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Sample records for river tributaries 2001-2002

  1. Influences of Stocking Salmon Carcass Analogs on Salmonids in Yakima River Tributaries, 2001-2002 Technical Report.

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    Pearsons, Todd N.; Johnson, Christopher L. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2003-04-01

    The benefits that marine derived nutrients from adult salmon carcasses provide to juvenile salmonids are increasingly being recognized. Current estimates suggest that only 6-7% of marine-derived nitrogen and phosphorus that were historically available to salmonids in the Pacific Northwest are currently available. Food limitation may be a major constraint limiting the restoration of salmonids. A variety of methods have been proposed to offset this nutrient deficit including: allowing greater salmon spawning escapement, stocking hatchery salmon carcasses, and stocking inorganic nutrients. Unfortunately, each of these methods has some ecological or socio-economic shortcoming. We intend to overcome many of these shortcomings by making and evaluating a pathogen free product that simulates a salmon carcass (analog). Abundant sources of marine derived nutrients are available such as fish offal from commercial fishing and salmon carcasses from hatcheries. However, a method for recycling these nutrients into a pathogen free analog that degrades at a similar rate as a natural salmon carcass has never been developed. We endeavored to (1) develop a salmon carcass analog that will increase the food available to salmonids, (2) determine the pathways that salmonids use to acquire food from analogs, and (3) determine the benefits to salmonids and the potential for application to salmonid restoration. We used a before-after-control-impact-paired design in six tributaries of the upper Yakima basin to determine the utility of stocking carcass analogs. Our preliminary results suggest that the introduction of carcass analogs into food-limited streams can be used to restore food pathways previously provided by anadromous salmon. The analogs probably reproduced both of the major food pathways that salmon carcasses produce: direct consumption and food chain enhancement. Trout and salmon fed directly on the carcass analogs during the late summer and presumably benefited from the increased

  2. Kootenai River Focus Watershed Coordination, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

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    Kruse, Gretchen (Kootenai River Network, Libby, MT)

    2002-07-01

    The 2001-2002 Kootenai River Network Annual Report reflects the organization's defined set of goals and objectives, and how by accomplishing these goals, we continue to meet the needs of communities and landowners throughout the Kootenai River Basin by protecting the resource. Our completed and ongoing projects throughout the watershed reflect the cooperation and support received and needed to accomplish the rehabilitation and restoration of critical habitat. They show that our mission of facilitation through collaboration with public and private interests can lead to improved resource management, the restoration of water quality and the preservation of pristine aquatic resources. Our vision to empower local citizens and groups from two states, one province, two countries and affected tribal nations to collaborate in natural resource management within the basin is largely successful due to the engagement of the basin's residents--the landowners, town government, local interest groups, businesses and agency representatives who live and work here. We are proof that forging these types of cooperative relationships, such as those exhibited by the Kootenai River subbasin planning process, leads to a sense of entitlement--that the quality of the river and its resources enriches our quality of life. Communication is essential in maintaining these relationships. Allowing ourselves to network and receive ideas and information, as well as to produce quality, accessible research data such as KRIS, shared with like organizations and individuals, is the hallmark of this facilitative organization. We are fortunate in the ability to contribute such information, and continue to strive to meet the standards and the needs of those who seek us out as a model for watershed rehabilitative planning and restoration. Sharing includes maintaining active, ongoing lines of communication with the public we serve--through our web site, quarterly newsletter, public presentations and

  3. Evaluate Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

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    Faler, Michael P. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID); Mendel, Glen W.; Fulton, Carl (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Fish Management Division, Dayton, WA)

    2003-06-01

    We collected, radio-tagged, and PIT-tagged 41 bull trout at the Tucannon River Hatchery trap from May 17, through June 14, 2002. An additional 65 bull trout were also collected and PIT tagged by June 24, at which time we ceased PIT tagging operations because water temperatures were reaching 16.0 C or higher on a regular basis. Six radio-tags were recovered shortly after tagging, and as a result, 35 remained in the river through November 30, 2002. During the month of July, radio-tagged bull trout exhibited a general upstream movement into the upper reaches of the Tucannon Subbasin. We began to observe some downstream movements of radio-tagged bull trout in mid to late September and throughout October. These movements appeared to be associated with post spawning migrations. As of November 30, radio tagged bull trout were relatively stationary, and distributed from the headwaters downstream to river mile 11.3, near Pataha Creek. None of the radio-tagged bull trout left the Tucannon Subbasin and entered the federal hydropower system on the mainstem Snake River. We conducted some initial transmission tests of submerged radio tags at depths of 25, 35, 45, and 55 ft. in Lower Monumental Pool to test our capability of detection at these depths. Equipment used included Lotek model MCFT-3A transmitters, an SRX 400 receiver, a 4 element Yagi antenna, and a Lotek ''H'' antenna. Test results indicated that depth transmission of these tags was poor; only the transmitter placed at 25 ft. was audibly detectable.

  4. Walla Walla River Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

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    Volkman, Jed; Sexton, Amy D. (Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Pendleton, OR)

    2003-04-01

    In 2001, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) Fisheries Habitat Program implemented stream habitat restoration and protection efforts in the Walla Walla River Basin with funding from Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The objective of these efforts is to protect and restore habitat critical to the recovery of weak or reintroduced populations of salmonid fish. The CTUIR has currently enrolled six properties into this program: two on Couse Creek, two adjacent properties on Blue Creek, one on Patit Creek, and one property on the mainstem Walla Walla River. Since 1997, approximately 7 miles of critical salmonid habitat has been secured for restoration and protection under this project. Major accomplishments to date include the following: Secured approximately $250,000 in cost share; Secured 7 easements; Planted 30,000+ native plants; Installed 50,000+ cuttings; and Seeded 18 acres to native grass. Pre and post-project monitoring efforts were included for all projects, incorporating methodologies from CTUIR's Draft Monitoring Plan. Basin-wide monitoring also included the deployment of 6 thermographs to collect summer stream temperatures.

  5. Re-Introduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

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    Hillson, Todd D. (Washington Department of Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2002-10-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Lower Columbia River chum as threatened under the auspices of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in March of 1999 (64 FR 14508, March 25, 1999). The listing was in response to reduction in abundance from historical levels of more than half a million returning adults to fewer than 10,000 spawners present day (Johnson et al. 1997). Harvest, loss of habitat, changes in flow regimes, riverbed movement and heavy siltation have been largely responsible for the decline in this species in the Columbia River. The timing of seasonal changes in river flow and water temperatures is perhaps the most critical factor in structuring the freshwater life history of chum salmon (Johnson et al. 1997). This is especially true of the population located directly below Bonneville Dam where hydropower operations can block access to spawning sites, dewater redds, strand fry, cause scour or fill of redds and increase sedimentation of spawning gravels. The recovery strategy for Lower Columbia River chum as outlined in the Hatchery Genetic Management Plan (HGMP) for the Grays River project has four main tasks. First, determine if remnant populations of Lower Columbia River chum salmon exist in Lower Columbia River tributaries. Second, if such populations exist, develop stock-specific recovery plans that would involve habitat restoration including the creation of spawning refugias, supplementation if necessary and a habitat and fish monitoring and evaluation plan. If chum have been extirpated from previously utilized streams, develop re-introduction plans that utilize appropriate genetic donor stock(s) of Lower Columbia River chum salmon and integrate habitat improvement and fry-to-adult survival evaluations. Third, reduce the extinction risk to Grays River chum salmon population by randomly capturing adults in the basin for use in a supplementation program and reintroduction of Lower Columbia River chum salmon into the Chinook River basin. The

  6. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2001-2002 Annual Report.

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    Ward, David L.; Kern, J. Chris; Hughes, Michele L.

    2003-12-01

    We report on our progress from April 2001 through March 2002 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam.

  7. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Oleson Tracts of the Tualatin River National Wildlife Refuge, 2001-2002 Technical Report.

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    Allard, Donna; Smith, maureen; Schmidt, Peter

    2004-09-01

    Located in the northern Willamette River basin, Tualatin River National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) was established in 1992 with an approved acquisition boundary to accommodate willing sellers with potentially restorable holdings within the Tualatin River floodplain. The Refuge's floodplain of seasonal and emergent wetlands, Oregon ash riparian hardwood, riparian shrub, coniferous forest, and Garry oak communities are representative of remnant plant communities historically common in the Willamette River valley and offer an opportunity to compensate for wildlife habitat losses associated with the Willamette River basin federal hydroelectric projects. The purchase of the Oleson Units as additions to the Refuge using Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funds will partially mitigate for wildlife habitat and target species losses incurred as a result of construction and inundation activities at Dexter and Detroit Dams. Lands acquired for mitigation of Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) impacts to wildlife are evaluated using the Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) methodology, which quantifies how many Habitat Units (HUs) are to be credited to BPA. HUs or credits gained lessen BPA's debt, which was formally tabulated in the FCRPS Loss Assessments and adopted as part of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's Fish and Wildlife Program as a BPA obligation (NWPCC, 1994 and 2000). There are two basic management scenarios to consider for this evaluation: (1) Habitats can be managed without restoration activities to benefit wildlife populations, or (2) Habitats can be restored using a number of techniques to improve habitat values more quickly. Without restoration, upland and wetland areas may be periodically mowed and disced to prevent invasion of exotic vegetation, volunteer trees and shrubs may grow to expand forested areas, and cooperative farming may be employed to provide forage for migrating and wintering waterfowl. Abandoned cropland

  8. 33 CFR 117.591 - Charles River and its tributaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Charles River and its tributaries... BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.591 Charles River and its tributaries. (a) The following requirements apply to all bridges across the Charles River and it's...

  9. Israel Seminar 2001-2002

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    Schechtman, Gideon

    2003-01-01

    The proceedings of the Israeli GAFA seminar on Geometric Aspect of Functional Analysis during the years 2001-2002 follow the long tradition of the previous volumes. They continue to reflect the general trends of the Theory. Several papers deal with the slicing problem and its relatives. Some deal with the concentration phenomenon and related topics. In many of the papers there is a deep interplay between Probability and Convexity. The volume contains also a profound study on approximating convex sets by randomly chosen polytopes and its relation to floating bodies, an important subject in Classical Convexity Theory. All the papers of this collection are original research papers.

  10. That mighty pantun river and its tributaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Choo Ming

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Known as pantun to the Malays in Brunei, Malaysia, Pattani, Riau, Singapore, and Southern Phillipines, it is called peparikan to the Javanese, sesindiran to the Sundanese and many other different names in different ethnic groups in the different parts of the Indo-Malay world, which is made up of Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Pattani in southern Thailand, and Mindanao in the southern Philippines. In almost every settlement that sprang up along the major rivers and tributaries in the Indo-Malay world, the pantun blend well with their natural and cultural surroundings. In this article, the geographical extent of the pantun family in the Indo-Malay world is likened to a mighty river that has a complex network of tributaries all over the Indo-Malay world. Within the Indo-Malay world, it is the movement of the peoples help the spread of pantun from one area to the other and makes it an art form of immensely rich and intricate as can be seen from the examples given.

  11. Effects of Mine Waste Contamination on Fish and Wildlife Habitat at Multiple Levels of Biological Organization in the Methow River, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

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    Peplow, Dan; Edmonds, Robert.

    2002-06-01

    A three-year multidisciplinary study was conducted on the relationship between mine waste contamination and the effects on aquatic and terrestrial habitats in the Methow River below abandoned mines near Twisp in Okanogan County, Washington (U.S.A.). Ore deposits in the area were mined for gold, silver, copper and zinc until the early 1950's. An above-and-below-mine approach was used to study potentially impacted sites. Although the dissolved metal content of water in the Methow River was below the limits of detection, eleven chemicals of potential environmental concern were identified in the tailings, mine effluents, groundwater, streamwater and sediments (Al, As, B, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Se and Zn). The potential for ecosystem level impacts was reflected in the risk of contamination in the mine waste to communities and populations that are valued for their functional properties related to energy storage and nutrient cycling. Dissolved and sediment metal contamination changed the benthic insect community structure in a tributary of the Methow River below Alder Mine, and at the population level, caddisfly larval development in the Methow River was delayed. Arsenic accumulation in bear hair and Cd in fish liver suggest top predators are effected. In situ exposure of juvenile triploid trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to conditions at the downstream site resulted in reduced growth and increased mortality among exposed individuals. Histopathological studies of their tissues revealed extensive glycogen inclusions suggesting food is being converted into glycogen and stored in the liver but the glycogen is not being converted back normally into glucose for distribution to other tissues in the body. Subcellular observations revealed mitochondrial changes including a decrease in the number and increase in the size of electron-dense metrical granules, the presence of glycogen bodies in the cytoplasm, and glycogen nuclei in exposed trout hepatocytes, which are signs that

  12. Reproductive Ecology of Yakima River Hatchery and Wild Spring Chinook; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

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    Knudsen, Curtis M. (Oncorh Consulting, Olympia, WA)

    2003-05-01

    This report is intended to satisfy two concurrent needs: (1) provide a contract deliverable from Oncorh Consulting to the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), with emphasis on identification of salient results of value to ongoing Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP) planning, and (2) summarize results of research that have broader scientific relevance. This is the second in a series of reports that address reproductive ecological research and monitoring of spring chinook in the Yakima River basin. In addition to within-year comparisons, between-year comparisons will be made to determine if traits of the wild Naches basin control population, the naturally spawning population in the upper Yakima River and the hatchery control population are diverging over time. This annual report summarizes data collected between April 1, 2002 and March 31, 2003. In the future, these data will be compared to previous years to identify general trends and make preliminary comparisons. Supplementation success in the Yakima Klickitat Fishery Project's (YKFP) spring chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) program is defined as increasing natural production and harvest opportunities, while keeping adverse ecological interactions and genetic impacts within acceptable bounds (Busack et al. 1997). Within this context demographics, phenotypic traits, and reproductive ecology have significance because they directly affect natural productivity. In addition, significant changes in locally adapted traits due to hatchery influence, i.e. domestication, would likely be maladaptive resulting in reduced population productivity and fitness (Taylor 1991; Hard 1995). Thus, there is a need to study demographic and phenotypic traits in the YKFP in order to understand hatchery and wild population productivity, reproductive ecology, and the effects of domestication (Busack et al. 1997). Tracking trends in these traits over time is also a critical aspect of domestication monitoring (Busack

  13. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

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    Zabel, Richard; Williams, John G.; Smith, Steven G. (Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Fish Ecology Division, Seattle, WA)

    2002-06-01

    In 2001, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the ninth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from passive integrated transponder (PIT)-tagged fish. We PIT tagged and released at Lower Granite Dam a total of 17,028 hatchery and 3,550 wild steelhead. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream of the hydropower system and sites within the hydropower system. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using the Single-Release Model. Primary research objectives in 2001 were to: (1) estimate reach and project survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the yearling chinook salmon and steelhead migrations; (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions; and (3) evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2001 for PIT-tagged yearling chinook salmon and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures with a minimum of text. More details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited in the text. Results for summer-migrating chinook salmon will be reported separately.

  14. The VAEC - Annual report for 2001 - 2002

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    Tan, Vuong Huu; Hong, Le Van; Anh, Nguyen Hoang; Hieu, Trinh Dang; Trang, Nguyen Trong; Hong, Dang Thi [eds.

    2003-12-01

    The VAEC Annual Report for 2001-2002 has been prepared as an account of works carried out at the Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission (VAEC) for the period 2001-2002. The Report contains main results from the VAEC's activities of research and development in following fields: nuclear physics; reactor physics and nuclear energy; nuclear methods; nuclear medicine and radioisotope production; radiation protection and radioactive waste management; ecology and environment; biotechnology and agriculture; radiation technology; nuclear fuels, material and radiochemistry; computation and other topics. (NHA)

  15. The water quality of the river Svratka and its tributaries

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    Jan Grmela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Water quality in river depends on water quality of its tributaries. During the year 2011 nine selected sites downstream under the Vír dam (from 108 to 79 river km were monitored. For observation were chosen tributaries Besének, Loučka, Nedvědička, Chlebský creek, Hodonínka, Vrtěžířský creek and Tresný creek. At the same time samples from the places above and under the whole monitored section of the river were taken. Basic physicochemical parameters were monitored monthly during the vegetation period. Flow velocity and discharge were assessed three times. Based on the water quality evaluation of, the river Svratka and its tributaries Hodonínka, Vrtěžířský creek and Tresný creek belong to the second quality class, tributaries Besének, Loučka, Nedvědička and Chlebský belong to the third quality class. In the monitored section the retention of phosphorus in annual amount about 2.2 tons were occurance. Annual volume of phosphorus at the end of observed section (upstream the Tišnov town was nearly 17.5 tons. Annual total balance of nitrogen at the end of monitored section was 700 tons per year and 6000 tons of carbon per year. The major source of these nutrients is the river Loučka.

  16. Main tributary influence on the River Vardar water quantity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unevska, Blaga; Stojov, Vasko; Milevski, Josif

    2004-01-01

    Hydrology in all catchments is defined like complex of geophysics and hydro-geologic parameters. Regular defining on the hydrological parameters is essential for planning, improving and developing management on every country. The main aim of this topic is to demonstrate disparity disposal on water resources in Republic of Macedonia depending on the different catchments areas. Here will be talk about different percentage of tributaries, which have influence on river Vardar. River Vardar is main recipient on water in Macedonia.(Author)

  17. Water quality in Italy: Po River and its tributaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosa, G.; Marchetti, R.

    1993-01-01

    For Italy's Po River hydrological basin, artificial reservoirs have a great importance; water reserve is about 1600 million cubic meters for the hydroelectric reservoirs and about 76 million cubic meters for irrigation. The principal factors determining the water quality of the Po River and its tributaries are examined. Organic micropollutants, metals and the microbial load are the principal parameters altering the quality of the waters; dilution is the prevailing factor reducing this contamination

  18. Xenoestrogens in the River Elbe and its tributaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stachel, Burkhard; Ehrhorn, Ute; Heemken, Olaf-Peter; Lepom, Peter; Reincke, Heinrich; Sawal, Georg; Theobald, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    High concentrations of organic chemicals in the River Elbe may be detrimental to aquatic organisms. - 4-Alkylphenols, 4-alkylphenol ethoxylates, 4-alkylphenoxy carboxylates, bisphenol A, bisphenol F, 4-hydroxyacetophenon, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and steroid hormones were analyzed in water samples of the River Elbe and its tributaries Schwarze Elster, Mulde, Saale, Havel and Schwinge. Additionally, freshly deposited sediments (FDS, composite samples) of the River Elbe and its tributaries were analyzed. The concentrations in water samples ranged from (in ng/l): bisphenol A 4 to 92, branched nonylphenol 13 to 87, branched nonylphenol ethoxylates <0.5 to 120, 4-tert. nonylphenoxy carboxylates <10 to 940 and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid 4 to 12. Steroid hormones were only detected in the Czech tributaries Jizera and Vltava in concentrations near the limit of quantification. In FDS samples the concentrations amounted to (in μg/kg d.w.): bisphenol A 10-380, branched nonylphenol 27-430, branched nonylphenol ethoxylates 24-3700, nonylphenoxy carboxylates <50 and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid 23-4400. Increased bisphenol A concentrations were found in water and FDS samples taken from the Czech-German border at Schmilka and the mouth of the Schwinge (only water sample). According to studies conducted in the Elbe Estuary and the German Bight, the River Elbe must be considered as a major source of pollution for the North Sea in respect of the compounds analyzed. A comparison of bisphenol A concentrations, 4-alkylphenols and the corresponding ethoxylates analyzed in the River Elbe and its tributaries with those found in other German surface waters indicated a low level of contamination. The evaluation of the data based on LOEC-values indicated that the concentrations were well below the effectivity threshold for some 4-alkylphenols. According to recent ecotoxicological investigations, for example, with prosobranch snails, bisphenol A concentrations found in water samples of the River Elbe and

  19. 33 CFR 334.460 - Cooper River and tributaries at Charleston, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooper River and tributaries at... ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.460 Cooper River and tributaries at Charleston, SC. (a) The areas: (1) That portion of the Cooper River beginning on the west shore...

  20. IFIN-HH, Scientific Report 2001 - 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oancea, Margareta; Schiaua, Claudiu; Grecu, Dan; Dumitriu, Marinela

    2003-01-01

    The annual report of the Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN-HH on 2001-2002 presents progress reports in the fields of Theoretical Physics (Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Mathematical Physics, Field Theory and Elementary Particles, Computational Physics (Physics of Information) and Solid State Physics), Nuclear Physics (Nuclear Structure, Nuclear Reaction, Atomic Physics, Cosmic Rays and Nuclear Astrophysics, Inertial Fusion, Physics of Neutrons and Nuclear Transmutation, Nuclear Instruments and Methods), Particle Physics, Health and Environmental Physics, Applied Physics, Tracers, Radiopharmaceuticals and Radiometry, Waste Management and Site Restoration and Standardization. Appendices are added listing the publications in journals, books and preprints, participations in international conferences and scientific exchanges (foreign visitors, visits abroad, seminars abroad). Finally, the Institute directorate and research staff are listed

  1. RUNOFF POTENTIAL OF MUREŞ RIVER UPPER BASIN TRIBUTARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. SOROCOVSCHI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Runoff Potential of Mureş River Upper Basin Tributaries. The upper basin of the Mureş River includes a significant area of the Eastern Carpathians central western part with different runoff formation conditions. In assessing the average annual runoff potential we used data from six gauging stations and made assessments on three distinct periods. Identifying the appropriate areas of the obtained correlations curves (between specific average runoff and catchments mean altitude allowed the assessment of potential runoff at catchment level and on geographical units. The potential average runoff is also assessed on altitude intervals of the mentioned areas. The runoff potential analysis on hydrographic basins, geographical units and altitude intervals highlights the variant spatial distribution of this general water resources indicator in the different studied areas.

  2. Tributaries as richness source for Oligochaeta assemblage (Annelida of Neotropical dammed river

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    FH Ragonha

    Full Text Available Tributaries may serve as richness source for the river main channel and the zoobenthos community is a good tool to verify this kind of pattern. In this study, we aimed to characterize the benthic invertebrate assemblage in three tributaries associated to the Paraná River main channel, focusing in Oligochaeta community. We hypothesized that (i in tributaries, Oligochaeta are richer than the main river (Paraná River and (ii dammed tributary (Paranapanema River is poorly diverse than the others. Samples were conducted in Paranapanema, Baía and Ivinhema tributaries using a modified Petersen grab along three transects (samples conducted inside the tributary, in the mouth of each tributary and inside Paraná River. To analyze (i the difference between the richness and density among the tributaries and the Paraná River and (ii effect of each tributary transect on the Oligochaeta richness we used a nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test. Changes in environmental variables and in richness and composition of Oligochaeta were summarized by Canonic Correspondence Analysis. It was registered 21 different benthic invertebrates taxa, being Oligochaeta assemblage with the highest density. Within Oligochaeta, Narapa bonettoi was the most abundant species, followed by Haplotaxis aedochaeta and Paranadrilus descolei. In our results we refused both hypotheses, because we did not found significant differences for richness and density between the tributaries and the main river, and also no difference between the three transects of each tributary were found. However, the tributaries less influenced by damming, especially the Baía recorded high richness. This corroborates their importance to diversity in the floodplain and the species of Oligochaeta reflect the peculiar characteristics of habitats within each tributaries.

  3. Water Science and Technology Board Annual Report 2001-2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-10-01

    This annual report marks the twentieth anniversary of the Water Science and Technology Board (WSTB) (1982-2002). The WSTB oversees studies of water issues. The principal products of studies are written reports. These reports cover a wide range of water resources issues of national concern. The following three recently issued reports illustrate the scope of the WSTB's studies: Envisioning the Agenda for Water Resources Research in the Twenty-first Century. The Missouri River Ecosystem: Exploring the Prospects for Recovery, and Assessing the TMDL Approach to Water Quality Management. The WSTB generally meets three times each year where discussions are held on ongoing projects, strategic planning, and developing new initiatives. The meetings also foster communication within the water resources community. The annual report includes a discussion on current studies, completed studies 2001-2002, and future plans, as well as a listing of published reports (1983-2002).

  4. Annual Energy Balance Sheets 2001-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    During the year 2002 the primary supply of energy reached 629 TWh, which is 7.7 TWh less than 2001. The decrease originates mainly from the reduced electricity production from water power. Also the electricity production in nuclear power plants decreased by 4.5 TWh. If we were to look at the supplied energy for final consumption we will find a slightly rise by 1.8 TWh. The year 2002 was warmer than a 'normal' year and that consequently brings lower energy needs. Compared with 2001, 2002 was not warmer and a net electricity import of 5.4 TWh covered the energy needs. The energy use increased by 3.3 TWh between 2002 and 2001. The industry sector shows the largest rise by 2.9 TWh, nearly 2 per cent. Within that sector, energy from biomass fuel had a rise by 6.7 per cent. The household sector decreases its energy use by 2.7 per cent, and oil and electricity show the largest decrease. The proportionately high electricity price probably had a slowing down effect on the electricity use. The balance sheets of energy sources are showing the total supply and consumption of energy sources expressed in original units, i.e. units recorded in the primary statistics - mainly commercial units. The production of derived energy commodities is recorded on the supply - side of the balance sheets of energy sources, which is not the case in the energy balance sheets. The balance sheets of energy sources also include specifications of input--output and energy consumption in energy conversion industries. The energy balance sheets are based on primary data recorded in the balance sheets of energy sources, here expressed in a common energy unit, TJ. The production of derived energy is recorded in a second flow-step comprising energy turnover in energy conversion and is also specified in complementary input - output tables for energy conversion industries. The following items are shown in the energy balance sheets. 1.1 Inland supply of primary energy; 1.3 Import; 1.4 Export; 1.5 Changes in

  5. The New 2001-2002 Term. Supreme Court Roundup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Charles F.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the issues addressed during the 2001-2002 term of the U.S. Supreme Court, which convened on October 1, 2001: (1) school vouchers; (2) affirmative action; (3) online pornography; and (4) the death penalty. (CMK)

  6. Estimation of stream conditions in tributaries of the Klamath River, northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhard, Christopher V.; Som, Nicholas A.; Jones, Edward C.; Perry, Russell W.

    2018-01-01

    Because of their critical ecological role, stream temperature and discharge are requisite inputs for models of salmonid population dynamics. Coho Salmon inhabiting the Klamath Basin spend much of their freshwater life cycle inhabiting tributaries, but environmental data are often absent or only seasonally available at these locations. To address this information gap, we constructed daily averaged water temperature models that used simulated meteorological data to estimate daily tributary temperatures, and we used flow differentials recorded on the mainstem Klamath River to estimate daily tributary discharge. Observed temperature data were available for fourteen of the major salmon bearing tributaries, which enabled estimation of tributary-specific model parameters at those locations. Water temperature data from six mid-Klamath Basin tributaries were used to estimate a global set of parameters for predicting water temperatures in the remaining tributaries. The resulting parameter sets were used to simulate water temperatures for each of 75 tributaries from 1980-2015. Goodness-of-fit statistics computed from a cross-validation analysis demonstrated a high precision of the tributary-specific models in predicting temperature in unobserved years and of the global model in predicting temperatures in unobserved streams. Klamath River discharge has been monitored by four gages that broadly intersperse the 292 kilometers from the Iron Gate Dam to the Klamath River mouth. These gages defined the upstream and downstream margins of three reaches. Daily discharge of tributaries within a reach was estimated from 1980-2015 based on drainage-area proportionate allocations of the discharge differential between the upstream and downstream margin. Comparisons with measured discharge on Indian Creek, a moderate-sized tributary with naturally regulated flows, revealed that the estimates effectively approximated both the variability and magnitude of discharge.

  7. Pulsed flows, tributary inputs, and food web structure in a highly regulated river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, John; Caron, Melanie; Doucett, Richard R.; Dibble, Kimberly L.; Ruhi, Albert; Marks, Jane; Hungate, Bruce; Kennedy, Theodore A.

    2018-01-01

    1.Dams disrupt the river continuum, altering hydrology, biodiversity, and energy flow. Although research indicates that tributary inputs have the potential to dilute these effects, knowledge at the food web level is still scarce.2.Here we examined the riverine food web structure of the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam, focusing on organic matter sources, trophic diversity, and food chain length. We asked how these components respond to pulsed flows from tributaries following monsoon thunderstorms that seasonally increase streamflow in the American Southwest.3.Tributaries increased the relative importance of terrestrial organic matter, particularly during the wet season below junctures of key tributaries. This contrasted with the algal-based food web present immediately below Glen Canyon Dam.4.Tributary inputs during the monsoon also increased trophic diversity and food chain length: food chain length peaked below the confluence with the largest tributary (by discharge) in Grand Canyon, increasing by >1 trophic level over a 4-5 kilometre reach possibly due to aquatic prey being flushed into the mainstem during heavy rain events.5.Our results illustrate that large tributaries can create seasonal discontinuities, influencing riverine food web structure in terms of allochthony, food web diversity, and food chain length.6.Synthesis and applications. Pulsed flows from unregulated tributaries following seasonal monsoon rains increase the importance of terrestrially-derived organic matter in large, regulated river food webs, increasing food chain length and trophic diversity downstream of tributary inputs. Protecting unregulated tributaries within hydropower cascades may be important if we are to mitigate food web structure alteration due to flow regulation by large dams. This is critical in the light of global hydropower development, especially in megadiverse, developing countries where dam placement (including completed and planned structures) is in tributaries.

  8. Water Quality Assessment Using Benthic Macroinvertebrates in Saigon River and Its Tributaries, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc Pham Anh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study to enhance the discussion about the usefulness of benthic macroinvertebrates for water quality assessment in Saigon River and its tributaries. Data from 16 sites were used as a representative example for Saigon River and its tributaries in the area of basin over 4,500 km2, the length through provinces of Tay Ninh, Binh Phuoc, Binh Duong, and Ho Chi Minh City of about 280 km. The data covered the period of dry and rainy seasons in 2015, the survey sampled 16 sites (32 events of the Saigon River and its tributaries selected. To implement this evaluation, the analyses were based on MRC methods and classifications these improved by the scientific group.

  9. Bioassessment metrics and deposited sediments in tributaries of the Chattooga river watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erica Chiao; J. Bruce Wallace

    2003-01-01

    Excessive sedimentation places waters of the Chattooga River network at risk of biological impairment. Monitoring efforts could be improved by including metrics that are responsive to changes in levels of fine sediments. We sampled three habitats (riffle, depositional, bedrock outcrop) for benthic macroinvertebrates at four sites in three low-order, tributary reaches...

  10. Approaches to restoration of oak forests on farmed lowlands of the Mississippi River and its tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile S. Gardiner; Daniel C. Dey; John A. Stanturf; Brian Roy. Lockhart

    2010-01-01

    The lowlands associated with the Mississippi River and its tributaries historically supported extensive broadleaf forests that were particularly rich in oak (Quercus spp.) species. Beginning in the 1700s, deforestation for agriculture substantially reduced the extent of the original forest, and fragmented the remainder into small parcels. More...

  11. Timing, frequency and environmental conditions associated with mainstem-tributary movement by a lowland river fish, golden perch (Macquaria ambigua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne M Koster

    Full Text Available Tributary and mainstem connections represent important links for the movement of fish and other biota throughout river networks. We investigated the timing, frequency and environmental conditions associated with movements by adult golden perch (Macquaria ambigua between the mainstem of the mid-Murray River and a tributary, the Goulburn River, in south-eastern Australia, using acoustic telemetry over four years (2007-2011. Fish were tagged and released in autumn 2007-2009 in the mid-Murray (n = 42 and lower Goulburn (n = 37 rivers within 3-6 km of the mid-Murray-lower Goulburn junction. 38% of tagged fish undertook mainstem-tributary movements, characterised mostly by temporary occupation followed by return of fish to the original capture river. Approximately 10% of tagged fish exhibited longer-term shifts between the mainstem and tributary. Movement of fish from the tributary into the mainstem occurred primarily during the spawning season and in some years coincided with the presence of golden perch eggs/larvae in drift samples in the mainstem. Many of the tributary-to-mainstem movements occurred during or soon after changes in flow. The movements of fish from the mainstem into the tributary were irregular and did not appear to be associated with spawning. The findings show that golden perch moved freely across the mainstem-tributary interface. This demonstrates the need to consider the spatial, behavioural and demographic interdependencies of aquatic fauna across geographic management units such as rivers.

  12. Timing, frequency and environmental conditions associated with mainstem-tributary movement by a lowland river fish, golden perch (Macquaria ambigua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Wayne M; Dawson, David R; O'Mahony, Damien J; Moloney, Paul D; Crook, David A

    2014-01-01

    Tributary and mainstem connections represent important links for the movement of fish and other biota throughout river networks. We investigated the timing, frequency and environmental conditions associated with movements by adult golden perch (Macquaria ambigua) between the mainstem of the mid-Murray River and a tributary, the Goulburn River, in south-eastern Australia, using acoustic telemetry over four years (2007-2011). Fish were tagged and released in autumn 2007-2009 in the mid-Murray (n = 42) and lower Goulburn (n = 37) rivers within 3-6 km of the mid-Murray-lower Goulburn junction. 38% of tagged fish undertook mainstem-tributary movements, characterised mostly by temporary occupation followed by return of fish to the original capture river. Approximately 10% of tagged fish exhibited longer-term shifts between the mainstem and tributary. Movement of fish from the tributary into the mainstem occurred primarily during the spawning season and in some years coincided with the presence of golden perch eggs/larvae in drift samples in the mainstem. Many of the tributary-to-mainstem movements occurred during or soon after changes in flow. The movements of fish from the mainstem into the tributary were irregular and did not appear to be associated with spawning. The findings show that golden perch moved freely across the mainstem-tributary interface. This demonstrates the need to consider the spatial, behavioural and demographic interdependencies of aquatic fauna across geographic management units such as rivers.

  13. Timing, Frequency and Environmental Conditions Associated with Mainstem–Tributary Movement by a Lowland River Fish, Golden Perch (Macquaria ambigua)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Wayne M.; Dawson, David R.; O’Mahony, Damien J.; Moloney, Paul D.; Crook, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Tributary and mainstem connections represent important links for the movement of fish and other biota throughout river networks. We investigated the timing, frequency and environmental conditions associated with movements by adult golden perch (Macquaria ambigua) between the mainstem of the mid-Murray River and a tributary, the Goulburn River, in south-eastern Australia, using acoustic telemetry over four years (2007–2011). Fish were tagged and released in autumn 2007–2009 in the mid-Murray (n = 42) and lower Goulburn (n = 37) rivers within 3–6 km of the mid-Murray-lower Goulburn junction. 38% of tagged fish undertook mainstem–tributary movements, characterised mostly by temporary occupation followed by return of fish to the original capture river. Approximately 10% of tagged fish exhibited longer-term shifts between the mainstem and tributary. Movement of fish from the tributary into the mainstem occurred primarily during the spawning season and in some years coincided with the presence of golden perch eggs/larvae in drift samples in the mainstem. Many of the tributary-to-mainstem movements occurred during or soon after changes in flow. The movements of fish from the mainstem into the tributary were irregular and did not appear to be associated with spawning. The findings show that golden perch moved freely across the mainstem–tributary interface. This demonstrates the need to consider the spatial, behavioural and demographic interdependencies of aquatic fauna across geographic management units such as rivers. PMID:24788137

  14. Spawning and nursery habitats of neotropical fish species in the tributaries of a regulated river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrakis, Maristela Cavicchioli; da Silva, Patrícia S.; Makrakis, Sergio; de Lima, Ariane F.; de Assumpção, Lucileine; de Paula, Salete; Miranda, Leandro E.; Dias, João Henrique Pinheiro

    2012-01-01

    This chapter provides information on ontogenetic patterns of neotropical fish species distribution in tributaries (Verde, Pardo, Anhanduí, and Aguapeí rivers) of the Porto Primavera Reservoir, in the heavily dammed Paraná River, Brazil, identifying key spawning and nursery habitats. Samplings were conducted monthly in the main channel of rivers and in marginal lagoons from October through March during three consecutive spawning seasons in 2007-2010. Most species spawn in December especially in Verde River. Main river channels are spawning habitats and marginal lagoons are nursery areas for most fish, mainly for migratory species. The tributaries have high diversity of larvae species: a total of 56 taxa representing 21 families, dominated by Characidae. Sedentary species without parental care are more abundant (45.7%), and many long-distance migratory fish species are present (17.4%). Migrators included Prochilodus lineatus, Rhaphiodon vulpinus, Hemisorubim platyrhynchos, Pimelodus maculatus, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, Sorubim lima, two threatened migratory species: Salminus brasiliensis and Zungaro jahu, and one endangered migratory species: Brycon orbignyanus. Most of these migratory species are vital to commercial and recreational fishing, and their stocks have decreased drastically in the last decades, attributed to habitat alteration, especially impoundments. The fish ladder at Porto Primavera Dam appears to be playing an important role in re-establishing longitudinal connectivity among critical habitats, allowing ascent to migratory fish species, and thus access to upstream reaches and tributaries. Establishment of Permanent Conservation Units in tributaries can help preserve habitats identified as essential spawning and nursery areas, and can be key to the maintenance and conservation of the fish species in the Paraná River basin.

  15. Pollution status of Tinishu Akaki River and its tributaries (Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present investigation provides data on physico-chemical parameters, some major ions and nutrients on water samples of Tinishu Akaki River (TAR), Ethiopia. The pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand ...

  16. Habitat relationships and larval drift of native and nonindigenous fishes in neighboring tributaries of a coastal California river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bret C. Harvey; Jason L. White; Rodney J. Nakamoto

    2002-01-01

    Abstract - Motivated by a particular interest in the distribution of the nonindigenous, piscivorous Sacramento pikeminnow, Ptychocheilus grandis, we examined fish-habitat relationships in small tributaries (draining 20-200 km 2 )in the Eel River drainage of northwestern California.We sampled juvenile and adult fish in 15 tributaries in both the summer and...

  17. Water isotope composition as a tracer for study of mixing processes in rivers. Part II. Determination of mixing degrees in the tributary-main river systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owczarczyk, A.; Wierzchnicki, R.; Zimnicki, R.; Ptaszek, S.; Palige, J.; Dobrowolski, A.

    2006-01-01

    Two river-tributary systems have been chosen for the investigation of mixing processes: the Narew River-the Bug River-Zegrzynski Reservoir and the Bugo-Narew River-the Vistula River. In both river systems, several profiles for the water sampling have been selected down to the tributary confluent line. Each sample position has been precisely determined by means of GPS. Then, the δDi have been measured in IRMS (isotope ratio mass spectroscopy). The δD distributions in selected profiles have been presented for both investigated river systems. Presented results will be applied for the verification of the mathematical model for transport and mixing in river systems

  18. Northern Great Plains Network water quality monitoring design for tributaries to the Missouri National Recreational River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Barbara L.; Wilson, Stephen K.; Yager, Lisa; Wilson, Marcia H.

    2013-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) organized more than 270 parks with important natural resources into 32 ecoregional networks to conduct Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) activities for assessment of natural resources within park units. The Missouri National Recreational River (NRR) is among the 13 parks in the NPS Northern Great Plain Network (NGPN). Park managers and NGPN staff identified surface water resources as a high priority vital sign to monitor in park units. The objectives for the Missouri NRR water quality sampling design are to (1) assess the current status and long-term trends of select water quality parameters; and (2) document trends in streamflow at high-priority stream systems. Due to the large size of the Missouri River main stem, the NGPN water quality design for the Missouri NRR focuses on wadeable tributaries within the park unit. To correlate with the NGPN water quality protocols, monitoring of the Missouri NRR consists of measurement of field core parameters including dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, and temperature; and streamflow. The purpose of this document is to discuss factors examined for selection of water quality monitoring on segments of the Missouri River tributaries within the Missouri NRR.Awareness of the complex history of the Missouri NRR aids in the current understanding and direction for designing a monitoring plan. Historical and current monitoring data from agencies and entities were examined to assess potential NGPN monitoring sites. In addition, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 303(d) list was examined for the impaired segments on tributaries to the Missouri River main stem. Because major tributaries integrate water quality effects from complex combinations of land use and environmental settings within contributing areas, a 20-mile buffer of the Missouri NRR was used to establish environmental settings that may impact the water quality of tributaries that feed the Missouri River main stem. For selection of

  19. Forrest Ranch Acquisition, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Brent

    2003-08-01

    Through their John Day Basin Office, the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribes) acquired the Forrest Ranch during July of 2002. The property consists of two parcels located in the John Day subbasin within the Columbia basin. The mainstem parcel consists of 3,503 acres and is located 1/2 mile to the east of Prairie City, Oregon on the mainstem of the John Day River. The middle fork parcel consists of 820 acres and is located one mile to the west of the town of Austin, OR on the middle fork John Day River. The Forrest Ranch Project is under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to provide an annual written report generally describing the real property interests of the project and management activities undertaken or in progress. The Forrest Ranch acquisition was funded by BPA as part of their program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife habitat affected by the operation of their hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Following lengthy negotiations with the BPA and property owner, the Tribes were able to conclude the acquisition of the Forrest Ranch in July of 2002. The intent of the acquisition project was to partially mitigate fish and wildlife impacts for the John Day Dam on the Columbia River as outlined in the Northwest Power Planning Council's Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994, section 11.1, section 7.6). While the Tribes hold fee-title to the property, the BPA has assured a level of program funding through a memorandum of agreement and annual statement of work. As early as 1997, the Tribes identified this property as a priority for restoration in the John Day basin. In 2000, the Tribes arranged an agreement with the landowner to seek funds for the acquisition of both the Middle Fork and upper Mainstem John Day River holdings of Mr. John Forrest. This property had been a priority of not only the Tribes, but of many other basin natural resource agencies. The

  20. Channel planform change and detachment of tributary: A study on the Haora and Katakhal Rivers, Tripura, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Shreya; Saha, Sushmita; Ghosh, Kapil; Kumar De, Sunil

    2013-07-01

    The main objective of the paper is to find the probable causes behind the shifting course of the Haora River, one of the major rivers of West Tripura and detachment of one of its major tributaries, the Katakhal River. From a recent satellite image, we observed that the River Haora has changed its course drastically near the confluence. Earlier, it used to take a sharp northward bend to meet with the River Titas immediately after crossing the Indo-Bangladesh border; but presently it is flowing westward to do so. Moreover, the Katakhal River, a right bank tributary of the River Haora, that used to flow through the northern side of the city of Agartala and meet with the River Haora at Bangladesh, is no longer a tributary of the Haora River. Now it is completely detached from the Haora River and meets with the River Titas separately. Spatiotemporal maps have been used to detect the changes. Field investigation, with the help of GPS, has been done in order to find the link between the Haora River and the Katakhal River within the Indian territory. Changing patterns of the Haora and Katakhal River confluences are also analysed, and earlier courses are identified. The shifting trends of both of these two rivers are found along the flanks of the interfluvial area because of microscale tectonic activity, i.e., upliftment of the interfluvial zone.

  1. Distribution of agrochemicals in the lower Mississippi River and its tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, W.E.; Rostad, C.E.; Leiker, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Mississippi River and its tributaries drain extensive agricultural regions of the Mid-Continental United States. Millions of pounds of herbicides are applied annually in these areas to improve crop yields. Many of these compounds are transported into the river from point and nonpoint sources, and eventually are discharged into the Gulf of Mexico. Studies being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey along the lower Mississippi River and its major tributaries, representing a 2000 km river reach, have confirmed that several triazine and acetanilide herbicides and their degradation products are ubiquitous in this riverine system. These compounds include atrazine and its degradation products desethyl and desisopropylatrazine, cyanazine, simazine, metolachlor, and alachlor and its degradation products 2-chloro-2',6'-diethylacetanilide, 2-hydroxy-2',6-diethylacetanilide and 2,6-diethylaniline. Loads of these compounds were determined at 16 different sampling stations. Stream-load calculations provided information concerning (a) conservative or nonconservative behavior of herbicides; (b) point sources or nonpoint sources; (c) validation of sampling techniques; and (d) transport past each sampling station.

  2. Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arteburn, John; Christensen, David (Colville Confederated Tribes, Nespelem, WA)

    2003-03-01

    Federal hydropower projects as well as private power utility systems have had a major negative impact upon anadromous fish resources that once flourished in the Columbia River and it's tributaries. Several areas have been completely blocked to anadromous fish by dams, destroying the primary food resource (salmon) for many native people forcing them to rely heavily upon resident fish to replace these lost resources. The Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery is an artificial production program that addresses the loss of anadromous fish resources in the Upper Columbia Sub-Region within the ''blocked area'' created by the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams. This project enhances resident fisheries located in the Intermountain and Columbia Cascade Provinces, specifically within the Colville Reservation portion of the Upper Columbia, SanPoil and Oakanogan Sub-Basins. The project partially mitigates for anadromous fish losses through protection/augmentation of resident fish populations to enhance fishery potential (i.e. in-place, out-of-kind mitigation) pursuant to Resident Fish Substitution Policy of the Northwest Power Planning Councils Fish and Wildlife Program. The hatchery was accepted into the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program in 1984 and the hatchery was completed in 1990. The Colville Tribal Hatchery (CTH) is located on the northern bank of the Columbia River just down stream of the town of Bridgeport, Washington that is just down stream of Chief Joseph Dam. The hatchery is located on land owned by the Colville Tribes. The minimum production quota for this facility is 22,679 kg (50,000 lbs.) of trout annually. All fish produced are released into reservation waters, including boundary waters in an effort to provide a successful subsistence/recreational fishery for Colville Tribal members and provide for a successful nonmember sport fishery. The majority of the fish distributed from the facility are intended to support &apos

  3. Assessing Microplastic Loads in the Mississippi River and Its Major Tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenmueller, E. A.; Martin, K. M.; Conkle, J. L.; White, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    Plastic debris is ubiquitous in marine environments and can cause significant harm to aquatic life when organisms become entangled in the plastic or mistake it for food. Macroplastic debris (plastic >5 mm in diameter) has received significant attention from the public, government agencies, and the scientific community. However, the majority of plastics in aquatic environments are microplastics (plastic Administration (NOAA) Marine Debris Program, has quantified and characterized microplastics (i.e., size, shape, and resin type) at the surface and at depth along the mainstem of the Mississippi River, including near major cities such as St. Louis and New Orleans, as well as in some of the Mississippi River's major tributaries (i.e., the Missouri River, Ohio River, and Illinois River). Sampling is ongoing, but our datasets will allow us to characterize: 1) total microplastic concentrations and loads, 2) spatial and temporal trends in microplastic abundances, and 3) land-use effects on microplastic levels across the Mississippi River watershed. Our data will also provide estimates of the total discharge of microplastics from the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico. These efforts will provide a baseline for future research relating to the fate and effects of microplastics in aquatic environments and can guide federal and local policy makers in creating and assessing mitigation strategies to improve water quality.

  4. 33 CFR 334.450 - Cape Fear River and tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County, N.C.; restricted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Fear River and tributaries... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.450 Cape Fear River and tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County, N.C.; restricted area. (a) The area. That portion of Cape Fear River due west of the main...

  5. Assessing the potential for rainbow trout reproduction in tributaries of the Mountain Fork River below Broken Bow Dam, southeastern Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, James M.; Starks, Trevor A.; Farling, Tyler; Bastarache, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Stocked trout (Salmonidae) in reservoir tailwater systems in the Southern United States have been shown to use tributary streams for spawning and rearing. The lower Mountain Fork of the Little River below Broken Bow Dam is one of two year-round tailwater trout fisheries in Oklahoma, and the only one with evidence of reproduction by stocked rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Whether stocked trout use tributaries in this system for spawning is unknown. Furthermore, an

  6. Water quality in the Mahoning River and selected tributaries in Youngstown, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckel, Donald M.; Covert, S. Alex

    2002-01-01

    The lower reaches of the Mahoning River in Youngstown, Ohio, have been characterized by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA) as historically having poor water quality. Most wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs) in the watershed did not provide secondary sewage treatment until the late 1980s. By the late 1990s, the Mahoning River still received sewer-overflow discharges from 101 locations within the city of Youngstown, Ohio. The Mahoning River in Youngstown and Mill Creek, a principal tributary to the Mahoning River in Youngstown, have not met biotic index criteria since the earliest published assessment by OEPA in 1980. Youngstown and the OEPA are working together toward the goal of meeting water-quality standards in the Mahoning River. The U.S. Geological Survey collected information to help both parties assess water quality in the area of Youngstown and to estimate bacteria and inorganic nitrogen contributions from sewer-overflow discharges to the Mahoning River. Two monitoring networks were established in the lower Mahoning River: the first to evaluate hydrology and microbiological and chemical water quality and the second to assess indices of fish and aquatic-macroinvertebrate-community health. Water samples and water-quality data were collected from May through October 1999 and 2000 to evaluate where, when, and for how long water quality was affected by sewer-overflow discharges. Water samples were collected during dry- and wet-weather flow, and biotic indices were assessed during the first year (1999). The second year of sample collection (2000) was directed toward evaluating changes in water quality during wet-weather flow, and specifically toward assessing the effect of sewer-overflow discharges on water quality in the monitoring network. Water-quality standards for Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentration and draft criteria for nitrate plus nitrite and total phosphorus were the regulations most commonly exceeded in the Mahoning River and Mill

  7. Morphological variation among populations of Hemigrammus coeruleus (Characiformes: Characidae in a Negro River tributary, Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Lazzarotto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We explored patterns of phenotypic variation in Hemigrammus coeruleus from the Unini River basin, a blackwater river in the Brazilian Amazon. Geometric morphometrics was used to evaluate variation in body shape among populations from four tributaries (UN2-UN5. We found no evidence for sexual dimorphism in body size and shape. However, morphological differences among populations were detected as the analyses recovered significant groups corresponding to each sub-basin, with some overlap among them. The populations from UN2, UN3 and UN5 had more elongate bodies than fish from UN4. The most morphologically divergent population belonged to UN4, the tributary with the most divergent environmental conditions and the only one with seasonally-muddy waters. The morphological variation found among these populations is likely due to phenotypic plasticity or local adaptation, arising as a product of divergent ecological selection pressures among sub-basins. This work constitutes one of the first to employ a population-level geometric morphometric approach to assess phenotypic variation in Amazonian fishes. This method was able to distinguish subtle differences in body morphology, and its use with additional species can bring novel perspectives on the evaluation of general patterns of phenotypic differentiation in the Amazon.

  8. Concentrations and loads of suspended sediment-associated pesticides in the San Joaquin River, California and tributaries during storm events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, M.L.; Domagalski, Joseph L.; Kuivila, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    Current-use pesticides associated with suspended sediments were measured in the San Joaquin River, California and its tributaries during two storm events in 2008. Nineteen pesticides were detected: eight herbicides, nine insecticides, one fungicide and one insecticide synergist. Concentrations for the herbicides (0.1 to 3000 ng/g; median of 6.1 ng/g) were generally greater than those for the insecticides (0.2 to 51 ng/g; median of 1.5 ng/g). Concentrations in the tributaries were usually greater than in the mainstem San Joaquin River and the west side tributaries were higher than the east side tributaries. Estimated instantaneous loads ranged from 1.3 to 320 g/day for herbicides and 0.03 to 53 g/day for insecticides. The greatest instantaneous loads came from the Merced River on the east side. Instantaneous loads were greater for the first storm of 2008 than the second storm in the tributaries while the instantaneous loads within the San Joaquin River were greater during the second storm. Pesticide detections generally reflected pesticide application, but other factors such as physical-chemical properties and timing of application were also important to pesticide loads.

  9. Channel-morphology data for the Tongue River and selected tributaries, southeastern Montana, 2001-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Katherine J.

    2004-01-01

    Coal-bed methane exploration and production have begun within the Tongue River watershed in southeastern Montana. The development of coal-bed methane requires production of large volumes of ground water, some of which may be discharged to streams, potentially increasing stream discharge and sediment load. Changes in stream discharge or sediment load may result in changes to channel morphology through changes in erosion and vegetation. These changes might be subtle and difficult to detect without baseline data that indicate stream-channel conditions before extensive coal-bed methane development began. In order to provide this baseline channel-morphology data, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, collected channel-morphology data in 2001-02 to document baseline conditions for several reaches along the Tongue River and selected tributaries. This report presents channel-morphology data for five sites on the mainstem Tongue River and four sites on its tributaries. Bankfull, water-surface, and thalweg elevations, channel sections, and streambed-particle sizes were measured along reaches near streamflow-gaging stations. At each site, the channel was classified using methods described by Rosgen. For six sites, bankfull discharge was determined from the stage- discharge relation at the gage for the stage corresponding to the bankfull elevation. For three sites, the step-backwater computer model HEC-RAS was used to estimate bankfull discharge. Recurrence intervals for the bankfull discharge also were estimated for eight of the nine sites. Channel-morphology data for each site are presented in maps, tables, graphs, and photographs.

  10. Diatom species composition of the Nišava river and its tributaries Jerma and Temska rivers (southern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrejić Jelena Z.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to report the diatom taxa identified from the Nišava River and its tributaries, the Jerma and Temska rivers. The study area included 11 sampling sites along the Nišava River, with one site on the Jerma River and one on the Temska River. Monthly samples (from stones, sediments and macrophytes were collected from May 2008 to May 2009. Diatom frustules were cleaned with chemical agents, and mounted on permanent slides. In total, 194 diatom taxa were identified. The most species rich genera are Navicula (25, Nitzschia (17 and Gomphonema (13, while other genera are presented with one or more species. Detailed floristic analysis of the benthic diatom flora has not been conducted before on these rivers. Therefore, this paper provides a baseline for future research. [Acknowledgments. The work was supported by projects Nos. TR037009, III43002 and III45012 that are financed by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia.

  11. Suspended sediments from upstream tributaries as the source of downstream river sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadchi, Arman; Olley, Jon

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the efficiency with which sediment eroded from different sources is transported to the catchment outlet is a key knowledge gap that is critical to our ability to accurately target and prioritise management actions to reduce sediment delivery. Sediment fingerprinting has proven to be an efficient approach to determine the sources of sediment. This study examines the suspended sediment sources from Emu Creek catchment, south eastern Queensland, Australia. In addition to collect suspended sediments from different sites of the streams after the confluence of tributaries and outlet of the catchment, time integrated suspended samples from upper tributaries were used as the source of sediment, instead of using hillslope and channel bank samples. Totally, 35 time-integrated samplers were used to compute the contribution of suspended sediments from different upstream waterways to the downstream sediment sites. Three size fractions of materials including fine sand (63-210 μm), silt (10-63 μm) and fine silt and clay (<10 μm) were used to find the effect of particle size on the contribution of upper sediments as the sources of sediment after river confluences. And then samples were analysed by ICP-MS and -OES to find 41 sediment fingerprints. According to the results of Student's T-distribution mixing model, small creeks in the middle and lower part of the catchment were major source in different size fractions, especially in silt (10-63 μm) samples. Gowrie Creek as covers southern-upstream part of the catchment was a major contributor at the outlet of the catchment in finest size fraction (<10 μm) Large differences between the contributions of suspended sediments from upper tributaries in different size fractions necessitate the selection of appropriate size fraction on sediment tracing in the catchment and also major effect of particle size on the movement and deposition of sediments.

  12. Synthetic organic agrochemicals in the lower Mississippi River and its major tributaries: Distribution, transport and fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, W.E.; Rostad, C.E.; Leiker, T.J.; ,

    1992-01-01

    The Mississippi River and its major tributaries transport herbicides and their degradation products from agricultural areas in the mid-western U.S.A. These compounds include atrazine and its degradation products (desethyl- and desisopropylatrazine), simazine, cyanazine, metolachlor, and alachlor and its degradation products (2-chloro-2',6'-diethylacetanilide, 2-hydroxy-2',6'-diethylacetanilide and 2,6-diethylaniline). These compounds were identified and confirmed by gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry. Loads of these compounds were determined during five sampling trips in 1987-1989. Stream loads of these compounds indicated that atrazine and metolachlor were relatively conservative in downstream transport. Alachlor and its degradation products were generated from point and non-point sources. Seasonal variations and hydrologic conditions controlled the loads of these compounds in the Mississippi River. Cross-channel mixing was slow downstream from major river confluences, possibly requiring several hundred kilometers of downriver transit for completion. The annual transport of these compounds into the Gulf of Mexico was estimated to be < 2% of the annual application of each herbicide in the Midwest.The Mississippi River and its major tributaries transport herbicides and their degradation products from agricultural areas in the mid-western U.S.A. These compounds include atrazine and its degradation products (desethyl- and desisopropylatrazine), simazine, cyanazine, metolachlor, and alachlor and its degradation products (2-chloro-2???,6???-diethylacetanilide, 2-hydroxy-2???,6???-diethylacetanilide and 2,6-diethylaniline). These compounds were identified and confirmed by gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry. Loads of these compounds were determined during five sampling trips in 1987-1989. Stream loads of these compounds indicated that atrazine and metolachlor were relatively conservative in downstream transport. Alachlor and its degradation products

  13. Fecal-indicator bacteria in the Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio Rivers and selected tributaries, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, 2001-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckwalter, Theodore F.; Zimmerman, Tammy M.; Fulton, John W.

    2006-01-01

    Concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria were determined in 1,027 water-quality samples collected from July 2001 through August 2005 during dry- (72-hour dry antecedent period) and wet-weather (48-hour dry antecedent period and at least 0.3 inch of rain in a 24-hour period) conditions in the Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio Rivers (locally referred to as the Three Rivers) and selected tributaries in Allegheny County. Samples were collected at five sampling sites on the Three Rivers and at eight sites on four tributaries to the Three Rivers having combined sewer overflows. Water samples were analyzed for three fecal-indicator organisms fecal coliform, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and enterococci bacteria. Left-bank and right-bank surface-water samples were collected in addition to a cross-section composite sample at each site. Concentrations of fecal coliform, E. coli, and enterococci were detected in 98.6, 98.5, and 87.7 percent of all samples, respectively. The maximum fecal-indicator bacteria concentrations were collected from Sawmill Run, a tributary to the Ohio River; Sawmill Run at Duquesne Heights had concentrations of fecal coliform, E. coli, and enterococci of 410,000, 510,000, and 180,000 col/100 mL, respectively, following a large storm. The samples collected in the Three Rivers and selected tributaries frequently exceeded established recreational standards and criteria for bacteria. Concentrations of fecal coliform exceeded the Pennsylvania water-quality standard (200 col/100 mL) in approximately 63 percent of the samples. Sample concentrations of E. coli and enterococci exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) water-quality criteria (235 and 61 col/100 mL, respectively) in about 53 and 47 percent, respectively, of the samples. Fecal-indicator bacteria were most strongly correlated with streamflow, specific conductance, and turbidity. These correlations most frequently were observed in samples collected from tributary sites. Fecal

  14. HAZARDS, VULNERABILITY AND ASSOCIATED HYDROLOGICAL RISKS IN THE HYDROGRAPHICAL BASIN OF THE RIVER UZ, TRIBUTARY OF THE RIVER TROTUŞ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIFTODE IOANA DELIA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of the climatic change that has occurred in the last decade, the number of occurrences of extreme phenomena, follows an increasing trend with material and human casualties. The prevention of flash floods requires the complex and paramount importance action of responsible agencies. The river Uz is one of the most important tributaries of the Trotuş River; its basin has a high density hydrographical network. Using the data from the Basin Water Administration, Siret – Bacău, it has been possible to establish the flash floods’ occurrence frequency, as well as their tendencies. Based on this information, the hazard maps were drawn together with the risk and vulnerability involved, thus fulfilling the objectives of the study; it substantiates that the flood risks increases in proportion with the decrease in altitude of the landscape, the densely populated zones are especially vulnerable.

  15. Proglacial river stage, discharge, and temperature datasets from the Akuliarusiarsuup Kuua River northern tributary, Southwest Greenland, 2008–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Rennermalm

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Pressing scientific questions concerning the Greenland ice sheet's climatic sensitivity, hydrology, and contributions to current and future sea level rise require hydrological datasets to resolve. While direct observations of ice sheet meltwater losses can be obtained in terrestrial rivers draining the ice sheet and from lake levels, few such datasets exist. We present a new hydrologic dataset from previously unmonitored sites in the vicinity of Kangerlussuaq, Southwest Greenland. This dataset contains measurements of river stage and discharge for three sites along the Akuliarusiarsuup Kuua (Watson River's northern tributary, with 30 min temporal resolution between June 2008 and July 2011. Additional data of water temperature, air pressure, and lake stage are also provided. Flow velocity and depth measurements were collected at sites with incised bedrock or structurally reinforced channels to maximize data quality. However, like most proglacial rivers, high turbulence and bedload transport introduce considerable uncertainty to the derived discharge estimates. Eleven propagating error sources were quantified, and reveal that largest uncertainties are associated with flow depth observations. Mean discharge uncertainties (approximately the 68% confidence interval are two to four times larger (±19% to ±43% than previously published estimates for Greenland rivers. Despite these uncertainties, this dataset offers a rare collection of direct measurements of ice sheet runoff to the global ocean and is freely available for scientific use at http://dx.doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.762818.

  16. de nutrición infantil 2001-2002.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Díez-Gañán

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Para conocer la situación alimentaria y nutricional en la población infantil, sobre la que no existía información actualizada, el Instituto de Salud Pública desarrolló la Encuesta de Nutrición Infantil de la Comunidad de Madrid 2001/2002 (ENICM. En este trabajo se analiza la ENICM para describir y evaluar la ingesta de alimentos, energía y nutrientes en esta población. Métodos: Estudio transversal sobre una muestra representativa de la población de 5-12 años de la Comunidad de Madrid. La información alimentaria se recogió en 2001 y 2002 mediante dos recuerdos de 24 horas. Se ha estudiado la ingesta total diaria de alimentos, energía y nutrientes. Los análisis incluyen los 1.852 niños con información completa en los dos recuerdos (90,8% de las entrevistas realizadas. Resultados: La ingesta media total diaria de alimentos es 1.460,7 gramos/persona/día. Salvo para los lácteos, huevos y aceites, la ingesta en los grupos alimentarios básicos es inadecuada, particularmente baja en las frutas frescas, verduras y hortalizas. La ingesta media energética y nutricional resultante es 1.905,9 kcal/persona/día; 43,6% hidratos de carbono; 17,4% proteínas, 39,0% lípidos (13,3% grasas saturadas, 16,8% monoinsaturadas, 5,0% poliinsaturadas; 363,8 mg de colesterol; 13,6 g de fibra e ingestas por debajo de las recomendadas de zinc, ácido fólico, vitaminas D y E (ambos sexos y hierro y vitamina B6 (niñas. Conclusiones: La dieta de la población infantil de la Comunidad de Madrid presenta desequilibrios que es necesario mejorar: ingesta inadecuada de alimentos básicos, exceso de proteínas, grasas saturadas y colesterol y déficit de hidratos de carbono, fibra y algunos micronutrientes.

  17. Investigation on the 1970s and 1980s droughts in four tributaries of the Niger River Basin (West Africa).

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Badou, DF

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available this question, we evaluated spatio-temporal pattern of rainfall and runoff in four tributaries (Sota, Alibori, Mekrou and Kompa-gorou) of the Niger River basin, covering a total area of 40,000km2 for the period 1971 to 2010. First, decadal rainfall variability...

  18. Isotopic variation of oxygen in the water of river Solimoes/Amazon and its main tributaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortatti, J.; Martinelli, L.A.; Matsui, E.; Victoria, R.L.; Richey, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Eight cruises in the Amazon Basin were realized during the period between April (1982) and August (1984). Waters of main channel of the River Solimoes/Amazon and its tributaries were sampled and analysed for sup(18)0 content by mass spectrometry. A depth integrated sampler coupled to a variable speed hydraulic winch was used. The sampling was accomplished at different river stages, at upper Solimoes, middle and lower Amazon region. The δ sup(18) 0 values obtained in these reaches showed the same seasonal variation pattern. In the dry season, δ sup(18) 0 values become higher than in the rainy season. The isotopic variability in the region may be explained by the origin and dynamics of the water vapour. The spatial variation in δ sup(18) 0 values at the main channel was compared for high and low water stages; it showed an isotopic gradient of 0.052 and 0.048 sup(0)/∞ δ sup(18) 0/100 km, respectively. (author)

  19. Use of historical sources in a study of the 1895 floods on the Danube River and its tributaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melo Marián

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological data series that are measured on the Danube River are temporally limited. Instrumental flow data can be prolonged by documentary data from historical sources in archives. This paper deals with knowledge gained by studies of historical materials regarding the 1895 catastrophic floods on the Danube River and its tributaries as reflected in the contemporary local press and also in studies of other historical records (flood marks, chronicles, books and photos. Records from the newspapers (Wiener Zeitung, Preßburger Zeitung, The New York Times and Komáromi Lapok and other analysed sources show the relatively large territorial impact of the floods in March and April 1895, which affected not only the Danube and its tributaries, but also some neighboring basins. Catastrophic consequences of the flood were especially reported from the lower parts of the Danube River (from its confluence with the Drava River up to the mouth of the Black Sea and the tributaries of the Tisza and Sava rivers. In 1895, the second highest flood after the 2006 flood on the Lower Danube was observed since 1841.

  20. VT West Branch Natural Channel Design Restoration 2001-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Because of the well known problems of the river, the West Branch was identified as a restoration implementation site to be funded as part of the...

  1. Presumptive Sources of Fecal Contamination in Four Tributaries to the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Melvin V.; O'Brien, Tara L.; Strickler, Kriston M.; Hardy, Joshua J.; Schill, William B.; Lukasik, Jerzy; Scott, Troy M.; Bailey, David E.; Fenger, Terry L.

    2007-01-01

    Several methods were used to determine the sources of fecal contamination in water samples collected during September and October 2004 from four tributaries to the New River Gorge National River -- Arbuckle Creek, Dunloup Creek, Keeney Creek, and Wolf Creek. All four tributaries historically have had elevated levels of fecal coliform bacteria. The source-tracking methods used yielded various results, possibly because one or more methods failed. Sourcing methods used in this study included the detection of several human-specific and animal-specific biological or molecular markers, and library-dependent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis that attempted to associate Escherichia coli bacteria obtained from water samples with animal sources by matching DNA-fragment banding patterns. Evaluation of the results of quality-control analysis indicated that pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis was unable to identify known-source bacteria isolates. Increasing the size of the known-source library did not improve the results for quality-control samples. A number of emerging methods, using markers in Enterococcus, human urine, Bacteroidetes, and host mitochondrial DNA, demonstrated some potential in associating fecal contamination with human or animal sources in a limited analysis of quality-control samples. All four of the human-specific markers were detected in water samples from Keeney Creek, a watershed with no centralized municipal wastewater-treatment facilities, thus indicating human sources of fecal contamination. The human-specific Bacteroidetes and host mitochondrial DNA markers were detected in water samples from Dunloup Creek, Wolf Creek, and to a lesser degree Arbuckle Creek. Results of analysis for wastewater compounds indicate that the September 27 sample from Arbuckle Creek contained numerous human tracer compounds likely from sewage. Dog, horse, chicken, and pig host mitochondrial DNA were detected in some of the water samples with the exception of the

  2. Copper, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in aquatic food chains from the Upper Sacramento River (California) and selected tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, M.K.; Castleberry, D. T.; May, T. W.; Martin, B.A.; Bullard, F. N.

    1995-01-01

    Metals enter the Upper Sacramento River above Redding, California, primarily through Spring Creek, a tributary that receives acid-mine drainage from a US EPA Superfund site known locally as Iron Mountain Mine. Waterweed (Elodea canadensis) and aquatic insects (midge larvae, Chironomidae; and mayfly nymphs, Ephemeroptera) from the Sacramento River downstream from Spring Creek contained much higher concentrations of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) than did similar taxa from nearby reference tributaries not exposed to acid-mine drainage. Aquatic insects from the Sacramento River contained especially high maximum concentrations of Cu (200 mg/kg dry weight in midge larvae), Cd (23 mg/kg dry weight in mayfly nymphs), and Zn (1,700 mg/kg dry weight in mayfly nymphs). Although not always statistically significant, whole-body concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Zn in fishes (threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus; Sacramento sucker, Catostomus occidentalis; Sacramento squawfish, Ptychocheilus grandis; and chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytasch) from the Sacramento River were generally higher than in fishes from the reference tributaries.

