed from this study that the impact of human activity and sewage disposal in the river was severe on most of the parameters. The station located in highly urban area showed the worst water quality followed by the station located in moderately urban area and lastly station located in a moderately rural area. It was observed that the main cause of deterioration in water quality was due to the high anthropogenic activities, illegal discharge of sewage and industrial effluent, lack of proper sanitation, unprotected river sites and urban runoff.

  7. Water quality index and eutrophication indices of Caiabi River, MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasiane Andrietti


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the water quality of the Caiabi River based upon the water quality index (WQI and the trophic state index (TSI, considering seasonal and spatial variations, with the aim of determining the most appropriate monitoring design for this study site. Sampling for water quality monitoring was conducted at five points on the Caiabi River from July 2012 to June 2013. Quality parameters quantified were as follows: pH, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, total and thermotolerant coliforms, turbidity, Kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrite, nitrate, total phosphorus, biochemical oxygen demand, series of solids, and chlorophyll a. Sampling procedures and analysis followed the methods recommended by the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. The WQI results showed that the quality of the Caiabi River water is good. TSI results demonstrated the low risk of eutrophication in the Caiabi River, indicating an ultra-oligotrophic lotic environment. Analysis of variance showed that 10 of the 16 monitored quality parameters presented differences of means between the dry and rainy seasons or among the monitored points or in the interaction between seasons and points. These results indicate that two annual sampling collections at two points may be sufficient to describe the water quality behavior in the basin, as long as the conditions of land use are stable.

  8. Water Fluoridation Reporting System (Public Water Systems) (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Water Fluoridation Reporting System (WFRS) has been developed to provide tools to assist states in managing fluoridation programs. WFRS is designed to track all...

  9. Ecotoxicological Assessment of Water and Sediment Pollution of the Iskar River bellow Samokov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Diadovski


    Full Text Available A system of integral ecological indices has been worked out to assess the level of pollution of water and sediments with hazardous substances. A model for the dynamics of the integral index for water and sediments pollution is proposed. This index was applied for ecotoxicological assessment of water and sediments pollution of the Iskar river bellow Samokov. A modification method on time series analysis is applied.

  10. Climate Change Impacts on Water Availability and Use in the Limpopo River Basin


    Tingju Zhu; Claudia Ringler


    This paper analyzes the effects of climate change on water availability and use in the Limpopo River Basin of Southern Africa, using a linked modeling system consisting of a semi-distributed global hydrological model and the Water Simulation Module (WSM) of the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT). Although the WSM simulates all major water use sectors, the focus of this study is to evaluate the implications of climate change on irrigation wat...

  11. Computing System Construction of Water Environment Carrying Capacity in Huaihe River Basin%淮河流域水环境承载能力计算系统的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严子奇; 夏军; 左其亭; 张永勇


    本文介绍了淮河流域水环境承载能力计算系统的总体设计、承载力数学模型的建立、软件系统的结构及应用.研究中通过计算在维系"良好水环境状况"目标下流域所能承载的社会经济规模上限来得到流域水环境承载能力.在耦合了社会经济系统模型、水资源转化关系模型、水环境系统模拟模型的基础上利用数据库、地理信息系统、可视化编程技术将"社会经济-水资源-水环境"系统模型、生态需水量计算模型、以及水环境承载能力计量模型中众多的边界条件、控制条件、可变参数及成果分析进行系统集成.所建立的淮河流域水环境承载能力计算系统可有效地实现流域现状水环境承裁能力的计算以及对未来不同时刻、不同频率来水条件下的承载力进行情景分析计算,为流域水环境承载能力管理提供决策支持.%In this paper, the overall designs and mathematical model of water environment carrying capacity, as well as the system structure and application of water environment carrying capacity computing system in Huaihe River Basin are presented. The carrying capacity of water environment in river basin is reached by calculating the upper limit of the socio-economic scale that watershed can carry under the "good status of water environment". The system is based on an integrated "socio-economic-water resource-water environment" model which is coupled with the socio-economic system model, the water resource transformation relation model and the simulation model of water environment system. The population size is a key indicator to reflect the water environment carrying capacity of the basin, and iterative algorithm is used to get the maximum population size of different water environment carrying capacities. This system also contains a subroutine for ecological water requirement model. The mean value of the results from the Tennant method, base flow method and

  12. Surface water quality in streams and rivers: introduction, scaling, and climate change: Chapter 5 (United States)

    Loperfido, John


    A variety of competing and complementary needs such as ecological health, human consumption, transportation, recreation, and economic value make management and protection of water resources in riverine environments essential. Thus, an understanding of the complex and interacting factors that dictate riverine water quality is essential in empowering stake-holders to make informed management decisions (see Chapter 1.15 for additional information on water resource management). Driven by natural and anthropogenic forcing factors, a variety of chemical, physical, and biological processes dictate riverine water quality, resulting in temporal and spatial patterns and cycling (see Chapter 1.2 for information describing how global change interacts with water resources). Furthermore, changes in climatic forcing factors may lead to long-term deviations in water quality outside the envelope of historical data. The goal of this chapter is to present fundamental concepts dictating the conditions of basic water quality parameters in rivers and streams (herein generally referred to as rivers unless discussing a specific system) in the context of temporal (diel (24 h) to decadal) longitudinal scaling. Understanding water quality scaling in rivers is imperative as water is continually reused and recycled (see also Chapters 3.1 and 3.15); upstream discharges from anthropogenic sources are incorporated into bulk riverine water quality that is used by downstream consumers. Water quality parameters reviewed here include temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), and suspended sediment and were selected given the abundance of data available for these parameters due to recent advances in water quality sensor technology (see Chapter 4.13 for use of hydrologic data in watershed management). General equations describing reactions affecting water temperature, pH, DO, and suspended sediment are included to convey the complexity of how simultaneously occurring reactions can affect water quality

  13. Agricultural Water Use Sustainability Assessment in the Tarim River Basin under Climatic Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang


    Full Text Available Proper agricultural water management in arid regions is the key to tackling climatic risks. However, an effective assessment of the current response to climate change in agricultural water use is the precondition for a group adaptation strategy. The paper, taking the Tarim River basin (TRB as an example, aims to examine the agricultural water use sustainability of water resource increase caused by climatic variability. In order to describe the response result, groundwater change has been estimated based on the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE and the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS–Noah land surface model (NOAH data. In order to better understand the relationship between water resource increase and agricultural water consumption, an agricultural water stress index has been established. Agricultural water stress has been in a severe state during the whole period, although it alleviated somewhat in the mid–late period. This paper illustrates that an increase in water supply could not satisfy agricultural production expansion. Thus, seasonal groundwater loss and a regional water shortage occurred. Particularly in 2008 and 2009, the sharp shortage of water supply in the Tarim River basin directly led to a serious groundwater drop by nearly 20 mm from the end of 2009 to early 2010. At the same time, a regional water shortage led to water scarcity for the whole basin, because the water consumption, which was mainly distributed around Source Rivers, resulted in break-off discharge in the mainstream. Therefore, current agricultural development in the Tarim River basin is unsustainable in the context of water supply under climatic risks. Under the control of irrigation, spatial and temporal water allocation optimization is the key to the sustainable management of the basin.

  14. Optimization Model for cooperative water allocation and valuation in large river basins regarding environmental constraints (United States)

    Pournazeri, S.


    A comprehensive optimization model named Cooperative Water Allocation Model (CWAM) is developed for equitable and efficient water allocation and valuation of Zab river basin in order to solve the draught problems of Orumieh Lake in North West of Iran. The model's methodology consists of three phases. The first represents an initial water rights allocation among competing users. The second comprises the water reallocation process for complete usage by consumers. The third phase performs an allocation of the net benefit of the stakeholders participating in a coalition by applying cooperative game theory. The environmental constraints are accounted for in the water allocation model by entering probable environmental damage in a target function, and inputting the minimum water requirement of users. The potential of underground water usage is evaluated in order to compensate for the variation in the amount of surface water. This is conducted by applying an integrated economic- hydrologic river basin model. A node-link river basin network is utilized in CWAM which consists of two major blocks. The first indicates the internal water rights allocation and the second is associated to water and net benefit reallocation. System control, loss in links by evaporation or seepage, modification of inflow into the node, loss in nodes and loss in outflow are considered in this model. Water valuation is calculated for environmental, industrial, municipal and agricultural usage by net benefit function. It can be seen that the water rights are allocated efficiently and incomes are distributed appropriately based on quality and quantity limitations.

  15. Modeling the contribution of point sources and non-point sources to Thachin River water pollution. (United States)

    Schaffner, Monika; Bader, Hans-Peter; Scheidegger, Ruth


    Major rivers in developing and emerging countries suffer increasingly of severe degradation of water quality. The current study uses a mathematical Material Flow Analysis (MMFA) as a complementary approach to address the degradation of river water quality due to nutrient pollution in the Thachin River Basin in Central Thailand. This paper gives an overview of the origins and flow paths of the various point- and non-point pollution sources in the Thachin River Basin (in terms of nitrogen and phosphorus) and quantifies their relative importance within the system. The key parameters influencing the main nutrient flows are determined and possible mitigation measures discussed. The results show that aquaculture (as a point source) and rice farming (as a non-point source) are the key nutrient sources in the Thachin River Basin. Other point sources such as pig farms, households and industries, which were previously cited as the most relevant pollution sources in terms of organic pollution, play less significant roles in comparison. This order of importance shifts when considering the model results for the provincial level. Crosschecks with secondary data and field studies confirm the plausibility of our simulations. Specific nutrient loads for the pollution sources are derived; these can be used for a first broad quantification of nutrient pollution in comparable river basins. Based on an identification of the sensitive model parameters, possible mitigation scenarios are determined and their potential to reduce the nutrient load evaluated. A comparison of simulated nutrient loads with measured nutrient concentrations shows that nutrient retention in the river system may be significant. Sedimentation in the slow flowing surface water network as well as nitrogen emission to the air from the warm oxygen deficient waters are certainly partly responsible, but also wetlands along the river banks could play an important role as nutrient sinks.

  16. An intelligent agent for optimal river-reservoir system management (United States)

    Rieker, Jeffrey D.; Labadie, John W.


    A generalized software package is presented for developing an intelligent agent for stochastic optimization of complex river-reservoir system management and operations. Reinforcement learning is an approach to artificial intelligence for developing a decision-making agent that learns the best operational policies without the need for explicit probabilistic models of hydrologic system behavior. The agent learns these strategies experientially in a Markov decision process through observational interaction with the environment and simulation of the river-reservoir system using well-calibrated models. The graphical user interface for the reinforcement learning process controller includes numerous learning method options and dynamic displays for visualizing the adaptive behavior of the agent. As a case study, the generalized reinforcement learning software is applied to developing an intelligent agent for optimal management of water stored in the Truckee river-reservoir system of California and Nevada for the purpose of streamflow augmentation for water quality enhancement. The intelligent agent successfully learns long-term reservoir operational policies that specifically focus on mitigating water temperature extremes during persistent drought periods that jeopardize the survival of threatened and endangered fish species.

