WorldWideScience

Sample records for river site reactors

  1. Savannah River Site reactor safety assessment. Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woody, N.D.; Brandyberry, M.D. [eds.] [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Baker, W.H.; Brandyberry, M.D.; Kearnaghan, D.P.; O`Kula, K.R.; Woody, N.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Amos, C.N.; Weingardt, J.J. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1991-02-28

    This report gives the results of a Savannah River Site (SRS) Production Reactor risk assessment. Measures of adverse consequences to health and safety resulting from representations of severe accidents in SRS reactors are presented. In addition, the report gives a summary of the methods employed to represent these accidents and to assess the resultant consequences. The report is issued to provide timely information to the US Department of Energy (DOE) on the risk of operation of SRS reactors, for insights into severe accident phenomena that contribute to this risk, and in support of improved bases for other Site programs in Heavy Water Reactor safety.

  2. Savannah River Site production reactor technical specifications. K Production Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    These technical specifications are explicit restrictions on the operation of the Savannah River Site K Production Reactor. They are designed to preserve the validity of the plant safety analysis by ensuring that the plant is operated within the required conditions bounded by the analysis, and with the operable equipment that is assumed to mitigate the consequences of an accident. Technical specifications preserve the primary success path relied upon to detect and respond to accidents. This report describes requirements on thermal-hydraulic limits; limiting conditions for operation and surveillance for the reactor, power distribution control, instrumentation, process water system, emergency cooling and emergency shutdown systems, confinement systems, plant systems, electrical systems, components handling, and special test exceptions; design features; and administrative controls.

  3. Savannah River Site K-Reactor Probabilistic Safety Assessment

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    Brandyberry, M.D.; Bailey, R.T.; Baker, W.H.; Kearnaghan, D.P.; O`Kula, K.R.; Wittman, R.S.; Woody, N.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Amos, C.N.; Weingardt, J.J. [Science Applications International Corp. (United States)

    1992-12-01

    This report gives the results of a Savannah River Site (SRS) K-Reactor Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). Measures of adverse consequences to health and safety resulting from representations of severe accidents in SRS reactors are presented. In addition, the report gives a summary of the methods employed to represent these accidents and to assess the resultant consequences. The report is issued to provide useful information to the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) on the risk of operation of SRS reactors, for insights into severe accident phenomena that contribute to this risk, and in support of improved bases for other DOE programs in Heavy Water Reactor safety.

  4. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE R REACTOR DISASSEMBLY BASIN IN SITU DECOMMISSIONING

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    Langton, C.; Blankenship, J.; Griffin, W.; Serrato, M.

    2009-12-03

    The US DOE concept for facility in-situ decommissioning (ISD) is to physically stabilize and isolate in tact, structurally sound facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose of, i.e., generating (reactor facilities), processing(isotope separation facilities) or storing radioactive materials. The 105-R Disassembly Basin is the first SRS reactor facility to undergo the in-situ decommissioning (ISD) process. This ISD process complies with the105-R Disassembly Basin project strategy as outlined in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the Grouting of the R-Reactor Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site and includes: (1) Managing residual water by solidification in-place or evaporation at another facility; (2) Filling the below grade portion of the basin with cementitious materials to physically stabilize the basin and prevent collapse of the final cap - Sludge and debris in the bottom few feet of the basin will be encapsulated between the basin floor and overlying fill material to isolate if from the environment; (3) Demolishing the above grade portion of the structure and relocating the resulting debris to another location or disposing of the debris in-place; and (4) Capping the basin area with a concrete slab which is part of an engineered cap to prevent inadvertent intrusion. The estimated total grout volume to fill the 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin is 24,424 cubic meters or 31,945 cubic yards. Portland cement-based structural fill materials were design and tested for the reactor ISD project and a placement strategy for stabilizing the basin was developed. Based on structural engineering analyses and work flow considerations, the recommended maximum lift height is 5 feet with 24 hours between lifts. Pertinent data and information related to the SRS 105-R-Reactor Disassembly Basin in-situ decommissioning include: regulatory documentation, residual water management, area preparation activities, technology needs, fill material designs

  5. Analysis of Removal Alternatives for the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, M.B. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1996-08-01

    This engineering study was developed to evaluate different options for decommissioning of the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) at the Savannah River Site. This document will be placed in the DOE-SRS Area reading rooms for a period of 30 days in order to obtain public input to plans for the demolition of HWCTR.

  6. Groundwater modeling of the proposed new production reactor site, Savannah River Site, South Carolina

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    Looney, B.B.; Haselow, J.S.; Andersen, P.F.; Spalding, C.P.; Davis, D.H.

    1990-01-05

    This report addresses groundwater modeling performed to support the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) that is being prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE). The EIS pertains to construction and operation of a new production reactor (NPR) that is under consideration for the Savannah River Site (SRS). Three primary issues are addressed by the modeling analysis: (1) groundwater availability, (2) changes in vertical hydraulic gradients as a result of groundwater pumpage, and (3) migration of potential contaminants from the NPR site. The modeling indicates that the maximum pumpage to be used, 1000 gpm, will induce only minor drawdown across SRS. Pumpage of this magnitude will have a limited effect on the upward gradient from the Cretaceous into the Tertiary near Upper Three Runs Creek. Potentiometric surface maps generated from modeled results indicate that horizontal flow in the water table is either towards Four Mile Creek to the north or to Pen Branch on the south. Particle tracking analysis indicates that the primary flow paths are vertical into the Lower Tertiary Zone, with very little lateral migration. Total travel times from the NPR site to the edge of the model (approximately 3 miles) is on the order of 50 years. The flow direction of water in the Lower Tertiary Zone is relatively well defined due to the regional extent of the flow system. The Pen Branch Fault does not influence contaminant migration for this particular site because it is in the opposite direction of Lower Tertiary Zone groundwater flow. 20 refs., 27 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE R-REACTOR DISASSEMBLY BASIN IN-SITU DECOMMISSIONING -10499

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    Langton, C.; Serrato, M.; Blankenship, J.; Griffin, W.

    2010-01-04

    The US DOE concept for facility in-situ decommissioning (ISD) is to physically stabilize and isolate intact, structurally sound facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose, i.e., generating (reactor facilities), processing(isotope separation facilities) or storing radioactive materials. The 105-R Disassembly Basin is the first SRS reactor facility to undergo the in-situ decommissioning (ISD) process. This ISD process complies with the 105-R Disassembly Basin project strategy as outlined in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the Grouting of the R-Reactor Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site and includes: (1) Managing residual water by solidification in-place or evaporation at another facility; (2) Filling the below grade portion of the basin with cementitious materials to physically stabilize the basin and prevent collapse of the final cap - Sludge and debris in the bottom few feet of the basin will be encapsulated between the basin floor and overlying fill material to isolate it from the environment; (3) Demolishing the above grade portion of the structure and relocating the resulting debris to another location or disposing of the debris in-place; and (4) Capping the basin area with a concrete slab which is part of an engineered cap to prevent inadvertent intrusion. The estimated total grout volume to fill the 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin is 24,384 cubic meters or 31,894 cubic yards. Portland cement-based structural fill materials were designed and tested for the reactor ISD project, and a placement strategy for stabilizing the basin was developed. Based on structural engineering analyses and material flow considerations, maximum lift heights and differential height requirements were determined. Pertinent data and information related to the SRS 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin in-situ decommissioning include: regulatory documentation, residual water management, area preparation activities, technology needs, fill material

  8. ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE HEATING OF SOILS AT C-REACTOR AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

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    Blundy, R; Michael Morgenstern, M; Joseph Amari, J; Annamarie MacMurray, A; Mark Farrar, M; Terry Killeen, T

    2007-09-10

    Chlorinated solvent contamination of soils and groundwater is an endemic problem at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and originated as by-products from the nuclear materials manufacturing process. Five nuclear reactors at the SRS produced special nuclear materials for the nation's defense program throughout the cold war era. An important step in the process was thorough degreasing of the fuel and target assemblies prior to irradiation. Discharges from this degreasing process resulted in significant groundwater contamination that would continue well into the future unless a soil remediation action was performed. The largest reactor contamination plume originated from C-Reactor and an interim action was selected in 2004 to remove the residual trichloroethylene (TCE) source material by electrical resistance heating (ERH) technology. This would be followed by monitoring to determine the rate of decrease in concentration in the contaminant plume. Because of the existence of numerous chlorinated solvent sources around SRS, it was elected to generate in-house expertise in the design and operation of ERH, together with the construction of a portable ERH/SVE system that could be deployed at multiple locations around the site. This paper describes the waste unit characteristics, the ERH system design and operation, together with extensive data accumulated from the first deployment adjacent to the C-Reactor building. The installation heated the vadose zone down to 62 feet bgs over a 60 day period during the summer of 2006 and raised soil temperatures to over 200 F. A total of 730 lbs of trichloroethylene (TCE) were removed over this period, and subsequent sampling indicated a removal efficiency of 99.4%.

  9. Safety Evaluation Report Restart of K-Reactor Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    In April 1991, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued DOE/DP-0084T, Safety Evaluation Report Restart of K-Reactor Savannah River Site.'' The Safety Evaluation Report (SER) documents the results of DOE reviews and evaluations of the programmatic aspects of a large number of issues necessary to be satisfactorily addressed before restart. The issues were evaluated for compliance with the restart criteria included in the SER. The results of those evaluations determined that the restart criteria had been satisfied for some of the issues. However, for most of the issues at least part of the applicable restart criteria had not been found to be satisfied at the time the evaluations were prepared. For those issues, open or confirmatory items were identified that required resolution. In August 1991, DOE issued DOE/DP-0090T, Safety Evaluation Report Restart of K-Reactor Savannah River Site Supplement 1.'' That document was the first Supplement to the April 1991 SER, and documented the resolution of 62 of the open items identified in the SER. This document is the second Supplement to the April 1991 SER. This second SER Supplement documents the resolution of additional open times identified in the SER, and includes a complete list of all remaining SER open items. The resolution of those remaining open items will be documented in future SER Supplements. Resolution of all open items for an issue indicates that its associated restart criteria have been satisfied, and that DOE concludes that the programmatic aspects of the issue have been satisfactorily addressed.

  10. Evaluation of radcal gamma thermometers for in-core monitoring of Savannah River Site production reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCulloch, R.W.; Crowley, J.L. [DELTA M Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Croft, W.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) recently obtained a quantity of Radcal Gamma Thermometer Assemblies (RGTAs) for in-core monitoring of local power in their production reactors. The RGTAs, manufactured by DELTA M Corporation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, contained seven Self Calibrating Gamma Thermometer (SCGT) sensors within a 7.26 mm diameter, 3.06 m length with a total length of 5.6 m. All RGTAs contained an isolated segmented heater cable for in-situ calibration. Each SCGT sensor was subjected to a 40 point calibration at discrete power levels from 0.5 to 6 watts per gram (w/g) under both joule and cable power. Calibration equations were developed from this to predict reactor power at each sensor. Additionally three units were calibrated at combined joule and cable heating conditions from 0.5 to 2.5 w/g cable and 0.5 to 6 w/g joule. A statistical analysis of all data was used to derive prediction equations that enable SRS engineers to precisely track any changes in sensor calibration throughout the lifetime of the instruments. This paper presents the detailed configuration of the 36 units manufactured for SRS, reviews the calibration results, and discusses the utility and accuracy of the statistically derived prediction equations for in-situ calibration.

  11. Evaluation of radcal gamma thermometers for in-core monitoring of Savannah River Site production reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCulloch, R.W.; Crowley, J.L. (DELTA M Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)); Croft, W.D. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) recently obtained a quantity of Radcal Gamma Thermometer Assemblies (RGTAs) for in-core monitoring of local power in their production reactors. The RGTAs, manufactured by DELTA M Corporation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, contained seven Self Calibrating Gamma Thermometer (SCGT) sensors within a 7.26 mm diameter, 3.06 m length with a total length of 5.6 m. All RGTAs contained an isolated segmented heater cable for in-situ calibration. Each SCGT sensor was subjected to a 40 point calibration at discrete power levels from 0.5 to 6 watts per gram (w/g) under both joule and cable power. Calibration equations were developed from this to predict reactor power at each sensor. Additionally three units were calibrated at combined joule and cable heating conditions from 0.5 to 2.5 w/g cable and 0.5 to 6 w/g joule. A statistical analysis of all data was used to derive prediction equations that enable SRS engineers to precisely track any changes in sensor calibration throughout the lifetime of the instruments. This paper presents the detailed configuration of the 36 units manufactured for SRS, reviews the calibration results, and discusses the utility and accuracy of the statistically derived prediction equations for in-situ calibration.

  12. Restart of K-Reactor, Savannah River Site: Safety evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    This Safety Evaluation Report (SER) focuses on those issues required to support the restart of the K-Reactor at the Savannah River Plant. This SER provides the safety criteria for restart and documents the results of the staff reviews of the DOE and operating contractor activities to meet these criteria. To develop the restart criteria for the issues discussed in this SER, the Savannah River Restart Office and Savannah River Special Projects Office staffs relied, when possible, on commercial industry codes and standards and on NRC requirements and guidelines for the commercial nuclear industry. However, because of the age and uniqueness of the Savannah River reactors, criteria for the commercial plants were not always applicable. In these cases, alternate criteria were developed. The restart criteria applicable to each of the issues are identified in the safety evaluations for each issue. The restart criteria identified in this report are intended to apply only to restart of the Savannah River reactors. Following the development of the acceptance criteria, the DOE staff and their support contractors evaluated the results of the DOE and operating contractor (WSRC) activities to meet these criteria. The results of those evaluations are documented in this report. Deviations or failures to meet the requirements are either justified in the report or carried as open or confirmatory items to be completed and evaluated in supplements to this report before restart. 62 refs., 1 fig.

  13. ASSESSMENT OF THE POTENTIAL FOR HYDROGEN GENERATION DURING DEACTIVATION AND DECOMMISSIONING OF REACTOR VESSELS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.; Serrato, M.; Langton, C.