  3. Fish assemblages and diversity in three tributaries of the Irrawaddy River in China: changes, threats and conservation perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang M.-L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Incompletely known fish assemblages and species diversity are substantial obstacles in fish conservation, particularly when their aquatic habitats are under threat due to rapid human-induced changes. Fish assemblages and diversity in three tributaries of the upper Irrawaddy River in China (the Dulong, Daying and Ruili rivers were examined based on field collections and literature resources. The newly compiled fish assemblage recorded 85 species (in 8 orders, 20 families and 51 genera distributed in the upper Irrawaddy. The fish compositions in the Daying (67 species, 44 genera, 19 families, 7 orders and Ruili rivers (65 species, 44 genera, 19 families, 8 orders were more similar to each other and more speciose than that in the Dulong River (14 species, 10 genera, 4 families, 3 orders. Two indices of taxonomic diversity (the average taxonomic distinctness (Δ+, and the variation in taxonomic distinctness (Λ+ were used to discriminate four collections spanning a ten-year period. A decrease in taxonomic diversity and an increase in unevenness of the fish assemblages were found in both the Daying River and Ruili rivers, which indicated that the impacts were accumulated gradually during this decade, when dams and the spread of non-native species were major threats. Comparatively speaking, the Dulong River is still in a near-natural state, and thus the fish community has experienced less disturbance. In situ conservation (nature reserves and tributary protection and ex situ conservation (artificial propagation and release should be combined and managed to promote fish conservation in the future.

  4. Sources and transport of carbon and nitrogen in the River Sava watershed, a major tributary of the River Danube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogrinc, Nives [Department of Environmental Science, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: nives.ogrinc@ijs.si; Markovics, Roland; Kanduc, Tjasa [Department of Environmental Science, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Walter, Lynn M. [Department of Geological Science, University of Michigan, 1018 C. C. Little Building, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1063 (United States); Hamilton, Stephen K. [Kellogg Biological Station, Michigan State University, 3700 E. Gull Lake Drive, Hickory Corners, MI 49060-9516 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    Carbon and nitrogen dynamics were examined throughout the River Sava watershed, a major tributary of the River Danube, in 2005 and 2006. The River Sava exported 2.1 x 10{sup 11} mol C/yr as dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and emitted 2.5 x 10{sup 10} mol C/yr as CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere. Stable carbon isotope ratios indicate that up to 42% of DIC originated from carbonate weathering and {approx}23% from degradation of organic matter. Loads of dissolved and particulate organic carbon increased with discharge and export rates were calculated to be 2.1 x 10{sup 10} mol C/yr and up to 4.1 x 10{sup 9} mol C/yr, respectively. Isotopic compositions ({delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N) and C/N ratios indicated that soil organic matter was the dominant source of particulate organic matter for 59% of the samples. Eighteen percent of the samples were dominated by plankton, 12% by periodic inputs of fresh terrestrial plant detritus with C/N > 15, and about 11% of the samples were dominated by the contribution of aquatic vascular plants. Nitrate inputs were controlled by land use in the River Sava watershed. {delta}{sup 15}N{sub NO{sub 3}} values <6 per mille were found in predominantly forested watersheds, while values >6 per mille typically represented watersheds with a higher percentage of agricultural and/or urban land use. Elevated {delta}{sup 15}N{sub NO{sub 3}} values (up to +25.5 per mille) at some sites were probably due to the combined effects of low-flow and inputs from sewage and/or animal waste.

  5. Duck Valley Habitat Enhancement and Protection, 2001-2002 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Mattie H.; Sellman, Jake (Shoshone-Paiute Nation, Duck Valley Indian Reservation, Owyhee, NV)

    2003-03-01

    The Duck Valley Indian Reservation's Habitat Enhancement project is an ongoing project designed to enhance and protect critical riparian areas, natural springs, the Owhyee River and its tributaries, and native fish spawning areas on the Reservation. The project commenced in 1997 and addresses the Northwest Power Planning Council's measures 10.8C.2, 10.8C.3, and 10.8C.5 of the 1994 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The performance period covers dates from April 2001 through August 2002.

  6. Sediment budget in the Ucayali River basin, an Andean tributary of the Amazon River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Santini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Formation of mountain ranges results from complex coupling between lithospheric deformation, mechanisms linked to subduction and surface processes: weathering, erosion, and climate. Today, erosion of the eastern Andean cordillera and sub-Andean foothills supplies over 99% of the sediment load passing through the Amazon Basin. Denudation rates in the upper Ucayali basin are rapid, favoured by a marked seasonality in this region and extreme precipitation cells above sedimentary strata, uplifted during Neogene times by a still active sub-Andean tectonic thrust. Around 40% of those sediments are trapped in the Ucayali retro-foreland basin system. Recent advances in remote sensing for Amazonian large rivers now allow us to complete the ground hydrological data. In this work, we propose a first estimation of the erosion and sedimentation budget of the Ucayali River catchment, based on spatial and conventional HYBAM Observatory network.

  7. Oil sands development contributes polycyclic aromatic compounds to the Athabasca River and its tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Erin N.; Short, Jeffrey W.; Schindler, David W.; Hodson, Peter V.; Ma, Mingsheng; Kwan, Alvin K.; Fortin, Barbra L.

    2009-01-01

    For over a decade, the contribution of oil sands mining and processing to the pollution of the Athabasca River has been controversial. We show that the oil sands development is a greater source of contamination than previously realized. In 2008, within 50 km of oil sands upgrading facilities, the loading to the snowpack of airborne particulates was 11,400 T over 4 months and included 391 kg of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC), equivalent to 600 T of bitumen, while 168 kg of dissolved PAC was also deposited. Dissolved PAC concentrations in tributaries to the Athabasca increased from 0.009 μg/L upstream of oil sands development to 0.023 μg/L in winter and to 0.202 μg/L in summer downstream. In the Athabasca, dissolved PAC concentrations were mostly snow, dissolved PAC concentrations were up to 4.8 μg/L, thus, spring snowmelt and washout during rain events are important unknowns. These results indicate that major changes are needed to the way that environmental impacts of oil sands development are monitored and managed. PMID:19995964

  8. Anadromous sea lampreys recolonize a Maine coastal river tributary after dam removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Robert; Coghlan, Stephen M.; Zydlewski, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    Sedgeunkedunk Stream, a third-order tributary to the Penobscot River, Maine, historically supported several anadromous fishes, including the Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar, AlewifeAlosa pseudoharengus, and Sea Lamprey Petromyzon marinus. However, two small dams constructed in the 1800s reduced or eliminated spawning runs entirely. In 2009, efforts to restore marine–freshwater connectivity in the system culminated with removal of the lowermost dam, thus providing access to an additional 4.6 km of lotic habitat. Because Sea Lampreys utilized accessible habitat prior to dam removal, they were chosen as a focal species with which to quantify recolonization. During spawning runs of 2008–2011 (before and after dam removal), individuals were marked with PIT tags and their activity was tracked with daily recapture surveys. Open-population mark–recapture models indicated a fourfold increase in the annual abundance of spawning-phase Sea Lampreys, with estimates rising from 59±4 () before dam removal (2008) to 223±18 and 242±16 after dam removal (2010 and 2011, respectively). Accompanying the marked increase in annual abundance was a greater than fourfold increase in nesting sites: the number of nests increased from 31 in 2008 to 128 and 131 in 2010 and 2011, respectively. During the initial recolonization event (i.e., in 2010), Sea Lampreys took 6 d to move past the former dam site and 9 d to expand into the furthest upstream reaches. Conversely, during the 2011 spawning run, Sea Lampreys took only 3 d to penetrate into the upstream reaches, thus suggesting a potential positive feedback in which larval recruitment into the system may have attracted adult spawners via conspecific pheromone cues. Although more research is needed to verify the migratory pheromone hypothesis, our study clearly demonstrates that small-stream dam removal in coastal river systems has the potential to enhance recovery of declining anadromous fish populations.

  9. Particle size of sediments collected from the bed of the Amazon River and its tributaries in June and July 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Carl F.; Meade, R.H.; Mahoney, H.A.; Delany, B.M.

    1977-01-01

    Sixty-five samples of bed material were collected from the Amazon River and its major tributaries between Belem, Brazil, and Iquitos, Peru. Samples were taken with a standard BM-54 sampler, a pipe dredge, or a Helley-Smith bedload sampler. Most of the samples have median diameters in the size range of fine to medium sand and contain small percentages of fine gravel. Complete size distributions are tabulated.

  10. Predicting the occurrence of cold water patches at intermittent and ephemeral tributary confluences with warm rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, cold tributary streams can provide important thermal refuge habitat for cold-water fishes such as Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) residing in warm, downstream receiving waters. We investigated the potential function of small perennial and non-perennial tributary stream...

  11. Impacts of Environmental Variables on a Phytoplankton Community: A Case Study of the Tributaries of a Subtropical River, Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaojiang Hou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The phytoplankton community in the river is closely related to the location of the river and the impact of human activities. To summarize the patterns of phytoplankton community changes in rivers and to analyze the reasons for these patterns and differences, we sampled the three tributaries of the Dongjiang River at different latitudes in the dry and rainy season for three years. The results showed that the three rivers were mesotrophic, lightly eutrophic and moderately eutrophic respectively. From the south to the north, the water temperature and nutrition showed an increasing trend. In two different seasons, the differences in the water temperature and dissolved oxygen were clear. In the dry season, results of the multidimensional scaling (MDS analysis indicated that the phytoplankton community structures in the Li River and Qiuxiang River were similar. Regardless of the number of species, the cell abundance or the dominance index, Bacillariophyta were found to be dominant. Chlorophyta was dominant in the Danshui River. In the rainy season, Bacillariophyta, Bacillariophyta-Chlorophyta and Chlorophyta-Cyanophyta became the dominant types in the Li River, Qiuxiang River and Danshui River, respectively. These different patterns in phytoplankton community variation were affected by both the water quality and temperature.

  12. Assessing summer and fall chinook salmon restoration in the Upper Clearwater River and principal tributaries. Annual report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnsberg, B.D.; Statler, D.P.

    1995-08-01

    This is the first annual report of a five year study to assess summer and fall chinook salmon restoration potential in the upper Clearwater River and principal tributaries, Salmon, Grande Ronde, and Imnaha Rivers. During 1994, the authors focused primarily on assessing water temperatures and spawning habitat in the upper Clearwater River and principal tributaries. Water temperature analysis indicated a colder temperature regime in the upper Clearwater River above the North Fork Clearwater River confluence during the winter as compared to the lower Clearwater. This was due to warm water releases from Dworshak Reservoir on the North Fork moderating temperatures in the lower Clearwater River. Thermal temperature unit analysis and available literature suggest a 75% survival threshold level may be anticipated for chinook salmon egg incubation if spawning would occur by November 1 in the upper Clearwater River. Warm water upwelling in historic summer and fall chinook spawning areas may result in increased incubation survivals and will be tested in the future. The authors observed a total of 37 fall chinook salmon redds in the Clearwater River subbasin. They observed 30 redds in the mainstem Clearwater below the North Fork Clearwater River confluence and seven redds in the North Fork Clearwater River. No redds were observed in the South Fork Clearwater, Middle Fork Clearwater, or Selway Rivers. They observed one fall chinook salmon redd in the Salmon River. They recovered 10 fall chinook salmon carcasses in the Clearwater River to obtain biological measurements and to document hatchery contribution to spawning. Unseasonably high and cold Dworshak Dam releases coinciding with early juvenile fall chinook salmon rearing in the lower Clearwater River may be influencing selective life history traits including growth, smolt development, outmigration timing, behavior, and could be directly affecting survival. During July 1994, discharges from Dworshak Dam increased from a

  13. Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunnigan, James L.; Marotz, Brian L.; DeShazer, Jay (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Libby, MT)

    2003-06-01

    Libby Reservoir was created under an International Columbia River Treaty between the United States and Canada for cooperative water development of the Columbia River Basin (Columbia River Treaty 1964). Libby Reservoir inundated 109 stream miles of the mainstem Kootenai River in the United States and Canada, and 40 miles of tributary streams in the U.S. that provided habitat for spawning, juvenile rearing, and migratory passage (Figure 1). The authorized purpose of the dam is to provide power (91.5%), flood control (8.3%), and navigation and other benefits (0.2%; Storm et al. 1982). The Pacific Northwest Power Act of 1980 recognized possible conflicts stemming from hydroelectric projects in the northwest and directed Bonneville Power Administration to ''protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife to the extent affected by the development and operation of any hydroelectric project of the Columbia River and its tributaries...'' (4(h)(10)(A)). Under the Act, the Northwest Power Planning Council was created and recommendations for a comprehensive fish and wildlife program were solicited from the region's federal, state, and tribal fish and wildlife agencies. Among Montana's recommendations was the proposal that research be initiated to quantify acceptable seasonal minimum pool elevations to maintain or enhance the existing fisheries (Graham et al. 1982). Research to determine how operations of Libby Dam affect the reservoir and river fishery and to suggest ways to lessen these effects began in May, 1983. The framework for the Libby Reservoir Model (LRMOD) was completed in 1989. Development of Integrated Rule Curves (IRCs) for Libby Dam operation was completed in 1996 (Marotz et al. 1996). The Libby Reservoir Model and the IRCs continue to be refined (Marotz et al 1999). Initiation of mitigation projects such as lake rehabilitation and stream restoration began in 1996. The primary focus of the Libby Mitigation project now is to

  14. Longitudinal gradient in limnological variables in the Upper Paraná River: a brief description and the importance of undammed tributaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Fernanda Santana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: Describe the limnological pattern in a longitudinal gradient in the Paraná River, a highly dammed river, in a stretch localized between two dams, but rich in undammed tributaries. Methods Twelve transects in the longitudinal gradient of the Paraná River were sampled, with the first transect being placed right after Porto Primavera dam, and the last one in the lotic region of the Itaipu dam. In each of these transects, water transparency, electrical conductivity, pH, total nitrogen and total phosphorous were analyzed. Results In those regions nearer Porto Primavera dam it was observed high values of water transparency and low values of nitrogen and phosphorous. The values of water transparency decreased and the values of nitrogen and phosphorous increased as the distance from Porto Primavera dam increased. Because the new tributaries connect to the Paraná River, with the sites farer from Porto Primavera dam presenting values similar to those prior its construction. Conclusions Increase in the nutrients concentration and changes in ecological integrity are probably due to the presence of the undammed tributaries. They are originate in different river basins and therefore contribute to the Paraná River in distinct manners. Results presented here are an indicative of the fundamental importance of undammed tributaries in mitigating damming negative impacts in extremely dammed rivers and highlight the importance of keeping such tributaries free of dams.

  15. Flood-inundation Maps for the Deerfield River, Franklin County, Massachusetts, from the Confluence with the Cold River Tributary to the Connecticut River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Pamela J.; Bent, Gardner C.

    2015-09-02

    The U.S. Geological Survey developed flood elevations in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency for a 30-mile reach of the Deerfield River from the confluence of the Cold River tributary to the Connecticut River in the towns of Charlemont, Buckland, Shelburne, Conway, Deerfield, and Greenfield in Franklin County, Massachusetts to assist land owners, and emergency management workers prepare for and recover from floods. Peak flows with 50-, 20-, 10-, 4-, 2-, 1-, 0.5-, and 0.2-percent annual exceedance probabilities were computed for the reach from updated flood-frequency analyses. These peak flows were routed through a one-dimensional step-backwater hydraulic model to obtain the corresponding peak water-surface elevations and to place the tropical storm Irene flood of August 28, 2011 into historical context. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using current [2015] stage-discharge relations at two U.S. Geological Survey streamgages in the study reach—Deerfield River at Charlemont, MA (01168500) and Deerfield River near West Deerfield, MA (01170000)—and from documented high-water marks from the tropical storm Irene flood, which had between a 1- and 0.2-percent AEP.

  16. The "Isms" of Art. Introduction to the 2001-2002 Clip and Save Art Prints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Guy

    2001-01-01

    Provides an introduction to the 2001-2002 Clip and Save Art Prints that will focus on ten art movements from the past 150 years. Includes information on three art movements, or "isms": Classicism, Romanticism, and Realism. Discusses the Clip and Save Art Print format and provides information on three artists. (CMK)

  17. Mercury Contributions from Flint Creek and other Tributaries to the Upper Clark Fork River in Northwestern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, H.; Young, M.; Staats, M. F.

    2013-12-01

    Methylmercury contamination in biota is a major factor diminishing the environmental quality of the Upper Clark Fork River (CFR), e.g. by triggering human consumption limits of fish. The CFR is subject to one of the largest Superfund cleanup projects in the US, but remediation and restoration is currently focused exclusively on other mining-related contaminants (As, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd), which may be counterproductive with respect to the bio-availability of mercury, for example by creation of wetlands along mercury-contaminated reaches of the river. The identification and elimination of Hg sources is an essential step toward reducing the methylmercury exposure in the biota of the CFR watershed because a strong correlation exists between total mercury levels in river sediment and methylmercury levels in aquatic life. We analyzed duplicate samples from the top sediment layer of the main stem and significant tributaries to the Clark Fork River along a 240 km reach between Butte, MT and downstream of the Missoula Valley. Mercury concentrations were 1.3 × 1.6 (mean × SD, n = 35) in the main stem. Concentrations in tributaries varied widely (0.02 to 85 mg/kg) and seemed only loosely related to the number of historic precious metal mines in the watershed. In the upper reach of the CFR, elevated Hg levels are likely caused by residual contaminated sediments in the flood plain. Levels tend to decrease downstream until Drummond, MT, where Flint Creek contributes a significant amount of mercury, causing Hg levels in the main stem CFR to increase from 0.7 to 4 mg/kg. Levels continue to decrease downstream. Flint Creek is the single largest contributor of Hg to the CFR. Detailed sampling of the main stem Flint Creek and tributaries (26 sites) showed extremely high levels in two tributaries (22 to 85 mg/kg) where historic milling operations were located. Elimination of these point sources may be accomplished comparatively economically and may significantly reduce mercury levels in

  18. Socio-economic status and environmental problems affecting the fishermen along the river tributaries of Dagupan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally A. Jarin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the socio-economic status of the fishermen along the river tributaries of Dagupan City and to study the environment problems affecting the fishermen along the river tributaries of Dagupan City. This study used a mixed method research design and utilized a survey questionnaire to gather response from 60 fishers selected through proportionate sampling. The fishermen along the tributaries of Dagupan City are mostly male, young adult with family of their own, attended primary education, and belong to big family size. All respondents owned houses made only of light materials. Shrimps and crabs were the most frequently caught species now compared to many small pelagic fishes before, when there were no aquaculture structures like fish pens and cages. Fishermen were limited to the ownership of passive fishing gears like gill nets, skylab, skyblue, and liftnet. Fishpen or cage structures were owned by big businessmen while the fishers served only as caretakers. The respondents are worried on the decrease of fish catch. It is recommended that the government of the City of Dagupan should continue its program in demolishing pen and cage structures to free the rivers from pollution of feed inputs. Management and economic measures should be considered in order to gain significant effect on income of the fishermen. In designing management systems which have income improvement as a goal, appropriate implementation, monitoring and evaluation initiatives should be conducted and taken cared of for sustainable income improvement of farmers in the community of Dagupan and, perhaps, wealth distribution.

  19. Hydrologic data, Colorado River and major tributaries, Glen Canyon Dam to Diamond Creek, Arizona, water years 1990-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rote, John J.; Flynn, Marilyn E.; Bills, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected hydrologic data at 12 continuous-record stations along the Colorado River and its major tributaries between Glen Canyon Dam and Diamond Creek. The data were collected from October 1989 through September 1995 as part of the Bureau of Reclamation's Glen Canyon Environmental Studies. The data include daily values for streamflow discharge, suspended-sediment discharge, temperature, specific conductance, pH, and dissolved-oxygen concentrations, and discrete values for physical properties and chemical constituents of water. All data are presented in tabular form.

  20. Temporal variability in terrestrially-derived sources of particulate organic carbon in the lower Mississippi River and its upper tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Thomas S.; Wysocki, Laura A.; Stewart, Mike; Filley, Timothy R.; McKee, Brent A.

    2007-09-01

    In this study, we examined the temporal changes of terrestrially-derived particulate organic carbon (POC) in the lower Mississippi River (MR) and in a very limited account, the upper tributaries (Upper MR, Ohio River, and Missouri River). We used for the first time a combination of lignin-phenols, bulk stable carbon isotopes, and compound-specific isotope analyses (CSIA) to examine POC in the lower MR and upper tributaries. A lack of correlation between POC and lignin phenol abundances ( Λ8) was likely due to dilution effects from autochthonous production in the river, which has been shown to be considerably higher than previously expected. The range of δ 13C values for p-hydroxycinnamic and ferulic acids in POC in the lower river do support that POM in the lower river does have a significant component of C 4 in addition to C 3 source materials. A strong correlation between δ 13C values of p-hydroxycinnamic, ferulic, and vanillyl phenols suggests a consistent input of C 3 and C 4 carbon to POC lignin while a lack of correlation between these same phenols and POC bulk δ 13C further indicates the considerable role of autochthonous carbon in the lower MR POC budget. Our estimates indicate an annual flux of POC of 9.3 × 10 8 kg y -1 to the Gulf of Mexico. Total lignin fluxes, based on Λ8 values of POC, were estimated to be 1.2 × 10 5 kg y -1. If we include the total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) flux (3.1 × 10 9 kg y -1) reported by [Bianchi T. S., Filley T., Dria K. and Hatcher, P. (2004) Temporal variability in sources of dissolved organic carbon in the lower Mississippi River. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta68, 959-967.], we get a total organic carbon flux of 4.0 × 10 9 kg y -1. This represents 0.82% of the annual total organic carbon supplied to the oceans by rivers (4.9 × 10 11 kg).

  1. Design of a sediment-monitoring gaging network on ephemeral tributaries of the Colorado River in Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyons, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Ronald E.; Topping, David J.; Anderson, Robert S.; Hancock, Gregory S.; Melis, Theodore S.

    2014-01-01

    Management of sediment in rivers downstream from dams requires knowledge of both the sediment supply and downstream sediment transport. In some dam-regulated rivers, the amount of sediment supplied by easily measured major tributaries may overwhelm the amount of sediment supplied by the more difficult to measure lesser tributaries. In this first class of rivers, managers need only know the amount of sediment supplied by these major tributaries. However, in other regulated rivers, the cumulative amount of sediment supplied by the lesser tributaries may approach the total supplied by the major tributaries. The Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon has been hypothesized to be one such river. If this is correct, then management of sediment in the Colorado River in the part of Glen Canyon National Recreation Area downstream from the dam and in Grand Canyon National Park may require knowledge of the sediment supply from all tributaries. Although two major tributaries, the Paria and Little Colorado Rivers, are well documented as the largest two suppliers of sediment to the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, the contributions of sediment supplied by the ephemeral lesser tributaries of the Colorado River in the lowermost Glen Canyon, and Marble and Grand Canyons are much less constrained. Previous studies have estimated amounts of sediment supplied by these tributaries ranging from very little to almost as much as the amount supplied by the Paria River. Because none of these previous studies relied on direct measurement of sediment transport in any of the ephemeral tributaries in Glen, Marble, or Grand Canyons, there may be significant errors in the magnitudes of sediment supplies estimated during these studies. To reduce the uncertainty in the sediment supply by better constraining the sediment yield of the ephemeral lesser tributaries, the U.S. Geological Survey Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center established eight sediment-monitoring gaging

  2. A Three-Year Study of Ichyoplankton in Coastal Plains Reaches of the Savannah River Site and its Tributaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D.

    2007-03-05

    Altering flow regimes of rivers has large effects on native floras and faunas because native species are adapted to the natural flow regime, many species require lateral connectivity with floodplain habitat for feeding or spawning, and the change in regime often makes it possible for invasive species to replace natives (Bunn & Arthington 2002). Floodplain backwaters, both permanent and temporary, are nursery areas for age 0+ fish and stable isotope studies indicate that much of the productivity that supports fish larvae is autochthonous to these habitats (Herwig et al. 2004). Limiting access by fish to floodplain habitat for feeding, spawning and nursery habitat is one of the problems noted with dams that regulate flow in rivers and is considered to be important as an argument to remove dams and other flow regulating structures from rivers (Shuman 1995; Bednarek 2001). While there have been a number of studies in the literature about the use of floodplain habitat for fish reproduction (Copp 1989; Killgore & Baker 1996; Humphries, et al. 1999; Humphries and Lake 2000; Crain et al. 2004; King 2004) there have been only a few studies that examined this aspect of stream ecology in more than a cursory way. The study reported here was originally designed to determine whether the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site was having a negative effect on fish reproduction in the Savannah River but its experimental design allowed examination of the interactions between the river, the floodplain and the tributaries entering the Savannah River across this floodplain. This study is larger in length of river covered than most in the literature and because of its landscape scale may be in important indicator of areas where further study is required.

  3. Evaluation of Water Quality for Two St. Johns River Tributaries Receiving Septic Tank Effluent, Duval County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicklein, Shaun M.

    2004-01-01

    Tributary streamflow to the St. Johns River in Duval County is thought to be affected by septic tank leachate from residential areas adjacent to these tributaries. Water managers and the city of Jacksonville have committed to infrastructure improvements as part of a management plan to address the impairment of tributary water quality. In order to provide data to evaluate the effects of future remedial activities in selected tributaries, major ion and nutrient concentrations, fecal coliform concentrations, detection of wastewater compounds, and tracking of bacterial sources were used to document septic tank influences on the water quality of selected tributaries. The tributaries Fishing Creek and South Big Fishweir Creek were selected because they drain subdivisions identified as high priority locations for septic tank phase-out projects: the Pernecia and Murray Hill B subdivisions, respectively. Population, housing (number of residences), and septic tank densities for the Murray Hill B subdivision are greater than those for the Pernecia subdivision. Water-quality samples collected in the study basins indicate influences from ground water and septic tanks. Estimated concentrations of total nitrogen ranged from 0.33 to 2.86 milligrams per liter (mg/L), and ranged from less than laboratory reporting limit (0.02 mg/L) to 0.64 mg/L for total phosphorus. Major ion concentrations met the State of Florida Class III surface-water standards; total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Ecoregion XII nutrient criteria for rivers and streams 49 and 96 percent of the time, respectively. Organic wastewater compounds detected at study sites were categorized as detergents, antioxidants and flame retardants, manufactured polycarbonate resins, industrial solvents, and mosquito repellent. The most commonly detected compound was para-nonylphenol, a breakdown product of detergent. Results of wastewater sampling give evidence that

  4. MACROZOOBENTHIC COMMUNITIES STRUCTURE CHARACTERISTIC OF CERTAIN TRIBUTARIES OF THE SIRET RIVER FROM HARGHITA, MARAMUREŞ AND VRANCEA MOUNTAINS AND MOLDOVEI PLATEAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena-Andreea GHIBUŞI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available 35 qualitative macrozoobentonic samples were collected in 2011 from many Siret river tributaries coming from the Harghita Mountains (5 stations, Maramureş Mountains (14 stations, Moldavian Plateau (4 stations and Vrancea Mountains (12 stations. Laboratory analysis of samples revealed the existence of the following 15 groups of benthic invertebrates: Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, Oligochaeta, Diptera (Chironomidae, Simuliidae, Ceratopogonidae, Limoniidae, Gastropoda, Bivalva, Coleoptera, Acarina, Odonata, Hirudinea, Isopoda, Heteroptera, Turbellariata and Collembola. Groups that have the highest frequencies were mayflies and dipterans (each with a frequency of 97.1%, followed by caddisflies (80%, amphipods (68.6%, oligochaetes (57.1% and stoneflies (54.3%. Presence of sensitive groups to water quality degradation (Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Plecoptera with high frequency shows good quality water at most stations investigated.

  5. Distributions, abundances and activities of microbes associated with the nitrogen cycle in riparian and stream sediments of a river tributary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Haryun; Bae, Hee-Sung; Reddy, K Ramesh; Ogram, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    River tributaries are ecologically important environments that function as sinks of inorganic nitrogen. To gain greater insight into the nitrogen cycle (N-cycle) in these environments, the distributions and activities of microbial populations involved in the N-cycle were studied in riparian and stream sediments of the Santa Fe River (SFR) tributaries located in northern Florida, USA. Riparian sediments were characterized by much higher organic matter content, and extracellular enzyme activities, including cellobiohydrolase, β-d-glucosidase, and phenol oxidase than stream sediments. Compared with stream sediments, riparian sediments exhibited significantly higher activities of nitrification, denitrification, dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia (DNRA) and anaerobic ammonia oxidation; correspondingly, with higher copies of amoA (a biomarker for enumerating nitrifiers), nirS and nirK (for denitrifiers), and nrfA (for DNRA bacteria). Among N-cycle processes, denitrification showed the highest activities and the highest concentrations of the corresponding gene (nirK and nirS) copy numbers. In riparian sediments, substantial nitrification activities (6.3 mg-N kg soil -1 d -1 average) and numbers of amoA copies (7.3 × 10 7  copies g soil -1 average) were observed, and nitrification rates correlate with denitrification rates. The guild structures of denitrifiers and nitrifiers in riparian sediments differed significantly from those found in stream sediments, as revealed by analysis of nirS and archaeal amoA sequences. This study shows that riparian sediments serve as sinks for inorganic nitrogen loads from non-point sources of agricultural runoff, with nitrification and denitrification associated with elevated levels of carbon and nitrogen contents and extracellular enzyme activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthetic organic agrochemicals in the lower Mississippi River and its major tributaries--Distribution, transport and fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, W.E.; Rostad, C.E.; Leiker, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    The Mississippi River and its major tributaries transport herbicides and their degradation products from agricultural areas in the mid-western U.S.A. These compounds include atrazine and its degradation products (desethyl- and desisopropylatrazine), simazine, cyanazine, metolachlor, and alachlor and its degradation products (2-chloro-2′,6′-diethylacetanilide 2-hydroxy-2′,6′-diethylacetanilide and 2,6-diethylaniline). These compounds were identified and confirmed by gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry. Loads of these compounds were determined during five sampling trips in 1987–1989. Stream loads of these compounds indicated that atrazine and metolachlor were relatively conservative in downstream transport. Alachlor and its degradation products were generated from point and non-point sources. Seasonal variations and hydrologic conditions controlled the loads of these compounds in the Mississippi River. Cross-channel mixing was slow downstream from major river confluences, possibly requiring several hundred kilometers of downriver transit for completion. The annual transport of these compounds into the Gulf of Mexico was estimated to be < 2% of the annual application of each herbicide in the Midwest.

  7. Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities in the Northern Tributaries of the “Iron Gates” Gorge (Danube River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtean-Bănăduc Angela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the structure of the benthonic macro-invertebrates communities in the Berzasca, Sirinia, Liubcova, and Mraconia rivers. The results are based on quantitative benthos samples (95 samples, collected in July 2014 from 19 sampling stations within the study area. In longitudinal profile, the benthonic macro-invertebrate communities of the Sirinia, Liubcova and Berzasca rivers displays relatively large structural variability, while the communities of the Mraconia River displays smaller structural variability. The structure of the benthonic macro-invertebrate communities correlated with the biotope characteristics indicates the good ecological status of the analysed rivers, with the exception of the Berzasca River sector downstream of the town of Berzasca and immediately upstream of the Danube junction, a sector with moderate ecological status due to negative effects from man-made modifications in the lotic biotope of the sector.

  8. Nature of distribution of mercury in the sediments of the river Yamuna (tributary of the Ganges), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, V; Madhavan, N; Saxena, Rajinder; Lundin, Lars-Christer

    2003-06-01

    Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM), surface (bed sediments) and short length cores of sediments collected from the largest tributary of the river Ganges, namely the river Yamuna, were analysed for total mercury as well as its fractionation in various size and chemical sites in the sediments following standard procedures. Also, attempts were made to determine the vertical distribution in sediments in relation to the recent timescale of a few decades. Our observations indicate that the SPM in general showed higher levels of total mercury compared to the surface sediments while at places the enhancement could be by a factor of 10, say around 25 microg g(-1) in the downstream region that integrates the industrial midstream and agricultural downstream terrain near its confluence with the Ganges. Surface sediments in the upstream direction near the Himalayan foothills and SPM in the lower reaches showed significant high Index of Geoaccumulation (Igeo) as defined by Müller. Size fractionation studies indicate that the finer fraction preferentially showed higher levels of mercury while in the lower reaches of the river, the total mercury is equitably distributed among all size fractions. The proportion of the residual fraction of mercury in relation to mobile fractions, in general decreases downstream towards its confluence with the Ganges river. In sediment cores, the vertical distribution show systematic peaks of mercury indicating that addition of this toxic metal to the aquatic system is in direct proportion to the increase in various types of human activities such as thermal power plants, land use changes (urbanisation) in the midstream region and intensive fertiliser application in lower reaches of this vast river basin.

  9. Estimation of erosion and sedimentation yield in the Ucayali river basin, a Peruvian tributary of the Amazon River, using ground and satellite methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, William; Martinez, Jean-Michel; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Espinoza, Raul; Vauchel, Philippe; Lavado, Waldo

    2014-05-01

    Since 2003, the works of HYBAM observatory (www.ore-hybam.org) has allowed to quantify with accuracy, precision and over a long period Amazon's main rivers discharges and sediments loads. In Peru, a network of 8 stations is regularly gauged and managed in association with the national meteorological and Hydrological service (SENAMHI), the UNALM (National Agrological University of La Molina) and the National Water Agency (ANA). Nevertheless, some current processes of erosion and sedimentation in the foreland basins are still little known, both in volumes and in localization. The sedimentary contributions of Andean tributaries could be there considerable, masking a very strong sedimentation in subsidence zones localized between the control points of the HYBAM's network. The development of spatial techniques such as the Altimetry and reflectance measurement allows us today to complete the ground's network: HYBAM's works have allowed establishing a relation between surface concentration and reflectance in Amazonian rivers (Martinez et al., 2009, Espinoza et al., 2012) and reconstituting water levels series (Calmant et al., 2006, 2008). If the difficulty of calibration of these techniques increases towards the upstream, their use can allow a first characterization of the tributaries contributions and sedimentation zones. At world level, erosion and sedimentation yields in the upper Ucayali are exceptional, favored by a marked seasonality in this region (Espinoza et al., 2009, Lavado, 2010, Pépin et al., 2010) and the presence of cells of extreme precipitation ("Hotspots") (Johnson et al., 1976, Espinoza et al, 2009a). The upper Ucayali drainage basin is a Piggyback where the River run with a low slope, parallel to the Andean range, deposing by gravity hundred millions a year of sands, silts and clays. In this work, we thus propose an estimation of sedimentation and erosion yield in the Ucayali river basin using ground and satellite methods.

  10. ASSESSMENT OF RIVER WATER QUALITY USING MACRO-INVERTEBRATES AS INDICATORS: A CASE STUDY OF BHALU KHOLA TRIBUTARY, BUDHIGANDAKI RIVER, GORKHA, NEPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Rana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available  Macroinvertebrates are widely considered as indicators of water quality. The present research work was conducted in Bhalu khola, a tributary of Budhigandaki River, Nepal, to identify water quality using macro invertebrates with Nepalese Biotic Score (NEPBIOS, and examine its applicability by comparing with Water Quality Index (WQI.The diversity of macro invertebrates in the studied river was high as depicted by Shannon Wiener Diversity Index. Altogether, 103 macro invertebrates were identified from 11 families and five orders. There were no dominant species, and most of the species were in clumped distribution. According to NEPBIOS index, river water was found to comply with the characteristics of WQ class I-II that means water quality of the river was good. Other indices such as Hilsenhoff and Lincoln quality index (LQI index also supported this result. Similarly, water quality index (WQI also showed similarity with NEPBIOS index, indicating water appropriate for drinking purpose. Thus, it is concluded that the macro invertebrates can be used as economic tools for determining water quality of streams and rivers as efficient water quality indicators.International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-3, June-August 2015Page: 55-68

  11. Influence of environmental and anthropogenic factors at the bottom sediments in a Doce River tributary in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Deyse Almeida; da Fonseca Santiago, Aníbal; Nascimento, Laura Pereira; Roeser, Hubert Mathias Peter

    2017-03-01

    In developing countries, it is uncommon to find watersheds that have been the object of detailed environmental studies. It makes the assessment of the magnitude of environmental impacts and pollution of these sites difficult. This research demonstrated ways to understand the dynamics of river bottom sediments contamination, even for watersheds with a lack of environmental data. Based on geochemical affinity, we conducted a comprehensive study on the concentration of metals and metalloids. Then, we discussed the probable origin of the concentration of these elements at the bottom sediment along the Matipó River. The Matipó River is an important tributary of the Doce River, which stood out in international headlines because of the mining tailing dam disaster in Mariana, Minas Gerais, in 2015. The bottom sediment samples were taken in 25 stations located along the basin in different seasonal periods. The results showed that copper ([Formula: see text] = 464.7 mg kg -1 ) and zinc ([Formula: see text] = 287.7 mg kg -1 ) probably have natural origin, despite of the high concentrations. Lead ([Formula: see text] = 28.0 mg kg -1 ), chromium ([Formula: see text] = 153.2 mg kg -1 ), and nickel ([Formula: see text] = 41.8 mg kg -1 ) also had high concentrations at some collecting stations, and this probably reflected the local natural conditions. The bedrock of the studying basin is dominantly composed of metabasalts and metatonalites interlayered with calcitic and dolomitic metalimestone. On the other hand, the concentration was worrisome in stations near human activities, possibly due to impacts caused by unsustainably agriculture and livestock.

  12. Suspended sediment data analysis: Mackenzie Delta, NWT 1992-93 update [and] Westbank Tributaries, Mackenzie River, NWT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, M A

    1993-03-01

    A full analysis and review of sediment data collected in 1991 as part of a program dealing with sediment-related aspects of northern hydrocarbon development is presented. The data were collected at two delta-head stations, three mid-delta stations, and three outer-delta stations. The primary purpose of the program is to obtain mathematical relationships that will allow prediction of sediment concentration at delta stations in the absence of actual sampling. This task is a prerequisite to the development of a sediment adjunct to the one-dimensional hydraulic model being developed for the delta. Preliminary analysis indicates strong correlations between sediment concentrations at different stations in the delta. It is tentatively proposed that sediment concentrations at all east-central stations in the delta could be predicted from samples concentrations at Inuvik, and that concentrations on the west side could be predictable from Peel River Station. The second part of this report deals with suspended sediment data analysis for the westbank tributaries of the Mackenzie River. 19 refs., 36 figs., 29 tabs.

  13. Rainfall and runoff water quality of the Pang and Lambourn, tributaries of the River Thames, south-eastern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The water quality of rainfall and runoff is described for two catchments of two tributaries of the River Thames, the Pang and Lambourn. Rainfall chemistry is variable and concentrations of most determinands decrease with increasing volume of catch probably due to 'wash out' processes. Two rainfall sites have been monitored, one for each catchment. The rainfall site on the Lambourn shows higher chemical concentrations than the one for the Pang which probably reflects higher amounts of local inputs from agricultural activity. Rainfall quality data at a long-term rainfall site on the Pang (UK National Air Quality Archive shows chemistries similar to that for the Lambourn site, but with some clear differences. Rainfall chemistries show considerable variation on an event-to-event basis. Average water quality concentrations and flow-weighted concentrations as well as fluxes vary across the sites, typically by about 30%. Stream chemistry is much less variable due to the main source of water coming from aquifer sources of high storage. The relationship between rainfall and runoff chemistry at the catchment outlet is described in terms of the relative proportions of atmospheric and within-catchment sources. Remarkably, in view of the quantity of agricultural and sewage inputs to the streams, the catchments appear to be retaining both P and N. Keywords: water quality, nitrate, ammonium, phosphorus, ammonia, nitrogen dioxide, pH, alkalinity, nutrients, trace metals, rainfall, river, Pang, Lambourn, LOCAR

  14. Source and flux of POC in two subtropical karstic tributaries with contrasting land use practice in the Yangtze River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, F.-X.; Liu, C.-Q.; Li, S.-L.

    2009-01-01

    Elemental (C/N ratio) and C isotope composition (δ 13 C) of particulate organic C (POC) and organic C content (OC) of total suspended solids (TSS) were determined for two subtropical karstic tributaries of the Yangtze River, the Wujiang (the eighth largest tributary) and Yuanjiang (the third largest tributary). For the latter, two headwaters, the karstic Wuyanghe and non-karstic Qingshuijiang were studied. The Wujiang catchment is subject to intensive land use, has low forest coverage and high soil erosion rate. The δ 13 C of POC covered a range from -30.6 per mille to -24.9 per mille, from -27.6 per mille to -24.7 per mille , and from -26.2 per mille to -23.3 per mille at the low-water stage, while at the high-water stage varied in a span between -28.6 per mille and -24.4 per mille , between -27.7 per mille and -24.5 per mille, and between -27.6 per mille and -24.2 per mille for the Wujiang, Wuyanghe, and Qingshuijiang, respectively. The combined application of C isotopes, C/N ratio, OC, and TSS analyses indicated that catchment soil was the predominant source of POC for the Wujiang while for the Wuyanghe and Qingshuijiang, in-stream processes supplied the main part of POC in winter and summer. A significant increase in δ 13 C value (1.4 per mille ) of POC was found in the Wujiang during summer, and was attributed to the enhanced soil erosion of the dry arable uplands close to the riverbanks of the main channel. Based on a conservative estimate, POC fluxes were 3.123 x 10 10 , 0.084 x 10 10 , and 0.372 x 10 10 g a -1 while export rates of POC were 466, 129, and 218 mg m -2 a -1 for the Wujiang, Wuyanghe, and Qingshuijiang, respectively. The POC export rate for the karstic Wujiang, with intensive land use, was 2-3 higher than that of the karstic Wuyanghe or of the non-karstic Qingshuijiang where soil erosion was minor. Such high values imply rapid degradation of related karstic ecosystems impacted by intensive land use activities, and pose a potential threat to

  15. Another unique river: a consideration of some of the characteristics of the trunk tributaries of the Nile River in northwestern Ethiopia in relationship to their aquatic food resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappelman, John; Tewabe, Dereje; Todd, Lawrence; Feseha, Mulugeta; Kay, Marvin; Kocurek, Gary; Nachman, Brett; Tabor, Neil; Yadeta, Meklit

    2014-12-01

    Aquatic food resources are important components of many modern human hunter-gatherer diets and yet evidence attesting to the widespread exploitation of this food type appears rather late in the archaeological record. While there are times when, for example, the capture of fish and shellfish requires sophisticated technology, there are other cases when the exact ecological attributes of an individual species and the particulars of its environment make it possible for these foods to be incorporated into the human diet with little or no tool use and only a minimal time investment. In order to better understand the full set of variables that are considered in these sorts of foraging decisions, it is necessary to detail the attributes of each particular aquatic environment. We discuss here some of the characteristics of the trunk tributaries of the Nile and Blue Rivers in the Horn of Africa. Unlike typical perennial rivers, these 'temporary' rivers flow only during a brief but intense wet season; during the much longer dry season, the rivers are reduced to a series of increasingly disconnected waterholes, and the abundant and diverse fish and mollusk populations are trapped in ever smaller evaporating pools. The local human population today utilizes a number of diverse capture methods that range from simple to complex, and vary according to the size and depth of the waterhole and the time of the year. When we view the particular characteristics of an individual river system, we find that each river is 'unique' in its individual attributes. The Horn of Africa is believed to be along the route that modern humans followed on their migration out of Africa, and it is likely that the riverine-based foraging behaviors of these populations accompanied our species on its movement into the rest of the Old World. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A data reconnaissance on the effect of suspended-sediment concentrations on dissolved-solids concentrations in rivers and tributaries in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred D.; Anning, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The Colorado River is one of the most important sources of water in the western United States, supplying water to over 35 million people in the U.S. and 3 million people in Mexico. High dissolved-solids loading to the River and tributaries are derived primarily from geologic material deposited in inland seas in the mid-to-late Cretaceous Period, but this loading may be increased by human activities. High dissolved solids in the River causes substantial damages to users, primarily in reduced agricultural crop yields and corrosion. The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Program was created to manage dissolved-solids loading to the River and has focused primarily on reducing irrigation-related loading from agricultural areas. This work presents a reconnaissance of existing data from sites in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) in order to highlight areas where suspended-sediment control measures may be useful in reducing dissolved-solids concentrations. Multiple linear regression was used on data from 164 sites in the UCRB to develop dissolved-solids models that include combinations of explanatory variables of suspended sediment, flow, and time. Results from the partial t-test, overall likelihood ratio, and partial likelihood ratio on the models were used to group the sites into categories of strong, moderate, weak, and no-evidence of a relation between suspended-sediment and dissolved-solids concentrations. Results show 68 sites have strong or moderate evidence of a relation, with drainage areas for many of these sites composed of a large percentage of clastic sedimentary rocks. These results could assist water managers in the region in directing field-scale evaluation of suspended-sediment control measures to reduce UCRB dissolved-solids loading.

  17. Sampling little fish in big rivers: Larval fish detection probabilities in two Lake Erie tributaries and implications for sampling effort and abundance indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritt, Jeremy J.; DuFour, Mark R.; Mayer, Christine M.; Roseman, Edward F.; DeBruyne, Robin L.

    2014-01-01

    Larval fish are frequently sampled in coastal tributaries to determine factors affecting recruitment, evaluate spawning success, and estimate production from spawning habitats. Imperfect detection of larvae is common, because larval fish are small and unevenly distributed in space and time, and coastal tributaries are often large and heterogeneous. We estimated detection probabilities of larval fish from several taxa in the Maumee and Detroit rivers, the two largest tributaries of Lake Erie. We then demonstrated how accounting for imperfect detection influenced (1) the probability of observing taxa as present relative to sampling effort and (2) abundance indices for larval fish of two Detroit River species. We found that detection probabilities ranged from 0.09 to 0.91 but were always less than 1.0, indicating that imperfect detection is common among taxa and between systems. In general, taxa with high fecundities, small larval length at hatching, and no nesting behaviors had the highest detection probabilities. Also, detection probabilities were higher in the Maumee River than in the Detroit River. Accounting for imperfect detection produced up to fourfold increases in abundance indices for Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis and Gizzard Shad Dorosoma cepedianum. The effect of accounting for imperfect detection in abundance indices was greatest during periods of low abundance for both species. Detection information can be used to determine the appropriate level of sampling effort for larval fishes and may improve management and conservation decisions based on larval fish data.

  18. Antibiotic contamination in a typical developing city in south China: occurrence and ecological risks in the Yongjiang River impacted by tributary discharge and anthropogenic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Baoming; Zhang, Ruijie; Wang, Yinghui; Liu, Xiang; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2013-06-01

    The occurrence and distribution of ten selected antibiotics from three groups (sulfonamides, macrolides, and trimethoprim) were investigated in the Yongjiang River, which flows through Nanning City, a typical developing city in China. The study also assessed the ecological risks and the potential effects caused by discharge from tributaries and anthropogenic activities. Concentrations of most of the antibiotics were elevated along the section of the river in the urban area, highlighting the significant impact of high population density and human activities on the presence of antibiotics in the environment. The concentrations in the tributaries (ranged from not detected to 1336ngL(-1)) were generally higher than those in the main stream (ranged from not detected to 78.8ngL(-1)), but both areas contained the same predominant antibiotics, revealing the importance of tributary discharge as a source of antibiotic pollution. A risk assessment for the surface water contamination revealed that sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin posed high ecological risks to the most sensitive aquatic organisms (Synechococcus leopoliensis and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, respectively) in the midstream and some tributaries. Most of the selected antibiotics presented high ecological risks (risk quotients up to 95) in the sediments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Energy balances of non-OECD countries, 2001-2002. 2004 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This volume contains data on the supply and consumption of coal, oil, gas, electricity, heat, renewables and waste presented as comprehensive energy balances, expressed in tonnes of oil equivalent for over 100 non-OECD countries. Historical tables summarize production, trade and final consumption data as well as key energy and economic indicators. This book includes definitions of products and flows, explanatory notes on the individual country data and conversion factors from original units to tonnes of oil equivalent. More detailed data in original units are published in Energy Statistics of Non-OECD Countries 2001-2002, the sister volume of this publication. Bi-lingual edition: English - French. In general the CD-Rom and on-line service contain detailed time-series back to 1971

  20. McKenzie River Watershed Coordination, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thrailkil, Jim

    2003-11-01

    BPA funding, in conjunction with contributions from numerous partners organizations and grant funds supports the McKenzie Watershed Council's (MWC) efforts to coordinate restoration and monitoring programs of federal, state, local government, and residents within the watershed. Primary goals of the MWC are to improve resource stewardship and conserve fish, wildlife, and water quality resources. Underpinning the goals is the MWC's baseline program centered on relationship building and information sharing. Objectives for FY02 included: (1) Continue to coordinate McKenzie Watershed activities among diverse groups to restore fish and wildlife habitat in the watershed, with a focus on the middle to lower McKenzie, including private lands and the McKenzie-Willamette confluence area; (2) Influence behavior of watershed residents to benefit watershed function though an outreach and education program, utilizing (BPA funded) Assessment and Conservation Strategy information to provide a context for prioritized action; (3) Continue to maintain and sustain a highly functional watershed council; (4) Maintain and improve water quality concerns through the continuation of Council-sponsored monitoring and evaluation programs; and (5) Continue to secure other funding for watershed restoration and protection projects and Council operations.

  1. Distribution and speciation of heavy metals in sediments from the mainstream, tributaries, and lakes of the Yangtze River catchment of Wuhan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhifeng; Wang Ying; Shen Zhenyao; Niu Junfeng; Tang Zhenwu

    2009-01-01

    A comparative study of the heavy metal (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) concentrations in sediments collected from the mainstream, tributaries, and lakes of the Yangtze River catchment of Wuhan, China, was conducted. Compared with the maximum background values in Wuhan Province soils, Cd was the metal with the highest contamination level, especially in the mainstream, followed by Zn and Cu. In a few samples from tributaries and lakes, the Hg concentration was very high compared to background levels. The concentrations of As and Ni in all sites fluctuated close to background levels. Partitioning of speciation of each heavy metal in sediments was similar for samples taken from the mainstream, tributaries, and lakes. Compared to the other metals studied, Cd, Cu, Zn, and Pb had higher bioavailability in the three zones, which means they pose a higher ecological risk. Significant correlations among group a (Zn, Cu, and Pb, r > 0.9) and group b (Cr and Ni, r = 0.978) in the mainstream; Hg, Cu, Cd, and Pb in lakes (r > 0.9); and Cu and Pb (r > 0.9) in tributaries were observed using Cluster and correlation analysis. However, a low correlation between As and the other elements in the three zones was shown. Overall, 63.6% of samples from the mainstream, 75.0% from tributaries, and 88.9% from lakes exhibited low and moderate ecological risk of heavy metals, and the potential ecological risks in the mainstream and tributaries were higher than those in lakes.

  2. Lower Klickitat Riparian and In-channel Habitat Restoration Project, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conley, Will

    2003-10-01

    This project focuses on the lower Klickitat River and its tributaries that provide or affect salmonid habitat. The overall goal is to restore watershed health to aid recovery of salmonid stocks in the Klickitat subbasin. An emphasis is placed on restoration and protection of watersheds supporting anadromous fish production, particularly steelhead (Oncorhyncus mykiss) which are listed as 'Threatened' within the Mid-Columbia ESU. Restoration activities are aimed at restoring stream processes by removing or mitigating watershed perturbances and improving habitat conditions and water quality. In addition to steelhead, habitat improvements benefit Chinook (O. tshawytscha) and coho (O. kisutch) salmon, resident rainbow trout, and enhance habitat for many terrestrial and amphibian wildlife species. Protection activities compliment restoration efforts within the subbasin by securing refugia and preventing degradation. Since 90% of the project area is in private ownership, maximum effectiveness will be accomplished via cooperation with state, federal, tribal, and private entities. The project addresses goals and objectives presented in the Klickitat Subbasin Summary and the 1994 NWPPC Fish and Wildlife Program. Feedback from the 2000 Provincial Review process indicated a need for better information management to aid development of geographic priorities. Thus, an emphasis has been placed on database development and a review of existing information prior to pursuing more extensive implementation. Planning and design was initiated on several restoration projects. These priorities will be refined in future reports as the additional data is collected and analyzed. Tasks listed are for the April 1, 2001 to August 31, 2002 contract cycle, for which work was delayed during the summer of 2001 because the contract was not finalized until mid-August 2001. Accomplishments are provided for the September 1, 2001 to August 31, 2002 reporting period. During this reporting period

  3. The Columbia River and Tributaries Study, Interim Report, Yakima-Union Gap Flood Damage Reduction, Yakima River Basin, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    observation. Annual usage is about 2,100 man-days for this nonconsumptive pursuit. (7) Mushroom hunting. (8) Swiming in the river and in a few warm-water pools... nutrition than anywhere else. These alluvial lands are life-producing for young and life-sustaining for adult birds. The range of upland birds is keyed to a

  4. Effects of extreme floods on macroinvertebrate assemblages in tributaries to the Mohawk River, New York, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Mirian R.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Smith, Alexander J.; Endreny, Theodore A.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is forecast to bring more frequent and intense precipitation to New York which has motivated research into the effects of floods on stream ecosystems. Macroinvertebrate assemblages were sampled at 13 sites in the Mohawk River basin during August 2011, and again in October 2011, following historic floods caused by remnants of Hurricane Irene and Tropical Storm Lee. The annual exceedance probabilities of floods at regional flow-monitoring sites ranged from 0.5 to 0.001. Data from the first 2 surveys, and from additional surveys done during July and October 2014, were assessed to characterize the severity of flood impacts, effect of seasonality, and recovery. Indices of total taxa richness; Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) richness; Hilsenhoff's biotic index; per cent model affinity; and nutrient biotic index-phosphorus were combined to calculate New York State Biological Assessment Profile scores. Analysis of variance tests were used to determine if the Biological Assessment Profile, its component metrics, relative abundance, and diversity differed significantly (p ≤ .05) among the four surveys. Only total taxa richness and Shannon–Wiener diversity increased significantly, and abundance decreased significantly, following the floods. No metrics differed significantly between the July and August 2014 surveys which indicates that the differences denoted between the August and October 2011 surveys were caused by the floods. Changes in taxa richness, EPT richness, and diversity were significantly correlated with flood annual exceedance probabilities. This study increased our understanding of the resistance and resilience of benthic macroinvertebrate communities by showing that their assemblages were relatively impervious to extreme floods across the region.

  5. Tracking fluorescent dissolved organic matter in multistage rivers using EEM-PARAFAC analysis: implications of the secondary tributary remediation for watershed management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zeyu; Wu, Xiaodong; Huang, Haomin; Fang, Xiaomin; Xu, Chen; Wu, Jianyu; Liang, Xinqiang; Shi, Jiyan

    2016-05-01

    Profound understanding of behaviors of organic matter from sources to multistage rivers assists watershed management for improving water quality of river networks in rural areas. Ninety-one water samples were collected from the three orders of receiving rivers in a typical combined polluted subcatchment (diffuse agricultural pollutants and domestic sewage) located in China. Then, the fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) information for these samples was determined by the excitation-emission matrix coupled with parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC). Consequently, two typical humic-like (C1 and C2) and other two protein-like (C3 and C4) components were separated. Their fluorescence peaks were located at λ ex/em = 255(360)/455, 60 %). Principal component analysis (PCA) further demonstrated that, except for the autochthonous produced C4, the allochthonous components (C1 and C2) had the same terrestrial origins, but C3 might possess the separate anthropogenic and biological sources. Moreover, the spatial heterogeneity of contamination levels was noticeable in multistage rivers, and the allochthonous FDOM was gradually homogenized along the migration directions. Interestingly, the average content of the first three PARAFAC components in secondary tributaries and source pollutants had significantly higher levels than that in subsequent receiving rivers, thus suggesting that the supervision and remediation for secondary tributaries would play a prominent role in watershed management works.

  6. Solar Activity, Ultraviolet Radiation and Consequences in Birds in Mexico City, 2001- 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, M.; Velasco, V.

    2008-12-01

    Anomalous behavior in commercial and pet birds in Mexico City was reported during 2002 by veterinarians at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. This was attributed to variations in the surrounding luminosity. The solar components, direct, diffuse, global, ultraviolet band A and B, as well as some meteorological parameters, temperature, relative humidity, and precipitation, were then analyzed at the Solar Radiation Laboratory. Although the total annual radiance of the previously mentioned radiation components did not show important changes, ultraviolet Band-B solar radiation did vary significantly. During 2001 the total annual irradiance , 61.05 Hjcm² to 58.32 Hjcm², was 1.6 standard deviations lower than one year later, in 2002 and increased above the mean total annual irradiance, to 65.75 Hjcm², 2.04 standard deviations, giving a total of 3.73 standard deviations for 2001-2002. Since these differences did not show up clearly in the other solar radiation components, daily extra-atmosphere irradiance was analyzed and used to calculate the total annual extra-atmosphere irradiance, which showed a descent for 2001. Our conclusions imply that Ultraviolet Band-B solar radiation is representative of solar activity and has an important impact on commercial activity related with birds.

  7. State transitions in the 2001/2002 outburst of XTE J1650-500

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, S.; Homan, J.; Miller, J.M.; Belloni, T.

    2004-01-01

    We present a study of the X-ray transient and black hole candidate XTE J1650-500 during its 2001/2002 outburst. The source made two state transitions between the hard and soft states, at luminosity levels that differ by a factor of ∼5-10. The first transition, between hard and soft, lasted for ∼30 days and showed two parts; one part in which the spectral properties evolve smoothly away from the hard state and another that we identify as the 'steep power law state'. The two parts showed different behavior of the Fe K emission line and QPO frequencies. The second transition, from soft to hard, lasted only ∼15 days and showed no evidence of the presence of the 'steep power law state'. Comparing observations from the early rise and the decay of the outburst, we conclude that the source can be in the hard state in a range of more than 10 4 in luminosity. We briefly discuss the state transitions in the framework of a two-flow model

  8. Occurrence and Transport of Diazinon in the Sacramento River and Selected Tributaries, California, during Two Winter Storms, January?February 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dileanis, Peter D.; Brown, David L.; Knifong, Donna L.; Saleh, Dina

    2003-01-01

    Diazinon, an organophosphate insecticide, is applied as an orchard dormant spray in the Sacramento Valley during the winter months when the area receives most of its annual rainfall. During winter rainstorms that frequently follow dormant spray applications, some of the applied pesticide is transported in storm runoff to the Sacramento River and its tributaries. Diazinon is also used to control insect pests on residential and commercial properties in urban areas and is frequently detected in urban storm runoff draining into the Sacramento River system. Between January 24 and February 14, 2001, diazinon concentrations and loads were measured in the Sacramento River and selected tributaries during two winter storms that occurred after dormant spray applications were made to orchards in the Sacramento Valley. Water samples were collected at 21 sites that represented agricultural and urban inputs on a variety of scales, from small tributaries and drains representing local land use to main-stem river sites representing regional effects. Concentrations of diazinon ranged from below laboratory reporting levels to 1,380 nanograms per liter (ng/L), with a median of 55 ng/L during the first monitored storm and 26 ng/L during the second. The highest concentrations were observed in small channels draining predominantly agricultural land. About 26,000 pounds of diazinon were reported applied to agricultural land in the study area just before and during the monitoring period. About 0.2 percent of the applied insecticide appeared to be transported to the lower Sacramento River during that period. The source of about one third of the total load measured in the lower Sacramento River appears to be in the portion of the drainage basin upstream of the city of Colusa. About 12 percent of the diazinon load in the lower Sacramento River was transported from the Feather River Basin, which drains much of the mountainous eastern portions of the Sacramento River Basin. Diazinon use in the

  9. Effects of coal-mine discharges on the quality of the Stonycreek River and its tributaries, Somerset and Cambria counties, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Donald R.; Sams, James I.; Mulkerrin, Mary E.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, done in cooperation with the Somerset Conservation District, to locate and sample abandoned coal-mine discharges in the Stonycreek River Basin, to prioritize the mine discharges for remediation, and to determine the effects of the mine discharges on water quality of the Stonycreek River and its major tributaries. From October 1991 through November 1994, 270 abandoned coal-mine discharges were located and sampled. Discharges from 193 mines exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency effluent standards for pH, discharges from 122 mines exceeded effluent standards for total-iron concentration, and discharges from 141 mines exceeded effluent standards for total-manganese concentration. Discharges from 94 mines exceeded effluent standards for all three constituents. Only 40 mine discharges met effluent standards for pH and concentrations of total iron and total manganese.A prioritization index (PI) was developed to rank the mine discharges with respect to their loading capacity on the receiving stream. The PI lists the most severe mine discharges in a descending order for the Stonycreek River Basin and for subbasins that include the Shade Creek, Paint Creek, Wells Creek, Quemahoning Creek, Oven Run, and Pokeytown Run Basins.Passive-treatment systems that include aerobic wetlands, compost wetlands, and anoxic limestone drains (ALD's) are planned to remediate the abandoned mine discharges. The successive alkalinity-producing-system treatment combines ALD technology with the sulfate reduction mechanism of the compost wetland to effectively remediate mine discharge. The water quality and flow of each mine discharge will determine which treatment system or combination of treatment systems would be necessary for remediation.A network of 37 surface-water sampling sites was established to determine stream-water quality during base flow. A series of illustrations show how water quality in the mainstem

  10. Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, Sheryl

    2003-01-01

    The construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams completely and irrevocably blocked anadromous fish migrations to the Upper Columbia River. Historically this area hosted vast numbers of salmon returning to their natal waters to reproduce and die. For the native peoples of the region, salmon and steelhead were a principle food source, providing physical nourishment and spiritual sustenance, and contributing to the religious practices and the cultural basis of tribal communities. The decaying remains of spawned-out salmon carcasses contributed untold amounts of nutrients into the aquatic, aerial, and terrestrial ecosystems of tributary habitats in the upper basin. Near the present site of Kettle Falls, Washington, the second largest Indian fishery in the state existed for thousands of years. Returning salmon were caught in nets and baskets or speared on their migration to the headwater of the Columbia River in British Columbia. Catch estimates at Kettle Falls range from 600,000 in 1940 to two (2) million around the turn of the century (UCUT, Report No.2). The loss of anadromous fish limited the opportunities for fisheries management and enhancement exclusively to those actions addressed to resident fish. The Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project is a mitigation project intended to enhance resident fish populations and to partially mitigate for anadromous fish losses caused by hydropower system impacts. This substitution of resident fish for anadromous fish losses is considered in-place and out-of-kind mitigation. Upstream migration and passage barriers limit the amount of spawning and rearing habitat that might otherwise be utilized by rainbow trout. The results of even limited stream surveys and habitat inventories indicated that a potential for increased natural production exists. However, the lack of any comprehensive enhancement measures prompted the Upper Columbia United Tribes Fisheries Center (UCUT), Colville Confederated

  11. Applying of Factor Analyses for Determination of Trace Elements Distribution in Water from River Vardar and Its Tributaries, Macedonia/Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Stanko Ilić; Stafilov, Trajče; Šajn, Robert; Tănăselia, Claudiu; Bačeva, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    A systematic study was carried out to investigate the distribution of fifty-six elements in the water samples from river Vardar (Republic of Macedonia and Greece) and its major tributaries. The samples were collected from 27 sampling sites. Analyses were performed by mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS) and atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-AES). Cluster and R mode factor analysis (FA) was used to identify and characterise element associations and four associations of elements were determined by the method of multivariate statistics. Three factors represent the associations of elements that occur in the river water naturally while Factor 3 represents an anthropogenic association of the elements (Cd, Ga, In, Pb, Re, Tl, Cu, and Zn) introduced in the river waters from the waste waters from the mining and metallurgical activities in the country. PMID:24587756

  12. Applying of Factor Analyses for Determination of Trace Elements Distribution in Water from River Vardar and Its Tributaries, Macedonia/Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanko Ilić Popov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic study was carried out to investigate the distribution of fifty-six elements in the water samples from river Vardar (Republic of Macedonia and Greece and its major tributaries. The samples were collected from 27 sampling sites. Analyses were performed by mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS and atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-AES. Cluster and R mode factor analysis (FA was used to identify and characterise element associations and four associations of elements were determined by the method of multivariate statistics. Three factors represent the associations of elements that occur in the river water naturally while Factor 3 represents an anthropogenic association of the elements (Cd, Ga, In, Pb, Re, Tl, Cu, and Zn introduced in the river waters from the waste waters from the mining and metallurgical activities in the country.

  13. Nutrient concentrations and loads and Escherichia coli densities in tributaries of the Niantic River estuary, southeastern Connecticut, 2005 and 2008–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient concentrations and loads and Escherichia coli (E. coli) densities were studied in 2005 and from 2008 through 2011 in water-quality samples from tributaries of the Niantic River Estuary in southeastern Connecticut. Data from a water-quality survey of the base flow of subbasins in the watershed in June 2005 were used to determine the range of total nitrogen concentrations (0.09 to 2.4 milligrams per liter), instantaneous loads (less than 1 to 62 pounds per day) and the yields of total nitrogen ranging from 0.02 to 11.2 pounds per square mile per day (less than 1 to 7.2 kilograms per hectare per year) from basin segments. Nitrogen yields were positively correlated with the amount of developed land in each subbasin. Stable isotope measurements of nitrate (δ15N) and oxygen (δ18O) ranged from 3.9 to 9.4 per mil and 0.7 to 4.1 per mil, respectively, indicating that likely sources of nitrate in base flow are soil nitrate and ammonium fertilizers, sewage or animal waste, or a mixture of these sources. Continuous streamflow and monthly water-quality sampling, with additional storm event sampling, were conducted at the three major tributaries (Latimer Brook, Oil Mill Brook, and Stony Brook) of the Niantic River from October 2008 through September 2011. Samples were analyzed for nitrogen and phosphorus constituents and E. coli densities. Total freshwater discharge from these tributaries, which is reduced by upstream withdrawals, ranged from 25.9 to 37.8 million gallons per day. Total nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations generally were low, with the mean values below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommended nutrient concentration values of 0.71 milligram per liter and 0.031 milligram per liter, respectively. Total nitrogen was predominantly in the form of total ammonia plus organic nitrogen at the Oil Mill Brook and Stony Brook sites and in the form of nitrate at Latimer Brook. Annual total nitrogen loads that flowed into the Niantic River estuary from

  14. Influences of Stocking Salmon Carcass Analogs on Salmonids in Klickitat River Tributaries, 2001-2005 Completion Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zendt, Joe; Sharp, Bill (Yakama Nation Fisheries, Toppenish, WA)

    2006-09-01

    This report describes the work completed by the Yakama Nation Fisheries Program (YNFP) in the Klickitat subbasin in south-central Washington under BPA innovative project No.200105500--Influences of stocking salmon carcass analogs on salmonids in Columbia River Tributaries. Salmon carcasses historically provided a significant source of marine-derived nutrients to many stream systems in the Columbia basin, and decreased run sizes have led to a loss of this nutrient source in many streams. Partners in this project developed a pathogen-free carcass analog and stocked the analogs in streams with the following objectives: restoring food availability to streams with reduced anadromous salmon returns; mimicking the natural pathways and timing of food acquisition by salmonids; minimizing unintended negative ecological effects; and increasing the growth and survival of salmonids. In the Klickitat subbasin, carcass analogs were stocked in two streams in 2002 and 2003; a third stream was used as a control. Salmonid fish abundance, growth, and stomach contents were monitored in all three streams before and after carcass analog placement. Fish, invertebrate, and periphyton samples were also collected for stable isotope analysis (to determine if nutrients from carcass analogs were incorporated into the stream food web). Water quality samples were also collected to determine if nutrient overloading occurred in streams. Significant differences in growth were found between fish in treated and untreated stream reaches. Fish in treatment reaches exhibited higher instantaneous growth rates approximately one month after the first carcass analog stocking. Stomach contents sampling indicated that salmonid fish routinely consumed the carcass analog material directly, and that stomach fullness of fish in treatment reaches was higher than in untreated reaches in the first few weeks following carcass analog stockings. No significant differences were detected in fish abundance between

  15. Major and Trace Element Fluxes to the Ganges River: Significance of Small Flood Plain Tributary as Non-Point Pollution Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, V.; Sen, I. S.; Mishra, G.