  17. Perfluorinated compounds in infiltrated river rhine water and infiltrated rainwater in coastal dunes. (United States)

    Eschauzier, Christian; Haftka, Joris; Stuyfzand, Pieter J; de Voogt, Pim


    Different studies have shown that surface waters contain perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the low ng/L range. Surface waters are used to produce drinking water and PFCs have been shown to travel through the purification system and form a potential threat to human health. The specific physicochemical properties of PFCs cause them to be persistent and some of them to be bioaccumulative and toxic in the environment. This study investigates the evolvement of PFC concentrations in Rhine water and rainwater during dune water infiltration processes over a transect in the dune area of the western part of The Netherlands. The difference between infiltrated river water and rainwater in terms of PFC composition was investigated. Furthermore, isomer profiles were investigated. The compound perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS) was found at the highest concentrations of all PFCs investigated, up to 37 ng/L in infiltrated river water (71 ± 13% of ΣPFCs). This is in contrast with the predominant occurrence of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) reported in literature. The concentrations of PFBS found in infiltrated river Rhine water were significantly higher than those in infiltrated rainwater. For perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) the opposite was found: infiltrated rainwater contained more than infiltrated river water. The concentrations of PFOA, perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), PFBS, PFOS, and PFHxS in infiltrated river water showed an increasing trend with decreasing age of the water. The relative contribution of the branched PFOA and PFOS isomers to total concentrations of PFOA and PFOS showed a decreasing trend with decreasing age of the water.

  18. Water poverty in upper Bagmati River Basin in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Krishna Thakur


    The WPI was calculated for the upper Bagmati river Basin together with High–Medium–Low category scale and interpretations. WPI intensity scale depicts Sundarijal and Lubhu are in a range of very low water poverty, which means the water situation is better in these two areas. Daman region has a medium level, meaning this region is located into poor-accessible water zone. Kathmandu, Sankhu and Thankot have a low to medium low WPI, what characterize them as neutral. WPI can be used as an effective tool in integrated water resources management and water use master plan for meeting sustainable development goals. Based on the observation, the water agencies required to focus over water-poverty interface, water for sanitation, hygiene and health, water for production and employment generation, sustainable environmental management, gender equality, and water rights.

  19. How to allocate water resources under climate change in the arid endorheic river basin, Northwest China (United States)

    Zhang, A.; Feng, D.; Tian, Y.; Zheng, Y.


    Water resource is of fundamental importance to the society and ecosystem in arid endorheic river basins, and water-use conflicts between upstream and downstream are usually significant. Heihe river basin (HRB) is the second largest endorheic river basin in china, which is featured with dry climate, intensively irrigated farmlands in oases and significant surface water-groundwater interaction. The irrigation districts in the middle HRB consume a large portion of the river flow, and the low HRB, mainly Gobi Desert, has an extremely vulnerable ecological environment. The water resources management has significantly altered the hydrological processes in HRB, and is now facing multiple challenges, including decline of groundwater table in the middle HRB, insufficient environmental flow for the lower HRB. Furthermore, future climate change adds substantial uncertainty to the water system. Thus, it is imperative to have a sustainable water resources management in HRB in order to tackle the existing challenges and future uncertainty. Climate projection form a dynamical downscaled climate change scenario shows precipitation will increase at a rate of approximately 3 millimeter per ten years and temperature will increase at a rate of approximately 0.2 centigrade degree per ten years in the following 50 years in the HRB. Based on an integrated ecohydrological model, we evaluated how the climate change and agricultural development would collaboratively impact the water resources and ecological health in the middle and lower HRB, and investigated how the water management should cope with the complex impact.

  20. Climate Change Impacts on Water Availability and Use in the Limpopo River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingju Zhu


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the effects of climate change on water availability and use in the Limpopo River Basin of Southern Africa, using a linked modeling system consisting of a semi-distributed global hydrological model and the Water Simulation Module (WSM of the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT. Although the WSM simulates all major water use sectors, the focus of this study is to evaluate the implications of climate change on irrigation water supply in the catchments of the Limpopo River Basin within the four riparian countries: Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa, and Zimbabwe. The analysis found that water resources of the Limpopo River Basin are already stressed under today’s climate conditions. Projected water infrastructure and management interventions are expected to improve the situation by 2050 if current climate conditions continue into the future. However, under the climate change scenarios studied here, water supply availability is expected to worsen considerably by 2050. Assessing hydrological impacts of climate change is crucial given that expansion of irrigated areas has been postulated as a key adaptation strategy for Sub-Saharan Africa. Such expansion will need to take into account future changes in water availability in African river basins.

  1. Hydrochemical transformations of river waters during the flow in the reception basin on the basis of Olechówka River in Łódź

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagrowicz Tomasz


    Full Text Available This work presents the results of the research experiment of conducting hydrochemical observation of the Olechówka River in Łódź and its flow from the river source until its estuary. The main aim of the research was to set tendencies of changes in waters flowing down from municipal reception basin with developed rain drain system and in waters flowing into bathing areas at the same time. Along with the flow of the river, 12 measuring-research points were established. In each of those points, measurements of the discharge rate and mean flow velocity of water in the channel were performed, which enabled to set average time of the flow of water between individual measuring-research points. The time of storing water in reservoirs was taken into consideration. The total time of the flow of water in the Olechówka River amounted to 856 h and 15 min. The analyses included in situ measurements (T, pH, SEC, analytical determinations Cl−, NH4+, NO3−, TN, PO43−, TP and Oxidability. The interchangeability of values of tested indicators and discharge point out to their decrease along with the increase of water flowing in the riverbed. There were self-cleaning processes identified in the Olechówka River: dilution and denitrification, along with the accumulation of total phosphorus in the river flow.

  2. Influence of a water regulation event on the age of Yellow River water in the Bohai (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Wang, Haiyan; Guo, Xinyu; Liu, Zhe; Gao, Huiwang; Zhang, Guiling


    Abrupt changes in freshwater inputs from large rivers usually imply regime shifts in coastal water environments. The influence of a water regulation event on the age of the Yellow River water in the Bohai was modeled using constituent-oriented age and residence time theory to better understand the change in the environmental function of the hydrodynamic field owing to human activities. The water ages in Laizhou Bay, the central basin, and the Bohai strait are sensitive to water regulation. The surface ages in those areas can decrease by about 300 days, particularly in July, and the age stratification is also strengthened. A water regulation event can result in declines in the water age in early July ahead of declines in the water age under climatological conditions (without the regulation event) by about 1 and 5 months in the central basin and Laizhou Bay, respectively. The change in the coastal circulation due to the water regulation event is the primary reason for the change in the Yellow River water age. The high Yellow River flow rate can enhance the density flow and, therefore, reduce the age of the Yellow River water. The subsequent impact of a single water regulation event can last about 1.0 to 4.0 years in different subregions.

  3. Water quality assessment of the Sinos River – RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Steffens

    Full Text Available Worldwide environmental pollution is increasing at the same rate as social and economic development. This growth, however, is disorganized and leads to increased degradation of water resources. Water, which was once considered inexhaustible, has become the focus of environmental concerns because it is essential for life and for many production processes. This article describes monitoring of the water quality at three points along the Sinos River (RS, Brazil, one in each of the upper, middle and lower stretches. The points were sampled in 2013 and again in 2014. The water samples were analyzed to determine the following physical and chemical parameters plus genotoxicity to fish: metals (Cr, Fe, Al, chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, chlorides, conductivity, total suspended solids, total phosphorous, total and fecal coliforms, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, total Kjeldahl nitrogen nitrate and ammoniacal nitrogen. Genotoxicity was tested by exposing individuals of the species Astyanax jacuhiensis to water samples and then comparing them with a control group exposed to water from the public water supply. The results confirmed the presence of substances with genotoxic potential at the sample points located in the middle and lower stretches of the river. The results for samples from the upper stretch, at P1, did not exhibit differences in relation to the control group. The physical and chemical analyses did not detect reductions in water quality in the lower stretch, as had been expected in view of the large volumes of domestic and industrial effluents discharged into this part of the river.

  4. The water footprint of agricultural products in European river basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanham, D; Bidoglio, G


    This work quantifies the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WF prod, agr ) and consumption (WF cons, agr ) and the resulting net virtual water import (netVW i, agr ) of 365 European river basins for a reference period (REF, 1996–2005) and two diet scenarios (a healthy diet based upon food-based dietary guidelines (HEALTHY) and a vegetarian (VEG) diet). In addition to total (tot) amounts, a differentiation is also made between the green (gn), blue (bl) and grey (gy) components. River basins where the REF WF cons, agr, tot exceeds the WF prod, agr, tot (resulting in positive netVW i, agr, tot values), are found along the London–Milan axis. These include the Thames, Scheldt, Meuse, Seine, Rhine and Po basins. River basins where the WF prod, agr, tot exceeds the WF cons, agr, tot are found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. These include the Loire, Ebro and Nemunas basins. Under the HEALTHY diet scenario, the WF cons, agr, tot of most river basins decreases (max −32%), although it was found to increase in some basins in northern and eastern Europe. This results in 22 river basins, including the Danube, shifting from being net VW importers to being net VW exporters. A reduction (max −46%) in WF cons, agr, tot is observed for all but one river basin under the VEG diet scenario. In total, 50 river basins shift from being net VW importers to being net exporters, including the Danube, Seine, Rhone and Elbe basins. Similar observations are made when only the gn + bl and gn components are assessed. When analysing only the bl component, a different river basin pattern is observed. (letters)

  5. Explore the impacts of river flow and quality on biodiversity for water resources management by AI techniques (United States)

    Chang, Fi-John; Tsai Tsai, Wen-Ping; Chang, Li-Chiu


    Water resources development is very challenging in Taiwan due to her diverse geographic environment and climatic conditions. To pursue sustainable water resources development, rationality and integrity is essential for water resources planning. River water quality and flow regimes are closely related to each other and affect river ecosystems simultaneously. This study aims to explore the complex impacts of water quality and flow regimes on fish community in order to comprehend the situations of the eco-hydrological system in the Danshui River of northern Taiwan. To make an effective and comprehensive strategy for sustainable water resources management, this study first models fish diversity through implementing a hybrid artificial neural network (ANN) based on long-term observational heterogeneity data of water quality, stream flow and fish species in the river. Then we use stream flow to estimate the loss of dissolved oxygen based on back-propagation neural networks (BPNNs). Finally, the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) is established for river flow management over the Shihmen Reservoir which is the main reservoir in this study area. In addition to satisfying the water demands of human beings and ecosystems, we also consider water quality for river flow management. The ecosystem requirement takes the form of maximizing fish diversity, which can be estimated by the hybrid ANN. The human requirement is to provide a higher satisfaction degree of water supply while the water quality requirement is to reduce the loss of dissolved oxygen in the river among flow stations. The results demonstrate that the proposed methodology can offer diversified alternative strategies for reservoir operation and improve reservoir operation strategies for producing downstream flows that could better meet both human and ecosystem needs as well as maintain river water quality. Keywords: Artificial intelligence (AI), Artificial neural networks (ANNs), Non

  6. The water quality of the river Svratka and its tributaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Grmela


    Full Text Available Water quality in river depends on water quality of its tributaries. During the year 2011 nine selected sites downstream under the Vír dam (from 108 to 79 river km were monitored. For observation were chosen tributaries Besének, Loučka, Nedvědička, Chlebský creek, Hodonínka, Vrtěžířský creek and Tresný creek. At the same time samples from the places above and under the whole monitored section of the river were taken. Basic physicochemical parameters were monitored monthly during the vegetation period. Flow velocity and discharge were assessed three times. Based on the water quality evaluation of, the river Svratka and its tributaries Hodonínka, Vrtěžířský creek and Tresný creek belong to the second quality class, tributaries Besének, Loučka, Nedvědička and Chlebský belong to the third quality class. In the monitored section the retention of phosphorus in annual amount about 2.2 tons were occurance. Annual volume of phosphorus at the end of observed section (upstream the Tišnov town was nearly 17.5 tons. Annual total balance of nitrogen at the end of monitored section was 700 tons per year and 6000 tons of carbon per year. The major source of these nutrients is the river Loučka.