    2010-11-10

    The R- and P-reactor vessels at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are being prepared for deactivation and decommissioning (D&D). D&D activities will consist primarily of physically isolating and stabilizing the reactor vessel by filling it with a grout material. The reactor vessels contain aluminum alloy materials, which pose a concern in that aluminum corrodes rapidly when it comes in contact with the alkaline grout. A product of the corrosion reaction is hydrogen gas and therefore potential flammability issues were assessed. A model was developed to calculate the hydrogen generation rate as the reactor is being filled with the grout material. Three options existed for the type of grout material for D&D of the reactor vessels. The grout formulation options included ceramicrete (pH 6-8), a calcium aluminate sulfate (CAS) based cement (pH 10), or Portland cement grout (pH 12.4). Corrosion data for aluminum in concrete were utilized as input for the model. The calculations considered such factors as the surface area of the aluminum components, the open cross-sectional area of the reactor vessel, the rate at which the grout is added to the reactor vessel, and temperature. Given the hydrogen generation rate, the hydrogen concentration in the vapor space of the reactor vessel above the grout was calculated. This concentration was compared to the lower flammability limit for hydrogen. The assessment concluded that either ceramicrete or the CAS grout may be used to safely grout the P-reactor vessel. The risk of accumulation of a flammable mixture of hydrogen between the grout-air interface and the top of the reactor is very low. Portland cement grout, on the other hand, for the same range of process parameters did not provide a margin of safety against the accumulation of flammable gas in the reactor vessel during grouting operations in the P-reactor vessel. Therefore, it was recommended that this grout not be utilized for this task. On the other hand, the R-reactor vessel

  14. Residual radioactivity guidelines for the heavy water components test reactor at the Savannah River Site

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    Owen, M.B. Smith, R.; McNeil, J.

    1997-04-01

    Guidelines were developed for acceptable levels of residual radioactivity in the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) facility at the conclusion of its decommissioning. Using source terms developed from data generated in a detailed characterization study, the RESRAD and RASRAD-BUILD computer codes were used to calculate derived concentration guideline levels (DCGLs) for the radionuclides that will remain in the facility. The calculated DCGLs, when compared to existing concentrations of radionuclides measured during a 1996 characterization program, indicate that no decontamination of concrete surfaces will be necessary. Also, based on the results of the calculations, activated concrete in the reactor biological shield does not have to be removed, and imbedded radioactive piping in the facility can remain in place. Viewed in another way, the results of the calculations showed that the present inventory of residual radioactivity in the facility (not including that associated with the reactor vessel and steam generators) would produce less than one millirem per year above background to a hypothetical individual on the property. The residual radioactivity is estimated to be approximately 0.04 percent of the total inventory in the facility as of March, 1997. According to the results, the only radionuclides that would produce greater than 0.0.1-millirem per year are Am-241 (0.013 mrem/yr at 300 years), C-14 (0.022 mrem/yr at 1000 years) and U-238 (0.034 mrem/yr at 6000 years). Human exposure would occur only through the groundwater pathways, that is, from water drawn from, a well on the property. The maximum exposure would be approximately one percent of the 4 millirem per year ground water exposure limit established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 11 refs., 13 figs., 15 tabs.

  15. Analysis of removal alternatives for the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor at the Savannah River Site. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, M.B.

    1997-04-01

    This engineering study evaluates different alternatives for decontamination and decommissioning of the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR). Cooled and moderated with pressurized heavy water, this uranium-fueled nuclear reactor was designed to test fuel assemblies for heavy water power reactors. It was operated for this purpose from march of 1962 until December of 1964. Four alternatives studied in detail include: (1) dismantlement, in which all radioactive and hazardous contaminants would be removed, the containment dome dismantled and the property restored to a condition similar to its original preconstruction state; (2) partial dismantlement and interim safe storage, where radioactive equipment except for the reactor vessel and steam generators would be removed, along with hazardous materials, and the building sealed with remote monitoring equipment in place to permit limited inspections at five-year intervals; (3) conversion for beneficial reuse, in which most radioactive equipment and hazardous materials would be removed and the containment building converted to another use such as a storage facility for radioactive materials, and (4) entombment, which involves removing hazardous materials, filling the below-ground structure with concrete, removing the containment dome and pouring a concrete cap on the tomb. Also considered was safe storage, but this approach, which has, in effect, been followed for the past 30 years, did not warrant detailed evaluation. The four other alternatives were evaluate, taking into account factors such as potential effects on the environment, risks, effectiveness, ease of implementation and cost. The preferred alternative was determined to be dismantlement. This approach is recommended because it ranks highest in the comparative analysis, would serve as the best prototype for the site reactor decommissioning program and would be most compatible with site property reuse plans for the future.

  16. Hydrogeological and Groundwater Flow Model for C, K, L, and P Reactor Areas, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G.P.

    1999-02-24

    A regional groundwater flow model encompassing approximately 100 mi{sup 2} surrounding the C, K. L. and P reactor areas has been developed. The Reactor flow model is designed to meet the planning objectives outlined in the General Groundwater Strategy for Reactor Area Projects by providing a common framework for analyzing groundwater flow, contaminant migration and remedial alternatives within the Reactor Projects team of the Environmental Restoration Department.

  17. Regional groundwater flow model for C, K. L. and P reactor areas, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC

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    Flach, G.P.

    2000-02-11

    A regional groundwater flow model encompassing approximately 100 mi2 surrounding the C, K, L, and P reactor areas has been developed. The reactor flow model is designed to meet the planning objectives outlined in the General Groundwater Strategy for Reactor Area Projects by providing a common framework for analyzing groundwater flow, contaminant migration and remedial alternatives within the Reactor Projects team of the Environmental Restoration Department. The model provides a quantitative understanding of groundwater flow on a regional scale within the near surface aquifers and deeper semi-confined to confined aquifers. The model incorporates historical and current field characterization data up through Spring 1999. Model preprocessing is automated so that future updates and modifications can be performed quickly and efficiently. The CKLP regional reactor model can be used to guide characterization, perform scoping analyses of contaminant transport, and serve as a common base for subsequent finer-scale transport and remedial/feasibility models for each reactor area.

  18. Radioiodine in the Savannah River Site environment

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    Kantelo, M.V.; Bauer, L.R.; Marter, W.L.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Zeigler, C.C.

    1993-01-15

    Radioiodine, which is the collective term for all radioactive isotopes of the element iodine, is formed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) principally as a by-product of nuclear reactor operations. Part of the radioiodine is released to the environment during reactor and reprocessing operations at the site. The purpose of this report is to provide an introduction to radioiodine production and disposition, its status in the environment, and the radiation dose and health risks as a consequence of its release to the environment around the Savannah River Plant. A rigorous dose reconstruction study is to be completed by thee Center for Disease Control during the 1990s.

  19. Radioiodine in the Savannah River Site environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantelo, M.V.; Bauer, L.R.; Marter, W.L.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Zeigler, C.C.

    1993-01-15

    Radioiodine, which is the collective term for all radioactive isotopes of the element iodine, is formed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) principally as a by-product of nuclear reactor operations. Part of the radioiodine is released to the environment during reactor and reprocessing operations at the site. The purpose of this report is to provide an introduction to radioiodine production and disposition, its status in the environment, and the radiation dose and health risks as a consequence of its release to the environment around the Savannah River Plant. A rigorous dose reconstruction study is to be completed by thee Center for Disease Control during the 1990s.

  20. Feasibility of processing the experimental breeder reactor-II driver fuel from the Idaho National Laboratory through Savannah River Site's H-Canyon facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magoulas, V. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-28

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to evaluate the potential to receive and process the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) uranium (U) recovered from the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) driver fuel through the Savannah River Site’s (SRS) H-Canyon as a way to disposition the material. INL recovers the uranium from the sodium bonded metallic fuel irradiated in the EBR-II reactor using an electrorefining process. There were two compositions of EBR-II driver fuel. The early generation fuel was U-5Fs, which consisted of 95% U metal alloyed with 5% noble metal elements “fissium” (2.5% molybdenum, 2.0% ruthenium, 0.3% rhodium, 0.1% palladium, and 0.1% zirconium), while the later generation was U-10Zr which was 90% U metal alloyed with 10% zirconium. A potential concern during the H-Canyon nitric acid dissolution process of the U metal containing zirconium (Zr) is the explosive behavior that has been reported for alloys of these materials. For this reason, this evaluation was focused on the ability to process the lower Zr content materials, the U-5Fs material.

  1. Cesium in the Savannah River Site environment

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    Carlton, W.H.; Bauer, L.R.; Evans, A.G.; Geary, L.A.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Pinder, J.E.; Strom, R.N.

    1992-03-01

    Cesium in the Savannah River Site Environment is published as a part of the Radiological Assessment Program (RAP). It is the fourth in a series of eight documents on individual radioisotopes released to the environment as a result of Savannah River Site (SRS) operations. The earlier documents describe the environmental consequences of tritium, iodine, and uranium. Documents on plutonium, strontium, carbon, and technetium will be published in the future. These are dynamic documents and current plans call for revising and updating each one on a two-year schedule.Radiocesium exists in the environment as a result of above-ground nuclear weapons tests, the Chernobyl accident, the destruction of satellite Cosmos 954, small releases from reactors and reprocessing plants, and the operation of industrial, medical, and educational facilities. Radiocesium has been produced at SRS during the operation of five production reactors. Several hundred curies of [sup 137]Cs was released into streams in the late 50s and 60s from leaking fuel elements. Smaller quantities were released from the fuel reprocessing operations. About 1400 Ci of [sup 137]Cs was released to seepage basins where it was tightly bound by clay in the soil. A much smaller quantity, about four Ci. was released to the atmosphere. Radiocesium concentration and mechanisms for atmospheric, surface water, and groundwater have been extensively studied by Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and ecological mechanisms have been studied by Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL). The overall radiological impact of SRS releases on the offsite maximum individual can be characterized by total doses of 033 mrem (atmospheric) and 60 mrem (liquid), compared with a dose of 12,960 mrem from non-SRS sources during the same period of time. Isotope [sup 137]Cs releases have resulted in a negligible risk to the environment and the population it supports.

  2. Cesium in the Savannah River Site environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H.; Bauer, L.R.; Evans, A.G.; Geary, L.A.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Pinder, J.E.; Strom, R.N.

    1992-03-01

    Cesium in the Savannah River Site Environment is published as a part of the Radiological Assessment Program (RAP). It is the fourth in a series of eight documents on individual radioisotopes released to the environment as a result of Savannah River Site (SRS) operations. The earlier documents describe the environmental consequences of tritium, iodine, and uranium. Documents on plutonium, strontium, carbon, and technetium will be published in the future. These are dynamic documents and current plans call for revising and updating each one on a two-year schedule.Radiocesium exists in the environment as a result of above-ground nuclear weapons tests, the Chernobyl accident, the destruction of satellite Cosmos 954, small releases from reactors and reprocessing plants, and the operation of industrial, medical, and educational facilities. Radiocesium has been produced at SRS during the operation of five production reactors. Several hundred curies of {sup 137}Cs was released into streams in the late 50s and 60s from leaking fuel elements. Smaller quantities were released from the fuel reprocessing operations. About 1400 Ci of {sup 137}Cs was released to seepage basins where it was tightly bound by clay in the soil. A much smaller quantity, about four Ci. was released to the atmosphere. Radiocesium concentration and mechanisms for atmospheric, surface water, and groundwater have been extensively studied by Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and ecological mechanisms have been studied by Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL). The overall radiological impact of SRS releases on the offsite maximum individual can be characterized by total doses of 033 mrem (atmospheric) and 60 mrem (liquid), compared with a dose of 12,960 mrem from non-SRS sources during the same period of time. Isotope {sup 137}Cs releases have resulted in a negligible risk to the environment and the population it supports.

  3. Advanced separations at Savannah River site

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    Thompson, M.C. [Savannah River Technology Center, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has many waste streams that are contaminated with radionuclides and/or hazardous materials that must be treated to remove the radioactivity (Cs, Sr, tritium, actinides) and hazardous components (poly-chlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], cyanide, metal ions). This task provides testbeds for ESP-developed materials and technology using actual SRS waste streams. The work includes different SRS waste streams: high-level waste (HLW) solutions currently stored in underground tanks onsite, water recycled from the waste vitrification plant, groundwater and other aqueous streams contaminated with metal ions and radionuclides, and reactor basin water in excess facilities. Another part of this task is to provide a report on materials for Cs removal from aqueous solutions for use as a reference.

  4. Savannah River Site generic data base development

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    Blanton, C.H.; Eide, S.A.

    1993-06-30

    This report describes the results of a project to improve the generic component failure data base for the Savannah River Site (SRS). A representative list of components and failure modes for SRS risk models was generated by reviewing existing safety analyses and component failure data bases and from suggestions from SRS safety analysts. Then sources of data or failure rate estimates were identified and reviewed for applicability. A major source of information was the Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability, or NUCLARR. This source includes an extensive collection of failure data and failure rate estimates for commercial nuclear power plants. A recent Idaho National Engineering Laboratory report on failure data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant was also reviewed. From these and other recent sources, failure data and failure rate estimates were collected for the components and failure modes of interest. This information was aggregated to obtain a recommended generic failure rate distribution (mean and error factor) for each component failure mode.

  5. Savannah River Site computing architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-03-29

    A computing architecture is a framework for making decisions about the implementation of computer technology and the supporting infrastructure. Because of the size, diversity, and amount of resources dedicated to computing at the Savannah River Site (SRS), there must be an overall strategic plan that can be followed by the thousands of site personnel who make decisions daily that directly affect the SRS computing environment and impact the site`s production and business systems. This plan must address the following requirements: There must be SRS-wide standards for procurement or development of computing systems (hardware and software). The site computing organizations must develop systems that end users find easy to use. Systems must be put in place to support the primary function of site information workers. The developers of computer systems must be given tools that automate and speed up the development of information systems and applications based on computer technology. This document describes a proposal for a site-wide computing architecture that addresses the above requirements. In summary, this architecture is standards-based data-driven, and workstation-oriented with larger systems being utilized for the delivery of needed information to users in a client-server relationship.