    2017-12-01

    There has been much discussion amongst biologists, ecologists, chemists, geologists, environmental firms, and science policy makers about the impact of human activities on river health. As a result, multiple river restoration projects are on going on many large river basins around the world. In the Indian subcontinent, the Ganges River is the focal point of all restoration actions as it provides food and water security to half a billion people. Serious concerns have been raised about the quality of Ganga water as toxic chemicals and many more enters the river system through point-sources such as direct wastewater discharge to rivers, or non-point-sources. Point source pollution can be easily identified and remedial actions can be taken; however, non-point pollution sources are harder to quantify and mitigate. A large non-point pollution source in the Indo-Gangetic floodplain is the network of small floodplain rivers. However, these rivers are rarely studied since they are small in catchment area ( 1000-10,000 km2) and discharge (knowledge gap we have monitored the Pandu River for one year between February 2015 and April 2016. Pandu river is 242 km long and is a right bank tributary of Ganges with a total catchment area of 1495 km2. Water samples were collected every month for dissolved major and trace elements. Here we show that the concentration of heavy metals in river Pandu is in higher range as compared to the world river average, and all the dissolved elements shows a large spatial-temporal variation. We show that the Pandu river exports 192170, 168517, 57802, 32769, 29663, 1043, 279, 241, 225, 162, 97, 28, 25, 22, 20, 8, 4 Kg/yr of Ca, Na, Mg, K, Si, Sr, Zn, B, Ba, Mn, Al, Li, Rb, Mo, U, Cu, and Sb, respectively, to the Ganga river, and the exported chemical flux effects the water chemistry of the Ganga river downstream of its confluence point. We further speculate that small floodplain rivers is an important source that contributes to the dissolved chemical

  16. Nonradioactive Ambient Air Monitoring at Los Alamos National Laboratory 2001--2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Gladney; J.Dewart, C.Eberhart; J.Lochamy

    2004-09-01

    During the spring of 2000, the Cerro Grande forest fire reached Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and ignited both above-ground vegetation and disposed materials in several landfills. During and after the fire, there was concern about the potential human health impacts from chemicals emitted by the combustion of these Laboratory materials. Consequently, short-term, intensive air-monitoring studies were performed during and shortly after the fire. Unlike the radiological data from many years of AIRNET sampling, LANL did not have an adequate database of nonradiological species under baseline conditions with which to compare data collected during the fire. Therefore, during 2001 the Meteorology and Air Quality Group designed and implemented a new air-monitoring program, entitled NonRadNET, to provide nonradiological background data under normal conditions. The objectives of NonRadNET were to: (1) develop the capability for collecting nonradiological air-monitoring data, (2) conduct monitoring to develop a database of typical background levels of selected nonradiological species in the communities nearest the Laboratory, and (3) determine LANL's potential contribution to nonradiological air pollution in the surrounding communities. NonRadNET ended in late December 2002 with five quarters of data. The purpose of this paper is to organize and describe the NonRadNET data collected over 2001-2002 to use as baseline data, either for monitoring during a fire, some other abnormal event, or routine use. To achieve that purpose, in this paper we will: (1) document the NonRadNET program procedures, methods, and quality management, (2) describe the usual origins and uses of the species measured, (3) compare the species measured to LANL and other area emissions, (4) present the five quarters of data, (5) compare the data to known typical environmental values, and (6) evaluate the data against exposure standards.

  17. Multielement determination in river-water of Sepetiba Bay tributaries (Brazil) by total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.C.M.; Castro, C.R.F.; Lopes, R.T.; Anjos, M.J.; Rio de Janeiro State Univ.

    2006-01-01

    Trace elements were determined in the surface waters of tributaries of the Sepetiba Bay, Brazil (Piraque, Ita, Sao Francisco, Guarda, Guandu Mirim, Vala do Sangue and Engenho Novo rivers) by total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF). Eighteen trace elements could be determined in the dissolved and the suspended particulate phases: Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb. The elemental concentration values were compared to the values recommended by the Brazilian legislation. (author)

  18. Water-quality and biological conditions in selected tributaries of the Lower Boise River, southwestern Idaho, water years 2009-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etheridge, Alexandra B.; MacCoy, Dorene E.; Weakland, Rhonda J.

    2014-01-01

    Water-quality conditions were studied in selected tributaries of the lower Boise River during water years 2009–12, including Fivemile and Tenmile Creeks in 2009, Indian Creek in 2010, and Mason Creek in 2011 and 2012. Biological samples, including periphyton biomass and chlorophyll-a, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish were collected in Mason Creek in October 2011. Synoptic water-quality sampling events were timed to coincide with the beginning and middle of the irrigation season as well as the non-irrigation season, and showed that land uses and irrigation practices affect water quality in the selected tributaries. Large increases in nutrient and sediment concentrations and loads occurred over relatively short stream reaches and affected nutrient and sediment concentrations downstream of those reaches. Escherichia coli (E. coli) values increased in study reaches adjacent to pastured lands or wastewater treatment plants, but increased E. coli values at upstream locations did not necessarily affect E. coli values at downstream locations. A spatial loading analysis identified source areas for nutrients, sediment, and E. coli, and might be useful in selecting locations for water-quality improvement projects. Effluent from wastewater treatment plants increased nutrient loads in specific reaches in Fivemile and Indian Creeks. Increased suspended-sediment loads were associated with increased discharge from irrigation returns in each of the studied tributaries. Samples collected during or shortly after storms showed that surface runoff, particularly during the winter, may be an important source of nutrients in tributary watersheds with substantial agricultural land use. Concentrations of total phosphorus, suspended sediment, and E. coli exceeded regulatory water-quality targets or trigger levels at one or more monitoring sites in each tributary studied, and exceedences occurred during irrigation season more often than during non-irrigation season. As with water

  19. Occurrence and variability of mining-related lead and zinc in the Spring River flood plain and tributary flood plains, Cherokee County, Kansas, 2009--11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2013-01-01

    Historical mining activity in the Tri-State Mining District (TSMD), located in parts of southeast Kansas, southwest Missouri, and northeast Oklahoma, has resulted in a substantial ongoing input of cadmium, lead, and zinc to the environment. To provide some of the information needed to support remediation efforts in the Cherokee County, Kansas, superfund site, a 4-year study was begun in 2009 by the U.S. Geological Survey that was requested and funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A combination of surficial-soil sampling and coring was used to investigate the occurrence and variability of mining-related lead and zinc in the flood plains of the Spring River and several tributaries within the superfund site. Lead- and zinc-contaminated flood plains are a concern, in part, because they represent a long-term source of contamination to the fluvial environment. Lead and zinc contamination was assessed with reference to probable-effect concentrations (PECs), which represent the concentrations above which adverse aquatic biological effects are likely to occur. The general PECs for lead and zinc were 128 and 459 milligrams per kilogram, respectively. The TSMD-specific PECs for lead and zinc were 150 and 2,083 milligrams per kilogram, respectively. Typically, surficial soils in the Spring River flood plain had lead and zinc concentrations that were less than the general PECs. Lead and zinc concentrations in the surficial-soil samples were variable with distance downstream and with distance from the Spring River channel, and the largest lead and zinc concentrations usually were located near the channel. Lead and zinc concentrations larger than the general or TSMD-specific PECs, or both, were infrequent at depth in the Spring River flood plain. When present, such contamination typically was confined to the upper 2 feet of the core and frequently was confined to the upper 6 inches. Tributaries with few or no lead- and zinc-mined areas in the basin—Brush Creek

  20. Effects of water temperature on breeding phenology, growth and timing of metamorphosis of foothill yellow-legged frogs (Rana boylii) on the mainstem and selected tributaries of California's Trinity River - 2004-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara Wheeler; James Bettaso; Donald Ashton; Hartwell Welsh

    2013-01-01

    The cold temperatures maintained in the Trinity River are beneficial to fish but may be problematic for foothill yellow-legged frogs. We examined the timing of breeding, reproductive output, and growth and development of tadpoles for populations of foothill yellow-legged frogs on the mainstem and six tributaries of the Trinity River. On the colder mainstem, onset of...

  1. Trends in Food Habits and Their Relation to Socioeconomic Status among Nordic Adolescents 2001/2002-2009/2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fismen, Anne-Siri; Smith, Otto Robert Frans; Torsheim, Torbjørn

    2016-01-01

    , collected via three nationally representative and comparable questionnaire surveys in 2001/2002, 2005/2006 and 2009/2010. Food habits were identified by students' consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets and sugar sweetened soft drink. Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured with the Family Affluence Scale...... at national level. In recent years, social inequalities in food habits have been attracted particular governmental interest and several initiatives addressing the socioeconomic gradient in food habits have been highlighted. However, few internationally published studies have evaluated how trends....../2002-2005/2006 and was stable thereafter. Denmark displayed an increase between 2001/2002-2005/2006 followed by a similar decrease between 2005/2006-2009/2010 for both sweet and soft drink consumption. Socioeconomic inequalities in fruit and vegetable consumption were observed in all countries, with no cross...

  2. Flood-inundation maps and wetland restoration suitability index for the Blue River and selected tributaries, Kansas City, Missouri, and vicinity, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, David C.; Kelly, Brian P.; Studley, Seth E.

    2015-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 39.7-mile reach of the Blue River and selected tributaries (Brush Creek, Indian Creek, and Dyke Branch) at Kansas City, Missouri, and vicinity, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Kansas City, Missouri. The flood-inundation maps, accessed through the USGS Flood-Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the spatial extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at 15 reference streamgages and associated stream reaches in the Blue River Basin. Near-real-time stage data from the streamgages may be obtained from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at selected sites.

  3. Community-level response of fishes and aquatic macroinvertebrates to stream restoration in a third-order tributary of the Potomac River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selego, Stephen M.; Rose, Charnee L.; Merovich, George T.; Welsh, Stuart A.; Anderson, James T.

    2012-01-01

    Natural stream channel design principles and riparian restoration practices were applied during spring 2010 to an agriculturally impaired reach of the Cacapon River, a tributary of the Potomac River which flows into the Chesapeake Bay. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and fishes were sampled from the restoration reach, two degraded control, and two natural reference reaches prior to, concurrently with, and following restoration (2009 through 2010). Collector filterers and scrapers replaced collector gatherers as the dominant macroinvertebrate functional feeding groups in the restoration reach. Before restoration, based on indices of biotic integrity (IBI), the restoration reach fish and macroinvertebrate communities closely resembled those sampled from the control reaches, and after restoration more closely resembled those from the reference reaches. Although the macroinvertebrate community responded more favorably than the fish community, both communities recovered quickly from the temporary impairment caused by the disturbance of restoration procedures and suggest rapid improvement in local ecological conditions.

  4. Community-Level Response of Fishes and Aquatic Macroinvertebrates to Stream Restoration in a Third-Order Tributary of the Potomac River, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Selego

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural stream channel design principles and riparian restoration practices were applied during spring 2010 to an agriculturally impaired reach of the Cacapon River, a tributary of the Potomac River which flows into the Chesapeake Bay. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and fishes were sampled from the restoration reach, two degraded control, and two natural reference reaches prior to, concurrently with, and following restoration (2009 through 2010. Collector filterers and scrapers replaced collector gatherers as the dominant macroinvertebrate functional feeding groups in the restoration reach. Before restoration, based on indices of biotic integrity (IBI, the restoration reach fish and macroinvertebrate communities closely resembled those sampled from the control reaches, and after restoration more closely resembled those from the reference reaches. Although the macroinvertebrate community responded more favorably than the fish community, both communities recovered quickly from the temporary impairment caused by the disturbance of restoration procedures and suggest rapid improvement in local ecological conditions.

  5. STREAM II-V7: Revision for STREAM II-V6 to include outflow from all Savannah River Site tributaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maze, Grace M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-01-01

    STREAM II is the aqueous transport model of the Weather Information Display (WIND) emergency response system at Savannah River Site. It is used to calculate transport in the event of a chemical or radiological spill into the waterways on the Savannah River Site. Improvements were made to the code (STREAM II V7) to include flow from all site tributaries to the Savannah River total flow and utilize a 4 digit year input. The predicted downstream concentrations using V7 were generally on the same order of magnitude as V6 with slightly lower concentrations and quicker arrival times when all onsite stream flows are contributing to the Savannah River flow. The downstream arrival time at the Savannah River Water Plant ranges from no change to an increase of 8.77%, with minimum changes typically in March/April and maximum changes typically in October/November. The downstream concentrations are generally no more than 15% lower using V7 with the maximum percent change in January through April and minimum changes in June/July.

  6. Approaches to restoration of oak forests on farmed lowlands of the Mississippi river and its tributaries (Avances en la restauración de bosques de roble en tierras bajas agrícolas del Río Mississippi y sus tributaries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.S. Gardiner; D.C. Dey; John Stanturf; B.R. Lockhart

    2010-01-01

    The lowlands associated with the Mississippi River and its tributaries historically supported extensive broadleaf forests that were particularly rich in oak (Quercus spp.) species. Beginning in the 1700s, deforestation for agriculture substantially reduced the extent of the original forest, and fragmented the remainder into small parcels. More recently, declines in...

  7. Assessing dam development, land use conversion, and climate change pressures on tributary river flows and water quality of the Mekong's Tonle Sap basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, T. A.; Arias, M. E.; Oeurng, C.; Arnaiz, M.; Piman, T.

    2016-12-01

    The Tonle Sap Lake is Southeast Asia's most productive freshwater fishery, but the productivity of this valuable ecosystem is under threat from extensive development in the lower Mekong. With dams potentially blocking all major tributaries along the lower Mekong River, the role of local Tonle Sap basin tributaries for maintaining environmental flows, sediment loads, and fish recruitment is becoming increasingly critical. Development within the Tonle Sap basin, however, is not stagnant. Developers are proposing extensive dam development in key Tonle Sap tributaries (see Figure). Some dams will provide hydroelectricity and others will provide opportunities for large-scale irrigation resulting in agro-industrial expansion. There is thus an immediate need to assess the current situation and understand future effects of dam development and land use conversion under climate change on local riverine ecosystems. A combination of remote sensing, field visits, and hydro-meteorological data analyses enabled an assessment of water infrastructure and agricultural development in the basin. The application of SWAT for modelling flows and water quality combined with HEC-RESSIM for reservoir operations enabled for a holistic modelling approach. Initial results show that dams and land use change dominate flow and water quality responses, when compared to climate change. Large ongoing dam and irrigation development in the Pursat and Battambang subbasins will critically alter the natural river flows to the Tonle Sap Lake. Some of the observed dams did not have provisions for sediment flushing, clearing of flooded areas, fish passages, or other environmental protection measures. Poor planning and operation of this infrastructure could have dire consequences on the fragile riverine ecosystem of Tonle Sap tributaries, resulting in fish migration barriers, losses in aquatic habitats, and ecological degradation. The seemingly chaotic development in the Tonle Sap basin induces a great level

  8. Estonie 2001-2002 : turbulences politiques a la veille des grands rendez-vous internationaux / Antoine Chalvin, Juliette Déplanque

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Chalvin, Antoine

    2002-01-01

    Eesti sisepoliitikast aastal 2001 - 2002. Presidendivalimistele järgnenud valitsuskriisist, majandusnäitajatest, Eesti ja Prantsusmaa vahelistest majandussuhetest ning Eesti peatsest ühinemisest Euroopa Liiduga. Tabel: peamised majandusnäitajad Eestis aastatel 1994 - 2001. Lisad.

  9. [Studies on the water quality of the river Po and its tributaries between Monte Cremona and Casalmaggiore. II. Period 1971-2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellelli, E; Bracchi, U; Sansebastiano, G

    1976-01-01

    The results relating to the research carried out on the river Po upstream and downstream Cremona town, at Casalmaggiore and at the mouths of the right side tributaries Arda-Ongina and Taro in the period 1971-72 are reported in the present note. The samplings took place once every month and on the same day flow measurements were effected by the Magistracy of the river Po in the five stations. The results of this first series of sampling have shown a good stability of the water quality of the river Po, in the different seasons and in the different hydrological conditions. No significative differences were poi nted out for the most part of the determined parameters between the stations upstream and downstream Cremona and Casalmaggiore, except the turbid load (turbidity, suspended matter at 105 degrees C, setteable solids) which presented at Casalmaggiore an average value absolutely higher than the calculated one which was achieved considering concentrations and river flow at Cremona and at the mouths of Arda-Ongina and Taro. With few exceptions the water quality keeps a good level for fish life and its actual pollution degree let us think it possible to improve the situation in a short time. Only microbiological parameters are excepted, as they exceed the proposed limits for recreation and bathing uses (W.Q.C.).

  10. Occurrence and transport of diazinon in the Sacramento River, California, and selected tributaries during three winter storms, January-February 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dileanis, Peter D.; Bennett, Kevin P.; Domagalski, Joseph L.

    2002-01-01

    The organophosphate pesticide diazinon is applied as a dormant orchard spray in the Sacramento Valley, California, during the winter when the area receives a majority of its annual rainfall. Dormant spray pesticides, thus, have the potential to wash off the areas of application and migrate with storm runoff to streams in the Sacramento River Basin. Previous monitoring studies have shown that rain and associated runoff from winter storms plays an important role in the transport of diazinon from point of application to the Sacramento River and tributaries. Between January 30 and February 25, 2000, diazinon concentrations in the Sacramento River and selected tributaries were monitored on 5 consecutive days during each of three winter storms that moved through the Sacramento Valley after diazinon had been applied to orchards in the basin. Water samples were collected at 17 sites chosen to represent the effect of upstream land use at local and regional scales. Most samples were analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Analysis by gas chromatography with electron capture detector and thermionic specific detector (GC/ECD/TSD) and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was done on split replicates from over 30 percent of the samples to confirm ELISA results and to provide lower analytical reporting limits at selected sites [30 ng/L (nanogram per liter) for ELISA, 20 ng/L for GC/ECD/TSD, and 2 ng/L for GC/MS]. Concentrations determined from ELISA analyses were consistently higher than concentrations for split samples analyzed by gas chromatography methods. Because of bias between diazinon concentrations using ELISA and gas chromatography methods, results from ELISA analyses were not compared to water-quality criteria. Load calculations using the ELISA analyses are similarly biased. Because the bias was consistent, however, the ELISA data is useful in site-to-site comparisons used to rank the relative levels and contributions of diazinon from

  11. RESEARCH ON HEAVY METAL POLLUTION OF THE RIVER MUREŞ IN HUNEDOARA COUNTY DUE TRIBUTARIES AFFECTED BY HUMAN ACTIVITIES, INDUSTRIAL AND MINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SZOLLOSI-MOŢA ANDREI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mureş crosses over a length of 105 km, a broad tectonic corridor between mountains Şureanu, Poiana Rusca Mountains and the Apuseni Mountains in the north. Hunedoara County has significant quantities of mineral resources, mining specific activities effectively represents one of the main economic sectors. Ore processing gave rise to significant amounts of mining waste. Tailings dams and waste dumps obtained from ore processing in preparation plants are large and have led to changes in the morphology of the area. The purpose of this study is to examine the degree of pollution of the river Mures in Hunedoara county, with heavy metals due to various human activities. For monitoring and evaluation in terms of water quality of the river Mures and studying the degree and effects of pollution were collected and analyzed water samples from Mures River and tributaries from the main mining areas, such Certej. Samples were analyzed by emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma and the results of measurements allowed us to assess the degree of pollution of the aquatic environment and sediments . The effects of mining waste on the environment persists for a long time , even after the operation closed. Rehabilitation mining areas and those adjacent to improve the quality of life, as a prerequisite for sustainable development.

  12. Estimation of surface water quality in a Yazoo River tributary using the duration curve and recurrence interval approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Ouyang; Prem B. Parajuli; Daniel A. Marion

    2013-01-01

    Pollution of surface water with harmful chemicals and eutrophication of rivers and lakes with excess nutrients are serious environmental concerns. This study estimated surface water quality in a stream within the Yazoo River Basin (YRB), Mississippi, USA, using the duration curve and recurrence interval analysis techniques. Data from the US Geological Survey (USGS)...

  13. Application of the FluEgg model to predict transport of Asian carp eggs in the Saint Joseph River (Great Lakes tributary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Tatiana; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Jackson, P. Ryan; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2015-01-01

    The Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator (FluEgg) is a three-dimensional Lagrangian model that simulates the movement and development of Asian carp eggs until hatching based on the physical characteristics of the flow field and the physical and biological characteristics of the eggs. This tool provides information concerning egg development and spawning habitat suitability including: egg plume location, egg vertical and travel time distribution, and egg-hatching risk. A case study of the simulation of Asian carp eggs in the Lower Saint Joseph River, a tributary of Lake Michigan, is presented. The river hydrodynamic input for FluEgg was generated in two ways — using hydroacoustic data and using HEC-RAS model data. The HEC-RAS model hydrodynamic input data were used to simulate 52 scenarios covering a broad range of flows and water temperatures with the eggs at risk of hatching ranging from 0 to 93% depending on river conditions. FluEgg simulations depict the highest percentage of eggs at risk of hatching occurs at the lowest discharge and at peak water temperatures. Analysis of these scenarios illustrates how the interactive relation among river length, hydrodynamics, and water temperature influence egg transport and hatching risk. An improved version of FluEgg, which more realistically simulates dispersion and egg development, is presented. Also presented is a graphical user interface that facilitates the use of FluEgg and provides a set of post-processing analysis tools to support management decision-making regarding the prevention and control of Asian carp reproduction in rivers with or without Asian carp populations.

  14. Paleospring tufa deposition in the Kurkur Oasis region and implications for tributary integration with the River Nile in southern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoll, Kathleen; Sallam, Emad S.

    2017-12-01

    Though southern Egypt is currently hyperarid, relict freshwater carbonate deposits called tufas near Kurkur (region centered at 23° 54‧ N, 32° 19‧ E) indicate that ambient rainwater-fed alkaline springs formerly sourced drainages in the Sinn El-Kaddab or Eocene scarp, and precipitated carbonate tufa deposits at waterfall cascades, pools, and streams. Petrographic analysis enables the reconstruction of a variety of vegetated microenvironments during Quaternary time. The Kurkur tufas are very porous rocks with an abundance of fossil plant casts and molds making up the petrofabrics at the macroscale. The tufas also preserve laminations of successive generations of calcified remains of microbes visible at the microscopic scale. Original carbonate framework architectures are massive carbonate structures to the decameter scale, with characteristic highly porous and permeable rock fabrics, including vegetation-rich phytoherms and stromatolite forms. The tufas are relatively pristine, preserving their original rock textures with minimal post-depositional alteration. Structural controls affecting the development of tufa deposits near Kurkur include fissure, cracks and fault planes that would have enhanced groundwater recharge and emergence of carbonate-saturated springs from perched aquifers above the Nubian Aquifer System during periods of greater effective rainfall in the past when the water table was significantly higher. The Kurkur tufas are relict archives from phases when groundwater discharge supported comparatively more vegetation than the modern day, and spring flows sustained baseflow in the Wadi Kurkur tributary of the Upper Nile. Episodes of tufa deposition along now-defunct tributaries therefore reflect phases of a more integrated Nile drainage system.

  15. Chemical contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarker responses in fish from the Colorado River and its tributaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Blazer, Vicki S; Denslow, Nancy D; Echols, Kathy R; Gross, Timothy S; May, Tom W; Anderson, Patrick J; Coyle, James J; Tillitt, Donald E

    2007-06-01

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), black bass (Micropterus spp.), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were collected from 14 sites in the Colorado River Basin (CRB) to document spatial trends in accumulative contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarkers. Organochlorine residues, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ), and elemental contaminants were measured in composite samples of whole fish, grouped by species and gender, from each site. Selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish were elevated throughout the CRB, and pesticide concentrations were greatest in fish from agricultural areas in the Lower Colorado River and Gila River. Selenium concentrations exceeded toxicity thresholds for fish (>1.0 microg/g ww) at all CRB sites except the Gila River at Hayden, Arizona. Mercury concentrations were elevated (>0.1 microg/g ww) in fish from the Yampa River at Lay, Colorado; the Green River at Ouray National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Utah and San Rafael, Utah; the San Juan River at Hogback Diversion, New Mexico; and the Colorado River at Gold Bar Canyon, Utah, Needles, California, and Imperial Dam, Arizona. Concentrations of p,p'-DDE were relatively high in fish from the Gila River at Arlington, Arizona (>1.0 microg/g ww) and Phoenix, Arizona (>0.5 microg/g ww). Concentrations of other formerly used pesticides including toxaphene, total chlordanes, and dieldrin were also greatest at these two sites but did not exceed toxicity thresholds. Currently used pesticides such as Dacthal, endosulfan, gamma-HCH, and methoxychlor were also greatest in fish from the Gila River downstream of Phoenix. Total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; >0.11 microg/g ww) and TCDD-EQs (>5 pg/g ww) exceeded wildlife guidelines in fish from the Gila River at Phoenix. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity was also relatively high in carp from the Gila River at Phoenix and in bass from the Green River at Ouray NWR. Fish from some sites

  16. Concentrations, loads, and yields of select constituents from major tributaries of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers in Iowa, water years 2004-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Jessica D.

    2012-01-01

    Excess nutrients, suspended-sediment loads, and the presence of pesticides in Iowa rivers can have deleterious effects on water quality in State streams, downstream major rivers, and the Gulf of Mexico. Fertilizer and pesticides are used to support crop growth on Iowa's highly productive agricultural landscape and for household and commercial lawns and gardens. Water quality was characterized near the mouths of 10 major Iowa tributaries to the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers from March 2004 through September 2008. Stream loads were calculated for select ions, nutrients, and sediment using approximately monthly samples, and samples from storm and snowmelt events. Water-quality samples collected using standard streamflow-integrated protocols were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, carbon, pesticides, and suspended sediment. Statistical data summaries of sample data used parametric and nonparametric techniques to address potential bias related to censored data and multiple levels of censoring of data below analytical detection limits. Constituent stream loads were computed using standard pre-defined models in S-LOADEST that include streamflow and time terms plus additional terms for streamflow variability and streamflow anomalies. Streamflow variability terms describe the difference in streamflow from recent average conditions, whereas streamflow anomaly terms account for deviations from average conditions from long- to short-term sequentially. Streamflow variability or anomaly terms were included in 44 of 80 site/constituent individual models, demonstrating the usefulness of these terms in increasing accuracy of the load estimates. Constituent concentrations in Iowa streams exhibit streamflow, seasonal, and spatial patterns related to the landform and climate gradients across the studied basins. The streamflow-concentration relation indicated dilution for ions such as chloride and sulfate. Other constituent concentrations, such as dissolved organic carbon and

  17. Total mercury, methyl mercury, and heavy metal concentrations in Hyeongsan River and its tributaries in Pohang city, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailon, Mark Xavier; David, Anneschel Sheehan; Park, Yeongeon; Kim, Eunhee; Hong, Yongseok

    2018-04-11

    Heavy metal contamination in aquatic systems is a big problem in many areas around the world. In 2016, high mercury concentrations were reported in bivalves (Corbicula leana) and sediments near the confluence of the Hyeongsan River and Chilseong Creek located in Pohang, a steel industrial city in the south-east coast of the Korean peninsula. Given that both the Chilseong and Gumu creeks run through the Pohang industrial complex and ultimately flow to the Hyeongsan River, it is imperative to determine if the industrial effluents have any impact on the mercury contamination in these two streams and the Hyeongsan River. In this work, we investigated the concentration levels of different heavy metals using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy. The metal concentration in the water samples from the Hyeongsan River, Gumu Creek, and Chilseong Creek did not exceed the limits for drinking water quality set by the US EPA and World Health Organization. However, the sediment samples were found to be heavily contaminated by Hg with levels exceeding the toxic effect threshold. Gumu Creek was found to be heavily contaminated. The concentrations of the different heavy metals increased downstream, and the samples collected from the sites in the Hyeongsan River near the Gumu Creek, an open channel for wastewater discharge of companies in the Pohang Industrial Complex, showed higher contamination levels, indicating that the effluents from the industrial complex are a possible source of contamination in the river.

  18. Identification of fish nursery areas in a free tributary of an impoundment region, upper Uruguay River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Alves da Silva

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the importance of different environments of the Ligeiro River (upper Uruguay River, Brazil in fish reproduction. For this purpose, three environments (sampling sites were selected: rapids, a pool, and the mouth of the Ligeiro River. Ichthyoplankton, zooplankton, and benthos were sampled six times per month from September, 2006 to March, 2007. Zooplankton and ichthyoplankton samples were collected early in the evening with plankton nets (64 µm and 500 µm, respectively. Benthos samples were also collected early in the evening with a Van Veen dredge. Local abiotic variables (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, electrical conductivity, water speed, alkalinity, water hardness, and water transparency were measured simultaneously with the biotic data sampling and were complemented by regional variables (water flow and precipitation. A total of 43,475 eggs and 2,269 larvae were captured. Of these larvae, 80.1% were in the pre-flexion and larval yolk stages. Digestive tract content showed that the greatest degree of repletion among the larvae in more advanced phases occurred in the pool environment. Water speed was the main characteristic used to differentiate the river's rapids and mouth from the pool. The abundance of zooplankton and benthos was not related to the distribution of densities among the different components of the ichthyoplankton. A greater abundance of eggs and larvae with yolk was found in the rapids and river mouth. Ordination analyses showed a connection between the advanced stage larvae and the pool environment. In conclusion, the rapids and river mouth of the Ligeiro River's are important locations for fish reproduction, particularly in regard to spawning and drifting of the ichthyoplankton's initial stages, whereas the pool represents a nursery place for larval growth.

  19. Stochastic Modeling of Sediment Connectivity for Reconstructing Sand Fluxes and Origins in the Unmonitored Se Kong, Se San, and Sre Pok Tributaries of the Mekong River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, R. J. P.; Bizzi, S.; Castelletti, A. F.; Kondolf, G. M.

    2018-01-01

    Sediment supply to rivers, subsequent fluvial transport, and the resulting sediment connectivity on network scales are often sparsely monitored and subject to major uncertainty. We propose to approach that uncertainty by adopting a stochastic method for modeling network sediment connectivity, which we present for the Se Kong, Se San, and Sre Pok (3S) tributaries of the Mekong. We quantify how unknown properties of sand sources translate into uncertainty regarding network connectivity by running the CASCADE (CAtchment Sediment Connectivity And DElivery) modeling framework in a Monte Carlo approach for 7,500 random realizations. Only a small ensemble of realizations reproduces downstream observations of sand transport. This ensemble presents an inverse stochastic approximation of the magnitude and variability of transport capacity, sediment flux, and grain size distribution of the sediment transported in the network (i.e., upscaling point observations to the entire network). The approximated magnitude of sand delivered from each tributary to the Mekong is controlled by reaches of low transport capacity ("bottlenecks"). These bottlenecks limit the ability to predict transport in the upper parts of the catchment through inverse stochastic approximation, a limitation that could be addressed by targeted monitoring upstream of identified bottlenecks. Nonetheless, bottlenecks also allow a clear partitioning of natural sand deliveries from the 3S to the Mekong, with the Se Kong delivering less (1.9 Mt/yr) and coarser (median grain size: 0.4 mm) sand than the Se San (5.3 Mt/yr, 0.22 mm) and Sre Pok (11 Mt/yr, 0.19 mm).

  20. Impact of farming activities on the water quality of the Pratu River and its tributaries in the Muni-Pomadzi wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiakor, S.

    2015-07-01

    The Muni-Pomadze wetland in the Central Region of Ghana is one of five internationally-recognised coastal wetlands (Ramsar sites) in Ghana under the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance. The wetland is known for its rich variety of biodiversity and unpolluted ecosystem and is fed by a main river called Pratu along with its tributaries (Ntakofa and Muni Rivers) that flows into the Muni lagoon. However, the need to produce enough food to feed the ever increasing population has led to the extensive use of land especially along the banks of the rivers that feed the wetland for farming activities. This disturbing issue coupled with other anthropogenic activities has led to an increasing level of pollution in the wetland resulting in water quality degradation in the river catchment. This has consequently diminished both the local and international significance of the wetland. In this light, this research sought to assess the impact of farming and other anthropogenic activities along the Pratu River and its tributaries and consequently the Muni lagoon in the wetland by determining the source, types and level of pollution existing in the river basin. Water samples from the Pratu River, Ntakofa River and the Muni lagoon were analysed for physico – chemical parameters (pH, Temperature, Electric Conductivity, Salinity, Total Dissolved Solids, Alkalinity, Dissolved Oxygen, Biological Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand and Total Hardness) using titrimetry, Hach Sension 5 Conductometer and Hach pH Meter; trace metals (Iron, Copper, Zinc, Lead, Cadmium, Chromium and Mercury) using the Atomic Absorption Spectrometer; ions (Na, Ca, K, Mg, Cl-, ) using the Flame Photometry, UV-Visible Spectrophotometry and titrimetry. Pesticide residues (Organochlorines, Organophosphates and Synthetic Pyrethroids) were also analysed using the Gas Chromatography–Electron Capture and Pulse Flame Photometric Detections. Results of the physical analysis showed high concentration of

  1. Faecal carriage of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae among humans in Java, Indonesia, in 2001-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, Juliëtte A; Lestari, Endang Sri; Kloezen, Wendy; Lemmens-den Toom, Nicole; Mertaniasih, Ni Made; Kuntaman, Kuntaman; Purwanta, Marijam; Duerink, D Offra; Hadi, Usman; van Belkum, Alex; Verbrugh, Henri A; Goessens, Wil H

    2012-04-01

    To characterise commensal Escherichia coli and other Enterobacteriaceae with reduced susceptibility to cefotaxime that were collected in a large survey carried out among 3995 patients and healthy persons in two urban regions on Java, Indonesia, in 2001-2002. The putative extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae were analysed using double-disk synergy tests, isoelectric focusing, PCR assays, DNA sequencing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). On the day of discharge after five or more days of hospitalisation, at least 95 of 999 (9.5%) patients carried ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae as dominant faecal flora. Six patients were simultaneously colonised with E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates with ESBL activity. On admission, only 6 of 998 (0.6%) patients were colonised. Faecal carriage of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae among healthy persons or persons visiting a public health centre was not detected. The 107 ESBL-positive strains included 68 E. coli, 35 K. pneumoniae, and four other Enterobacteriaceae. bla(CTX-M-15) was the most prevalent ESBL in both E. coli (47.1%) and K. pneumoniae (45.7%), but the E. coli O25b-ST131 clone was virtually absent. Other ESBL types found were: SHV-2, -2a, -5, -12, CTX-M-3, -9, -14, and TEM-19. PFGE revealed extensive genetic diversity among the isolates. In 2001-2002, faecal carriage of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae as dominant flora in Indonesia was almost exclusively hospital-associated. The presence of various bla(ESBL) genes and the extensive genetic diversity among isolates argue against a single/dominant strain outbreak. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Nutrient and salt mass balance on the Lower Arkansas River and a contributing tributary in an irrigated agricultural setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander Hulzenga; Ryan T. Bailey; Timothy K. Gates

    2016-01-01

    The Lower Arkansas River Basin is an irrigated, agricultural valley suffering from high concentrations of nutrients and salts in the coupled groundwater-surface water system. The majority of water quality data collection and associated spatial analysis of concentrations and mass loadings from the aquifer to the stream network has been performed at the regional scale (...

  3. The dynamics of fish populations in the Palancar stream, a small tributary of the river Guadalquivir, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo, R.; Soriguer, M.C.; Villar, N.; Hernando, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between flooding and changes in the size distribution of fish populations in the Palancar stream confirms observations in other rivers. On average, density decreased by 36.2 % and biomass increased by 14.5 %, passing from a period of severe drought to one of heavier than normal rains. Precipitation is the most important of the many factors affecting the populations of the Palancar stream; the most evident changes all occurred after the drought. During the drought per...

  4. Stages and Discharges of the Mississippi River and Tributaries and Other Watersheds in the New Orleans District for 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-03-01

    SINNIN465 2 14 28 50 92 34 69 33 36 PINK SLUFF 35 37 0 v 41 so KAMA G4165MVILLS 3 4 45 48 Ir 49 MONROE. 4 $141ampowal Cxsf GENERAL LOCATION MAP N .,g...AND a4. .~.Tfz ~ ~ 9 N. f .".*-9*-.- . ..| 270 DAILY STAGES FOR 1979 CALCASIEU RIVER SALT WATER BARRIER CHANNEL AT LAKE CHARLES, LA. ( FLOY . W

  5. Spatial and temporal variations of aeolian sediment input to the tributaries (the Ten Kongduis) of the upper Yellow River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Shi, Changxing

    2018-02-01

    The Ten Kongduis of the upper Yellow River, located in Inner Mongolia, northern China, is an area with active wind-water coupled erosion and hence one of the main sediment sources of the Yellow River. In this study, we analyzed the characteristics of spatial and temporal variations of aeolian sediment input to the river channel. For this purpose, three segments of sand dune-covered banks of the Maobula and the Xiliugou kongduis were investigated three times from November 2014 to November 2015 using a 3-D laser scanner, and the displacement of banks of desert reaches of three kongduis was derived from interpreting remote sensing images taking in the years from 2005 to 2015. The data of the surveyed sand dunes reveal that the middle kongduis were fed by aeolian sand through the sand dunes moving towards the river channels. The amount of aeolian sediment input was estimated to be about 14.94 × 104 t/yr in the Maobula Kongdui and about 5.76 × 104 t/yr in the Xiliugou Kongdui during the period from November 2014 to November 2015. According to the interpretation results of remote sensing images, the amount of aeolian sediment input to the Maobula Kongdui was about 15.74 × 104 t in 2011 and 18.2 × 104 t in 2012. In the Xiliugou Kongdui, it was in the range of 9.52 × 104 - 9.99 × 104 t in 2012 and in the springs of 2013 and 2015. In the Hantaichuan Kongdui, it was 7.04 × 104 t in 2012, 7.53 × 104 t in the spring of 2013, and 8.52 × 104 t in the spring of 2015. Owing to the changes in wind and rainfall, both interseasonal and interannual sediment storage and release mechanisms exist in the processes of aeolian sand being delivered into the kongduis. However, all of the aeolian sediment input to the Ten Kongduis should be delivered downstream by the river flows during a long term.

  6. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A.; Tezak, E.P. (National Marine Fisheries Service); Endicott, Rick (Long Live the Kings, Seattle, WA)

    2002-08-01

    In the 2000 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion, NMFS identified six populations of steelhead and several salmon populations that had dropped to critically low levels and continue to decline. Following thorough risk-benefit analyses, captive propagation programs for some or all of the steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations may be required to reduce the risk of extinction, and more programs may be required in the future. Thus, captive propagation programs designed to maintain or rebuild steelhead populations require intensive and rigorous scientific evaluation, much like the other objectives of BPA Project 1993-056-00 currently underway for chinook (O. tshawytscha) and sockeye salmon (O. nerka). Pacific salmon reared to the adult stage in captivity exhibit poor reproductive performance when released to spawn naturally. Poor fin quality and swimming performance, incomplete development of secondary sex characteristics, changes in maturation timing, and other factors may contribute to reduced spawning success. Improving natural reproductive performance is critical for the success of captive broodstock programs in which adult-release is a primary reintroduction strategy for maintaining ESA-listed populations.

  7. Effect of Ichthyophonus on blood plasma chemistry of spawning Chinook salmon and their resulting offspring in a Yukon River tributary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd-Rump, T P; Horstmann-Dehn, L A; Atkinson, S; Skaugstad, C

    2017-01-24

    Ichthyophonus is a protozoan parasite of Alaska Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. In this study, we determined whether spawning Chinook salmon in the Yukon River drainage exhibited a measurable stress response (i.e. elevated plasma cortisol concentrations) and detectable changes in selected blood plasma chemistry parameters when infected with Ichthyophonus. The resulting alevin were also analyzed for any differences in blood plasma chemistry caused by parental infection with Ichthyophonus. In 2010, 2011, and 2012, spawning adult Chinook salmon were collected from the Salcha River, Alaska, USA, and the prevalence of Ichthyophonus in these fish was 7.8, 6.3, and 8.3%, respectively. Fish with no clinical signs of Ichthyophonus and Ichthyophonus-positive parents were cross-fertilized to investigate potential second-generation effects as a result of Ichthyophonus infection. We found no significant difference in cortisol concentrations in blood plasma between Ichthyophonus-positive and -negative adults or between alevin from Ichthyophonus-positive and -negative parents. There were no significant differences in blood plasma parameters (e.g. alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase, glucose) of Ichthyophonus-negative and -positive adults, with the exception of aspartate aminotransferase, which was significantly higher in plasma of Ichthyophonus-negative adults. All clinical chemistry parameters for alevin resulting from both Ichthyophonus-negative and -positive parents were not significantly different. Based on this study, which has a limited sample size and low prevalence of Ichthyophonus, offspring of Chinook salmon appear to suffer no disadvantage as a result of Ichthyophonus infection in their parents on the Salcha River.

  8. A epidemia de dengue/dengue hemorrágico no município do Rio de Janeiro, 2001/2002 The epidemic of dengue and hemorrhagic dengue fever in the city of Rio de Janeiro, 2001/2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisse Guimarães Casali

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a ocorrência dos principais sinais e sintomas dos casos de dengue clássico e dengue hemorrágico na epidemia de 2001-2002 do município do Rio de Janeiro. Foram analisados os 155.242 casos notificados ao Sistema de Informações de Agravos de Notificação, desde janeiro/2001, até junho/2002; deste total, excluindo-se os ignorados, 81.327 casos foram classificados como dengue clássico e 958 como dengue hemorrágico, com um total de 54 óbitos. Avaliaram-se as variáveis referentes à sintomatologia da doença. Manifestações gerais como febre, cefaléia, prostração, mialgia, náuseas e dor retro-orbitária tiveram alta incidência tanto no dengue clássico como no dengue hemorrágico. Por outro lado, manifestações hemorrágicas e algumas de maior gravidade como choque, hemorragia digestiva, petéquias, epistaxe, dor abdominal e derrame pleural, estiveram significativamente associadas ao dengue hemorrágico. Além disso, a evolução do quadro clínico para o óbito foi 34,8 vezes maior no dengue hemorrágico que no dengue clássico (OR=34,8; IC 19,7-61,3.The following study was intended to evaluate the occurrence of typical signs and symptoms in the cases of classic dengue and hemorrhagic dengue fever, during the 2001-2002 epidemic in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The authors reviewed 155,242 cases notified to the Information System of Notification Diseases, from January/2001 to June/2002: 81,327 cases were classified as classic dengue and 958 as hemorrhagic dengue fever, with a total of 60 deaths. Common symptoms, such as fever, headache, prostration, myalgia, nausea and retro-orbital pain, had a high incidence in both classic and hemorrhagic dengue fever. On the other hand, hemorrhagic signs and other signs of severe disease, such as shock, gastrointestinal bleeding, petechiae, epistaxis, abdominal pain and pleural effusion, were strongly associated to hemorrhagic dengue fever. Besides, the occurrence

  9. Study of the quality and quantity of waters of a tributary watershed of Paraíba do Sul river- São Paulo, after environmental preservation actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Andrade

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring programs of water quality and quantity are necessary to provide subsidies to assess the conditions of the watersheds and for decision making regarding to the management of water resources. This study analyzed the quality and quantity of waters of the Macacos stream watershed, a tributary of the Paraíba do Sul river, in São Paulo State, by monitoring the parameters: temperature, pH, conductivity and dissolved oxygen at five sites in the watershed. The measurements of flow and height of water depth during dry and wet seasons of 2010 and 2011 allowed the construction of the "rating curve" in four points of water quality monitoring and to reconstruct the series of water flow in these seasons. The analysis results showed that there is indication of changes in water quality parameters due to the conservation practices adopted. The water temperature parameter was the most influenced by the seasonal variation in runoff. Several physical factors may have influenced the correlation of the other parameters with runoff, especially the different environmental recovery actions implemented in the study to achieve the sustainability of the water resources.

  10. Depth to water in the western Snake River Plain and surrounding tributary valleys, southwestern Idaho and eastern Oregon, calculated using water levels from 1980 to 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, Molly A.

    1991-01-01

    The vulnerability of ground water to contamination in Idaho is being assessed by the ISHW/DEQ (Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, Division of Environmental Quality), using a modified version of the Environmental Protection Agency DRASTIC methods (Allers and others, 1985). The project was designed as a technique to: (1) Assign priorities for development of ground-water management and monitoring programs; (2) build support for, and public awareness of, vulnerability of ground water to contamination; (3) assist in the development of regulatory programs; and (4) provide access to technical data through the use of a GIS (geographic information system) (C. Grantham, Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, written commun., 1989). Digital representation of first-encountered water below land surface is an important element in evaluating vulnerability of ground water to contamination. Depth-to-water values were developed using existing data and computer software to construct a GIS data set to be combined with a soils data set developed by the SCS (Soul Conservation Service) and the IDHW/WQB (Idaho Department of Health and Welfare/Water Quality Bureau), and a recharge data set developed by the IDWR/RSF (idaho Department of Water Resources/Remote Sensing Facility). The USGS (U.S. Geological Survey) has developed digital depth-to-water values for eleven 1:100,00-scale quadrangles on the eastern Snake River Plain and surrounding tributary valleys.

  11. Depth to water in the eastern Snake River Plain and surrounding tributary valleys, southwestern Idaho and eastern Oregon, calculated using water levels from 1980 to 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, Molly A.

    1992-01-01

    The vulnerability of ground water to contamination in Idaho is being assessed by the IDHW/DEQ (Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, Division of Environmental Quality), using a modified version of the Environmental Orotection Agency DRASTIC methods (Allers and others, 1985). The project was designed as a technique to: (1) Assign priorities for development of ground-water management and monitoring programs; (2) build support for, and public awareness of, vulnerability or ground water to contamination; (3) assist in the development of regulatory programs; and (4) provide access to technical data through the use of a GIS (geographic information system) (C. Grantha,, Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, written commun., 1989). A digital representation of first-encountered water below land surface is an important element in evaluating vulnerability of ground water to contamination. Depth-to-water values were developed using existing data and computer software to construct a GIS data set to be combined with a sols data set developed by the SCS (Soil Conservation Service) and IDHW/WQB (Idaho Department of Health and Welfare/Water Quality Bureau), and a recharge data set developed by the IDWR/RSF (Idaho Department of Water Resources/Remote Sensing Facility). The USGS (U.S. Geological Survey) developed digital depth-to-water values for eleven 1:100,000-scale quadrangles on the eastern Snake River Plain and surrounding tributary valleys.

  12. APPLICATION OF DIATOMS TO ASSESS THE QUALITY OF THE WATERS OF THE BARYCZKA STREAM, LEFT-SIDE TRIBUTARY OF THE RIVER SAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Noga

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Baryczka stream is a small (about 20 km long, left bank tributary of the River San (Podkarpackie Voivodeship. Studies on diversity of diatom communities using OMNIDIA software were conducted in 2010 and 2011. Diatomaceous indices IPS, GDI and TDI and Van Dam et al. classification system were used for water quality assessment. Planothidium lanceolatum, Cocconeis placentula var. lineata, Achnanthidium minutissimum var. minutissimum, Nitzschia linearis, Rhoicosphenia abbreviata, Navicula lanceolata and Naicula gregaria were the most numerous. Values of the IPS index indicate good water quality (II–III class. Based on the GDI index, waters of the Baryczka stream were classified to III class water quality. The TDI index indicated poor and bad ecological state on the most sampling sites. On all sampling sites alaliphilous (pH>7 diatoms taxa predominated. The most common were eutraphentic and hypereutraphentic diatoms. With respect to trophy, it was shown that α- and β-mesosaprobous diatoms were the most common (III and II class water quality.

  13. From drought to flooding: understanding the abrupt 2010-11 hydrological annual cycle in the Amazonas River and tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo Espinoza, Jhan; Ronchail, Josyane; Loup Guyot, Jean; Junquas, Clementine; Drapeau, Guillaume; Martinez, Jean Michel; Santini, William; Vauchel, Philippe; Lavado, Waldo; Ordoñez, Julio; Espinoza, Raúl

    2012-06-01

    In this work we document and analyze the hydrological annual cycles characterized by a rapid transition between low and high flows in the Amazonas River (Peruvian Amazon) and we show how these events, which may impact vulnerable riverside residents, are related to regional climate variability. Our analysis is based on comprehensive discharge, rainfall and average suspended sediment data sets. Particular attention is paid to the 2010-11 hydrological year, when an unprecedented abrupt transition from the extreme September 2010 drought (8300 m3 s-1) to one of the four highest discharges in April 2011 (49 500 m3 s-1) was recorded at Tamshiyacu (Amazonas River). This unusual transition is also observed in average suspended sediments. Years with a rapid increase in discharge are characterized by negative sea surface temperature anomalies in the central equatorial Pacific during austral summer, corresponding to a La Niña-like mode. It originates a geopotential height wave train over the subtropical South Pacific and southeastern South America, with a negative anomaly along the southern Amazon and the southeastern South Atlantic convergence zone region. As a consequence, the monsoon flux is retained over the Amazon and a strong convergence of humidity occurs in the Peruvian Amazon basin, favoring high rainfall and discharge. These features are also reported during the 2010-11 austral summer, when an intense La Niña event characterized the equatorial Pacific.

  14. The dynamics of fish populations in the Palancar stream,a small tributary of the river Guadalquivir, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Ramón; Soriguer, Mila C.; Villar, Noelia; Hernando, José A.

    2001-02-01

    The relationship between flooding and changes in the size distribution of fish populations in the Palancar stream confirms observations in other rivers. On average, density decreased by 36.2 % and biomass increased by 14.5 %, passing from a period of severe drought to one of heavier than normal rains. Precipitation is the most important of the many factors affecting the populations of the Palancar stream; the most evident changes all occurred after the drought. During the drought period, the marked seasonal fluctuation in flow was the most important factor regulating the population dynamics. Fish density and biomass varied in proportion to the water volume. During the rainy period, the studied section of the river was found to be an important reproduction and nursery area, with juveniles and individuals of reproduction age dominating. The presence of Micropterus salmoides, an introduced piscivorous species, is another factor affecting the population dynamics in the Palancar stream. The observed absence of age 0+ individuals of the dominant populations is considered a direct effect of predation.

  15. From drought to flooding: understanding the abrupt 2010–11 hydrological annual cycle in the Amazonas River and tributaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinoza, Jhan Carlo; Ronchail, Josyane; Drapeau, Guillaume; Guyot, Jean Loup; Martinez, Jean Michel; Santini, William; Vauchel, Philippe; Espinoza, Raúl; Junquas, Clementine; Lavado, Waldo; Ordoñez, Julio

    2012-01-01

    In this work we document and analyze the hydrological annual cycles characterized by a rapid transition between low and high flows in the Amazonas River (Peruvian Amazon) and we show how these events, which may impact vulnerable riverside residents, are related to regional climate variability. Our analysis is based on comprehensive discharge, rainfall and average suspended sediment data sets. Particular attention is paid to the 2010–11 hydrological year, when an unprecedented abrupt transition from the extreme September 2010 drought (8300 m 3 s −1 ) to one of the four highest discharges in April 2011 (49 500 m 3 s −1 ) was recorded at Tamshiyacu (Amazonas River). This unusual transition is also observed in average suspended sediments. Years with a rapid increase in discharge are characterized by negative sea surface temperature anomalies in the central equatorial Pacific during austral summer, corresponding to a La Niña-like mode. It originates a geopotential height wave train over the subtropical South Pacific and southeastern South America, with a negative anomaly along the southern Amazon and the southeastern South Atlantic convergence zone region. As a consequence, the monsoon flux is retained over the Amazon and a strong convergence of humidity occurs in the Peruvian Amazon basin, favoring high rainfall and discharge. These features are also reported during the 2010–11 austral summer, when an intense La Niña event characterized the equatorial Pacific. (letter)

  16. [Fractions and adsorption characteristics of phosphorus on sediments and soils in water level fluctuating zone of the Pengxi River, a tributary of the Three Gorges Reservoir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen-Bin; Du, Bin; Zhao, Xiu-Lan; He, Bing-Hui

    2013-03-01

    The sediment, one of the key factors leading to the eutrophication of water bodies, is an important ecological component of natural water body. In order to investigate the morphological characteristics and moving-transiting rule of phosphorus in the sediments of the Pengxi River, a tributary of the Three Gorges Reservoir, the distributions of different phosphorus forms on the three cross-section in the sediments and three soil types of riparian zone were investigated using the sequential extraction method. The characteristics of phosphorus adsorption on the sediments were also investigated by batch experiments. The equilibrium phosphorus concentrations at zero adsorption (EPC0) on those sediments were estimated using the Henry linear models. The results show that the total phosphorus (TP) contents of these sediments and soils of riparian zone were 0.80-1.45 g x kg(-1) and 0.65-1.16 g x kg(-1), respectively. Phosphorus in sediments and soils were divided into inorganic phosphorus (IP) and organic phosphorus (Or-P), and the inorganic phosphorus was the dominant component of TP. Of the inorganic phosphorus fractions, the percentages of phosphorus bounded to calcium (Ca-P) and occluded phosphorus (O-P) from sediments were higher than 80%, implying that the contents of phosphorus were mainly influenced by their bedrocks and the sedimentary environmental conditions, not by the activities of human beings. The fractions of Ca-P and O-P were the dominant components of inorganic phosphorus in alluvial soil and purple soil, while the fraction of O-P was the highest in the paddy soil. The EPC0 values of the sediments from the sections of Huangshi, Shuangjiang and Gaoyang were 0.08, 0.13 and 0.11 mg x L(-1) respectively, but the EPC0 values of the alluvial soil, purple soil and paddy soil located in riparian zone were 0.08, 0.09 and 0.04 mg x L(-1), respectively. Correlation analysis shows that the values of EPC0 positively related to the contents of total phosphorus and clay

  17. Identification of fish nursery areas in a free tributary of an impoundment region, upper Uruguay River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Alves da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the importance of different environments of the Ligeiro River (upper Uruguay River, Brazil in fish reproduction. For this purpose, three environments (sampling sites were selected: rapids, a pool, and the mouth of the Ligeiro River. Ichthyoplankton, zooplankton, and benthos were sampled six times per month from September, 2006 to March, 2007. Zooplankton and ichthyoplankton samples were collected early in the evening with plankton nets (64 µm and 500 µm, respectively. Benthos samples were also collected early in the evening with a Van Veen dredge. Local abiotic variables (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, electrical conductivity, water speed, alkalinity, water hardness, and water transparency were measured simultaneously with the biotic data sampling and were complemented by regional variables (water flow and precipitation. A total of 43,475 eggs and 2,269 larvae were captured. Of these larvae, 80.1% were in the pre-flexion and larval yolk stages. Digestive tract content showed that the greatest degree of repletion among the larvae in more advanced phases occurred in the pool environment. Water speed was the main characteristic used to differentiate the river's rapids and mouth from the pool. The abundance of zooplankton and benthos was not related to the distribution of densities among the different components of the ichthyoplankton. A greater abundance of eggs and larvae with yolk was found in the rapids and river mouth. Ordination analyses showed a connection between the advanced stage larvae and the pool environment. In conclusion, the rapids and river mouth of the Ligeiro River's are important locations for fish reproduction, particularly in regard to spawning and drifting of the ichthyoplankton's initial stages, whereas the pool represents a nursery place for larval growth.O presente estudo visa determinar a importância de diferentes ambientes do rio Ligeiro (alto rio Uruguai/Brasil na reprodução dos

  18. Arkansas River and Tributaries Arkansas and Oklahoma. Toad Suck Ferry Lock and Dam, Conway Water Supply Foundation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    NUMBER CORE BOXES NASH IS ELEV....ION GROUND WATER 6 DIRECTION OF HOLE 3-.. E VETa DATE OLE 5/30/78 5/31/ 7’ 1,7 UtmATJON o TOP 5 OLE / 7 THICKNESS OF...JUN 83 UNCLASSIFIED F/G 13/13 NL mommmmommm 0 I~lmlIIIImEE mhEgEBhEEBhIEE E Eg //EEE n-EEEElgEl- E .II 1.0 II1 l w20 1111.25 111111’.4 1II1.6 MICROCOPY...Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System. e dam was founded on a thick shale layer of the Atoka Formation. Locally, the shale was gray to black, hard to

  19. THE STUDY OF HEAVY METALS CONTENT IN THE CATCHMENT AREA OF THE BIEBRZA RIVER AND THREE TRIBUTARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Kazimierowicz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sediment samples were taken in 11 measuring points of the Biebrza River and determined the contents of six metals (Cu, Cr, Co, Ni, Cd and Zn. Arithmetic mean, median and standard deviation were calculated. The sources of heavy metals in bottom sediments are: pollutants of fieldsand meadows (admixtures of plant protection products and fertilizers, discharges of domestic sewage and municipal from local wastewater treatment plants, wastewater di-scharges from rural buildings and pollutions of anthropogenic origin. Research of pollution of bottom sediments with heavy metals are needed tool for monitoring the aquatic environ-ment. Continuous monitoring metal content of the sediments will counteract the effects of the threat of biological life in the water reservoir, which may occur in the case of notorious exceeded permissible content of harmful substances.

  20. Trends in Food Habits and Their Relation to Socioeconomic Status among Nordic Adolescents 2001/2002-2009/2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Siri Fismen

    Full Text Available In the Nordic countries, substantial policy and intervention efforts have been made to increase adolescents' consumption of fruit and vegetables and to reduce their intake of sweets and soft drinks. Some initiatives have been formulated in a Nordic collaboration and implemented at national level. In recent years, social inequalities in food habits have been attracted particular governmental interest and several initiatives addressing the socioeconomic gradient in food habits have been highlighted. However, few internationally published studies have evaluated how trends in adolescents' food habits develop in the context of Nordic nutrition policy, or have compared differences between the Nordic countries.The study was based on Danish, Finnish, Norwegian and Swedish cross-sectional data from the international Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC study, collected via three nationally representative and comparable questionnaire surveys in 2001/2002, 2005/2006 and 2009/2010. Food habits were identified by students' consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets and sugar sweetened soft drink. Socioeconomic status (SES was measured with the Family Affluence Scale (FAS. Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the data.Trends in fruit consumption developed differently across countries, characterized by an increase in Denmark and Norway and more stable trends in Sweden and Finland. Vegetable consumption increased particularly in Denmark and to a lesser extent in Norway, whereas Sweden and Finland displayed stable trends. Decreased trends were observed for sweet and soft drink consumption and were similar in Norway, Sweden and Finland. Sweet consumption decreased across all survey years, whereas soft drink consumption decreased between 2001/2002-2005/2006 and was stable thereafter. Denmark displayed an increase between 2001/2002-2005/2006 followed by a similar decrease between 2005/2006-2009/2010 for both sweet and soft drink consumption

  1. Trends in Food Habits and Their Relation to Socioeconomic Status among Nordic Adolescents 2001/2002-2009/2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fismen, Anne-Siri; Smith, Otto Robert Frans; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Rasmussen, Mette; Pedersen Pagh, Trine; Augustine, Lilly; Ojala, Kristiina; Samdal, Oddrun

    2016-01-01

    In the Nordic countries, substantial policy and intervention efforts have been made to increase adolescents' consumption of fruit and vegetables and to reduce their intake of sweets and soft drinks. Some initiatives have been formulated in a Nordic collaboration and implemented at national level. In recent years, social inequalities in food habits have been attracted particular governmental interest and several initiatives addressing the socioeconomic gradient in food habits have been highlighted. However, few internationally published studies have evaluated how trends in adolescents' food habits develop in the context of Nordic nutrition policy, or have compared differences between the Nordic countries. The study was based on Danish, Finnish, Norwegian and Swedish cross-sectional data from the international Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study, collected via three nationally representative and comparable questionnaire surveys in 2001/2002, 2005/2006 and 2009/2010. Food habits were identified by students' consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets and sugar sweetened soft drink. Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured with the Family Affluence Scale (FAS). Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the data. Trends in fruit consumption developed differently across countries, characterized by an increase in Denmark and Norway and more stable trends in Sweden and Finland. Vegetable consumption increased particularly in Denmark and to a lesser extent in Norway, whereas Sweden and Finland displayed stable trends. Decreased trends were observed for sweet and soft drink consumption and were similar in Norway, Sweden and Finland. Sweet consumption decreased across all survey years, whereas soft drink consumption decreased between 2001/2002-2005/2006 and was stable thereafter. Denmark displayed an increase between 2001/2002-2005/2006 followed by a similar decrease between 2005/2006-2009/2010 for both sweet and soft drink consumption. Socioeconomic

  2. Trends in Food Habits and Their Relation to Socioeconomic Status among Nordic Adolescents 2001/2002-2009/2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fismen, Anne-Siri; Smith, Otto Robert Frans; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Rasmussen, Mette; Pedersen Pagh, Trine; Augustine, Lilly; Ojala, Kristiina; Samdal, Oddrun

    2016-01-01

    Background In the Nordic countries, substantial policy and intervention efforts have been made to increase adolescents' consumption of fruit and vegetables and to reduce their intake of sweets and soft drinks. Some initiatives have been formulated in a Nordic collaboration and implemented at national level. In recent years, social inequalities in food habits have been attracted particular governmental interest and several initiatives addressing the socioeconomic gradient in food habits have been highlighted. However, few internationally published studies have evaluated how trends in adolescents' food habits develop in the context of Nordic nutrition policy, or have compared differences between the Nordic countries. Methods The study was based on Danish, Finnish, Norwegian and Swedish cross-sectional data from the international Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study, collected via three nationally representative and comparable questionnaire surveys in 2001/2002, 2005/2006 and 2009/2010. Food habits were identified by students' consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets and sugar sweetened soft drink. Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured with the Family Affluence Scale (FAS). Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the data. Results Trends in fruit consumption developed differently across countries, characterized by an increase in Denmark and Norway and more stable trends in Sweden and Finland. Vegetable consumption increased particularly in Denmark and to a lesser extent in Norway, whereas Sweden and Finland displayed stable trends. Decreased trends were observed for sweet and soft drink consumption and were similar in Norway, Sweden and Finland. Sweet consumption decreased across all survey years, whereas soft drink consumption decreased between 2001/2002–2005/2006 and was stable thereafter. Denmark displayed an increase between 2001/2002–2005/2006 followed by a similar decrease between 2005/2006–2009/2010 for both sweet and soft

  3. Variation of the ichthyofauna along the Goioerê River: an important tributary of the Piquiri-Paraná basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudenice Dei Tos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The construction of reservoirs is considered an important source of impacts on the fish fauna, severely altering the structure of the assemblage. This paper aimed to describe the structure of the fish assemblage of the Goioerê River, determining its longitudinal distribution and patterns of species dominance. The evaluation of its longitudinal variation in the diversity and abundance of the fish assemblage was conducted in July and October 2004 and January and May 2005. The collections were carried out near the headwaters (Gurucaia, middle stretch (Olaria, just above the falls (Paiquerê and downstream (Foz. Forty-four species were captured. The Gurucaia fish assemblages differed significantly from Olaria, Paiquerê and Foz. The Olaria assemblages differed significantly from the Foz. Gurucaia showed the lowest diversity and abundance of species. Astyanax aff paranae Eigenmann,1914 (78% of the total was found to be dominant at this site. Almost the same species richness was found at Olaria and Paiquerê, although Olaria had the greatest abundance of individuals. Astyanax aff paranae, Cyphocharax modestus (Fernández-Yépez, 1948 and Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000 were the top three dominants and comprised over 71% of the total number of fish caught. At Paiquerê, Astyanax altiparanae, Hypostomus aff ancistroides (Ihering, 1911 and Loricariichthys platymetopon Isbrücker & Nijssen, 1979 composed 58% of the catches. Thirty-one species were recorded at Foz, which presented the greatest richness. The most abundant species were Apareiodon affinis (Steindachner, 1879, Galeocharax knerii (Steindachner, 1879 and A.altiparanae, which contributed to 50% of the total catches in this environment.These results record the fish biodiversity and how the community is longitudinally structured in the Goioerê River, and also demonstrate how this type of evaluation is important to understanding the fish community patterns and finding solutions to

  4. Spatial and temporal variation in recruitment and growth of Channel Catfish Alabama bass and Tallapoosa Bass in the Tallapoosa River and associated tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Elise R.; Goar, Taconya

    2015-01-01

    Effects of hydrology on growth and hatching success of age-0 black basses and Channel Catfish were examined in regulated and unregulated reaches of the Tallapoosa River, Alabama. Species of the family Centrarchidae, Ictalurus punctatus Channel Catfish and Pylodictis olivaris Flathead Catfish were also collected from multiple tributaries in the basin. Fish were collected from 2010-2014 and were assigned daily ages using otoliths. Hatch dates of individuals of three species (Micropterus henshalli Alabama Bass, M. tallapoosae Tallapoosa Bass and Channel Catfish) were back calculated, and growth histories were estimated every 5 d post hatch from otolith sections using incremental growth analysis. Hatch dates and incremental growth were related to hydrologic and temperature metrics from environmental data collected during the same time periods. Hatch dates at the regulated sites were related to and typically occurred during periods with low and stable flow conditions; however no clear relations between hatch and thermal or flow metrics were evident for the unregulated sites. Some fish hatched during unsuitable thermal conditions at the regulated site suggesting that some fish may recruit from unregulated tributaries. Ages and growth rates of age-0 black basses ranged from 105 to 131 d and 0.53 to 1.33 mm/day at the regulated sites and 44 to 128 d and 0.44 to 0.96 mm/d at the unregulated sites. In general, growth was highest among age-0 fish from the regulated sites, consistent with findings of other studies. Mortality of age-0 to age-1 fish was also variable among years and between sites and with the exception of one year, was lower at regulated sites. Multiple and single regression models of incremental growth versus age, discharge, and temperature metrics were evaluated with Akaike’s Information Criterion (AICc) to assess models that best described growth parameters. Of the models evaluated, the best overall models predicted that daily incremental growth was

  5. The Unequal Burden of Weight Gain: An Intersectional Approach to Understanding Social Disparities in BMI Trajectories from 1986 to 2001/2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailshire, Jennifer A.; House, James S.

    2011-01-01

    The implications of recent weight gain trends for widening social disparities in body weight in the United States are unclear. Using an intersectional approach to studying inequality, and the longitudinal and nationally representative American's Changing Lives study (1986-2001/2002), we examine social disparities in body mass index trajectories…

  6. The effects of tertiary treated municipal wastewater on fish communities of a small river tributary in Southern Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Carolyn J.M.; Knight, Brendan W.; McMaster, Mark E.; Munkittrick, Kelly R.; Oakes, Ken D.; Tetreault, Grald R.; Servos, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Fish community changes associated with a tertiary treated municipal wastewater effluent outfall in the Speed River, Ontario, Canada, were evaluated at nine sites over two seasons (2008) using standardized electrofishing. Habitat evaluations were conducted to ensure that the riffle sites selected were physically similar. The fish community was dominated by several species of darters that differed in their response to the effluent outfall. There was a significant decrease in Greenside Darter (Etheostoma blennioides) but an increase in Rainbow Darter (E. caeruleum) abundance directly downstream of the outfall. Stable isotope signatures (δ 13 C and δ 15 N), which indicate shifts in energy utilization and flow, increased in Rainbow Darter downstream, but showed no change in Greenside Darter. Rainbow Darter may be exploiting a food source that is not as available at upstream sites giving them a competitive advantage over the Greenside Darter immediately downstream of the outfall. - Highlights: → Fish communities are altered by tertiary treated municipal wastewater exposure. → Relative abundance of the two dominant fish (darter) species changed downstream. → Differing stable isotope signatures in fish suggests shifting energy flow and diet. → The altered environment may allow resilient species a competitive advantage. → The system recovers quickly downstream. - Tertiary treated effluent altered fish community composition in a small receiving stream possibly as a result of altered availability of resources (diet) as indicated by stable isotopes.