  7. Survey on monthly variations of water quality in the Tajan River (Sari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The aims of the study were to evaluate water quality of Tajan River in Sari in terms of chemical pollution and the impact of pollutant ... qualities of water from Tajan River were within the acceptable limits for agricultural consumptions. In addition, Tajan River water ..... Water and Return Flow Reuse. No. 535. Zazouli et al. 3991.

  8. Application of dynamic programming for the analysis of complex water resources systems : a case study on the Mahaweli River basin development in Sri Lanka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kularathna, M.D.U.P.


    The technique of Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP) is ideally suited for operation policy analyses of water resources systems. However SDP has a major drawback which is appropriately termed as its "curse of dimensionality".

    Aggregation/Disaggregation techniques based on SDP and

  9. Natural radioactivity in ground water near the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, V. Jr.; Michel, J.


    A study of natural radioactivity in groundwater on and adjacent to the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken (SC) was conducted to determine the spatial and temporal variations in the concentration of specific radionuclides. All available measurements for gross alpha particle activity, gross beta activity, uranium, Ra-226, Ra-228, and radon were collated. Relatively few radionuclide-specific results were found. Twenty samples from drinking water supplies in the area were collected in October 1987 and analyzed for U-238, U-234, Ra-226, Ra-228, and Rn-222. The aquifer type for each public water supply system was determined, and statistical analyses were conducted to detect differences among aquifer types and geographic areas defined at the country level. For samples from the public water wells and distribution systems on and adjacent to the site, most of the gross alpha particle activity could be attributed to Ra-226. Aquifer type was an important factor in determining the level of radioactivity in groundwater. The distribution and geochemical factors affecting the distribution of each radionuclide for the different aquifer types are discussed in detail. Statistical analyses were also run to test for aerial differences, among counties and the site. For all types of measurements, there were no differences in the distribution of radioactivity among the ten counties in the vicinity of the site or the site itself. The mean value for the plant was the lowest of all geographic areas for gross alpha particle activity and radon, intermediate for gross beta activity, and in the upper ranks for Ra-226 and Ra-228. It is concluded that the drinking water quality onsite is comparable with that in the vicinity. 19 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  10. Radionuclides as natural tracers of the interaction between groundwater and surface water in the River Andarax, Spain. (United States)

    Navarro-Martinez, Francisco; Salas Garcia, Alejandro; Sánchez-Martos, Francisco; Baeza Espasa, Antonio; Molina Sánchez, Luis; Rodríguez Perulero, Antonio


    The identification of specific aquifers that supply water to river systems is fundamental to understanding the dynamics of the rivers' hydrochemistry, particularly in arid and semiarid environments where river flow may be discontinuous. There are multiple methods to identify the source of river water. In this study of the River Andarax, in the Southeast of Spain, an analysis of natural tracers (physico-chemical parameters, uranium, radium and radon) in surface water and groundwater indicates that chemical parameters and uranium clearly identify the areas where there is groundwater-surface water interaction. The concentration of uranium found in the river defines two areas: the headwaters with U concentrations of 2 μg L -1 and the lower reaches, with U of 6 μg L -1 . Furthermore, variation in the 234 U/ 238 U isotopic ratio allowed us to detect the influence that groundwater from the carbonate aquifer has on surface water in the headwaters of the river, where the saline content is lower and the water has a calcium bicarbonate facies. The concentration of 226 Ra and 222 Rn are low in the surface waters: aquifer on the surface waters. The results of this study indicate the utility in the use of physico-chemical and radiological data conjointly as tracers of groundwater-surface water interaction in semiarid areas where the lithology of aquifers is diverse (carbonate and detritic) and where evaporitic rocks are present. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Napa Earthquake impact on water systems (United States)

    Wang, J.


    South Napa earthquake occurred in Napa, California on August 24 at 3am, local time, and the magnitude is 6.0. The earthquake was the largest in SF Bay Area since the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Economic loss topped $ 1 billion. Wine makers cleaning up and estimated the damage on tourism. Around 15,000 cases of lovely cabernet were pouring into the garden at the Hess Collection. Earthquake potentially raise water pollution risks, could cause water crisis. CA suffered water shortage recent years, and it could be helpful on how to prevent underground/surface water pollution from earthquake. This research gives a clear view on drinking water system in CA, pollution on river systems, as well as estimation on earthquake impact on water supply. The Sacramento-San Joaquin River delta (close to Napa), is the center of the state's water distribution system, delivering fresh water to more than 25 million residents and 3 million acres of farmland. Delta water conveyed through a network of levees is crucial to Southern California. The drought has significantly curtailed water export, and salt water intrusion reduced fresh water outflows. Strong shaking from a nearby earthquake can cause saturated, loose, sandy soils liquefaction, and could potentially damage major delta levee systems near Napa. Napa earthquake is a wake-up call for Southern California. It could potentially damage freshwater supply system.

  12. Human impact on the microbiological water quality of the rivers. (United States)

    Páll, Emőke; Niculae, Mihaela; Kiss, Timea; Şandru, Carmen Dana; Spînu, Marina


    Microbiological contamination is an important water-quality problem worldwide. Human impact on this category of contamination is significant and several human-related activities, and also the population explosion, have affected and are still affecting dramatically the aquatic environment. Extensive industrialization and agriculture have led to increased pollution and hydromorphological changes in many river basins. The Danube river is one of the most affected by these changes where human involvement is undeniable, and subsequently, the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve became one of the most vulnerable ecosystems. This review is an attempt to analyse the microbiological contamination and to identify the major role human activities play in altering the water quality of the rivers.

  13. Relationships between water quality parameters in rivers and lakes: BOD5, COD, NBOPs, and TOC. (United States)

    Lee, Jaewoong; Lee, Seunghyun; Yu, Soonju; Rhew, Doughee


    Biological oxygen demand (BOD5) or chemical oxygen demand (COD) analysis is widely used to evaluate organic pollutants in water systems as well as the efficiency of wastewater treatment plants. However, both analysis methods have restrictions such as being insensitive, imprecise, time-consuming, and the production of chemical waste. Therefore, total organic carbon (TOC) analysis for organic pollutants has been considered for an alternative analysis instead of BOD5 or COD. Several studies have investigated the replacement of BOD5 or COD with TOC in wastewater samples; however, few studies have investigated the relationships between water quality parameters in rivers and lakes. Therefore, this study evaluated the relationships between BOD5, COD, or NBOPs and TOC by the analysis of national water quality monitoring data of rivers and lakes for 5 years. High correlation coefficients (r) of 0.87 and 0.66 between BOD5 and TOC (p TOC (p TOC was 0.93 for rivers and 0.72 for lakes. The coefficients of determination (R 2) were 0.75 and 0.44 between BOD5 and TOC for rivers and lakes as well as were 0.87 and 0.57 between COD and TOC for rivers and lakes, respectively. The coefficient of determination (R 2) between NBOPs and TOC was 0.73 for rivers and 0.52 for lakes.

  14. Woody plant willow in function of river water protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babincev Ljiljana M.


    Full Text Available Coastal area surrounding the river Ibar, in the area between cities of Kosovska Mitrovica and Leposavić in the north of Kosovo and Metohija, is occupied with seven industrial waste dumps. These dumps were all part of the exploitation and flotation refinement of raw mineral materials, metallurgic refinement of concentrates, chemical industry, industrial refinement and energetic facilities of Trepča industrial complex. The existing waste dumps, both active and inactive, are of heterogenic chemical composition. Its impact on the river water is shown by the content of heavy metals found in it. Removal of lead, cadmium and zinc would be economically unrewarding, regardless of the technology used. Wooden plant that prevails in this area is white willow. This work is focused on the removal of heavy metals (Pb, Cd and Zn from the water of the river Ibar using white willow. Roots of the willow are cultivated using the method of water cultures in an individual solution of heavy metals and river water sample. The preparation of the samples for analysis was performed by burning the herbal material and dissolving ashes in the appropriate acids. The concentrations of metals were determined by the stripping analysis. In the investigated heavy metal solutions the biomass increase is 25.6% in lead solution, 27.3% in cadmium and 30.7% in zinc solution. The increase of biomass in nutritional solution, without the heavy metals, is 32.4% and in river water sample 27.5%. The coefficient of bioaccumulation in solutions with heavy metals is 1.6% in lead solution, 1.9% in cadmium and 2.2% in zinc solution. Heavy metals accumulation is 18.74 μg of lead, 20.09 μg of cadmium and 22.89 μg of zinc. The coefficient of bioaccumulation of the water samples, that contained 44.83 μg/dm3 of lead, 29.21 μg/dm3 of cadmium and 434.00 μg/dm3 of zinc, during the period of 45 days, was 30.3% for lead, 53.4% for cadmium and 3.9% for zinc. The concentrations of accumulated metals


    Garn, Herbert S.


    The lower 4 miles of the Red River, a tributary of the Rio Grande in northern New Mexico, was designated as one of the 'instant' components of the National Wild and Scenic River System in 1968. Instream flow requirements were determined by several methods to quantify the claims made by the United States for a federal reserved water right under the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act. The scenic (aesthetic), recreational, and fish and wildlife values are the purposes for which instream flow requirements were claimed. Since water quality is related to these values, instream flows for waste transport and protection of water quality were also included in the claim. The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Instream Flow Incremental Methodology was used to quantify the relationship between various flow regimes and fish habitat. Study results are discussed.

  16. Spatio-temporal patterns and predictions of phytoplankton assemblages in a subtropical river delta system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chao; Li, Xinhui; Wang, Xiangxiu


    Spatial and seasonal sampling within a subtropical river delta system, the Pearl River Delta (China), provided data to determine seasonal phytoplankton patterns and develop prediction models. The high nutrient levels and frequent water exchanges resulted in a phytoplankton community with greatest...

  17. A Water Resources Planning Tool for the Jordan River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Bonzi


    Full Text Available The Jordan River basin is subject to extreme and increasing water scarcity. Management of transboundary water resources in the basin is closely intertwined with political conflicts in the region. We have jointly developed with stakeholders and experts from the riparian countries, a new dynamic consensus database and—supported by hydro-climatological model simulations and participatory scenario exercises in the GLOWA (Global Change and the Hydrological Cycle Jordan River project—a basin-wide Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP tool, which will allow testing of various unilateral and multilateral adaptation options under climate and socio-economic change. We present its validation and initial (climate and socio-economic scenario analyses with this budget and allocation tool, and invite further adaptation and application of the tool for specific Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM problems.