  6. HANFORD SITE RIVER CORRIDOR CLEANUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BAZZELL, K.D.

    2006-02-01

    In 2005, the US Department of Energy (DOE) launched the third generation of closure contracts, including the River Corridor Closure (RCC) Contract at Hanford. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made on cleaning up the river shore that bordes Hanford. However, the most important cleanup challenges lie ahead. In March 2005, DOE awarded the Hanford River Corridor Closure Contract to Washington Closure Hanford (WCH), a limited liability company owned by Washington Group International, Bechtel National and CH2M HILL. It is a single-purpose company whose goal is to safely and efficiently accelerate cleanup in the 544 km{sup 2} Hanford river corridor and reduce or eliminate future obligations to DOE for maintaining long-term stewardship over the site. The RCC Contract is a cost-plus-incentive-fee closure contract, which incentivizes the contractor to reduce cost and accelerate the schedule. At $1.9 billion and seven years, WCH has accelerated cleaning up Hanford's river corridor significantly compared to the $3.2 billion and 10 years originally estimated by the US Army Corps of Engineers. Predictable funding is one of the key features of the new contract, with funding set by contract at $183 million in fiscal year (FY) 2006 and peaking at $387 million in FY2012. Another feature of the contract allows for Washington Closure to perform up to 40% of the value of the contract and subcontract the balance. One of the major challenges in the next few years will be to identify and qualify sufficient subcontractors to meet the goal.

  7. Savannah River Reactor Operation: Indices of risk for emergency planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Kula, K.R.; East, J.M.

    1990-10-01

    Periodically it is necessary to re-examine the implications of new source terms for neighboring offsite populations as Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Severe Accident studies mature, and lead to a better understanding of the progression of hypothetical core melt accidents in the Savannah River Site (SRS) reactors. In this application multiple-system failure, low-frequency events, and consequently higher radiological source terms than from normal operation or design basis accidents (DBAs) are considered. Measures of consequence such as constant dose vs distance, boundary doses, and health effects to close-in populations are usually examined in this context. A set of source terms developed for the Safety Information Document (SID) for support of the Reactor Operation Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) forms the basis for the revised risk evaluation discussed herein. The intent of this review is not to completely substantiate the sufficiency of the current Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ). However, the two principal measures (200-rem red-bone marrow dose vs distance and 300-rem thyroid dose vs distance) for setting an EPZ are considered. Additional dose-at-distance calculations and consideration of DBA doses would be needed to complete a re-evaluation of the current EPZ. These subject areas are not addressed in the current document. Also, this report evaluates the sensitivity of individual risk estimates to the extent of offsite evacuation assumed from a K reactor severe accident and compares these risks to the Draft DOE Safety Guidelines. 14 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Savannah River Site computing architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-03-29

    A computing architecture is a framework for making decisions about the implementation of computer technology and the supporting infrastructure. Because of the size, diversity, and amount of resources dedicated to computing at the Savannah River Site (SRS), there must be an overall strategic plan that can be followed by the thousands of site personnel who make decisions daily that directly affect the SRS computing environment and impact the site's production and business systems. This plan must address the following requirements: There must be SRS-wide standards for procurement or development of computing systems (hardware and software). The site computing organizations must develop systems that end users find easy to use. Systems must be put in place to support the primary function of site information workers. The developers of computer systems must be given tools that automate and speed up the development of information systems and applications based on computer technology. This document describes a proposal for a site-wide computing architecture that addresses the above requirements. In summary, this architecture is standards-based data-driven, and workstation-oriented with larger systems being utilized for the delivery of needed information to users in a client-server relationship.

  9. Savannah River Site Environmental Implentation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-08-01

    This report describes the organizational responsibilities for the Savannah River Site Environmental program. Operations, Engineering and projects, Environment, safety, and health, Quality assurance, and the Savannah River Laboratory are described.

  10. Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, M.W.; Mamatey, A.R. [eds.

    1998-08-01

    The mission at the Savannah River Site has changed from the production of nuclear weapons materials for national defense to the management of waste, restoration of the environment, and the development of industry in and around the site.

  11. Savannah River Site generic data base development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard , A.

    2000-01-04

    This report describes the results of a project to improve the generic component failure database for the Savannah River Site (SRS). Additionally, guidelines were developed further for more advanced applications of database values. A representative list of components and failure modes for SRS risk models was generated by reviewing existing safety analyses and component failure data bases and from suggestions from SRS safety analysts. Then sources of data or failure rate estimates were identified and reviewed for applicability. A major source of information was the Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability, or NUCLARR. This source includes an extensive collection of failure data and failure rate estimates for commercial nuclear power plants. A recent Idaho National Engineering Laboratory report on failure data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant was also reviewed. From these and other recent sources, failure data and failure rate estimates were collected for the components and failure modes of interest. For each component failure mode, this information was aggregated to obtain a recommended generic failure rate distribution (mean and error factor based on a lognormal distribution). Results are presented in a table in this report. A major difference between generic database and previous efforts is that this effort estimates failure rates based on actual data (failure events) rather than on existing failure rate estimates. This effort was successful in that over 75% of the results are now based on actual data. Also included is a section on guidelines for more advanced applications of failure rate data. This report describes the results of a project to improve the generic component failure database for the Savannah River site (SRS). Additionally, guidelines were developed further for more advanced applications of database values.

  12. Enhancement of the source term algorithm for emergency response at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpkins, A.A.; O`Kula, K.R.; Taylor, R.P.; Kearnaghan, G.P.

    1992-12-31

    The purpose of this work is to use the results of the Savannah River Site K-Reactor Probabilistic Safety Assessment to determine the accident sequences and source terms for beyond design basis accidents. Additionally, the methodology necessary to allow the Reactor Accident Program to incorporate this information is to be discussed.

  13. Enhancement of the source term algorithm for emergency response at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpkins, A.A.; O' Kula, K.R.; Taylor, R.P.; Kearnaghan, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to use the results of the Savannah River Site K-Reactor Probabilistic Safety Assessment to determine the accident sequences and source terms for beyond design basis accidents. Additionally, the methodology necessary to allow the Reactor Accident Program to incorporate this information is to be discussed.

  14. Savannah River Site Seismic Qualification Program boundary selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketcham, D.R.; Nickell, C.G.; Monahon, T.M.

    1991-04-01

    The Savannah River Site Seismic Qualification Program utilizes methodology developed by the Seismic Qualification Utilities Group and endorsed by both the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Energy. The systems selected for seismic upgrade prior to restart will ensure that following a seismic event, the reactor can be safely shut down, decay heat removal can be maintained, and the reactor status can be monitored for a minimum of seventy-two hours. Systems selected were reviewed to establish the boundaries of seismic qualification. Program implementation is being conducted in two phases. Phase on will be conducted prior to restart. It will include evaluating accident prevention systems and selected monitoring and mitigation systems and upgrading as necessary to ensure compliance with DOE requirements. Phase two will evaluate/upgrade other mitigation systems after restart to provide enhanced assurance of reactor safety.

  15. Protective actions as a factor in power reactor siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gant, K.S.; Schweitzer, M.

    1984-06-01

    This report examines the relationship between a power reactor site and the ease of implementing protective actions (emergency measures a serious accident). Limiting populating density around a reactor lowers the number of people at risk but cannot assure that all protective actions are possible for those who reside near the reactor. While some protective measures can always be taken (i.e., expedient respiratory protection, sheltering) the ability to evacuate the area or find adequate shelter may depend on the characteristics of the area near the reactor site. Generic siting restrictions designed to identify and eliminate these site-specific constraints would be difficult to formulate. The authors suggest identifying possible impediments to protective actions at a proposed reactor site and addressing these problems in the emergency plans. 66 references, 6 figures, 8 tables.

  16. Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, M

    1999-06-09

    The mission at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is focused primarily on support of the national defense, nonproliferation, and environmental cleanup. SRS-through its prime operating contractor, Westinghouse Savannah River Company-continues to maintain a comprehensive environmental monitoring program.

  17. Advanced separations at Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, M.; McCabe, D.

    1996-10-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has many waste streams that are contaminated with radionuclides and/or hazardous materials that must be treated to remove the radioactivity (cesium, strontium, tritium, actinides) and hazardous components (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), cyanide, metal ions).

  18. SPENT FUEL MANAGEMENT AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vormelker, P; Robert Sindelar, R; Richard Deible, R

    2007-11-03

    Spent nuclear fuels are received from reactor sites around the world and are being stored in the L-Basin at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina. The predominant fuel types are research reactor fuel with aluminum-alloy cladding and aluminum-based fuel. Other fuel materials include stainless steel and Zircaloy cladding with uranium oxide fuel. Chemistry control and corrosion surveillance programs have been established and upgraded since the early 1990's to minimize corrosion degradation of the aluminum cladding materials, so as to maintain fuel integrity and minimize personnel exposure from radioactivity in the basin water. Recent activities have been initiated to support additional decades of wet storage which include fuel inspection and corrosion testing to evaluate the effects of specific water impurity species on corrosion attack.

  19. Remediation of Site of Decommissioning Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danilovich, A.S.; Ivanov, O.P.; Lemus, A.V.; Pavlenko, V.I.; Potapov, V.N.; Semenov, S.G.; Shisha, A.D.; Chesnokov, A.V. [National Research Center ' Kurchatov Institute' , 123182, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    In the world the most widespread method of soil decontamination consists of removing the contaminated upper layer and sending it for long-term controlled storage. However, implementation of this soil cleanup method for remediation of large contaminated areas would involve high material and financial expenditures, because it produces large amounts of radioactive waste demanding removal to special storage sites. Contaminated soil extraction and cleanup performed right on the spot of remediation activities represents a more advanced and economically acceptable method. Radiological separation of the radioactive soil allows reducing of amount of radwaste. Studies performed during the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences revealed that a considerable fraction of radioactivity is accumulated in minute soil grains. So, the separation of contaminated soil by size fractions makes it possible to extract and concentrate the major share of radioactivity in the fine fraction. Based on these researches water gravity separation technology was proposed by Bochvar Institute. The method extracts the fine fraction from contaminated soil. Studies carried out by Bochvar Institute experts showed that, together with the fine fraction (amounting to 10-20% of the initial soil), this technology can remove up to 85-90% of contaminating radionuclides. The resulting 'dirty' soil fraction could be packaged into containers and removed as radwaste, and decontaminated fractions returned back to their extraction site. Use of radiological and water gravity separations consequently increases the productivity of decontamination facility. Efficiency of this technology applied for contaminated soil cleanup was confirmed in the course of remediation of the contaminated territories near decommissioning research reactor in the Kurchatov Institute. For soil cleaning purposes, a special facility implementing the technology of water gravity separation and radiometric monitoring of soil

  20. Westinghouse independent safety review of Savannah River production reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, W.D.; McShane, W.J. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA)); Liparulo, N.J.; McAdoo, J.D.; Strawbridge, L.E. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Nuclear and Advanced Technology Div.); Toto, G. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Nuclear Services Div.); Fauske, H.K. (Fauske and Associates, Inc., Burr Ridge, IL (USA)); Call, D.W. (Westinghouse Savannah R

    1989-04-01

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation has performed a safety assessment of the Savannah River production reactors (K,L, and P) as requested by the US Department of Energy. This assessment was performed between November 1, 1988, and April 1, 1989, under the transition contract for the Westinghouse Savannah River Company's preparations to succeed E.I. du Pont de Nemours Company as the US Department of Energy contractor for the Savannah River Project. The reviewers were drawn from several Westinghouse nuclear energy organizations, embody a combination of commercial and government reactor experience, and have backgrounds covering the range of technologies relevant to assessing nuclear safety. The report presents the rationale from which the overall judgment was drawn and the basis for the committee's opinion on the phased restart strategy proposed by E.I. du Pont de Nemours Company, Westinghouse, and the US Department of Energy-Savannah River. The committee concluded that it could recommend restart of one reactor at partial power upon completion of a list of recommended upgrades both to systems and their supporting analyses and after demonstration that the organization had assimilated the massive changes it will have undergone.

  1. Land Use Baseline Report Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noah, J.C.

    1995-06-29

    This document is to serve as a resource for Savannah River Site managers, planners, and SRS stakeholders by providing a general description of the site and land-use factors important to future use decisions and plans. The intent of this document is to be comprehensive in its review of SRS and the surrounding area.

  2. Consequence Analyses Following Potential Savannah River Site Hydrological Releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-07-28

    Postulated accidental release of radiological material to surface water bodies on the Savannah River Site and the resulting downstream contamination of the Savannah River pose a potential threat to downstream river users.

  3. Core melt progression and consequence analysis methodology development in support of the Savannah River Reactor PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Kula, K.R.; Sharp, D.A. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Amos, C.N.; Wagner, K.C.; Bradley, D.R. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1992-01-01

    A three-level Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) of production reactor operation has been underway since 1985 at the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). The goals of this analysis are to: Analyze existing margins of safety provided by the heavy-water reactor (HWR) design challenged by postulated severe accidents; Compare measures of risk to the general public and onsite workers to guideline values, as well as to those posed by commercial reactor operation; and Develop the methodology and database necessary to prioritize improvements to engineering safety systems and components, operator training, and engineering projects that contribute significantly to improving plant safety. PSA technical staff from the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) have performed the assessment despite two obstacles: A variable baseline plant configuration and power level; and a lack of technically applicable code methodology to model the SRS reactor conditions. This paper discusses the detailed effort necessary to modify the requisite codes before accident analysis insights for the risk assessment were obtained.

  4. Site Investigation for Detection of KIJANG Reactor Core Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Jun Yeon; Kim, Jeeyoung [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    It was planned for the end of March 2017 and extended to April 2018 according to the government budget adjustment. The KJRR project is intended for filling the self-sufficiency of RI demand including Mo-99, increasing the NTD capacity and developing technologies related to the research reactor. In project, site investigation is the first activity that defines seismologic and related geologic aspects of the site. Site investigation was carried out from Oct. 2012 to Jan. 2014 and this study is intended to describe detail procedures in locating the reactor core center. The location of the reactor core center was determined by collectively reviewing not only geological information but also information from architects engineering. EL 50m was selected as ground level by levering construction cost. Four recommended locations (R-1a - R-1d) are displayed for the reactor core center. R-1a was found optimal in consideration of medium rock contour, portion of medium rock covering reactor buildings, construction cost, physical protection and electrical resistivity. It is noted that engineering properties of the medium rock is TCR/RQD 100/53, elastic modulus 7,710 - 8,720MPa, permeability coefficient 2.92E-06cm/s, and S-wave velocity 1,380m/s, sound for foundations of reactor buildings.