  7. Spatial analysis of soil erosion and sediment fluxes: a paired watershed study of two Rappahannock River tributaries, Stafford County, Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, Matthew C; Odhiambo, Ben K; Church, Joseph M

    2008-05-01

    Soil erosion is a serious problem in areas with expanding construction, agricultural production, and improper storm water management. It is important to understand the major processes affecting sediment delivery to surficial water bodies in order to tailor effective mitigation and outreach activities. This study analyzes how naturally occurring and anthropogenic influences, such as urbanization and soil disturbance on steep slopes, are reflected in the amount of soil erosion and sediment delivery within sub-watershed-sized areas. In this study, two sub-watersheds of the Rappahannock River, Horsepen Run and Little Falls Run, were analyzed using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) and a sediment delivery ratio (SDR) to estimate annual sediment flux rates. The RUSLE/SDR analyses for Horsepen Run and Little Falls Run predicted 298 Mg/y and 234 Mg/y, respectively, but nearly identical per-unit-area sediment flux rates of 0.15 Mg/ha/y and 0.18 Mg/ha/y. Suspended sediment sampling indicated greater amounts of sediment in Little Falls Run, which is most likely due to anthropogenic influences. Field analyses also suggest that all-terrain vehicle crossings represent the majority of sediment flux derived from forested areas of Horsepen Run. The combined RUSLE/SDR and field sampling data indicate that small-scale anthropogenic disturbances (ATV trails and construction sites) play a major role in overall sediment flux rates for both basins and that these sites must be properly accounted for when evaluating sediment flux rates at a sub-watershed scale.

  8. Intercontinental circulation of human influenza A(H1N2) reassortant viruses during the 2001-2002 influenza season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiyan; Smith, Catherine B; Mungall, Bruce A; Lindstrom, Stephen E; Hall, Henrietta E; Subbarao, Kanta; Cox, Nancy J; Klimov, Alexander

    2002-11-15

    Reassortant influenza A viruses bearing the H1 subtype of hemagglutinin (HA) and the N2 subtype of neuraminidase (NA) were isolated from humans in the United States, Canada, Singapore, Malaysia, India, Oman, Egypt, and several countries in Europe during the 2001-2002 influenza season. The HAs of these H1N2 viruses were similar to that of the A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1) vaccine strain both antigenically and genetically, and the NAs were antigenically and genetically related to those of recent human H3N2 reference strains, such as A/Moscow/10/99(H3N2). All 6 internal genes of the H1N2 reassortants examined originated from an H3N2 virus. This article documents the first widespread circulation of H1N2 reassortants on 4 continents. The current influenza vaccine is expected to provide good protection against H1N2 viruses, because it contains the A/New Caledonia/20/99(H1N1) and A/Moscow/10/99(H3N2)-like viruses, which have H1 and N2 antigens that are similar to those of recent H1N2 viruses.

  9. Assessment of eco-environmental geochemistry of heavy metals pollution of the river Gandak, a major tributary of the river Ganga in Northern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harendra; Kushwaha, Alok; Shukla, D. N.

    2018-04-01

    This study includes a seasonal analysis of sediment contamination of the River Gandak by heavy metals. It passes through the many small, medium and big cities of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar in Indian Territory. To explore the geochemical condition of the streambed sediment of the river, seven heavy metals, namely Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Cd, Zn and Pb were analyzed. The newly deposited river bed sediment tests gathered on a seasonal basis from five stations for the years 2013-14 and 2014-15. Level of heavy metals in the sediments of the river was measured in the range between 10.54-16.78mg/kg for Co, 6.78-23.97mg/kg for Cu, 16.56-23.17mg/kg forCr, 9.71-18.11mg/kg for Ni, 0.364-1.068mg/kg forCd), 30.54-51.09mg/kg for Zn, 12.21-17.01mg/kg for Pb. Anthropogenic addition of heavy metals into the stream was controlled by utilizing metal Contamination Factor. Geo-accumulation values were found between (0-1) which indicates that sediment was uncontaminated to moderately contaminated, and can adversely influence the freshwater ecosystem of the river. A Good correlation was noted between Co, Zn, Pb, Ni, and Cu. Cluster analysis demonstrated three cluster groups of sites, which indicate that the metals originate from the same source mainly due to natural weathering of rocks, atmospheric deposition, human settlement and agriculture activity and is additionally confirmed by correlation analysis. However, on the basis of contamination indicators, it was found that the stream bed sediment is slightly contaminated with toxic metals. The conditions may harmful in the future because of the fast population growth in the river basin which might bring about irreparable biological harm in the long haul.

  10. Occurrence, ecological risk assessment, and spatio-temporal variation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in water and sediments along River Ravi and its northern tributaries, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baqar, Mujtaba; Sadef, Yumna; Ahmad, Sajid Rashid; Mahmood, Adeel; Qadir, Abdul; Aslam, Iqra; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2017-12-01

    Ecological risk assessment, spatio-temporal variation, and source apportionment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were studied in surface sediments and water from River Ravi and its three northern tributaries (Nullah Deg, Nullah Basantar, and Nullah Bein) in Pakistan. In total, 35 PCB congeners were analyzed along 27 sampling stations in pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. The ∑ 35 PCB concentration ranged from 1.06 to 95.76 ng/g (dw) in sediments and 1.94 to 11.66 ng/L in water samples, with hexa-CBs and tetra-CBs as most dominant homologs in sediments and water matrixes, respectively. The ∑ 8 DL-PCB levels were 0.33-22.13 ng/g (dw) and 0.16-1.95 ng/L in sediments and water samples, respectively. The WHO-toxic equivalent values were ranged from 1.18 × 10 -6 to 0.012 ng/L and 1.8 × 10 -6 to 0.031 ng/g in water and sediments matrixes, respectively. The ecological risk assessment indicates considerable potential ecological risk during pre-monsoon season ([Formula: see text] = 95.17) and moderate potential ecological risk during post-monsoon season ([Formula: see text] = 49.11). The industrial and urban releases were recognized as key ongoing sources for high PCB levels in environment. Therefore, we recommend more freshwater ecological studies to be conducted in the study area and firm regulatory initiatives are required to be taken in debt to the Stockholm Convention, 2001 to cop up with PCB contamination on emergency basis.

  11. Organochlorine pesticides across the tributaries of River Ravi, Pakistan: Human health risk assessment through dermal exposure, ecological risks, source fingerprints and spatio-temporal distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baqar, Mujtaba; Sadef, Yumna; Ahmad, Sajid Rashid; Mahmood, Adeel; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2018-03-15

    This study monitored the human health risks through dermal exposure, hazardous risks to ecological integrity, contamination levels, spatio-temporal distribution, and congener specific analysis of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) across River Ravi and its three northern tributaries (Nullah Bein, Nullah Basanter and Nullah Deg). The residual levels of OCPs isomers were screened for water (n=54) and surface sediment (n=54) samples from twenty seven sampling sites in two alternate seasons (pre-monsoon and post-monsoon). The ∑OCPs concentrations ranged from 13.61 to 1992.18ng/g dry weight and 12.89 to 128.16ng/L with predominance of β-endosulfan and p,p'-DDT in sediment and water matrixes, respectively. Distribution pattern revealed significantly higher concentrations in upstream and midstream, suggesting considerable transboundary OCPs pollution. Calculated ratios of α-HCH/γ-HCH, o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT, (DDE+DDD)/∑DDTs and cis/trans-chlordane for water and sediments identified the fresh addition of lindane, technical DDTs and chlordane in the study area. Risk quotient (RQ) based ecological risk was found to be >1 at all studied streams during both seasons and elucidates higher risks for endosulfan (α-endosulfan) and endrin. Human health risk assessment indicated absence of hazardous (non-carcinogenic) risk through bathing in studied streams; as the hazard index values ranged from 1.09E-05 to 2.48E-02 (acceptable limit; ecological risk and carcinogenic human health risk had emphasized an immediate elimination of ongoing OCPs addition in the studied area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Occurrence of Organic Wastewater Compounds in the Tinkers Creek Watershed and Two Other Tributaries to the Cuyahoga River, Northeast Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tertuliani, J.S.; Alvarez, D.A.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.T.; Zaugg, S.D.; Koltun, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey - in cooperation with the Ohio Water Development Authority; National Park Service; Cities of Aurora, Bedford, Bedford Heights, Solon, and Twinsburg; and Portage and Summit Counties - and in collaboration with the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency, did a study to determine the occurrence and distribution of organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) in the Tinkers Creek watershed in northeastern Ohio. In the context of this report, OWCs refer to a wide range of compounds such as antibiotics, prescription and nonprescription pharmaceuticals, personal-care products, household and industrial compounds (for example, antimicrobials, fragrances, surfactants, fire retardants, and so forth) and a variety of other chemicals. Canisters containing polar organic integrative sampler (POCIS) and semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) media were deployed instream for a 28-day period in Mayand June 2006 at locations upstream and downstream from seven wastewater-treatment-plant (WWTP) outfalls in the Tinkers Creek watershed, at a site on Tinkers Creek downstream from all WWTP discharges, and at one reference site each in two nearby watersheds (Yellow Creek and Furnace Run) that drain to the Cuyahoga River. Streambed-sediment samples also were collected at each site when the canisters were retrieved. POCIS and SPMDs are referred to as 'passive samplers' because they sample compounds that they are exposed to without use of mechanical or moving parts. OWCs detected in POCIS and SPMD extracts are referred to in this report as 'detections in water' because both POCIS and SPMDs provided time-weighted measures of concentration in the stream over the exposure period. Streambed sediments also reflect exposure to OWCs in the stream over a long period of time and provide another OWC exposure pathway for aquatic organisms. Four separate laboratory methods were used to analyze for 32 antibiotic, 20 pharmaceutical, 57 to 66 wastewater, and 33 hydrophobic compounds. POCIS and

  13. Preliminary assessment of channel stability and bed-material transport in the Tillamook Bay tributaries and Nehalem River basin, northwestern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Krista L.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Mangano, Joseph F.; Wallick, J. Rose

    2012-01-01

    valley confinement. * Natural and human-caused disturbances such as mass movements, logging, fire, channel modifications for navigation and flood control, and gravel mining also have varying effects on channel condition, bed-material transport, and distribution and area of bars throughout the study areas and over time. * Existing datasets include at least 16 and 18 sets of aerial and orthophotographs that were taken of the study areas in the Tillamook Bay tributary basins and Nehalem River basin, respectively, from 1939 to 2011. These photographs are available for future assessments of long-term changes in channel condition, bar area, and vegetation establishment patterns. High resolution Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) surveys acquired in 2007-2009 could support future quantitative analyses of channel morphology and bed-material transport in all study areas. * A review of deposited and mined gravel volumes reported for instream gravel mining sites shows that bed-material deposition tends to rebuild mined bar surfaces in most years. Mean annual deposition volumes on individual bars exceeded 3,000 cubic meters (m3) on Donaldson Bar on the Wilson River, Dill Bar on the Kilchis River, and Plant and Winslow Bars on the Nehalem River. Cumulative reported volumes of bed-material deposition were greatest at Donaldson and Dill Bars, totaling over 25,000 m3 per site from 2004 to 2011. Within this period, reported cumulative mined volumes were greatest for the Donaldson, Plant, and Winslow Bars, ranging from 24,470 to 33,940 m3. * Analysis of historical stage-streamflow data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey on the Wilson River near Tillamook (14301500) and Nehalem River near Foss (14301000) shows that these rivers have episodically aggraded and incised, mostly following high flow events, but they do not exhibit systematic, long-term trends in bed elevation. * Multiple cross sections show that channels near bridge crossings in all six study areas are dynamic with many

  14. Assessment of heavy metal contamination in the sediment of the River Ghaghara, a major tributary of the River Ganga in Northern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harendra; Pandey, Ruby; Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Shukla, D. N.

    2017-11-01

    The present study includes a systematic analysis of sediment contamination by heavy metals of the River Ghaghara flowing through the Uttar Pradesh and Bihar in Indian Territory. To estimate the geochemical environment of the river, seven heavy metals, namely Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Cd, Zn, and Pb were examined from the freshly deposited river bed sediment. All the sediment samples were collected on a seasonal basis for the assessment of fluctuation in 2014-2015 and after preparation samples were analyzed using standard procedure. Result showed that heavy metal concentration ranged between 11.37 and 18.42 mg/kg for Co, 2.76 and 11.74 mg/kg for Cu, 61.25 and 87.68 mg/kg for Cr, 15.29 and 25.59 mg/kg for Ni, 0.21 and 0.28 mg/kg for Cd, 13.26 and 17.59 mg/kg for Zn, 10.71 and 14.26 mg/kg for Pb in different season. Metal contamination factor indicates the anthropogenic input in the river sediment was in the range of (0.62-0.97) for Co, (0.04-0.26) for Cu, (0.68-0.97) for Cr, (0.22-0.38) for Ni, (0.70-0.93) for Cd, (0.14-0.19) for Zn, and (0.54-0.71) for Pb. The highest contamination degree of the sediment was noticed as 4.01 at Ayodhya and lowest as 3.16 at Katerniaghat. Geo-accumulation index was noted between (0 and 1) which showed that sediment was uncontaminated to moderately contaminated and may have adverse affects on freshwater ecology of the river. Pollution load index (PLI) was found highest at Chhapra which was 0.45 and lowest at Katerniaghat which was 0.35 and it indicates that the river sediment has a low level of contamination. Significant high correlation was observed between Co, Cu, and Zn, it suggests same source of contamination input is mainly due to human settlement and agriculture activity. Positive correlation between Zn, Co, Cu, Cr, and Ni indicated a natural origin of these elements in the river sediment. Cluster analysis suggests grouping of similar polluted sites. The strong similarity between Co, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu, and Cd showed relationship of these

  15. Activities of the summer operations of the 43rd Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-43 in 2001-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko Nishio

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The activities in the 2001-2002 austral summer of the 43rd Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-43 are reported. JARE-43 consisted of 60 personnel including 20 summer and 40 wintering personnel. In addition, 7 observers joined the voyage of R/V Shirase. She left Harumi on Nov. 14 in 2001, and the 56 personel and 7 observers went on boad in Freemantle of Western Australia for Syowa Station, other 4 personel for another ship as mentioned below. R/V Shirase left the ground on Dec. 3 and arrived at the ice edge on Dec. 14, after carrying out marine observations on the cruise. She anchored at Syowa Station on Dec. 23, after the first flight on Dec. 18. All the cargo and fuel necessary for the wintering program of JARE-43 were unloaded and the missions for the summer party were forced to finish by the last flight on Feb. 12 in 2002. The helicopter, chartered by JARE-43, moved to Syowa Station from R/V Shirase on Dec. 23 and supported the observation programs until Feb. 3, including the inland areas of ice sheets. The observation on the Mizuho Ice Plateau for the seismic exploration programs was especially supported by air during the traverse. Constructions with engineering works and facilities update were conducted in the several areas in Syowa Station, and most of them were accomplished, some, however, left for the wintering party. In addition, 4 summer members carried out other marine observations using R/V Tangaroa chartered by JARE-43.

  16. Anthropogenic changes in environmental conditions of phytocoenoses of medium sized-sized Ukrainian river valleys (based on the example of the River Tyasmyn – a tributary of the Dnieper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Lavrov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of anthropogenic degradation of rivers is usually marked by its multi-sectoral and often international character as well by the large number of sources of environmental threat. Therefore, its solution requires a systematic approach based on transparent and coordinated interagency and international cooperation. The River Dnieper inUkrainehas undergone a remarkable transformation as a result of the construction of a cascade of reservoirs. Anthropogenic damage to the plants and soil that cover its basin have caused damage to the functioning of ecological regimes of theDnieper’s tributaries. Small and medium-sized rivers are dying. In this article, attention is paid to a typical middle-sized (164 km river of theDnieperBasin, the Tyasmyn. Its middle and lower parts are located in the overtransformed Irdyn-Tyasmyn valley. During the last glaciation it formed the central part of the right arm of the ancientDnieper. Regulation of the Tyasmyn runoff, pollution, the creation of theKremenchugreservoir on theDnieper, grazing and recreational load have led to the threat of the river degrading. Therefore, the aim of this article is to characterize the structure of the herbaceous vegetation in the central and lower parts of the Tyasmyn valley and assess the level of its dependence on anthropogenic changes in the conditions of the ecotypes. The methods used are: retrospective and system analysis, comparative ecology (ecological profile or transect, botanic methods, phytoindication, the mapping method and mathematical statistics. The features of changes in environmental conditions of ecotypes of the river valley have been shown through systematic, biomorphological, ecomorphic structure of the herbaceous cover, the ratio of ecological groups and changes in types of ecological strategy of species, phytodiversity. We found 89 species of vascular plants. The most diverse families were Asteraceae, Poaceae and Lamiaceae. The biomorphological range of

  17. The impact of a tributary that carries high amounts of bed-load on the deposition of sediment downstream of a run-of river plant; Die Auswirkungen eines Geschiebe fuehrenden Zubringers auf die Verlandungssituation im Unterwasser eines Laufkraftwerkes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Josef; Sindelar, Christine; Feldbacher, Rupert; Knoblauch, Helmut [TU Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft

    2011-07-01

    For guaranteeing a sustainable sediment management on a chain of run-of river plants in the Salzach valley in Austria nearly annual flushings have been performed. The sediments that are removed out of the reservoirs tend to deposit immediately downstream of the dams mainly at the outlet of the turbines due to widening or reduced slope. During the physical model tests, which were performed for the hydro power plant St. Veit, it could be observed that the boundary conditions were obviously wrong because in the prototype much more sediment was settled as in the model. A downstream located tributary was found responsible because of its dumping of high amounts of bed load into the river Salzach. This led to a backwater flow respectively reduced shear stresses. Further model tests resulted in a successful solution which mitigates the situation substantially. (orig.)

  18. Availability of metals Cd and Pb and metalloid As in the Ribeira do Iguape River hydrographic basin and its tributaries: an environmental contamination assessment'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Francisco Jose Viana de

    2012-01-01

    During several decades the Alto Vale of Ribeira region (SP-PR) was under influence of lead mining activities, refined and processed in the mines of the region. Since 1996, all such activities ceased, however, leaving behind a huge amount of environmental liabilities. This study aimed to investigate the presence and concentration levels of metals cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) and metalloid arsenic (As) in the water, sediment and biota (fish blood) in the aquatic systems of Ribeira do Iguape River and its tributaries, for an environmental assessment and monitoring of the region. The sampling collection occurred in 8 sites and fish samples were caught by fishing nets and blood sampling was done in the site. The determination of these elements was carried out by atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace electro thermal heating (GF AAS). This study also assessed the occurrence of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Eu, Nd, Sm, Lu, Tb and Yb) by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Validation of both methodologies, regarding precision and accuracy, was done by reference material analyses. The results obtained for As, Cd and Pb in the sediment were compared to the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME), TEL (Threshold Effect Level) e PEL (Probable Effect Level) adopted by CETESB and CONAMA 454/2012 Resolution. The results for As, Cd and Pb in water samples were below the QL of the analytical technique used, indicating that these elements are in concentration levels that do not affect the water quality standard established by CONAMA 357/2005. On the other hand, the concentration values for these elements in fish blood and sediment samples showed a strong contamination tendency for Cd and Pb most of the sampling points assessed. The highest Cd concentration in fish blood was 24.3 μg L -1 , at site 2. For Pb, the highest concentration value was 118 νg L -1 , at

  19. Flow Velocity Water Temperature, and Conductivity in Shark River Slough, Everglades National Park, Florida: August 2001-June 2002

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Riscassi, Ami L; Schaffranek, Raymond W

    2003-01-01

    ...." Data collected at four locations in Shark River Slough, Everglades National Park during the 2001 -2002 wet season are documented in the report and methods used to process the data are described...

  20. Organic Contaminants Associated With Suspended Sediment Collected During Five Cruises of the Mississippi River and Its Principal Tributaries, May 1988 to June 1990

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rostad, Colleen E; Bishop, LaDonna M; Ellis, Geoffrey S; Leiker, Thomas J; Monsterleet, Stephanie G; Pereira, Wilfred E

    1993-01-01

    ... sediment smaller than 63 micrometers. Sample collection involved pumping discharge- weighted volumes of river water along a cross section of the river into a continuous-flow centrifuge to isolate the suspended sediment...

  1. Fish communities and trophic metrics as measures of ecological degradation: a case study in the tributaries of the river Ganga basin, India

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Dubey, Vineet; Kumar Sarkar, Uttam; Pandey, Ajay; Singh Lakra, Wazir

    2013-01-01

    In India, freshwater aquatic resources are suffering from increasing human population, urbanization and shortage of all kind of natural resources like water. To mitigate this, all the major rivers have been planned for a river-interlinking through an interlinking canal system under a huge scheme; yet, the baseline information on ecological conditions of those tropical rivers and their fish communities is lacking at present. In view of that, the present study was undertaken to assess the ecolo...

  2. Annotated checklist and key to the species of amphibians and reptiles inhabiting the northern Peruvian dry forest along the Andean valley of the Marañón River and its tributaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Claudia; Venegas, Pablo J; Cruz, Roy Santa; BÖhme, Wolfgang

    2018-02-22

    A checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of 35 localities situated in the northern Peruvian dry forest valley of the Marañón River and its tributaries, containing 14 species of amphibians and 54 species of reptiles, is provided from data collected between July 2005 and April 2014 during several herpetological surveys and from the literature. Detailed accounts are given for each collected species containing morphometric and scalation data, information on natural history, comments regarding their distribution, the conservation status and key literature. Eleven new species were discovered and described during the survey period. At least five additional taxa might also represent new species but more field work and data collection are necessary to determine their status. For two snake species we provide the first country record and for 23 further species new departamental records are provided.

  3. Floodplain sediments of the 2002 catastrophic flood at the Vltava (Moldau) River and its tributaries: mineralogy, chemical composition, and post-sedimentary evolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Rohovec, Jan; Žák, Karel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2008), s. 399-412 ISSN 0943-0105 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Vltava (Moldau) River * Berounka River * floodplain sediments * 2002 catastrophic flood (Czech Republic) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.026, year: 2008

  4. Ground-water flow and simulated effects of development in Paradise Valley, a basin tributary to the Humboldt River in Humboldt County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudic, David E.; Herman, M.E.

    1996-01-01

    A computer model was used to characterize ground-water flow in Paradise Valley, Nevada, and to evaluate probable long-term effects of five hypothetical development scenarios. One finding of the study is that concentrating pumping at the south end of Paradise Valley may increase underflow from the adjacent Humboldt River valley, and might affect flow in the river.

  5. Correlation between river slope and meandering variability (obtained by DGPS data) and morphotectonics for two Andean tributaries of the Amazon river: the case of Beni (Bolivia) and Napo (Ecuador-Peru) rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourrel, L.; Darrozes, J.; Guyot, J.; Christophoul, F.; Bondoux, F.

    2007-05-01

    The Beni river drains a catchment area of 282 000 km2 of which 40 percent are located in the Cordillera of the Bolivian and Peruvian Andes, and the rest in the Amazonian plain : the studied reaches runs from Guanay (Andean Piedmont) to Riberalta (junction with Madre de Dios river) that represents a distance by the river of 1055 km. The Napo river starts in the Ecuadorian Andes and leaves Ecuador in Nuevo Rocafuerte (27 400 km2) and enters in Peru until its junction with the Amazon river : the studied section runs from Misahualli (Andean Piedmont) to this junction, that represents a distance by the river of 995 km. The GPS data were acquired using a mobile GPS embarked on a boat and 4 fixed bases located along the Beni river, 6 along the Napo river and the two rivers profile calculated from post-treated differential GPS solutions. For the Beni river, two sectors were identified: - the upstream sector (~230 km) between Guanay (414 m) and 50 km downstream Rurrenabaque (245 m) is located in Andean Piedmont, which consists in a series of thrusts associated with anticlines and synclines (the subandean zone), and presents slope values range between 135 cm/km and 10 cm/km and an average index of sinuosity (IS) of 1.29, - the downstream sector (~ 820 km) which runs in Amazonian plain (until Riberalta -165 m-), is characterized by an average slope of 8 cm/km and an average IS of 2.06 (this sector is much more homogeneous and the Beni river shows a meandering channel). For the Napo River, three sectors were identified: - the first sector (~140 km) between Misahualli (401 m) and Coca (265 m), is located in Andean Piedmont (subandean zone) and presents slope values range between 170 cm/km and 30 cm/km and an average IS of 1.6, - the second sector (~250 km) between Coca (when the Napo river enters in the Amazonian plain) and Nuevo Rocafuerte (190 m), presents slope values range between 30 cm/km and 20 cm/km and an average IS of 1.2, and a convex-up shape profile corresponding to

  6. Turbulence Investigation and Reproduction for Assisting Downstream Migrating Juvenile Salmonids, Part I of II, 2001-2002 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotchkiss, Rollin H. (Washington State University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineers, Albrook Hydraulics Laboratory)

    2002-12-01

    Turbulence in gravel bed rivers plays a critical role in most stream processes including contaminant and nutrient transport, aquatic habitat selection, and natural channel design. While most hydraulic designs and fluid models are based on bulk velocity, migrating juvenile salmon experience and react to the temporally varied turbulent fluctuations. Without properly understanding and accounting for the continuous turbulent motions proper fishway design and guidance are impossible. Matching temporally varied flow to fish reactions is the key to guiding juvenile salmonids to safe passageways. While the ideal solution to fish guidance design would be to use specific fluid action-fish reaction mechanisms, such concrete cause and effect relations have not been established. One way to approach the problem of guidance is to hypothesize that in an environment lacking obvious bulk flow cues (like the reservoir environment), turbulent flow conditions similar to those experienced by juvenile salmonids in natural migration corridors will be attractive to juvenile salmonids. Proof of this hypothesis requires three steps: (1) gathering data on turbulence characteristics in natural migration corridors, (2) reproduction of the turbulence parameters in a controlled environment, and (3) testing the reproduced turbulence on actively migrating juvenile salmonids for increased passage efficiencies. The results from the third step have not been finalized, therefore this report will focus on understanding turbulent processes in gravel bed rivers and reproduction of turbulence in controlled environments for use in fish passage technologies. The purposes of this report are to (1) present data collected in natural gravel bed rivers, (2) present a simple method for reproduction of appropriate turbulence levels in a controlled environment, (3) compare these results to those from one prototype surface collector (PSC), and (4) discuss the implications on fish passage design.

  7. Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse - CSNSM/Centre for nuclear and mass spectroscopy, Activity Report 2001-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Centre for nuclear and mass spectroscopy (CSNSM) is a CNRS (National Centre for Scientific Research) laboratory affiliated with Paris-Sud University. The CSNSM is involved in pluri-disciplinary activities covering various scientific domains: Nuclear Structure (SNO), Nuclear Astrophysics (AN), Solid State Astrophysics (AS), Solid State Physics (PS) and Chemical Physics of Irradiation. This document presents the activity of the Centre during the 2001-2002 years: 1 - Foreword; 2 - Research topics: Nuclear structure; EFIX: study of exotic nuclei-induced fission; Nuclear Astrophysics; Accelerator-based mass spectroscopy; Solid State Astrophysics; Physics and Chemistry of Irradiation; Solid State Physics; SEMIRAMIS (ion source and ion beam handling); Digest science; 3 - Publications; 4 - Dissertations; 5 - Seminars; 6 - Technical services: Computer Department; Electronics Group; Mechanics Department; Permanent training; Health and safety; 7 - Staff

  8. ICMS tributary administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Santana de Souza

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to analyze the essential tools for the management of the ICMS (Value-Added Tax on Sales and Services. It was developed a calculation proce­dure of this tax which permits to demonstrate the importance of correctly perform fiscal and accounting entries. In order to demonstrate this calculation procedure, it was used Financial Mathematics concepts of simple interest and simple trade discount together with article 33, 1989 of ICMS Law of the State of São Paulo. It was concluded that it is essential to have a precise ICMS tributary administration, in order to firstly avoid contentious administrative tributary which would imply ad­ditional and unnecessary costs to the organization and secondly to use tax evasion correctly in order to avoid excessive taxes payment. Thus, the appropriate use of both instruments will reflect into a positive cash flow for the organization.

  9. Fish communities and trophic metrics as measures of ecological degradation: a case study in the tributaries of the river Ganga basin, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Vineet Kumar; Sarkar, Uttam Kumar; Pandey, Ajay; Lakra, Wazir Singh

    2013-09-01

    In India, freshwater aquatic resources are suffering from increasing human population, urbanization and shortage of all kind of natural resources like water. To mitigate this, all the major rivers have been planned for a river-interlinking through an interlinking canal system under a huge scheme; yet, the baseline information on ecological conditions of those tropical rivers and their fish communities is lacking at present. In view of that, the present study was undertaken to assess the ecological condition by comparing the trophic metrics of the fish community, conservation status and water chemistry of the two tropical rivers of the Ganga basin, from October 2007 to November 2009. The analysis of trophic niches of the available fish species indicated dominancy of carnivorous (19 species) in river Ken and omnivorous (23 species) in Betwa. The trophic level score of carnivorous species was recorded similar (33.33%) in both rivers, whereas omnivorous species were mostly found in Betwa (36.51%) than Ken (28.07%). Relatively undisturbed sites of Betwa (B1, B2 and B3) and Ken (K2, K3 and K5) were characterized by diverse fish fauna and high richness of threatened species. The higher mean trophic level scores were recorded at B4 of Betwa and K4 of Ken. The Bray-Curtis index for trophic level identified the carnivorous species (> 0.32) as an indicator species for pollution. Anthropogenic exposure, reflected in water quality as well as in fish community structure, was found higher especially in the lower stretches of both rivers. Our results suggest the importance of trophic metrics on fish community, for ecological conditions evaluation, which enables predictions on the effect of future morphodynamic changes (in the post-interlinking phases), and provide a framework and reference condition to support restoration efforts of relatively altered fish habitats in tropical rivers of India.

  10. Fish communities and trophic metrics as measures of ecological degradation: a case study in the tributaries of the river Ganga basin, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Kumar Dubey

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In India, freshwater aquatic resources are suffering from increasing human population, urbanization and shortage of all kind of natural resources like water. To mitigate this, all the major rivers have been planned for a river-interlinking through an interlinking canal system under a huge scheme; yet, the baseline information on ecological conditions of those tropical rivers and their fish communities is lacking at present. In view of that, the present study was undertaken to assess the ecological condition by comparing the trophic metrics of the fish community, conservation status and water chemistry of the two tropical rivers of the Ganga basin, from October 2007 to November 2009. The analysis of trophic niches of the available fish species indicated dominancy of carnivorous (19 species in river Ken and omnivorous (23 species in Betwa. The trophic level score of carnivorous species was recorded similar (33.33% in both rivers, whereas omnivorous species were mostly found in Betwa (36.51% than Ken (28.07%. Relatively undisturbed sites of Betwa (B1, B2 and B3 and Ken (K2, K3 and K5 were characterized by diverse fish fauna and high richness of threatened species. The higher mean trophic level scores were recorded at B4 of Betwa and K4 of Ken. The Bray-Curtis index for trophic level identified the carnivorous species (>0.32 as an indicator species for pollution. Anthropogenic exposure, reflected in water quality as well as in fish community structure, was found higher especially in the lower stretches of both rivers. Our results suggest the importance of trophic metrics on fish community, for ecological conditions evaluation, which enables predictions on the effect of future morphodynamic changes (in the post-interlinking phases, and provide a framework and reference condition to support restoration efforts of relatively altered fish habitats in tropical rivers of India.

  11. Follow-up studies of the river Glaama and some tributaries in Hedmark; Etterundersoekelser i Glaama og noen sidevassdrag i Hedmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roerslett, B.; Brandrud, T.E.; Baekken, T.; Hessen, D.; Lindstroem, E.A.; Mjelde, M.; Johansen, S.W.

    1995-06-01

    According to this report, follow-up studies of the environmental effects of hydroelectric power development are much less frequent than the mandatory preliminary investigations. Thus, it is not always known to what extent the adverse effects predicted by the consequence analyses do take place. In an investigation of the Norwegian river system Glaama 1989-92 a number of changes in the biological conditions were found and ascribed to the river regulation. In general, the water vegetation has responded favourably upstream from the magazines while the response downstream the production plants is less certain. The vegetation above the water surface, however, responded unfavourably and reduced species diversity is observed in the flooded zones. There are further discussions on the hydrological conditions in the river magazines and downstream the power stations, and of the optical conditions of the lakes. It is concluded from the experience with the Glaama river system that the common discussion about minimum water flow is ``distorted``. One simply cannot keep a stretch of a river as an aquatic system when only a fraction of the pre-development flow will remain. Hydrological data series showing that a small flow has been measured at a given location by no means justify the assertion that the ``natural`` minimum flow can be set equal to that measurement. A natural river experiencing a brief episode of low flow cannot be compared to a regulated system in which this low flow is kept constant. 13 refs., 30 figs., 11 tabs.

  12. River system recovery following the Novat-Rosu tailings dam failure, Maramures County, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, Graham; Brewer, Paul A.; Macklin, Mark G.; Balteanu, Dan; Serban, Mihaela; Driga, Basarab; Zaharia, Sorin

    2008-01-01

    The River Viseu catchment in Maramures County, northwestern Romania, has a long history of base and precious metal mining. Between 1994 and 2003 waste from mining activity at Baia Borsa was stored in the Novat-Rosu tailings pond in the upper Viseu catchment. However, in March 2000, the tailings dam failed releasing approximately 100,000 m 3 of contaminated water and 20,000 t of mineral-rich solid waste, which was routed downstream through the Rivers Novat, Vaser and Viseu into the River Tisa. Following the accident metal (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) concentrations in river water and river channel sediment were assessed in samples collected annually (July 2000, 2001, 2002 and 2003) from 29 sites in the Viseu catchment, downstream of the tailings pond. Additionally, the speciation of sediment-associated metals was established using a 4-stage sequential extraction procedure (SEP) and Pb isotope analysis ( 206/204 Pb and 207/204 Pb) was carried out to establish the provenance of contaminated sediments. Metal concentrations in river water were found to comply with EU directive 'target' values within four months of the failure. However, the impact of the spill upon river channel sediments was found to be much longer-lasting, with evidence of the delayed downstream remobilization of tailings stored within the narrow Novat valley following the dam failure, as well as continued inputs of contaminated sediment to the River Viseu from the River Tisla, another mining-affected tributary. Comparison with data from other recent tailings dam failures, indicates that river system recovery rates depend upon local geomorphological conditions, hydrological regimes, and the nature and scale of post-spill clean-up operations

  13. The major floods in the Amazonas river and tributaries (Western Amazon Basin) during the 1970-2012 period : a focus on the 2012 flood

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, J. C.; Ronchail, J.; Frappart, F.; Lavado, W.; Santini, William; Guyot, Jean-Loup

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the authors analyze the origin of the extreme floods in the Peruvian Amazonas River during the 1970-2012 period, focusing on the recent April 2012 flooding (55 400 m(3) s(-1)). Several hydrological variables, such as rainfall, terrestrial water storage, and discharge, point out that the unprecedented 2012 flood is mainly related to an early and abundant wet season over the north of the basin. Thus, the peak of the Maranon River, the northern contributor of the Amazonas, occurred...

  14. The presence of Praomys, Lophuromys, and Deomys species (Muridae, Mammalia) in the forest blocks separated by the Congo River and its tributaries (Kisangani region, Democratic Republic of Congo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katuala, Pionus G B; Kennis, Jan; Nicolas, Violaine

    2008-01-01

    Praomys (four species), Lophuromys (four) and Deomys (one) are among the most common Muridae in the Kisangani region. To establish whether or not rivers constitute dispersal barriers for these rodents, we investigated the presence of these genera and their species in eight localities that are eit......Praomys (four species), Lophuromys (four) and Deomys (one) are among the most common Muridae in the Kisangani region. To establish whether or not rivers constitute dispersal barriers for these rodents, we investigated the presence of these genera and their species in eight localities...

  15. Water-Quality and Biological Assessment of the Iowa River and Tributaries Within and Contiguous to the Meskwaki Settlement of the Sac and Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa, 2006-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littin, Gregory R.; McVay, Jason C.

    2009-01-01

    In cooperation with the Sac and Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa (Meskwaki Nation), the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a 2-year baseline assessment of the chemical and biological quality of streams within the Meskwaki Settlement in central Iowa. The Meskwaki Nation is a federally recognized tribe that wishes to establish water-quality standards to safeguard the integrity of surface waters and aquatic biota within the settlement for the health and welfare of the tribal community. The settlement is drained by the Iowa River and four tributaries (Onion, Cattail, Raven, and Bennett Creeks). Water-quality samples were collected at three sites on the Iowa River, two sites on Onion Creek, and one site each on Cattail, Raven, and Bennett Creeks from April 2006 through July 2007. Biological and habitat assessments were conducted at all three sites on the Iowa River and the downstream-most site on Onion Creek from June through August 2007. Analysis of physical properties, major ions, nutrients, trace compounds, bacteria, and total suspended solids in water, and trace metals and organic compounds in streambed sediment provided information about the effects of anthropogenic (human related) activities on the water quality of settlement streams. Analysis of biological samples collected during the summer of 2007, including fish community, benthic macroinvertebrates, and periphyton samples, as well as physical habitat characteristics, provided information on the effects of water quality on the condition of the aquatic environment. The majority of surface water sampled within the settlement was predominately a calcium bicarbonate type. Nitrates (nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen) exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) primary drinking-water Maximum Contaminant Level of 10 ug/L in 19 of 36 samples from sites on the Iowa River and Raven and Bennett Creeks but not in samples from Onion and Cattail Creeks. None of the samples analyzed for pesticides, trace

  16. Occurrence of Organic Compounds and Trace Elements in the Upper Passaic and Elizabeth Rivers and Their Tributaries in New Jersey, July 2003 to February 2004: Phase II of the New Jersey Toxics Reduction Workplan for New York-New Jersey Harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Timothy P.; Bonin, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    Samples of surface water and suspended sediment were collected from the Passaic and Elizabeth Rivers and their tributaries in New Jersey from July 2003 to February 2004 to determine the concentrations of selected chlorinated organic and inorganic constituents. This sampling and analysis was conducted as Phase II of the New York-New Jersey Harbor Estuary Workplan?Contaminant Assessment and Reduction Program (CARP), which is overseen by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Phase II of the New Jersey Workplan was conducted to define upstream tributary and point sources of contaminants in those rivers sampled during Phase I work, with special emphasis on the Passaic and Elizabeth Rivers. Samples were collected from three groups of tributaries: (1) the Second, Third, and Saddle Rivers; (2) the Pompton and upper Passaic Rivers; and (3) the West Branch and main stem of the Elizabeth River. The Second, Third, and Saddle Rivers were sampled near their confluence with the tidal Passaic River, but at locations not affected by tidal flooding. The Pompton and upper Passaic Rivers were sampled immediately upstream from their confluence at Two Bridges, N.J. The West Branch and the main stem of the Elizabeth River were sampled just upstream from their confluence at Hillside, N.J. All tributaries were sampled during low-flow discharge conditions using the protocols and analytical methods for organic constituents used in low-flow sampling in Phase I. Grab samples of streamflow also were collected at each site and were analyzed for trace elements (mercury, methylmercury, cadmium, and lead) and for suspended sediment, particulate organic carbon, and dissolved organic carbon. The measured concentrations and available historical suspended-sediment and stream-discharge data (where available) were used to estimate average annual loads of suspended sediment and organic compounds in these rivers. Total suspended-sediment loads for 1975?2000 were estimated using rating

  17. Distributing Characteristics of Heavy Metal Elements in A Tributary of Zhedong River in Laowangzhai Gold Deposit, Yunnan (China): An Implication to Environmentology from Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuran; Danĕk, Tomáš; Yang, Xiaofeng; Cheng, Xianfeng

    2016-10-01

    Five heavy metal contents from five sediments and seven sediment profiles in an upstream reach of Zhedong river in Laowangzhai gold deposit were investigated in this research, along with analysis of the horizontal distribution, the surface distribution, the vertical distribution and the interlayer distribution of five heavy metal contents: arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn). The potential ecological risk of five heavy metals was evaluated to help understanding pollution control of Laowangzhai deposit.

  18. Habitat Preference, Dispersal, and Population Trends of Three Species of Invasive Asian Carps in Tributaries of the La Grange Reach of the Illinois River

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Michael R. Wilson Illinois Natural History Survey University of Illinois at Urbana -Champaign Final report Approved for public release...summer of 2009, a drainage -wide survey of the La Grange Reach of the Illinois River was conducted to determine the extent to which these species were... Drainage System has proven to be a problem on a mammoth scale. Silver carp are arguably the most predominant fish species in the lower half of the

  19. Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Genetic Studies; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busack, Craig A.; Fritts, Anthony L.; Loxterman, Janet (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2003-05-01

    In chapter 1 we report on studies of the population genetic structure, using DNA microsatellites, of steelhead collected from different locations in the Yakima River basin (Roza Dam, Ahtanum Creek, Toppenish Creek, and Satus Creek) in 2000 and 2001. Of 28 pairwise tests of genotypic differentiation, only the 2000 and 2001 Roza Dam collections and the 2000 and 2001 Satus Creek collections did not exhibit significant differences. Similarly, pairwise tests of genetic differentiation (FST) were significant for all comparisons except the between-years comparisons of Roza Dam, Toppenish Creek, and Satus Creek collections. All tests between populations sampled from different localities were significant, indicating that these collections represent genetically differentiated stocks. In chapter 2 we report on genetic comparisons, again using microsatellites, of the three spring chinook populations in the Yakima basin (Upper Yakima, Naches, and American) with respect to our ability to be able to estimate the proportions of the three populations in mixed smolt samples collected at Chandler. We evaluated this both in terms of mixed fishery analysis, where proportions are estimated, but the likely provenance of any particular fish is unknown, and classification, where an attempt is made to assign individual fish to their population of origin. Simulations were done over the entire ranged of stock proportions observed in the Yakima basin in the last 20+ years. Stock proportions can be estimated very accurately by either method. Chapter 3 reports on our ongoing effort at cryopreserving semen from wild Upper Yakima spring chinook. In 2002, semen from 91 males, more than 50% of those spawned, was cryopreserved. Representation over the spawning season was excellent. Chapters 4,5, and 6 all relate to the continuing development of the domestication study design. Chapter 4 details the ISRP consultations and evolution of the design from last year's preferred alternative to the

  20. Reconnaissance of chemical and physical characteristics of selected bottom sediments of the Caloosahatchee River and estuary, tributaries, and contiguous bays, Lee County, Florida, July 20-30, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Mario; Marot, M.E.; Holmes, C.W.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes a reconnaissance study, conducted July 20-30, 1998, of chemical and physical characteristics of recently deposited bottom sediments in the Caloosahatchee River and Estuary. Recently deposited sediments were identified using an isotopic chronometer, Beryllium-7 (7Be), a short-lived radioisotope. Fifty-nine sites were sampled in an area that encompasses the Caloosahatchee River (River) about three miles upstream from the Franklin Lock (S-79), the entire tidally affected length of the river (estuary), and the contiguous water bodies of Matlacha Pass, San Carlos Bay, Estero Bay, Tarpon Bay, and Pine Island Sound in Lee County, Florida. Bottom sediments were sampled for 7Be at 59 sites. From the results of the 7Be analysis, 30 sites were selected for physical and chemical analysis. Sediments were analyzed for particle size, total organic carbon (TOC), trace elements, and toxic organic compounds, using semiquantitative methods for trace elements and organic compounds. The semiquantitative scans of trace elements indicated that cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc concentrations, when normalized to aluminum, were above the natural background range at 24 of 30 sites. Particle size and TOC were used to characterize sediment deposition patterns and organic content. Pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (CaPAHs) were determined at 30 sites using immunoassay analysis. The semiquantitative immunoassay analyses of toxic organic compounds indicated that all of the samples contained DDT, cyclodienes as chlordane (pesticides), and CaPAHs. PCBs were not detected. Based on analyses of the 30 sites, sediments at 10 of these sites were analyzed for selected trace elements and toxic organic compounds, including pesticides, PCBs, and PAHs, using quantitative laboratory procedures. No arsenic or cadmium was detected. Zinc was detected at two sites with concentrations greater than the lower limit of the range of

  1. Water Quality Assessment of Danjiangkou Reservoir and its Tributaries in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Linghua; Peng, Wenqi; Wu, Leixiang; Liu, Laisheng

    2018-01-01

    Danjiangkou Reservoir is an important water source for the middle route of the South to North Water Diversion Project in China, and water quality of Danjiangkou Reservoir and its tributaries is crucial for the project. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the water quality of Daniiangkou Reservoir and its tributaries based on Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCMEWQI). 22 water quality parameters from 25 sampling sites were analyzed to calculate WQI. The results indicate that water quality in Danjiangkou Reservoir area, Hanjiang River and Danjiang River is excellent. And the seriously polluted tributary rivers were Shending River, Jianghe River, Sihe River, Tianhe River, Jianhe River and Jiangjun River. Water quality parameters that cannot meet the standard limit for drinking water source were fecal coliform bacteria, CODcr, CODMn, BOD5, NH3-N, TP, DO, anionic surfactant and petroleum. Fecal coliform bacteria, TP, ammonia nitrogen, CODMn were the most common parameters to fail.

  2. On the impact of the development of the Verkhnyaya Sukhona river catchment area (the Vologda Region on the chemical composition of the waters in its tributaries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivicheva Ksenya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to study the influence of anthropogenic burden on the catchment areas of the rivers in Vologda Region and to establish the dependence of the chemical composition of water on pollution sources in the rivers of the Verkhnyaya Sukhona basin. In the catchment areas hydro chemical samples were taken, population density was calculated as well as the automated and visual interpretation of the main elements of the landscape was carried out. At that, forests, populated areas, farmlands and other territories changed by economic activities were identified. An increase in the pollutants concentration in the catchment areas on drawing near the regional center was detected. The development of the catchment areas varies depending on the landscape pattern and on the proximity to the city of Vologda. The population density and the relative area of settlements and farmlands increase while approaching to the city, at the same time the ratio of forests decreases. The positive correlation dependence between the phosphate content and the relative size of farmlands was shown. The main source of pollutants in the catchment areas of the Verkhnyaya Sukhona basin is the presence of settlements and high population density. Under such conditions, high concentration of sodium, chlorine, nitrogen-containing compounds as well as permanganate oxidizability are observed in water.

  3. Comportamiento epidemiologico del cáncer de colon en el área metropolitana de cúcuta 2001-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alix Bohorquez-Ortiz

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify characteristics and epidemiological risk factors prevalent for colon cancer in the adult population Cucuta, this study is development of type descriptive, cross-sectional prospective. The study population consisted of 37 Patients with this diagnosis who attended the public and private institutions municipal health Cucuta (N. S. in the period 2001 2002. It found that the risk increases with age, most affected is the female sex, history Family of colon cancer in other organs, polyposis and ulcerative colitis occurred in 5.4 10 patients of the study. They were identified as dietary risk factors high consumption of beef, sausages intake of food, reuse in cooking oils of food and consumption of reheated meals. Is widely used in diet refined flour corn for the production and consumption of arepas. Risk factors in the lifestyle that They were presented with the highest percentage sedentary lifestyle and smoking, followed by consumption alcohol and obesity. A high percentage say they have had constipation or diarrhea symptoms. 50% report Self-medication for the management of these symptoms, using both pharmacologic agents as the use of folk medicine. as conditions precursor are rectal bleeding with 73%, weight loss with 63.6%, followed by hemorrhoids and anemia with 36.4%. Were found long periods of disease progression before the diagnosis was defined.

  4. Post-wildfire recovery of water yield in the Sydney Basin water supply catchments: An assessment of the 2001/2002 wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, J. T.; Chafer, C. J.; van Ogtrop, F. F.; Bishop, T. F. A.

    2014-11-01

    Wildfire is a recurring event which has been acknowledged by the literature to impact the hydrological cycle of a catchment. Hence, wildfire may have a significant impact on water yield levels within a catchment. In Australia, studies of the effect of fire on water yield have been limited to obligate seeder vegetation communities. These communities regenerate from seed banks in the ground or within woody fruits and are generally activated by fire. In contrast, the Sydney Basin is dominated by obligate resprouter communities. These communities regenerate from fire resistant buds found on the plant and are generally found in regions where wildfire is a regular occurrence. The 2001/2002 wildfires in the Sydney Basin provided an opportunity to investigate the impacts of wildfire on water yield in a number of catchments dominated by obligate resprouting communities. The overall aim of this study was to investigate whether there was a difference in water yield post-wildfire. Four burnt subcatchments and 3 control subcatchments were assessed. A general additive model was calibrated using pre-wildfire data and then used to predict post-wildfire water yield using post-wildfire data. The model errors were analysed and it was found that the errors for all subcatchments showed similar trends for the post-wildfire period. This finding demonstrates that wildfires within the Sydney Basin have no significant medium-term impact on water yield.

  5. 2001 - 2002 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Academic Training; Tel. 73127

    2001-01-01

    1ST TERM 1ST OCTOBER - 23 NOVEMBER 2001 LECTURE SERIES FOR POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS The Autumn term of the Academic Training Programme is about to start. As usual, the first term includes lectures primarily dedicated to Post-graduate students. These are meant to help students complement the courses available from their home Universities with lectures on topics close to CERN activities. The lectures are nevertheless open to all CERN staff, and in particular to young Fellows. This year's series include courses on Accelerator Physics, on Field Theory, and on Symmetry Breaking Phenomena in Physics. The course on Accelerators by Dr. Wilson has been a regular feature on the Academic Training programme for many previous editions. This year, the course will be updated to include new sections on Colliders and on future facilities such as the Neutrino Factory. A good introduction to this very successful course can be found in the previous version of these lectures, available from the Web Lecture Archive Project: http://w...

  6. Progress report 2001-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The document reviews the activities of the linear accelerator laboratory (LAL) for the years 2001 and 2002. Most part of these activities are active collaborations in international programs. Some experimental programs like Aleph (apparatus for Lep physics) and Delphi (detector with lepton, photon, and hadron identification) at the Lep (CERN) or Na48 (search for direct violation of the CP invariance) have entered their last stage. Others like H1 (electron-positron experiment at Hera), Babar (measurement of CP violation in the B 0 B-bar 0 system) at Slac (Stanford), or D0 (search for new particles at the Tevatron) at Fermilab, are fully operating and this document describes the contribution of the LAL for each of them. The preparation of experiments for the future LHC has represented the core of LAL's technical activities. This document reviews these activities and achievements for the Atlas (air toroid LHC apparatus system) and LHCB (large hadron collider beauty) experiments. The LAL is also involved in the definition of the future high energy linear electron-positron collider (FLC). The LAL contributes to some experiments of neutrino physics through Nemo (violation of the lepton charge) and Opera (neutrino oscillations) experiments and to various astro-particles experiments such as Eros (micro-lensing effect), Archeops and Planck (cosmology), Virgo (gravitation waves) and Auger (very high energy particles showers). Another important part of LAL's activities is teaching activity mainly inside the curriculum of Paris-sud university. (A.C.)

  7. Environmental taxes 1991 - 2001 (2002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    The statistics presents statements of environmental taxes for the period 1991-2001 (and budget figure for 2002). Environmental taxes are a concept for pollution, energy, transportation and resource related taxes. Income of the government from environmental taxes have increased from 30,0 billions DDK in 1991 to 62,2 billions DDK in 2001 - a little more than a doubling. The environmental taxes' part of the total taxes' part og the total taxes has increased from 7,5% in 1991 to 9,4% in 2001. In 2001 the energy taxes are 57%, the transportation taxes 36% and the pollution and resource taxes 7% of the environmental taxes. (LN)

  8. Análise do custo de produção e lucratividade na cultura de pinha (Annona squamosa L. na região de Jales-SP, ano agrícola 2001-2002 Production costs and profitability analyze for the anona (Annona squamosa L. in Jales region, São Paulo State, 2001-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto José Batista Pelinson

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado na região de Jales-SP, com objetivo de analisar economicamente o cultivo da pinha. Para estimar a matriz de coeficientes técnicos, os custos de produção, os indicadores de lucratividade e os dados foram levantados com cinco produtores de pinha, no ano de 2001-2002. Apesar do custo superior do sistema de produção tecnificado quando comparado com o convencional na cultura da pinha, o sistema tecnificado apresentou-se mais rentável para os produtores rurais da região de Jales, com um lucro operacional por hectare de R$5.301,07 (US$2.031,06 e para o convencional de R$1.720,48 (US$659,19. Isto se deve principalmente por proporcionar benefícios, como antecipação da colheita para períodos de melhores preços, melhoria na qualidade e na quantidade dos frutos.This work was conduced in Jales region, São Paulo State, Brazil, intending to analyze economically the Anona (Annona squamosa L. crops cultivation. For the technical matrix coefficients, the production costs and the profitability indicators data were collected in 5 (five farmers which produced sugar apple in 2001/2002 harvest. Besides the cost of the intensive production system being higher than the conventional one, the intensive production system showed better profitability to the sugar apple farmers in Jales region with an operational profit per hectare of US$ 2,031.06 while the conventional was of US$ 659.19. The reason of this difference is related with the benefits such as harvest anticipation to a better prices period, increase in the fruits quantity and quality.

  9. Impact of a commercial peat moss operation on water quality and biota in a small tributary of the Richibucto River, Kent County, New Brunswick, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surette, C; Brun, G L; Mallet, V N

    2002-05-01

    The St-Charles Plain (Kent County, New Brunswick, Canada) commercial peat moss operation has been ongoing since 1983. To process the peat, a dry extraction method is used that requires extensive drainage of the peat bog. The water is directed toward sedimentation ponds, where it drains into a small brook, which feeds into a river affected by tidal salt water. Water discharge from the bog contains large amounts of peat particles that deposit in the surrounding watershed. As a result, the pH of the freshwater sites that receive the drainage water from the commercial operation, is fairly acidic (pH 3.9-4.7). Water samples from or near the peat moss operation have a higher concentration of total phosphorous and total organic carbon. The peat particles contain relatively high levels of total mercury, as reflected by analysis of peat sediments. However, the water samples contained low levels of dissolved mercury. Indigenous samples of biota-namely, sand shrimps (Crangon septemspinosa) and mummichogs (Fundulus heteroclitus)-did not contain mercury levels higher in the impacted sites than in the reference sites. Introduced blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) did not accumulate significant amounts of mercury during a 62-day exposure in the study area. Overall, the data suggest that although relatively large amounts of mercury-containing peat particles are discharged into the ecosystem, bioaccumulation of mercury in the biota does not occur.

  10. Method of capture and population structure of Aegla georginae Santos and Jara, 2013 (Decapoda: Anomura: Aeglidae in a tributary of the Ibicuí River in southern Brazil

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    C. E. Copatti

    Full Text Available Abstract In the current study, we investigated population aspects of Aegla georginae in the Ibicuí River Basin by considering different capture methods and the implication of these data in the analysis of population dynamics. We sampled 1774 individuals: 1259 males (21 and 97 juveniles and 1029 and 113 adults in trap and handnet, respectively, 512 females (05 and 140 juveniles, 184 and 64 adults, and 81 and 38 ovigerous in trap and handnet, respectively and 03 unsexed individuals (02 and 01 in trap and handnet, respectively. The frequency distribution in size classes shows a bimodal model for both sexes. The carapace length (CL in males and females varied from 3.11 to 26.00 and 3.73 to 22.36 mm, respectively. Males presented significantly larger sizes than females. The relative abundance between males and females was significantly different from 1:1 with more males than females in most sampling periods (p 0.05. Juveniles were recorded in all seasons, and reproduction occurs throughout the year. The population structure is similar to the model known for aeglids, and the capture methods affected the analysis of A. georginae, where the grouped data and trap captures presented greater abundance of individuals than handnet and males predominate in the larger size classes, and females in the intermediary size classes. Therefore, an integrated view of the capture methods is the best model for studying the population dynamics of aeglids.

  11. Organic compounds and cadmium in the tributaries to the Elizabeth River in New Jersey, October 2008 to November 2008: Phase II of the New Jersey Toxics Reduction Workplan for New York-New Jersey Harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Samples of surface water and suspended sediment were collected from the two branches that make up the Elizabeth River in New Jersey - the West Branch and the Main Stem - from October to November 2008 to determine the concentrations of selected chlorinated organic and inorganic constituents. The sampling and analyses were conducted as part of Phase II of the New York-New Jersey Harbor Estuary Plan-Contaminant Assessment and Reduction Program (CARP), which is overseen by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Phase II of the New Jersey Workplan was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey to define upstream tributary and point sources of contaminants in those rivers sampled during Phase I work, with special emphasis on the Passaic and Elizabeth Rivers. This portion of the Phase II study was conducted on the two branches of the Elizabeth River, which were previously sampled during July and August of 2003 at low-flow conditions. Samples were collected during 2008 from the West Branch and Main Stem of the Elizabeth River just upstream from their confluence at Hillside, N.J. Both tributaries were sampled once during low-flow discharge conditions and once during high-flow discharge conditions using the protocols and analytical methods that were used in the initial part of Phase II of the Workplan. Grab samples of streamwater also were collected at each site and were analyzed for cadmium, suspended sediment, and particulate organic carbon. The measured concentrations, along with available historical suspended-sediment and stream-discharge data were used to estimate average annual loads of suspended sediment and organic compounds in the two branches of the Elizabeth River. Total suspended-sediment loads for 1975 to 2000 were estimated using rating curves developed from historical U.S. Geological Survey suspended-sediment and discharge data, where available. Concentrations of suspended-sediment-bound polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Main Stem and the

  12. Relation of water quality to land use in the drainage basins of six tributaries to the lower Delaware River, New Jersey, 2002-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ronald J.; Esralew, Rachel A.

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations and loads of water-quality constituents in six streams in the lower Delaware River Basin of New Jersey were determined in a multi-year study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Two streams receive water from relatively undeveloped basins, two from largely agricultural basins, and two from heavily urbanized basins. Each stream was monitored during eight storms and at least eight times during base flow during 2002-07. Sampling was conducted during base flow before each storm, when stage was first observed to rise, and several times during the rising limb of the hydrographs. Agricultural and urban land use has resulted in statistically significant increases in loads of nitrogen and phosphorus species relative to loads in undeveloped basins. For example, during the growing season, median storm flow concentrations of total nitrogen in the two streams in agricultural areas were 6,290 and 1,760 mg/L, compared to 988 and 823 mg/L for streams in urban areas, and 719 and 333 mg/L in undeveloped areas. Although nutrient concentrations and loads were clearly related to land useurban, agricultural, and undeveloped within the drainage basins, other basin characteristics were found to be important. Residual nutrients entrapped in lake sediments from streams that received effluent from recently removed sewage-treatment plants are hypothesized to be the cause of extremely high levels of nutrient loads to one urban stream, whereas another urban stream with similar land-use percentages (but without the legacy of sewage-treatment plants) had much lower levels of nutrients. One of the two agricultural streams studied had higher nutrient loads than the other, especially for total phosphorous and organic nitrogen. This difference appears to be related to the presence (or absence) of livestock (cattle).

  13. Reanalysis of the RXTE observations of the black-hole candidate XTE J1650-500 in the 2001/2002 outburst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Lihong; Wang Jiancheng

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of the spectral fits made to 59 Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the Galactic X-Ray Black-Hole Candidate XTE J1650-500 covering the first 30d of its 2001/2002 outburst when the source was in a transition from the hard state to the soft state. The photon spectra can be well fitted with a phenomenological model of a power-law/cutoff power-law and a physical model of bulk-motion Comptonization. The spectral properties smoothly evolve away from the hard state and then stay in the soft state. The fitting results of the physical model reveal the peak of the burst had a flux of 2.90 × 10 −8 erg cm −2 s −1 in the 2–100 keV energy range and was observed on 2001 Sep. 9; it transitioned to the hard state. The total flux decays by a factor of ∼3 as it evolves into the soft state. The photon index Γ increases from ∼1.5 in the hard state and stays at ∼2.5 in the soft state. We found that the effective area of the high-energy X-ray emission region (the Compton cloud) decreases, i.e. the area of the Compton cloud decreases by a factor of ∼23 during the transition from the hard state to the soft state. Combining the new radio and quasi-periodic oscillation studies, the model of total flux in the 2–100 keV energy range, the jet emission and the timing analysis during the state transition, we suggest a possible geometry and evolution for the (jet+corona+disk) system, like that proposed by Kalemci et al. based on enhanced lags and peak frequency shift during the transition.

  14. Diferenças clínicas observadas em pacientes com dengue causadas por diferentes sorotipos na epidemia de 2001/2002, ocorrida no município do Rio de Janeiro Clinical differences observed in patients with dengue caused by different serotypes in the epidemic of 2001/2002, occurred in Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíla Naves Pereira Passos

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as diferenças clínicas e epidemiológicas das infecções causadas pelos distintos sorotipos do vírus do dengue na epidemia 2001-2002 no município do Rio de Janeiro. Foram analisados 362 casos com isolamento viral, sendo 62 do sorotipo 1,62 do sorotipo 2, e 238 do sorotipo 3. Estes casos foram notificados ao Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN de janeiro/2001 até junho/2002. Os indivíduos infectados com o sorotipo 3 tiveram uma chance 6,07 vezes maior de apresentar choque em relação aos indivíduos com o sorotipo 2 (OR=6,07; IC:1,10-43,97. A chance de apresentar dor abdominal foi 3,06 maior nos infectados pelo sorotipo 3 do que naqueles por sorotipo 1 (OR=3,06; IC:0,99-9,66. Nos infectados com o sorotipo 3, a chance de ocorrer exantema foi 3,61 vezes maior que naqueles com o sorotipo 1 (OR=3,61; IC:1,16-11,51 e 3,55 vezes maior que aqueles com o sorotipo 2 (OR=3,55; IC:1,28-9,97. Este estudo mostra que indivíduos acometidos pelo sorotipo 3 apresentaram dengue com maior gravidade.The authors evaluated clinical and epidemiological differences among the serotypes of dengue in Rio de Janeiro's 2001-2002 outbreak of the disease. Out of 362 cases that had viral isolation samples, notified by the Information System for Notification Diseases (SINAN, from January/2001 to June/2002, 62 were caused by serotype 1,62 by serotype 2 and 238 by serotype 3. In comparison with serotype 2, an individual infected by serotype 3 had a 6.07 times higher chance (OR = 6.07; CI: 1.10-43.97 of presenting shock and a 3.55 times higher chance (OR = 3.55; CI: 1.28-9.97 of developing exanthema. When compared to serotype 1, serotype 3 had a 3.06 times higher chance (OR = 3.06; CI: 0.99-9.66 of causing abdominal pain and a 3.61 times higher chance of exanthema (OR = 3.61; CI: 1.16-11.51. It was found that individuals infected by serotype 3 of the virus presented signs indicating a more severe disease.

  15. Developing a Comprehensive Spectral-Biogeochemical Database of Midwestern Rivers for Water Quality Retrieval Using Remote Sensing Data: A Case Study of the Wabash River and Its Tributary, Indiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Tan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive spectral-biogeochemical database was developed for the Wabash River and the Tippecanoe River in Indiana, United States. This database includes spectral measurements of river water, coincident in situ measurements of water quality parameters (chlorophyll (chl, non-algal particles (NAP, and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM, nutrients (total nitrogen (TN, total phosphorus (TP, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC, water-column inherent optical properties (IOPs, water depths, substrate types, and bottom reflectance spectra collected in summer 2014. With this dataset, the temporal variability of water quality observations was first analyzed and studied. Second, radiative transfer models were inverted to retrieve water quality parameters using a look-up table (LUT based spectrum matching methodology. Results found that the temporal variability of water quality parameters and nutrients in the Wabash River was closely associated with hydrologic conditions. Meanwhile, there were no significant correlations found between these parameters and streamflow for the Tippecanoe River, due to the two upstream reservoirs, which increase the settling of sediment and uptake of nutrients. The poor relationship between CDOM and DOC indicates that most DOC in the rivers was from human sources such as wastewater. It was also found that the source of water (surface runoff or combined sewer overflow (CSO, water temperature, and nutrients were important factors controlling instream concentrations of phytoplankton. The LUT retrieved NAP concentrations were in good agreement with field measurements with slope close to 1.0 and the average estimation error was 4.1% of independently obtained lab measurements. The error for chl estimation was larger (37.7%, which is attributed to the fact that the specific absorption spectrum of chl was not well represented in this study. The LUT retrievals for CDOM experienced large variability, probably due to the small data

  16. The fishermen were right: experimental evidence for tributary refuge hypothesis during floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Itsuro; Kanazawa, Yukiyo; Tanaka, Yuuki

    2013-05-01

    Fishermen often anecdotally report an unexpected increase of fish caught in small tributary streams during floods, presumably due to refuge-seeking behavior from the main stem. From a population perspective, this implies the significance of refuge habitats and connectivity for population viability against natural disturbances. Despite the plausibility, however, surprisingly few studies have examined the tributary refuge hypothesis, mainly due to the difficulty in field survey during floods. Here, we made use of a large-scale controlled flood to assess whether fishes move into tributaries during flooding in the main stem. A planned water release from the Satsunai River Dam located on Hokkaido Island in Japan rapidly increased the main stem discharge by more than 20-fold. Before, during, and after flooding censuses in four tributaries provided evidence of the refuge-seeking behavior of fishes from the main stem. For example, more than 10 Dolly Varden char, a salmonid fish, were caught in a tributary during the flood, even though almost no individuals were captured before or after the flood. The fish responded immediately to the flooding, suggesting the need for studies during disturbances. In addition, the likelihood of refuge movements varied among tributaries, suggesting the importance of local environmental differences between tributary and the main stem habitats. This is the first study to experimentally confirm the tributary refuge hypothesis, and underscores the roles of habitat diversity and connectivity during disturbances, even though some habitats are not used during normal conditions.

  17. Tributaries affect the thermal response of lakes to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Råman Vinnå, Love; Wüest, Alfred; Zappa, Massimiliano; Fink, Gabriel; Bouffard, Damien

    2018-01-01

    Thermal responses of inland waters to climate change varies on global and regional scales. The extent of warming is determined by system-specific characteristics such as fluvial input. Here we examine the impact of ongoing climate change on two alpine tributaries, the Aare River and the Rhône River, and their respective downstream peri-alpine lakes: Lake Biel and Lake Geneva. We propagate regional atmospheric temperature effects into river discharge projections. These, together with anthropogenic heat sources, are in turn incorporated into simple and efficient deterministic models that predict future water temperatures, river-borne suspended sediment concentration (SSC), lake stratification and river intrusion depth/volume in the lakes. Climate-induced shifts in river discharge regimes, including seasonal flow variations, act as positive and negative feedbacks in influencing river water temperature and SSC. Differences in temperature and heating regimes between rivers and lakes in turn result in large seasonal shifts in warming of downstream lakes. The extent of this repressive effect on warming is controlled by the lakes hydraulic residence time. Previous studies suggest that climate change will diminish deep-water oxygen renewal in lakes. We find that climate-related seasonal variations in river temperatures and SSC shift deep penetrating river intrusions from summer towards winter. Thus potentially counteracting the otherwise negative effects associated with climate change on deep-water oxygen content. Our findings provide a template for evaluating the response of similar hydrologic systems to on-going climate change.

  18. Tributaries affect the thermal response of lakes to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Råman Vinnå

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal responses of inland waters to climate change varies on global and regional scales. The extent of warming is determined by system-specific characteristics such as fluvial input. Here we examine the impact of ongoing climate change on two alpine tributaries, the Aare River and the Rhône River, and their respective downstream peri-alpine lakes: Lake Biel and Lake Geneva. We propagate regional atmospheric temperature effects into river discharge projections. These, together with anthropogenic heat sources, are in turn incorporated into simple and efficient deterministic models that predict future water temperatures, river-borne suspended sediment concentration (SSC, lake stratification and river intrusion depth/volume in the lakes. Climate-induced shifts in river discharge regimes, including seasonal flow variations, act as positive and negative feedbacks in influencing river water temperature and SSC. Differences in temperature and heating regimes between rivers and lakes in turn result in large seasonal shifts in warming of downstream lakes. The extent of this repressive effect on warming is controlled by the lakes hydraulic residence time. Previous studies suggest that climate change will diminish deep-water oxygen renewal in lakes. We find that climate-related seasonal variations in river temperatures and SSC shift deep penetrating river intrusions from summer towards winter. Thus potentially counteracting the otherwise negative effects associated with climate change on deep-water oxygen content. Our findings provide a template for evaluating the response of similar hydrologic systems to on-going climate change.