  18. Environmental flows and water quality objectives for the River Murray. (United States)

    Gippel, C; Jacobs, T; McLeod, T


    Over the past decade, there intense consideration of managing flows in the River Murray to provide environmental benefits. In 1990 the Murray-Darling Basin Ministerial Council adopted a water quality policy: To maintain and, where necessary, improve existing water quality in the rivers of the Murray-Darling Basin for all beneficial uses - agricultural, environmental, urban, industrial and recreational, and in 1994 a flow policy: To maintain and where necessary improve existing flow regimes in the waterways of the Murray-Darling Basin to protect and enhance the riverine environment. The Audit of Water Use followed in 1995, culminating in the decision of the Ministerial Council to implement an interim cap on new diversions for consumptive use (the "Cap") in a bid to halt declining river health. In March 1999 the Environmental Flows and Water Quality Objectives for the River Murray Project (the Project) was set up, primarily to establish be developed that aims to achieve a sustainable river environment and water quality, in accordance with community needs, and including an adaptive approach to management and operation of the River. It will lead to objectives for water quality and environmental flows that are feasible, appropriate, have the support of the scientific, management and stakeholder communities, and carry acceptable levels of risk. This paper describes four key aspects of the process being undertaken to determine the objectives, and design the flow options that will meet those objectives: establishment of an appropriate technical, advisory and administrative framework; establishing clear evidence for regulation impacts; undergoing assessment of environmental flow needs; and filling knowledge gaps. A review of the impacts of flow regulation on the health of the River Murray revealed evidence for decline, but the case for flow regulation as the main cause is circumstantial or uncertain. This is to be expected, because the decline of the River Murray results

  19. Assessment of human impact on water quality along Manyame River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirivashe P. Masere


    Full Text Available Human activities such as urbanization, agriculture, sewage treatment and industrialization are affecting water resources both quantitatively and qualitatively. The impact of these activities were studied by measuring and determining the concentration and values of eight selected water quality parameters namely nitrates, phosphates, copper, iron, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, dissolved oxygen (DO, pH and turbidity along Manyame River, in the Manyame Catchment. Thirty five sites were sampled from the source of the river which is at Seke Dam, along Manyame River and on the tributaries (Ruwa, Nyatsime, Mukuvisi and Marimba just before they join the river. The 35 sites were categorized into 5 groups (A, B, C, D and E with group A and E being the upstream and downstream of Manyame. The analysis of results was undertaken using a simple one-way ANOVA with group as the only source of variation. Turbidity values, nitrate and phosphate concentrations were found to be higher than the Zimbabwe National Water Authority (ZINWA maximum permissible standards for surface waters. DO saturation in the downstream groups was less than 75% (ZINWA standard. Agricultural and urban runoff and sewage effluent were responsible of the high nutrient levels and turbidity, which in turn, reduced the dissolved oxygen (DO.

  20. Safety Evaluation of Osun River Water Containing Heavy Metals and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: This study evaluated the pH, heavy metals and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Osun river water. It also evaluated its safety in rats. Heavy metals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) while VOCs were determined by gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector ...

  1. a study of the water quality of the osun river

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Aug 26, 1998 ... sources of the polluting substances are discussed. INTRODUCTION. The supply of fresh water is the most important economic role of rivers, and ... There are quite a number of industries located in Osogbo, the state capital of ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatin Nabilah Murad


    Full Text Available The existing process of coagulation and flocculation are using chemicals that known as cationic coagulant such as alum, ferric sulfate, calcium oxide, and organic polymers.  Thus, this study concentrates on optimizing of flocculation process by microbial coagulant in river water. Turbidity and suspended solids are the main constraints of river water quality in Malaysia. Hence, a study is proposed to produce microbial coagulants isolated locally for river water treatment. The chosen microbe used as the bioflocculant producer is Aspergillus niger. The parameters to optimization in the flocculation process were pH, bioflocculant dosage and effluent concentration. The research was done in the jar test process and the process parameters for maximum turbidity removal was validated. The highest flocculating activity was obtained on day seven of cultivation in the supernatant. The optimum pH and bioflocculant dosage for an optimize sedimentation process were between 4-5 and 2-3 mL for 0.3 g/L of effluent concentration respectively. The model was validated by using a river water sample from Sg. Pusu and the result showed that the model was acceptable to evaluate the bioflocculation process.

  3. Assessing Vulnerability under Uncertainty in the Colorado River Basin: The Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study (United States)

    Jerla, C.; Adams, P.; Butler, A.; Nowak, K.; Prairie, J. R.


    Spanning parts of the seven states, of Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming, the Colorado River is one of the most critical sources of water in the western United States. Colorado River allocations exceed the long-term supply and since the 1950s, there have been a number of years when the annual water use in the Colorado River Basin exceeded the yield. The Basin is entering its second decade of drought conditions which brings challenges that will only be compounded if projections of climate change are realized. It was against this backdrop that the Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study was conducted. The Study's objectives are to define current and future imbalances in the Basin over the next 50 years and to develop and analyze adaptation and mitigation strategies to resolve those imbalances. Long-term planning in the Basin involves the integration of uncertainty with respect to a changing climate and other uncertainties such as future demand and how policies may be modified to adapt to changing reliability. The Study adopted a scenario planning approach to address this uncertainty in which thousands of scenarios were developed to encompass a wide range of plausible future water supply and demand conditions. Using Reclamation's long-term planning model, the Colorado River Simulation System, the reliability of the system to meet Basin resource needs under these future conditions was projected both with and without additional future adaptation strategies in place. System reliability metrics were developed in order to define system vulnerabilities, the conditions that lead to those vulnerabilities, and sign posts to indicate if the system is approaching a vulnerable state. Options and strategies that reduce these vulnerabilities and improve system reliability were explored through the development of portfolios. Four portfolios, each with different management strategies, were analyzed to assess their effectiveness at

  4. Water reuse in river basins with multiple users: A literature review (United States)

    Simons, G. W. H. (Gijs); Bastiaanssen, W. G. M. (Wim); Immerzeel, W. W. (Walter)


    Unraveling the interaction between water users in a river basin is essential for sound water resources management, particularly in a context of increasing water scarcity and the need to save water. While most attention from managers and decision makers goes to allocation and withdrawals of surface water resources, reuse of non-consumed water gets only marginal attention despite the potentially significant volumes. As a consequence, claims of water saving are often grossly exaggerated. It is the purpose of this paper to explore the processes associated with water reuse in a river basin among users of varying nature and review existing methods for directly or indirectly describing non-consumed water, recoverable flow and/or water reuse. First a conceptual representation of processes surrounding water withdrawals and associated definitions is discussed, followed by a section on connectivity between individual withdrawals and the complex dynamics arising from dependencies and tradeoffs within a river basin. The current state-of-the-art in categorizing basin hydrological flows is summarized and its applicability to a water system where reuse occurs is explored. The core of the paper focuses on a selection and demonstration of existing indicators developed for assessing water reuse and its impacts. It is concluded that although several methods for analyses of water reuse and recoverable flows have been developed, a number of essential aspects of water reuse are left out of existing indicators. Moreover, a proven methodology for obtaining crucial quantitative information on recoverable flows is currently lacking. Future studies should aim at spatiotemporal tracking of the recoverable portion of water withdrawals and showing the dependency of multiple water users on such flows to water policy makers.

  5. Ensuring safe use of water in a river basin with uranium drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, F.; Oliveira, J.; Malta, M.


    A regular radioactivity monitoring programme ensures radioactivity surveillance in a river system with multiple and intensive uses of water. In the catchment of River Mondego, centre of Portugal, there is a uranium mining and milling legacy which encompasses about 12 old uranium mine sites and 3 uranium milling sites. This river basin is an important agriculture and cattle growing region with forest areas for paper pulp production. In the catchment of this river there are four dams for electricity production and two main artificial lakes which are water reservoirs to supply drinking water to more than 3 million people, and irrigation water for agriculture including maize and rice production. In the river basin, environmental remediation works were recently implemented especially at the milling tailings and at the major mine sites, which reduced radioactive drainage into the Mondego tributaries and thus into the Mondego river. Mine drainage and seepage from tailings are recuperated and treated in mine water treatment stations. Although, for example, in drainage from milling tailings at Urgeiriça, water may contain high concentrations of dissolved uranium ("2"3"8U), radium ("2"2"6Ra) and polonium ("2"1"0Po) at 35,700±1100, 1084±30, and 700±40 mBq/L, respectively, in the stream receiving discharges of treated water today radionuclide concentrations are orders of magnitude lower. The tributary streams that in the past received untreated mine discharges are today recovering and concentrations decreased to near natural levels. In the artificial lake of Aguieira dam, built on the Mondego River downstream all uranium sites, and where the main capture of water for human consumption is located, radionuclide concentrations were of 9.2±0.3 mBq/L, 17.7±1.9 mBq/L, and 5.3±0.2 mBq/L for uranium ("2"3"8U), radium ("2"2"6Ra) and polonium ("2"1"0Po), respectively. This water has been over the last years consistently in compliance with the EU drinking water quality standards

  6. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix N: Wildlife.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)


    The Columbia River System is a vast and complex combination of Federal and non-Federal facilities used for many purposes including power production, irrigation, navigation, flood control, recreation, fish and wildlife habitat and municipal and industrial water supply. Each river use competes for the limited water resources in the Columbia River Basin. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The environmental impact statement (EIS) itself and some of the other appendices present analyses of the alternative approaches to the other three decisions considered as part of the SOR. This document is the product of the Wildlife Work Group, focusing on wildlife impacts but not including fishes. Topics covered include the following: scope and process; existing and affected environment, including specific discussion of 18 projects in the Columbia river basin. Analysis, evaluation, and alternatives are presented for all projects. System wide impacts to wildlife are also included.