  5. Savannah River Site environmental report for 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, M.W.; Mamatey, A. [eds.

    1995-12-31

    The 1990s have brought dramatic change to the Savannah River Site (SRS) in its role as a key part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) weapons complex. Shrinking federal budgets, sharp workforce reductions, the end of the Cold War, and a major shift in mission objectives have combined to severely test the mettle of SRS-South Carolina`s largest employer. But the sprawling 310-square-mile site`s employees have responded to the test in admirable fashion, effectively shifting their emphasis from weapons production to environmental restoration. This report describes the environmental report for the SRS for 1995.

  6. Savannah River Site environmental report for 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, M.W.; Karapatakis, L.K.; Mamatey, A.R. [eds.

    1994-08-01

    Savannah River Site (SRS) conducts effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance to ensure the safety of the public and the well-being of the environment. DOE Order 5400,1, ``General Environmental Protection Program,`` requires the submission of an environmental report that documents the impact of facility operations on the environment and on public health. SRS has had an extensive environmental surveillance program in place since 1951 (before site startup). At that time, data generated by the on-site surveillance program were reported in site documents. Beginning in 1959, data from off-site environmental monitoring activities were presented in reports issued for public dissemination. Separate reporting of SRS`s on- and off-site environmental monitoring activities continued until 1985, when data from both surveillance programs were merged into a single public document. The Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 1993 is an overview of effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance activities conducted on and in the vicinity of SRS from January 1 through December 31, 1993. For complete program descriptions, consult the ``SRS Environmental Monitoring Plan`` (WSRC-3Ql-2-1000). It documents the rationale and design criteria for the monitoring program, the frequency of monitoring and analysis, the specific analytical and sampling procedures, and the quality assurance requirements.

  7. Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, M.W.; Mamatey, A.; Spitzer, D.

    1994-12-16

    The mission at the Savannah River Site has changed from producing nuclear weapons materials for national defense to managing the waste it has generated, restoring the environment, and enhancing industrial development in and around the site. But no matter what the site`s mission is, it will continue to maintain its comprehensive environmental monitoring and surveillance program. In 1994, effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance were conducted within a 30,000-square-mile area in and around SRS that includes neighboring cities, towns, and counties in Georgia and South Carolina and extends up to 100 miles from the site. Thousands of samples of air, surface water, groundwater, foodstuffs, drinking water, wildlife, rainwater, soil, sediment, and vegetation were collected and analyzed for radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants.

  8. Watershed modeling at the Savannah River Site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vache, Kellie [Oregon State University

    2015-04-29

    The overall goal of the work was the development of a watershed scale model of hydrological function for application to the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). The primary outcomes is a grid based hydrological modeling system that captures near surface runoff as well as groundwater recharge and contributions of groundwater to streams. The model includes a physically-based algorithm to capture both evaporation and transpiration from forestland.

  9. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT FOR 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamatey, A

    2008-08-27

    The Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 2007 (WSRC-STI-2008-00057) prepared for the US Department of Energy (DOE) according to requirements of DOE Order 231.1A, 'Environment, Safety and Health Reporting', and DOE Order 5400.5, 'Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment'. The report's purpose is to: (1) present summary environmental data that characterize site environmental management performance; (2) confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; (3) highlight significant programs and efforts; (4) assess the impact of SRS operations on the public and the environment.

  10. Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamatey, Albert R.

    2005-06-07

    The Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 2004 (WSRC-TR-2005-00005) is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) according to requirements of DOE Order 231.1A, ''Environment, Safety and Health Reporting,'' and DOE Order 5400.5, ''Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment''. The report's purpose is to present summary environmental data that characterize site environmental management performance; confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; highlight significant programs and efforts; and assess the impact of SRS operations on the public and the environment.

  11. Draft environmental impact statement siting, construction, and operation of New Production Reactor capacity. Volume 4, Appendices D-R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-04-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) assesses the potential environmental impacts, both on a broad programmatic level and on a project-specific level, concerning a proposed action to provide new tritium production capacity to meet the nation`s nuclear defense requirements well into the 21st century. A capacity equivalent to that of about a 3,000-megawatt (thermal) heavy-water reactor was assumed as a reference basis for analysis in this EIS; this is the approximate capacity of the existing production reactors at DOE`s Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina. The EIS programmatic alternatives address Departmental decisions to be made on whether to build new production facilities, whether to build one or more complexes, what size production capacity to provide, and when to provide this capacity. Project-specific impacts for siting, constructing, and operating new production reactor capacity are assessed for three alternative sites: the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; and the Savannah River Site. For each site, the impacts of three reactor technologies (and supporting facilities) are assessed: a heavy-water reactor, a light-water reactor, and a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. Impacts of the no-action alternative also are assessed. The EIS evaluates impacts related to air quality; noise levels; surface water, groundwater, and wetlands; land use; recreation; visual environment; biotic resources; historical, archaeological, and cultural resources; socioeconomics; transportation; waste management; and human health and safety. The EIS describes in detail the potential radioactive releases from new production reactors and support facilities and assesses the potential doses to workers and the general public. This volume contains 15 appendices.

  12. 76 FR 71342 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; River Forest Dry Cleaners Site, River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; River Forest Dry Cleaners Site, River... proposed administrative settlement for recovery of past response costs concerning the River Forest Dry Cleaners site in River Forest, Cook County, Illinois with the following settling party: Edward...

  13. Savannah River site environmental report for 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, M.; Mamatey, A. [eds.

    1998-12-31

    The mission at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has changed from the production of nuclear weapons materials for national defense to the management of site-generated waste, restoration of the surrounding environment, and the development of industry in and around the site. However, SRS-through its prime operating contractor, Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC)-continues to maintain a comprehensive environmental monitoring program. In 1996, effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance were conducted within a 31,000-square-mile area in and around SRS that includes neighboring cities, towns, and counties in Georgia and South Carolina and extends up to 100 miles from the site. Though the environmental monitoring program was streamlined in 1996-to improve its cost-effectiveness without compromising data quality or reducing its overall ability to produce critical information-thousands of samples of air, surface water, groundwater, food products, drinking water, wildlife, rainwater, soil, sediment, and vegetation were collected and analyzed for radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants.

  14. Survey of radiological contaminants in the near-shore environment at the Hanford Site 100-N Area reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Verst, S.P.; Albin, C.L. [Washington State Dept. of Health, Olympia, WA (United States); Patton, G.W.; Blanton, M.L.; Poston, T.M.; Cooper, A.T.; Antonio, E.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Past operations at the Hanford Site 100-N Area reactor resulted in the release of radiological contaminants to the soil column, local groundwater, and ultimately to the near-shore environment of the Columbia River. In September 1997, the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH) and the Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) initiated a special study of the near-shore vicinity at the Hanford Site`s retired 100-N Area reactor. Environmental samples were collected and analyzed for radiological contaminants ({sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, and gamma/ emitters), with both the WDOH and SESP analyzing a portion of the samples. Samples of river water, sediment, riverbank springs, periphyton, milfoil, flying insects, clam shells, and reed canary grass were collected. External exposure rates were also measured for the near-shore environment in the vicinity of the 100-N Area. In addition, samples were collected at background locations above Vernita Bridge.

  15. Savannah River Site environmental report for 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, M.W.; Karapatakis, L.K.; Mamatey, A.R.; Todd, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes environmental activities conducted on and in the vicinity of the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, S.C., from Jan. 1 to Dec. 31, 1991, with an update on compliance activities through April 1, 1992. The report is a single volume with a separate summary pamphlet highlighting the major findings for 1991. The report is divided into an executive summary and 14 chapters containing information on environmental compliance issues, environmental monitoring methods and programs, and environmental research activities for 1991, as well as historical data from previous years. Analytical results, figures, charts, and data tables relevant to the environmental monitoring program for 1991 at SRS are included.

  16. Savannah River Site environmental report for 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, C.L.; Hetrick, C.S.; Stevenson, D.A. (eds.); Davis, H.A.; Martin, D.K.; Todd, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    This volume of Savannah River Site Environmental report for 1988 (WSRC-RP-89-59-1) contains the figures and tables referenced in Volume 1. The figures contain graphic illustrations of sample locations and/or data. The tables contain summaries of the following types of data: Federal and State standards and guides applicable to SRS operations; concentrations of radioactivity in environmental media; the quantity of radioactivity released to the environment from SRS operations; offsite radiation dose commitments from SRS operations; measurements of physical properties, chemicals, and metals concentrations in environmental media; and interlaboratory comparison of analytical results.

  17. Site Suitability and Hazard Assessment Guide for Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne Moe

    2013-10-01

    Commercial nuclear reactor projects in the U.S. have traditionally employed large light water reactors (LWR) to generate regional supplies of electricity. Although large LWRs have consistently dominated commercial nuclear markets both domestically and abroad, the concept of small modular reactors (SMRs) capable of producing between 30 MW(t) and 900 MW(t) to generating steam for electricity is not new. Nor is the idea of locating small nuclear reactors in close proximity to and in physical connection with industrial processes to provide a long-term source of thermal energy. Growing problems associated continued use of fossil fuels and enhancements in efficiency and safety because of recent advancements in reactor technology suggest that the likelihood of near-term SMR technology(s) deployment at multiple locations within the United States is growing. Many different types of SMR technology are viable for siting in the domestic commercial energy market. However, the potential application of a particular proprietary SMR design will vary according to the target heat end-use application and the site upon which it is proposed to be located. Reactor heat applications most commonly referenced in connection with the SMR market include electric power production, district heating, desalinization, and the supply of thermal energy to various processes that require high temperature over long time periods, or a combination thereof. Indeed, the modular construction, reliability and long operational life purported to be associated with some SMR concepts now being discussed may offer flexibility and benefits no other technology can offer. Effective siting is one of the many early challenges that face a proposed SMR installation project. Site-specific factors dealing with support to facility construction and operation, risks to the plant and the surrounding area, and the consequences subsequent to those risks must be fully identified, analyzed, and possibly mitigated before a license

  18. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT FOR 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamatey, A.

    2009-09-15

    The Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 2008 (SRNS-STI-2009-00190) is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) according to requirements of DOE Order 231.1A, 'Environment, Safety and Health Reporting,' and DOE Order 5400.5, 'Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment.' The annual SRS Environmental Report has been produced for more than 50 years. Several hundred copies are distributed each year to government officials, universities, public libraries, environmental and civic groups, news media, and interested individuals. The report's purpose is to: (1) present summary environmental data that characterize site environmental management performance; (2) confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; and (3) highlight significant programs and efforts.

  19. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT FOR 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamatey, A

    2006-07-18

    The ''Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 2005'' (WSRC-TR-2006-00007) is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) according to requirements of DOE Order 231.1A, ''Environment, Safety and Health Reporting'', and DOE Order 5400.5, ''Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment''. The report's purpose is to: present summary environmental data that characterize site environmental management performance; confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; highlight significant programs and efforts; and assess the impact of SRS operations on the public and the environment.

  20. Savannah River Site Environmental Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-08-01

    Formal sitewide environmental planning at the . Savannah River Site (SRS) began in 1986 with the development and adoption of the Strategic Environmental Plan. The Strategic Environmental Plan describes the philosophy, policy, and overall program direction of environmental programs for the operation of the SRS. The Strategic Environmental Plan (Volume 2) provided the basis for development of the Environmental Implementation Plan (EIP). The EIP is the detailed, comprehensive environmental master plan for operating contractor organizations at the SRS. The EIP provides a process to ensure that all environmental requirements and obligations are being met by setting specific measurable goals and objectives and strategies for implementation. The plan is the basis for justification of site manpower and funding requests for environmental projects and programs over a five-year planning period.

  1. Savannah River Site environmental report for 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, C.L.; Martin, D.K.; Todd, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to meet three of the primary objectives of the Savannah River Site (SRS) environmental monitoring program. These objectives are to assess actual or potential exposures to populations form the presence of radioactive and nonradioactive materials from normal operations or nonroutine occurrences; to demonstrate compliance with applicable authorized limits and legal requirements; and to communicate results of the monitoring program to the public. This 1989 report contains descriptions of radiological and nonradiological monitoring programs, it provides data obtained from these programs, and it describes various environmental research activities ongoing at the site. Also included are summaries of environmental management and compliance activities, a summary of National Environmental Policy Act activities, and a listing of environmental permits issued by regulatory agencies.

  2. Savannah River Site Approved Site Treatment Plan, 1998 Annual Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, B. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Berry, M.

    1998-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Savannah River Operations Office (DOE- SR),has prepared the Site Treatment Plan (STP) for Savannah River Site (SRS) mixed wastes in accordance with RCRA Section 3021(b), and SCDHEC has approved the STP (except for certain offsite wastes) and issued an order enforcing the STP commitments in Volume I. DOE-SR and SCDHEC agree that this STP fulfills the requirements contained in the FFCAct, RCRA Section 3021, and therefore,pursuant to Section 105(a) of the FFCAct (RCRA Section 3021(b)(5)), DOE`s requirements are to implement the plan for the development of treatment capacities and technologies pursuant to RCRA Section 3021.Emerging and new technologies not yet considered may be identified to manage waste more safely, effectively, and at lower cost than technologies currently identified in the plan. DOE will continue to evaluate and develop technologies that offer potential advantages in public acceptance, privatization, consolidation, risk abatement, performance, and life-cycle cost. Should technologies that offer such advantages be identified, DOE may request a revision/modification of the STP in accordance with the provisions of Consent Order 95-22-HW.The Compliance Plan Volume (Volume I) identifies project activity schedule milestones for achieving compliance with Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR). Information regarding the technical evaluation of treatment options for SRS mixed wastes is contained in the Background Volume (Volume II) and is provided for information.

  3. 2016 Annual Inspection and Radiological Survey Results for the Piqua, Ohio, Decommissioned Reactor Site, July 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, Brian [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Miller, Michele [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This report presents the findings of the annual inspection and radiological survey of the Piqua, Ohio, Decommissioned Reactor Site (site). The decommissioned nuclear power demonstration facility was inspected and surveyed on April 15, 2016. The site, located on the east bank of the Great Miami River in Piqua, Ohio, was in fair physical condition. There is no requirement for a follow-up inspection, partly because City of Piqua (City) personnel participated in a March 2016 meeting to address reoccurring safety concerns. Radiological survey results from 104 locations revealed no removable contamination. One direct beta activity reading in a floor drain on the 56-foot level (1674 disintegrations per minute [dpm]/100 square centimeters [cm2]) exceeded the minimum detectable activity (MDA). Beta activity has been detected in the past at this floor drain. The reading was well below the action level of 5000 dpm/100 cm2.