  19. Survival, transport, and sources of fecal bacteria in streams and survival in land-applied poultry litter in the upper Shoal Creek basin, southwestern Missouri, 2001-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, John G.

    2003-01-01

    Densities of fecal coliform bacteria along a 5.7-mi (mile) reach of Shoal Creek extending upstream from State Highway 97 (site 3) to State Highway W (site 2) and in two tributaries along this reach exceeded the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) standard of 200 col/100 mL (colonies per 100 milliliters) for whole-body contact recreation. A combination of techniques was used in this report to provide information on the source, transport, and survival of fecal bacteria along this reach of Shoal Creek. Results of water-quality samples collected during dye-trace and seepage studies indicated that at summer low base-flow conditions, pastured cattle likely were a substantial source of fecal bacteria in Shoal Creek at the MDNR monitoring site (site 3) at State Highway 97. Using repeat element Polymerase Chain Reaction (rep-PCR), cattle were the presumptive source of about 50 percent of the Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolates in water samples from site 3. Cattle, horses, and humans were the most common presumptive source of E. coli isolates at sites further upstream. Poultry was identified by rep-PCR as a major source of E. coli in Pogue Creek, a tributary in the upper part of the study area. Results of the rep-PCR were in general agreement with the detection and distribution of trace concentrations of organic compounds commonly associated with human wastewater, such as caffeine, the antimicrobial agent triclosan, and the pharmaceutical compounds acetaminophen and thiabendazole (a common cattle anthelmintic). Significant inputs of fecal bacteria to Shoal Creek occurred along a 1.6-mi reach of Shoal Creek immediately upstream from site 3. During a 36-hour period in July 2001, average densities of fecal coliform and E. coli bacteria increased from less than or equal to 500 col/100 mL upstream from this stream reach (sample site 2c) to 2,100 and 1,400 col/100 mL, respectively, at the MDNR sampling site. Fecal bacteria densities exhibited diurnal variability at all

  20. Mineralogia e química dos sedimentos de fundo do médio e baixo Madeira e de seus principais tributários: Amazonas - Brasil Mineralogy and chemistry of bottom sediments of the middle and lower Madeira River and its main tributaries: Amazonas - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mireide Andrade Queiroz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a variação composicional e mineralógica dos sedimentos de fundo transportados pelos grandes rios da Amazônia, com nascentes nos Andes provenientes de rochas cratônicas. O estudo foi realizado com base em análises granulométricas, mineralógicas e químicas, incluindo isótopos de Pb, no rio Madeira e seus tributários. O conjunto de dados mostra que os sedimentos de fundo do rio Madeira são granulométrica, mineralógica e quimicamente distintos de seus principais tributários. Os sedimentos do rio Madeira são mais arenosos; têm maior quantidade de quartzo; menor conteúdo de Al2O3, Fe2O3, K2O, MgO, Na2O, PF, TiO2, P2O5, MnO e elementos-traço; e a maturidade aumenta de montante para jusante. Dentre os sedimentos dos tributários, os rios Machado e secundariamente o rio Marmelos são os que mais se aproximam da composição dos sedimentos do rio Madeira, enquanto que o Jamari com sedimentos com maior proporção de TiO2, Zr, Y, Nb, Ga, Hf, U, Ta e ETR, é o mais distinto. Apesar do ambiente de intenso intemperismo e erosão, em condições tropicais úmidas, a que estão submetidas as rochas drenadas pela bacia do rio Madeira, os valores das razões Th/Co, Th/Pb, Th/Yb, Al/Pb, Zr/Co e a composição isotópica de Pb indicam fontes distintas para os sedimentos de fundo estudados. Os sedimentos do rio Madeira são provenientes, principalmente, de rochas máficas, enquanto que os sedimentos de seus tributários têm como fonte essencialmente rochas félsicas.This study reports the granulometric, mineralogic and chemical analyses, including Pb isotope, carried out on the bottom sediments of the Madeira River, whose headwaters are in the Andes Mountain, and its tributaries that come from the cratonic region, in order to investigate the compositional variation of the sediments transported by the major rivers of the Amazon. The analytical data show that the bottom sediments of the Madeira River have

  1. The scales of variability of stream fish assemblage at tributary confluences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Czeglédi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tributary confluences play an important role in the dispersal of organisms, and consequently, in shaping regional scale diversity in stream networks. Despite their importance in dispersal processes, little is known about how ecological assemblages are organized in these habitats. We studied the scales of variability of stream fish assemblages over three seasons using a hierarchical sampling design, which incorporated three tributaries, three sites at the mouth of each tributary and using four sampling units at each site. We found strong scale dependent variability in species richness, composition and relative abundance. Most of the variation was accounted for by the interactive effect of season, between stream and between site effects, while habitat structure of the sampling units had a relatively minor role. Species richness showed a continuous decrease from the mainstem river in most cases, while species composition and relative abundance changed less consistently along the longitudinal profile. Consequently, we found that not only the junctions presented a strong filter on the species pool, but some species were filtered out if they passed this critical habitat bottleneck. Spatial position of the tributaries along the river also contributed to assemblage variability in the confluences. Overall, our results suggest high variability in fish assemblages across multiple scales at tributary confluences. Environmental management should take a more critical care on the filtering role of tributary confluences in species dispersal, for better understanding patterns and processes in the branches of dendritic stream networks.

  2. Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Policy/Technical Involvement and Planning, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easterbrooks, John A.; Pearsons, Todd N. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2003-03-01

    The Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP) is a supplementation project sponsored by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program 1994, Measure 7.4K). The objectives of the YKFP are: (1) to test the hypothesis that new supplementation techniques can be used in the Yakima River Basin to increase natural production and to improve harvest opportunities while maintaining the long-term genetic fitness of the wild and native salmonid populations and keeping adverse ecological interactions within acceptable limits (Yakima Fisheries Project Final Environment Impact Statement, 1996); (2) provide knowledge about the use of supplementation, so that it may be used to mitigate effects on anadromous fisheries throughout the Columbia River Basin; (3) to maintain and improve the quantity and productivity of salmon and steelhead habitat, including those areas made accessible by habitat improvements; (4) to ensure that Project implementation remains consistent with the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program; and (5) to implement the Project in a prudent and environmentally sound manner. Current YKFP operations have been designed to test the principles of supplementation (Busack et al. 1997). The Project's experimental design has focused on the following critical uncertainties affecting supplementation: (1) The survival and reproductive success of hatchery fish after release from the hatchery; (2) The impacts of hatchery fish as they interact with non-target species and stocks; and, (3) The effects of supplementation on the long-term genetic fitness of fish stocks. The YKFP endorses an adaptive management policy applied through a project management framework as described in the Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Planning Status Report (1995), Fast and Craig (1997), Clune and Dauble 1991. The project is managed by a Policy Group consisting of a representative of the Yakama Nation (YN, lead agency) and a representative of the Washington

  3. Prevalence of 12-Month Alcohol Use, High-Risk Drinking, and DSM-IV Alcohol Use Disorder in the United States, 2001-2002 to 2012-2013: Results From the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Bridget F; Chou, S Patricia; Saha, Tulshi D; Pickering, Roger P; Kerridge, Bradley T; Ruan, W June; Huang, Boji; Jung, Jeesun; Zhang, Haitao; Fan, Amy; Hasin, Deborah S

    2017-09-01

    Lack of current and comprehensive trend data derived from a uniform, reliable, and valid source on alcohol use, high-risk drinking, and DSM-IV alcohol use disorder (AUD) represents a major gap in public health information. To present nationally representative data on changes in the prevalences of 12-month alcohol use, 12-month high-risk drinking, 12-month DSM-IV AUD, 12-month DSM-IV AUD among 12-month alcohol users, and 12-month DSM-IV AUD among 12-month high-risk drinkers between 2001-2002 and 2012-2013. The study data were derived from face-to-face interviews conducted in 2 nationally representative surveys of US adults: the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, with data collected from April 2001 to June 2002, and the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions III, with data collected from April 2012 to June 2013. Data were analyzed in November and December 2016. Twelve-month alcohol use, high-risk drinking, and DSM-IV AUD. The study sample included 43 093 participants in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions and 36 309 participants in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions III. Between 2001-2002 and 2012-2013, 12-month alcohol use, high-risk drinking, and DSM-IV AUD increased by 11.2%, 29.9%, and 49.4%, respectively, with alcohol use increasing from 65.4% (95% CI, 64.3%-66.6%) to 72.7% (95% CI, 71.4%-73.9%), high-risk drinking increasing from 9.7% (95% CI, 9.3%-10.2%) to 12.6% (95% CI, 12.0%-13.2%), and DSM-IV AUD increasing from 8.5% (95% CI, 8.0%-8.9%) to 12.7% (95% CI, 12.1%-13.3%). With few exceptions, increases in alcohol use, high-risk drinking, and DSM-IV AUD between 2001-2002 and 2012-2013 were also statistically significant across sociodemographic subgroups. Increases in all of these outcomes were greatest among women, older adults, racial/ethnic minorities, and individuals with lower educational level and family income. Increases were also

  4. Hydromorphodynamic effects of the width ratio and local tributary widening on discordant confluences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén-Ludeña, S.; Franca, M. J.; Alegria, F.; Schleiss, A. J.; Cardoso, A. H.

    2017-09-01

    River training works performed in the last couple of centuries constrained the natural dynamics of channel networks in locations that include the confluences between tributaries and main channels. As a result, the dynamics of these confluences are currently characterized by homogeneous flow depths, flow velocities, and morphologic conditions, which are associated with impoverished ecosystems. The widening of river reaches is seen as a useful measure for river restoration, as it enhances the heterogeneity in flow depths, flow velocities, sediment transport, and bed substrates. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of local widening of the tributary mouth as well as the effects of the ratio between the width of the tributary and that of the main channel on the flow dynamics and bed morphology of river confluences. For that purpose, 12 experiments were conducted in a 70° laboratory confluence. In these experiments, three unit-discharge ratios were tested (qr = 0.37, 0.50, and 0.77) with two width ratios and two tributary configurations. The unit-discharge ratio is defined as the unit discharge in the tributary divided by that of the main channel, measured upstream of the confluence. The width ratio, which is defined as the width of the tributary divided by that of the main channel, was modified by changing the width of the main channel from 0.50 to 1.00 m (corresponding to Br = 0.30 and 0.15 respectively). The tributary configurations consisted of (i) a straight reach with a constant width (the so-called reference configuration) and (ii) a straight reach with a local widening at the downstream end (the so-called widened configuration). During the experiments, a uniform sediment mixture was continuously supplied to both channels. This experimental setup is novel among existing experimental studies on confluence dynamics, as it addresses new confluence configurations and includes a continuous sediment supply to both channels. The experiments were run

  5. Effects of water temperature on breeding phenology, growth, and metamorphosis of foothill yellow-legged frogs (Rana boylii): a case study of the regulated mainstem and unregulated tributaries of California's Trinity River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara Wheeler; James Bettaso; Donald Ashton; Hartwell Welsh

    2014-01-01

    Many riverine organisms are well adapted to seasonally dynamic environments, but extreme changes in flow and thermal regimes can threaten sustainability of their populations in regulated rivers. Altered thermal regimes may limit recruitment to populations by shifting the timing of breeding activities and affecting the growth and development of early life stages. Stream...

  6. Importance of measuring discharge and sediment transport in lesser tributaries when closing sediment budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Ronald E.; Topping, David J.

    2017-11-01

    Sediment budgets are an important tool for understanding how riverine ecosystems respond to perturbations. Changes in the quantity and grain size distribution of sediment within river systems affect the channel morphology and related habitat resources. It is therefore important for resource managers to know if a river reach is in a state of sediment accumulation, deficit or stasis. Many sediment-budget studies have estimated the sediment loads of ungaged tributaries using regional sediment-yield equations or other similar techniques. While these approaches may be valid in regions where rainfall and geology are uniform over large areas, use of sediment-yield equations may lead to poor estimations of loads in regions where rainfall events, contributing geology, and vegetation have large spatial and/or temporal variability. Previous estimates of the combined mean-annual sediment load of all ungaged tributaries to the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam vary by over a factor of three; this range in estimated sediment loads has resulted in different researchers reaching opposite conclusions on the sign (accumulation or deficit) of the sediment budget for particular reaches of the Colorado River. To better evaluate the supply of fine sediment (sand, silt, and clay) from these tributaries to the Colorado River, eight gages were established on previously ungaged tributaries in Glen, Marble, and Grand canyons. Results from this sediment-monitoring network show that previous estimates of the annual sediment loads of these tributaries were too high and that the sediment budget for the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam is more negative than previously calculated by most researchers. As a result of locally intense rainfall events with footprints smaller than the receiving basin, floods from a single tributary in semi-arid regions can have large (≥ 10 ×) differences in sediment concentrations between equal magnitude flows. Because sediment loads do not

  7. Galveston Bay Marsh Terracing 2001-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marsh terracing is used to restore coastal wetlands by converting shallow nonvegetated bottom to intertidal marsh. Terraces are constructed from excavated bottom...

  8. SNOW CLEARING SERVICE WINTER 2001-2002

    CERN Multimedia

    ST-HM Group; Tel. 72202

    2001-01-01

    As usual at this time of the year, the snowing clearing service, which comes under the control of the Transport Group (ST-HM), is preparing for the start of snow-clearing operations (timetable, stand-by service, personnel responsible for driving vehicles and machines, preparation of useful and necessary equipment, work instructions, etc.) in collaboration with the Cleaning Service (ST-TFM) and the Fire Brigade (TIS-FB). The main difficulty for the snow-clearing service is the car parks, which cannot be properly cleared because of the presence of CERN and private vehicles parked there overnight in different parts of the parking areas. The ST-HM Transport Group would therefore like to invite you to park vehicles together in order to facilitate the access of the snow ploughs, thus allowing the car parks to be cleared more efficiently before the personnel arrives for work in the mornings.

  9. 33 CFR 162.65 - All waterways tributary to the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary to the Gulf of Mexico east and south of... All waterways tributary to the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay and all waterways tributary to..., which are tributary to or connected by other waterways with the Atlantic Ocean south of Chesapeake Bay...

  10. Evaluation of a Multiplex Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase PCR Assay for Detection and Differentiation of Influenza Viruses A and B during the 2001-2002 Influenza Season in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindiyeh, Musa; Levy, Virginia; Azar, Roberto; Varsano, Noemi; Regev, Liora; Shalev, Yael; Grossman, Zehava; Mendelson, Ella

    2005-01-01

    The ability to rapidly diagnose influenza virus infections is of the utmost importance in the evaluation of patients with upper respiratory tract infections. It is also important for the influenza surveillance activities performed by national influenza centers. In the present study we modified a multiplex real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assay (which uses TaqMan chemistry) and evaluated it for its ability to detect and concomitantly differentiate influenza viruses A and B in 370 patient samples collected during the 2001-2002 influenza season in Israel. The performance of the TaqMan assay was compared to those of a multiplex one-step RT-PCR with gel detection, a shell vial immunofluorescence assay, and virus isolation in tissue culture. The TaqMan assay had an excellent sensitivity for the detection of influenza viruses compared to that of tissue culture. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the TaqMan assay compared to the results of culture were 98.4 and 85.5%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the TaqMan assay for the detection of influenza virus A alone were 100 and 91.1%, respectively. On the other hand, the sensitivity and specificity for the detection of influenza virus B alone were 95.7 and 98.7%, respectively. The rapid turnaround time for the performance of the TaqMan assay (4.5 h) and the relatively low direct cost encourage the routine use of this assay in place of tissue culture. We conclude that the multiplex TaqMan assay is highly suitable for the rapid diagnosis of influenza virus infections both in well-established molecular biology laboratories and in reference clinical laboratories. PMID:15695650

  11. The Tributary Regime in the oil sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1998-01-01

    The tributary regime of the oil sector, is framed by the fiscal crisis that the country, maxim if one keeps in mind the importance of the fiscal revenues originated in the exploitation of these resources in Colombia, so much for the tribute coming from the foreign investment of the sector, like for the utilities generated by ECOPETROL and its impact in the public finances. However in front of this focus, the strategic importance of maintaining the investment in hydrocarbons and the paper that the fiscal politics and the tributary politics for the sector should play in the future and they constitute the government's key pieces

  12. Management of Water Quantity and Quality Based on Copula for a Tributary to Miyun Reservoir, Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, N.; Wang, X.; Liang, P.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the complex mutual influence between water quantity and water quality of river, it is difficult to reflect the actual characters of the tributaries to reservoir. In this study, the acceptable marginal probability distributions for water quantity and quality of reservoir inflow were calculated. A bivariate Archimedean copula was further applied to establish the joint distribution function of them. Then multiple combination scenarios of water quantity and water quality were designed to analyze their coexistence relationship and reservoir management strategies. Taking Bai river, an important tributary into the Miyun Reservoir, as a study case. The results showed that it is feasible to apply Frank copula function to describe the jointed distribution function of water quality and water quantity for Bai river. Furthermore, the monitoring of TP concentration needs to be strengthen in Bai river. This methodology can be extended to larger dimensions and is transferable to other reservoirs via establishment of models with relevant data for a particular area. Our findings help better analyzing the coexistence relationship and influence degree of the water quantity and quality of the tributary to reservoir for the purpose of water resources protection.

  13. Influence of Tributary Widening on Confluence Morphodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Leite Ribeiro, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    In alpine regions of Europe, river training works were typically the reason for the transformation of wide and braided rivers into linear river systems with a lack of structural diversity, i.e. gravel banks, islands, woody debris, riffles or pools. These interventions considerably impoverished river ecosystems. From the end of the 20th century, "river rehabilitation" has been a concept commonly used by environmental professionals and river manag...

  14. Changes in time-use and drug use by young adults in poor neighbourhoods of Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina, after the political transitions of 2001-2002: Results of a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Diana; Zunino Singh, Dhan; Pawlowicz, María Pía; Touzé, Graciela; Bolyard, Melissa; Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Sandoval, Milagros; Friedman, Samuel R

    2011-01-20

    In some countries, "Big Events" like crises and transitions have been followed by large increases in drug use, drug injection and HIV/AIDS. Argentina experienced an economic crisis and political transition in 2001/2002 that affected how people use their time. This paper studies how time use changes between years 2001 and 2004, subsequent to these events, were associated with drug consumption in poor neighbourhoods of Greater Buenos Aires. In 2003-2004, 68 current injecting drug users (IDUs) and 235 young non-IDUs, aged 21-35, who lived in impoverished drug-impacted neighbourhoods in Greater Buenos Aires, were asked about time use then and in 2001. Data on weekly hours spent working or looking for work, doing housework/childcare, consuming drugs, being with friends, and hanging out in the neighbourhood, were studied in relation to time spent using drugs. Field observations and focus groups were also conducted. After 2001, among both IDUs and non-IDUs, mean weekly time spent working declined significantly (especially among IDUs); time spent looking for work increased, and time spent with friends and hanging out in the neighbourhood decreased.We found no increase in injecting or non-injecting drug consumption after 2001. Subjects most affected by the way the crises led to decreased work time and/or to increased time looking for work--and by the associated increase in time spent in one's neighbourhood--were most likely to increase their time using drugs. Time use methods are useful to study changes in drug use and their relationships to every day life activities. In these previously-drug-impacted neighbourhoods, the Argentinean crisis did not lead to an increase in drug use, which somewhat contradicts our initial expectations. Nevertheless, those for whom the crises led to decreased work time, increased time looking for work, and increased time spent in indoor or outdoor neighbourhood environments, were likely to spend more time using drugs. These data suggest that

  15. Divergent genetic evolution of hemagglutinin in influenza A H1N1 and A H1N2 subtypes isolated in the south-France since the winter of 2001-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Faress, Shaker; Cartet, Gaëlle; Ferraris, Olivier; Norder, Helene; Valette, Martine; Lina, Bruno

    2005-07-01

    Influenza A viruses are divided into subtypes based on their hemagglutinin (H1 to H15) and neuraminidase (N1 to N9) glycoproteins. Of these, three A subtypes H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2 circulate in the human population. Influenza A viruses display a high antigenic variability called "antigenic drift" which allows the virus to escape antibody neutralization. Evaluate the mutations apparition that might predict a divergent antigenic evolution of hemagglutinin in influenza A H1N1 and A H1N2 viruses. During the three winters of 2001-2002 to 2003-2004, 58 A H1N1 and 23 A H1N2 subtypes have been isolated from patients with influenza-like illness in the south of France. The HA1 region was analyzed by RT-PCR and subsequently sequenced to compare the HA1 genetic evolution of influenza A H1N1 and A H1N2 subtypes. Our results showed that 28 amino acid substitutions have accumulated in the HA1 region since the circulation of A/New Caledonia/20/99-like viruses in France. Of these, fifteen were located in four antigenic sites (B, C, D and E). Six of them were observed only in the A H1N2 isolates, six only in the A H1N1 isolates and three in both subtypes. Furthermore, nine of twenty two A H1N2 isolates from the winter of 2002-2003 shared a T90A amino acid change which has not been observed in any A H1N1 isolate; resulting in the introduction of a new glycosylation site close to the antigenic site E. This might mask some antigenic E determinants and therefore, modify the A H1N2 antigenicity. The divergent genetic evolution of hemagglutinin may ultimately lead to a significant different antigenicity between A H1N1 and A H1N2 subtypes that would require the introduction of a new subtype in the vaccine batches.

  16. Continuity and change in the social stratification of aging and health over the life course: evidence from a nationally representative longitudinal study from 1986 to 2001/2002 (Americans' Changing Lives Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, James S; Lantz, Paula M; Herd, Pamela

    2005-10-01

    This article overviews previously published and ongoing research from the Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) Study, a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of 3,617 adults aged 25 years and older when first interviewed in 1986, focusing on socioeconomic disparities in the way health changes with age during middle and later life, especially in terms of compression of morbidity/functional limitations. A variety of descriptive and multivariate regression and growth curve analyses are done on the ACL sample, now surveyed over four waves spanning 15.5 years between 1986 and 2001/2002 with continuing mortality ascertainment via the National Death Index, death certificate searches, and informant reports. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses indicate that socioeconomic disparities in health are small in early adulthood, increase through middle and early old age, and then lessen again in later old age. In other terms, compression of morbidity/functional limitations into the later stages of the life course is realized to a much greater degree among the better educated compared with the less educated. Cross-sectional evidence suggests that this reflects differential exposure to or experience of a wide range of psychosocial, environmental, and biomedical risk factors for health (and perhaps their differential impact at different ages and life stages), as well as variations in biological robustness and frailty and also perhaps in the strength of social welfare supports for health at different life stages. Longitudinal analyses reveal several new insights: (a) The flow of causality is much greater from socioeconomic position to health than vice versa; (b) education plays a greater role relative to income in the onset of functional limitations, whereas income has much stronger effects on their progression or course; and (c) educational disparities in the onset and hence of compression of functional limitations over the life course have increased

  17. Changes in time-use and drug use by young adults in poor neighbourhoods of Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina, after the political transitions of 2001-2002: Results of a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateu-Gelabert Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In some countries, "Big Events" like crises and transitions have been followed by large increases in drug use, drug injection and HIV/AIDS. Argentina experienced an economic crisis and political transition in 2001/2002 that affected how people use their time. This paper studies how time use changes between years 2001 and 2004, subsequent to these events, were associated with drug consumption in poor neighbourhoods of Greater Buenos Aires. Methods In 2003-2004, 68 current injecting drug users (IDUs and 235 young non-IDUs, aged 21-35, who lived in impoverished drug-impacted neighbourhoods in Greater Buenos Aires, were asked about time use then and in 2001. Data on weekly hours spent working or looking for work, doing housework/childcare, consuming drugs, being with friends, and hanging out in the neighbourhood, were studied in relation to time spent using drugs. Field observations and focus groups were also conducted. Results After 2001, among both IDUs and non-IDUs, mean weekly time spent working declined significantly (especially among IDUs; time spent looking for work increased, and time spent with friends and hanging out in the neighbourhood decreased. We found no increase in injecting or non-injecting drug consumption after 2001. Subjects most affected by the way the crises led to decreased work time and/or to increased time looking for work--and by the associated increase in time spent in one's neighbourhood--were most likely to increase their time using drugs. Conclusions Time use methods are useful to study changes in drug use and their relationships to every day life activities. In these previously-drug-impacted neighbourhoods, the Argentinean crisis did not lead to an increase in drug use, which somewhat contradicts our initial expectations. Nevertheless, those for whom the crises led to decreased work time, increased time looking for work, and increased time spent in indoor or outdoor neighbourhood environments, were

  18. Effect of agriculture on water quality of Lake Biwa tributaries, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Takanori; Tayasu, Ichiro; Yamada, Yoshihiro; Hosono, Takahiro; Igeta, Akitake; Hyodo, Fujio; Ando, Atsushi; Saitoh, Yu; Tanaka, Takuya; Wada, Eitaro; Yachi, Shigeo

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effects of natural environments and human activity on Lake Biwa, central Japan. We determined the concentrations of 19 elements and the compositions of stable S and Sr isotopes in the main tributaries of the lake and compared them with the corresponding values obtained from the lake water during the circulation period. Results of a principal component analysis indicated that the components dissolved in the lower reaches of the tributaries can be divided into group 1 (HCO 3 , SO 4 , NO 3 , Ca, Mg, Sr) and group 2 components (Cl, Br, Na, K, Ba, Rb, Cs). The concentrations of group 1 components were high in the rivers of the southern area, which is urbanized and densely populated, and the eastern area, which consists of plains where agriculture predominates, compared with the rivers of the northern and western areas, which are mostly mountainous and sparsely populated. The concentrations of group 2 components tended to be high in the river water of industrial areas. The δ 34 S values of SO 4 in the river water converged to 0 ± 2 per mille as the SO 4 concentration increased and, excluding the areas where limestone is extensively distributed, as the HCO 3 concentration increased. In particular, both the δ 34 S values (0 ± 2 per mille ) and the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios (0.7117 ± 0.0005) fell within narrow ranges in the small and medium rivers of the eastern plain area, where rice is widely grown. These values agreed respectively with the δ 34 S values of the fertilizers used in the Lake Biwa basin and the soil-exchangeable 87 Sr/ 86 Sr in the eastern plain. The characteristics of water quality in the small and medium rivers of the eastern area can be explained by a model in which sulfuric, nitric, and bicarbonic acids generated by the decomposition of agricultural fertilizer and paddy rice selectively leached out alkaline-earth elements adsorbed on the soil and sediments of the plain or dissolved calcium carbonate enriched with Mg and Sr. Compared

  19. Progress report 2001-2002; Rapport d'activite 2001-2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The document reviews the activities of the linear accelerator laboratory (LAL) for the years 2001 and 2002. Most part of these activities are active collaborations in international programs. Some experimental programs like Aleph (apparatus for Lep physics) and Delphi (detector with lepton, photon, and hadron identification) at the Lep (CERN) or Na48 (search for direct violation of the CP invariance) have entered their last stage. Others like H1 (electron-positron experiment at Hera), Babar (measurement of CP violation in the B{sup 0}B-bar{sup 0} system) at Slac (Stanford), or D0 (search for new particles at the Tevatron) at Fermilab, are fully operating and this document describes the contribution of the LAL for each of them. The preparation of experiments for the future LHC has represented the core of LAL's technical activities. This document reviews these activities and achievements for the Atlas (air toroid LHC apparatus system) and LHCB (large hadron collider beauty) experiments. The LAL is also involved in the definition of the future high energy linear electron-positron collider (FLC). The LAL contributes to some experiments of neutrino physics through Nemo (violation of the lepton charge) and Opera (neutrino oscillations) experiments and to various astro-particles experiments such as Eros (micro-lensing effect), Archeops and Planck (cosmology), Virgo (gravitation waves) and Auger (very high energy particles showers). Another important part of LAL's activities is teaching activity mainly inside the curriculum of Paris-sud university. (A.C.)

  20. Progress report 2001-2002; Rapport d'activite 2001-2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The document reviews the activities of the linear accelerator laboratory (LAL) for the years 2001 and 2002. Most part of these activities are active collaborations in international programs. Some experimental programs like Aleph (apparatus for Lep physics) and Delphi (detector with lepton, photon, and hadron identification) at the Lep (CERN) or Na48 (search for direct violation of the CP invariance) have entered their last stage. Others like H1 (electron-positron experiment at Hera), Babar (measurement of CP violation in the B{sup 0}B-bar{sup 0} system) at Slac (Stanford), or D0 (search for new particles at the Tevatron) at Fermilab, are fully operating and this document describes the contribution of the LAL for each of them. The preparation of experiments for the future LHC has represented the core of LAL's technical activities. This document reviews these activities and achievements for the Atlas (air toroid LHC apparatus system) and LHCB (large hadron collider beauty) experiments. The LAL is also involved in the definition of the future high energy linear electron-positron collider (FLC). The LAL contributes to some experiments of neutrino physics through Nemo (violation of the lepton charge) and Opera (neutrino oscillations) experiments and to various astro-particles experiments such as Eros (micro-lensing effect), Archeops and Planck (cosmology), Virgo (gravitation waves) and Auger (very high energy particles showers). Another important part of LAL's activities is teaching activity mainly inside the curriculum of Paris-sud university. (A.C.)

  1. The Indigenous World, 2001-2002 = El Mundo Indigena, 2001-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinding, Diana, Ed.; Wessendorff, Kathrin, Ed.; Parellada, Alejandro, Ed.; Erni, Christian, Ed.; Jensen, Marianne, Ed.; Garcia-Alix, Lola, Ed.

    This document contains the English and Spanish texts of an annual publication which examines political, social, environmental, and educational issues concerning indigenous peoples around the world in 2001-02. Part 1 describes current situations and events in 11 world regions: the Arctic; North America; Mexico and Central America; South America;…

  2. Ayuda economica: Guia para estudiantes, 2001-2002 (Financial Aid: Student Guide, 2001-2002).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Student Financial Assistance (ED), Washington, DC.

    This guide, written in Spanish, describes federal student aid programs for postsecondary education and how to apply for them. It begins by outlining sources for learning about student aid, such as school financial aid administrators, state higher education agencies, foundations, organizations related to particular fields of interest and toll-free…

  3. Terrain, BIG BLUE RIVER TRIBUTARY NO 44, GAGE COUNTY, NE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  4. 75 FR 51945 - Safety Zone; Potomac River, St. Mary's River, St. Inigoes, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Potomac River, St. Mary's River, St. Inigoes, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... of the St. Mary's River, a tributary of the Potomac River. This action is necessary to provide for.... Navy helicopter located near St. Inigoes, Maryland. This safety zone is intended to protect the...

  5. Ingesta de alimentos, energía y nutrientes en la población de 5 a 12 años de la Comunidad de Madrid: resultados de la encuesta de nutrición infantil 2001-2002.

    OpenAIRE

    Lucía Díez-Gañán; Iñaki Galán Labaca; Carmen María León Domínguez; Ana Gandarillas Grande; Belén Zorrilla Torras; Francisca Alcaraz Cebrián

    2007-01-01

    Fundamento: Para conocer la situación alimentaria y nutricional en la población infantil, sobre la que no existía información actualizada, el Instituto de Salud Pública desarrolló la Encuesta de Nutrición Infantil de la Comunidad de Madrid 2001/2002 (ENICM). En este trabajo se analiza la ENICM para describir y evaluar la ingesta de alimentos, energía y nutrientes en esta población. Métodos: Estudio transversal sobre una muestra representativa de la población de 5-12 años ...

  6. Irrigation runoff insecticide pollution of rivers in the Imperial Valley, California (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlaming, V. de [Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory, VM: APC, 1321 Haring Hall, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)]. E-mail: vldevlaming@ucdavis.edu; DiGiorgio, C. [Department of Water Resources, P.O. Box 942836, Sacramento, CA 94236 (United States); Fong, S. [Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory, VM: APC, 1321 Haring Hall, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Deanovic, L.A. [Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory, VM: APC, 1321 Haring Hall, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Paz Carpio-Obeso, M. de la [Colorado River Basin Region Water Quality Control Board, 73-720 Fred Waring Drive, Suite 100, Palm Desert, CA 92260 (United States); Miller, J.L. [AQUA-Science, 17 Arboretum Drive, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Miller, M.J. [AQUA-Science, 17 Arboretum Drive, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Richard, N.J. [Division of Water Quality, State Water Resources Control Board, 1001 I Street, Sacramento, CA 95814 (United States)

    2004-11-01

    The Alamo and New Rivers located in the Imperial Valley, California receive large volumes of irrigation runoff and discharge into the ecologically sensitive Salton Sea. Between 1993 and 2002 we conducted a series of studies to assess water quality using three aquatic species: a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia), a mysid (Neomysis mercedis), and a larval fish (Pimephales promelas). Although no mortality was observed with the P. promelas, high-level toxicity to the invertebrate species was documented in samples from both rivers during many months of each year. Toxicity identifications and chemical analyses identified the organophosphorus insecticides (OP), chlorpyrifos and diazinon, as the cause of C. dubia toxicity. The extent of the C. dubia mortality was highly correlated with quantities of these OPs applied in the river watersheds. C. dubia mortality occurred during more months of our 2001/2002 study than in the 1990s investigations. During 2001/2002, the extensive C. dubia mortality observed in New River samples was caused by OP insecticide pollution that originated from Mexico. Mortality to N. mercedis in New River samples was likely caused by contaminants other than OP insecticides. Our studies document OP insecticide-caused pollution of the Alamo River over a 10-year period and provide the necessary information for remediation efforts. - Capsule: Organophosphorous insecticides in runoff water from the USA and Mexico have impacted rivers in the Imperial Valley, California.

  7. Irrigation runoff insecticide pollution of rivers in the Imperial Valley, California (USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlaming, V. de; DiGiorgio, C.; Fong, S.; Deanovic, L.A.; Paz Carpio-Obeso, M. de la; Miller, J.L.; Miller, M.J.; Richard, N.J.

    2004-01-01

    The Alamo and New Rivers located in the Imperial Valley, California receive large volumes of irrigation runoff and discharge into the ecologically sensitive Salton Sea. Between 1993 and 2002 we conducted a series of studies to assess water quality using three aquatic species: a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia), a mysid (Neomysis mercedis), and a larval fish (Pimephales promelas). Although no mortality was observed with the P. promelas, high-level toxicity to the invertebrate species was documented in samples from both rivers during many months of each year. Toxicity identifications and chemical analyses identified the organophosphorus insecticides (OP), chlorpyrifos and diazinon, as the cause of C. dubia toxicity. The extent of the C. dubia mortality was highly correlated with quantities of these OPs applied in the river watersheds. C. dubia mortality occurred during more months of our 2001/2002 study than in the 1990s investigations. During 2001/2002, the extensive C. dubia mortality observed in New River samples was caused by OP insecticide pollution that originated from Mexico. Mortality to N. mercedis in New River samples was likely caused by contaminants other than OP insecticides. Our studies document OP insecticide-caused pollution of the Alamo River over a 10-year period and provide the necessary information for remediation efforts. - Capsule: Organophosphorous insecticides in runoff water from the USA and Mexico have impacted rivers in the Imperial Valley, California

  8. Comparação das estimativas de prevalência de indicadores de saúde no Município de Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil, nos anos de 2001/2002 (ISA-SP e 2008/2009 (ISA-Camp Comparación de las estimaciones de prevalencia en los indicadores de salud en Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil, durante los años 2001/2002 (ISA-SP y 2008/2009 (ISA-Camp Comparison of prevalence estimates for health indicators in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, in 2001-2002 (ISA-SP and 2008-2009 (ISA-Camp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chester Luis Galvão César

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi comparar estimativas da prevalência de indicadores de saúde para adultos residentes em Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil, utilizando dados de inquéritos domiciliares realizados em diferentes períodos de tempo (ISA-SP 2001/2002 e ISA-Camp 2008/2009, com amostras de 941 e 2.637 indivíduos de 18 anos e mais, respectivamente. Variáveis sociodemográficas caracterizaram a população estudada. Foram estimadas prevalências e seus respectivos intervalos de 95% de confiança e as comparações foram realizadas pelas razões de prevalência ajustadas por sexo, idade e escolaridade, obtidas pela regressão de Poisson com variância robusta. Diferenças estatisticamente significantes foram observadas para as prevalências de: morbidade referida, uso de medicamentos, percentual dos que nunca fumaram, realização dos exames de Papanicolaou e de mamografia, alguma vez na vida. O acompanhamento de indicadores de saúde por inquéritos repetidos em uma mesma população pode facilitar o monitoramento de objetivos e metas fornecendo subsídios ao planejamento de ações em saúde.El objetivo del estudio fue comparar las estimaciones de prevalencia en los indicadores de salud para los adultos que viven en Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil, con datos de encuestas de diferentes períodos de tiempo (ISA-SP 2001/2002 y ISA-Camp 2008/2009, con muestras de 941 y 2.637 personas de 18 años y más, respectivamente. Las variables sociodemográficas caracterizaron a la población de estudio. Se estimaron la prevalencia y sus respectivos intervalos de confianza del 95% y las comparaciones se realizaron por razones de prevalencia ajustadas por sexo, edad y educación, obtenidas mediante la regresión de Poisson. Se observaron diferencias estadísticas en la prevalencia de morbilidad, uso de medicamentos, el porcentaje de quienes nunca habían fumado, la realización de citologías vaginales y mamografías, en algún momento de sus vidas. El seguimiento

  9. Availability of metals Cd and Pb and metalloid As in the Ribeira do Iguape River hydrographic basin and its tributaries: an environmental contamination assessment'; Disponibilidade dos metais Cd e Pb e do metaloide As na bacia hidrografica do Rio Ribeira do Iguape e afluentes: uma avaliacao da contaminacao ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Francisco Jose Viana de

    2012-07-01

    During several decades the Alto Vale of Ribeira region (SP-PR) was under influence of lead mining activities, refined and processed in the mines of the region. Since 1996, all such activities ceased, however, leaving behind a huge amount of environmental liabilities. This study aimed to investigate the presence and concentration levels of metals cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) and metalloid arsenic (As) in the water, sediment and biota (fish blood) in the aquatic systems of Ribeira do Iguape River and its tributaries, for an environmental assessment and monitoring of the region. The sampling collection occurred in 8 sites and fish samples were caught by fishing nets and blood sampling was done in the site. The determination of these elements was carried out by atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace electro thermal heating (GF AAS). This study also assessed the occurrence of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Eu, Nd, Sm, Lu, Tb and Yb) by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Validation of both methodologies, regarding precision and accuracy, was done by reference material analyses. The results obtained for As, Cd and Pb in the sediment were compared to the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME), TEL (Threshold Effect Level) e PEL (Probable Effect Level) adopted by CETESB and CONAMA 454/2012 Resolution. The results for As, Cd and Pb in water samples were below the QL of the analytical technique used, indicating that these elements are in concentration levels that do not affect the water quality standard established by CONAMA 357/2005. On the other hand, the concentration values for these elements in fish blood and sediment samples showed a strong contamination tendency for Cd and Pb most of the sampling points assessed. The highest Cd concentration in fish blood was 24.3 {mu}g L{sup -1}, at site 2. For Pb, the highest concentration value was 118 {nu}g L

  10. [Ecological characteristics of phytoplankton in Suining tributary under bio-remediation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongyan; Zhao, Jianfu; Zhang, Yalei; Ma, Limin

    2005-04-01

    Based on the analyses of phytoplankton community in the treated and untreated reaches of Suining tributary of Suzhou River, this paper studied the effects of bio-remediation on phytoplankton. As the result of the remediation, the density and Chl-a content of phytoplankton in treated reach were greatly declined, while the species number and Shannon-Wiener diversity index ascended obviously. The percentage of Chlorophyta and Baeillariophyta ascended, and some species indicating medium-and oligo-pollution were found. All of these illustrated that bio-remediation engineering might significantly benefit to the improvement of phytoplankton community structure and water quality.

  11. Organochlorine residues in sediments from selected tributaries to Manila Bay, Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajet, C.M.; Varca, L.M.; Navarro, M.P.

    1999-01-01

    Sediment borne pesticides are the major route of transport of pesticides in the marine environment and benthic dwellers, filter feeders and the flora/fauna closely associated with the sediments could greatly be affected. This paper focuses on the monitoring of organochlorine pesticides in sediments collected from the mouth of rivers draining to Manila Bay and relate to the contribution of inland activities to the overall pollution of the Bay. Sediments from 14-25 tributaries were collected in 1996 to 1998 and analyzed for the presence of HCB, aldrin, dieldrin, lindane, DDT, DDE, DDD, endosulfan I, endosulfan II and endosulfan sulfate using GLC-ECD

  12. Different compositions of pharmaceuticals in Dutch and Belgian rivers explained by consumption patterns and treatment efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laak, ter T.L.; Kooij, P.J.F.; Tolkamp, H.; Hofman, J.

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, 43 pharmaceuticals and 18 transformation products were studied in the river Meuse at the Belgian-Dutch border and four tributaries of the river Meuse in the southern part of the Netherlands. The tributaries originate from Belgian, Dutch and mixed Dutch and Belgian catchments.

  13. 75 FR 77691 - Douglas and Nolichucky Tributary Reservoirs Land Management Plan, in Cocke, Greene, Hamblen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY Douglas and Nolichucky Tributary Reservoirs Land Management Plan, in... the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). TVA has prepared the Douglas and Nolichucky Tributary... Douglas and Nolichucky tributary reservoirs has been allocated into broad use categories or ``zones...

  14. Tumor prevalence and biomarkers of genotoxicity in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) in Chesapeake Bay tributaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkney, Alfred E., E-mail: Fred_Pinkney@fws.gov [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Chesapeake Bay Field Office, 177 Admiral Cochrane Drive, Annapolis, MD 21401 (United States); Harshbarger, John C., E-mail: jcharshbarger@verizon.net [Department of Pathology, George Washington University Medical Center, 2300 I Street, NW, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Karouna-Renier, Natalie K., E-mail: nkarouna@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, BARC, Bldg. 308, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Jenko, Kathryn [U.S. Geological Survey, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, BARC, Bldg. 308, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Balk, Lennart, E-mail: lennart.balk@itm.su.se [Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University SE-106 91, Stockholm (Sweden); Skarphe Latin-Small-Letter-Eth insdottir, Halldora; Liewenborg, Birgitta [Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University SE-106 91, Stockholm (Sweden); Rutter, Michael A., E-mail: mar36@psu.edu [Department of Mathematics, Penn State Erie, The Behrend College, 5091 Station Road, Erie, PA 16563 (United States)

    2011-12-01

    We surveyed four Chesapeake Bay tributaries for skin and liver tumors in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus). We focused on the South River, where the highest skin tumor prevalence (53%) in the Bay watershed had been reported. The objectives were to 1) compare tumor prevalence with nearby rivers (Severn and Rhode) and a more remote river (Choptank); 2) investigate associations between tumor prevalence and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylating agents; and 3) statistically analyze Chesapeake Bay bullhead tumor data from 1992 through 2008. All four South River collections exhibited high skin tumor prevalence (19% to 58%), whereas skin tumor prevalence was 2%, 10%, and 52% in the three Severn collections; 0% and 2% in the Choptank collections; and 5.6% in the Rhode collection. Liver tumor prevalence was 0% to 6% in all but one South River collection (20%) and 0% to 6% in the three other rivers. In a subset of samples, PAH-like biliary metabolites and {sup 32}P-DNA adducts were used as biomarkers of exposure and response to polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Adducts from alkylating agents were detected as O6-methyl-2 Prime -deoxyguanosine (O6Me-dG) and O6-ethyl-2 Prime -deoxyguanosine (O6Et-dG) modified DNA. Bullheads from the contaminated Anacostia River were used as a positive control for DNA adducts. {sup 32}P-DNA adduct concentrations were significantly higher in Anacostia bullhead livers compared with the other rivers. We identified alkyl DNA adducts in bullhead livers from the South and Anacostia, but not the Choptank. Neither the PAH-like bile metabolite data, sediment PAH data, nor the DNA adduct data suggest an association between liver or skin tumor prevalence and exposure to PACs or alkylating agents in the South, Choptank, Severn, or Rhode rivers. Logistic regression analysis of the Chesapeake Bay database revealed that sex and length were significant covariates for liver tumors and length was a significant covariate for skin tumors

  15. Tumor prevalence and biomarkers of genotoxicity in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) in Chesapeake Bay tributaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkney, Alfred E.; Harshbarger, John C.; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Jenko, Kathryn; Balk, Lennart; Skarphéðinsdóttir, Halldóra; Liewenborg, Birgitta; Rutter, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    We surveyed four Chesapeake Bay tributaries for skin and liver tumors in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus). We focused on the South River, where the highest skin tumor prevalence (53%) in the Bay watershed had been reported. The objectives were to 1) compare tumor prevalence with nearby rivers (Severn and Rhode) and a more remote river (Choptank); 2) investigate associations between tumor prevalence and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylating agents; and 3) statistically analyze Chesapeake Bay bullhead tumor data from 1992 through 2008. All four South River collections exhibited high skin tumor prevalence (19% to 58%), whereas skin tumor prevalence was 2%, 10%, and 52% in the three Severn collections; 0% and 2% in the Choptank collections; and 5.6% in the Rhode collection. Liver tumor prevalence was 0% to 6% in all but one South River collection (20%) and 0% to 6% in the three other rivers. In a subset of samples, PAH-like biliary metabolites and 32 P-DNA adducts were used as biomarkers of exposure and response to polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Adducts from alkylating agents were detected as O6-methyl-2′-deoxyguanosine (O6Me-dG) and O6-ethyl-2′-deoxyguanosine (O6Et-dG) modified DNA. Bullheads from the contaminated Anacostia River were used as a positive control for DNA adducts. 32 P-DNA adduct concentrations were significantly higher in Anacostia bullhead livers compared with the other rivers. We identified alkyl DNA adducts in bullhead livers from the South and Anacostia, but not the Choptank. Neither the PAH-like bile metabolite data, sediment PAH data, nor the DNA adduct data suggest an association between liver or skin tumor prevalence and exposure to PACs or alkylating agents in the South, Choptank, Severn, or Rhode rivers. Logistic regression analysis of the Chesapeake Bay database revealed that sex and length were significant covariates for liver tumors and length was a significant covariate for skin tumors. - Highlights: ► We

  16. Hydraulic and water-quality data collection for the investigation of Great Lakes tributaries for Asian carp spawning and egg-transport suitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Jackson, P. Ryan

    2013-01-01

    If the invasive Asian carps (bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) migrate to the Great Lakes, in spite of the efforts to stop their advancement, these species will require the fast-flowing water of the Great Lakes tributaries for spawning and recruitment in order to establish a growing population. Two Lake Michigan tributaries (the Milwaukee and St. Joseph Rivers) and two Lake Erie tributaries (the Maumee and Sandusky Rivers) were investigated to determine if these tributaries possess the hydraulic and water-quality characteristics to allow successful spawning of Asian carps. To examine this issue, standard U.S. Geological Survey sampling protocols and instrumentation for discharge and water-quality measurements were used, together with differential global positioning system data for georeferencing. Non-standard data-processing techniques, combined with detailed laboratory analysis of Asian carp egg characteristics, allowed an assessment of the transport capabilities of each of these four tributaries. This assessment is based solely on analysis of observed data and did not utilize the collected data for detailed transport modeling.

  17. Plastic debris in 29 Great Lakes tributaries: Relations to watershed attributes and hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Austin K.; Corsi, Steven; Mason, Sherri A.

    2016-01-01

    Plastic debris is a growing contaminant of concern in freshwater environments, yet sources, transport, and fate remain unclear. This study characterized the quantity and morphology of floating micro- and macroplastics in 29 Great Lakes tributaries in six states under different land covers, wastewater effluent contributions, population densities, and hydrologic conditions. Tributaries were sampled three or four times each using a 333 μm mesh neuston net. Plastic particles were sorted by size, counted, and categorized as fibers/lines, pellets/beads, foams, films, and fragments. Plastics were found in all 107 samples, with a maximum concentration of 32 particles/m3 and a median of 1.9 particles/m3. Ninety-eight percent of sampled plastic particles were less than 4.75 mm in diameter and therefore considered microplastics. Fragments, films, foams, and pellets/beads were positively correlated with urban-related watershed attributes and were found at greater concentrations during runoff-event conditions. Fibers, the most frequently detected particle type, were not associated with urban-related watershed attributes, wastewater effluent contribution, or hydrologic condition. Results from this study add to the body of information currently available on microplastics in different environmental compartments, including unique contributions to quantify their occurrence and variability in rivers with a wide variety of different land-use characteristics while highlighting differences between surface samples from rivers compared with lakes.

  18. Plastic Debris in 29 Great Lakes Tributaries: Relations to Watershed Attributes and Hydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Austin K; Corsi, Steven R; Mason, Sherri A

    2016-10-04

    Plastic debris is a growing contaminant of concern in freshwater environments, yet sources, transport, and fate remain unclear. This study characterized the quantity and morphology of floating micro- and macroplastics in 29 Great Lakes tributaries in six states under different land covers, wastewater effluent contributions, population densities, and hydrologic conditions. Tributaries were sampled three or four times each using a 333 μm mesh neuston net. Plastic particles were sorted by size, counted, and categorized as fibers/lines, pellets/beads, foams, films, and fragments. Plastics were found in all 107 samples, with a maximum concentration of 32 particles/m 3 and a median of 1.9 particles/m 3 . Ninety-eight percent of sampled plastic particles were less than 4.75 mm in diameter and therefore considered microplastics. Fragments, films, foams, and pellets/beads were positively correlated with urban-related watershed attributes and were found at greater concentrations during runoff-event conditions. Fibers, the most frequently detected particle type, were not associated with urban-related watershed attributes, wastewater effluent contribution, or hydrologic condition. Results from this study add to the body of information currently available on microplastics in different environmental compartments, including unique contributions to quantify their occurrence and variability in rivers with a wide variety of different land-use characteristics while highlighting differences between surface samples from rivers compared with lakes.

  19. Concentration, flux, and trend estimates with uncertainty for nutrients, chloride, and total suspended solids in tributaries of Lake Champlain, 1990–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalie, Laura

    2016-12-20

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New England Interstate Water Pollution Control Commission and the Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation, estimated daily and 9-month concentrations and fluxes of total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, chloride, and total suspended solids from 1990 (or first available date) through 2014 for 18 tributaries of Lake Champlain. Estimates of concentration and flux, provided separately in Medalie (2016), were made by using the Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season (WRTDS) regression model and update previously published WRTDS model results with recent data. Assessment of progress towards meeting phosphorus-reduction goals outlined in the Lake Champlain management plan relies on annual estimates of phosphorus flux. The percent change in annual concentration and flux is provided for two time periods. The R package EGRETci was used to estimate the uncertainty of the trend estimate. Differences in model specification and function between this study and previous studies that used WRTDS to estimate concentration and flux using data from Lake Champlain tributaries are described. Winter data were too sparse and nonrepresentative to use for estimates of concentration and flux but were sufficient for estimating the percentage of total annual flux over the period of record. Median winter-to-annual fractions ranged between 21 percent for total suspended solids and 27 percent for dissolved phosphorus. The winter contribution was largest for all constituents from the Mettawee River and smallest from the Ausable River. For the full record (1991 through 2014 for total and dissolved phosphorus and chloride and 1993 through 2014 for nitrogen and total suspended solids), 6 tributaries had decreasing trends in concentrations of total phosphorus, and 12 had increasing trends; concentrations of dissolved phosphorus decreased in 6 and increased in 8 tributaries; fluxes of total phosphorus decreased in 5 and

  20. Experiments on sediment pulses in mountain rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y. Cui; T. E. Lisle; J. E. Pizzuto; G. Parker

    1998-01-01

    Pulses of sediment can be introduced into mountain rivers from such mechanisms as debris flows, landslides and fans at tributary confluences. These processes can be natural or associated with the activities of humans, as in the case of a pulse created by sediment derived from timber harvest or the removal of a dam. How does the river digest these pulses?

  1. Parasite infracommunities of Leporinus friderici: A comparison of three tributaries of the Jurumirim Reservoir in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FÁBIO H. YAMADA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The degradation and homogenization of natural habitats is considered a major cause of biotic homogenization. Many studies have been undertaken on the effects of dams on aquatic wildlife, in particular fish assemblages. But how do dams affect the parasitic fauna of such fish? The aim of the present study was to examine parasitic similarity, comparing the diversity and structure of parasite communities of Leporinus friderici (Characiformes, Anostomidae in three upstream tributaries under the influence of the Jurumirim Dam on the Upper Paranapanema River in southeastern Brazil. The present study did not find any significant differences in parasite communities among populations of L. friderici in the three upstream tributaries. This result highlights that dams promote and facilitate the dispersal of organisms between localities, and therefore the spatial homogenization of parasite communities. Overall, the results suggest that fish parasite assemblages can provide suitable data for evaluating biotic homogenization caused by dams.

  2. Hydrologic and Geomorphic Impacts of Glacial Lake Outburst Floods From Low-Order Tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, S. W.; Jacquet, J.; McGrath, D.; George, D. L.; Koschitzki, R.; Nimick, D.; Fahey, M. J.; Okuinghttons, J.

    2017-12-01

    Lakes dammed by glacial ice or moraines are common features in the headwaters of both glaciated and recently deglaciated catchments. These dams can fail releasing water in a glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF), which raises the question: do GLOFs from low-order tributaries significantly alter the hydrology and sediment transport regimes of the large mainstem rivers to which they drain? Here we use repeat satellite imagery, in situ measurements, and 2D hydrodynamic modeling to quantify the hydrologic and geomorphic changes that resulted from 22 GLOFs that occurred between 2008 and 2016 from Lago Cachet Dos, Patagonia, Chile. We find that the complicated flood path that includes two lakes and a broad floodplain can dampen peak discharges from over 15,000 m³/s at the source lake to generally less than 2,000 m³/s where the floods enter the mainstem Rio Baker, 40 km downstream. Despite this dampening of GLOF peak discharge, peak discharges still exceeded the peak annual discharge of the Rio Baker, the largest river in Chile by volume, by 1 to 2 times, which in turn increased the frequency and magnitude of flood events. We also document the sediment dynamics in the source lake, where we find that over 25,000,000 m³ of stored sediment was removed during the GLOF cycle that began in 2008. Further downstream, repeat satellite imagery reveals that the large discharges associated with GLOFs produced a nonsteady channel configuration in which old stable channels were abandoned, many new channels were formed, and conveyance capacity changed, best illustrated by the 200 m of delta progradation from the GLOF-affected tributary into the Rio Baker that locally narrowed the Rio Baker channel width from 300 m to 60 m. In total, this analysis demonstrates that GLOFs from distant source lakes can have an outsized impact, both in terms of changing flood characteristics as well as sediment transport, even on the largest river systems.

  3. Continuum Model for River Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Achille; Maritan, Amos; Banavar, Jayanth R.

    1995-07-01

    The effects of erosion, avalanching, and random precipitation are captured in a simple stochastic partial differential equation for modeling the evolution of river networks. Our model leads to a self-organized structured landscape and to abstraction and piracy of the smaller tributaries as the evolution proceeds. An algebraic distribution of the average basin areas and a power law relationship between the drainage basin area and the river length are found.

  4. 33 CFR 207.180 - All waterways tributary to the Gulf of Mexico (except the Mississippi River, its tributaries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... displayed at all locks as follows: (i) From sunset to sunrise. One green light shall indicate the lock is... projection or cargo loaded in such a manner that is liable to damage the structure. (v) Vessels having chains..., loading and unloading supplies, and making emergency repairs in the vicinity of locks so long as...

  5. The influence of tributary flow density differences on the hydrodynamic behavior of a confluent meander bend and implications for flow mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Horacio S.; Díaz Lozada, José M.; García, Carlos M.; Szupiany, Ricardo N.; Best, Jim; Pagot, Mariana

    2018-03-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the influence of tributary flow density differences on hydrodynamics and mixing at a confluent meander bend. A detailed field characterization is performed using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) for quantification of the 3D flow field, flow discharge and bathymetry, as well as CTD measurements (conductivity, temperature, depth) to characterize the patterns of mixing. Satellite images of the confluence taken at complementary times to the field surveys were analyzed to evaluate the confluence hydrodynamics at different flow conditions. The results illustrate the differences in hydrodynamics and mixing length in relation to confluences with equal density tributaries. At low-density differences, and higher discharge ratio (Qr) between the two rivers, the flow is similar to equi-density confluent meander bends. In contrast, at high-density differences (low Qr), the tributary flow is confined to near the confluence but the density difference causes the flow to move across channel. In this case, the density difference causes the lateral spread of the tributary flow to be greater than at a greater Qr when the density difference is less. These results illustrate the potential importance of density differences between tributaries in determining the rate and spatial extent of mixing and sediment dispersal at confluent meander bends.

  6. Applying of factor analyses for determination of trace elements distribution in water from Vardar and its tributaries, Macedonia/Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Stanko Ilić; Stafilov, Trajče; Sajn, Robert; Tănăselia, Claudiu; Bačeva, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    A systematic study was carried out to investigate the distribution of fifty-six elements in the water samples from river Vardar (Republic of Macedonia and Greece) and its major tributaries. The samples were collected from 27 sampling sites. Analyses were performed by mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS) and atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-AES). Cluster and R mode factor analysis (FA) was used to identify and characterise element associations and four associations of elements were determined by the method of multivariate statistics. Three factors represent the associations of elements that occur in the river water naturally while Factor 3 represents an anthropogenic association of the elements (Cd, Ga, In, Pb, Re, Tl, Cu, and Zn) introduced in the river waters from the waste waters from the mining and metallurgical activities in the country.

  7. Kentucky River and Tributaries. Upper Kentucky River Navigation Project. Volume 2. Public Involvement Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    after this terrible terrific financial error. I’m also hoping that the Division Office in Cincinnati has n.jt been hoodwinked by the District Office. I...know that our representatives in the Senate and the House in Washington, will not, and I repeat, will not, stand for any shenanigans to the people in...cannot be done. The closing of these locks will place an inequitable financial burden on pleasure boat owners. This hardship is even more pronounced

  8. Isotopic fingerprint of the middle Olt River basin, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Raluca; Costinel, Diana; Ionete, Roxana Elena; Axente, Damian

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important tributaries of the Danube River in Romania, the Olt River, was characterized in its middle catchment in terms of the isotopic composition using continuous flow-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (CF-IRMS). Throughout a period of 10 months, from November 2010 to August 2011, water samples from the Olt River and its more important tributaries were collected in order to investigate the seasonal and spatial isotope patterns of the basin waters. The results revealed a significant difference between the Olt River and its tributaries, by the fact that the Olt River waters show smaller seasonal variations in the stable isotopic composition and are more depleted in (18)O and (2)H. The waters present an overall enrichment in heavy isotopes during the warm seasons.

  9. Assessment of the pollution in Aghien lagoon and its tributaries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of the pollutants in surface water quality when used for drinking water is of great concern in many developing countries. This study seeks to characterize the types of pollution in Aghien lagoon and its tributaries. For the sampling, water was taken at a depth of 50 cm from the earth surface. Samples were ...

  10. Interannual variability in water storage over 2003-2008 in the Amazon Basin from GRACE space gravimetry, in situ river level and precipitation data

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier , L.; Becker , M.; Cazenave , A.; Longuevergne , L.; Llovel , W.; Rotunno Filho , Otto Correa

    2012-01-01

    International audience; We investigate the interannual variability over 2003-2008 of different hydrological parameters in the Amazon river basin: (1) vertically-integrated water storage from the GRACE space gravimetry mission, (2) surface water level of the Amazon River and its tributaries from in situ gauge stations, and (3) precipitation. We analyze the spatio-temporal evolution of total water storage from GRACE and in situ river level along the Amazon River and its main tributaries and not...

  11. Contaminants of emerging concern in tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes: II. Biological consequences of exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Linnea M.; Jorgenson, Zachary G.; Brigham, Mark E.; Choy, Steven J.; Moore, Jeremy N.; Banda, Jo A.; Gefell, D.J.; Minarik, Thomas A.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.

    2017-01-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes contain one fifth of the world’s surface freshwater and have been impacted by human activity since the Industrial Revolution. In addition to legacy contaminants, nitrification and invasive species, this aquatic ecosystem is also the recipient of Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CECs) with poorly understood biological consequences. In the current study, we documented the presence, concentrations, and biological effects of CECs across 27 field sites in six Great Lakes tributaries by examining over 2250 resident and caged sunfish (Lepomis ssp.) for a variety of morphological and physiological endpoints and related these results to CEC occurrence. CEC were ubiquitous across studies sites and their presence and concentrations in water and sediment were highest in effluent dominated rivers and downstream of municipal wastewater treatment plant discharges. However, even putative upstream reference sites were not free of CEC presence and fish at these sites exhibited biological effects consistent with CEC exposure. Only the Fox River exhibited consistent adverse biological effects, including increased relative liver size, greater prominence of hepatocyte vacuoles and increased plasma glucose concentrations. Canonical Redundancy Analysis revealed consistent patterns of biological consequences of CEC exposure across all six tributaries. Increasing plasma glucose concentrations, likely as a result of pollutant-induced metabolic stress, were associated with increased relative liver size and greater prominence of hepatocyte vacuoles. These indicators of pollutant exposure were inversely correlated with indicators of reproductive potential including smaller gonad size and less mature gametes. The current study highlights the need for greater integration of chemical and biological studies and suggests that CECs in the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin may adversely affect the reproductive potential of exposed fish populations.

  12. 2001-2002 carbon dioxide emissions in OECD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-11-01

    This document provides carbon dioxide emissions data, from energy uses and production, from 2001 to 2002 in the OECD. It concerns the climate corrected CO 2 emissions in France, the non corrected CO 2 emissions (M tons), the emissions intensity / the Gross Domestic Product and the emissions intensity / the population (tons per inhabitant). (A.L.B.)

  13. U.S. Naval Observatory Annual Report 2001-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    two prototype arrays and the first science grade attempt have been made. The early de- vices look cosmetically very good, with no evidence of cracking...Klepczynski, W., Fenton , P., and Powers, E. ~2002!. ‘‘Time Distribution Capabilities of the Wide Area Augmentation System ~WAAS!,’’ in Proceedings of the 33rd

  14. VT Foote Brook Natural Channel Design Restoration 2001-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Foote Brook, located in Johnson, Vermont, is known to biologists and anglers as a high quality stream with significant natural reproduction of...

  15. New Jersey Journal of Professional Counseling, 2001/2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westburg, Nancy G., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This journal volume focuses on three areas: technology and the appropriate use of the internet for support groups; diversity issues that affect clients and counselors-in-training; and the clinical issues section that provides an integrated view of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and an overview of Dissociative Identity Disorder. It…

  16. Publications on Borneo from Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 2001-2002

    OpenAIRE

    Sellato, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    The Institute of East Asian Studies (IEAS) was created at the Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS) in 1998 with Professor Michael Leigh as its inaugural Director. Michael Leigh is a long-time scholar of Sarawak. His earlier publications include: The Chinese Community of Sarawak: a Study of Communal Relations (1964), The Rising Moon: Political Change in Sarawak (1974), and Council Negri Sarawak, Malaysia’s Oldest Legislature (1992). It was after a long career in Australia (University of Sydney...

  17. Tammetõru Kool 2001/2002 / Urmas Tokko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tokko, Urmas

    2001-01-01

    Tartu Tamme Gümnaasium juures tegutsev Tammetõru Kool alustab viiendat õppeaastat. Tammetõru Kool on TTG juures tegutsev kaugõppe vorm põhikooliõpilastele ja mõeldud loodusteadustest huvitatud 8.-9. klasside õpilastele. Õppetöö toimub posti- või arvutiside teel. I vooru ülesanded bioloogias, füüsikas ja geograafias

  18. Corpus Christi EFH Trawling Effects 2001-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We compared sediments and benthos of two adjacent zones of the middle Texas coast, one of which was closed to shrimp trawling for 7 months. Findings indicated that...

  19. END-OF-YEAR-CLOSURE 2001/2002

    CERN Document Server

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    As announced in Weekly Bulletin Nº 4/2001, the Laboratory will be closed from Saturday, 22 December 2001 to Sunday, 6 January 2002 inclusive. This period consists of 16 days : 4 days' official holiday, i.e. 24, 25 and 31 December 2001 and 1 January 2002; 6 days' special paid leave in accordance with Article R II 4.34 of the Staff Regulations, i.e. 26, 27 and 28 December 2001 and 2, 3 and 4 January 2002; 3 Saturdays, i.e. 22 and 29 December 2001 and 5 January 2002; 3 Sundays, i.e. 23 and 30 December 2001 and 6 January 2002. The first working day in the New Year will be Monday, 7 January 2002. Further information will be available from Division Secretariats, specifically concerning the conditions applicable to members of the personnel who are required to work during this period.

  20. GKSS. Annual report 2001/2002. Basics for tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, H.F.

    2002-01-01

    The annual report of the GKSS research centers presents selected activities from the research program: light weight structures for transportation and energy, synchrotron radiation for materials research development of x-ray mirrors for VUV-free electron lasers, membranes in process- and biomedical technology, neutralization of acid lakes, membranes for bioartificial organs, the coastal environment, maxwave project, mercury deposition fluxes into arctic and antarctic regions, monitoring systems for coastal regions, research reactor, training facilities

  1. Promotional materials clearinghouse, year 5 final report 2001-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    The Promotional Materials Clearinghouse is a participant-driven undertaking. All materials currently archived at the Clearinghouse were solicited from transit systems and transportation demand management (TDM) agencies nationwide with marketing manag...

  2. The General Safety Group Annual Report 2001/2002

    CERN Document Server

    Weingarten, W

    2003-01-01

    This report summarizes the main activities of the General Safety (GS) Group of the Technical Inspection and Safety Division during 2001 and 2002, and the results obtained. The different topics in which the group is active are covered: general safety inspections and ergonomics, electrical, chemical and gas safety, chemical pollution containment and control, industrial hygiene, the safety of civil engineering works and outside contractors, fire prevention and the safety aspects of the LHC experiments.

  3. Year-round presence of neonicotinoid insecticides in tributaries to the Great Lakes, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better understand the transport of neonicotinoid insecticides to a sensitive freshwater ecosystem, monthly samples (October 2015-September 2016) were collected from 10 major tributaries to the Great Lakes, USA. For the monthly tributary samples, neonicotinoids were detected in...

  4. Study of tributary inflows in Lake Iseo with a rotating physical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pilotti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of Coriolis force on the currents of large lakes is well acknowledged; very few contributions, however, investigate this aspect in medium-size lakes where its relevance could be questionable. In order to study the area of influence of the two major tributary rivers in Lake Iseo, a rotating vertically distorted physical model of the northern part of this lake was prepared and used, respecting both Froude and Rossby similarity. The model has a horizontal length scale factor of 8000 and a vertical scale factor of 500 and was used both in homogeneous and in thermally stratified conditions. We explored the pattern of water circulation in front of the entrance mouth for different hydrologic scenarios at the beginning of spring and in summer. We neglected the influence of winds. The primary purposes of the model were twofold: i to increase our level of knowledge of the hydrodynamics of Lake Iseo by verifying the occurrence of dynamical effects related to the Earth’s rotation on the plume of the two tributaries that enter the northern part of the lake and ii to identify the areas of the lake that can be directly influenced by the tributaries’ waters, in order to provide guidance on water quality monitoring in zones of relevant environmental and touristic value. The results of the physical model confirm the relevant role played by the Coriolis force in the northern part of the lake. Under ordinary flow conditions, the model shows a systematic deflection of the inflowing waters towards the western shore of the lake. The inflow triggers a clockwise gyre within the Lovere bay, to the West of the inflow, and a slow counter-clockwise gyre, to the East of the inflow, that returns water towards the river mouth along the eastern shore. For discharges with higher return period, when only the contribution by Oglio River is relevant, the effect of the Earth’s rotation weakens in the entrance zone and the plume has a more rectilinear pattern

  5. Reservoir Operation Rules for Controlling Algal Blooms in a Tributary to the Impoundment of Three Gorges Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijian Lian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the first impoundment of Three Gorges Dam in 2003, algal blooms occur frequently in the near-dam tributaries. It is widely recognized that the impoundment-induced change in hydrodynamic condition with the lower current velocity will make the eutrophication problem even more severe when an excessive amount of nutrients is already loaded into a reservoir and/or its tributaries. Operation tests carried out by Three Gorges Corporation in 2010 point to some feasible reservoir operation schemes that may have positive impacts on reducing the algal bloom level. In our study, an attempt is made to obtain, through a numerical hydrodynamic and water quality modeling and analysis, the reservoir operation rules that would reduce the level of algal blooms in the Xiangxi River (XXR, a near-dam tributary. Water movements and algal blooms in XXR are simulated and analyzed under different scenarios of one-day water discharge fluctuation or two-week water level variation. The model results demonstrate that the reservoir operations can further increase the water exchange between the mainstream of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR and the XXR tributary and thus move a larger amount of algae into the deep water where it will die. Analysis of the model results indicate that the water discharge fluctuation constituted of a lower valley-load flow and a larger flow difference for the short-term operation (within a day, the rise in water level for the medium-term operation (e.g., over weeks, and the combination of the above two for the long-term operation (e.g., over months can be the feasible reservoir operation rules in the non-flood season for TGR.