  7. Columbia River system operation review: Final environmental impact statement. Appendix N, wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Columbia River System is a vast and complex combination of Federal and non-Federal facilities used for many purposes including power production, irrigation, navigation, flood control, recreation, fish and wildlife habitat and municipal and industrial water supply. Each river use competes for the limited water resources in the Columbia River Basin. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The environmental impact statement (EIS) itself and some of the other appendices present analyses of the alternative approaches to the other three decisions considered as part of the SOR. This document is the product of the Wildlife Work Group, focusing on wildlife impacts but not including fishes. Topics covered include the following: scope and process; existing and affected environment, including specific discussion of 18 projects in the Columbia river basin. Analysis, evaluation, and alternatives are presented for all projects. System wide impacts to wildlife are also included

  8. Isotope Compositions Of Mekong River Flow Water In The South Of Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Kien Chinh; Huynh Long; Le Danh Chuan; Nguyen Van Nhien; Tran Thi Bich Lien


    As a part of the Research Contract No. VIE/12569, isotope composition of Mekong river flow water in the South of Vietnam has been monitored to provide information on water origin and residence times, surface-groundwater exchange in the monitoring area. According to the primary results obtained, a seasonal variation as well as the dependence on local precipitation and on the river water level of isotopic composition of two distributaries of Mekong river water have been observed. At the same time a slight change on season of tritium in rivers water and the difference between tritium content in local rainy water and river water has been recorded. (author)

  9. Bacterial Pollution in River Waters and Gastrointestinal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Rodríguez-Tapia


    Full Text Available Currently, one of Mexico’s most severe environmental problems is the high levels of pollution of many of its rivers. The present article focuses on the relationship between total coliform bacteria levels and the increase of human digestive tract diseases in the highly polluted Atoyac River in the central Mexican states of Puebla and Tlaxcala. Pollution has become a potential health hazard for people living in nearby river communities. Based on data collected from six of the most contaminated riverside municipalities, two environmental models were developed taking into consideration the health of the entire population, not simply that of its individual members. Such models estimate a health-disease function that confirm the link between Atoyac River pollution and the incidence of gastrointestinal diseases. The causal relation between pollution and gastrointestinal disease incentivizes the creation of epidemiological and public health programs aimed at reducing the environmental health impact of the pollution associated with the Atoyac River. The results presented here are the first of their kind of this river and will serve as basis for future research exploring other similarly contaminated riparian communities. As the causes of pollution are directly related to the economic development and population growth of the region, further research should be conducted for prevention of diseases, educational programs, water remediation and conservation programs that will have a positive impact on the quality of life of the population presently at risk.

  10. Bacterial Pollution in River Waters and Gastrointestinal Diseases. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Tapia, Lilia; Morales-Novelo, Jorge A


    Currently, one of Mexico's most severe environmental problems is the high levels of pollution of many of its rivers. The present article focuses on the relationship between total coliform bacteria levels and the increase of human digestive tract diseases in the highly polluted Atoyac River in the central Mexican states of Puebla and Tlaxcala. Pollution has become a potential health hazard for people living in nearby river communities. Based on data collected from six of the most contaminated riverside municipalities, two environmental models were developed taking into consideration the health of the entire population, not simply that of its individual members. Such models estimate a health-disease function that confirm the link between Atoyac River pollution and the incidence of gastrointestinal diseases. The causal relation between pollution and gastrointestinal disease incentivizes the creation of epidemiological and public health programs aimed at reducing the environmental health impact of the pollution associated with the Atoyac River. The results presented here are the first of their kind of this river and will serve as basis for future research exploring other similarly contaminated riparian communities. As the causes of pollution are directly related to the economic development and population growth of the region, further research should be conducted for prevention of diseases, educational programs, water remediation and conservation programs that will have a positive impact on the quality of life of the population presently at risk.

  11. Indices of water quality and metal pollution of Nile River, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaal M. Abdel-Satar


    Full Text Available Nile River is the valued natural and exclusive source of fresh water in Egypt, where the drinking water supply is limited to the river. The water quality of 24 sites between Aswan and Cairo along the Nile was investigated. To evaluate the suitability of water for aquatic life and drinking purposes, the indices of water quality (WQI, heavy metal pollution (HPI and contamination (Cd were computed. The water quality variations were mainly related to inorganic nutrients and heavy metals, where, the sites affected by intensive load of urban, agricultural and industrial wastewater showed serious deterioration of water quality compared with other sites. The anthropogenic impact sites showed high HPI and Cd values and associated with high risks, where, most of the studied metals often exceeded the drinking water and aquatic life limits. The aquatic WQI indicated that the Nile water quality deteriorated and extended from poor to marginal, while drinking WQI varied from marginal to good. Accordingly, the river becoming unfit for aquatic life and the situation is getting worse by decreases in the water budget from the Nile in Egypt by building of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam, where the dilution strength of the Nile system will reduce.

  12. Methods for Quantifying Shallow-Water Habitat Availability in the Missouri River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Larson, Kyle B.


    As part of regulatory requirements for shallow-water habitat (SWH) restoration, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) completes periodic estimates of the quantity of SWH available throughout the lower 752 mi of the Missouri River. To date, these estimates have been made by various methods that consider only the water depth criterion for SWH. The USACE has completed estimates of SWH availability based on both depth and velocity criteria at four river bends (hereafter called reference bends), encompassing approximately 8 river miles within the lower 752 mi of the Missouri River. These estimates were made from the results of hydraulic modeling of water depth and velocity throughout each bend. Hydraulic modeling of additional river bends is not expected to be completed for deriving estimates of available SWH. Instead, future estimates of SWH will be based on the water depth criterion. The objective of this project, conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the USACE Omaha District, was to develop geographic information system methods for estimating the quantity of available SWH based on water depth only. Knowing that only a limited amount of water depth and channel geometry data would be available for all the remaining bends within the lower 752 mi of the Missouri River, the intent was to determine what information, if any, from the four reference bends could be used to develop methods for estimating SWH at the remaining bends. Specifically, we examined the relationship between cross-section channel morphology and relative differences between SWH estimates based on combined depth and velocity criteria and the depth-only criterion to determine if a correction factor could be applied to estimates of SWH based on the depth-only criterion. In developing these methods, we also explored the applicability of two commonly used geographic information system interpolation methods (TIN and ANUDEM) for estimating SWH using four different elevation data

  13. Hydrochemical evaluation of the influences of mining activities on river water chemistry in central northern Mongolia. (United States)

    Batsaikhan, Bayartungalag; Kwon, Jang-Soon; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Lee, Young-Joon; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Badarch, Mendbayar; Yun, Seong-Taek


    Although metallic mineral resources are most important in the economy of Mongolia, mining activities with improper management may result in the pollution of stream waters, posing a threat to aquatic ecosystems and humans. In this study, aiming to evaluate potential impacts of metallic mining activities on the quality of a transboundary river (Selenge) in central northern Mongolia, we performed hydrochemical investigations of rivers (Tuul, Khangal, Orkhon, Haraa, and Selenge). Hydrochemical analysis of river waters indicates that, while major dissolved ions originate from natural weathering (especially, dissolution of carbonate minerals) within watersheds, they are also influenced by mining activities. The water quality problem arising from very high turbidity is one of the major environmental concerns and is caused by suspended particles (mainly, sediment and soil particles) from diverse erosion processes, including erosion of river banks along the meandering river system, erosion of soils owing to overgrazing by livestock, and erosion by human activities, such as mining and agriculture. In particular, after passing through the Zaamar gold mining area, due to the disturbance of sediments and soils by placer gold mining, the Tuul River water becomes very turbid (up to 742 Nephelometric Turbidity Unit (NTU)). The Zaamar area is also the contamination source of the Tuul and Orkhon rivers by Al, Fe, and Mn, especially during the mining season. The hydrochemistry of the Khangal River is influenced by heavy metal (especially, Mn, Al, Cd, and As)-loaded mine drainage that originates from a huge tailing dam of the Erdenet porphyry Cu-Mo mine, as evidenced by δ 34 S values of dissolved sulfate (0.2 to 3.8 ‰). These two contaminated rivers (Tuul and Khangal) merge into the Orkhon River that flows to the Selenge River near the boundary between Mongolia and Russia and then eventually flows into Lake Baikal. Because water quality problems due to mining can be critical

  14. Comparison of 2002 Water Year and Historical Water-Quality Data, Upper Gunnison River Basin, Colorado (United States)

    Spahr, N.E.


    Introduction: Population growth and changes in land-use practices have the potential to affect water quality and quantity in the upper Gunnison River basin. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local sponsors, City of Gunnison, Colorado River Water Conservation District, Crested Butte South Metropolitan District, Gunnison County, Mount Crested Butte Water and Sanitation District, National Park Service, Town of Crested Butte, and Upper Gunnison River Water Conservancy District, established a water-quality monitoring program in the upper Gunnison River basin to characterize current water-quality conditions and to assess the effects of increased urban development and other land-use changes on water quality. The monitoring network has evolved into two groups of stations, stations that are considered as long term and stations that are rotational. The long-term stations are monitored to assist in defining temporal changes in water quality (how conditions have changed over time). The rotational stations are monitored to assist in the spatial definition of water-quality conditions (how conditions differ throughout the basin) and to address local and short term concerns. Another group of stations (rotational group 2) will be chosen and sampled beginning in water year 2004. Annual summaries of the water-quality data from the monitoring network provide a point of reference for discussions regarding water-quality sampling in the upper Gunnison River basin. This summary includes data collected during water year 2002. The introduction provides a map of the sampling locations, definitions of terms, and a one-page summary of selected water-quality conditions at the network stations. The remainder of the summary is organized around the data collected at individual stations. Data collected during water year 2002 are compared to historical data (data collected for this network since 1995), state water-quality standards, and federal water-quality guidelines

  15. Water Stress in Global Transboundary River Basins: Significance of Upstream Water Use on Downstream Stress (United States)

    Munia, H.; Guillaume, J. H. A.; Mirumachi, N.; Porkka,M.; Wada, Yoshihide; Kummu, M.


    Growing population and water demand have increased pressure on water resources in various parts of the globe, including many transboundary river basins. While the impacts of upstream water use on downstream water availability have been analyzed in many of these international river basins, this has not been systematically done at the global scale using coherent and comparable datasets. In this study, we aim to assess the change in downstream water stress due to upstream water use in the world's transboundary river basins. Water stress was first calculated considering only local water use of each sub-basin based on country-basin mesh, then compared with the situation when upstream water use was subtracted from downstream water availability. Wefound that water stress was generally already high when considering only local water use, affecting 0.95-1.44 billion people or 33%-51% of the population in transboundary river basins. After accounting for upstream water use, stress level increased by at least 1 percentage-point for 30-65 sub-basins, affecting 0.29-1.13 billion people. Altogether 288 out of 298 middle-stream and downstream sub-basin areas experienced some change in stress level. Further, we assessed whether there is a link between increased water stress due to upstream water use and the number of conflictive and cooperative events in the transboundary river basins, as captured by two prominent databases. No direct relationship was found. This supports the argument that conflicts and cooperation events originate from a combination of different drivers, among which upstream-induced water stress may play a role. Our findings contribute to better understanding of upstream-downstream dynamics in water stress to help address water allocation problems.

  16. seasonal variation in water quality of orle river basin, sw nigeria.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The seasonal variation of water quality of Orle River and its tributatries in S.W. Nigeria was investigated forthnightly or two ... KEYWORD: water quality, river basin, wet and dry seasons; pollution. ..... Environmental Modeling and Software,.

  17. Hydrochemical evaluation of river water quality—a case study: Horroud River (United States)

    Falah, Fatemeh; Haghizadeh, Ali


    Surface waters, especially rivers are the most important sources of water supply for drinking and agricultural purposes. Water with desirable quality is necessary for human life. Therefore, knowledge of water quality and its temporal changes is of particular importance in sustainable management of water resources. In this study, available data during 20 years from two hydrometry stations located in the way of Horroud River in Lorestan province were used and analyzed using Aq.QA software. Piper, Schoeller, Stiff, and Wilcox diagram were drawn and Mann-Kendal test was used for determining data trend. According to Wilcox diagram, water of this river in both stations is placed in c2s1 class which is good for agricultural purposes, and according to Schoeller diagram, there is no restrict for drinking purposes. Results of Man-Kendal test show increasing trend for colorine, EC, TDS while decreasing trend for potassium in Kakareza station. On the other hand in Dehnu station, positive trend was seen in calcium and colorine while negative trend for sulfate and potassium. For other variables, no specific trend was found.