  4. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT FOR 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamatey, A.; Dunaway-Ackerman, J.

    2011-08-16

    This report was prepared in accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, 'Environment, Safety and Health Reporting,' to present summary environmental data for the purpose of: (a) characterizing site's environmental management performance; (b) summarizing environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year; (c) describing compliance status with respect to environmental standards and requirements; and (d) highlighting significant site programs and efforts. This report is the principal document that demonstrates compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5400.5, 'Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment,' and is a key component of DOE's effort to keep the public informed of environmental conditions at Savannah River Site (SRS). SRS has four primary missions: (1) Environmental Management - Cleaning up the legacy of the Cold War efforts and preparing decommissioned facilities and areas for long-term stewardship; (2) Nuclear Weapons Stockpile Support - Meeting the needs of the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile through the tritium programs of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA); (3) Nuclear Nonproliferation Support - Meeting the needs of the NNSA's nuclear nonproliferation programs by safely storing and dispositioning excess special nuclear materials; and (4) Research and Development - Supporting the application of science by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to meet the needs of SRS, the DOE complex, and other federal agencies During 2010, SRS worked to fulfill these missions and position the site for future operations. SRS continued to work with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to find and implement solutions and schedules for waste management and disposition. As part of its mission to clean up the Cold War legacy, SRS will continue

  5. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE'S H-CANYON FACILITY: IMPACTS OF FOREIGN OBLIGATIONS ON SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL DISPOSITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magoulas, V.

    2013-06-03

    The US has a non-proliferation policy to receive foreign and domestic research reactor returns of spent fuel materials of US origin. These spent fuel materials are returned to the Department of Energy (DOE) and placed in storage in the L-area spent fuel basin at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The foreign research reactor returns fall subject to the 123 agreements for peaceful cooperation. These “123 agreements” are named after section 123 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and govern the conditions of nuclear cooperation with foreign partners. The SRS management of these foreign obligations while planning material disposition paths can be a challenge.

  6. Mammals of the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cothran, E.G.; Smith, M.H.; Wolff, J.O.; Gentry, J.B.

    1991-12-31

    This book is designed to be used as a field guide, reference book, bibliography, and introduction to the basic biology and ecology of the 54 mammal species that currently or potentially exist on or near the Savannah River Site (SRS). For 50 of these species, we present basic descriptions, distinguishing morphological features, distribution and habitat preferences, food habits, reproductive biology, social behavior, ecological relationships with other species, and economic importance to man. For those species that have been studied on the SRS, we summarize the results of these studies. Keys and illustrations are provided for whole body and skull identification. A selected glossary defines technical terminology. Illustrations of tracks of the more common larger mammals will assist in field identifications. We also summarize the results of two major long-term SRS studies, ``The Forbearer Census`` and ``White-tailed Deer Studies``. A cross-indexed list of over 300 SRS publications on mammals classifies each publication by 23 categories such as habitat, reproduction, genetics, etc., and also for each mammal species. The 149 Master`s theses and Ph.D. dissertations that have been conducted at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory are provided as additional references.

  7. Mammals of the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cothran, E.G.; Smith, M.H.; Wolff, J.O.; Gentry, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    This book is designed to be used as a field guide, reference book, bibliography, and introduction to the basic biology and ecology of the 54 mammal species that currently or potentially exist on or near the Savannah River Site (SRS). For 50 of these species, we present basic descriptions, distinguishing morphological features, distribution and habitat preferences, food habits, reproductive biology, social behavior, ecological relationships with other species, and economic importance to man. For those species that have been studied on the SRS, we summarize the results of these studies. Keys and illustrations are provided for whole body and skull identification. A selected glossary defines technical terminology. Illustrations of tracks of the more common larger mammals will assist in field identifications. We also summarize the results of two major long-term SRS studies, The Forbearer Census'' and White-tailed Deer Studies''. A cross-indexed list of over 300 SRS publications on mammals classifies each publication by 23 categories such as habitat, reproduction, genetics, etc., and also for each mammal species. The 149 Master's theses and Ph.D. dissertations that have been conducted at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory are provided as additional references.

  8. Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. MAMATEY

    2003-01-01

    The ''Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 2003'' (WSRC-TR-2004-00015) is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) according to requirements of DOE Order 231.1, ''Environment, Safety and Health Reporting'', and DOE Order 5400.5, ''Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment''. The report's purpose is to: (1) present summary environmental data that characterize site environmental management performance; (2) confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; (3) highlight significant programs and efforts; and (4) assess the impact of SRS operations on the public and the environment. This year's report reflects a continuing effort (begun in 2001) to streamline the document and thereby increase its cost effectiveness--without omitting valuable technical data. To that end each author will continue to work toward presenting results in summary fashion, focusing on historical trends. Complete data tables again are included on the CD inside the back cover of the report. The CD also features an electronic version of the report; an appendix of site, environmental sampling location, dose, and groundwater maps; and complete 2003 reports from a number of other SRS organizations.

  9. Savannah River Site environmental data for 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, M.W. [ed.

    1993-09-01

    The figures and tables in this report represent a capsule view of the routine environmental monitoring and surveillance programs at the Savannah River Site. An attempt has been made to include all available data from environmental research programs. The first section of the book is a collection of maps of radiological and nonradiological sampling locations. Also included are general radiological and nonradiological sampling and analysis schedules; a list of the media sampled, along with sample sizes and representative aliquots; a list of the lower limits of detection for radiological detection instruments; the minimum detectable concentrations for gamma analysis of water and air samples; and the minimum detectable concentrations for gamma analysis of soil, food, fish and wildlife, and vegetation samples. Following the first section are data tables containing radiological and nonradiological effluent monitoring results, radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance results, dose estimates, quality assurance activities, and results of nonroutine occurrences and special surveys.

  10. Wildflowers of the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seger, Tona [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). USDA Forest Service

    2015-08-01

    This guidebook is a resource to help field personnel (nonbotanists) identify plants on the Savannah River Site (SRS) premises. Although not a complete flora guide, this publication contains information about 123 plant species found on the SRS. Plants are listed by their common names and arranged by the color of the flower. The SRS supports a diverse array of plant communities. Land use history, the establishment of the SRS, and current land management practices have shaped the flora presently found on the SRS. Located south of Aiken, SC, SRS spans 198,344 acres with land covering Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties. Situated on the Upper Coastal Plain and Sandhills physiographic provinces, the SRS has more than 50 distinct soil types. The topography is rolling to flat with elevation ranges from 50 to 400 feet above sea level.

  11. Deer monitoring at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fledderman, P.D.

    1992-01-01

    To protect public health, all deer and feral hogs harvested at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during controlled hunts are monitored for Cs-137. A new monitoring program has been developed by the Environmental Monitoring Section (EMS). To provide increased confidence in dose data and compliance with regulations, many changes have been made to the deer and hog monitoring program. Using field count information, a computerized database determines Cs-137 concentration and calculates the committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) resulting from consumption of the animal. The database then updates each hunter's cumulative CEDE in real time. Also, enhancements to the instrument calibration and quality control portions of the monitoring program were implemented. These include improved monitor calibration, intercomparison of field results from the same animal using different detectors, and regular use of check sources to verify equipment performance. With these program changes, EMS can produce more accurate and verifiable dose data.

  12. Deer monitoring at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fledderman, P.D.

    1992-10-01

    To protect public health, all deer and feral hogs harvested at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during controlled hunts are monitored for Cs-137. A new monitoring program has been developed by the Environmental Monitoring Section (EMS). To provide increased confidence in dose data and compliance with regulations, many changes have been made to the deer and hog monitoring program. Using field count information, a computerized database determines Cs-137 concentration and calculates the committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) resulting from consumption of the animal. The database then updates each hunter`s cumulative CEDE in real time. Also, enhancements to the instrument calibration and quality control portions of the monitoring program were implemented. These include improved monitor calibration, intercomparison of field results from the same animal using different detectors, and regular use of check sources to verify equipment performance. With these program changes, EMS can produce more accurate and verifiable dose data.

  13. Savannah River Site environmental data for 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, M.W. [ed.

    1994-05-01

    The figures and tables in this report represent a capsule view of the routine environmental monitoring and surveillance programs at the Savannah River Site. An attempt has been made to include all available data from environmental research programs. The first section of the book is a collection of maps of radiological and nonradiological sampling locations. Also included are general radiological and nonradiological sampling and analysis schedules; a list of the media sampled, along with sample sizes and representative aliquots; a list of the lower limits of detection for radiological detection instruments; the minimum detectable concentrations for gamma analysis of water and air samples; and the minimum detectable concentrations for gamma analysis of soil, food, fish and wildlife, and vegetation samples. Following the first section are data tables containing radiological and nonradiological effluent monitoring results, radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance results, dose estimates, quality assurance activities, and results of nonroutine occurrences and special surveys.

  14. Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site: Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC. National Register of Historic Places.

    This guide provides history and social studies teachers, at all grade levels, with information and activities about the American Indians of the Northern Plains who lived in the area of the Knife River where it enters the Missouri River. Located in what is now North Dakota, this area is the Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site. The…

  15. Assessment of mercury in the Savannah River Site environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvartek, E.J.; Carlton, W.H.; Denham, M.; Eldridge, L.; Newman, M.C.

    1994-09-01

    Mercury has been valued by humans for several millennia. Its principal ore, cinnabar, was mined for its distinctive reddish-gold color and high density. Mercury and its salts were used as medicines and aphrodisiacs. At SRS, mercury originated from one of the following: as a processing aid in aluminum dissolution and chloride precipitation; as part of the tritium facilities` gas handling system; from experimental, laboratory, or process support facilities; and as a waste from site operations. Mercury is also found in Par Pond and some SRS streams as the result of discharges from a mercury-cell-type chlor-alkali plant near the city of Augusta, GA. Reactor cooling water, drawn from the Savannah River, transported mercury onto the SRS. Approximately 80,000 kg of mercury is contained in the high level waste tanks and 10,000 kg is located in the SWDF. Additional quantities are located in the various seepage basins. In 1992, 617 wells were monitored for mercury contamination, with 47 indicating contamination in excess of the 0.002-ppm EPA Primary Drinking Water Standard. More than 20 Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) reports and publications pertinent to mercury (Hg) have been generated during the last two decades. They are divided into three groupings: SRS-specific studies, basic studies of bioaccumulation, and basic studies of effect. Many studies have taken place at Par Pond and Upper Three Runs Creek. Mercury has been detected in wells monitoring the groundwater beneath SRS, but not in water supply wells in excess of the Primary Drinking Water Limit of 0.002 ppm. There has been no significant release of mercury from SRS to the Savannah River. While releases to air are likely, based on process knowledge, modeling of the releases indicates concentrations that are well below the SCDHEC ambient standard.

  16. Savannah River Site DNAPL technical program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, J.E.; Looney, B.B.; Rossabi, J.; Bergren, C.L.

    1993-12-31

    This document was developed by the environmental remediation and technology development organizations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and is the Site technical program plan to address the remediation of residual chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents in the groundwater and the soil. These solvents are often labeled dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). At SRS, the primary DNAPL constituents of concern are trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE); two commonly used industrial organic solvents. The goal of the technical program plan is to provide clear objectives for DNAPL characterization and remediation activities at SRS. Developed by a task team of researchers at SRS, the objectives and program description document a coordinated, programmatic approach to identify solutions to the complex problem of DNAPL contamination. The purposes of this program are to expedite the development and application of technologies for DNAPL characterization and remediation, to provide a well characterized {open_quotes}real{close_quotes} site to perform the work, and to facilitate DNAPL remediation at SRS. Given the appropriate resources, SRS will provide an intelligent application of technical skills and confidence toward the remediation of DNAPLS. We have completed an initial characterization of DNAPLs that provides unique data on the location, nature, and extent of DNAPL occurrences at a field site. Future activities will leverage the initial characterization data for DNAPLs at SRS to demonstrate efficient progression through the characterization phase leading to cleanup. The initial characterization data provides a tool to focus this program`s activities. As a result, solutions to the complex problem of DNAPL contamination will be tested and demonstrated in the most cost-effective manner. Where appropriate, the program will rely on identifying and utilizing innovative technologies developed by industry and universities.

  17. Soil gas waste site screening at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyatt, D.E.; Looney, B.B.; Price, V.; Richers, D.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Pirkle, R.J. [Microseeps, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The environmental restoration effort at Savannah River Site (SRS) has utilized soil gas sampling as a principal method for screening and characterizing waste sites. More than 98 waste sites have been evaluated using this technology at scattered locations across the 310 square mile area of the facility, generating over 6,000 soil gas samples arranged in clustered data sets of 25 to 2,000 samples each. Additionally, a regional background survey of soil gases has been carried out over a 500 square mile area which includes the SRS for the purpose of determining the background concentrations of species of interest which relate to waste site investigations. Although selected waste sites have been sampled using a Geoprobe soil gas sampling system to depths of 25 feet, for the most part the soil gas studies at SRS have been carried out at a depth of about 3 feet. In many cases this depth is several feet above the depth of waste burial. A series of ``groundsheet`` studies have been carried out which reveal that barometric pumping is the mechanism which is responsible for the presence near the surface of volatile components of the more deeply buried waste. These studies found that barometric pumping causes soil gases containing volatile contaminants to migrate through the ground surface into the atmosphere. The surveys monitored the presence of the C{sub 1}--C{sub 4} hydrocarbons, the C{sub 5}--C{sub 10} normal paraffins, the gasoline range aromatics (BTEX), and selected chlorinated hydrocarbons. In a large majority of the shallow surveys conducted, a free-gas method of soil gas technology was employed in which the soil gas sample was obtained directly from the pore space. At selected waste sites, soil cores were taken and soil gas was analyzed from a portion of the heated headspace over a soil/water slurry. At most waste sites, shallow (1 foot) soil cores were taken and analyzed for soil mercury using a pyrolysis screening technique commonly used in the minerals industry.