  6. Tracing the sources of fine sediment in a nickel mining catchment using fallout and geogenic radionuclides (Thio River, New Caledonia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, Olivier; Navratil, Oldrich; Lefèvre, Irène; Laceby, J. Patrick; Allenbach, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion and subsequent sediment transfer in rivers are exacerbated in tropical regions exposed to heavy rainfall. In New Caledonia, an island located in the southwestern part of the Southern Pacific Ocean, a significant fraction of this sediment is likely originating from tributaries draining nickel mining sites that are known to increase the terrigenous inputs to the rivers and, potentially to UNESCO World Heritage listed coastal lagoons. However, downstream contributions from these tributaries remain to be quantified. A pilot sediment tracing study has therefore been conducted in the 400-km² Thio River catchment. Fallout and geogenic radionuclides have been measured in sediment deposits collected in potential sources, i.e. (i) tributaries draining mines, (ii) tributaries draining 'natural' areas affected by landslides, and (iii) the main stem of the Thio River. Thorium-228 and Caesium-137 provide the best discrimination between sediment originating from the two tributaries. A distribution modelling approach was used to quantify the relative sediment contributions from these tributaries to the Thio River main stem. Results demonstrate that tributaries draining mining sites supply the majority of sediment (67-84%) to the main river. In the future, the validity of these results obtained on sediment deposits collected in April and May 2015 should be verified over a longer time period by applying a similar approach to sediment cores collected in the Thio river deltaic plain. Once validated, this method will be applicable to other catchments draining mines in New Caledonia to design appropriate measures to limit sediment supply to the lagoon.

  7. Predicted channel types - Potential for Habitat Improvement in the Columbia River Basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Basin-wide analysis of potential to improve tributary habitats in the Columbia River basin through restoration of habitat-forming processes. Identification of...

  8. Predicted riparian vegetation - Potential for Habitat Improvement in the Columbia River Basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Basin-wide analysis of potential to improve tributary habitats in the Columbia River basin through restoration of habitat-forming processes. Identification of...

  9. Sediment Retention Dynamics and Vegetation Along Three Tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, K.; Ross, K.; Hupp, C.; Alexander, L.; Alexander, L.

    2001-12-01

    Coastal Plain riparian wetlands in the Mid-Atlantic United States are the last place for sediment and contaminant storage before reaching critical estuarine and marine environments. The deteriorating health of the Chesapeake Bay has been attributed in part to elevated sediment loads. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of channelization and urbanization on sediment deposition and geomorphic processes along the Pocomoke and Chickahominy Rivers and Dragon Run, three Coastal Plain tributaries. Floodplain microtopography was surveyed in 100 x 100 m grids at three characteristic reaches along each river and woody vegetation analyses were conducted. Floodplain suspended sediment concentrations and short and long-term sedimentation rates were estimated at each reach using single stage sediment sampler arrays, clay pads and dendrogeomorphic techniques, respectively. Site hydroperiod and flow characteristics were determined from USGS gaging station records, floodplain water level recorders, and field observations. Channelized floodplain reaches along the Pocomoke River are flooded less frequently, have lower mineral sedimentation rates (2 mm/yr to 6 mm/yr) and woody species diversity than the unchannelized reaches. Along the Chickahominy River, floodplain wetlands close to urban centers are flooded more frequently, but have shorter hydroperiods (3.5 days/yr compared to more than 45 days/yr), lower sedimentation rates (1.8 mm/yr to 6.8 mm/yr), and lower woody species diversity (0.51 to 1.95 on the Shannon-Weiner diversity index) than floodplains further downstream. Suspended sediment delivery and deposition rates are significantly influenced by floodplain hydroperiod duration and channel-floodplain connectivity. These results suggest that understanding floodplain sediment dynamics and geomorphic processes with respect to dominant watershed landuse patterns is critical for effective water quality management and restoration efforts.

  10. Fluid temperatures: Modeling the thermal regime of a river network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza; Ashley Steel

    2017-01-01

    Water temperature drives the complex food web of a river network. Aquatic organisms hatch, feed, and reproduce in thermal niches within the tributaries and mainstem that comprise the river network. Changes in water temperature can synchronize or asynchronize the timing of their life stages throughout the year. The water temperature fluctuates over time and place,...

  11. A New Hydrogeological Research Site in the Willamette River Floodplain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Willamette River is a ninth-order tributary of the Columbia which passes through a productive and populous region in northwest Oregon. Where unconstrained by shoreline revetments, the floodplain of this river is a high-energy, dynamic system which supports a variety of ripari...

  12. A View of Water Quality Characteristics Pertinent to Phosphorus Movement in a Third Level Tributary to Lake Champlain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, M.

    2017-12-01

    Lake Champlain is a large natural freshwater lake located in the northeastern United States. The lake provides fresh drinking water for over a quarter of a million people and affords for the livelihoods and recreational opportunities of many well beyond its borders. The health of Lake Champlain is important to the people of Vermont and beyond. During the summer months it is plagued by algal blooms. These unsightly and harmful growths affect other aquatic organisms and are the result of excess phosphate flowing into the lake. Missisquoi Bay in the far northern part of the lake is an area of concern. (Algal bloom Missisquoi Bay. Photo by Robert Galbraith) Measuring in-stream characteristics pertinent to phosphorus movement from the headwaters to the outflow of a third level tributary concurrently will provide important information regarding the movement of phosphorus into tributaries then on into Lake Champlain. Phosphorus, Total Suspended Solids, Temperature and Flow Rate were measured at the mouth, mid-point and headwaters of Black Creek. Black Creek is the last major contributor to the Missisquoi River before it flows into Missisquoi Bay, a bay in Lake Champlain. These measurements were made concurrently at low, normal and high water levels. Significant differences were found between temperature, total suspended solids and phosphate from the headwaters of Black Creek through to its outflow into the Missisquoi River. These characteristics pertinent to phosphorus movement indicated various rates of increase from headwaters to outflow.

  13. Contaminants of emerging concern in tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes: I. Patterns of occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sarah M.; Brigham, Mark E.; Lee, Kathy E.; Banda, Jo A.; Choy, Steven J.; Gefell, Daniel J.; Minarik, Thomas A.; Moore, Jeremy N.; Jorgenson, Zachary G.

    2017-01-01

    Human activities introduce a variety of chemicals to the Laurentian Great Lakes including pesticides, pharmaceuticals, flame retardants, plasticizers, and solvents (collectively referred to as contaminants of emerging concern or CECs) potentially threatening the vitality of these valuable ecosystems. We conducted a basin-wide study to identify the presence of CECs and other chemicals of interest in 12 U.S. tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes during 2013 and 2014. A total of 292 surface-water and 80 sediment samples were collected and analyzed for approximately 200 chemicals. A total of 32 and 28 chemicals were detected in at least 30% of water and sediment samples, respectively. Concentrations ranged from 0.0284 (indole) to 72.2 (cholesterol) μg/L in water and 1.75 (diphenhydramine) to 20,800 μg/kg (fluoranthene) in sediment. Cluster analyses revealed chemicals that frequently co-occurred such as pharmaceuticals and flame retardants at sites receiving similar inputs such as wastewater treatment plant effluent. Comparison of environmental concentrations to water and sediment-quality benchmarks revealed that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations often exceeded benchmarks in both water and sediment. Additionally, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and dichlorvos concentrations exceeded water-quality benchmarks in several rivers. Results from this study can be used to understand organism exposure, prioritize river basins for future management efforts, and guide detailed assessments of factors influencing transport and fate of CECs in the Great Lakes Basin.

  14. Assessment of pollution in Ndarugu river due to runoff and agro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    River Ndarugu is a tributary of Athi River in Kenya and is one of the main ... it receives untreated agro‐industrial waste discharges, effluent from coffee and tea ... as to protect the river from the adverse impacts of agricultural activities and save it ...

  15. Use of a constucted wetland to reduce nonpoint-source pesticide contamination of the Lourens River, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralf Schulz

    2000-01-01

    The Lourens River, Western Cape, South Africa, and its tributaries situated in an intensively cultivated orchard area receive pesticide contamination during rainfall-induced runoff and during spraydrift. A 0.44-ha constructed wetland, built in 1991 in one of the tributaries (summer flow 0.03 m3 per second), was studied in order to assess its effectiveness in reducing...

  16. Estuarine River Data for the Ten Thousand Islands Area, Florida, Water Year 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Michael J.; Patino, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected stream discharge, stage, salinity, and water-temperature data near the mouths of 11 tributaries flowing into the Ten Thousand Islands area of Florida from October 2004 to June 2005. Maximum positive discharge from Barron River and Faka Union River was 6,000 and 3,200 ft3/s, respectively; no other tributary exceeded 2,600 ft3/s. Salinity variation was greatest at Barron River and Faka Union River, ranging from 2 to 37 ppt, and from 3 to 34 ppt, respectively. Salinity maximums were greatest at Wood River and Little Wood River, each exceeding 40 ppt. All data were collected prior to the commencement of the Picayune Strand Restoration Project, which is designed to establish a more natural flow regime to the tributaries of the Ten Thousand Islands area.

  17. Bedload transport in a river confluence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Vide, J. P.; Plana-Casado, A.; Sambola, A.; Capapé, S.

    2015-12-01

    The confluence of the regulated Toltén River and its tributary the unregulated Allipén (south of Chile) has proved dynamic in the last decade. Daily bedload measurements with a Helley-Smith sampler, bed surveys, and grain-size distributions of the two rivers are obtained from a field campaign that lasts 3 months in high-flow season. The goals are to quantify total bedload and to understand the balance between tributary and main river and the bedload distribution in space and texture. The bedload transport varies 200-fold, with a maximum of 5000 t/day. The discharge varies five-fold, with a maximum of 900 m3/s. Two-thirds of the total bedload volume are transported through the deeper area of the cross section and gravel is predominant (64%). Average bedload volumes in the confluence seem unbalanced in favour of the tributary. Main river bedload transport is predominantly at below-capacity conditions, while the tributary bedload transport is at-capacity conditions. This is deemed the main reason of inaccuracy of the bedload predictors. The roles of entrainment into suspension, helical flow, partial transport, and mobile armour are discussed.

  18. Characterization of contaminants in snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) from Canadian Lake Erie Areas of Concern: St. Clair River, Detroit River, and Wheatley Harbour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solla, Shane R. de; Fernie, Kimberly J

    2004-11-01

    PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and dioxins/furans in snapping turtle eggs and plasma (Chelydra serpentina) were evaluated at three Areas of Concern (AOCs) on Lake Erie and its connecting channels (St. Clair River, Detroit River, and Wheatley Harbour), as well as two inland reference sites (Algonquin Provincial Park and Tiny Marsh) in 2001-2002. Eggs from the Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour AOCs had the highest levels of p,p'-DDE (24.4 and 57.9 ng/g) and sum PCBs (928.6 and 491.0 ng/g) wet weight, respectively. Contaminant levels in eggs from St. Clair River AOC were generally higher than those from Algonquin Park, but similar to those from Tiny Marsh. Dioxins appeared highest from the Detroit River. The PCB congener pattern in eggs suggested that turtles from the Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour AOCs were exposed to Aroclor 1260. TEQs of sum PCBs in eggs from all AOCs and p,p'-DDE levels in eggs from the Wheatley Harbour and the Detroit River AOCs exceeded the Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines. Furthermore, sum PCBs in eggs from Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour exceeded partial restriction guidelines for consumption. Although estimated PCB body burdens in muscle tissue of females were well below consumption guidelines, estimated residues in liver and adipose were above guidelines for most sites.

  19. Characterization of contaminants in snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) from Canadian Lake Erie Areas of Concern: St. Clair River, Detroit River, and Wheatley Harbour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Solla, Shane R; Fernie, Kimberly J

    2004-11-01

    PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and dioxins/furans in snapping turtle eggs and plasma (Chelydra serpentina) were evaluated at three Areas of Concern (AOCs) on Lake Erie and its connecting channels (St. Clair River, Detroit River, and Wheatley Harbour), as well as two inland reference sites (Algonquin Provincial Park and Tiny Marsh) in 2001-2002. Eggs from the Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour AOCs had the highest levels of p,p'-DDE (24.4 and 57.9 ng/g) and sum PCBs (928.6 and 491.0 ng/g) wet weight, respectively. Contaminant levels in eggs from St. Clair River AOC were generally higher than those from Algonquin Park, but similar to those from Tiny Marsh. Dioxins appeared highest from the Detroit River. The PCB congener pattern in eggs suggested that turtles from the Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour AOCs were exposed to Aroclor 1260. TEQs of sum PCBs in eggs from all AOCs and p,p'-DDE levels in eggs from the Wheatley Harbour and the Detroit River AOCs exceeded the Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines. Furthermore, sum PCBs in eggs from Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour exceeded partial restriction guidelines for consumption. Although estimated PCB body burdens in muscle tissue of females were well below consumption guidelines, estimated residues in liver and adipose were above guidelines for most sites.

  20. Characterization of contaminants in snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) from Canadian Lake Erie Areas of Concern: St. Clair River, Detroit River, and Wheatley Harbour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solla, Shane R. de; Fernie, Kimberly J.

    2004-01-01

    PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and dioxins/furans in snapping turtle eggs and plasma (Chelydra serpentina) were evaluated at three Areas of Concern (AOCs) on Lake Erie and its connecting channels (St. Clair River, Detroit River, and Wheatley Harbour), as well as two inland reference sites (Algonquin Provincial Park and Tiny Marsh) in 2001-2002. Eggs from the Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour AOCs had the highest levels of p,p'-DDE (24.4 and 57.9 ng/g) and sum PCBs (928.6 and 491.0 ng/g) wet weight, respectively. Contaminant levels in eggs from St. Clair River AOC were generally higher than those from Algonquin Park, but similar to those from Tiny Marsh. Dioxins appeared highest from the Detroit River. The PCB congener pattern in eggs suggested that turtles from the Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour AOCs were exposed to Aroclor 1260. TEQs of sum PCBs in eggs from all AOCs and p,p'-DDE levels in eggs from the Wheatley Harbour and the Detroit River AOCs exceeded the Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines. Furthermore, sum PCBs in eggs from Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour exceeded partial restriction guidelines for consumption. Although estimated PCB body burdens in muscle tissue of females were well below consumption guidelines, estimated residues in liver and adipose were above guidelines for most sites

  1. Characterization of contaminants in snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) from Canadian Lake Erie Areas of Concern: St. Clair River, Detroit River, and Wheatley Harbour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solla, Shane R. de; Fernie, Kimberly J

    2004-11-01

    PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and dioxins/furans in snapping turtle eggs and plasma (Chelydra serpentina) were evaluated at three Areas of Concern (AOCs) on Lake Erie and its connecting channels (St. Clair River, Detroit River, and Wheatley Harbour), as well as two inland reference sites (Algonquin Provincial Park and Tiny Marsh) in 2001-2002. Eggs from the Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour AOCs had the highest levels of p,p'-DDE (24.4 and 57.9 ng/g) and sum PCBs (928.6 and 491.0 ng/g) wet weight, respectively. Contaminant levels in eggs from St. Clair River AOC were generally higher than those from Algonquin Park, but similar to those from Tiny Marsh. Dioxins appeared highest from the Detroit River. The PCB congener pattern in eggs suggested that turtles from the Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour AOCs were exposed to Aroclor 1260. TEQs of sum PCBs in eggs from all AOCs and p,p'-DDE levels in eggs from the Wheatley Harbour and the Detroit River AOCs exceeded the Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines. Furthermore, sum PCBs in eggs from Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour exceeded partial restriction guidelines for consumption. Although estimated PCB body burdens in muscle tissue of females were well below consumption guidelines, estimated residues in liver and adipose were above guidelines for most sites.

  2. The Columbia River System Inside Story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-04-01

    The Columbia River is one of the greatest natural resources in the western United States. The river and its tributaries touch the lives of nearly every resident of the Pacific Northwest—from fostering world-famous Pacific salmon to supplying clean natural fuel for 50 to 65 percent of the region’s electrical generation. Since early in the 20th century, public and private agencies have labored to capture the benefits of this dynamic river. Today, dozens of major water resource projects throughout the region are fed by the waters of the Columbia Basin river system.

  3. Fish migration between a temperate reservoir and its main tributary

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hladík, Milan; Kubečka, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 504, - (2003), s. 251-266 ISSN 0018-8158. [Reservoir Limnology and Water Quality /4./. České Budějovice, 12.08.2002-16.08.2002] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/02/0520; GA AV ČR IBS6017004; GA AV ČR IAA6017201; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6017912 Keywords : freshwater fish migration * reservoir-tributary ecotone * spawning Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.720, year: 2003

  4. Assessing the link between coastal urbanization and the quality of nekton habitat in mangrove tidal tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Justin M.; Bell, Susan S.; McIvor, Carole C.

    2014-01-01

    To assess the potential influence of coastal development on habitat quality for estuarine nekton, we characterized body condition and reproduction for common nekton from tidal tributaries classified as undeveloped, industrial, urban or man-made (i.e., mosquito-control ditches). We then evaluated these metrics of nekton performance, along with several abundance-based metrics and community structure from a companion paper (Krebs et al. 2013) to determine which metrics best reflected variation in land-use and in-stream habitat among tributaries. Body condition was not significantly different among undeveloped, industrial, and man-made tidal tributaries for six of nine taxa; however, three of those taxa were in significantly better condition in urban compared to undeveloped tributaries. Palaemonetes shrimp were the only taxon in significantly poorer condition in urban tributaries. For Poecilia latipinna, there was no difference in body condition (length–weight) between undeveloped and urban tributaries, but energetic condition was significantly better in urban tributaries. Reproductive output was reduced for both P. latipinna (i.e., fecundity) and grass shrimp (i.e., very low densities, few ovigerous females) in urban tributaries; however a tradeoff between fecundity and offspring size confounded meaningful interpretation of reproduction among land-use classes for P. latipinna. Reproductive allotment by P. latipinna did not differ significantly among land-use classes. Canonical correspondence analysis differentiated urban and non-urban tributaries based on greater impervious surface, less natural mangrove shoreline, higher frequency of hypoxia and lower, more variable salinities in urban tributaries. These characteristics explained 36 % of the variation in nekton performance, including high densities of poeciliid fishes, greater energetic condition of sailfin mollies, and low densities of several common nekton and economically important taxa from urban tributaries

  5. Site profiles of low-volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons - cause-oriented monitoring in aquatic media. Vol.2. Low-volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons in surface water, sediments, suspended matter and fish of the Elbe river and its tributaries; Standortprofile schwerfluechtiger chlorierter Kohlenwasserstoffe (SCKW) - ursachenorientiertes Monitoring in aquatischen Medien. Bd. 2. SCKW in Oberflaechenwasser, Sediment, Schwebstoffen und Fischen aus der Elbe und Nebenfluessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinisch, E.; Kettrup, A.; Gebefuegi, I.; Martens, D.; Bergheim, W.; Wenzel, S.

    2001-07-01

    Evaluating the primary data from ARGE ELBE, LAU Halle/Saale and the Environmental Specimen Banking (Umweltprobenbank) as well from publications from the Czech Republic (CHMU) the concentrations of the following low volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons were established for surface water, sediment, breams and eels from the rivers Elbe, Schwarze Elster, Mulde and Saale partly from 1989 till 1999: DDT and its metabolites DDE and DDD, partly as 2,4'- and 4,4' isomers; HCH ({alpha}-, {beta}-, {gamma}- and {delta} isomers); chlorinated benzenes with 1-6 Cl atoms and octachlorostyrene. The data evaluated were drawn up into tables - comprehensive in a separate supplement, in short versions within the text - and consolidated into graphs. Aim of the paper was a cause-oriented monitoring. The by far most important emission sources, found from the distance and time profiles as well as from special assessments of the substance patterns, were chemical plants. (orig.) [German] Durch Auswertung von Primaerdaten der ARGE ELBE, des LAU Halle/Saale und der Umweltprobenbank sowie von Publikationen aus Tschechien (CHMU) wurden fuer Oberflaechenwasser, Sediment, Brassen/Bleien und Aale aus der Elbe, Schwarzen Elster, Mulde und Saale fuer die Jahre von z.T. 1989 bis 1999 die Konzentrationen der folgenden schwerfluechtigen Kohlenwasserstoffe (SCKW) ermittelt: DDT und seine Metabolite DDE und DDD, z.T. als 2,4'- und 4,4'-Isomere; HCH ({alpha}-, {beta}-, {gamma}- und {delta}-Isomere); chlorierte Benzole mit 1-6 Cl-Atomen und Octachlorstyrol. Die ausgewerteten Daten wurden zu Tabellen - ausfuehrlich in einem gesonderten Tabellenanhang und verkuerzt im Textteil - zusammengestellt sowie zu Grafiken verdichtet. Ziel der Arbeit war ein ursachenorientiertes Monitoring. Als mit Abstand wesentlichste Emissionsquellen konnten anhand von Streckenprofilen und Zeitrastern sowie durch spezielle Auswertungen der Stoffmusterverteilungen Chemibetriebe ermittelt werden. (orig.)

  6. Integrating Salmon Recovery, Clean Water Act Compliance, Restoration, and Climate Change Impacts in the South Fork Nooksack River

    Science.gov (United States)

    "The South Fork Nooksack River (SFNR) is an important tributary to the Nooksack River, Bellingham Bay, and the Salish Sea. The South Fork Nooksack River comprises one of the 22 independent populations of spring Chinook in the Puget Sound Chinook Evolutionarily Significant Un...

  7. Morphological variation and phylogenetic analysis of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium aureolum from a tributary of Chesapeake Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ying Zhong; Egerton, Todd A; Kong, Lesheng; Marshall, Harold G

    2008-01-01

    Cultures of four strains of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium aureolum (Hulburt) G. Hansen were established from the Elizabeth River, a tidal tributary of the Chesapeake Bay, USA. Light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, nuclear-encoded large sub-unit rDNA sequencing, and culturing observations were conducted to further characterize this species. Observations of morphology included: a multiple structured apical groove; a peduncle located between the emerging points of the two flagella; pentagonal and hexagonal vesicles on the amphiesma; production and germination of resting cysts; variation in the location of the nucleus within the center of the cell; a longitudinal ventral concavity; and considerable variation in cell width/length and overall cell size. A fish bioassay using juvenile sheepshead minnows detected no ichthyotoxicity from any of the strains over a 48-h period. Molecular analysis confirmed the dinoflagellate was conspecific with G. aureolum strains from around the world, and formed a cluster along with several other Gymnodinium species. Morphological evidence suggests that further research is necessary to examine the relationship between G. aureolum and a possibly closely related species Gymnodinium maguelonnense.

  8. Geometrical and gravimetrical observations of the Aral Sea and its tributaries along with hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A.; Seitz, F.; Schwatke, C.; Güntner, A.

    2012-04-01

    Satellite altimetry is capable of measuring surface water level changes of large water bodies. This is especially interesting for regions where in-situ gauges are sparse or not available. Temporal variations of coastline and horizontal extent of a water body can be derived from optical remote sensing data. A joint analysis of both data types together with a digital elevation model allows for the estimation of water volume changes. Related variations of water mass map into the observations of the satellite gravity field mission GRACE. In this presentation, we demonstrate the application of heterogeneuous remote sensing methods for studying chages of water volume and mass of the Aral Sea and compare the results with respect to their consistency. Our analysis covers the period 2002-2011. In particular we deal with data from multi-mission radar and laser satellite altimetry that are analyzed in combination with coastlines from Landsat images. The resultant vertical and horizontal variations of the lake surface are geometrically intersected with the bathymetry of the Aral Sea in order to compute volumetric changes. These are transformed into variations of water mass that are subsequently compared with storage changes derived from GRACE satellite gravimetry. Hence we obtain a comprehensive picture of the hydrological changes in the region. Observations from all datasets correspond quite well with each other with respect to their temporal development. However, geometrically determined volume changes and mass changes observed by GRACE agree less well during years of heavy water inflow in to the Aral Sea from its southern tributary 'Amu Darya' since the GRACE signals are contaminated by the large mass of water stored in the river delta and prearalie region On the other hand, GRACE observations of the river basins of Syr Darya and Amu Dayra correspond very well with hydrological models and mass changes computed from the balance of precipitation, evaporation and runoff

  9. Reproductive health of yellow perch Perca flavescens in selected tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazer, Vicki S., E-mail: Vblazer@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, National Fish Health Research Laboratory, Leetown Science Center, 11649 Leetown Road, Kearneysville, WV 25430 (United States); Pinkney, Alfred E., E-mail: Fred_Pinkeny@fws.gov [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Chesapeake Bay Field Office, 177 Admiral Cochrane Drive, Annapolis, MD 21401 (United States); Jenkins, Jill A., E-mail: jenkinsj@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, National Wetlands Research Center, 700 Cajundome Blvd., Lafayette, LA 70506 (United States); Iwanowicz, Luke R., E-mail: Liwanowicz@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, National Fish Health Research Laboratory, Leetown Science Center, 11649 Leetown Road, Kearneysville, WV 25430 (United States); Minkkinen, Steven, E-mail: steve_minkkinen@fws.gov [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Chesapeake Bay Field Office, 177 Admiral Cochrane Drive, Annapolis, MD 21401 (United States); Draugelis-Dale, Rassa O., E-mail: daler@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, National Wetlands Research Center, 700 Cajundome Blvd., Lafayette, LA 70506 (United States); Uphoff, James H., E-mail: juphoff@dnr.state.md.us [Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Fisheries Service, Cooperative Oxford Laboratory, 904 South Morris Street, Oxford, MD 21654 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Reduced recruitment of yellow perch has been noted for a number of years in certain urbanized watersheds (South and Severn Rivers) of the Chesapeake Bay. Other rapidly developing watersheds such as Mattawoman Creek are more recently showing evidence of reduced recruitment of anadromous fishes. In this study, we used a battery of biomarkers to better document the reproductive health of adult yellow perch collected during spring spawning in 2007–2009. Perch were collected in the South and Severn Rivers, Mattawoman Creek and the less developed Choptank and Allen's Fresh watersheds for comparison. Gonadosomatic indices, plasma reproductive hormone concentrations, plasma vitellogenin concentrations and gonad histology were evaluated in mature perch of both sexes. In addition, sperm quantity (cell counts) and quality (total and progressive motility, spermatogenic stage and DNA integrity), were measured in male perch. Many of these biomarkers varied annually and spatially, with some interesting statistical results and trends. Male perch from the Choptank and Allen's Fresh had generally higher sperm counts. In 2008 counts were significantly lower in the perch from the Severn when compared to other sites. The major microscopic gonadal abnormality in males was the proliferation of putative Leydig cells, observed in testes from Severn and less commonly, Mattawoman Creek perch. Observations that could significantly impact egg viability were an apparent lack of final maturation, abnormal yolk and thin, irregular zona pellucida. These were observed primarily in ovaries from Severn, South and less commonly Mattawoman Creek perch. The potential association of these observations with urbanization, impervious surface and chemical contaminants is discussed. - Highlights: ► Reduced recruitment of yellow perch has occurred in urban tributaries of Chesapeake Bay. ► We compared reproductive health biomarkers in perch from two urban, one developing, two less developed

  10. Reproductive health of yellow perch Perca flavescens in selected tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazer, Vicki S.; Pinkney, Alfred E.; Jenkins, Jill A.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Minkkinen, Steven; Draugelis-Dale, Rassa O.; Uphoff, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Reduced recruitment of yellow perch has been noted for a number of years in certain urbanized watersheds (South and Severn Rivers) of the Chesapeake Bay. Other rapidly developing watersheds such as Mattawoman Creek are more recently showing evidence of reduced recruitment of anadromous fishes. In this study, we used a battery of biomarkers to better document the reproductive health of adult yellow perch collected during spring spawning in 2007–2009. Perch were collected in the South and Severn Rivers, Mattawoman Creek and the less developed Choptank and Allen's Fresh watersheds for comparison. Gonadosomatic indices, plasma reproductive hormone concentrations, plasma vitellogenin concentrations and gonad histology were evaluated in mature perch of both sexes. In addition, sperm quantity (cell counts) and quality (total and progressive motility, spermatogenic stage and DNA integrity), were measured in male perch. Many of these biomarkers varied annually and spatially, with some interesting statistical results and trends. Male perch from the Choptank and Allen's Fresh had generally higher sperm counts. In 2008 counts were significantly lower in the perch from the Severn when compared to other sites. The major microscopic gonadal abnormality in males was the proliferation of putative Leydig cells, observed in testes from Severn and less commonly, Mattawoman Creek perch. Observations that could significantly impact egg viability were an apparent lack of final maturation, abnormal yolk and thin, irregular zona pellucida. These were observed primarily in ovaries from Severn, South and less commonly Mattawoman Creek perch. The potential association of these observations with urbanization, impervious surface and chemical contaminants is discussed. - Highlights: ► Reduced recruitment of yellow perch has occurred in urban tributaries of Chesapeake Bay. ► We compared reproductive health biomarkers in perch from two urban, one developing, two less developed watersheds.

  11. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Fish fauna of Indrayani River, northern Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelesh Dahanukar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater fish fauna of the Indrayani River, a northern tributary of the Krishna River system in the Western Ghats of India was studied. A total of 57 species of freshwater fish belonging to 18 families and 39 genera were recorded. However, based on the previous literature it is possible that the Indrayani River harbours around 67 species. Out of the 57 species in the present collection, 12 are endemic to the Western Ghats while six are endemic to the Krishna River system. Neotropius khavalchor, an endemic fish of the Krishna River system, was recorded for the first time from the northern tributaries. The fish fauna of the Indrayani River is threatened due to seven introduced species and anthropogenic activities such as deforestation leading to siltation, tourism, sand mining, over fishing and organic and inorganic pollution. Since the Indrayani River hosts endemic and threatened species, including Glyptothorax poonaensis, conservation measures to ensure habitat protection in the river are essential.

  12. Streambed infiltration and ground-water flow from the trout creek drainage, an intermittent tributary to the Humboldt River, north-central Nevada: Chapter K in Ground-water recharge in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States (Professional Paper 1703)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudic, David E.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Harrill, James R.; Wood, James L.; Stonestrom, David A.; Constantz, Jim; Ferré, Ty P.A.; Leake, Stanley A.

    2007-01-01

    Ground water is abundant in many alluvial basins of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province of the western United States. Water enters these basins by infiltration along intermittent and ephemeral channels, which originate in the mountainous regions before crossing alluvial fans and piedmont alluvial plains. Water also enters the basins as subsurface ground-water flow directly from the mountains, where infiltrated precipitation recharges water-bearing rocks and sediments at these higher elevations. Trout Creek, a typical intermittent stream in the Middle Humboldt River Basin in north-central Nevada, was chosen to develop methods of estimating and characterizing streambed infiltration and ground-water recharge in mountainous terrains. Trout Creek has a drainage area of about 4.8 × 107 square meters. Stream gradients range from more than 1 × 10–1 meter per meter in the mountains to 5 × 10–3 meter per meter at the foot of the piedmont alluvial plain. Trout Creek is perennial in short reaches upstream of a northeast-southwest trending normal fault, where perennial springs discharge to the channel. Downstream from the fault, the water table drops below the base of the channel and the stream becomes intermittent.Snowmelt generates streamflow during March and April, when streamflow extends onto the piedmont alluvial plain for several weeks in most years. Rates of streambed infiltration become highest in the lowest reaches, at the foot of the piedmont alluvial plain. The marked increases in infiltration are attributed to increases in streambed permeability together with decreases in channel-bed armoring, the latter which increases the effective area of the channel. Large quartzite cobbles cover the streambed in the upper reaches of the stream and are absent in the lowest reach. Such changes in channel deposits are common where alluvial fans join piedmont alluvial plains. Poorly sorted coarse and fine sediments are deposited near the head of the fan, while

  13. A Case Study of the Karoon River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rooholah Noori

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of monitoring networks of surface waters and determination of main and tributary stations is an important step in the development and improvement of these networks and in increasing their efficiency. In this study, Principal Components Analysis, PCA, and Factor Analysis, PFA, techniques were employed to evaluate water quality monitoring stations on theKaroonRiver. From among the monitoring stations available, eight were selected and the measured data from 2002 to 2004 were used to determine the main and tributary stations. Finally, results were validated employing the regression analysis technique. Based on the results obtained in this study, only one monitoring station (Bandemizan was identified as the main one among the eight stations selected. Also a similar study was conducted to determine main and tributary quality variables; however, the results of the KMO factor did not confirm using PFA and PCA for this part of study.

  14. Concentrations and Loads of Organic Compounds and Trace Elements in Tributaries to Newark and Raritan Bays, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Timothy P.; Bonin, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the concentrations and loads of sediment and chemicals delivered to Newark and Raritan Bays by five major tributaries: the Raritan, Passaic, Rahway, Elizabeth, and Hackensack Rivers. This study was initiated by the State of New Jersey as Study I-C of the New Jersey Toxics Reduction Workplan for the New York-New Jersey Harbor, working under the NY-NJ Harbor Estuary Program (HEP) Contaminant Assessment and Reduction Program (CARP). The CARP is a comprehensive effort to evaluate the levels and sources of toxic contaminants to the tributaries and estuarine areas of the NY-NJ Harbor, including Newark and Raritan Bays. The Raritan and Passaic Rivers are large rivers (mean daily discharges of 1,189 and 1,132 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), respectively), that drain large, mixed rural/urban basins. The Elizabeth and Rahway Rivers are small rivers (mean daily discharges of 25.9 and 49.1 ft3/s, respectively) that drain small, highly urbanized and industrialized basins. The Hackensack River drains a small, mixed rural/urban basin, and its flow is highly controlled by an upstream reservoir (mean daily discharge of 90.4 ft3/s). These rivers flow into urbanized estuaries and ultimately, to the Atlantic Ocean. Each of these tributaries were sampled during two to four storm events, and twice each during low-flow discharge conditions. Samples were collected using automated equipment installed at stations adjacent to U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations near the heads-of-tide of these rivers. Large-volume (greater than 50 liters of water and a target of 1 gram of sediment), flow-weighted composite samples were collected for chemical analysis using filtration to collect suspended particulates and exchange resin (XAD-2) to sequester dissolved contaminants. Composite whole-water samples were collected for dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and for trace element analysis. Additional discrete grab samples were collected

  15. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following requirements...

  16. Flathead River creel report, 1992--1993. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanzel, D.

    1995-09-01

    A roving creel survey was conducted on the Flathead River system, May 1992 through May 1993, as part of Hungry Horse Dam Fisheries Mitigation, funded by Bonneville Power Administration. The Flathead River system is a tributary to the Clarks Fork of the Columbia River originating in northwest Montana and southern British Columbia. The river creel survey was conducted in conjunction with a Flathead Lake creel survey. This document summarizes the creel survey on the river system. The purpose of these creel surveys was to quantify fishery status prior to mitigation efforts and provide replicative survey methodology to measure success of future mitigation activities. 4 figs., 21 tabs

  17. Evaluating sediment transport in flood-driven ephemeral tributaries using direct and acoustic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, K.

    2017-12-01

    One common source of uncertainty in sediment transport modeling of large semi-arid rivers is sediment influx delivered by ephemeral, flood-driven tributaries. Large variations in sediment delivery are associated with these regimes due to the highly variable nature of flows within them. While there are many sediment transport equations, they are typically developed for perennial streams and can be inaccurate for ephemeral channels. Discrete, manual sampling is labor intensive and requires personnel to be on site during flooding. In addition, flooding within these tributaries typically last on the order of hours, making it difficult to be present during an event. To better understand these regimes, automated systems are needed to continuously sample bedload and suspended load. In preparation for the pending installation of an automated site on the Arroyo de los Piños in New Mexico, manual sediment and flow samples have been collected over the summer monsoon season of 2017, in spite of the logistical challenges. These data include suspended and bedload sediment samples at the basin outlet, and stage and precipitation data from throughout the basin. Data indicate a complex system; flow is generated primarily in areas of exposed bedrock in the center and higher elevations of the watershed. Bedload samples show a large coarse-grained fraction, with 50% >2 mm and 25% >6 mm, which is compatible with acoustic measuring techniques. These data will be used to inform future site operations, which will combine direct sediment measurement from Reid-type slot samplers and non-invasive acoustic measuring methods. Bedload will be indirectly monitored using pipe-style microphones, plate-style geophones, channel hydrophones, and seismometers. These instruments record vibrations and acoustic signals from bedload impacts and movement. Indirect methods for measuring of bedload have never been extensively evaluated in ephemeral channels in the southwest United States. Once calibrated

  18. Year-round presence of neonicotinoid insecticides in tributaries to the Great Lakes, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, Michelle; Corsi, Steven; Kolpin, Dana W.; Baldwin, Austin K.; Blackwell, Brett R.; Cavallin, Jenna E.

    2018-01-01

    To better characterize the transport of neonicotinoid insecticides to the world's largest freshwater ecosystem, monthly samples (October 2015–September 2016) were collected from 10 major tributaries to the Great Lakes, USA. For the monthly tributary samples, neonicotinoids were detected in every month sampled and five of the six target neonicotinoids were detected. At least one neonicotinoid was detected in 74% of the monthly samples with up to three neonicotinoids detected in an individual sample (10% of all samples). The most frequently detected neonicotinoid was imidacloprid (53%), followed by clothianidin (44%), thiamethoxam (22%), acetamiprid (2%), and dinotefuran (1%). Thiacloprid was not detected in any samples. The maximum concentration for an individual neonicotinoid was 230 ng L−1 and the maximum total neonicotinoids in an individual sample was 400 ng L−1. The median detected individual neonicotinoid concentrations ranged from non-detect to 10 ng L−1. The detections of clothianidin and thiamethoxam significantly increased as the percent of cultivated crops in the basins increased (ρ = 0.73, P = .01; ρ = 0.66, P = .04, respectively). In contrast, imidacloprid detections significantly increased as the percent of the urbanization in the basins increased (ρ = 0.66, P = .03). Neonicotinoid concentrations generally increased in spring through summer coinciding with the planting of neonicotinoid-treated seeds and broadcast applications of neonicotinoids. More spatially intensive samples were collected in an agriculturally dominated basin (8 sites along the Maumee River, Ohio) twice during the spring, 2016 planting season to provide further information on neonicotinoid inputs to the Great Lakes. Three neonicotinoids were ubiquitously detected (clothianidin, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam) in all water samples collected within this basin. Maximum individual neonicotinoid concentrations was 330 ng L−1

  19. Aquatic macroinvertebrates of the Jablanica river, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Katarina S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the community of aquatic macroinvertebrates was carried out during 2005 and 2006 at four sampling sites along the Jablanica River, a right-hand tributary of the Kolubara River. Fifty-seven taxa were recorded in the course of the investigation. The most diverse group was Ephemeroptera, followed by Trichoptera and Plecoptera. Members of the Rhitrogena semicolorata group were the most abundant. Our results could be the basis for evaluation of the influence of damming of the Jablanica River on the status of its water and can serve as a model for studying the influ­ence of hydromorphological degradation of aquatic ecosystems.

  20. Documentation of input datasets for the soil-water balance groundwater recharge model of the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred D.

    2015-01-01

    The Colorado River and its tributaries supply water to more than 35 million people in the United States and 3 million people in Mexico, irrigating more than 4.5 million acres of farmland, and generating about 12 billion kilowatt hours of hydroelectric power annually. The Upper Colorado River Basin, encompassing more than 110,000 square miles (mi2), contains the headwaters of the Colorado River (also known as the River) and is an important source of snowmelt runoff to the River. Groundwater discharge also is an important source of water in the River and its tributaries, with estimates ranging from 21 to 58 percent of streamflow in the upper basin. Planning for the sustainable management of the Colorado River in future climates requires an understanding of the Upper Colorado River Basin groundwater system. This report documents input datasets for a Soil-Water Balance groundwater recharge model that was developed for the Upper Colorado River Basin.

  1. Observations of the vegetation of the Atigun River floodplain as affected by the crude oil spill from the Trans-Alaska Pipeline

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This report is a summary of the results of botanical investigation conducted along the Atigun River, associated side channels and tributaries during the period 26 –...

  2. PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in the Tone River, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Eiki; Heesoo, Eun; Koji, Baba; Tomohito, Arao; Shozo, Endo [National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba (Japan); Tadashi, Sekino [Environmental Research Center, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Environmental pollution by PCDD/Fs has arisen exclusively from human activities, and for example, they are inadvertently produced from various combustion sources and manufacturing processes, such as municipal solid waste incineration steel production processes and chemical production processes. In Japan, it is well known that the environmental pollution has close relation to agricultural operation, that is, some PCDD/Fs are contained as impurities in a kind of pesticide. The Tone River is the largest basin area (about 16,900 km{sup 2}) in Japan, and after the Shinano River, is the second longest river (about 322 km). The river has many tributaries (about 800 rivers), and the rivers taking the Kokai River, the Kinu River, the Edo River, and the Watarase River as objects of the present study are also representative tributaries. Since the Tone River basin corresponding to about 4.5% of the total area of Japan leads about twelve million population corresponding to about 10% of the gross population in Japan, it plays an important part in a supply of water for human activities. Not only some residential zones near Tokyo and industrial zones but also representative agricultural zones in Japan expand in the basin expands, and especially the lower basin leads a leading granary. The objective of our effort is to investigate the levels of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in surface sediment and water samples from the Tone River and some related tributaries, and to assess their distribution and origin using congener-specific characterization approach.

  3. Water quality index for assessment of water quality of river ravi at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water quality of River Ravi, a tributary of Indus River System was evaluated by Water Quality Index (WQI) technique. A water quality index provides a single number that expresses overall water quality at a certain location and time based on several water quality parameters. The objective of an index is to turn complex water ...

  4. Wetland Management Reduces Sediment and Nutrient Loading to the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restored riparian wetlands in the Upper Mississippi River basin have the potential to remove sediment and nutrients from tributaries before they flow into the Mississippi River. For 3 yr we calculated retention efficiencies of a marsh complex, which consisted of a restored marsh...

  5. Agroforestry systems in the Sonora River Watershed, Mexico: An example of effective land stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego Valdez-Zamudio; Peter F. Ffolliot

    2000-01-01

    The Sonora River watershed is located in the central part of the state of Sonora,Mexico, and is one of the most important watersheds in the region. Much of the state's economy depends on the natural resources, products, and productive activities developed in this watershed. Many natural areas along the river and its tributaries have been converted to a large...

  6. River flow regime and snow cover of the Pamir Alay (Central Asia) in a changing climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chevallier, P.; Pouyaud, B.; Mojaisky, M.; Bolgov, M.; Olsson, O.; Bauer, M.; Froebrich, J.

    2014-01-01

    The Vakhsh and Pyandj rivers, main tributaries of the Amu Darya River in the mountainous region of the Pamir Alay, play an important role in the water resources of the Aral Sea basin (Central Asia). In this region, the glaciers and snow cover significantly influence the water cycle and flow regime,

  7. Heavy metals in tributaries of Pampulha Reservoir, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. RIETZLER

    Full Text Available A great amount of heavy metals enter Pampulha Reservoir via it's main tributaries (Sarandi and Ressaca. Although no water quality classification has been carried out for these tributaries, the reservoir is expected to be in class 2 of the CONAMA-86 system. As part of a monitoring scheme of the Pampulha Watershed, heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Cr, Mn and Fe were investigated in the water at a control site (considered free from direct human influence and at potential sites of toxicity and contamination during August (dry season and November (wet season of 1998. The results for the first sampling period showed relatively high concentrations of zinc (0.22 mg.L-1 in the upper portion of the reservoir. The highest values of nickel and chromium (0.19 and 0.89 mg.L-1, respectively were found in the initial portion of the Sarandi Stream, while the highest concentrations of lead (0.05 mg.L-1, cadmium (0.014 mg.L-1, manganese (0.43 mg.L-1 and iron (15.25 mg.L-1 were detected in the Ressaca Stream by the landfill dump of Belo Horizonte. A relatively high concentration of cadmium was also detected at the confluence of the two streams. During the second sampling period, there was an increase in the concentrations of zinc at all sampling sites except the control, with values varying from 0.71 mg.L-1 (the Sarandi Stream to 2.50 mg.L-1 (the Ressaca Stream. Lead, cadmium, nickel and chromium concentrations were also higher in the Ressaca Stream, but not detected at the other sampling sites. Copper values were higher than in the first period: 0.10 mg.L-1 at the control up to 0.38 mg.L-1 at the confluence of the streams. Similar results were found for manganese and iron, with values reaching up to 19.30 and 125 mg.L-1, respectively. Moreover, all values recorded in the second sampling period were much higher than recommended for class 2 waters. These results emphasize the need for such monitoring in relation to better water quality management of this reservoir.

  8. Heavy metals in tributaries of Pampulha Reservoir, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RIETZLER A. C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A great amount of heavy metals enter Pampulha Reservoir via it's main tributaries (Sarandi and Ressaca. Although no water quality classification has been carried out for these tributaries, the reservoir is expected to be in class 2 of the CONAMA-86 system. As part of a monitoring scheme of the Pampulha Watershed, heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Cr, Mn and Fe were investigated in the water at a control site (considered free from direct human influence and at potential sites of toxicity and contamination during August (dry season and November (wet season of 1998. The results for the first sampling period showed relatively high concentrations of zinc (0.22 mg.L-1 in the upper portion of the reservoir. The highest values of nickel and chromium (0.19 and 0.89 mg.L-1, respectively were found in the initial portion of the Sarandi Stream, while the highest concentrations of lead (0.05 mg.L-1, cadmium (0.014 mg.L-1, manganese (0.43 mg.L-1 and iron (15.25 mg.L-1 were detected in the Ressaca Stream by the landfill dump of Belo Horizonte. A relatively high concentration of cadmium was also detected at the confluence of the two streams. During the second sampling period, there was an increase in the concentrations of zinc at all sampling sites except the control, with values varying from 0.71 mg.L-1 (the Sarandi Stream to 2.50 mg.L-1 (the Ressaca Stream. Lead, cadmium, nickel and chromium concentrations were also higher in the Ressaca Stream, but not detected at the other sampling sites. Copper values were higher than in the first period: 0.10 mg.L-1 at the control up to 0.38 mg.L-1 at the confluence of the streams. Similar results were found for manganese and iron, with values reaching up to 19.30 and 125 mg.L-1, respectively. Moreover, all values recorded in the second sampling period were much higher than recommended for class 2 waters. These results emphasize the need for such monitoring in relation to better water quality management of this reservoir.

  9. The relationship between young brown trout density and water quality in tributary streams to lakes in three acidic watersheds; Effekter av vannkvalitet og habitat paa tettheten av aureunger i tilloepsbekker til innsjoeer i tre forsuringsomraader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesthagen, Trygve; Larsen, Bjoern M.; Berger, Hans M.; Forseth, Torbjoern

    1998-09-01

    This publication examines the relationship between young brown trout densities in lake tributaries, and water chemistry and habitat variables. The study was carried out during the autumn in three acidic, freshwater river systems in western and southwestern Norway. The variability in brown trout density in the three watersheds in relation to varying concentrations of calcium and inorganic Al, were investigated. Water chemistry variables seem to limit the density. 38 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Resolving the variability of CDOM fluorescence to differentiate the sources and fate of DOM in Lake Taihu and its tributaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xin; Zhang, Yunlin; Zhu, Guangwei; Qin, Boqiang; Feng, Longqing; Cai, Linlin; Gao, Guang

    2011-01-01

    Taihu Basin is the most developed area in China, which economic development has resulted in pollutants being produced and discharged into rivers and the lake. Lake Taihu is located in the center of the basin, which is characterized by a complex network of rivers and channels. To assess the sources and fate of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in surface waters, we determined the components and abundance of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) within Lake Taihu and 66 of its tributaries, and 22 sites along transects from two main rivers. In Lake Taihu, there was a relative less spatial variation in CDOM absorption a(CDOM)(355) with a mean of 2.46 ± 0.69 m⁻¹ compared to the mean of 3.36 ± 1.77 m⁻¹ in the rivers. Two autochthonous tryptophan-like components (C1 and C5), two humic-like components (C2 and C3), and one autochthonous tyrosine-like component (C4) were identified using the parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) model. The C2 and C3 had a direct relationship with a(CDOM)(355), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The separation of lake samples from river samples, on both axes of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA), showed the difference in DOM fluorophores between these various environments. Components C1 and C5 concurrently showed positive factor 1 loadings, while C4 was close to the negative factor 1 axis. Components C2 and C3 showed positive second factor loadings. The major contribution of autochthonous tryptophan-like components to lake samples is due to the autochthonous production of CDOM in the lake ecosystems. The results also showed that the differences in geology and associated land use control CDOM dynamics, such as the high levels of CDOM with terrestrial characteristics in the northwestern upstream rivers and low levels of CDOM with increased microbial characteristics in the southwestern upstream rivers. Most of river samples from the downstream regions in the eastern and southeastern plains had a

  11. 76 FR 16715 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Raritan River, Arthur Kill and Their Tributaries, Staten Island...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... by allowing the bridge to be operated from a remote location while continuing to meet the present and... questions on viewing or submitting material to the docket, call Renee V. Wright, Program Manager, Docket... rule based on your comments. Viewing Comments and Documents To view comments, as well as documents...

  12. Contaminants Of Emerging Concern Within The Ohio River And Its Tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contaminants of emerging concern such as PPCPs, alkylphenols, EDCs, and PFCs in waterways have been increasing public concern. The extent and persistence of their occurrence in surface waters remains unclear. Though ther are many sources of these contaminants, research has focu...

  13. Contaminants Of Emerging Concern Within The Mainstem Of The Ohio River And its Tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contaminants of emerging concern such as PPCPs, alkylphenols, EDCs, and PFCs in waterways have been of increasing public concern. The extent and persistence of their occurrence in surface waters remains unclear. Though there are many sources of these contaminants, research has ...

  14. Hydraulic Analyses and Results for the Agua Fria River and Tributaries, Yavapai County, AZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  15. DCS HYDROLOGY SUBMISSION FOR AGUA FRIA RIVER AND TRIBUTARIES, YAVAPAI COUNTY, ARIZONA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  16. Attributes of Yellowstone cutthroat trout redds in a tributary of the Snake River, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell F. Thurow; John G. King

    1994-01-01

    We characterized spawning sites of Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki bouvieri, described the microhabitat of completed redds, and tested the influence of habitat conditions on the morphology of completed redds in Pine Creek, Idaho. Cutthroat trout spawned in June as flows subsided after peak stream discharge. During spawning, minimum and maximum water...

  17. Desmidias (zygnemaphyceae) of a small tributary of the Amazons River in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez Avellaneda, Marcela; Duque, Santiago

    2000-01-01

    This is a contribution to the knowledge of the freshwater algae of the Colombian Amazon region. Two of the 13 taxa are reported for the first time from Colombia and 10 are new records for the Colombian Amazon. Ecological characteristics are given for these desmids

  18. H08649: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Pascagoula River and Tributaries, Mississippi, 1962-05-24

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  19. Ecological Survey Data for Environmental Considerations on the Trinity River and Tributaries, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-07-01

    cardinalis Carolina clover Trifolium carolinianum Michx. Carolina geranium Geranium carolinianum L. Carolina horse- nettle Solanum carolinense L. Carolina...MiI~y~ic~zuhl. 1 .,Ats-bekir cagillitIs (L.) Wali. Eh!iteai gitle Urticn chamaedryoides Pursh Heartleaf nettle Urtica chamaedryoides var. Runyonli...the bridge on Interstate Highway 10, contained only two insecticides , Lindane (0.2 micrograms per kilogram of sediment) and Chlordane (less than 1.0

  20. Vulnerability of Hidropower Generation in Amazon's Tributaries Under Global Change Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Randow, R.; Siqueira, J. L., Jr.; Rodriguez, D. A.; Tomasella, J.; Floriano, L. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Brazilian energy sector is under continued expansion. The majority of energy power generation in the country is done through hydropower, which represents around 88% of the energy originated from renewable sources in the country. Still, only 10% of the high potential for production of the Amazon basin is currently availed, and this raises attention for the implantation of new hydropower plants in the region. When a hydropower plant is considered to be built, the natural characteristics of the region are taken into account, considering that the rainfall regime follows certain stationarity. However, under the possibility of global change, the expected capacity of the plants may be compromised. The objective of this study is to evaluate if the current hydropower plants of some Amazon River tributaries can maintain their functionality under global environmental change conditions. For that, based on the discharge data and hydropower information available by Brazilian National Agency of Water and Energy we will infer the energy potential of these hydropower dams for the historic period that will be compared with the energy potential for future discharge under global environmental change conditions. The future discharge will be generated by the Distributed Hydrological Model developed at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (MHD-INPE), driven by different climate change scenarios projected by regional and global atmospheric models, associated with land use scenarios projected by a dynamic land use model (LUCC-ME/INPE). MHD-INPE will be calibrated through observed discharges for 1970-1990 using current land use conditions, and will generate discharges for the period of 2000 to 2050. In addition, special attention will be given to the presence of secondary forest growth in the land use scenarios in order to identify the importance of considering this use in the modelling exercise, since that use is not usually considered in hydrological modelling studies.

  1. Abundance, Distribution and Estimated Consumption (kg fish) of Piscivorous Birds Along the Yakima River, Washington State; Implications for Fisheries Management, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, III, Walter; Grassley, James M.; Ryding, Kristen E. (University of Washington, Quantitive Ecology Program, Seattle, WA)

    2003-05-01

    This report is divided into two chapters. The abstract for chapter one is--Understanding of the abundance and spatial and temporal distributions of piscivorous birds and their potential consumption of fish is an increasingly important aspect of fisheries management. During 1999-2002, we determined the abundance and distribution and estimated the maximum consumption (kg biomass) of fish-eating birds along the length of the Yakima River in Washington State. Sixteen different species were observed during the 4-yr study, but only half of those were observed during all years. Abundance and estimated consumption of fish within the upper and middle sections of the river were dominated by common mergansers (Mergus merganser) which are known to breed in those reaches. Common mergansers accounted for 78 to 94% of the estimated total fish take for the upper river or approximately 28,383 {+-} 1,041 kg over the 4 yrs. A greater diversity of avian piscivores occurred in the lower river and potential impacts to fish populations was more evenly distributed among the species. In 1999-2000, great blue herons potentially accounted for 29 and 36% of the fish consumed, whereas in 2001-2002 American white pelicans accounted for 53 and 55%. We estimated that approximately 75,878 {+-} 6,616 kg of fish were consumed by piscivorous birds in the lower sections of the river during the study. Bird assemblages differed spatially along the river with a greater abundance of colonial nesting species within the lower sections of the river, especially during spring and the nesting season. The abundance of avian piscivores and consumption estimates are discussed within the context of salmonid supplementation efforts on the river and juvenile out-migration. The abstract for chapter two is--Consumption of fish by piscivorous birds may be a significant constraint on efforts to enhance salmonid populations within tributaries to the Columbia River in Washington State. During 1999-2002, we determined the

  2. Interlinking feasibility of five river basins of Rajasthan in India

    OpenAIRE

    Vyas, Sunil Kumar; Sharma, Gunwant; Mathur, Y.P.; Chandwani, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    The increasing population and large scale growth with the development of modern science and technology has indicated very high stress on water sector in Rajasthan in India. Availability of water and uniformity of rainfall distribution is changing day by day due to shifting of monsoon in Rajasthan. The spatial and temporal variations in the rainfall in different river basins in Rajasthan are drastic due to which flood situation arises in the tributaries of Chambal river basin every year. Simul...

  3. A History of Pebbles and Silt – Fluvial Sediment Transport, Hydropower and Technical Expertise at the Austrian Danube and its Tributaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schoder Angelika

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates experts’ perceptions of hydropower, sediment regime, and their interaction in the 20th century with an environmental historical approach, based on various case studies at both the Danube River and one of its tributaries, and on a review of contemporary literature authored by engineers. Results show that questions of sediment continuity have engaged planners of hydropower plants since the advent of this technology, and decisions were at any time influenced by multiple interests (navigation, electricity demand, nature conservation. In such an intricate fluvial landscape, phenomena like reservoir sedimentation and riverbed incision can be approached as “legacies” of past technical interventions, which limit the options of current and future river management.

  4. Water mass interaction in the confluence zone of the Daning River and the Yangtze River--a driving force for algal growth in the Three Gorges Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbach, Andreas; Wang, Lijing; Chen, Hao; Hu, Wei; Schleicher, Nina; Zheng, Binghui; Norra, Stefan

    2013-10-01

    Increasing eutrophication and algal bloom events in the Yangtze River Three Gorges Reservoir, China, are widely discussed with regard to changed hydrodynamics and nutrient transport and distribution processes. Insights into water exchange and interaction processes between water masses related to large-scale water level fluctuations in the reservoir are crucial to understand water quality and eutrophication dynamics. Therefore, confluence zones of tributaries with the Yangtze River main stream are dedicated key interfaces. In this study, water quality data were recorded in situ and on-line in varying depths with the MINIBAT towed underwater multi-sensor system in the confluence zone of the Daning River and the Yangtze River close to Wushan City during 1 week in August 2011. Geostatistical evaluation of the water quality data was performed, and results were compared to phosphorus contents of selective water samples. The strongly rising water level throughout the measurement period caused Yangtze River water masses to flow upstream into the tributary and supply their higher nutrient and particulate loads into the tributary water body. Rapid algal growth and sedimentation occurred immediately when hydrodynamic conditions in the confluence zone became more serene again. Consequently, water from the Yangtze River main stream can play a key role in providing nutrients to the algal bloom stricken water bodies of its tributaries.

  5. Macroinvertebrate and organic matter export from headwater tributaries of a Central Appalachian stream

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset contains physicochemical and biological data from 12 headwater tributaries of Clemons Fork in Robinson Forest, KY. This dataset is associated with the...

  6. Amazon River investigations, reconnaissance measurements of July 1963

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltman, Roy Edwin; Sternberg, H. O'R.; Ames, F.C.; Davis, L.C.

    1964-01-01

    The first measurements of the flow of the Amazon River were made in July 1963 as a joint project of the University of Brazil, the Brazilian Navy, and the U.S. Geological Survey. The discharge of the Amazon River at Obidos was 7,640,000 cfs at an annual flood stage somewhat lower than the average. For comparison the maximum known discharge of the Mississippi River at Vicksburg is about 2,300,000 cfs. Dissolved-solids concentrations and sediment loads of the Amazon River and of several major tributaries were found to be low.

  7. Organic carbon source and salinity shape sediment bacterial composition in two China marginal seas and their major tributaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Zou, Li; Lu, Xinxin; Mou, Xiaozhen

    2018-08-15

    Marginal sea sediments receive organic substrates of different origins, but whether and to what extent sediment microbial communities are reflective of the different sources of organic substrates remain unclear. To address these questions, sediment samples were collected in two connected China marginal seas, i.e., Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea, and their two major tributaries (Yellow River and Liao River). Sediment bacterial community composition (BCC) was examined using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. In addition, physicochemical variables that describe environmental conditions and sediment features were measured. Our results revealed that BCCs changed with salinity and organic carbon (OC) content. Members of Gaiellaceae and Comamonadaceae showed a rapid decrease as salinity and phytoplankton-derived OC increased, while Piscirickettsiaceae and Desulfobulbaceae exhibited an opposite distribution pattern. Differences of riverine vs. marginal sea sediment BCCs could be mostly explained by salinity. However, within the marginal seas, sediment BCC variations were mainly explained by OC-related variables, including terrestrial-derived fatty acids (Terr_FA), phytoplankton-derived polyunsaturated fatty acids (Phyto_PUFA), stable carbon isotopes (δ 13 C), and carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N). In addition to environmental variables, network analysis suggested that interactions among individual bacterial taxa might be important in shaping sediment BCCs in the studied areas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Agricultural Rivers at Risk: Dredging Results in a Loss of Macroinvertebrates. Preliminary Observations from the Narew Catchment, Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Mateusz Grygoruk; Magdalena Frąk; Aron Chmielewski

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem deterioration in small lowland agricultural rivers that results from river dredging entails a significant threat to the appropriate ecohydrological conditions of these water bodies, expressed as homogenization of habitats and loss of biodiversity. Our study was aimed at a comparison of abundance and taxonomic structure of bottom-dwelling macroinvertebrates in dredged and non-dredged stretches of small lowland rivers and tributaries of the middle Narew River, namely: Czaplinianka, Tu...

  9. Centurial Changes in the Depth Conditions of a Regulated River: Case Study of the Lower Tisza River, Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Amissah Gabriel Jonathan; Kiss Timea; Fiala Károly

    2017-01-01

    The Tisza River is the largest tributary of the Danube in Central Europe, and has been subjected to various human interventions including cutoffs to increase the slope, construction of levees to restrict the floodplain, and construction of groynes and revetments to stabilize the channel. These interventions have altered the natural morphological evolution of the river. The aim of the study is to assess the impacts of these engineering works, employing hydrological surveys of 36 cross sections...

  10. Hydrogeochemical characteristics of the River Idrijca (Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjaša Kanduč

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The hydrogeochemical and isotope characteristics of the River Idrijca, Slovenia, where the world’s second largest mercury (Hg mine is located, were investigated. The River Idrijca, a typical steep mountain river has an HCO3- - Ca2+ - Mg2+ chemical composition. Its Ca2+/Mg2+ molar ratio indicates that dolomite weathering prevails in the watershed. The River Idrijca and its tributaries are over saturated with respect to calcite and dolomite. The pCO2 pressure is up to 13 times over atmospheric pressure and represents a source of CO2 to the atmosphere. δ18O values in river water indicate primary control from precipitation and enrichment of the heavy oxygen isotope of infiltrating water recharging the River Idrijca from its slopes.The δ13 CDIC values range from −10.8 to −6.6 ‰ and are controlled by biogeochemical processes in terrestrial environments and in the stream: 1 exchange with atmospheric CO2, 2 degradation of organic matter, 3 dissolution of carbonates, and 4 tributaries. The contributions of these inputs were calculated according to steady state equations and are estimated to be -11 %: 19 %: 31 %: 61 % in the autumn and 0 %: 6 %: 9 %: 35 % in the spring sampling seasons.

  11. Areal distribution and concentration of contaminants of concern in surficial streambed and lakebed sediments, Lake St. Clair and tributaries, Michigan, 1990-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachol, Cynthia M.; Button, Daniel T.

    2006-01-01

    As part of the Lake St. Clair Regional Monitoring Project, the U.S. Geological Survey evaluated data collected from surficial streambed and lakebed sediments in the Lake Erie-Lake St. Clair drainages. This study incorporates data collected from 1990 through 2003 and focuses primarily on the U.S. part of the Lake St. Clair Basin, including Lake St. Clair, the St. Clair River, and tributaries to Lake St. Clair. Comparable data from the Canadian part of the study area are included where available. The data are compiled into 4 chemical classes and consist of 21 compounds. The data are compared to effects-based sediment-quality guidelines, where the Threshold Effect Level and Lowest Effect Level represent concentrations below which adverse effects on biota are not expected and the Probable Effect Level and Severe Effect Level represent concentrations above which adverse effects on biota are expected to be frequent.Maps in the report show the spatial distribution of the sampling locations and illustrate the concentrations relative to the selected sediment-quality guidelines. These maps indicate that sediment samples from certain areas routinely had contaminant concentrations greater than the Threshold Effect Concentration or Lowest Effect Level. These locations are the upper reach of the St. Clair River, the main stem and mouth of the Clinton River, Big Beaver Creek, Red Run, and Paint Creek. Maps also indicated areas that routinely contained sediment contaminant concentrations that were greater than the Probable Effect Concentration or Severe Effect Level. These locations include the upper reach of the St. Clair River, the main stem and mouth of the Clinton River, Red Run, within direct tributaries along Lake St. Clair and in marinas within the lake, and within the Clinton River headwaters in Oakland County.Although most samples collected within Lake St. Clair were from sites adjacent to the mouths of its tributaries, samples analyzed for trace-element concentrations

  12. Effects of Water Diversion from Yangtze River to Lake Taihu on the Phytoplankton Habitat of the Wangyu River Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangyu Dai

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available To reveal the effects of water diversion from the Yangtze River to Lake Taihu on the phytoplankton habitat of the main water transfer channel of the Wangyu River, we investigated the water’s physicochemical parameters and phytoplankton communities during the water diversion and non-diversion periods over the winters between 2014–2016, respectively. During the water diversion periods in the winter of 2014 and 2015, the nutrients and organic pollutant contents of the Wangyu River channel were significantly lower than those during the non-diversion period in 2016. Moreover, the phytoplankton diversities and relative proportions of Bacillariophyta during the diversion periods evidently increased during the water diversion periods in winter. The increase in the water turbidity content, the decrease in the contents of the permanganate index, and the total phosphorus explained only 21.4% of the variations in the phytoplankton communities between the diversion and non-diversion periods in winter, which revealed significant contributions of the allochthonous species from the Yangtze River and tributaries of the Wangyu River to phytoplankton communities in the Wangyu River. The increasing gradient in the contents of nutrients and organic pollutants from the Yangtze River to Lake Taihu indicated the potential allochthonous pollutant inputs along with the Wangyu River. Further controlling the pollutants from the tributaries of the Wangyu River is critical in order to improve the phytoplankton habitats in river channels and Lake Taihu.

  13. Concentrations and loads of nutrients in the tributaries of the Lake Okeechobee watershed, south-central Florida, water years 2004-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Michael J.; Wood, Molly S.