  18. Beyond water, beyond boundaries: spaces of water management in the Krishna river basin, South India. (United States)

    Venot, Jean-Philippe; Bharati, Luna; Giordano, Mark; Molle, François


    As demand and competition for water resources increase, the river basin has become the primary unit for water management and planning. While appealing in principle, practical implementation of river basin management and allocation has often been problematic. This paper examines the case of the Krishna basin in South India. It highlights that conflicts over basin water are embedded in a broad reality of planning and development where multiple scales of decisionmaking and non-water issues are at play. While this defines the river basin as a disputed "space of dependence", the river basin has yet to acquire a social reality. It is not yet a "space of engagement" in and for which multiple actors take actions. This explains the endurance of an interstate dispute over the sharing of the Krishna waters and sets limits to what can be achieved through further basin water allocation and adjudication mechanisms – tribunals – that are too narrowly defined. There is a need to extend the domain of negotiation from that of a single river basin to multiple scales and to non-water sectors. Institutional arrangements for basin management need to internalise the political spaces of the Indian polity: the states and the panchayats. This re-scaling process is more likely to shape the river basin as a space of engagement in which partial agreements can be iteratively renegotiated, and constitute a promising alternative to the current interstate stalemate.

  19. Effects of Water Diversion from Yangtze River to Lake Taihu on the Phytoplankton Habitat of the Wangyu River Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangyu Dai


    Full Text Available To reveal the effects of water diversion from the Yangtze River to Lake Taihu on the phytoplankton habitat of the main water transfer channel of the Wangyu River, we investigated the water’s physicochemical parameters and phytoplankton communities during the water diversion and non-diversion periods over the winters between 2014–2016, respectively. During the water diversion periods in the winter of 2014 and 2015, the nutrients and organic pollutant contents of the Wangyu River channel were significantly lower than those during the non-diversion period in 2016. Moreover, the phytoplankton diversities and relative proportions of Bacillariophyta during the diversion periods evidently increased during the water diversion periods in winter. The increase in the water turbidity content, the decrease in the contents of the permanganate index, and the total phosphorus explained only 21.4% of the variations in the phytoplankton communities between the diversion and non-diversion periods in winter, which revealed significant contributions of the allochthonous species from the Yangtze River and tributaries of the Wangyu River to phytoplankton communities in the Wangyu River. The increasing gradient in the contents of nutrients and organic pollutants from the Yangtze River to Lake Taihu indicated the potential allochthonous pollutant inputs along with the Wangyu River. Further controlling the pollutants from the tributaries of the Wangyu River is critical in order to improve the phytoplankton habitats in river channels and Lake Taihu.

  20. How Natural is the Dissolved Inorganic Composition of Mississippi River Water? (United States)

    Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Johnson, S. T.; Meaux, S. J.; Brown, K.; Blum, M. J.; Allison, M. A.; Halder, J.; Wassenaar, L. I.; Cuesta, A. M.; Norris, E. S.; Wang, R. S.


    The dissolved inorganic composition of rivers provides insights into natural interactions between the hydrologic cycle and the "critical zone" of watersheds, and anthropogenic modifications thereof. For instance, major ion compositions allow us to infer how effectively weathering processes counteract increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Prerequisite to such assessments is the ability to detect and correct for anthropogenic modifications of river chemistry. An observatory campaign of the Mississippi River in New Orleans from July 2015 to October 2016 with an in-situ sensor system (LOBO-SUNA) and 161 discrete water sampling events reveals systematic changes in the dissolved ion and water stable isotope compositions, nutrient loading, and physical parameters of the Mississippi River. Monthly sampling has continued since as part of the Global Rivers Observatory. We compare this high-resolution data set to long-term data generated by the USGS at St. Francisville upstream of Baton Rouge, data from the USGS Baton Rouge gaging station and in-situ sensor system, as well as other historic data. Results reveal systematic changes in major ion composition in response to hydrologic conditions. In addition to annual and interannual changes, decadal trends in concentrations of certain major ions (Na, Mg, Ca) are consistent with anthropogenic activities in the drainage basin that are reminiscent of well-known, long-term changes in nutrient fluxes that affect the northern Gulf of Mexico. Our current working hypotheses to explain observed increases in Mg and Na concentrations, for example, are contaminations from road salt, from additives used in drinking and waste water treatment, as well as from groundwater pumping, particularly in the western part of the Mississippi River basin. Uncorrected, these changes impede our abilitiy to use the current chemical composition of Mississippi River water as a quantitative indicator of natural processes in the watershed.

  1. Air-water Gas Exchange Rates on a Large Impounded River Measured Using Floating Domes (Poster) (United States)

    Mass balance models of dissolved gases in rivers typically serve as the basis for whole-system estimates of greenhouse gas emission rates. An important component of these models is the exchange of dissolved gases between air and water. Controls on gas exchange rates (K) have be...

  2. Quantification of sediment-water interactions in a polluted tropical river through biogeochemical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trinh, A.D.; Meysman, F.; Rochelle-Newall, E.; Bonnet, M.P.


    Diagenetic modeling presents an interesting and robust way to understand sediment-water column processes. Here we present the application of such a model to the Day River in Northern Vietnam, a system that is subject to high levels of domestic wastewater inputs from the Hanoi metropolitan area.

  3. A review of current and possible future human-water dynamics in Myanmar's river basins (United States)

    Taft, Linda; Evers, Mariele


    Rivers provide a large number of ecosystem services and riparian people depend directly and indirectly on water availability and quality and quantity of the river waters. The country's economy and the people's well-being and income, particularly in agriculturally dominated countries, are strongly determined by the availability of sufficient water. This is particularly true for the country of Myanmar in South-east Asia, where more than 65 % of the population live in rural areas, working in the agricultural sector. Only a few studies exist on river basins in Myanmar at all and detailed knowledge providing the basis for human-water research is very limited. A deeper understanding of human-water system dynamics in the country is required because Myanmar's society, economy, ecosystems and water resources are facing major challenges due to political and economic reforms and massive and rapid investments from neighbouring countries. However, not only policy and economy modify the need for water. Climate variability and change are other essential drivers within human-water systems. Myanmar's climate is influenced by the Indian Monsoon circulation which is subject to interannual and also regional variability. Particularly the central dry zone and the Ayeyarwady delta are prone to extreme events such as serious drought periods and extreme floods. On the one hand, the farmers depend on the natural fertiliser brought by regular river inundations and high groundwater levels for irrigation; on the other hand, they suffer from these water-related extreme events. It is expected that theses climatic extreme events will likely increase in frequency and magnitude in the future as a result of global climate change. Different national and international interests in the abundant water resources may provide opportunities and risks at the same time for Myanmar. Several dam projects along the main courses of the rivers are currently in the planning phase. Dams will most likely modify the

  4. Influence of the South-North Water Diversion Project and the mitigation projects on the water quality of Han River. (United States)

    Zhu, Y P; Zhang, H P; Chen, L; Zhao, J F


    Situated in the central part of China, the Han River Basin is undergoing rapid social and economic development with some human interventions to be made soon which will profoundly influence the water environment of the basin. The integrated MIKE 11 model system comprising of a rainfall-runoff model (NAM), a non-point load evaluation model (LOAD), a hydrodynamic model (MIKE 11 HD) and a water quality model (ECOLab) was applied to investigate the impact of the Middle Route of the South-North Water Diversion Project on the Han River and the effectiveness of the 2 proposed mitigation projects, the 22 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and the Yangtze-Han Water Diversion Project. The study concludes that business as usual will lead to a continuing rapid deterioration of the water quality of the Han River. Implementation of the Middle Route of the South-North Water Diversion Project in 2010 will bring disastrous consequence in the form of the remarkably elevated pollution level and high risk of algae bloom in the middle and lower reaches. The proposed WWTPs will merely lower the pollution level in the reach by around 10%, while the Yangtze-Han Water Diversion Project can significantly improve the water quality in the downstream 200-km reach. The results reveal that serious water quality problem will emerge in the middle reach between Xiangfan and Qianjiang in the future. Implementation of the South-North Water Diversion Project (phase II) in 2030 will further exacerbate the problem. In order to effectively improve the water quality of the Han River, it is suggested that nutrient removal processes should be adopted in the proposed WWTPs, and the pollution load from the non-point sources, especially the load from the upstream Henan Province, should be effectively controlled.

  5. Mutagenicity of drinking water sampled from the Yangtze River and Hanshui River (Wuhan section) and correlations with water quality parameters. (United States)

    Lv, Xuemin; Lu, Yi; Yang, Xiaoming; Dong, Xiaorong; Ma, Kunpeng; Xiao, Sanhua; Wang, Yazhou; Tang, Fei


    A total of 54 water samples were collected during three different hydrologic periods (level period, wet period, and dry period) from Plant A and Plant B (a source for Yangtze River and Hanshui River water, respectively), and several water parameters, such as chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity, and total organic carbon (TOC), were simultaneously analyzed. The mutagenicity of the water samples was evaluated using the Ames test with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. According to the results, the organic compounds in the water were largely frame-shift mutagens, as positive results were found for most of the tests using TA98. All of the finished water samples exhibited stronger mutagenicity than the relative raw and distribution water samples, with water samples collected from Plant B presenting stronger mutagenic strength than those from Plant A. The finished water samples from Plant A displayed a seasonal-dependent variation. Water parameters including COD (r = 0.599, P = 0.009), TOC (r = 0.681, P = 0.02), UV254 (r = 0.711, P = 0.001), and total nitrogen (r = 0.570, P = 0.014) exhibited good correlations with mutagenicity (TA98), at 2.0 L/plate, which bolsters the argument of the importance of using mutagenicity as a new parameter to assess the quality of drinking water.

  6. Impact of energy development on water resources in the Upper Colorado River Basin. Completion report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flug, M.; Walker, W.R.; Skogerboe, G.V.; Smith, S.W.


    The Upper Colorado River Basin contains appreciable amounts of undeveloped coal, oil shale, and uranium resources, which are important in the national energy demand system. A mathematical model, which simulates the salt and water exchange phase of potential fuel conversions, has been developed, based on a subbasin analysis identifying available mineral and water resources. Potential energy developments are evaluated with respect to the resulting impacts upon both the quantity and salinity of the waters in the Colorado River. Model solutions are generated by use of a multilevel minimum cost linear programming algorithm, minimum cost referring to the cost of developing predetermined levels of energy output. Level one in the model analysis represents an aggregation of subbasins along state boundaries and thereby optimizes energy developments over the five states of the Upper Colorado River Basin. In each of the five second level problems, energy developments over a subbasin division within the respective states are optimized. Development policies which use high salinity waters of the Upper Colorado River enable a net salinity reduction to be realized in the Colorado River at Lee Ferry, Arizona

  7. Erosive forms in rivers systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Una Alvarez, E. de; Vidal Romani, J. R.; Rodriguez Martinez-Conde, R.