  18. Initiating Events for Multi-Reactor Plant Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhlheim, Michael David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Flanagan, George F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Poore, III, Willis P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Inherent in the design of modular reactors is the increased likelihood of events that initiate at a single reactor affecting another reactor. Because of the increased level of interactions between reactors, it is apparent that the Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) for modular reactor designs need to specifically address the increased interactions and dependencies.

  19. Tritium in the Savannah River Site environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Bauer, L.R.; Hayes, D.W.; Marter, W.L.; Zeigler, C.C.; Stephenson, D.E.; Hoel, D.D.; Hamby, D.M.

    1991-05-01

    Tritium is released to the environment from many of the operations at the Savannah River Site. The releases from each facility to the atmosphere and to the soil and streams, both from normal operations and inadvertent releases, over the period of operation from the early 1950s through 1988 are presented. The fate of the tritium released is evaluated through environmental monitoring, special studies, and modeling. It is concluded that approximately 91% of the tritium remaining after decay is now in the oceans. A dose and risk assessment to the population around the site is presented. It is concluded that about 0.6 fatal cancers may be associated with the tritium released during all the years of operation to the population of about 625,000. This same population (based on the overall US cancer statistics) is expected to experience about 105,000 cancer fatalities from all types of cancer. Therefore, it is considered unlikely that a relationship between any of the cancer deaths occurring in this population and releases of tritium from the SRS will be found.

  20. Savannah River Site. Environmental report for 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, Margaret W. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Site. ed; Mamatey, Albert R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Site. ed

    2001-12-31

    The goal of the Savannah River Site (SRS)—and that of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)—is positive environmental stewardship and full regulatory compliance, with zero violations. The site’s employees maintained progress toward achievement of this goal in 2001, as demonstrated by examples in this chapter. The site’s compliance efforts were near-perfect again in 2001. No notices of violation (NOVs) were issued in 2001 under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), or the Clean Water Act (CWA). Two NOVs were issued to SRS during 2001—one, associated with permit requirement compliance, was issued under the Clean Air Act (CAA); the other, related to an oil release, was issued under the South Carolina Pollution Control Act. Under the CWA, the site’s National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) compliance rate was 99.6 percent. Also, 274 National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) reviews of newly proposed actions were conducted and formally documented in 2001, and only one of the year’s 799 Site Item Reportability and Issues Management (SIRIM) program-reportable events was categorized as environmental; it was classified as an off-normal event.

  1. Savannah River Site environmental report for 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, C.L.; Hetrick, C.S.; Stevenson, D.A. (eds.); Davis, H.A.; Martin, D.K.; Todd, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    During 1988, as in previous years, Savannah River Site operations had no adverse impact on the general public or the environment. Based on the SRS site-specific code, the maximum radiation dose commitment to a hypothetical individual at the SRS boundary from 1988 SRS atmospheric releases of radioactive materials was 0.46 millirem (mrem) (0.0046 millisievert (mSv)). To obtain the maximum dose, an individual would have had to reside on the SRS boundary at the location of highest dose for 24 hours per day, 365 days per year, consume a maximum amount of foliage and meat which originated from the general vicinity of the plant boundary, and drink a maximum amount of milk from cows grazing at the plant boundary. The average radiation dose commitment from atmospheric releases to the hypothetical individual on the SRS boundary in 1988 was 0.18 mrem (0. 0018 mSv). This person, unlike the maximumly exposed individual, consumes an average amount of foliage, meat, and milk which originated from the foliage and animals living at the plant boundary.

  2. Natural radioactive materials at the Arco Reactor Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singlevich, W; Healy, J W; Paas, H J; Carey, Z E

    1951-05-28

    At the request of the Division of Biology and Medicine of the AEC, the Biophysics Section of the Radiological Sciences Department at Hanford undertook the task of conducting a background survey for naturally occurring radioactive materials in the environs of the Arco Reactor Test Site in Central Idaho. This survey was part of an overall study which included meteorological measurements by the the Air Weather Service, Geological Studies by the USGS, and an ecological survey of plants and animals by members of the Idaho State College at Pocatello. In general, the measurements at Arco followed the pattern established for environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site with some additional measurements made for natural isotopes not normally of concern at Hanford. A number of analysis included materials such as plutonium and I-131 which were carried out for the purpose of establishing analytical backgrounds for the procedures used. 20 refs., 13 figs., 11 tabs.

  3. Natural Remediation at Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, C. M.; Van Pelt, R.

    2002-02-25

    Natural remediation is a general term that includes any technology or strategy that takes advantage of natural processes to remediate a contaminated media to a condition that is protective of human health and the environment. Natural remediation techniques are often passive and minimally disruptive to the environment. They are generally implemented in conjunction with traditional remedial solutions for source control (i.e., capping, stabilization, removal, soil vapor extraction, etc.). Natural remediation techniques being employed at Savannah River Site (SRS) include enhanced bio-remediation, monitored natural attenuation, and phytoremediation. Enhanced bio-remediation involves making nutrients available and conditions favorable for microbial growth. With proper precautions and feeding, the naturally existing microbes flourish and consume the contaminants. Case studies of enhanced bio-remediation include surface soils contaminated with PCBs and pesticides, and Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) contamination in both the vadose zone and groundwater. Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) has been selected as the preferred alternative for groundwater clean up at several SRS waste units. Successful implementation of MNA has been based on demonstration that sources have been controlled, groundwater modeling that indicates that plumes will not expand or reach surface water discharge points at levels that exceed regulatory limits, and continued monitoring. Phytoremediation is being successfully utilized at several SRS waste units. Phytoremediation involves using plants and vegetation to uptake, break down, or manage contaminants in groundwater or soils. Case studies at SRS include managing groundwater plumes of tritium and VOCs with pine trees that are native to the area. Significant decreases in tritium discharge to a site stream have been realized in one phytoremediation project. Studies of other vegetation types, methods of application, and other target contaminants are

  4. Management of New Production Reactor waste streams at Savannah River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonell, W.R.; Newman, J.L.

    1992-12-31

    To ensure the adequacy of available facilities, the disposition of the several waste types generated in support of a heavy-water NPR operation at the Savannah River Site were projected through waste- treatment and disposal facilities after the year 2000. Volumes of high-level, low-level radioactive, TRU, hazardous, mixed and non-radioactive waste were predicted for early assessments of environmental impacts and to provide a baseline for future waste-minimization initiatives. Life-cycle unit costs for disposal of the waste, adjusted to reflect waste management capabilities in the NPR operating time frame, were developed to evaluate the economic effectiveness of waste-minimization activities in the NPR program.

  5. Management of New Production Reactor waste streams at Savannah River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonell, W.R.; Newman, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    To ensure the adequacy of available facilities, the disposition of the several waste types generated in support of a heavy-water NPR operation at the Savannah River Site were projected through waste- treatment and disposal facilities after the year 2000. Volumes of high-level, low-level radioactive, TRU, hazardous, mixed and non-radioactive waste were predicted for early assessments of environmental impacts and to provide a baseline for future waste-minimization initiatives. Life-cycle unit costs for disposal of the waste, adjusted to reflect waste management capabilities in the NPR operating time frame, were developed to evaluate the economic effectiveness of waste-minimization activities in the NPR program.

  6. Savannah River Site environmental report for 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, C.L.; Martin, D.K.; Todd, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    this volume of Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 1989 (WSRC-IM-90-60) contains the figures and tables referenced in Volume I. The figures contain graphic illustrations of sample locations and/or data. The tables present summaries of the following types of data federal and state standards and guides applicable to SRS operations; concentrations of radioactivity in environmental media; the quantity of radioactivity released to the environment from SRS operations; offsite radiation committed dose from SRS operations; measurements of physical properties, chemicals, and metals concentrations in environmental media; and interlaboratory comparison of analytical results. The figures and tables in this report contain information about the routine environmental monitoring program at SRS unless otherwise indicated. No attempt has been made to include all data from environmental research programs. Variations in the report's content from year to year reflect changes in the routine environmental monitoring program or the inability to obtain certain samples from a specific location. 42 figs., 188 tabs.

  7. Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    1988-01-01

    This standard applies to the following types of reactors: shunt reactors, current-limiting reactors including neutral-earthing reactors, damping reactors, tuning (filter) reactors, earthing transformers (neutral couplers), arc-suppression reactors, smoothing reactors, with the exception of the following reactors: small reactors with a rating generally less than 2 kvar single-phase and 10 kvar three-phase, reactors for special purposes such as high-frequency line traps or reactors mounted on rolling stock.

  8. Probabilistic risk assessment support of emergency preparedness at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Kula, K.R.; Baker, W.H.; Simpkins, A.A.; Taylor, R.P. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Wagner, K.C.; Amos, C.N. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-12-31

    Integration of the Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for K Reactor operation into related technical areas at the Savannah River Site (SRS) includes coordination with several onsite organizations responsible for maintaining and upgrading emergency preparedness capabilities. Major functional categories of the PRA application are scenario development and source term algorithm enhancement. Insights and technologies from the SRS PRA have facilitated development of: (1) credible timelines for scenarios; (2) algorithms tied to plant instrumentation to provide best-estimate source terms for dose projection; and (3) expert-system logic models to implement informed counter-measures to assure onsite and offsite safety following accidental releases. The latter methodology, in particular, is readily transferable to other reactor and non-reactor facilities at SRS and represents a distinct advance relative to emergency preparedness capabilities elsewhere in the DOE complex.

  9. Probabilistic risk assessment support of emergency preparedness at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Kula, K.R.; Baker, W.H.; Simpkins, A.A.; Taylor, R.P. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Wagner, K.C.; Amos, C.N. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Integration of the Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for K Reactor operation into related technical areas at the Savannah River Site (SRS) includes coordination with several onsite organizations responsible for maintaining and upgrading emergency preparedness capabilities. Major functional categories of the PRA application are scenario development and source term algorithm enhancement. Insights and technologies from the SRS PRA have facilitated development of: (1) credible timelines for scenarios; (2) algorithms tied to plant instrumentation to provide best-estimate source terms for dose projection; and (3) expert-system logic models to implement informed counter-measures to assure onsite and offsite safety following accidental releases. The latter methodology, in particular, is readily transferable to other reactor and non-reactor facilities at SRS and represents a distinct advance relative to emergency preparedness capabilities elsewhere in the DOE complex.

  10. ROUGHNESS LENGTHS FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, C.

    2012-03-28

    Surface roughness values for the areas surrounding the H, D and N-Area meteorological towers were computed from archived 2010 meteorological data. These 15-minute-averaged data were measured with cup anemometers and bidirectional wind vanes (bivanes) 61 m above the surface. The results of the roughness calculation using the standard deviation of elevation angle {sigma}{sub E}, and applying the simple formula based on tree canopy height, gave consistent estimates for roughness around the H-Area tower in the range of 1.76 to 1.86 m (95% confidence interval) with a mean value of 1.81 m. Application of the {sigma}{sub E} method for the 61-m level at D and N-Areas gave mean values of 1.71 and 1.81 with confidence ranges of 1.62-1.81 and 1.73-1.88 meters, respectively. Roughness results are azimuth dependent, and thus are presented as averages over compass sectors spanning 22.5 degrees. Calculated values were compared to other methods of determining roughness, including the standard deviation of the azimuth direction, {sigma}{sub A}, and standard deviation of the wind speed, {sigma}{sub U}. Additional data was obtained from a sonic anemometer at 61-m on the H-Area tower during a period of a few weeks in 2010. Results from the sonic anemometer support our use of {sigma}{sub E} to calculate roughness. Based on the H-Area tower results, a surface roughness of 1.8 m using is recommended for use in dispersion modeling applications that consider the impacts of a contaminant release to individuals along the Site boundary. The canopy surrounding the H-Area tower is relatively uniform (i.e., little variance in roughness by upwind direction), and data supplied by the U.S. Forest Service at Savannah River show that the canopy height and composition surrounding the H-Area tower is reasonably representative of forested areas throughout the SRS reservation. For dispersion modeling analyses requiring assessments of a co-located worker within the respective operations area, recommended

  11. ASME N510 test results for Savannah River Site AACS filter compartments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, J.D.; Punch, T.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The K-Reactor at the Savannah River Site recently implemented design improvements for the Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS) by procuring, installing, and testing new Air Cleaning Units, or filter compartments, to ASME AG-11, N509, and N510 requirements. Specifically, these new units provide documentable seismic resistance to a Design Basis Accident earthquake, provide 2 inch adsorber beds with 0.25 second residence time, and meet all AG-1, N509, and N510 requirements for testability and maintainability. This paper presents the results of the Site acceptance testing and discusses an issue associated with sample manifold qualification testing.

  12. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT FOR 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamatey, A.; Fanning, R.

    2010-08-19

    The Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 2009 (SRNS-STI-2010-00175) is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) according to requirements of DOE Order 231.1A,'Environment, Safety and Health Reporting,' and DOE Order 5400.5, 'Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment.' The annual SRS Environmental Report has been produced for more than 50 years. Several hundred copies are distributed each year to government officials, universities, public libraries, environmental and civic groups, news media, and interested individuals. The report's purpose is to: (1) present summary environmental data that characterize site environmental management performance; (2) confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; and (3) highlight significant programs and efforts. SRS maintained its record of environmental excellence in 2009, as its operations continued to result in minimal impact to the offsite public and the surrounding environment. The site's radioactive and chemical discharges to air and water were well below regulatory standards for environmental and public health protection; its air and water quality met applicable requirements; and the potential radiation dose from its discharges was less than the national dose standards. The largest radiation dose that an offsite, hypothetical, maximally exposed individual could have received from SRS operations during 2009 was estimated to be 0.12 millirem (mrem). (An mrem is a standard unit of measure for radiation exposure.) The 2009 SRS dose is just 0.12 percent of the DOE all-pathway dose standard of 100 mrem per year, and far less than the natural average dose of about 300 mrem per year (according to Report No. 160 of the National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurements) to people in the United States. This 2009 all-pathway dose of 0.12 mrem was the same as the 2008 dose. Environmental monitoring is conducted extensively within a 2,000-square-mile network

  13. Draft environmental impact statement for the siting, construction, and operation of New Production Reactor capacity. Volume 2, Sections 1-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    This (EIS) assesses the potential environmental impacts, both on a broad programmatic level and on a project-specific level, concerning a proposed action to provide new tritium production capacity to meet the nation`s nuclear defense requirements well into the 21st century. A capacity equivalent to that of about a 3,000-megawatt (thermal) heavy-water reactor was assumed as a reference basis for analysis in this EIS; this is the approximate capacity of the existing production reactors at DOE`s Savannah River Site. The EIS programmatic alternatives address Departmental decisions to be made on whether to build new production facilities, whether to build one or more complexes, what size production capacity to provide, and when to provide this capacity. Project-specific impacts for siting, constructing, and operating new production reactor capacity are assessed for three alternative sites: the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; and the Savannah River Site. For each site, the impacts of three reactor technologies (and supporting facilities) are assessed: a heavy-water reactor, a light-water reactor, and a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. Impacts of the no-action alternative also are assessed. The EIS evaluates impacts related to air quality; noise levels; surface water, groundwater, and wetlands; land use; recreation; visual environment; biotic resources; historical, archaeological, and cultural resources; socioeconomics; transportation; waste management; and human health and safety. The EIS describes in detail the potential radioactive releases from new production reactors and support facilities and assesses the potential doses to workers and the general public. This volume contains the analysis of programmatic alternatives, project alternatives, affected environment of alternative sites, environmental consequences, and environmental regulations and permit requirements.