    2011-01-01

    Lake Okeechobee in south-central Florida is the second largest freshwater lake in the contiguous United States. Excessive phosphorus loading, harmful high and low water levels, and rapid expansion of non-native vegetation have threatened the health of the lake in recent decades. A study was conducted to monitor discharge and nutrient concentrations from selected tributaries into Lake Okeechobee and to evaluate nutrient loads. The data analysis was performed at 16 monitoring stations from December 2003 to September 2008. Annual and seasonal discharge measured at monitoring stations is affected by rainfall. Hurricanes affected three wet years (2004, 2005, and the latter part of 2008) and resulted in substantially greater discharge than the drought years of 2006, 2007, and the early part of 2008. Rainfall supplies about 50 percent of the water to Lake Okeechobee, discharge from the Kissimmee River supplies about 25 percent, and discharge from tributaries and groundwater seepage along the lake perimeter collectively provide the remaining 25 percent. Annually, tributary discharge from basins located on the west side of the Kissimmee River is about 5 to 6 times greater than that from basins located on the east side. For the purposes of this study, the basins on the east side of the Kissimmee River are called "priority basins" because of elevated phosphorus concentrations, while those on the west side are called "nonpriority" basins. Total annual discharge in the non-priority basins ranged from 245,000 acre-feet (acre-ft) in 2007 to 1,322,000 acre-ft in 2005, while annual discharge from the priority basins ranged from 41,000 acre-ft in 2007 to 219,000 acre-ft in 2005. Mean total phosphorus concentrations ranged from 0.10 to 0.54 milligrams per liter (mg/L) at the 16 tributaries during 2004–2008. Mean concentrations were significantly higher at priority basin sites than at non-priority basin sites, particularly at Arbuckle Creek and C 41A Canal. Concentrations of organic

  14. Compilation of watershed models for tributaries to the Great Lakes, United States, as of 2010, and identification of watersheds for future modeling for the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, William F.; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Soong, David T.; Sharpe, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) during 2009–10, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) compiled a list of existing watershed models that had been created for tributaries within the United States that drain to the Great Lakes. Established Federal programs that are overseen by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) are responsible for most of the existing watershed models for specific tributaries. The NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL) uses the Large Basin Runoff Model to provide data for the management of water levels in the Great Lakes by estimating United States and Canadian inflows to the Great Lakes from 121 large watersheds. GLERL also simulates streamflows in 34 U.S. watersheds by a grid-based model, the Distributed Large Basin Runoff Model. The NOAA National Weather Service uses the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting model to predict flows at river forecast sites. The USACE created or funded the creation of models for at least 30 tributaries to the Great Lakes to better understand sediment erosion, transport, and aggradation processes that affect Federal navigation channels and harbors. Many of the USACE hydrologic models have been coupled with hydrodynamic and sediment-transport models that simulate the processes in the stream and harbor near the mouth of the modeled tributary. Some models either have been applied or have the capability of being applied across the entire Great Lakes Basin; they are (1) the SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model, which was developed by the USGS; (2) the High Impact Targeting (HIT) and Digital Watershed models, which were developed by the Institute of Water Research at Michigan State University; (3) the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment (L–THIA) model, which was developed by researchers at Purdue University; and (4) the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model, which was

  15. Potential Effects of Dams on Migratory Fish in the Mekong River: Lessons from Salmon in the Fraser and Columbia Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, John W.; Healey, Michael; Dugan, Patrick; Barlow, Chris

    2011-01-01

    We compared the effects of water resource development on migratory fish in two North American rivers using a descriptive approach based on four high-level indicators: (1) trends in abundance of Pacific salmon, (2) reliance on artificial production to maintain fisheries, (3) proportion of adult salmon that are wild- versus hatchery-origin, and (4) number of salmon populations needing federal protection to avoid extinction. The two rivers had similar biological and physical features but radically different levels of water resource development: the Fraser River has few dams and all are located in tributaries, whereas the Columbia River has more than 130 large mainstem and tributary dams. Not surprisingly, we found substantial effects of development on salmon in the Columbia River. We related the results to potential effects on migratory fish in the Mekong River where nearly 200 mainstem and tributary dams are installed, under construction, or planned and could have profound effects on its 135 migratory fish species. Impacts will vary with dam location due to differential fish production within the basin, with overall effects likely being greatest from 11 proposed mainstem dams. Minimizing impacts will require decades to design specialized fish passage facilities, dam operations, and artificial production, and is complicated by the Mekong's high diversity and productivity. Prompt action is needed by governments and fisheries managers to plan Mekong water resource development wisely to prevent impacts to the world's most productive inland fisheries, and food security and employment opportunities for millions of people in the region.

  16. Trading-off fish biodiversity, food security, and hydropower in the Mekong River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Guy; Baran, Eric; Nam, So; Rodríguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Levin, Simon A

    2012-04-10

    The Mekong River Basin, site of the biggest inland fishery in the world, is undergoing massive hydropower development. Planned dams will block critical fish migration routes between the river's downstream floodplains and upstream tributaries. Here we estimate fish biomass and biodiversity losses in numerous damming scenarios using a simple ecological model of fish migration. Our framework allows detailing trade-offs between dam locations, power production, and impacts on fish resources. We find that the completion of 78 dams on tributaries, which have not previously been subject to strategic analysis, would have catastrophic impacts on fish productivity and biodiversity. Our results argue for reassessment of several dams planned, and call for a new regional agreement on tributary development of the Mekong River Basin.

  17. SILTATION AND EROSION PROCESSES ON A TRIBUTARY OF LAKE ITAIPU DUE A DAM RESERVOIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Poleto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It is known that sediments in the river have their origin from different sources. Therefore, the proportion that each source contributes to the mix varies over time and space, as a result of erosion processes that are ongoing in the basin of contribution. Within this context, both in human actions in urban and rural watersheds generate different rates of sediment production, but mainly with different characteristics or quality. Thus, the fluvial sedimentology should have a broad character within the study area and check all the possible influences of land use and soil. Hydrosedimentological processes are complex and include a disaggregation ("erosion" in the strict definition, transport, sedimentation, consolidation of sediments. Therefore, it is necessary more detailed studies of sediments and their interactions with the environment, considering it as a topic of interest to economic, social and ecological needs of a sustainable management, where they articulate an understanding of the physical and chemical properties of sediments with ecological and hydrological information of the water bodies receiver on a regional scale and thus evaluate the possible scenarios of pollution of water resources. This information will support in decision-making processes for managing the watershed and its water resources. Therefore, this project aims to determine the interference that a hydroelectric plant, together with the lack of proper management of the basin, can cause to the river morphology. The research is conducting a survey of sensitive areas to erode and the influence of a newly installed hydropower in a tributary of Lake Itaipu. Could notice that the removal of riparian vegetation is accelerating the erosion processes at various points of the river, but the agriculture system used in the rural area, without revolving of soil, has reduced the sediment load produced by this source. However, the retention of much of the coarse sediments by the new dam is

  18. The Caloosahatchee River Estuary: a monitoring partnership between Federal, State, and local governments, 2007-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The tidal Caloosahatchee River and downstream estuaries have substantial environmental, recreational, and economic value for southwest Florida residents and visitors. Modifications to the Caloosahatchee River watershed have altered the predevelopment hydrology, thereby threatening the environmental health of estuaries in the area. Hydrologic monitoring of the freshwater contributions from tributaries to the tidal Caloosahatchee River and its estuaries is necessary to adequately describe the total freshwater inflow and constituent loads to the delicate estuarine system.

  19. 33 CFR 207.300 - Ohio River, Mississippi River above Cairo, Ill., and their tributaries; use, administration, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... one but employees of the United States shall move any lock machinery except as directed by the... Lock 2, near Buchanan, Ky. Operation of Lock 2 and Lock 3 near Fort Gay, W. Va. has been discontinued...

  20. Nekton community structure varies in response to coastal urbanization near mangrove tidal tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Justin M.; McIvor, Carole C.; Bell, Susan S.

    2014-01-01

    To assess the potential influence of coastal development on estuarine-habitat quality, we characterized land use and the intensity of land development surrounding small tidal tributaries in Tampa Bay. Based on this characterization, we classified tributaries as undeveloped, industrial, urban, or man-made (i.e., mosquito-control ditches). Over one third (37 %) of the tributaries have been heavily developed based on landscape development intensity (LDI) index values >5.0, while fewer than one third (28 %) remain relatively undeveloped (LDI < 3.0). We then examined the nekton community from 11 tributaries in watersheds representing the four defined land-use classes. Whereas mean nekton density was independent of land use, species richness and nekton-community structure were significantly different between urban and non-urban (i.e., undeveloped, industrial, man-made) tributaries. In urban creeks, the community was species-poor and dominated by high densities of poeciliid fishes, Poecilia latipinna and Gambusia holbrooki, while typically dominant estuarine taxa including Menidia spp., Fundulus grandis, and Adinia xenica were in low abundance and palaemonid grass shrimp were nearly absent. Densities of economically important taxa in urban creeks were only half that observed in five of the six undeveloped or industrial creeks, but were similar to those observed in mosquito ditches suggesting that habitat quality in urban and mosquito-ditch tributaries is suboptimal compared to undeveloped tidal creeks. Furthermore, five of nine common taxa were rarely collected in urban creeks. Our results suggest that urban development in coastal areas has the potential to alter the quality of habitat for nekton in small tidal tributaries as reflected by variation in the nekton community.

  1. Hydrological and sedimentary analysis of two recent flash floods in a Mediterranean basin with major changes in land uses and channel shape (Sió River, NE Iberian Peninsula)

    OpenAIRE

    Balasch Solanes, Josep Carles; García-Rodríguez, David; Tuset Mestre, Jordi; Ruiz Bellet, Josep Lluís; Rodríguez-Ochoa, Rafael; Jacquet, Eisharc; Barriendos Valve, Mariano; Castelltort Aiguabella, Xavier; Pino González, David

    2017-01-01

    Two important rain events occurred in November 2015 and November 2016 in the Sió River basin (150 km2), a small tributary of the Segre River, within the Ebro River basin (NE Iberian Peninsula), caused two considerable flash floods. Peer Reviewed

  2. Application of a calibrated/validated Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender model to assess sediment and nutrient delivery from the Wildcat Creek Mississippi River Basin Initiative – Cooperative Conservation Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Wildcat Creek, a tributary to the Wabash River was identified by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) as a priority watershed for its high sediment and nutrient loading contributions to the Mississippi River. As part of the Mississippi River Basin Initiative (MRBI), the incorpo...

  3. Radiocesium dynamics in the Hirose River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, T.; Taniguchi, K.; Arai, H.; Onuma, S.; Onishi, Y.

    2017-12-01

    A significant amount of radiocesium was deposited in Fukushima Prefecture during the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. In river systems, radiocesium is transported to downstream in rivers. For the safe use of river and its water, it is needed to clarify the dynamics of radiocesium in river systems. We started the monitoring of the Hirose River from December 2015. The Hirose River is a tributary of the Abukuma River flowing into the Pacific Ocean, and its catchment is close to areas where a large amount of radiocesium was deposited. We set up nine monitoring points in the Hirose River watershed. The Water level and turbidity data are continuously observed at each monitoring point. We regularly collected about 100 liters of water at each monitoring point. Radiocesium in water samples was separated into two forms; the one is the dissolved form, and the other is the suspended particulate form. Radionuclide concentrations of radiocesium in both forms were measured by a germanium semiconductor detector. Furthermore, we applied the TODAM (Time-dependent One-dimensional Degradation And Migration) code to the Hirose River basin using the monitoring data. The objectives of the modeling are to understand a redistribution pattern of radiocesium adsorbed by sediments during flooding events and to determine the amount of radiocesium flux into the Abukuma River.

  4. Pen Branch Delta and Savannah River Swamp Hydraulic Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.F.

    1999-01-01

    The proposed Savannah River Site (SRS) Wetlands Restoration Project area is located in Barnwell County, South Carolina on the southwestern boundary of the SRS Reservation. The swamp covers about 40.5 km2 and is bounded to the west and south by the Savannah River and to the north and east by low bluffs at the edge of the Savannah River floodplain. Water levels within the swamp are determined by stage along the Savannah River, local drainage, groundwater seepage, and inflows from four tributaries, Beaver Dam Creek, Fourmile Branch, Pen Branch, and Steel Creek. Historic discharges of heated process water into these tributaries scoured the streambed, created deltas in the adjacent wetland, and killed native vegetation in the vicinity of the delta deposits. Future releases from these tributaries will be substantially smaller and closer to ambient temperatures. One component of the proposed restoration project will be to reestablish indigenous wetland vegetation on the Pen Branch delta that covers about 1.0 km2. Long-term predictions of water levels within the swamp are required to determine the characteristics of suitable plants. The objective of the study was to predict water levels at various locations within the proposed SRS Wetlands Restoration Project area for a range of Savannah River flows and regulated releases from Pen Branch. TABS-MD, a United States Army Corps of Engineer developed two-dimensional finite element open channel hydraulic computer code, was used to model the SRS swamp area for various flow conditions

  5. Flow Patterns in an Open Channel Confluence with Increasingly Dominant Tributary Inflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Schindfessel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the ratio of incoming discharges being recognized as a key parameter in open-channel confluence hydrodynamics, little is known about the flow patterns when the tributary provides more than 90% of the total discharge. This paper offers a systematic study of flow features when the tributary becomes increasingly dominant in a 90° confluence with a fixed concordant bed. Large-eddy simulations are used to investigate the three-dimensional complex flow patterns for three different discharge ratios. It is found that the tributary flow impinges on the opposing bank when the tributary flow becomes sufficiently dominant, causing a recirculating eddy in the upstream channel of the confluence, which induces significant changes in the incoming velocity distribution. Moreover, it results in stronger helicoidal cells in the downstream channel, along with zones of upwelling flow. In turn, the changed flow patterns also influence the mixing layer and the flow recovery. Finally, intermittent events of stronger upwelling flow are discerned. Improved understanding of flow patterns at confluences where the tributary is dominant is applicable to both engineering and earth sciences.

  6. Mixing as a driver of temporal variations in river hydrochemistry: 1. Insights from conservative tracers in the Andes-Amazon transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Mark A.; Baronas, J. Jotautas; Clark, Kathryn E.; Feakins, Sarah J.; West, A. Joshua

    2017-04-01

    The response of hillslope processes to changes in precipitation may drive the observed changes in the solute geochemistry of rivers with discharge. This conjecture is most robust when variations in the key environmental factors that affect hillslope processes (e.g., lithology, erosion rate, and climate) are minimal across a river's catchment area. For rivers with heterogenous catchments, temporal variations in the relative contributions of different tributary subcatchments may modulate variations in solute geochemistry with runoff. In the absence of a dense network of hydrologic gauging stations, alternative approaches are required to distinguish between the different drivers of temporal variability in river solute concentrations. In this contribution, we apportion the water and solute fluxes of a reach of the Madre de Dios River (Peru) between its four major tributary subcatchments during two sampling campaigns (wet and dry seasons) using spatial variations in conservative tracers. Guided by the results of a mixing model, we identify temporal variations in solute concentrations of the main stem Madre de Dios that are due to changes in the relative contributions of each tributary. Our results suggest that variations in tributary mixing are, in part, responsible for the observed concentration-discharge (C-Q) relationships. The implications of these results are further explored by reanalyzing previously published C-Q data from this region, developing a theoretical model of tributary mixing, and, in a companion paper, comparing the C-Q behavior of a suite of major and trace elements in the Madre de Dios River system.

  7. Importance of tributary streams for rainbow trout reproduction: insights from a small stream in Georgia and a bi-genomic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D.; Lack, Justin B.; Van Den Bussche, Ronald A.; Long, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Tributaries of tailwater fisheries in the southeastern USA have been used for spawning by stocked rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), but their importance may have been underestimated using traditional fish survey methods such as electrofishing and redd counts. We used a bi-genomic approach, mitochondrial DNA sequences and nuclear microsatellite loci, to estimate the number of spawning adults in one small tributary (Cabin Creek) of the Chattahoochee River, Georgia, where rainbow trout are known to spawn and have successful recruitment. We extracted and analysed DNA from seven mature male rainbow trout and four juveniles that were captured in February 2006 in Cabin Creek and from 24 young-of-year (YOY) trout that were captured in April 2006. From these samples, we estimated that 24 individuals were spawning to produce the amount of genetic variation observed in the juveniles and YOY, although none of the mature males we sampled were indicated as sires. Analysis of the mitochondrial D-loop region identified four distinct haplotypes, suggesting that individuals representing four maternal lineages contributed to the offspring. Our analyses indicated that many more adults were spawning in this system than previously estimated with direct count methods and provided insight into rainbow trout spawning behavior.

  8. Spatio-Temporal Variations of the Stable H-O Isotopes and Characterization of Mixing Processes between the Mainstream and Tributary of the Three Gorges Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Jiang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the runoff characteristics and interaction processes between the mainstream and its tributaries are an essential issue in watershed and water management. In this paper, hydrogen (δD and oxygen (δ18O isotope techniques were used in the mainstream and Zhuyi Bay (ZYB of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR during the wet and dry seasons in 2015. It revealed that (1 Precipitation was the main source of stream flow compared to the TGR water line with meteoric water line of the Yangtse River basin; (2 The δD and δ18O values exhibited a ‘toward lighter-heavier’ trend along mainstream due to the continuous evaporation effect in the runoff direction, and the fluctuations reflected incoming water from the nearest tributaries. The general trend of d-excess increased with increasing distance from the Three Gorges Dam, which indicated that kinetic fractionation was an important process affecting the isotopic composition. The enrichment effect of isotopes was found in the downstream of TGR; (3 Water mass from the TGR mainstream flowed backward to the confluence zone of ZYB via the middle and bottom layers in the dry season, whereas in the wet season, water reversed through the upper-middle layers due to thermal density flows. This study described and demonstrated that the water cycle of TGR was driven by natural environmental variability and operational system, which will provide valuable information for the water resource management and for controlling the algal blooms in the future.

  9. [Sources of dissolved organic carbon and the bioavailability of dissolved carbohydrates in the tributaries of Lake Taihu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lin-Lin; Wu, Xiao-Dong; Kong, Fan-Xiang; Liu, Bo; Yan, De-Zhi

    2015-03-01

    Surface water samples of Yincungang and Chendonggang Rivers were collected from September 2012 to August 2013 in Lake Taihu. Water temperature, Chlorophyll a and bacterial abundance were analyzed, as well as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations, stable carbon isotope of DOC (Δ13C(DOC)), specific UV absorbance (SUVA254 ) and dissolved carbohydrates concentrations. Δ13C(DOC) ranged from -27.03% per thousand ± 0.30% per thousand to -23.38%per thousand ± 0.20% per thousand, indicating a terrestrial source. Both the autochthonous and allochthonous sources contributed to the carbohydrates pool in the tributaries. Significant differences in PCHO (polysaccharides) and MCHO (monosaccharides) concentrations were observed between spring-summer and autumn-winter (P carbohydrates. PCHO contributed a major fraction to TCHO (total dissolved carbohydrates) in autumn and winter, which could be explained by the accumulation of undegradable PCHO limited by the low water temperature; MCHO contributed a major fraction to TCHO in spring and summer, which might be caused by the transformation from PCHO by microbes at high water temperature.

  10. Methods for estimating concentrations and loads of selected constituents in tributaries to Lake Houston near Houston, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Since December 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Houston, Texas, has been assessing the quality of the water flowing into Lake Houston. Continuous in-stream water-quality monitors measured streamflow and other physical water quality properties at stations in Spring Creek near Spring, Tex., and East Fork San Jacinto River near New Caney, Tex. Additionally, discrete water-quality samples were periodically collected on these tributaries and analyzed for selected constituents of concern. Data from the discrete water-quality samples collected during 2005-9, in conjunction with the real-time streamflow data and data from the continuous in-stream water-quality monitors, provided the basis for developing regression equations for the estimation of concentrations of water-quality constituents of these source watersheds to Lake Houston. The output of the regression equations are available through the interactive National Real-Time Water Quality Web site (http://nrtwq.usgs.gov).

  11. Predation on Pacific salmonid eggs and carcass's by subyearling Atlantic salmon in a tributary of Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Abbett, Ross; Verdoliva, Francis

    2016-01-01

    A binational effort to reintroduce Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) that were extirpated in the Lake Ontario ecosystem for over a century is currently being undertaken by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation and the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. Reintroduction actions include the release of several life stages including fry, fall fingerlings, and yearling smolts. In this study we describe the diet of recently released fall fingerling Atlantic salmon in a tributary of the Salmon River, New York. A specific objective of the study was to determine if juvenile Atlantic salmon would utilize the high caloric food source provided by introduced Pacific salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) that includes eggs and carcass flesh. Salmon eggs and carcass flesh comprised 20.5% of the October to January diet in 2013–14 and 23.9% in 2014–15. The consumption of steelhead (O. mykiss) eggs was a major part of the diet in April in both 2014 (54.1%) and 2015 (33.2%). This study documented that recently released Atlantic salmon will consume the high caloric food material provided by Pacific salmonids and that the consumption of this material extends for several months.

  12. Sediment transport of streams tributary to San Francisco, San Pablo, and Suisun Bays, California, 1909-66

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porterfield, George

    1980-01-01

    A review of historical sedimentation data is presented, results of sediment-data collection for water years 1957-59 are summarized, and long-term sediment-discharge estimates from a preliminary report are updated. Comparison of results based on 3 years of data to those for the 10 water years, 1957-66, provides an indication of the adequacy of the data obtained during the short period to define the long-term relation between sediment transport and streamflow. During 1909-66, sediment was transported to the entire San Francisco Bay system at an average rate of 8.6 million cubic yards per year. The Sacramento and San Joaquin River basins provided about 83% of the sediment inflow to the system annually during 1957-66 and 86% during 1909-66. About 98% of this inflow was measured or estimated at sediment measuring sites. Measured sediment inflow directly to the bays comprised only about 40% of the total discharged by basins directly tributary to the bays. About 90% of the total sediment discharge to the delta and the bays in the San Francisco Bay system thus was determined on the basis of systematic measurements. (USGS)

  13. Pleistocene-Holocene sedimentation of Solimões-Amazon fluvial system between the tributaries Negro and Madeira, Central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliezer Senna Gonçalves Júnior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In the scope of Solimões-Amazon fluvial system between the Negro and Madeira tributaries, three levels of Quaternary fluvial terraces overlie the Alter do Chão and Novo Remanso formations further than 100 km southward its current main channel. Smooth undulated topography presenting low drainages density formed by sparse secondary plain channels and rounded lakes characterizes these deposits. Internally, they show point bars morphology constituted by intercalated layers of mud (silt and clay and sand forming an inclined heterolithic stratification. The asymmetric distribution of fluvial terraces allied to the records of old scroll-bars features and paleochannels in many extensions of the Solimões River suggests the predominance of a meander pattern between 240 to 6 kyears. On the other hand, the development of the current anabranching pattern took place in the last six kyears due to the Holocene sea-level rise, besides the action of neotectonics and rainforest establishment related to the increase of humidity in Amazonia.

  14. Alteration in Solid State Phosphorous With Depth in Sediments Along the Salinity Transition Zone of a Major Chesapeake Bay Tributary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, J. L.; Jordan, T. E.

    2006-05-01

    Determining the fate of particulate phosphorus in estuaries is essential for addressing the widespread problem of estuarine eutrophication, and is key to understanding P cycling and developing accurate global P budgets. Prominent reservoirs of P in surficial sediments include particulate P associated with iron or organic C. However, the importance of these reservoirs changes with the decomposition of organic matter and the reduction of iron. Also, the importance of iron bound P may decrease with increasing salinity due to the formation of iron sulfides. To investigate estuarine P burial and its relationship to salinity, we collected sediment cores of one-meter depth along the salinity gradient of the Patuxent River estuary (Maryland, USA), a major tributary of Chesapeake Bay. The sediments were analyzed using a sequential sedimentary extraction procedure that quantifies five separate reservoirs of particulate P. Total phosphorus concentrations in freshwater sediments were significantly higher than those in more saline sediments at all depths. Conversely, porewater phosphate concentrations were significantly lower in freshwater sediments than in the more saline sediments. Total P in the saline sediment cores decreased with depth, correlating to a reduction in iron-bound P. However, we did not find a concurrent increase in authigenic apatite with depth. Our findings indicate that mechanisms controlling changes in P sorption to sediments change profoundly with salinity and may contribute to increased bioavailability of phosphates with increasing salinity.

  15. Application of the SWAT model to an AMD-affected river (Meca River, SW Spain). Estimation of transported pollutant load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, L.; Olías, M.; Fernandez de Villarán, R.; Domingo Santos, J. M.; Nieto, J. M.; Sarmiento, A. M.; Cánovas, C. R.

    2009-10-01

    SummaryThe Meca River is highly contaminated by acid mine drainage coming from the Tharsis mining district, belonging to the Iberian Pyrite Belt. This river is regulated by the Sancho reservoir (58 hm 3), with a pH close to 4.2. In this work, the load transported by the Meca River to the Sancho reservoir has been assessed. Due to the lack of streamflow data, the hydrological behaviour of the Meca River basin has been simulated using the SWAT model. The model has been calibrated against registered daily inflows of the Sancho reservoir (1982-2000), excluding the hydrological years 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 that were kept for the validation. The results were satisfactory; the evaluation coefficients for monthly calibration were: r = 0.85 (Pearson's correlation coefficient), NSE = 0.83 (Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient) and DV = 1.08 (runoff volume deviation). The main uncertainty was the calibration during low water because of the poor accuracy in the measurement of the inputs to the reservoir in these conditions. Discharge and dissolved concentration relationships for different elements were obtained from hydrochemical samplings, which allowed us to estimate the element pollutant load transported to the reservoir: 418 ton/year of Al, 8024 ton/year of SO 4, 121 ton/year of Zn, etc. Based on these loads, concentrations in the reservoir were calculated for some elements. Apart from Mn and Sr, good adjustment between calculated and measured values was observed (±20% for Ca, Co, Li, Mg, Na, Ni, Zn and SO 4). Capsule: Hydrological model combined with water quality data show how pollution by AMD can generate huge loads of contaminants acidifying streams and reservoirs.

  16. A new MONERIS in-Stream Retention Module to Account Nutrient Budget of a Temporary River in Cyprus

    OpenAIRE

    TZORAKI Ourania; COOPER David; DÖRFLINGER Gerald; PANAGOS Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    The nature of the nutrient budget for temporary rivers differs from that for permanent rivers because of the restricted nature of flow, the lack of adequate dilution, and weather conditions which are conducive to the development of algal blooms. We analyse the nutrient budget of three tributaries of a temporary river in Cyprus, the Kouris, with the aid of the MONERIS model. MONERIS in-stream retention module was modified to account for a 1-dimensional advection - dispersion pollutants transpo...

  17. Annotated Directory of Threatened and Endangered Wildlife on Selected U.S. Army Installations East of the Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    species was historically collected from the Illinois River, in waters around the installation. Higgins eye, Lampsilis higginsi (SE): Historically...triquetra (SE): Found in the Mississippi River, this species may occur in waters around the installation. Higgins eye, Lampsilis higginsi (FE, SE): Found in...tributaries of the Tennessee river, it may still be present in waters around the installation. 131 Cumberland monkeyface, Quadrula intermedia (FE, SE

  18. Colonization of Asian freshwaters by the Mytilidae (Bivalvia): a comparison of Sinomytilus harmandi from the Tonle-Sap River, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, with Limnoperna fortunei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, Brian; Dinesen, Grete E.

    2010-01-01

    Sinomytilus harmandi occurs in the lakes and rivers of Indochina, notably in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam and, again notably, the Mekong River and its myriad tributaries. Hitherto, this species and its four junior synonyms have been examined only superficially. Because of an interior shel...

  19. Channelization and floodplain forests: impacts of accelerated sedimentation and valley plug formation on floodplain forests of the Middle Fork Forked Deer River, Tennessee, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonja N. Oswalt; Sammy L. King

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the severe degradation of floodplain habitats resulting from channelization and concomitant excessive coarse sedimentation on the Middle Fork Forked Deer River in west Tennessee from 2000 to 2003. Land use practices have resulted in excessive sediment in the tributaries and river system eventually resulting in sand deposition on the floodplain, increased...

  20. Columbia River system operation review. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River and its tributaries are the primary water system in the Pacific Northwest, draining some 219,000 square miles in seven states and another 39,500 square miles in British Columbia. Beginning in the 1930's, the Columbia River has been significantly modified by construction of 30 major dams on the river and its tributaries, along with dozens of non-Federal projects. Construction and subsequent operation of these water development projects have contributed to eight primary uses of the river system, including navigation, flood control, irrigation, electric power generation, fish migration, fish and wildlife habitat, recreation, and water supply and quality considerations. Increasing stress on the water development of the Columbia River and its tributaries has led primary Federal agencies to undertake intensive analysis and evaluation of the operation of these projects. These agencies are the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation, who operate the large Federal dams on the river, and the Bonneville Power Administration who sells the power generated at the dams. This review, termed the System Operation Review (SOR), has as its ultimate goal to define a strategy for future operation of the major Columbia River projects which effectively considers the needs of all river uses. This volume, Appendix D: Cultural resources appendix, Technical imput includes the following: Development of geomorphology based framework for cultural resources management, Dworshak Reservoir, Idaho; Impact profiles for SOR reservoirs; comments from the following Native American tribes: Burns Paiute Tribe; Coville Confederated Tribes; Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Indian Reservation; Confederated Tribes and bands of the Yakama Indian Nation (comments); Nez Perce Tribe; Coeur D'Alene Tribe; Spokane Tribe of Indians; The confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation

  1. Water Quality in Tortum Stream and its Tributaries (Erzurum/Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine KÖKTÜRK

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken with the aim of determining the effects of domestic waste and hydroelectric dams on water quality in the Tortum Stream and its tributaries. Water samples were taken monthly from nine sampling points of Tortum Stream and its tributaries between July 2012 and May 2013. Analyzed for temperature (°C, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO, total suspended solids (TSS, alkalinity, Ca, total hardness, sulfate (SO4, ammonia-nitrogen (N-NH3−, nitrite-nitrogen (N-NO2− and nitrate nitrogen (N-NO3− as well as total phosphorus (TP, total orthophosphate (TO, total iron and silica (SiO2 were carried out. Physical and chemical characteristics of Tortum Stream and its tributaries which were examined according to the Water Framework Directive and the Water Pollution Control Regulations. It can be said that the stream has a low water quality standard except for water temperature, dissolved oxygen and sulfate. The results showed that Tortum Stream and tributaries are under threat because of domestic waste, fertilizers and hydroelectric constructions.

  2. 75 FR 40034 - Northeastern Tributary Reservoirs Land Management Plan, Beaver Creek, Clear Creek, Boone, Fort...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY Northeastern Tributary Reservoirs Land Management Plan, Beaver Creek...-managed public land on Beaver Creek, Clear Creek, Boone, Fort Patrick Henry, South Holston, Watauga, and... Proposed Land Use Alternative) identified in the final environmental impact statement (FEIS). Under the...

  3. Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River Drainage, Idaho, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher

    2003-10-01

    In 2002 Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued investigation into the status of Pacific lamprey populations in Idaho's Clearwater River drainage. Trapping, electrofishing, and spawning ground redd surveys were used to determine Pacific lamprey distribution, life history strategies, and habitat requirements in the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River, Selway River, and Middle Fork Clearwater River subbasins. Five-hundred forty-one ammocoetes were captured electroshocking 70 sites in the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River, Selway River, Middle Fork Clearwater River, Clearwater River, and their tributaries in 2002. Habitat utilization surveys in Red River support previous work indicating Pacific lamprey ammocoete densities are greater in lateral scour pool habitats compared to riffles and rapids. Presence-absence survey findings in 2002 augmented 2000 and 2001 indicating Pacific lamprey macrothalmia and ammocoetes are not numerous or widely distributed. Pacific lamprey distribution was confined to the lower reaches of Red River below rkm 8.0, the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River (Ginger Creek to mouth), Selway River (Race Creek to mouth), Middle Fork Clearwater River, and the Clearwater River (downstream to Potlatch River).

  4. Pb isotope evidence for contaminant-metal dispersal in an international river system: The lower Danube catchment, Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, Graham; Brewer, Paul A.; Macklin, Mark G.; Nikolova, Mariyana; Kotsev, Tsvetan; Mollov, Mihail; Swain, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Lead isotope signatures ( 207 Pb/ 206 Pb, 208 Pb/ 206 Pb, 208 Pb/ 204 Pb, 206 Pb/ 204 Pb), determined by magnetic sector ICP-MS in river channel sediment, metal ores and mine waste, have been used as geochemical tracers to quantify the delivery and dispersal of sediment-associated metals in the lower Danube River catchment. Due to a diverse geology and range of ore-body ages, Pb isotope signatures in ore-bodies within the lower Danube River catchment show considerable variation, even within individual metallogenic zones. It is also possible to discriminate between the Pb isotopic signatures in mine waste and river sediment within river systems draining individual ore bodies. Lead isotopic data, along with multi-element data; were used to establish the provenance of river sediments and quantify sedimentary contributions to mining-affected tributaries and to the Danube River. Data indicate that mining-affected tributaries in Serbia and Bulgaria contribute up to 30% of the river channel sediment load of the lower Danube River. Quantifying relative sediment contributions from mining-affected tributaries enables spatial patterns in sediment-associated metal and As concentrations to be interpreted in terms of key contaminant sources. Combining geochemical survey data with that regarding the provenance of contaminated sediments can therefore be used to identify foci for remediation and environmental management strategies.

  5. Hotspots within the Transboundary Selenga River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimov, Nikolay; Lychagin, Mikhail; Chalov, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    Gathering the efficient information on water pollution of transboundary river systems remains the crucial task in international water management, environmental pollution control and prevention health problems. Countries, located in the low parts of the river basins, depend on the water strategy and water use in the adjacent countries, located upstream. Surface water pollution is considered to be the most serious problem, facing the above-mentioned countries. Large efforts in terms of field measurement campaigns and (numerical) transport modeling are then typically needed for relevant pollution prediction and prevention. Russian rivers take inflow from 8 neighboring countries. Among them there are 2 developing economies - People Republic of China and Mongolia, which are located in water-scarce areas and thus solve their water-related problems through the consumption of international water. Negative change of water runoff and water quality in the foreign part of transboundary river is appeared inside Russian territory with more or less delay. The transboundary river system of Selenga is particularly challenging, being the biggest tributary of Lake Baikal which is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. Selenga River contributes about 50 % of the total inflow into Baikal. It originates in the mountainous part of Mongolia and then drains into Russia. There are numerous industries and agricultural activities within the Selenga drainage basin that affect the water quality of the river system. Absence of the single monitoring system and predictive tools for pollutants transport in river system requires large efforts in understanding sources of water pollution and implemented data on the relevant numerical systems for the pollution prediction and prevention. Special investigations in the Selenga river basin (Mongolia and Russia) were done to assess hot spots and understand state-of-the art in sediment load, water chemistry and hydrobiology of transboundary systems

  6. Multielement analysis of water in Yodo River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamuro, Tetsuo; Mizohata, Akira; Matsunami, Tadao; Matsuda, Yatsuka

    1980-01-01

    Yodo River is a major source of water supplies in the Osaka district. Three tributaries including Katsura River flow into this river at close positions. It is known that the Katsura River is considerably polluted due to the sewage treatment in Kyoto City. Following the previous survey in September, 1970, a similar survey by neutron activation has been carried out on the pollution of the Yodo River in October, 1977, by increasing the number of sampling points. Because it is reported that the pollution of the Katsura River has been largely lowered from that in the previous survey, the purpose was to grasp the present situation of the water pollution of the Yodo River due to metal elemens and others, and further to examine in relation of material balance. The procedures used were, first, the evaporation and solidification of sample water, and then neutron activation analysis. The correlation among the concentrations of elements, the pattern of the concentrations of elements, the material balance along the Yodo River, etc. are described in this paper. (J.P.N.)

  7. Concentration, flux, and the analysis of trends of total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, and chloride in 18 tributaries to Lake Champlain, Vermont and New York, 1990–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalie, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Rivers that largely were offset by increases in the Missisquoi and Saranac Rivers in the second decade (between 2000 and 2010). The number of tributaries that had increases in dissolved phosphorus concentrations stayed constant at 13 or 14 during the period of analysis. Total nitrogen concentration and flux for most of the monitored tributaries in the Lake Champlain Basin have decreased since 1990. Between 1990 and 2010, flow-normalized total nitrogen flux decreased by 386 t/yr, which reflects an increase of 440 t/yr between 1990 and 2000 and a decrease of 826 t/yr between 2000 and 2010. All individual tributaries except the Winooski River had decreases in total nitrogen concentration and flux between 2000 and 2010. The decrease in total nitrogen flux over the period of record could be related to the decrease in nitrogen from atmospheric deposition observed in Vermont or to concurrent benefits realized from the implementation of agricultural best-management practices in the Lake Champlain Basin that were designed primarily to reduce phosphorus runoff. For chloride, large increases in flow-normalized concentrations and flux between 1990 and 2000 for 17 of the 18 tributaries diminished to small increases or decreases between 2000 and 2010. Between 1990 and 2010, flow-normalized flux increased by 32,225 t/yr, 78 percent of which (25,163 t) was realized during the first decade, from 1990 through 2000. The five tributaries that had decreasing concentration and flux of chloride between 2000 and 2010 were all on the eastern side of Lake Champlain, possibly related to reductions since 1999 in winter road salt application in Vermont. Positive correlations of phosphorus flux and changes in phosphorus concentration and flux in tributaries with phosphorus inputs to basins from point sources, suggest that point sources have an effect on stream phosphorus chemistry. Several measures of changes in agricultural statistics, such as agricultural land use, acres of land in farms, acres of

  8. Purus River suspended sediment variability and contributions to the Amazon River from satellite data (2000-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Andre Luis Martinelli Real dos; Martinez, Jean Michel; Filizola, Naziano Pantoja; Armijos, Elisa; Alves, Luna Gripp Simões

    2018-01-01

    The Purus River is one of the major tributaries of Solimões River in Brazil, draining an area of 370,091 km2 and stretching over 2765 km. Unlike those of the other main tributaries of the Amazon River, the Purus River's sediment discharge is poorly characterized. In this study, as an alternative to the logistic difficulties and considering high monitoring costs, we report an experiment where field measurement data and 2700 satellite (MODIS) images are combined to retrieve both seasonal and interannual dynamics in terms of the Purus river sediment discharge near its confluence with the Solimões River. Field radiometric and hydrologic measurements were acquired during 18 sampling trips, including 115 surface water samples and 61 river discharge measurements. Remote sensing reflectance gave important results in the red and infrared levels. They were very well correlated with suspended sediment concentration. The values of R2 are greater than 0.8 (red band) and 0.9 (NIR band). A retrieval algorithm based on the reflectance in both the red and the infrared was calibrated using the water samples collected for the determination of the surface-suspended sediment concentration (SSS). The algorithm was used to calculate 16 years of SSS time series with MODIS images at the Purus River near its confluence with the Solimões River. Results from satellite data correlated with in situ SSS values validate the use of satellite data to be used as a tool to monitor SSS in the Purus River. We evidenced a very short and intense sediment discharge pulse with 55% of the annual sediment budget discharged during the months of January and February. Using river discharge records, we calculated the mean annual sediment discharge of the Purus River at about of 17 Mt·yr-1.

  9. Seasonal variations in suspended-sediment dynamics in the tidal reach of an estuarine tributary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing-Kunz, Maureen A.; Schoellhamer, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying sediment supply from estuarine tributaries is an important component of developing a sediment budget, and common techniques for estimating supply are based on gages located above tidal influence. However, tidal interactions near tributary mouths can affect the magnitude and direction of sediment supply to the open waters of the estuary. We investigated suspended-sediment dynamics in the tidal reach of Corte Madera Creek, an estuarine tributary of San Francisco Bay, using moored acoustic and optical instruments. Flux of both water and suspended-sediment were calculated from observed water velocity and turbidity for two periods in each of wet and dry seasons during 2010. During wet periods, net suspended-sediment flux was seaward; tidally filtered flux was dominated by the advective component. In contrast, during dry periods, net flux was landward; tidally filtered flux was dominated by the dispersive component. The mechanisms generating this landward flux varied; during summer we attributed wind–wave resuspension in the estuary and subsequent transport on flood tides, whereas during autumn we attributed increased spring tide flood velocity magnitude leading to local resuspension. A quadrant analysis similar to that employed in turbulence studies was developed to summarize flux time series by quantifying the relative importance of sediment transport events. These events are categorized by the direction of velocity (flood vs. ebb) and the magnitude of concentration relative to tidally averaged conditions (relatively turbid vs. relatively clear). During wet periods, suspended-sediment flux was greatest in magnitude during relatively turbid ebbs, whereas during dry periods it was greatest in magnitude during relatively turbid floods. A conceptual model was developed to generalize seasonal differences in suspended-sediment dynamics; model application to this study demonstrated the importance of few, relatively large events on net suspended-sediment flux

  10. Suspended-sediment trapping in the tidal reach of an estuarine tributary channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing-Kunz, Maureen; Schoellhamer, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of decreasing sediment supply to estuaries and coastal oceans worldwide illustrates the need for accurate and updated estimates. In the San Francisco Estuary (Estuary), recent research suggests a decrease in supply from its largest tributaries, implying the increasing role of smaller, local tributaries in sediment supply to this estuary. Common techniques for estimating supply from tributaries are based on gages located above head of tide, which do not account for trapping processes within the tidal reach. We investigated the effect of a tidal reach on suspended-sediment discharge for Corte Madera Creek, a small tributary of the Estuary. Discharge of water (Q) and suspended-sediment (SSD) were observed for 3 years at two locations along the creek: upstream of tidal influence and at the mouth. Comparison of upstream and mouth gages showed nearly 50 % trapping of upstream SSD input within the tidal reach over this period. At the storm time scale, suspended-sediment trapping efficiency varied greatly (range −31 to 93 %); storms were classified as low- or high-yield based on upstream SSD. As upstream peak Q increased, high-yield storms exhibited significantly decreased trapping. Tidal conditions at the mouth—ebb duration and peak ebb velocity—during storms had a minor effect on sediment trapping, suggesting fluvial processes dominate. Comparison of characteristic fluvial and tidal discharges at the storm time scale demonstrated longitudinal differences in the regulating process for SSD. These results suggest that SSD from gages situated above head of tide overestimate sediment supply to the open waters beyond tributary mouths and thus trapping processes within the tidal reach should be considered.

  11. Snake River Sockeye salmon habitat and limnological research. Annual report 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teuscher, D.; Taki, D.

    1996-05-01

    This report contains studies which are part of the Bonneville Power Administration's program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Attention is focused on population monitoring studies in the Sawtooth Valley Lakes. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  12. Nutrient Budgets and Management Actions in the Patuxent River Estuary, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-year nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) budgets were developed for the Patuxent River estuary, a seasonally stratified and moderately eutrophic tributary of Chesapeake Bay. Major inputs (point, diffuse, septic and direct atmospheric) were measured for 13 years during which la...

  13. Contribution of River Mouth Reach to Sediment Load of the Yangtze River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the sediment gain and loss in the river mouth reach of the Yangtze River by considering sediment load from the local tributaries, erosion/accretion of the river course, impacts of sand mining, and water extraction. A quantitative estimation of the contribution of the river mouth reach to the sediment load of the Yangtze River was conducted before and after impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD in 2003. The results showed that a net sediment load loss of 1.78 million ton/yr (Mt/yr occurred from 1965 to 2002 in the study area. The contribution of this reach to the sediment discharge into the sea is not as high as what was expected before the TGD. With impoundment of the TGD, channel deposition (29.90 Mt/yr and a net sediment loss of 30.89 Mt/yr occurred in the river mouth reach from 2003 to 2012. The river mouth reach has acted as a sink but not a source of sediment since impoundment of the TGD, which has exacerbated the decrease in sediment load. Technologies should be advanced to measure changes in river channel morphology, as well as in water and sediment discharges at the river mouth reach.

  14. Preliminary results of hydrogeologic investigations Humboldt River Valley, Winnemucca, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip M.

    1964-01-01

    Most of the ground water of economic importance and nearly all the ground water closely associated with the flow o# the Humboldt River in the. 40-mile reach near Winnemucca, Nev., are in unconsolidated sedimentary deposits. These deposits range in age from Pliocene to Recent and range in character from coarse poorly sorted fanglomerate to lacustrine strata of clay, silt, sand, and gravel. The most permeable deposit consists of sand and gravel of Lake Lahontan age--the so-called medial gravel unit--which is underlain and overlain by fairly impermeable silt and clay also of Lake Lahontan age. The ultimate source of nearly all the water in the study area is precpitation within the drainage basin of the Humboldt River. Much of this water reaches the study, area as flow or underflow of the Humboldt River and as underflow from other valleys tributary to the study area. Little if any flow from the tributary streams in the study area usually reaches the Humboldt River. Most of the tributary streamflow within the study area evaporates or is transpired by vegetation, but a part percolates downward through unconsolidated deposits of the alluvial fans flanking the mountains and move downgradient as ground-water underflow toward the Humboldt River. Areas that contribute significant amounts of ground-water underflow to. the valley of the Humboldt River within the study area are (1) the valley of the Humboldt River upstream from the study area, (2) the Pole Creek-Rock Creek area, (3) Paradise Valley, and (4) Grass Valley and the northwestern slope of the Sonoma Range. The total average underflow from these areas in the period 1949-61 was about 14,000-19,000 acre-feet per year. Much of this underflow discharged into the Humboldt River within the study area and constituted a large part of the base flow of the river. Streamflow in the Humboldt River increases substantially in the early spring, principally because of runoff to the river in the reaches upstream from the study area

  15. Multidecadal increases in the Yukon River Basin of chemical fluxes as indicators of changing flowpaths, groundwater, and permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohey, Ryan C; Herman-Mercer, Nicole M.; Schuster, Paul F.; Mutter, Edda A.; Koch, Joshua C.

    2016-01-01

    The Yukon River Basin, underlain by discontinuous permafrost, has experienced a warming climate over the last century that has altered air temperature, precipitation, and permafrost. We investigated a water chemistry database from 1982 to 2014 for the Yukon River and its major tributary, the Tanana River. Significant increases of Ca, Mg, and Na annual flux were found in both rivers. Additionally, SO4 and P annual flux increased in the Yukon River. No annual trends were observed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from 2001 to 2014. In the Yukon River, Mg and SO4 flux increased throughout the year, while some of the most positive trends for Ca, Mg, Na, SO4, and P flux occurred during the fall and winter months. Both rivers exhibited positive monthly DOC flux trends for summer (Yukon River) and winter (Tanana River). These trends suggest increased active layer expansion, weathering, and sulfide oxidation due to permafrost degradation throughout the Yukon River Basin.

  16. River engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, M.

    1993-01-01

    One dimension models - basic eauations, analytical models, numberical models. One dimensional models -suspended load, roughness and resistance of river beds. Solving river problems - tools, flood mitigation, bank protection.

  17. Dams on Mekong tributaries as significant contributors of hydrological alterations to the Tonle Sap Floodplain in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, M. E.; Piman, T.; Lauri, H.; Cochrane, T. A.; Kummu, M.

    2014-12-01

    River tributaries have a key role in the biophysical functioning of the Mekong Basin. Of particular interest are the Sesan, Srepok, and Sekong (3S) rivers, which contribute nearly a quarter of the total Mekong discharge. Forty two dams are proposed in the 3S, and once completed they will exceed the active storage of China's large dam cascade in the Upper Mekong. Given their proximity to the Lower Mekong floodplains, the 3S dams could alter the flood-pulse hydrology driving the productivity of downstream ecosystems. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to quantify how hydropower development in the 3S, together with definite future (DF) plans for infrastructure development through the basin, would alter the hydrology of the Tonle Sap's Floodplain, the largest wetland in the Mekong and home to one of the most productive inland fisheries in the world. We coupled results from four numerical models representing the basin's surface hydrology, water resources development, and floodplain hydrodynamics. The scale of alterations caused by hydropower in the 3S was compared with the basin's DF scenario driven by the Upper Mekong dam cascade. The DF or the 3S development scenarios could independently increase Tonle Sap's 30-day minimum water levels by 30 ± 5 cm and decrease annual water level fall rates by 0.30 ± 0.05 cm day-1. When analyzed together (DF + 3S), these scenarios are likely to eliminate all baseline conditions (1986-2000) of extreme low water levels, a particularly important component of Tonle Sap's environmental flows. Given the ongoing trends and large economic incentives in the hydropower business in the region, there is a high possibility that most of the 3S hydropower potential will be exploited and that dams will be built even in locations where there is a high risk of ecological disruption. Hence, retrofitting current designs and operations to promote sustainable hydropower practices that optimize multiple river services - rather than just

  18. Enhancing mud supply from the Lower Missouri River to the Mississippi River Delta USA: Dam bypassing and coastal restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, G. Paul; Day, John W.; Rogers, J. David; Giosan, Liviu; Peyronnin, Natalie

    2016-12-01

    Sand transport to the Mississippi River Delta (MRD) remains sufficient to build wetlands in shallow, sheltered coastal bays fed by engineered diversions on the Mississippi River (MR) and its Atchafalaya River (AR) distributary. But suspended mud (silt & clay) flux to the coast has dropped from a mean of 390 Mt y-1 in the early 1950s, to 100 Mt y-1 since 1970. This fine-grained sediment travels deeper into receiving estuarine basins and plays a critical role in sustaining existing marshes. Virtually all of the 300 Mt y-1 of missing mud once flowed from the Missouri River (MOR) Basin before nearly 100 dams were built as part of the Pick-Sloan water development project. About 100 Mt y-1 is now intercepted by main-stem Upper MOR dams closed in 1953. But the remaining 200 Mt y-1 is trapped by impoundments built on tributaries to the Lower MOR in the 1950s and 1960s. Sediment flux during the post-dam high MOR discharge years of 1973, 1993 and 2011 approached pre-dam levels when tributaries to the Lower MOR, including the Platte and Kansas Rivers, contributed to flood flows. West bank tributaries drain a vast, arid part of the Great Plains, while those entering from the east bank traverse the lowlands of the MOR floodplain. Both provinces are dominated by highly erodible loess soils. Staunching the continued decline in MR fine-grained sediment flux has assumed greater importance now that engineered diversions are being built to reconnect the Lowermost MR to the MRD. Tributary dam bypassing in the Lower MOR basin could increase mud supply to the MRD by 100-200 Mt y-1 within 1-2 decades. Such emergency measures to save the MRD are compatible with objectives of the Missouri River Restoration and Platte River Recovery Programs to restore MOR riparian habitat for endangered species. Rapid mobilization to shunt fine-grained sediments past as many as 50 Lower MOR tributary dams in several U.S. states will undoubtedly require as much regional coordination and funding in the 21st

  19. Turbidity and suspended-sediment transport in the Russian River Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, John R.; Brown, William M.

    1971-01-01

    The Russian River in north coastal California has a persistent turbidness, which has reportedly caused a decline in the success of the sports fishermen. As a consequence, the number of sports fishermen angling in the river has declined, and industries dependent on their business have suffered. To determine the source of the turbidity and the rate of sediment transport in the basin, a network of sampling station was established in February 1964 along the river, on some of its tributaries, and near Lake Pillsbury in the upper Eel River basin.

  20. Hydrological forecast of maximal water level in Lepenica river basin and flood control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Ana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Lepenica river basin territory has became axis of economic and urban development of Šumadija district. However, considering Lepenica River with its tributaries, and their disordered river regime, there is insufficient of water for water supply and irrigation, while on the other hand, this area is suffering big flood and torrent damages (especially Kragujevac basin. The paper presents flood problems in the river basin, maximum water level forecasts, and flood control measures carried out until now. Some of the potential solutions, aiming to achieve the effective flood control, are suggested as well.

  1. Status of the dirty darter, Etheostoma olivaceum, and bluemask darter, Etheostoma (Doration)sp., with notes on fishes of the Caney Fork River system, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layman, S.R.; Simons, A.M.; Wood, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Seventy-six localities were sampled in the Caney Fork River system and adjacent Cumberland River tributaries. Etheostoma olivaceum was found in small creeks from nine tributaries of lower Caney Fork River and three tributaries of the Cumberland River in the Nashville Basin physiographic province. The species was most abundant around slab rocks and rubble over bedrock in slow to moderate current. Etheostoma olivaceum was common throughout its small range; however, given widespread habitat degradation from agriculture, the species should retain its open-quotes deemed in need of managementclose quotes status in Tennessee. The bluemask darter, Etheostoma (Doration) sp., was collected in slow to moderate current over sand and gravel in Collins River, Rocky River, Cane Creek, and Caney Fork River. All four populations were isolated upstream of Great Falls Reservoir in the Highland Rim physiographic province. The species was found in a 37-km reach of Collins River but was restricted to reaches of 0.2 to 4.3 km in the other three streams. Threats to the species include pesticides from plant nurseries, siltation, gravel dredging, and acid mine drainage. The authors recommend that the bluemask darter be listed as state and federally protected. Two new records were established for the rare Barrens darter, Etheostoma forbesi, in lower Collins River and Barren Fork River, and eight previously unknown records of the species were identified from older museum collections. 21 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  2. An environmental streamflow assessment for the Santiam River basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley, John C.; Wallick, J. Rose; Mangano, Joseph F.; Jones, Krista L.

    2012-01-01

    The Santiam River is a tributary of the Willamette River in northwestern Oregon and drains an area of 1,810 square miles. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) operates four dams in the basin, which are used primarily for flood control, hydropower production, recreation, and water-quality improvement. The Detroit and Big Cliff Dams were constructed in 1953 on the North Santiam River. The Green Peter and Foster Dams were completed in 1967 on the South Santiam River. The impacts of the structures have included a decrease in the frequency and magnitude of floods and an increase in low flows. For three North Santiam River reaches, the median of annual 1-day maximum streamflows decreased 42–50 percent because of regulated streamflow conditions. Likewise, for three reaches in the South Santiam River basin, the median of annual 1-day maximum streamflows decreased 39–52 percent because of regulation. In contrast to their effect on high flows, the dams increased low flows. The median of annual 7-day minimum flows in six of the seven study reaches increased under regulated streamflow conditions between 60 and 334 percent. On a seasonal basis, median monthly streamflows decreased from February to May and increased from September to January in all the reaches. However, the magnitude of these impacts usually decreased farther downstream from dams because of cumulative inflow from unregulated tributaries and groundwater entering the North, South, and main-stem Santiam Rivers below the dams. A Wilcox rank-sum test of monthly precipitation data from Salem, Oregon, and Waterloo, Oregon, found no significant difference between the pre-and post-dam periods, which suggests that the construction and operation of the dams since the 1950s and 1960s are a primary cause of alterations to the Santiam River basin streamflow regime. In addition to the streamflow analysis, this report provides a geomorphic characterization of the Santiam River basin and the associated conceptual

  3. Drainage divides, Massachusetts; Blackstone and Thames River basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejmas, Bruce E.; Wandle, S. William

    1982-01-01

    Drainage boundaries for selected subbasins of the Blackstone and Thames River basins in eastern Hampden, eastern Hampshire, western Norfolk, southern Middlesex, and southern Worcester Counties, Massachusetts, are delineated on 12 topographic quadrangle maps at a scale of 1:24,000. Drainage basins are shown for all U.S. Geological Survey data-collection sites and for mouths of major rivers. Drainage basins are shown for the outlets of lakes or ponds and for streams where the drainage area is greater than 3 square miles. Successive sites along watercourses are indicated where the intervening area is at least 6 miles on tributary streams or 15 square miles along the Blackstone River, French River, or Quinebaug River. (USGS)

  4. The internal strength of rivers: autogenic processes in control of the sediment load (Tana River, Kenya)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geeraert, Naomi; Ochieng Omengo, Fred; Tamooh, Fredrick; Paron, Paolo; Bouillon, Steven; Govers, Gerard

    2014-05-01

    The construction of sediment rating curves for monitoring stations is a widely used technique to budget sediment fluxes. Changes in the relationship between discharge and sediment concentrations over time are often attributed to human-induced changes in catchment characteristics, such as land use change, dam construction or soil conservation measures and many models have been developed to quantitatively link catchment characteristics and river sediment load. Conversely, changes in river sediment fluxes are often interpreted as indications of major changes in the catchment. By doing so, autogenic processes, taking place within the river channel, are overlooked despite the increasing awareness of their importance. We assessed the role of autogenic processes on the sediment load of Tana River (Kenya). The Tana river was impacted by major dam construction between 1968 and 1988, effectively blocking at least 80% of the sediment transfer from the highlands to the lower river reaches. However, a comparison of pre-dam sediment fluxes at Garissa (located 250 km downstream of the dams) with recent measurements shows that sediment fluxes have not changed significantly. This suggests that most of the sediment in the post-dam period has to originate from inside the alluvial plain of the river, as tributaries downstream of the dams are scarce and intermittent. Several observations are consistent with this hypothesis. We observed that, during the wet season, sediment concentrations rapidly increased below the dams and are not controlled by inputs from tributaries. Also, sediment concentrations were high at the beginning of the wet season, which can be attributed to channel adjustment to the higher discharges. The river sediment does not contain significant amounts of 137Cs or 210Pbxs, suggesting that sediments are not derived from topsoil erosion. Furthermore, we observed a counter clockwise hysteresis during individual events which can be explained by the fact that sediment

  5. Geomorphic and vegetation changes in a meandering dryland river regulated by a large dam, Sauce Grande River, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Ana; Peiry, Jean-Luc; Campo, Alicia M.

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates post-dam geomorphic and vegetation changes in the Sauce Grande River, a meandering dryland river impounded by a large water-conservation dam. As the dam impounds a river section with scarce influence of tributaries, sources for fresh water and sediment downstream are limited. Changes were inspected based on (i) analysis of historical photographs/imagery spanning pre- (1961) and post-dam (1981, 2004) channel conditions for two river segments located above and below the dam, and (ii) field survey of present channel conditions for a set of eight reference reaches along the river segments. Whilst the unregulated river exhibited active lateral migration with consequent adjustments of the channel shape and size, the river section below the dam was characterized by (i) marked planform stability (93 to 97%), and by (ii) vegetation encroachment leading to alternating yet localized contraction of the channel width (up to 30%). The present river displays a moribund, stable channel where (i) redistribution of sediment along the river course no longer occurs and (ii) channel forms constitute a remnant of a fluvial environment created before closing the dam, under conditions of higher energy. In addition to providing new information on the complex geomorphic response of dryland rivers to impoundment, this paper represents the very first geomorphic assessment of the regulated Sauce Grande and therefore provides an important platform to underpin further research assessing the geomorphic state of this highly regulated dryland river.

  6. Albemarle Sound demonstration study of the national monitoring network for US coastal waters and their tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle Moorman; Sharon Fitzgerald; Keith Loftin; Elizabeth Fensin

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) is implementing a demonstration project in the Albemarle Sound for the National Monitoring Network for U.S. coastal waters and their tributaries. The goal of the National Monitoring Network is to provide information about the health of our oceans and coastal ecosystems and inland influences on coastal waters for improved resource...

  7. Tidal and meteorological forcing of sediment transport in tributary mudflat channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, David K; Stacey, Mark T

    2007-06-01

    Field observations of flow and sediment transport in a tributary channel through intertidal mudflats indicate that suspended sediment was closely linked to advection and dispersion of a tidal salinity front. During calm weather when tidal forcing was dominant, high concentrations of suspended sediment advected up the mudflat channel in the narrow region between salty water from San Francisco Bay and much fresher runoff from the small local watershed. Salinity and suspended sediment dispersed at similar rates through each tidal inundation, such that during receding ebbs the sediment pulse had spread spatially and maximum concentrations had decreased. Net sediment transport was moderately onshore during the calm weather, as asymmetries in stratification due to tidal straining of the salinity front enhanced deposition, particularly during weaker neap tidal forcing. Sediment transport by tidal forcing was periodically altered by winter storms. During storms, strong winds from the south generated wind waves and temporarily increased suspended sediment concentrations. Increased discharge down the tributary channels due to precipitation had more lasting impact on sediment transport, supplying both buoyancy and fine sediment to the system. Net sediment transport depended on the balance between calm weather tidal forcing and perturbations by episodic storms. Net transport in the tributary channel was generally off-shore during storms and during calm weather spring tides, and on-shore during calm weather neap tides.

  8. Environmentally relevant chemical mixtures of concern in waters of United States tributaries to the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sarah M.; Brigham, Mark E.; Kiesling, Richard L.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Jorgenson, Zachary G.

    2018-01-01

    The North American Great Lakes are a vital natural resource that provide fish and wildlife habitat, as well as drinking water and waste assimilation services for millions of people. Tributaries to the Great Lakes receive chemical inputs from various point and nonpoint sources, and thus are expected to have complex mixtures of chemicals. However, our understanding of the co‐occurrence of specific chemicals in complex mixtures is limited. To better understand the occurrence of specific chemical mixtures in the US Great Lakes Basin, surface water from 24 US tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes was collected and analyzed for diverse suites of organic chemicals, primarily focused on chemicals of concern (e.g., pharmaceuticals, personal care products, fragrances). A total of 181 samples and 21 chemical classes were assessed for mixture compositions. Basin wide, 1664 mixtures occurred in at least 25% of sites. The most complex mixtures identified comprised 9 chemical classes and occurred in 58% of sampled tributaries. Pharmaceuticals typically occurred in complex mixtures, reflecting pharmaceutical‐use patterns and wastewater facility outfall influences. Fewer mixtures were identified at lake or lake‐influenced sites than at riverine sites. As mixture complexity increased, the probability of a specific mixture occurring more often than by chance greatly increased, highlighting the importance of understanding source contributions to the environment. This empirically based analysis of mixture composition and occurrence may be used to focus future sampling efforts or mixture toxicity assessments. 

  9. WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS OF LOTIC ECOSYSTEMS FROM UPPER MUREŞ RIVER CATCHMENT AREA USING DIFFERENT BIOTIC INDICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milca PETROVICI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Present paper approach the issue of assessing the water quality of tributaries located in the upper basin of the river Mureş, taking into account changes in the value of biotic indices. In this sense, have been selected the next five biotic indices: Ephemeroptera Plecoptera Trichoptera index (EPT, Total Invertebrates index (T, Chironomidae index (Ch, EPT / Total invertebrates index (EPT / T, EPT / Chironomidae index (EPT / Ch and % Chironomidae index (% Chironomidae. Considering all these indices, it was found existence of a medium to best quality water in Mureş tributaries from Harghita Mountains and a good quality water which comes from the Maramureş Mountains and Transylvania Plateau.

  10. Simulated and observed 2010 floodwater elevations in selected river reaches in the Pawtuxet River Basin, Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarriello, Phillip J.; Olson, Scott A.; Flynn, Robert H.; Strauch, Kellan R.; Murphy, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Heavy, persistent rains from late February through March 2010 caused severe flooding that set, or nearly set, peaks of record for streamflows and water levels at many long-term streamgages in Rhode Island. In response to this event, hydraulic models were updated for selected reaches covering about 56 river miles in the Pawtuxet River Basin to simulate water-surface elevations (WSEs) at specified flows and boundary conditions. Reaches modeled included the main stem of the Pawtuxet River, the North and South Branches of the Pawtuxet River, Pocasset River, Simmons Brook, Dry Brook, Meshanticut Brook, Furnace Hill Brook, Flat River, Quidneck Brook, and two unnamed tributaries referred to as South Branch Pawtuxet River Tributary A1 and Tributary A2. All the hydraulic models were updated to Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) version 4.1.0 using steady-state simulations. Updates to the models included incorporation of new field-survey data at structures, high resolution land-surface elevation data, and updated flood flows from a related study. The models were assessed using high-water marks (HWMs) obtained in a related study following the March– April 2010 flood and the simulated water levels at the 0.2-percent annual exceedance probability (AEP), which is the estimated AEP of the 2010 flood in the basin. HWMs were obtained at 110 sites along the main stem of the Pawtuxet River, the North and South Branches of the Pawtuxet River, Pocasset River, Simmons Brook, Furnace Hill Brook, Flat River, and Quidneck Brook. Differences between the 2010 HWM elevations and the simulated 0.2-percent AEP WSEs from flood insurance studies (FISs) and the updated models developed in this study varied with most differences attributed to the magnitude of the 0.2-percent AEP flows. WSEs from the updated models generally are in closer agreement with the observed 2010 HWMs than with the FIS WSEs. The improved agreement of the updated simulated water elevations to

  11. Probable maximum flood on the Ha Ha River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damov, D.; Masse, B.

    1997-01-01

    Results of a probable maximum flood (PMF) study conducted for various locations along the Ha Ha river, a tributary of the Saguenay River, were discussed. The study was undertaken for use in the design and construction of new hydraulic structures for water supply for a pulp and paper facility, following the Saguenay Flood in July 1996. Many different flood scenarios were considered, including combinations of snow-melt with rainfall. Using computer simulations, it was shown that the largest flood flows were generated by summer-fall PMF. 5 refs., 12 figs

  12. Late quaternary dynamics in the Madeira river basin, southern Amazonia (Brazil, as revealed by paleomorphological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericson H. Hayakawa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ancient drainage systems are being increasingly documented in the Amazon basin and their characterization is crucial for reconstructing fluvial evolution in this area. Fluvial morphologies, including elongate belts, are well preserved along the Madeira River. Digital Elevation Model from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission favored the detection of these features even where they are covered by dense rainforest. These paleomorphologies are attributed to the shifting position of past tributaries of the Madeira River through avulsions. These radial paleodrainage networks produced fan-shaped morphologies that resemble distributary megafans. Distinguishing avulsive tributary systems from distributary megafans in the sedimentary record is challenging. Madeira´s paleodrainage reveals the superposition of tributary channels formed by multiple avulsions within a given time period, rather than downstream bifurcation of coexisting channels. Channel avulsion in this Amazonian area during the late Quaternary is related to tectonics due to features as: (i straight lineaments coincident with fault directions; (ii northeastward tilting of the terrain with Quaternary strata; and (iii several drainage anomalies, including frequent orthogonal drainage inflections. These characteristics altogether lead to propose that the radial paleodrainage present at the Madeira River margin results from successive avulsions of tributary channels over time due to tectonics.

  13. THE DYNAMIC OF USING THE RIVERS ENERGY FROM REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA TERRITORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA BRAGA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic of using the rivers energy from Republic of Moldova territory. One of the least explored and tapped energy sources in Moldova are the inland rivers. Considering the critical condition of the country regarding energy sources, it would be highly necessary to study the feasibility of hydraulic energy reserves. Although Moldova has no major rivers with a large flow of water, the network of small tributaries of its two large rivers, Dniester and Prut, could be used to a certain extent for partial power supply to villages situated along inland watercourses.The first scientific developments concerning the hydropower potential of the rivers in Bessarabia belong to professor D. Pavel. Around 1933 he was suggesting a series of hydro-technical facilities on Prut and Dniester rivers and their tributaries. Subsequently, in the ‘40s of the 20th century the first power plants were built on small rivers. After World War II some small hydropower plants, built during the interwar period, had been restored and some other put into operation. These include the plant at Dubăsari with a capacity of 48 MW that started operating in 1954 on Dniester River, and the hydroelectric complex at Costeşti -Stânca with a capacity of 16 MW, in 1978 on the River Prut. Nevertheless, the leverage of hydroelectric resources is not significant, only 23 being used nowadays, which is 7% of the hydropower potential - a rather modest number compared to other states.

  14. THE SOURCES OF NUTRIENTS IN WATERS OF RIVERS IN THE WETLAND AREAS OF NAREW NATIONAL PARK IN NORTH-EASTERN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Skorbiłowicz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at the attempt to identify and to evaluate the interaction intensity, and to classify the sources of river waters nutrients in the catchment of upper river Narew within Narew National Park (north-eastern Poland. The studies were carried out on Narew river within borders of Narew National Park, where 5 measurement-control points were localized as well as one near estuaries of its 5 tributaries (Awissa, Czaplinianka, Horodnianka, Turośnianka and Supraśl. Factor analysis (FA from multi-dimensional group was applied for statistical processing of study results, because it is commonly used to describe and explore a large number of data. concentrations of analyzed chemicals depended on a water sampling point that was under anthropopression and geogenic conditions. Studies and results from analyses (FA and CA allowed for identifying the main sources of river Narew nutrients within Narew National Park. These are: tributaries of river Narew, point and distributed runoffs, as well as shallow ground waters that transport components having anthropogenic and partially geogenic-lithologic origin. River Turośnianka supplies the largest loads of studied parameters to river Narew within Narew National Park boundaries. River Supraśl is the most contaminated tributary of river Narew.