    The purpose of this work is to analyze the geomorphological meaning of the concepts of stability/change and to study its influence on a fluvial erosion system. Different cases of fluvial potholes in Galicia (NW of the Iberian Peninsula) are considered. The work conclusions refer to the nature of the process and its morphological evolution in order to advance towards later contributions with respect of this type of systems. (Author) 14 refs.

  8. Mapping Water Resources, Allocation and Consumption in the Mills River Basin (United States)

    Hodes, J.; Jeuland, M. A.; Barros, A. P.


    Mountain basins and the headwaters of river basins along the foothills of major mountain ranges are undergoing rapid environmental change due to urban development, land acquisition by investors, population increase, and climate change. Classical water infrastructure in these regions is primarily designed to meet human water demand associated with agriculture, tourism, and economic development. Often overlooked and ignored is the fundamental interdependence of human water demand, ecosystem water demand, water rights and allocation, and water supply. A truly sustainable system for water resources takes into account ecosystem demand along with human infrastructure and economic demand, as well as the feedbacks that exist between them. Allocation policies need to take into account basin resilience that is the amount of stress the system can handle under varying future scenarios. Changes in stress on the system can be anthropogenic in the form of population increase, land use change, economic development, or may be natural in the form of climate change and decrease in water supply due to changes in precipitation. Mapping the water rights, supply, and demands within the basin can help determine the resiliency and sustainability of the basin. Here, we present a coupled natural human system project based in the French Broad River Basin, in the Southern Appalachians. In the first phase of the project, we are developing and implementing a coupled hydro-economics modeling framework in the Mills River Basin (MRB), a tributary of the French Broad. The Mills River Basin was selected as the core basin for implementing a sustainable system of water allocation that is adaptive and reflects the interdependence of water dependent sectors. The headwaters of the Mills River are in the foothills of the Appalachians, and are currently under substantial land use land cover (LULC) change pressure for agricultural purposes. In this regard, the MRB is representative of similar headwater

  9. Predicting Impact of Climate Change on Water Temperature and Dissolved Oxygen in Tropical Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Amin Danladi Bello


    Full Text Available Predicting the impact of climate change and human activities on river systems is imperative for effective management of aquatic ecosystems. Unique information can be derived that is critical to the survival of aquatic species under dynamic environmental conditions. Therefore, the response of a tropical river system under climate and land-use changes from the aspects of water temperature and dissolved oxygen concentration were evaluated. Nine designed projected climate change scenarios and three future land-use scenarios were integrated into the Hydrological Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF model to determine the impact of climate change and land-use on water temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO concentration using basin-wide simulation of river system in Malaysia. The model performance coefficients showed a good correlation between simulated and observed streamflow, water temperature, and DO concentration in a monthly time step simulation. The Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency for streamflow was 0.88 for the calibration period and 0.82 for validation period. For water temperature and DO concentration, data from three stations were calibrated and the Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency for both water temperature and DO ranged from 0.53 to 0.70. The output of the calibrated model under climate change scenarios show that increased rainfall and air temperature do not affects DO concentration and water temperature as much as the condition of a decrease in rainfall and increase in air temperature. The regression model on changes in streamflow, DO concentration, and water temperature under the climate change scenarios illustrates that scenarios that produce high to moderate streamflow, produce small predicted change in water temperatures and DO concentrations compared with the scenarios that produced a low streamflow. It was observed that climate change slightly affects the relationship between water temperatures and DO concentrations in the tropical rivers that we

  10. Application of Water Evaluation and Planning Model for Integrated Water Resources Management: Case Study of Langat River Basin, Malaysia (United States)

    Leong, W. K.; Lai, S. H.


    Due to the effects of climate change and the increasing demand on water, sustainable development in term of water resources management has become a major challenge. In this context, the application of simulation models is useful to duel with the uncertainty and complexity of water system by providing stakeholders with the best solution. This paper outlines an integrated management planning network is developed based on Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) to evaluate current and future water management system of Langat River Basin, Malaysia under various scenarios. The WEAP model is known as an integrated decision support system investigate major stresses on demand and supply in terms of water availability in catchment scale. In fact, WEAP is applicable to simulate complex systems including various sectors within a single catchment or transboundary river system. To construct the model, by taking account of the Langat catchment and the corresponding demand points, we defined the hydrological model into 10 sub-hydrological catchments and 17 demand points included the export of treated water to the major cities outside the catchment. The model is calibrated and verified by several quantitative statistics (coefficient of determination, R2; Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, NSE and Percent bias, PBIAS). The trend of supply and demand in the catchment is evaluated under three scenarios to 2050, 1: Population growth rate, 2: Demand side management (DSM) and 3: Combination of DSM and reduce non-revenue water (NRW). Results show that by reducing NRW and proper DSM, unmet demand able to reduce significantly.

  11. [Nutrients Input Characteristics of the Yangtze River and Wangyu River During the "Water Transfers on Lake Taihu from the Yangtze River"]. (United States)

    Pan, Xiao-xue; Ma, Ying-qun; Qin, Yan-wen; Zou, Hua


    Overall 20 surface water samples were collected from the Yangtze River, the Wangyu River and the Gonghu Bay (Lake Taihu) to clarify the pollution characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus during 2 sample stages of "Water Transfers on Lake Taihu from the Yangtze River" in August and December of 2013 respectively. The results showed that the mass concentrations of NO2- -N, NO3- -N, NH4+ -N and TN in the Gonghu Bay were lower than those of the Yangtze River and Wangyu River during the 2 water transfer processes. However, there was higher level of DON content in the Gonghu Bay than that of the Yangtze River and Wangyu River. The percentages of various N species showed that NO3- -N was the major N species in the Yangtze River and Wangyu River during the 2 water transfer processes. TP contents in samples collected from the Yangtze River displayed a constant trend compared with the Wangyu River. However, the percentages of various P species were different with each other during the 2 water transfer processes. Mass concentrations of DON and TP in surface water in August were higher than those in December and the contents of NO3- -N and TDP were lower in August than those in December. In general, NO3- -N and TPP were the main N and P species in Wangyu River from the Yangtze River. NO3- -N, PO4(3-) -P and TPP were the main N and P species in Gonghu Bay from Wangyu River during the 2 water transfer processes.

  12. Water Accounting Plus for Water Resources Reporting and River Basin Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karimi, P.


    This thesis introduces Water Accounting Plus (WA+), which is a new framework designed to provide explicit spatial information on water depletion and net withdrawal processes in complex river basins. WA+ is a simple, yet comprehensive and understandable water accounting framework that provides a

  13. Quantifying Changes in Accessible Water in the Colorado River Basin (United States)

    Castle, S.; Thomas, B.; Reager, J. T.; Swenson, S. C.; Famiglietti, J. S.


    The Colorado River Basin (CRB) in the western United States is heavily managed yet remains one of the most over-allocated rivers in the world providing water across seven US states and Mexico. Future water management strategies in the CRB have employed land surface models to forecast discharges; such approaches have focused on discharge estimates to meet allocation requirements yet ignore groundwater abstractions to meet water demands. In this analysis, we illustrate the impact of changes in accessible water, which we define as the conjunctive use of both surface water reservoir storage and groundwater storage, using remote sensing observations to explore sustainable water management strategies in the CRB. We employ high resolution Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite data to detect changes in reservoir storage in the two largest reservoirs within the CRB, Lakes Mead and Powell, and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) terrestrial water storage anomalies to isolate changes in basin-wide groundwater storage in the Upper and Lower CRB from October 2003 to December 2012. Our approach quantifies reservoir and groundwater storage within the CRB using remote sensing to provide new information to water managers to sustainably and conjunctively manage accessible water.

  14. Assessment of Water Salinity Model Using Hydrodynamic Numerical Modelling in Estuary of Selangor River, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Ekhwan Toriman; Mohd Ekhwan Toriman; Norbaya Hashim; Mohd Khairul Amri Kamarudin; Abdul Jalil Hassan; Ayaari Muhamad; Nor Azlina Abd Aziz


    Issues such as water pollution and extraction of water from Sungai Selangor system has been said to be the cause of fading fireflies. Salinity intrusion into estuary of the Sungai Selangor has been carried out on a hydrodynamic numerical modeling to access the parameter that governed the amount of salt in the river. The berembang trees on the river bank that become the fireflies habitat need some amount of salt for proper growth. Living at the lower reaches of Sungai Selangor, the fireflies are affected not only by the activities in their vicinity, but by activities in the entire river basin. Rapid economic development in the basin and the strong demand for the water resources puts pressure on the ecosystem. This research has been carried out to investigate the effect of water extraction along Sungai Selangor towards altering the amount of salt content in the river. The hydrodynamic modeling with regards to the salt content is expected to support long term assessment that may affect the berembang trees as a result of changes in the flow from upstream because of the water abstraction activity for domestic water supply. (author)

  15. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix O: Economic and Social Impact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)


    This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included.

  16. Columbia River system operation review: Final environmental impact statement. Appendix O, economic and social impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included

  17. Field investigation to assess nutrient emission from paddy field to surface water in river catchment (United States)

    Kogure, Kanami; Aichi, Masaatsu; Zessner, Matthias


    In order to maintain good river environment, it is remarkably important to understand and to control nutrient behavior such as Nitrogen and Phosphorus. Our former research dealing with nutrient emission analysis in the Tone River basin area in Japan, in addition to urban and industrial waste water, nutrient emission from agricultural activity is dominant pollution source into the river system. Japanese style agriculture produces large amount of rice and paddy field occupies large areas in Japanese river basin areas. While paddy field can deteriorate river water quality by outflow of fertilizer, it is also suggested that paddy field has water purification function. As we carried out investigation in the Tone River Basin area, data were obtained which dissolved nitrogen concentration is lower in discharging water from paddy field than inflowing water into the field. Regarding to nutrient emission impact from paddy field, sufficient data are required to discuss quantitatively seasonal change of material behavior including flooding season and dry season, difference of climate condition, soil type, and rice species, to evaluate year round comprehensive impact from paddy field to the river system. In this research, field survey in paddy field and data collection relating rice production were carried out as a preliminary investigation to assess how Japanese style paddy field contributes year round on surface water quality. Study sites are three paddy fields located in upper reach of the Tone River basin area. The fields are flooded from June to September. In 2014, field investigations were carried out three times in flooding period and twice in dry period. To understand characteristics of each paddy field and seasonal tendency accompanying weather of agricultural event, short term investigations were conducted and we prepare for further long term investigation. Each study site has irrigation water inflow and outflow. Two sites have tile drainage system under the field and

  18. Seasonal water chemistry variability in the Pangani River basin, Tanzania. (United States)

    Selemani, Juma R; Zhang, Jing; Muzuka, Alfred N N; Njau, Karoli N; Zhang, Guosen; Maggid, Arafa; Mzuza, Maureen K; Jin, Jie; Pradhan, Sonali


    The stable isotopes of δ 18 O, δ 2 H, and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr and dissolved major ions were used to assess spatial and seasonal water chemistry variability, chemical weathering, and hydrological cycle in the Pangani River Basin (PRB), Tanzania. Water in PRB was NaHCO 3 type dominated by carbonate weathering with moderate total dissolved solids. Major ions varied greatly, increasing from upstream to downstream. In some stations, content of fluoride and sodium was higher than the recommended drinking water standards. Natural and anthropogenic factors contributed to the lowering rate of chemical weathering; the rate was lower than most of tropical rivers. The rate of weathering was higher in Precambrian than volcanic rocks. 87 Sr/ 86 Sr was lower than global average whereas concentration of strontium was higher than global average with mean annual flux of 0.13 × 10 6  mol year -1 . Evaporation and altitude effects have caused enrichment of δ 18 O and δ 2 H in dry season and downstream of the river. Higher d-excess value than global average suggests that most of the stations were supplied by recycled moisture. Rainfall and groundwater were the major sources of surface flowing water in PRB; nevertheless, glacier from Mt. Kilimanjaro has insignificant contribution to the surface water. We recommend measures to be taken to reduce the level of fluoride and sodium before domestic use.