  14. Draft environmental impact statement for the siting, construction, and operation of New Production Reactor capacity. Volume 3, Sections 7-12, Appendices A-C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) assesses the potential environmental impacts, both on a broad programmatic level and on a project-specific level, concerning a proposed action to provide new tritium production capacity to meet the nation`s nuclear defense requirements well into the 21st century. A capacity equivalent to that of about a 3,000-megawatt (thermal) heavy-water reactor was assumed as a reference basis for analysis in this EIS; this is the approximate capacity of the existing production reactors at DOE`s Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina. The EIS programmatic alternatives address Departmental decisions to be made on whether to build new production facilities, whether to build one or more complexes, what size production capacity to provide, and when to provide this capacity. Project-specific impacts for siting, constructing, and operating new production reactor capacity are assessed for three alternative sites: the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; and the Savannah River Site. For each site, the impacts of three reactor technologies (and supporting facilities) are assessed: a heavy-water reactor, a light-water reactor, and a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. Impacts of the no-action alternative also are assessed. The EIS evaluates impacts related to air quality; noise levels; surface water, groundwater, and wetlands; land use; recreation; visual environment; biotic resources; historical, archaeological, and cultural resources; socioeconomics; transportation; waste management; and human health and safety. The EIS describes in detail the potential radioactive releases from new production reactors and support facilities and assesses the potential doses to workers and the general public. This volume contains references; a list of preparers and recipients; acronyms, abbreviations, and units of measure; a glossary; an index and three appendices.

  15. Rheology of Savannah River site tank 42 HLW radioactive sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, B.C.

    1997-11-05

    Knowledge of the rheology of the radioactive sludge slurries at the Savannah River Site is necessary in order to ensure that they can be retrieved from waste tanks and processed for final disposal. At Savannah River Site, Tank 42 sludge represents on of the first HLW radioactive sludges to be vitrified in the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The rheological properties of unwashed Tank 42 sludge slurries at various solids concentrations were measured remotely in the Shielded Cells at the Savannah River Technology Center using a modified Haake Rotovisco viscometer.

  16. USED NUCLEAR MATERIALS AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE: ASSET OR WASTE?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magoulas, V.

    2013-06-03

    The nuclear industry, both in the commercial and the government sectors, has generated large quantities of material that span the spectrum of usefulness, from highly valuable (“assets”) to worthless (“wastes”). In many cases, the decision parameters are clear. Transuranic waste and high level waste, for example, have no value, and is either in a final disposition path today, or – in the case of high level waste – awaiting a policy decision about final disposition. Other materials, though discardable, have intrinsic scientific or market value that may be hidden by the complexity, hazard, or cost of recovery. An informed decision process should acknowledge the asset value, or lack of value, of the complete inventory of materials, and the structure necessary to implement the range of possible options. It is important that informed decisions are made about the asset value for the variety of nuclear materials available. For example, there is a significant quantity of spent fuel available for recycle (an estimated $4 billion value in the Savannah River Site’s (SRS) L area alone); in fact, SRS has already blended down more than 300 metric tons of uranium for commercial reactor use. Over 34 metric tons of surplus plutonium is also on a path to be used as commercial fuel. There are other radiological materials that are routinely handled at the site in large quantities that should be viewed as strategically important and / or commercially viable. In some cases, these materials are irreplaceable domestically, and failure to consider their recovery could jeopardize our technological leadership or national defense. The inventories of nuclear materials at SRS that have been characterized as “waste” include isotopes of plutonium, uranium, americium, and helium. Although planning has been performed to establish the technical and regulatory bases for their discard and disposal, recovery of these materials is both economically attractive and in the national

  17. Assessment of Neptunium, Americium, and Curium in the Savannah River Site Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-12-17

    A series of documents has been published in which the impact of various radionuclides released to the environment by Savannah River Site (SRS) operations has been assessed. The quantity released, the disposition of the radionuclides in the environment, and the dose to offsite individuals has been presented for activation products, carbon cesium, iodine, plutonium, selected fission products, strontium, technetium, tritium, uranium, and the noble gases. An assessment of the impact of nonradioactive mercury also has been published.This document assesses the impact of radioactive transuranics released from SRS facilities since the first reactor became operational late in 1953. The isotopes reported here are 239Np, 241Am, and 244Cm.

  18. THE TRITIUM UNDERFLOW STUDY AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiergesell, R; Daniel Kaplan,D

    2007-05-21

    An issue of concern at the Savannah River Site (SRS) over the past 20 years is whether tritiated groundwater originating at SRS might be the cause of low levels of tritium measured in certain domestic wells in Georgia. Tritium activity levels in several domestic wells have been observed to occur at levels comparable to what is measured in rainfall in areas surrounding SRS. Since 1988, there has been speculation that tritiated groundwater from SRS could flow under the river and find its way into Georgia wells. A considerable effort was directed at assessing the likelihood of trans-river flow, and 44 wells have been drilled by the USGS and the Georgia Department of Natural Resources. Also, as part of the data collection and analysis, the USGS developed a numerical model during 1997-98 (Ref. 1) to assess the possibility for such trans-river flow to occur. The model represented the regional groundwater flow system surrounding the Savannah River Site (SRS) in seven layers corresponding to the underlying hydrostratigraphic units, which was regarded as sufficiently detailed to evaluate whether groundwater originating at SRS could possibly flow beneath the Savannah River into Georgia. The model was calibrated against a large database of water-level measurements obtained from wells on both sides of the Savannah River and screened in each of the hydrostratigraphic units represented within the model. The model results verified that the groundwater movement in all hydrostratigraphic units proceeds laterally toward the Savannah River from both South Carolina and Georgia, and discharges into the river. Once the model was calibrated, a particle-track analysis was conducted to delineate areas of potential trans-river flow. Trans-river flow can occur in either an eastward or westward direction. The model indicated that all locations of trans-river flow are restricted to the Savannah River's floodplain, where groundwater passes immediately prior to discharging into the river

  19. Preliminary site selection report for the new sanitary landfill at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has proposed a new sanitary landfill (NSL) for solid waste. A site selection team, comprised of representatives from Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) evaluated potential landfill sites. The site selection team conducted an initial screening of SRS to eliminate unsuitable areas. The screening was based on criteria that were principally environmental factors; however, the criteria also included avoiding areas with unacceptable features for construction or operation of the facility. This initial screening identified seven candidate sites for further evaluation.

  20. ORIGEN2 model and results for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croff, A G; Bjerke, M A

    1982-06-01

    Reactor physics calculations and literature information acquisition have led to the development of a Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) model for the ORIGEN2 computer code. The model is based on cross sections taken directly from physics codes. Details are presented concerning the physical description of the fuel assemblies, the fuel management scheme, irradiation parameters, and initial material compositions. The ORIGEN2 model for the CRBR has been implemented, resulting in the production of graphical and tabular characteristics (radioactivity, thermal power, and toxicity) of CRBR spent fuel, high-level waste, and fuel-assembly structural material waste as a function of decay time. Characteristics for pressurized water reactors (PWRs), commercial liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs), and the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) have also been included in this report for comparison with the CRBR data.

  1. Sensitivity Analyses of Site Selection for a Concrete Batch Plant at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, S.P.

    2001-07-10

    A site selection study was conducted to evaluate locations for an onsite concrete batch plant to support the construction of the proposed surplus plutonium disposition facilities at the Savannah River site. Presented in this report is a sensitivity analysis that demonstrates the robustness of the site evaluations.

  2. Inspection Report on "Employment Verification at Savannah River Site"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-11-01

    We conducted a review at the Savannah River Site to determine if Site subcontractors verified the employment status of all employees in accordance with Federal requirements and, if unauthorized individuals accessed the site. During our field work, we reviewed 600 I-9 Forms from 21 subcontractors to verify whether Site subcontractors were using the I-9 Forms; and if the forms were accurate and complete. We also conducted a judgmental sample of individuals who accessed the Site during a six-month period to determine if there were any documentation anomalies.

  3. Reference site selection report for the advanced liquid metal reactor at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivill, R.L.

    1990-03-01

    This Reference Site Selection Report was prepared by EG G, Idaho Inc., for General Electric (GE) to provide information for use by the Department of Energy (DOE) in selecting a Safety Test Site for an Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor. Similar Evaluation studies are planned to be conducted at other potential DOE sites. The Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) Concept was developed for ALMR by GE. A ALMR Safety Test is planned to be performed on a DOE site to demonstrate features and meet Nuclear Regulatory Commission Requirements. This study considered possible locations at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory that met the ALMR Prototype Site Selection Methodology and Criteria. Four sites were identified, after further evaluation one site was eliminated. Each of the remaining three sites satisfied the criteria and was graded. The results were relatively close. Thus concluding that the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is a suitable location for an Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor Safety Test. 23 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE'S H-CANYON FACILITY: RECOVERY AND DOWN BLEND URANIUM FOR BENEFICIAL USE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magoulas, V.

    2013-05-27

    For over fifty years, the H Canyon facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has performed remotely operated radiochemical separations of irradiated targets to produce materials for national defense. Although the materials production mission has ended, the facility continues to play an important role in the stabilization and safe disposition of proliferable nuclear materials. As part of the US HEU Disposition Program, SRS has been down blending off-specification (off-spec) HEU to produce LEU since 2003. Off-spec HEU contains fission products not amenable to meeting the American Society for Testing and Material (ASTM) commercial fuel standards prior to purification. This down blended HEU material produced 301 MT of ~5% enriched LEU which has been fabricated into light water reactor fuel being utilized in Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) reactors in Tennessee and Alabama producing economic power. There is still in excess of ~10 MT of off-spec HEU throughout the DOE complex or future foreign and domestic research reactor returns that could be recovered and down blended for beneficial use as either ~5% enriched LEU, or for use in subsequent LEU reactors requiring ~19.75% enriched LEU fuel.

  5. Assessment of plutonium in the Savannah River Site environment. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H.; Evans, A.G.; Geary, L.A.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Pinder, J.E.; Strom, R.N.

    1992-12-31

    Plutonium in the Savannah River Site Environment is published as a part of the Radiological Assessment Program (RAP). It is the fifth in a series of eight documents on individual radioisotopes released to the environment as a result of Savannah River Site (SRS) operations. These are living documents, each to be revised and updated on a two-year schedule. This document describes the sources of plutonium in the environment, its release from SRS, environmental transport and ecological concentration of plutonium, and the radiological impact of SRS releases to the environment. Plutonium exists in the environment as a result of above-ground nuclear weapons tests, the Chernobyl accident, the destruction of satellite SNAP 9-A, plane crashes involving nuclear weapons, and small releases from reactors and reprocessing plants. Plutonium has been produced at SRS during the operation of five production reactors and released in small quantities during the processing of fuel and targets in chemical separations facilities. Approximately 0.6 Ci of plutonium was released into streams and about 12 Ci was released to seepage basins, where it was tightly bound by clay in the soil. A smaller quantity, about 3.8 Ci, was released to the atmosphere. Virtually all releases have occurred in F- and H-Area separation facilities. Plutonium concentration and transport mechanisms for the atmosphere, surface water, and ground water releases have been extensively studied by Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and ecological mechanisms have been studied by Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL). The overall radiological impact of SRS releases to the offsite maximum individual can be characterized by a total dose of 15 mrem (atmospheric) and 0.18 mrem (liquid), compared with the dose of 12,960 mrem from non-SRS sources during the same period of time (1954--1989). Plutonium releases from SRS facilities have resulted in a negligible impact to the environment and the population it supports.

  6. Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, M.

    2000-06-30

    The purpose of this report is to present summary environmental data that characterize site environmental management performance, confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, highlight significant programs and efforts, and assess the impact of SRS operations on the public and the environment.

  7. Savannah River Site Environmental report for 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Michael; Jannik, Timothy; Cauthen, Kim; Bryant, Tracy; Coward, Lori; Eddy, Teresa; Vangelas, Karen; O' Quinn, Sadika; Meyer, Amy; Ackerman, Jana D.; Adams, John; Fanning, Greta; Thompson, Martha; Farfan, Eduardo B.; Dixon, Kenneth L.; Kemmerlin, Robert; Millings, Ted; Maxwell, Sherrod; Blas, Susan; Looney, Brian; Jackson, Dennis; Paller, Michael; Wabbersen, William

    2013-09-12

    This report is an overview of effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance activities conducted on and in the vicinity of SRS from January 1 through December 31, 2012 - including the Site's performance against applicable standards and requirements. Details are provided on major programs such as the Environmental Management System (EMS) and permit compliance.