  15. Trends in nutrients and suspended solids at the Fall Line of five tributaries to the Chesapeake Bay in Virginia, July 1988 through June 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, C.F.; Belval, D.L.; Campbell, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Water-quality samples were collected at the Fall Line of five tributaries to the Chesapeake Bay in Virginia during a 6- to 7-year period. The water-quality data were used to estimate loads of nutrients and suspended solids from these tributaries to the non-tidal part of Chesapeake Bay Basin and to identify trends in water quality. Knowledge of trends in water quality is required to assess the effectiveness of nutrient manage- ment strategies in the five basins. Multivariate log-linear regression and the seasonal Kendall test were used to estimate flow-adjusted trends in constituent concentration and load. Results of multivariate log-linear regression indicated a greater number of statistically significant trends than the seasonal Kendall test; how-ever, when both methods indicated a significant trend, both agreed on the direction of the trend. Interpre- tation of the trend estimates for this report was based on results of the parametric regression method. No significant trends in total nitrogen concentration were detected at the James River monitoring station from July 1988 through June 1995, though total Kjeldahl nitrogen concen- tration decreased slightly in base-flow samples. Total phosphorus concentration decreased about 29 percent at this station during the sampling period. Most of the decrease can be attributed to reductions in point-source phosphorus loads in 1988 and 1989, especially the phosphate detergent ban of 1988. No significant trends in total suspended solids were observed at the James River monitoring station, and no trends in runoff- derived constituents were interpreted for this river. Significant decreases were detected in concentrations of total nitrogen, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, dissolved nitrite-plus-nitrate nitrogen, and total suspended solids at the Rappahannock River monitoring station between July 1988 and June 1995. A similar downward trend in total phosphorus concentration was significant at the 90-percent confidence level, but not the

  16. Tectonic and lithological controls on fluvial landscape development in central-eastern Portugal: Insights from long profile tributary stream analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, António A.; Cabral, João; Cunha, Pedro P.; Stokes, Martin; Borges, José; Caldeira, Bento; Martins, A. Cardoso

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the long profiles of tributaries of the Tagus and Zêzere rivers in Portugal (West Iberia) in order to provide new insights into patterns, timing, and controls on drainage development during the Quaternary incision stage. The studied streams are incised into a relict culminant fluvial surface, abandoned at the beginning of the incision stage. The streams flow through a landscape with bedrock variations in lithology (mainly granites and metasediments) and faulted blocks with distinct uplift rates. The long profiles of the analyzed streams record an older transitory knickpoint/knickzone separating (1) an upstream relict graded profile, with lower steepness and higher concavity, that reflects a long period of quasi-equilibrium conditions reached after the beginning of the incision stage, and (2) a downstream rejuvenated long profile, with steeper gradient and lower concavity, particularly for the final reach, which is often convex. The rejuvenated reaches testify to the upstream propagation of several incision waves, interpreted as the response of each stream to increasing crustal uplift and prolonged periods of base-level lowering by the trunk drainages, coeval with low sea level conditions. The morphological configurations of the long profiles enabled spatial and relative temporal patterns of incisions to be quantified. The incision values of streams flowing on the Portuguese Central Range (PCR; ca. 380-150 m) are variable but generally higher than the incision values of streams flowing on the adjacent South Portugal Planation Surface (SPPS; ca. 220-110 m), corroborating differential uplift of the PCR relative to the SPPS. Owing to the fact that the relict graded profiles can be correlated with the Tagus River T1 terrace (1.1-0.9 My) present in the study area, incision rates can be estimated (1) for the streams located in the PCR, 0.38-0.15 m/ky and (2) for the streams flowing on the SPPS, 0.22-0.12 m/ky. The differential uplift inferred in the

  17. Hydrochemical and isotope study to trace the movement of pollutants from the Akuosu - Sukobri tributary into the Owabi reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frimpong, E.O.

    2011-01-01

    Surface water and sediment samples of the Akuosu - Sukobri tributary were analyzed to asses the movement of heavy metal pollution into the Owabi reservoir. Whilst the Akuosu - Sukobri tributary is acidic, the Owabi reservoir is basic. The concentration of Na, K, Mg, Ca, Cl, SO 4 , As, Mn, Cr, Cu, Zn are all below world normal averages in the water but they exceed these world averages in the sediments. HEI, HPI and C d show that the part of the Akuosu - Sukobri tributary at Suame Magazine, Anomagye Township and Bohyen are polluted whilst pollution is minimal at the part of the tributary in the Owabi Forest Reserve as well as the Owabi reservoir. Sediment pollution assessment was carried out using enrichment factor (EF), geoaccumulation index (I geo ) and pollution load index (PLI). EF shows that the sediments are enriched in the heavy metals. The I geo values revealed that the sediments are significantly accumulated with Pb, Cu and Cr whilst the PLI suggest that the sediments are moderately polluted. An integrated approach of pollution indices, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) was employed to evaluate the intensity and sources of pollution in the tributary and the reservoir. This showed that the major ions mainly originated from domestic waste whilst the heavy metals come from the various anthropogenic activities along the tributary especially the Suame Magazine part of the Akuosu - Sukobri tributary. Isotope analysis of the water showed that the water is mainly of meteoric origin with very little enrichment probably due to evaporation and mixing along the way before the Akuoso-Sukobri tributary joins the Owabi reservoir. (au)

  18. A rapid assessment method to estimate the distribution of juvenile Chinook Salmon in tributary habitats using eDNA and occupancy estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter, A.; Falke, Jeffrey A.; López, J. Andres; Savereide, James W.

    2018-01-01

    Identification and protection of water bodies used by anadromous species are critical in light of increasing threats to fish populations, yet often challenging given budgetary and logistical limitations. Noninvasive, rapid‐assessment, sampling techniques may reduce costs and effort while increasing species detection efficiencies. We used an intrinsic potential (IP) habitat model to identify high‐quality rearing habitats for Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and select sites to sample throughout the Chena River basin, Alaska, for juvenile occupancy using an environmental DNA (eDNA) approach. Water samples were collected from 75 tributary sites in 2014 and 2015. The presence of Chinook Salmon DNA in water samples was assessed using a species‐specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay. The IP model predicted over 900 stream kilometers in the basin to support high‐quality (IP ≥ 0.75) rearing habitat. Occupancy estimation based on eDNA samples indicated that 80% and 56% of previously unsampled sites classified as high or low IP (IP Salmon DNA from three replicate water samples was high (p = 0.76) but varied with drainage area (km2). A power analysis indicated high power to detect proportional changes in occupancy based on parameter values estimated from eDNA occupancy models, although power curves were not symmetrical around zero, indicating greater power to detect positive than negative proportional changes in occupancy. Overall, the combination of IP habitat modeling and occupancy estimation provided a useful, rapid‐assessment method to predict and subsequently quantify the distribution of juvenile salmon in previously unsampled tributary habitats. Additionally, these methods are flexible and can be modified for application to other species and in other locations, which may contribute towards improved population monitoring and management.

  19. Myxosporean plasmodial infection associated with ulcerative lesions in young-of-the-year Atlantic menhaden in a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay, and possible links to Kudoa clupeidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimschuessel, R.; Gieseker, C.M.; Driscoll, C.; Baya, A.; Kane, A.S.; Blazer, V.S.; Evans, J.J.; Kent, M.L.; Moran, J.D.W.; Poynton, S.L.

    2003-01-01

    Ulcers in Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus (Latrobe) (Clupeidae), observed along the USA east coast, have been attributed to diverse etiologies including bacterial, fungal and, recently, harmful algal blooms. To understand the early pathogenesis of these lesions, we examined juvenile Atlantic menhaden collected during their seasonal presence in Chesapeake Bay tributaries from April to October 1999 and from March to August 2000. We conducted histopathological examinations of young-of-the-year fish from the Pocomoke River tributary, which has a history of fish mortalities and high lesion prevalence. Kudoa clupeidae (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) spores were present in the muscles of fish collected in both years. Of the fish assessed by histology in April, 5 to 14% were infected, while in May 90 to 96% were infected. Infection rates remained high during the summer. Mature spores were primarily located within myomeres and caused little or no observable pathological changes. Ultrastructure showed spores with capsulogenic cells bearing filamentous projections, and a basal crescentic nucleus with mottled nucleoplasm containing cleaved, condensed chromatin. Also, a highly invasive plasmodial stage of a myxozoan was found in the lesions of juvenile Atlantic menhaden. The plasmodia were observed in fish collected between May and July, with the maximum occurrence in late June 1999 and late May 2000. Plasmodia penetrated and surrounded muscle bundles, causing grossly observable raised lesions in 73% of all fish infected with this invasive stage. Plasmodia were also detected in the visceral organs, branchial arches, and interocular muscles of some fish. Some of the invasive extrasporogonic plasmodial lesions were associated with ulcers and chronic inflammatory infiltrates. The plasmodial stage appeared to slough out of the tissue with subsequent evidence of wound healing. Ultrastructure showed plasmodia with an elaborate irregular surface, divided into distinct ectoplasm and

  20. “Yonne River Corridor” Network of Yonne Cities: the River as Tourist Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Matika

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Long living space for many animal and plant species, the river system and its tributaries represent a principal wealth, always valid for human settlements in the Yonne valley, France. In my case study the major questions raised as starting points are: 1. How the infrastructure is related to the landscape of Yonne. 2. Which could be the possibilities and potentialities to treat this local resource. 3. How local authorities could start a project of exploitation and valorization of the water region. 4. Which interventions could enforce the dynamics of the region. 5. How to articulate cities in discontinuity around the Yonne river, taking into account the flood threat, but in a sustainable way. 6. And last but not least, how can we face the problem of rupture between the banks of the river and the urban space, regaining the docks.

  1. The Columbia River System : the Inside Story.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-09-01

    The Columbia Ricer is one of the greatest natural resources in the western United States. The river and its tributaries touch the lives of nearly every resident of the Northwest-from providing the world-famous Pacific salmon to supplying the clean natural fuel for over 75 percent of the region's electrical generation. Since early in the century, public and private agencies have labored to capture the benefits of this dynamic river. Today, dozens of major water resource projects throughout the region are fed by the waters of the Columbia Basin river system. And through cooperative efforts, the floods that periodically threaten developments near the river can be controlled. This publication presents a detailed explanation of the planning and operation of the multiple-use dams and reservoirs of the Columbia River system. It describes the river system, those who operate and use it, the agreements and policies that guide system operation, and annual planning for multiple-use operation.

  2. Biodiversity of microcrustaceans (Cladocera, Copepoda in a lowland river ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Karpowicz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents comprehensive research on microcrustacean diversity in different types of aquatic environments in the Upper Narew Valley over five years. A total of 559 samples were analyzed, and 74 species of crustacean zooplankton were identified. Metacyclops planus (Gurney, 1909 is a new species for the fauna of Poland and was found in oxbow lakes and tributary streams. The results of the study suggest that oxbow lakes, with more than 80% of all recorded species, may significantly contribute to the regional biodiversity of floodplain rivers. The highest crustacean community diversity was observed in the semi-lotic oxbow lakes, which emphasizes the role of intermediate disturbance in enhancing biodiversity of water bodies in river valleys. Generally, more “heterogeneous” habitats, such as small oxbow lakes and tributary streams, had higher crustacean species richness. However, a sampling station that was quite “homogeneous”, the Narew River upstream the Siemianówka Reservoir, had high crustacean species richness. The species accumulation curves revealed that approximately 50 - 100 zooplankton samples taken from different environments of river valley are required to establish crustacean species richness. These data could be important for river catchment management and could act as pilot survey data for monitoring plans.

  3. Patterns of Bacterial and Archaeal Gene Expression through the Lower Amazon River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satinsky, Brandon M.; Smith, Christa B.; Sharma, Shalabh; Ward, Nicholas D.; Krusche, Alex V.; Richey, Jeffrey E.; Yager, Patricia L.; Crump, Byron C.; Moran, Mary Ann

    2017-08-08

    Analysis of metatranscriptomic and metagenomic datasets from the lower reaches of the Amazon River between Obidos and the river mouth revealed microbial transcript and gene pools dominated by Actinobacteria, Thaumarchaeota, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Planctomycetes. Three mainstem stations spanning a 625 km reach had similar gene expression patterns (transcripts gene copy-1) across a diverse suite of element cycling genes, but two tributary-influenced stations at the mouth of the Tapajos River and near the Tocantins River at Belem had distinct transcriptome composition and expression ratios, particularly for genes encoding light-related energy capture (higher) and iron acquisition and ammonia oxidation (lower). Environmental parameters that were useful predictors of gene expression ratios included concentrations of lignin phenols, suspended sediments, nitrate, phosphate, and particulate organic carbon and nitrogen. Similar to the gene expression data, these chemical properties reflected highly homogeneous mainstem stations punctuated by distinct tributary- influenced stations at Tapajos and Belem. Although heterotrophic processes were expected to dominate in the lower Amazon, transcripts from photosynthetic bacteria were abundant in tributary-influenced regions, and transcripts from Thaumarcheota taxa genetically capable of chemosynthetic ammonia oxidation accounted for up to 21% of the transcriptome at others. Based on regressions of transcript numbers against gene numbers, expression ratios of Thaumarchaeota populations were largely unchanged within the mainstem, suggesting a relatively minor role for gene regulation. These quantitative gene and transcript inventories detail a diverse array of energy acquisition strategies and metabolic capabilities for bacteria and archaea populations of the world’s largest river system.

  4. Nutrient-based ecological consideration of a temporary river catchment affected by a reservoir operation to facilitate efficient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzoraki, Ourania A; Dörflinger, Gerald; Kathijotes, Nicholas; Kontou, Artemis

    2014-01-01

    The water quality status of the Kouris river in Cyprus was examined in order to fulfil the requirements for ecological quality as defined by the Water Framework Directive-2000/60/EC. Nitrate concentration (mean value) was increased in the Limnatis (2.8 mg L(-1)) tributary in comparison with the Kryos (2.1 mg L(-1)) and Kouris (1.0 mg L(-1)) tributaries depicting the influence of anthropogenic activities. The total maximum daily nutrients loads (TMDLs) based on the flow duration curves approach, showed that nutrients loads exceeded threshold values (33.3-75.6% in all hydrologic condition classes in the Kouris tributary, and 65-78% in the Limnatis tributary) especially under low flow conditions. The TMDL graph is intended to guide the temporal schedule for chemical sampling in all hydrologic classes. Kouris reservoir is an oligotrophic system, strongly influenced by the river's flash-flood character but also by the implemented management practices. Kouris river outflow, which was reduced to one-tenth in the post dam period altered the wetland hydrologic network and contributed to the decrease of aquifer thickness. Continuous evaluation and update of the River Basin Management Plans will be the basis for the sustainable development of the Kouris basin.

  5. Risk ranking of environmental contaminants in Xiaoqing River, a heavily polluted river along urbanizing Bohai Rim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qifeng; Zhang, Yueqing; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Pei; Suriyanarayanan, Sarvajayakesavalu; Meng, Jing; Zhou, Yunqiao; Liang, Ruoyu; Khan, Kifayatullah

    2018-08-01

    Xiaoqing River, located in the Laizhou Bay of Bohai Sea, is heavily polluted by various pollutants including heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), bisphenol A (BPA) and pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs). The aim of this study is to identify the relative risks of such contaminants that currently affect the coastal ecosystem. The median and highest concentrations of PFAAs and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were 3.23 μg L -1 and 325.28 μg L -1 , and 0.173 μg L -1 and 276.24 μg L -1 , respectively, which were ranked higher when compared with global level concentrations. To assess the relative risk levels of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), PFOA, and other contaminants in the upstream and downstream of the Xiaoqing River and in its tributary, a risk ranking analysis was carried out. Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), and arsenic (As) showed the highest risk values in the Xiaoqing River, while the relative risks of PFOA and PFOS differed across the various segments. The risk ranking of PFOA was the second highest in the tributary and the fourth highest in the downstream portion of the river, whereas the PFOS was found to be the lowest in all the segments. Heavy metals and PFOA are the main chemicals that should be controlled in the Xiaoqing River. The results of the present study provide a better understanding of the potential ecological risks of the contaminants in Xiaoqing River. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Determining Sediment Sources in the Anacostia River Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereux, O. H.; Needelman, B. A.; Prestegaard, K. L.; Gellis, A. C.; Ritchie, J. C.

    2005-12-01

    Suspended sediment is a water-quality problem in the Chesapeake Bay. This project is designed to identify sediment sources in an urban watershed, the Northeast Branch of the Anacostia River (in Washington, D.C. and Maryland - drainage area = 188.5 km2), which delivers sediment directly to the Bay. This watershed spans two physiographic regions - the Piedmont and Coastal Plain. Bank sediment and suspended-sediment deposits were characterized using the following techniques: radionuclide (Cs-137) analysis by gamma ray spectrometry, trace-element analysis by ICP-MS, clay mineralogy by XRD, and particle-size analysis by use of a laser particle-size analyzer. Sampling of bank and suspended sediment was designed to: a) characterize tributary inputs from both Piedmont and Coastal Plain sources, and b) differentiate tributary inputs from bank erosion along the main stem of the Northeast Branch. Thirteen sample sites were chosen that represent tributary source areas of each physiographic region and the main stem where mixing occurs. Surface samples of the banks were compared to overbank deposits from a ten year storm (a proxy for the suspended sediments). Fingerprint components are selected from these data. Cesium-137 concentrations were analyzed for bank and overbank deposits for each physiographic region. No clear differences were seen between the two physiographic regions. Significant differences were observed between upland tributaries and the main stem of the Anacostia River. The average activity of Cs-137 for the tributaries was 5.4 bq/kg and the average for the main stem was 1.1 bq/kg. This suggests that there is significant erosion and storage of sediment in the tributaries. The low activity from Cs-137 in the main stem suggests a lack of storage of sediment along the main stem of the river. For the trace-element data, we focused on elements that showed significant variation among the sites. For the bank sediment, these elements include: Sr, V, Y, Ce, and Nd. For the

  7. Charles River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the efforts of the US EPA, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the municipalities within the Charles River Watershed and nongovernmental organizations to improve the water quality of the Charles River.

  8. Application of Multivariate Statistical Analysis in Evaluation of Surface River Water Quality of a Tropical River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teck-Yee Ling

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the spatial variations of surface water quality in a tropical river using multivariate statistical techniques, including cluster analysis (CA and principal component analysis (PCA. Twenty physicochemical parameters were measured at 30 stations along the Batang Baram and its tributaries. The water quality of the Batang Baram was categorized as “slightly polluted” where the chemical oxygen demand and total suspended solids were the most deteriorated parameters. The CA grouped the 30 stations into four clusters which shared similar characteristics within the same cluster, representing the upstream, middle, and downstream regions of the main river and the tributaries from the middle to downstream regions of the river. The PCA has determined a reduced number of six principal components that explained 83.6% of the data set variance. The first PC indicated that the total suspended solids, turbidity, and hydrogen sulphide were the dominant polluting factors which is attributed to the logging activities, followed by the five-day biochemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus, organic nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen in the second PC which are related to the discharges from domestic wastewater. The components also imply that logging activities are the major anthropogenic activities responsible for water quality variations in the Batang Baram when compared to the domestic wastewater discharge.

  9. Manua Islands IKONOS Mosaic Imagery 2001-2002 - IKONOS Imagery for American Samoa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  10. Swains Island IKONOS Mosaic Imagery 2001-2002 - IKONOS Imagery for American Samoa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  11. Rose Atoll IKONOS Mosaic Imagery 2001-2002 - IKONOS Imagery for American Samoa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  12. The DISAM Journal of International Security Assistance Management. Volume 24, Number 2, Winter 2001-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Regulations. In defense trade, offsets include mandatory co-production, licensed production, subcontractor production, technology transfer, countertrade ...investment or countertrade ’ (“Offsets In Defense Trade”, DISAM Journal, 20:2, p. 67). Kremer and Sain agree with these categories of offsets (Kremer

  13. QED's School Market Trends: Teacher Buying Behavior & Attitudes, 2001-2002. Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality Education Data, Inc., Denver, CO.

    This study examined teachers' classroom material buying behaviors and trends. Data came from Quality Education Data's National Education Database, which includes U.S. K-12 public, private, and Catholic schools and districts. Researchers surveyed K-8 teachers randomly selected from QED's National Education Database. Results show that teachers spend…

  14. Nuclear data for accelerator-driven transmutation. Annual Report 2001/2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.; Johansson, C.; Klug, J.; Olsson, N.; Pomp, S.; Renberg, P.U.

    2002-07-01

    The present project started 1998-07-01. The primary objective from the supporting organizations is to promote research and research education of relevance for development of the national competence within nuclear energy. The aim of the project is in short to: promote development of the competence within nuclear physics and nuclear technology by supporting licentiate and PhD students; push forward the international research front regarding fundamental nuclear data within the presently highlighted research area 'accelerator-driven transmutation'; strengthen the Swedish in influence within the mentioned research area by expanding the international contact network; constitute a basis for Swedish participation in the nuclear data activities at IAEA and OECD/NEA. The project is run by the Department of Neutron Research (INF)at Uppsala University, and is utilizing the unique neutron beam facility at the national The Svedberg Laboratory (TSL) at Uppsala University. Transmutation techniques in accelerator-driven systems (ADS) involve high-energy neutrons, created in the proton-induced spallation of a heavy target nucleus. The existing nuclear data libraries developed for reactors of today go up to about 20 MeV,which covers all available energies for that application; but with a spallator coupled to a core, neutrons with energies up to 1 - 2 GeV will be present. Although a large majority of the neutrons will be below 20 MeV, the relatively small fraction at higher energies still has to be characterized. Above ∼ 200 MeV, direct reaction models work reasonably well, while at lower energies nuclear distortion plays a non-trivial role. This makes the 20 - 200 MeV region the most important for new experimental cross section data. Very little high-quality neutron-induced data exist in this energy domain.Only the total cross section and the np scattering cross section have been investigated extensively. Besides this, there are data on neutron elastic scattering from UC Davis at 65 MeV on a few nuclei. Programmes to measure neutron elastic scattering have been proposed or begun at Los Alamos and IUCF, with the former resulting in a thesis on data in the 5 deg - 30 deg range on a few nuclei. The situation is similar for (n, xp) reactions, where programmes have been run at UC Davis, Los Alamos, TRIUMF and TSL Uppsala, but with limited coverage in secondary particle energy and angle. Better coverage has been obtained by the Louvain-la-Neuve group up to 70 MeV. Thus, there is an urgent need for neutron-induced cross section data in the region around 100 MeV, which is an area where very few facilities in the world can give contributions. By international collaboration within an EU supported Concerted Action, which has been followed by the full scale project HINDAS, the level of ambition for the present project has been increased,and the potential of the unique neutron beam facility at The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala can be fully exploited

  15. Chapin Hall Center for Children Projects and Publications, 2001-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicago Univ., IL. Chapin Hall Center for Children.

    This guide chronicles the ongoing work and writings of the Chapin Hall Center for children at the University of Chicago, a policy research center dedicated to bringing sound information, rigorous analyses, innovative ideas, and an independent, multidisciplinary perspective to bear on policies and programs affecting children. The guide, organized…

  16. 78 FR 64984 - Distribution of the 2000, 2001, 2002 and 2003 Cable Royalty Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ..., pursuant to Chapter 8 of [title 17], conduct a proceeding to determine the distribution of royalty fees... evidentiary value of directly negotiated licenses in setting rates and terms for royalty fees and in... LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Copyright Royalty Board [Docket No. 2008-2 CRB CD 2000-2003 (Phase II...

  17. Australian Safeguards and Non-Proliferation Office, Annual Report 2001-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    During the year Australian Safeguards and Non-Proliferation Office (ASNO) continued our substantial contribution to the development and strengthening of international verification regimes concerned with weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Domestically, ASNO conducted, or contributed to, review of WMD- related legislation and administration, amending permits to enhance security arrangements, and beginning development of supporting legislative changes. Another major area of work is the replacement research reactor project, where ASNO has been closely involved through safeguards and security aspects. This year has been dominated by the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 on the United States, and ongoing consequences. These events, and the concern that terrorists would use WMD if they were able to acquire them, have served to emphasise the importance of effective counter-proliferation and counter-terrorism measures to complement the non-proliferation regimes. They have also focused attention on the need to deal with non- compliance with WMD treaty commitments. The key achivements reported for the year under review include: 1. All treaty and statutory requirements met in respect of: nuclear material and nuclear items in Australia, Australian uranium exports (Australian Obligated Nuclear Material), chemicals covered by the CWC (Chemical Weapons Convention) and establishment of CTBT(Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty) monitoring stations; 2. Effective contribution to strengthening non-proliferation verification regimes and counter terrorism initiatives: ongoing support for IAEA safeguards development, regional outreach on IAEA safeguards, CWC implementation and encouraging CTBT ratification, ANSTO security upgraded; security plan approved for construction of replacement research reactor, review, with other responsible authorities, of security of CWC related chemicals, and radiation sources

  18. International Atomic Energy Agency publications. Publications catalogue 2001-2002, including IAEA technical documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the IAEA issued and forthcoming between January 2001 and September 2002. Most Agency publications are issued in English, though some are also available in Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian or Spanish. The lists all publications by subject category, in alphabetical order within each category

  19. Utilization of substance abuse treatment services under Medicare, 2001-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandivort, Rita; Teich, Judith L; Cowell, Alexander J; Chen, Hong

    2009-06-01

    In 2006, the Medicare program covered 37 million elderly persons and 7 million persons younger than 65 years, but little is known about substance abuse (SA) service utilization. Using the 5% Sample of Medicare claims data, the study examines individuals who used SA detoxification ("detox") and/or rehabilitation ("rehab") services under Medicare in 2001 and 2002. SA claimants less than 65 years of age (disabled) were compared to claimants more than 65 years of age (elderly). The disabled were more likely to have a co-occurring mental disorder than elderly claimants (50% vs. 14%) and more likely to have serious mental illness (21% vs. 2.3%). Disabled claimants were more than three times as likely to receive any detox service as elderly claimants (17% vs. 6%). The rate of claimants receiving rehab services within 30 days of detox is about one third for disabled claimants and one quarter for elderly claimants.

  20. Motor carrier industry profile study : financial and operating performance profiles by industry segment, 2001-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    This report profiles the motor carrier industry and its significant operating segments. It is one of a series of reports analyzing various aspects of the motor carrier industry. Other reports in the series focus on the safety performance of the indus...

  1. Hydrologic Resources Management Program and Underground Test Area Project FY 2001-2002 Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, T.P.; Kersting, A.B.; Harris, L.J.; Hudson, G.B.; Smith, D.K.; Williams, R.W.; Loewen, D.R.; Nelson, E.J.; Allen, P.G.; Ryerson, F.J.; Pawloski, G.A.; Laue, C.A.; Moran, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    This report contains highlights of FY 2001 and 2002 technical studies conducted by the Analytical and Nuclear Chemistry Division (ANCD) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in support of the Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP) and the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project. These programs are administered by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) through the Defense Programs and Environmental Restoration Divisions, respectively. HRMP-sponsored work emphasizes the Defense Programs goal of responsible management of natural resources at the NTS, while UGTA-funded work focuses on defining the extent of radionuclide contamination in NTS groundwater resulting from underground nuclear testing. The report is organized on a topical basis, and contains eight chapters that reflect the range of technical work performed by LLNL-ANCD in support of HRMP and UGTA. Chapter 1 describes recent hot well sampling efforts at the NTS, and presents the results of chemical and isotopic analyses of groundwater samples from six near-field wells. These include the Cambric (UE-5n), Bilby (U-3cn PS No.2), Bourbon (UE-7nS), Nash (UE-2ce), Tybo/Benham (ER-20-5 No.3), and Almendro (U-19v PS No.1ds) sites. The data generated by the hot well program is vital to the development and validation of contaminant transport models at the NTS. Chapter 2 discusses the results of xenon isotope measurements of groundwater samples from the six near-field wells described in Chapter 1. This work demonstrates that fission xenon is present in the water at levels that are readily measurable and highlights the significant differences in xenon concentrations and isotopic abundances at different sites. These differences provide insight into the early cooling history of nuclear test cavities, and may assist in predicting the distribution of the source term in the near-field environment. Chapter 3 is an investigation of the distribution and abundance of actinides in a nuclear test cavity and chimney. This work demonstrates that early-time processes can widely disperse actinides at low concentrations outside the melt glass, implying that melt glass dissolution may not be the sole mechanism for the release of actinides to groundwater. The study also provides evidence for the isotopic fractionation of plutonium under the extreme conditions accompanying nuclear explosions. In Chapter 4, X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements were used to determine the redox state of Fe and U in nuclear melt glass samples from the NTS. Both elements were found to occur in mixed valence states (Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ and U 5+ /U 6+ ) in all samples. Comparison of the Fe and U redox states with published redox studies of synthetic glasses suggests that plutonium is predominantly in the Pu 4+ oxidation state in the melt glasses. In Chapter 5, alpha autoradiography is used in a NTS field study to investigate the spatial distribution and transport of actinides in soils, and to help identify the size distribution and morphology of the actinide particles. It was found that α-emitting radionuclides have moved to at least 39 cm depth in the soil profile, far deeper than expected. The methodology that was developed could easily be applied to other field locations where actinides are dispersed in the soil zone. Chapter 6 summarizes the development of a method for measuring environmental levels of 241 Am on the multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. The method detection limit of 0.017 pCi/L is about two times lower than the best analyses possible by alpha spectrometry. Chapter 7 describes a chlorine-36 study of vertical groundwater transport processes in Frenchman Flat. Mass balance calculations developed from a 36 Cl mixing model at well ER-5-3 No.2 are used to estimate vertical transport fluxes and average vertical flow velocities through the thick volcanic section underlying the basin. The study also documents the variations in 36 Cl/Cl ratios within the three principal hydrostratigraphic un its in Frenchman Flat. Chapter 8 discusses an ongoing stable isotope investigation of precipitation and recharge processes in central Nevada. Precipitation, spring water, and shallow infiltration samples have been collected at four locations on a biannual basis since 1999. The results show that winter precipitation accounts for >90% of the recharge at these sites. Lysimeter data suggest that most of the evaporation occurring during recharge is due to water vapor loss through the soil zone during periods of slow infiltration. In addition to the topical investigations described above, LLNL-ANCD contributed to several other major collaborative technical products during FY 2001 and 2002

  2. Second IRMF comparison of surface contamination monitor calibrations 2001-2002

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, C J

    2002-01-01

    The Ionising Radiations Metrology Forum (IRMF) organised a second comparison of surface contamination monitor calibrations in which twenty establishments in the UK participated. The exercise involved the circulation of three surface contamination monitors for calibration using large area reference sources available in the participants' laboratories. The instruments used were a Mini Instruments EP15, a Berthold LB122 and an Electra ratemeter with DP6AD probe. The instrument responses were calculated by the individual participants and submitted to the for analysis along with details of the reference sources used. Details of the estimated uncertainties were also reported. The results are compared and demonstrate generally satisfactory agreement between the participating establishments.

  3. OFFICIAL HOLIDAYS IN 2001 AND END-OF-YEAR CLOSURE 2001/2002

    CERN Document Server

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    (Application of Articles R II 4.33 and R II ;4.34 of the Staff Regulations) Official holidays in 2001 (in addition to the end-of-year holidays) : Friday, 13th April (Good Friday) Monday, 16th April (Easter Monday) Tuesday, 1st May Thursday, 24th May (Ascension Day) Monday, 4th June (Whit Monday) Thursday, 6th September (Jeûne genevois) Annual closure of the site of the Organization and day of special leave granted by the Director-General : The Laboratory will be closed from Saturday, 22nd December 2001 to Sunday, 6th January 2002 inclusive (without deduction of annual leave). The first working day in the New Year will be Monday, 7th January 2002.

  4. Nonindigenous marine species at Waikiki and Hawaii Kai, Oahu, Hawaii in 2001 - 2002 (NODC Accession 0001061)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surveys of the marine algae, invertebrates and reef fishes of Waikiki and the Kuapa Pond and Maunalua Bay areas of Hawaii Kai were conducted with the objective of...

  5. La violencia y los movimientos sociales en el gobierno de Vicente Fox, 2001-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Alberto Velázquez García

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente artículo es analizar el movimiento social contra la construcción del aeropuerto en San Salvador Atenco entre 2001 y 2002. Este movimiento es la primera movilización social que enfrenta el presidente Vicente Fox. Se examinan los recursos utilizados en sus acciones, lo que incluye la utilización de la violencia y las consecuencias que tuvo para la imagen presidencial; se emplea la teoría de movilización de recursos para observar las formas de manifestación utilizadas frente al Estado.

  6. Light Up the Word update 2001-2002 : solid state lighting for human development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, K.; Irvine-Halliday, D. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Light Up the World Foundation; Craine, S. [Curtin Univ. of Technology (Australia)]|[Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Light Up the World Foundation; Stone, R. [Fernbank Electronic Systems Ltd., Stittsville, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    Light Up the World Foundation (LUTW) is a humanitarian organization founded in 1997 to bring safe, healthy, reliable, environmentally sound and affordable home lighting to developing countries. LUTW is a world leader in using solid state lighting (SSL) technologies to improve the quality of life for underprivileged people living in villages with little realistic prospect for affordable electrification. SSL technology uses white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to provide lighting at low power consumption, often from batteries that get recharged by solar panels or other renewable energy sources. LUTW is active in more than 12 countries and has set the standards to raising the quality of SSL as a community development tool around the world. This report described how LUTW developed its market for SSL and the basic component for forging a relationship between industrial and social entrepreneurship. The international efforts to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions under climate change mitigation mechanisms such as carbon reduction emission credits, allows LUTW to obtain additional revenues to help sustain its projects. This is because the amount of fossil fuel and GHG reductions from SSL systems can be readily quantified. 4 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  7. Building on success : Climate Change Action Fund 2001-2002 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    The Climate Change Action Fund (CCAF) was established by the Canadian Government in 1998 with a budget of $150 million over 3 years to support early actions on climate change. The initiative was renewed in the 2000 federal budget with a further $150 million in funding. Thus far, funding has helped 32 research projects regarding communities, health, agriculture, forestry and water resources. The primary tool for implementing federal climate change policy has been the Technology Early Action Measures (TEAM) program. Other integrated components under the CCAF include the Foundation Building, Science Impacts and Adaption (SIA), and Public Education and Outreach (PEO). Broad options have been developed for a Domestic Emissions Trading system. The CCAF played a critical role in ensuring that Canada's policy position was heard in international negotiations on all subject matters, and was instrumental in bringing more developing countries to participate in the climate change initiative. Accomplishments thus far include climate system monitoring, improving climate models, and understanding the role that forests and agricultural lands play in the climate and carbon balance. The second phase of CCAF will focus on climate system processes, climate modelling and climate impact scenarios. 1 tab

  8. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry; Tezak, E.; Endicott, Rick

    2002-08-01

    The efficacy of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival and the fitness of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. The following summarizes some of the work performed and results from the FY 2001 performance period: (1) The incidence of male maturation of age-1 chinook salmon was significantly reduced by reducing growth in the first year of rearing. (2) Experimentally manipulated growth rates of captively-reared coho salmon had significant effects on female maturation rate, egg size, and fecundity, and the effects were stage-specific (i.e., pre-smolt vs. post-smolt). (3) A combination of Renogen and MT239 vaccination of yearling chinook salmon given an acute R. salmoninarum challenge had a significantly longer survival time than the mock-vaccinated group. The survival time was marginally higher than was seen in acutely challenged fish vaccinated with either Renogen or MT239 alone and suggests that a combination vaccine of Renogen and MT239 may be useful as both a prophylactic and therapeutic agent against BKD. (4) Full-sib (inbred) groups of chinook salmon have thus far exhibited lower ocean survival than half-sib and non-related groups. Effects of inbreeding on fluctuating asymmetry did not follow expected patterns. (5) Sockeye salmon were exposed to specific odorants at either the alevin/emergent fry stage or the smolt stage to determine the relative importance of odorant exposure during key developmental periods and the importance of exposure duration. (6) Experimental studies to determine the effects of exercise conditioning on steelhead reproductive behavior and the effects of male body size on chinook salmon fertilization success during natural spawning were completed.

  9. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Hawaii, December 2001, 2002, Volume 1 and 2 (NODC Accession 0002828)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Currently, the most widely used approach to sensitive environment mapping in the United States is the NOAA Environmental Sensitivity Index or ESI. This approach...

  10. Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) Annual Report 2001-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This report details outcomes, achievements and work underway. It has been a year of significant advancement with the awarding by ARPANSA in April of the Licence to Construct the Replacement Research Reactor at Lucas Heights after almost 10 years of substantiation and approval processes. Other operational highlights during the year included: the award of several facility licences by ARPANSA under their new procedures, including a licence for the ongoing operation of the HIFAR reactor and radiopharmaceutical production; the launch by the ANSTO business unit ARI in April 2002 of LeukoScan, a technetium-99m labelled diagnostic radiopharmaceutical for imaging infection; maintenance of Australia's leading role in the development of new nuclear safeguards procedures by cooperating with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to become the first country to adopt integrated safeguards; formal accreditation of ANSTO as a member of the IAEA's Network of Analytical Laboratories, the network that supports the international nuclear safeguards program; construction of a purpose-built waste treatment and packaging facility to enable state-of-the-art processing for ANSTO's low level radioactive waste in preparation for removal to the national low-level radioactive waste repository. Scientific highlights included: ANSTO's development of two new technologies that will lead to cleaner and more environmentally sustainable operations for uranium processors; new methods for depositing ceramics coatings at low temperatures for applications ranging from fibre optic communications to corrosion and scratch resistance; ANSTO sustaining its position as a world leader in carbon dating samples following the introduction of new sample preparation procedures that dramatically reduce the influence of background levels on the result and studies that provided information relating to the management and sustainable development of fishing and mining in the marine environment. ANSTO scientists, in a collaborative experiment with the Japanese National Institute of Radiological Science, added to the understanding of the long-term impact on the environment of storing radionuclides in underground repositories; Sirspheres, a radiopharmaceutical developed by ANSTO and Australian biotechnology company Sirtex Medical, being approved in March by the US Federal Drugs Administration (FDA) for general marketing in the United States and released immediately. In addition, two business-related software packages were released: SULFIDOX, a software tool that simulates the chemical and physical processes going on inside waste rock dumps and leach heaps and AQUARISK, an ecological risk assessment software package that has been modified to more closely align it with the approach adopted by the latest Australian and New Zealand water quality guidelines

  11. 76 FR 7590 - Distribution of 2000, 2001, 2002, and 2003 Cable Royalty Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... Madison Memorial Building, LM-401, 101 Independence Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20559-6000. If delivered... Madison Memorial Building, LM-403, 101 Independence Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20559-6000. FOR FURTHER... of the major categories of copyrightable content (movies, sports programming, music, etc.) requesting...

  12. Determination of toxic elements in beauty creams by X-ray spectrometric techniques (2001-2002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    War-War-Myo-Aung

    2002-01-01

    This paper is carried out to examine the contents of toxic heavy metals in various kinds of beauty creams by using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Technique (EDXRF). By applying EDXRF system, it si found that most of the beauty creams contained titanium and zinc, and some of the beauty creams contained lead, bismuth, iron and mercury. Among the heavy toxic metals, mercury is the most harmful to human's health. (author)

  13. Overview of the main economic indicators in 1993-2000 and forecast for 2001-2002

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Ülevaade indikaatoritest: sisemajanduse koguprodukt, tarbijahinnaindeks, väliskaubandus, tööhõive, tööstustoodang, elanike sissetulekud. Diagrammid ja tabel: tähtsamad majandusindikaatorid ja nende prognoos 2001. ja 2002. a.

  14. Changes in river channel pattern as a result of the construction, operation and decommissioning of watermills – the case of the middle reach of the River Liswarta near Krzepice, Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Fajer Maria

    2018-01-01

    Changes in river channel pattern in the middle reach of the River Liswarta and in the lower reaches of its tributaries near Krzepice were analysed, and were related to the construction, operation and decommissioning of watermills. For this purpose, old maps which covered the period from the beginning of the 18th century until the 20th century were used alongside written historical sources. Maps from the first half of the 19th century provided valuable source material. Traces of old mill water...

  15. Macroinvetebrate Assemblages as Indicators of Water Quality of the West Seti River, Bajhang, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohana Matangulu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Water quality of the West Seti River, a tributary of the Karnali in West Nepal was assessed using macroinvertebrates as bioindicators. The main objective of the study was to assess the ecological water quality of the West Seti River and to generate a baseline data on macroinvertebrate assemblages. The sampling was conducted during December 2015 and a total of 11 sampling sites were selected from the West Seti River and its tributaries. Qualitative samples of macroinvertebrates were collected from different habitats. Selected physico-chemical parameters such as pH and temperature were estimated on-site. Dissolved oxygen (DO was estimated by Winkler’s method. The macroinvertebrate samples were enumerated and identified up to Family level following standard literature. Chi-square test was performed to see whether macroinvertebrate taxa varied significantly along the altitudinal gradient and between the West Seti River and its tributaries. An ecological assessment tool Nepalese Biotic Score/ Average Score Per Taxon (NEPBIOS/ASPT was applied to assess the water quality of the sampling sites. The pH value ranged from 7.9 to 8.7 indicating the alkaline nature of the river. A total of 1666 individuals belonging to 34 Families and 7 Orders of macro-invertebrates were observed. The highest diversity of the macroinvertebrate taxa was observed at site T5 with nineteen Families whereas the lowest taxa diversity was observed at R3 with only five Families. The variation in macroinvertebrate assemblages between the sub-tropical and temperate zones; and the West Seti River and its tributaries were not significant. NEPBIOS/ASPT revealed a score of Water Quality Class of III-IV at Site R3 indicating that the site was polluted. This site was characterized by the abundance of red Chironomids which are considered as the indicators of organic pollution.International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-6, Issue-3, Jun-Aug 2017, page: 25-45

  16. Flood discharges and hydraulics near the mouths of Wolf Creek, Craig Branch, Manns Creek, Dunloup Creek, and Mill Creek in the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, studied the frequency and magnitude of flooding near the mouths of five tributaries to the New River in the New River Gorge National River. The 100-year peak discharge at each tributary was determined from regional frequency equations. The 100-year discharge at Wolf Creek, Craig Branch, Manns Creek, Dunloup Creek, and Mill Creek was 3,400 cubic feet per second, 640 cubic feet per second, 8,200 cubic feet per second, 7,100 cubic feet per second, and 9,400 cubic feet per second, respectively. Flood elevations for each tributary were determined by application of a steady-state, one-dimensional flow model. Manning's roughness coefficients for the stream channels ranged from 0.040 to 0.100. Bridges that would be unable to contain the 100-year flood within the bridge opening included: the State Highway 82 bridge on Wolf Creek, the second Fayette County Highway 25 bridge upstream from the confluence with New River on Dunloup Creek, and an abandoned log bridge on Mill Creek.

  17. On the path of plumes of the Río De La Plata Estuary main tributaries and their mixing scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia G Simionato

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available With a length of 300 km and a width that narrows from 220 km at its mouth to 40 km at its upper end, the Río de la Plata is one of the largest estuaries of the world. Its three main tributaries -contributing to a total mean runoff of 22,000 m³ s-1- have different properties and are object of diverse environmental impact due to dissimilar development conditions on their shores. The knowledge of the paths of the plumes of those tributaries along the estuary and their mixing scales is necessary for management purposes. In this paper, advection-diffusion equations for passive tracers are coupled to the three-dimensional Hamburg Shelf Ocean Model and validated by means of a case study. Then, simulations in which each tributary is characterized by a different dye tracer are done for scenarios resulting of the combination of diverse characteristic atmospheric forcing and runoff conditions. The impact of bathymetry and Earth's rotation on plumes paths and mixing is also evaluated. Results indicate that, for mean to low discharge conditions, the path of the waters of the tributaries is in the form of two main plumes. The different water speeds of both tributaries, the presence of a bend immediately after their confluence and the varying geometry and bathymetry of the estuary favor a rapid mixing between the Uruguay and Paraná Guazú-Bravo waters, which then flow along the northern portion of the upper estuary channel. The Paraná de las Palmas waters, instead, occupy the southern shallow region of Playa Honda in the upper estuary and then flow following the southern coast. Downstream Colonia, at the intermediate estuary, the occurrence of another large bend and a change in bathymetric features force the flow to concentrate in the central part of the estuary and favor further mixing between the plumes. For high discharge conditions the northern part of the upper estuary is divided into two regions, one with a larger concentration of Uruguay waters

  18. Fate of methanol spills into rivers of varying geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamali, M.; Lawrence, G.A.; Maloney, K.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a study of potential environmental impacts of methanol releases into rivers. A number of hypothetical scenarios are defined, and dispersion of methanol in the selected rivers is investigated using a riverine dispersion-biodegradation model. The downstream variability of river flow and hydraulic geometry due to merging tributaries are included in the model. The model results are presented, and comparison is made with proposed allowable concentrations. An interesting finding is that the river variation has considerable effect on concentration distribution of methanol in the most critical scenario. A sensitivity analysis is made on the key modeling parameters such as the dispersion coefficient and the biodegradation rate. An analysis illustrating when water intake systems should potentially be shutdown in the event of a methanol release is also presented. In general, it is found the human health risks associated with the accidental release of methanol into riverine environments are low. (author)

  19. Links between river water acidity, land use and hydrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarinen, T.; Celebi, A.; Kloeve, B. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Water Resources and Environmental Eng. Lab.], Email: tuomas.saarinen@oulu.fi

    2013-11-01

    In western Finland, acid leaching to watercourses is mainly due to drainage of acid sulphate (As) soils. This study examined how different land-use and land-cover types affect water acidity in the northwestern coastal region of Finland, which has abundant drained AS soils and peatlands. Sampling conducted in different hydrological conditions in studied river basins revealed two different catchment types: catchments dominated by drained forested peatlands and catchments used by agriculture. Low pH and high electric conductivity (EC) were typical in rivers affected by agriculture. In rivers dominated by forested peatlands and wetlands, EC was considerably lower. During spring and autumn high runoff events, water quality was poor and showed large spatial variation. Thus it is important to ensure that in river basin status assessment, sampling is carried out in different hydrological situations and in also water from some tributaries is sampled. (orig.)

  20. Monitoring of chemical and isotopic composition of the Euphrates river in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kattan, Z.

    2008-11-01

    The ratios of stable isotopes ( 18 O and 2 H), tritium content, together with the chemical composition of major ions of the Euphrates and Balikh (Euphrates tributary) Rivers, and the groundwaters of four wells drilled close to the Euphrates River course, were measured on a monthly basis. The Euphrates River water was monitored at twelve stations along its course in Syria during the period from January 2004 to December 2006, whereas those of the Balikh and groundwaters were only investigated during 2005. Although, the spatial variations of heavy stable isotope concentrations are moderated with respect to other large rivers in the world, the concentrations of these isotopes increase generally downstream the Euphrates River, with a sharp enrichment at Al-Assad Lake. This sharp increase could be explained by the effect of direct evaporation from the river and its tributaries; and the effect of drainage return flows of irrigation waters, isotopically more enriched. Enrichment of stable isotopes in the Euphrates River water was used as a direct indicator of evaporation. Based on an experimental evaporation result of a Euphrates water sample and the integral enrichment of heavy stable isotopes in the Euphrates River system, the amount of water losses by evaporation from Al-Assad Lake was estimated to be about 1.26 to 1.62 billion m''3, according to 18 O and deuterium ( 2 H), respectively. This amount represents about 12-16% of the renewable surface water resources in the country. (author)

  1. Clay mineralogy and source-to-sink transport processes of Changjiang River sediments in the estuarine and inner shelf areas of the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yifei; Zou, Xinqing; Gao, Jianhua; Wang, Chenglong; Li, Yali; Yao, Yulong; Zhao, Wancang; Xu, Min

    2018-02-01

    We examined the source-to-sink sediment transport processes from the Changjiang River to the estuarine coastal shelf area by analyzing the clay mineral assemblages in suspended sediment samples from the Changjiang River catchment and surface samples from the estuarine coastal shelf area following the impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) in 2003. The results indicate that the clay mineral compositions throughout the study area are dominated by illite, with less abundant kaolinite and chlorite and scarce smectite. The clay minerals display distinct differences in the tributaries and exhibit obvious changes in the trunk stream compared with the periods before 2003, and the source of sediment has largely shifted to the mid- to lower reaches of the river after 2003. Spatially, the clay mineral assemblages in the estuarine area define two compositionally distinct provinces. Province I covers the mud area of the Changjiang River estuary and the Zhe-Min coastal region, where sediment is primarily supplied by the Changjiang River. Province II includes part of the Changjiang River estuary and the southeastern portion of the study area, where the sediment is composed of terrestrial material from the Changjiang River and re-suspended material from the Huanghe River carried by the Jiangsu coastal current. Moreover, the other smaller rivers in China (including the Oujiang and Minjiang rivers of mainland China and the rivers of West Taiwan) also contribut sediments to the estuarine and inner shelf areas. In general, the clay mineral assemblages in the Changjiang River estuarine area are have mainly been controlled by sediment supplied from upstream of the Changjiang River tributaries. However, since the completion of the TGD in 2003, the mid- to downstream tributaries have become the main source of sediments from the Changjiang catchment into the East China Sea. These analyses further demonstrate that the coastal currents and the decrease in the sediment load of the river

  2. Contaminants of emerging concern in the lower Stillaguamish River Basin, Washington, 2008-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Richard J.; Moran, Patrick W.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Sevigny, Jennifer M.; Pope, Judy M.

    2014-01-01

    A series of discrete water-quality samples were collected in the lower Stillaguamish River Basin near the city of Arlington, Washington, through a partnership with the Stillaguamish Tribe of Indians. These samples included surface waters of the Stillaguamish River, adjacent tributary streams, and paired inflow and outflow sampling at three wastewater treatment plants in the lower river basin. Chemical analysis of these samples focused on chemicals of emerging concern, including wastewater compounds, human-health pharmaceuticals, steroidal hormones, and halogenated organic compounds on solids and sediment. This report presents the methods used and data results from the chemical analysis of these samples

  3. Implementing integrated catchment management in the Limpopo River Basin Phase 1: Situational assessment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mwenge Kahinda, Jean-Marc

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available reaches of the main stem of the Limpopo River. Much of the surface water exploitation in the basin states relies on storage reservoirs built on tributary rivers. Surface water use is directed primarily to irrigated agriculture, afforestation... and the pool storages located in the A63E and A71L catchments. The riverine gallery forest (Figure 6) is an aquifer-dependent ecosystem situated on the same aquifer used by the Venetia Mine and recharged by the Limpopo River main stem. The isolated...

  4. A new framework for assessing river ecosystem health with consideration of human service demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zengliang; Zuo, Qiting; Shao, Quanxi

    2018-06-01

    In order to study river health status from harmonic relationship between human and natural environment, a river health evaluation method was proposed from the aspects of ecosystem integrity and human service demand, and the understanding of river health connotation. The proposed method is based on the harmony theory and two types of river health assessment methods (the forecasting model and index evaluation). A new framework for assessing river water health was then formed from the perspective of harmony and dynamic evolution between human service demand and river ecosystem integrity. As a case study, the method and framework were applied to the Shaying River Basin, a tributary of the most polluted Huaihe River Basin in China. The health status of the river's ecosystem and its effect on the mainstream of Huaihe River were evaluated based on water ecological experiment. The results indicated that: (1) the water ecological environment in Shaying River was generally poor and showed a gradual changing pattern along the river. The river health levels were generally "medium" in the upstream but mostly "sub-disease" in the midstream and downstream, indicating that the water pollution in Shaying River were mainly concentrated in the midstream and downstream; (2) the water pollution of Shaying River had great influence on the ecosystem of Huaihe River, and the main influencing factors were TN, followed by TP and COD Mn ; (3) the natural attribute of river was transferring toward to the direction of socialization due to the increasing human activities. The stronger the human activity intervention is, the faster the transfer will be and the more river's attributes will match with human service demand. The proposed framework contributes to the research in water ecology and environment management, and the research results can serve as an important reference for basin management in Shaying River and Huaihe River. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Evaluation of recent hydro-climatic changes in four tributaries of the Niger River Basin (West Africa)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Badou, DF

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available West Africa experienced severe drought during the 1970s and 1980s, posing a threat to water resources. A wetter climate more recently suggests recovery from the drought. The Mann-Kendall trend and Theil-Sen’s slope estimator were applied to detect...

  6. IMPACT OF THE INVASION FROM NILE TILAPIA ON NATIVES CICHLIDAE SPECIES IN TRIBUTARY OF AMAZONAS RIVER, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Silva Bittencourt

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo providenciou a primeira investigação sobre impacto causado pela invasão da Oreochromis niloticus sobre a população de Cichlidae nativos da bacia hidrográfica Igarapé Fortaleza, um tributário do Rio Amazonas no estado do Amapá, no Norte do Brasil. Como uma consequência de escapes e/ou liberações intencionais de O. niloticus de pisciculturas, houve a invasão e estabelecimento dessa espécie de peixe exótico no ecossistema natural, especialmente em área de refúgio, alimentação e reprodução das espécies de ciclídeos nativos.  Os fatores que contribuíram para essa invasão e estabelecimento foram aqui discutidos. A invasão de O. niloticus está causando pressão sobre as populações de ciclídeos nativos, os quais encontram-se em baixa densidade populacional, pois 72,7% da biomassa dos ciclídeos (nativos e não nativos está constituída por O. niloticus. Consequentemente, a CPUE (2,489 kg.h-1 para essa tilápia invasora é muito superior aos valores da CPUE (0,641 kg.h-1 de todas as 16 espécies de ciclídeos nativos juntos. Os resultados indicam uma necessidade de plano de manejo para controle desse peixe invasor, evitando assim a extinção de espécies de ciclídeos nativos. Além disso, serão úteis também para a tomada de decisão crítica de instituições governamentais (estadual e federal quanto à aprovação da introdução de peixes não nativos na Amazônia ou qualquer outra região do país. Palavras-chaves: Amazônia, peixe exótico, Oreochromis niloticus, crescimento. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n3p88-94

  7. IMPACT OF ADDITIONALS CONTAMINANTS DUE TO ACID MINE DRAINAGE IN TRIBUTARIES OF THE PILCOMAYO RIVER FROM CERRO RICO, POTOSÍ, BOLIVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H.J. Strosnider

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Intensive mining and processing of the polymetallic sulfide ore body of Cerro Rico de Potosí (Bolivia has occurred since 1545. To further investigate acid mine drainage (AMD discharges and their link to downstream contamination, data were gathered during two sampling events during the most extreme periods of the dry and wet seasons of one year. Concentrations of Ag, B, Ba, Mo, Sb, Se, Sn and V in AMD and receiving streams were greater than Bolivian discharge limits and receiving water body guidelines as well as international agricultural use standards. High concentrations of rare earth metals have been documented in this area. Results indicate that contamination from mining has a larger scope than previously thought and underscore the importance of remediation.

  8. Saugus River and Tributaries, Lynn Malden, Revere and Saugus, Massachusetts. Flood Damage Reduction. Volume 1. Appendix A. Plan Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    along the Revere beach seawall and beadh alang roads and railroad anments. Table 2 shows the type of shorefront features, top elevations and top of...durin constructicn. The General Electric pipeline wc id require m modification since it is alcr the dike alignment. Impacts alang both riverbanks to...Pines neighborhood along project features would include: (a) Site restoration behind the revetments alang Rice Ave. with granite crbs, grass aid

  9. 75 FR 53197 - Restricted Area in Cape Fear River and Tributaries at Sunny Point Army Terminal, Brunswick County...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ....gov . Follow the instructions for submitting comments. E-mail: david.b.olson@usace.army.mil . Include..., Attn: CECW-CO (David B. Olson), 441 G Street, NW., Washington, DC 20314-1000. Hand Delivery/Courier... copy form. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. David Olson, Headquarters, Operations and Regulatory...

  10. Warm Season Storms, Floods, and Tributary Sand Inputs below Glen Canyon Dam: Investigating Salience to Adaptive Management in the Context of a 10-Year Long Controlled Flooding Experiment in Grand Canyon National Park, AZ, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, S.; Melis, T. S.; Topping, D. J.; Pulwarty, R. S.; Eischeid, J.

    2013-12-01

    The planning and decision processes in the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP) strive to balance numerous, often competing, objectives, such as, water supply, hydropower generation, low flow maintenance, maximizing conservation of downstream tributary sand supply, endangered native fish, and other sociocultural resources of Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Grand Canyon National Park. In this context, use of monitored and predictive information on the warm season floods (at point-to-regional scales) has been identified as lead-information for a new 10-year long controlled flooding experiment (termed the High-Flow Experiment Protocol) intended to determine management options for rebuilding and maintaining sandbars in Grand Canyon; an adaptive strategy that can potentially facilitate improved planning and dam operations. In this work, we focus on a key concern identified by the GCDAMP, related to the timing and volume of tributary sand input from the Paria and Little Colorado Rivers (located 26 and 124 km below the dam, respectively) into the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. Episodic and intraseasonal variations (with links to equatorial and sub-tropical Pacific sea surface temperature variability) in the southwest hydroclimatology are investigated to understand the magnitude, timing and spatial scales of warm season floods from this relatively small, but prolific sand producing drainage of the semi-arid Colorado Plateau. The coupled variations of the flood-driven sediment input (magnitude and timing) from these two drainages into the Colorado River are also investigated. The physical processes, including diagnosis of storms and moisture sources, are mapped alongside the planning and decision processes for the ongoing experimental flood releases from the Glen Canyon Dam which are aimed at achieving restoration and maintenance of sandbars and instream ecology. The GCDAMP represents one of the most visible and widely recognized

  11. FLOOD MODELING OF THE VUKA RIVER SECTION UPSTREAM OF ITS CONFLUENCE WITH THE DANUBE RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Marić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a section of the Vuka River from its confluence with the Danube River in Vukovar to 3 + 630 rkm was modeled. The possibility and size of floods in the surrounding area were analyzed for different return periods (2, 5, 10, 50, and 100 yrs. Although the high-water levels of the Danube River are lower than the terrain elevation of Vukovar, they cause backwater in the Vuka River and in its tributary, the Bobotski canal. In that indirect way, the surrounding area is endangered and the efficiency of drainage systems is reduced. The existing riverbed of the analyzed Vuka River section was digitalized based on a digital terrain model using the geographic information system (GIS software ArcGIS and the HEC-GeoRAS toolbar. A mathematical model of the steady-state flow of the Vuka river section using the digitized riverbed was executed in the HEC-RAS software using different return periods. The obtained velocities and water levels were analyzed using HEC-RAS, and the sizes of the flooded areas were calculated and observed in ArcGIS.

  12. Trends in suspended-sediment loads and concentrations in the Mississippi River Basin, 1950–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, David C.; Sprague, Lori A.; Blevins, Dale W.

    2011-01-01

    Trends in loads and concentrations of suspended sediment and suspended sand generally were downward for stations within the Mississippi River Basin during the 60-, 34-, and 12-year periods analyzed. Sediment transport in the lower Mississippi River has historically been, and continues to be, most closely correlative to sediment contributions from the Missouri River, which generally carried the largest annual suspended-sediment load of the major Mississippi River subbasins. The closure of Fort Randall Dam in the upper Missouri River in 1952 was the single largest event in the recorded historical decline of suspended-sediment loads in the Mississippi River Basin. Impoundments on tributaries and sediment reductions as a result of implementation of agricultural conservation practices throughout the basin likely account for much of the remaining Mississippi River sediment transport decline. Scour of the main-stem channel downstream from the upper Missouri River impoundments is likely the largest source of suspended sand in the lower Missouri River. The Ohio River was second to the Missouri River in terms of sediment contributions, followed by the upper Mississippi and Arkansas Rivers. Declines in sediment loads and concentrations continued through the most recent analysis period (1998–2009) at available Mississippi River Basin stations. Analyses of flow-adjusted concentrations of suspended sediment indicate the recent downward temporal changes generally can be explained by corresponding decreases in streamflows.

  13. An annotated bibliography for lamprey habitat in the White Salmon River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. Brady

    2012-01-01

    The October 2011 decommissioning of Condit Dam on the White Salmon River at river kilometer (rkm) 5.3 removed a significant fish passage barrier from the White Salmon River basin for the first time in nearly a century. This affords an opportunity to regain a potentially important drainage basin for Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) production. In anticipation of Pacific lamprey recolonization or reintroduction, aquatic resource managers, such as the Yakama Nation (YN), are planning to perform surveys in the White Salmon River and its tributaries. The likely survey objectives will be to investigate the presence of lamprey, habitat conditions, and habitat availability. In preparation for this work, a compilation and review of the relevant aquatic habitat and biological information on the White Salmon River was conducted. References specific to the White Salmon River were collected and an annotated bibliography was produced including reports containing:

  14. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix D: Exhibits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River and its tributaries are the primary water system in the Pacific Northwest, draining some 219,000 square miles in seven states and another 39,500 square miles in British Columbia. Beginning in the 1930`s, the Columbia River has been significantly modified by construction of 30 major dams on the river and its tributaries, along with dozens of non-Federal projects. Construction and subsequent operation of these water development projects have contributed to eight primary uses of the river system, including navigation, flood control, irrigation, electric power generation, fish migration, fish and wildlife habitat, recreation, and water supply and quality considerations. Increasing stress on the water development of the Columbia River and its tributaries has led primary Federal agencies to undertake intensive analysis and evaluation of the operation of these projects. These agencies are the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation, who operate the large Federal dams on the river, and the Bonneville Power Administration who sells the power generated at the dams. This review, termed the System Operation Review (SOR), has as its ultimate goal to define a strategy for future operation of the major Columbia River projects which effectively considers the needs of all river uses. This volume, Appendix D: Cultural resources appendix, Technical imput includes the following: Development of geomorphology based framework for cultural resources management, Dworshak Reservoir, Idaho; Impact profiles for SOR reservoirs; comments from the following Native American tribes: Burns Paiute Tribe; Coville Confederated Tribes; Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Indian Reservation; Confederated Tribes and bands of the Yakama Indian Nation (comments); Nez Perce Tribe; Coeur D`Alene Tribe; Spokane Tribe of Indians; The confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation.

  15. Hybrid modelling of bed-discordant river confluences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franca, M. J.; Guillén-Ludeña, S.; Cheng, Z.; Cardoso, A. H.; Constantinescu, G.

    2016-12-01

    In fluvial networks, tributaries are the main providers of sediment and water to the main rivers. Furthermore, confluences are environmental hotspots since they provide ecological connectivity and flow and morphology diversity. Mountain confluences, in particular, are characterized by narrow and steep tributaries that provide important sediment load to the confluence, whereas the main channel supplies the dominant flow discharge. This results in a marked bed discordance between the tributary and main channel. This discordance has been observed to be a key feature that alters the dynamics of the confluence, when compared to concordant confluences. The processes of initiation and maintenance of the morphology of confluences is still unknown, and research linking morphodynamics and hydrodynamics of river confluences is required to understand this. Here, a hybrid approach combining laboratory experiments made in a live-bed model of a river confluence, with 3D numerical simulations using advanced turbulence models is presented. We use the laboratory experiments performed by Guillén-Ludeña et al. (2016) for a 70o channel confluence, which focused on sediment transport and morphology changes rather than on the structure of the flow. Highly eddy resolving simulations were performed for two extreme bathymetric conditions, at the start of the experiment and at equilibrium scour conditions. The first allows to understand the initiation mechanisms which will condition later the equilibrium morphology. The second allows to understand the hydrodynamics actions which keep the equilibrium morphology. The patterns of the mean flow, turbulence and dynamics of the large-scale coherent structures, show how the main sediment-entrainment mechanisms evolve during the scour process. The present results contribute to a better understanding of the interaction between bed morphology and flow dynamics at discordant mountain river confluences.

  16. A chemometric approach to the evaluation of atmospheric and fluvial pollutant inputs in aquatic systems: The Guadalquivir River estuary as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Lopez, Jose A.; Garcia-Vargas, Manuel; Moreno, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    To establish the quality of waters it is necessary to identify both point and non-point pollution sources. In this work, we propose the combination of clean analytical methodologies and chemometric tools to study discrete and diffuse pollution caused in a river by tributaries and precipitations, respectively. During a two-year period, water samples were taken in the Guadalquivir river (selected as a case study) and its main tributaries before and after precipitations. Samples were characterized by analysing nutrients, pH, dissolved oxygen, total and volatile suspended solids, carbon species, and heavy metals. Results were used to estimate fluvial and atmospheric inputs and as tracers for anthropic activities. Multivariate analysis was used to estimate the background pollution, and to identify pollution inputs. Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis were used as data exploratory tools, while box-whiskers plots and Linear Discriminant Analysis were used to analyse and distinguish the different types of water samples. - Highlights: → Atmospheric and fluvial inputs of pollutants in Guadalquivir River were identified. → Point (tributary rivers) and non-point sources (rains) were studied. → Nature and extension of anthropogenic pollution in the river were established. - By combining trace environmental analysis and selected chemometric tools atmospheric and fluvial inputs of pollutants in rivers may be identified. The extension of the pollution originated by each anthropic activity developed along the River may be established, as well as the identification of the pollution introduced into the river by the tributary rivers (point sources) and by rains (non-point sources).

  17. The Serchio River catchment, northern Tuscany: Geochemistry of stream waters and sediments, and isotopic composition of dissolved sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortecci, Gianni; Dinelli, Enrico; Boschetti, Tiziano; Arbizzani, Paola; Pompilio, Loredana; Mussi, Mario

    2008-01-01

    The Serchio River and its tributaries in northern Tuscany were investigated for the chemical and isotopic compositions of waters and bed sediments. Bedrocks are mostly limestone/dolomite and siliciclastics, thermal spring systems are present in the catchment, and the main industrial activity is represented by paper-mills. Main results obtained are: (1) major ions in solution appear to be basically controlled by precipitation and lithology, as well as subordinately by direct inputs of thermal springs, (2) human influence on metals in the waters along the main Serchio and Lima rivers is indicated at a number of sites by increases in concentration compared to the chemical composition of upstream tributaries, (3) S and O isotope compositions delineate two main sources for aqueous SO 4 2- , that is dissolution of Triassic evaporite (directly or via thermal springs) and oxidation of sulfide dispersed in siliciclastic rocks. Anthropogenic contributions are probable, but they cannot be quantitatively assessed. Only SO 4 2- in the notoriously polluted Ozzeri tributary is suspected to be largely anthropogenic, and (4) the chemical composition of bed sediments is mainly influenced by lithology, apart from a number of technogenic elements in the upper part of the Serchio River and in some tributaries. Contamination possibly occurs at other sites, but geochemical indications are weak

  18. Mineral compositions and sources of the riverbed sediment in the desert channel of Yellow River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaopeng; Wang, Haibing

    2011-02-01

    The Yellow River flows through an extensive, aeolian desert area and extends from Xiaheyan, Ningxia Province, to Toudaoguai, Inner Mongolia Province, with a total length of 1,000 km. Due to the construction and operation of large reservoirs in the upstream of the Yellow River, most water and sediment from upstream were stored in these reservoirs, which leads to the declining flow in the desert channel that has no capability to scour large amount of input of desert sands from the desert regions. By analyzing and comparing the spatial distribution of weight percent of mineral compositions between sediment sources and riverbed sediment of the main tributaries and the desert channel of the Yellow River, we concluded that the coarse sediment deposited in the desert channel of the Yellow River were mostly controlled by the local sediment sources. The analyzed results of the Quartz-Feldspar-Mica (QFM) triangular diagram and the R-factor models of the coarse sediment in the Gansu reach and the desert channel of the Yellow River further confirm that the Ningxia Hedong desert and the Inner Mongolian Wulanbuhe and Kubuqi deserts are the main provenances of the coarse sediment in the desert channel of the Yellow River. Due to the higher fluidity of the fine sediment, they are mainly contributed by the local sediment sources and the tributaries that originated from the loess area of the upper reach of the Yellow River.

  19. Hydrogeochemical characteristics of the River Sava watershed in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjaša Kanduč

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The River Sava is a typical HCO3- – Ca2+ – Mg2+ River. Total alkalinity increases in the part of the watershed composed of carbonate and clastic rocks, which are less resistant to weathering processes. Ca2+/Mg2+ ratios are around 2 in the carbonate part of the watershed and increase in the watershed composed of carbonate and clastic rocks, indicating dissolution of calcite with magnesium. According to PHREEQC for Windows calculations, the River Sava and its tributaries are oversaturated with respect to calcite and dolomite. δ18OH2O and δDH2O are related to the meteorological patterns in the drainage basin. River water temperatures fluctuate annually following air temperatures.The relationship between the temperature and δ18OH2O and δDH2O values primarily reflects the strong dependenceof δ18O and δD on precipitation and evaporative enrichment in heavy oxygen and hydrogen isotopes of infiltrating water recharging the River Sava from its slopes.The δ13CDIC values are controlled by processes in the terrestrial ecosystem and stream proces-ses such as: (1 dissolution of carbonates, (2 soil derived CO2, and (3 equilibration with atmospheric CO2. Lower δ13CDIC values are observed in the spring sampling season due to abundant precipitation related to soil leaching of CO2 in the river system. From discharge and concentration measurements of sulphate and according to the drainage area of the River Sava basin, the annual sulphur fluxat the border with Croatia was estimated to be 1.4 × 107 g SO4/km2. Assuming that the sources of SO42- to the Sava are its tributaries, precipitationand other sources, the contributions of these inputs were calculated according to steady state equations and estimated to be 52 : 8 : 40 %, respectively. Other sources are attributed to human influences such as industrial pollution and oxidation of sulphides.