  19. Characterizing interactions between surface water and groundwater in the Jialu River basin using major ion chemistry and stable isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yang


    Full Text Available The Jialu River, a secondary tributary of the Huaihe River, has been severely contaminated from major contaminant sources, such as a number of untreated or lightly treated sewage waste in some cities. Groundwater along the river is not an isolated component of the hydrologic system, but is instead connected with the surface water. This study aims to investigate temporal and spatial variations in water chemistry affected by humans and to characterize the relationships between surface water (e.g. reservoirs, lakes and rivers and groundwater near the river in the shallow Quaternary aquifer. Concentration of Cl in north Zhengzhou City increased prominently due to the discharge of a large amount of domestic water. Nitrate and potassium show maximum concentrations in groundwater in Fugou County. These high levels can be attributed to the use of a large quantity of fertilizer over this region. Most surface water appeared to be continuously recharged from the surrounding groundwater (regional wells based on comparison surface water with groundwater levels, stable-isotopes and major ion signatures. However, the groundwater of a transitional well (location SY3 seemed to be recharged by river water via bank infiltration in September 2010. Fractional contributions of river water to the groundwater were calculated based on isotopic and chemical data using a mass-balance approach. Results show that the groundwater was approximately composed of 60–70% river water. These findings should be useful for a better understanding of hydrogeological processes at the river-aquifer interface and ultimately benefit water management in the future.

  20. Synergetic Development Assessment of Urban River System Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingya Qiao


    Full Text Available This paper presents Synergetic Development Assessment (SDA as a methodology to evaluate the environmental, economic, and social performance of an urban river system landscape from the perspective of sustainability. SDA is based on synergetics and its “order parameters” theory, proposed as a science to study the self-organization of complex systems. A case study of river system landscapes in China was carried out by, first, simplifying the composite system into three subsystems: environmental, economic, and social; then, going on to construct a hierarchical structure to explore the order parameters as the evaluation index. The Analytic Hierarchy Process was used to get the weight of the evaluation index to complete the assessment index system. At the same time, a Sequential Synergy Degree Model was built to accomplish the SDA. We find that from 2005 to 2015, the order degree of the environmental subsystem developed slowly, with fluctuations, and that river pattern is the key factor. Meanwhile, the order degree of the economic subsystem fluctuated widely, which significantly depended on the changing value of water resources, and the order degree of social subsystem improved continuously, with social culture lagging far behind. As a whole, the synergy degree of the composite system developed orderly at a corresponding low level, which was in low synergy from 2005 to 2009 and then in general synergy up to 2015.

  1. River water quality assessment using environmentric techniques: case study of Jakara River Basin. (United States)

    Mustapha, Adamu; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Juahir, Hafizan; Ramli, Mohammad Firuz; Kura, Nura Umar


    Jakara River Basin has been extensively studied to assess the overall water quality and to identify the major variables responsible for water quality variations in the basin. A total of 27 sampling points were selected in the riverine network of the Upper Jakara River Basin. Water samples were collected in triplicate and analyzed for physicochemical variables. Pearson product-moment correlation analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationship of water quality parameters and revealed a significant relationship between salinity, conductivity with dissolved solids (DS) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and nitrogen in form of ammonia (NH4). Partial correlation analysis (r p) results showed that there is a strong relationship between salinity and turbidity (r p=0.930, p=0.001) and BOD5 and COD (r p=0.839, p=0.001) controlling for the linear effects of conductivity and NH4, respectively. Principal component analysis and or factor analysis was used to investigate the origin of each water quality parameter in the Jakara Basin and identified three major factors explaining 68.11 % of the total variance in water quality. The major variations are related to anthropogenic activities (irrigation agricultural, construction activities, clearing of land, and domestic waste disposal) and natural processes (erosion of river bank and runoff). Discriminant analysis (DA) was applied on the dataset to maximize the similarities between group relative to within-group variance of the parameters. DA provided better results with great discriminatory ability using eight variables (DO, BOD5, COD, SS, NH4, conductivity, salinity, and DS) as the most statistically significantly responsible for surface water quality variation in the area. The present study, however, makes several noteworthy contributions to the existing knowledge on the spatial variations of surface water quality and is believed to serve as a baseline data for further studies. Future


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Skorbiłowicz


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify and define the processes that affect the variability of the chemical composition of Supraśl river water at selected measuring points. One of the recognized multivariate statistical methods was used for identification. The research area covered the Suprasl river. Four measuring points were selected on the river – Michałowo, Gródek, Nowodworce, Dzikie. The measuring points were selected in such a way to take into account the impact of the most intense interaction located along the river. Changes in concentration were determined on the basis of monthly analyzes of water samples collected from the Supraśl river in 2003–2012 by the Regional Inspectorate for Environmental Protection (RIEP in Białystok. The analyses were performed in the RIEP laboratory in Bialystok, which has implemented and maintained a management system that meets the requirements of the norm PN-EN ISO/IEC 17025 + Ap.1:2007 approved by the certificate AB 165. The water samples were subject to determinations of dissolved oxygen concentration, BOD5, CODMn, CODCr, NH3, N-NH4+, NKieldahl, NO3-, N-NO3-, NO2-, N-NO2-, Ntot., PO43-, Ptot and electrical conductivity value. The monthly sum of precipitation was read based on data from the Weather Service “IMGW-PIB Monitor”. The research and analysis results allowed to identify the self-cleaning, nitrification, and de-nitrification processes, as well as enrichment affecting the variability of the chemical composition of the Supraśl river water. The results from the factor analysis showed some prevailing of enrichment processes over internal changes in the aquatic environment of the Supraśl river.

  3. Surface-Water and Groundwater Interactions along the Withlacoochee River, West-Central Florida (United States)

    Trommer, J.T.; Yobbi, D.K.; McBride, W.S.


    A study of the Withlacoochee River watershed in west-central Florida was conducted from October 2003 to March 2007 to gain a better understanding of the hydrology and surface-water and groundwater interactions along the river. The Withlacoochee River originates in the Green Swamp area in north-central Polk County and flows northerly through seven counties, emptying into the Gulf of Mexico. This study includes only the part of the watershed located between the headwaters in the Green Swamp and the U.S. Geological Survey gaging station near Holder, Florida. The Withlacoochee River within the study area is about 108 miles long and drains about 1,820 square miles. The Withlacoochee River watershed is underlain by thick sequences of carbonate rock that are covered by thin surficial deposits of unconsolidated sand and sandy clay. The clay layer is breached in many places because of the karst nature of the underlying limestone, and the degree of confinement between the Upper Florida aquifer and the surficial aquifer is highly variable throughout the watershed. The potential for movement of water from the surface or shallow deposits to deeper deposits, or from deeper deposits to the shallow deposits, exists throughout the Withlacoochee River watershed. Water levels were higher in deeper Upper Floridan aquifer wells than in shallow Upper Floridan aquifer wells or surficial aquifer wells at 11 of 19 paired or nested well sites, indicating potential for discharge to the surface-water system. Water levels were higher in shallow Upper Floridan aquifer or surficial aquifer wells than in deeper Upper Floridan aquifer wells at five other sites, indicating potential for recharge to the deeper Upper Floridan aquifer. Water levels in the surficial aquifer and Upper Floridan aquifer wells at the remaining three sites were virtually the same, indicating little or no confinement at the sites. Potentiometric-surface maps of the Upper Floridan aquifer indicate the pattern of groundwater

  4. Upper Hiwassee River Basin reservoirs 1989 water quality assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehring, J.P.


    The water in the Upper Hiwassee River Basin is slightly acidic and low in conductivity. The four major reservoirs in the Upper Hiwassee River Basin (Apalachia, Hiwassee, Chatuge, and Nottely) are not threatened by acidity, although Nottely Reservoir has more sulfates than the other reservoirs. Nottely also has the highest organic and nutrient concentrations of the four reservoirs. This results in Nottely having the poorest water clarity and the most algal productivity, although clarity as measured by color and secchi depths does not indicate any problem with most water use. However, chlorophyll concentrations indicate taste and odor problems would be likely if the upstream end of Nottely Reservoir were used for domestic water supply. Hiwassee Reservoir is clearer and has less organic and nutrient loading than either of the two upstream reservoirs. All four reservoirs have sufficient algal activity to produce supersaturated dissolved oxygen conditions and relatively high pH values at the surface. All four reservoirs are thermally stratified during the summer, and all but Apalachia have bottom waters depleted in oxygen. The very short residence time of Apalachia Reservoir, less than ten days as compared to over 100 days for the other three reservoirs, results in it being more riverine than the other three reservoirs. Hiwassee Reservoir actually develops three distinct water temperature strata due to the location of the turbine intake. The water quality of all of the reservoirs supports designated uses, but water quality complaints are being received regarding both Chatuge and Nottely Reservoirs and their tailwaters

  5. Elements of a decision support system for real-time management ofdissolved oxygen in the San Joaquin River deep water ship channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T.; Jacobs, Karl; Chen, Carl W.; Stringfellow, WilliamT.


    A decision support system (DSS) has been designed and will be implemented over the next three years to assist in the control and management of episodes of low dissolved oxygen (DO) in a Deep Water Ship Channel (DWSC), located near Stockton, California. The DSS integrates three information technology functions. The first part is the collection and management of data on flow, pollution loads and water quality. The second part is the simulation model which can forecast the dissolved oxygen sag in the DWSC and determine management actions necessary to improve dissolved oxygen concentrations. The third part is the graphical user interface, which facilitates the computer simulations and posting of the forecasted dissolved oxygen and remedial measures to a stakeholder group for implementations.

  6. Cooled Water Production System, (United States)

    The invention refers to the field of air conditioning and regards an apparatus for obtaining cooled water . The purpose of the invention is to develop...such a system for obtaining cooled water which would permit the maximum use of the cooling effect of the water -cooling tower.

  7. Compounding Effects of Agricultural Land Use and Water Use in Free-Flowing Rivers: Confounding Issues for Environmental Flows (United States)

    Hardie, Scott A.; Bobbi, Chris J.


    Defining the ecological impacts of water extraction from free-flowing river systems in altered landscapes is challenging as multiple stressors (e.g., flow regime alteration, increased sedimentation) may have simultaneous effects and attributing causality is problematic. This multiple-stressor context has been acknowledged in environmental flows science, but is often neglected when it comes to examining flow-ecology relationships, and setting and implementing environmental flows. We examined the impacts of land and water