  8. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE'S H CANYON FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sexton, Lindsay; Fuller, Kenneth

    2013-07-09

    The Savannah River Site's (SRS) H Canyon Facility is the only large scale, heavily shielded, nuclear chemical separations plant still in operation in the U.S. The facility's operations historically recovered uranium-235 (U-235) and neptunium-237 (Np-237) from aluminum-clad, enriched-uranium fuel tubes from Site nuclear reactors and other domestic and foreign research reactors. Today the facility, in conjunction with HB Line, is working to provide the initial feed material to the Mixed Oxide Facility also located on SRS. Many additional campaigns are also in the planning process. Furthermore, the facility has started to integrate collaborative research and development (R&D) projects into its schedule. H Canyon can serve as the appropriate testing location for many technologies focused on monitoring the back end of the fuel cycle, due to the nature of the facility and continued operation. H Canyon, in collaboration with the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), has been working with several groups in the DOE complex to conduct testing demonstrations of novel technologies at the facility. The purpose of conducting these demonstrations at H Canyon will be to demonstrate the capabilities of the emerging technologies in an operational environment. This paper will summarize R&D testing activities currently taking place in H Canyon and discuss the possibilities for future collaborations.

  9. Savannah River Site Surplus Facilities Available for Reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, R.M.; Owens, M.B.; Lentz, D.W.

    1995-09-14

    The purpose of this document is to provide a current, centralized list of Savannah River Site facilities, which are surplus and available for reuse. These surplus facilities may be made available for other DOE site missions, commercial economic development reuse, or other governmental reuse. SRS procedures also require that before new construction can be approved, available surplus facilities are screened for possible reuse in lieu of the proposed new construction.

  10. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-03

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted during the first quarter of 1992. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  11. The Savannah River Site's groundwater monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted by EPD/EMS in the first quarter of 1991. In includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program's activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  12. Radiological impact of 2016 operations at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minter, K. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, G. T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Dixon, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-01

    This report presents the environmental dose assessment methods and the estimated potential doses to the offsite public from 2016 Savannah River Site (SRS) air and liquid radioactive releases. Also documented are potential doses from special-case exposure scenarios, such as the consumption of wildlife or goat milk.

  13. Numerical Weather Forecasting at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R.L.

    1999-01-26

    Facilities such as the Savannah River Site (SRS), which contain the potential for hazardous atmospheric releases, rely on the predictive capabilities of dispersion models to assess possible emergency response actions. The operational design in relation to domain size and forecast time is presented, along with verification of model results over extended time periods with archived surface observations.

  14. Onsite transportation of radioactive materials at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, R.

    2015-03-03

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Transportation Safety Document (TSD) defines the onsite packaging and transportation safety program at SRS and demonstrates its compliance with Department of Energy (DOE) transportation safety requirements, to include DOE Order 460.1C, DOE Order 461.2, Onsite Packaging and Transfer of Materials of National Security Interest, and 10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Management (Subpart B).

  15. The Savannah River site`s groundwater monitoring program: second quarter 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1997, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. A detailed explanation of the flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from second quarter 1997 are included in this report.

  16. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program, third quarter 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-17

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1991, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. Analytical results from third quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  17. Field Summary Report for Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington, Collection of Surface Water, River Sediments, and Island Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. C. Hulstrom

    2009-09-28

    This report has been prepared in support of the remedial investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River and describes the 2008/2009 data collection efforts. This report documents field activities associated with collection of sediment, river water, and soil in and adjacent to the Columbia River near the Hanford Site and in nearby tributaries.

  18. Conceptual design of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor spent-fuel shipping cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, R B; Diggs, J M [eds.

    1982-04-01

    Details of a baseline conceptual design of a spent fuel shipping cask for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) are presented including an assessment of shielding, structural, thermal, fabrication and cask/plant interfacing problems. A basis for continued cask development and for new technological development is established. Alternates to the baseline design are briefly presented. Estimates of development schedules, cask utilization and cost schedules, and of personnel dose commitments during CRBR in-plant handling of the cask are also presented.

  19. Steady-state and loss-of-pumping accident analyses of the Savannah River new production reactor representative design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryor, R.J.; Maloney, K.J.

    1990-10-01

    This document contains the steady-state and loss-of-pumping accident analysis of the representative design for the Savannah River heavy water new production reactor. A description of the reactor system and computer input model, the results of the steady-state analysis, and the results of four loss-of-pumping accident calculations are presented. 5 refs., 37 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Green River Site, Green River, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-08-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Green River site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Green River, Utah. This evaluation has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative remedial actions. Radon gas released from the 123,000 tons of tailings at the Green River site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors.

  1. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program. During fourth quarter 1989 (October--December), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. An explanation of flagging criteria for the fourth quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from fourth quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  2. Decommissioning strategy and schedule for a multiple reactor nuclear power plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Deiglys Borges; Moreira, Joao M.L.; Maiorino, Jose Rubens, E-mail: deiglys.monteiro@ufabc.edu.br, E-mail: joao.moreira@ufabc.edu.br, E-mail: joserubens.maiorino@ufabc.edu.br [Universidade Federal do ABC (CECS/UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia, Modelagem e Ciencias Aplicadas

    2015-07-01

    The decommissioning is an important part of every Nuclear Power Plant life cycle gaining importance when there are more than one plant at the same site due to interactions that can arise from the operational ones and a decommissioning plant. In order to prevent undesirable problems, a suitable strategy and a very rigorous schedule should implemented and carried. In this way, decommissioning tasks such as fully decontamination and dismantling of activated and contaminated systems, rooms and structures could be delayed, posing as an interesting option to multiple reactor sites. The present work aims to purpose a strategy and a schedule for the decommissioning of a multiple reactor site highlighting the benefits of delay operational tasks and constructs some auxiliary services in the site during the stand by period of the shutdown plants. As a case study, will be presented a three-reactor site which the decommissioning process actually is in planning stage and that should start in the next decade. (author)

  3. River and river-related drainage area parameters for site investigation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomqvist, P.; Brunberg, A.K. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Limnology; Brydsten, L. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, a number of parameters of importance to a determination of the function of running waters as transport channels for material from the continents to the sea are presented. We have assumed that retention mechanisms of material in the river and in the riparian zone will be covered by special investigations but tried to create a platform for such investigations by quantification of the extension of different main habitats. The choice of parameters has been made so that also the nature conservation value of the river can be preliminary established, and includes a general description of the river type and the inherent ecosystem. The material links directly to that presented in a previous report concerning site investigation programmes for lakes. The parameters have been divided into five groups: 1) The location of the object relative important gradients in the surrounding nature; 2) The river catchment area and its major constituents; 3) The river morphometry; 4) The river ecosystem; 5) Human-induced damages to the river ecosystem. The first two groups, principally based on the climate, hydrology, geology and vegetation of the catchment area, represent parameters that can be used to establish the rarity and representativity of the system, and will in the context of site investigation program be used as a basis for generalisation of the results. The third group, the river morphometry parameters, are standard parameters for the outline of sampling programmes and for calculations of the physical extension of key habitats in the system. The fourth group, the ecosystem of the river, includes physical, chemical and biological parameters required for determination of the influence from the terrestrial ecosystem of the catchment area, nutrient status, distribution of different habitats, and presence of fish in the system. In the context of site investigation program, the parameters in these two groups will be used for budget calculations of the flow of energy and

  4. Savannah River Site mixed waste Proposed Site Treatment Plan (PSTP). Volumes 1 and 2 and reference document: Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmich, E.; Noller, D.K.; Wierzbicki, K.S.; Bailey, L.L.

    1995-07-13

    The DOE is required by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act to prepare site treatment plans describing the development of treatment capacities and technologies for treating mixed waste. This proposed plan contains Savannah River Site`s preferred options and schedules for constructing new facilities, and otherwise obtaining treatment for mixed wastes. The proposed plan consists of 2 volumes. Volume 1, Compliance Plan, identifies the capacity to be developed and the schedules as required. Volume 2, Background, provides a detailed discussion of the preferred options with technical basis, plus a description of the specific waste streams. Chapters are: Introduction; Methodology; Mixed low level waste streams; Mixed transuranic waste; High level waste; Future generation of mixed waste streams; Storage; Process for evaluation of disposal issues in support of the site treatment plans discussions; Treatment facilities and treatment technologies; Offsite waste streams for which SRS treatment is the Preferred Option (Naval reactor wastes); Summary information; and Acronyms and glossary. This revision does not contain the complete revised report, but only those pages that have been revised.

  5. Worker Alienation and Compensation at the Savannah River Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwood, Loka; Wing, Steve

    2016-05-01

    Corporations operating U.S. nuclear weapons plants for the federal government began tracking occupational exposures to ionizing radiation in 1943. However, workers, scholars, and policy makers have questioned the accuracy and completeness of radiation monitoring and its capacity to provide a basis for workers' compensation. We use interviews to explore the limitations of broad-scale, corporate epidemiological surveillance through worker accounts from the Savannah River Site nuclear weapons plant. Interviewees report inadequate monitoring, overbearing surveillance, limited venues to access medical support and exposure records, and administrative failure to report radiation and other exposures at the plant. The alienation of workers from their records and toil is relevant to worker compensation programs and the accuracy of radiation dose measurements used in epidemiologic studies of occupational radiation exposures at the Savannah River Site and other weapons plants.

  6. Savannah River Site Geographic Information System management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, D.E.

    1992-02-01

    A plan for managing the development of Geographic Information System (GIS) applications at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in a coordinated, integrated fashion has been developed. Included in the plan are discussions on the guidance for GIS activities at the site, the overall strategy for managing GIS applications development, the specific administrative and programmatic tasks with projected completion schedules, and the organizational structure in place to direct this GIS effort. The Department of Energy-Savannah River Field Office (DOE-SR) has encouraged all primary subcontracting organizations at SRS involved with the mapping of spatial data to coordinate their efforts and be more cost effective. This plan provides a description of organized activities in 1992 for establishing a coordinated approach for developing and implementing GIS technology.

  7. 1997 Savannah River Site annual epidemiologic surveillance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-06-01

    This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from Savannah River Site from January 1, 1997 through December 31, 1997. The data were collected by a coordinator at Savannah River Site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and preliminary data analyses were carried out. The analyses were interpreted and the final report prepared by the DOE Office of Epidemiologic Studies. The information in this report provides highlights of the data analyses conducted on the 1997 data collected from Savannah River Site. The main sections of the report include: work force characteristics; absences due to injury or illness lasting 5 or more consecutive workdays; workplace illnesses, injuries, and deaths that were reportable to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (''OSHA-recordable'' events); and disabilities and deaths among current workers. The 199 7 report includes a section on time trends that provides comparative information on the health of the work force from 1994 through 1997.

  8. 1996 Savannah River Site annual epidemiologic surveillance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-03-01

    This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from Savannah River Site from January 1, 1996 through December 31, 1996. The data were collected by a coordinator at Savannah River Site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and preliminary data analyses were carried out. The analyses were interpreted and the final report prepared by the DOE Office of Epidemiologic Studies. The information in this report provides highlights of the data analyses conducted on the 1996 data collected from Savannah River Site. The main sections of the report include: work force characteristics; absences due to injury or illness lasting 5 or more consecutive workdays; workplace illnesses, injuries, and deaths that were reportable to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (''OSHA-recordable'' events); and disabilities and deaths among current workers. The 1996 report includes a new section on time trends that provides comparative information on the health of the work force from 1994 through 1996.

  9. Nonproliferation impacts assessment for the management of the Savannah River Site aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    On May 13, 1996, the US established a new, 10-year policy to accept and manage foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel containing uranium enriched in the US. The goal of this policy is to reduce civilian commerce in weapons-usable highly enriched uranium (HEU), thereby reducing the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation. Two key disposition options under consideration for managing this fuel include conventional reprocessing and new treatment and packaging technologies. The Record of Decision specified that, while evaluating the reprocessing option, ``DOE will commission or conduct an independent study of the nonproliferation and other (e.g., cost and timing) implications of chemical separation of spent nuclear fuel from foreign research reactors.`` DOE`s Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation conducted this study consistent with the aforementioned Record of Decision. This report addresses the nonproliferation implications of the technologies under consideration for managing aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel at the Savannah River Site. Because the same technology options are being considered for the foreign research reactor and the other aluminum-based spent nuclear fuels discussed in Section ES.1, this report addresses the nonproliferation implications of managing all the Savannah River Site aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel, not just the foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel. The combination of the environmental impact information contained in the draft EIS, public comment in response to the draft EIS, and the nonproliferation information contained in this report will enable the Department to make a sound decision regarding how to manage all aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel at the Savannah River Site.

  10. 2016 Inspection and Annual Site Status Report for the Site A/Plot M, Illinois, Decommissioned Reactor Site July 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murl, Jeffrey [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Miller, Michele [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The Site A/Plot M, Illinois, Decommissioned Reactor Site was inspected on May 17, 2016. The site, located within Cook County forest preserve that is open to the public, was found to be in good condition with one exception. Erosion on top of the grass-covered mound at Plot M continues to be a concern as presented in previous inspections. Ruts form in the soil on top of Plot M as a result of bike traffic using the open field as a pass thru between established bike trails within the forest preserve. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) who is contracted directly from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has filled in the ruts with top soil and reseeding remains an ongoing process. Reseeded areas from 2015 are progressing nicely. No cause for a follow-up inspection was identified. In 2015, ANL plugged and abandoned 8 of 25 monitoring wells (BH41, BH51, BH52, BH54, DH9, DH10, DH13, and DH17). The 17 groundwater monitoring wells remaining at the site were inspected to confirm that they were locked and in good condition. Preliminary environmental monitoring results for 2015 are provided in a draft report titled Surveillance of Site A and Plot M, Report for 2015, prepared by ANL. The report also contains results of an independent analysis conducted by the Illinois Emergency Management Agency on some of the samples collected by ANL in 2015. The draft report states that the results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the impact of radioactivity at Site A/Plot M is very low and does not endanger the health of those living in the area or visiting the site. The ANL monitoring report will be made available to the public on the DOE Office of Legacy Management public website when it is issued as final. A new county forest preserve campsite opened in 2015 at Bull Frog Lake, which is east of Plot M. Hiking trails connect Bull Frog Lake with Site A/Plot M. The site might receive more traffic from forest preserve visitors now that this new campsite is opened.

  11. Adverse experiences with nitric acid at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durant, W.S.; Craig, D.K.; Vitacco, M.J.; McCormick, J.A.

    1991-06-01

    Nitric acid is used routinely at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in many processes. However, the site has experienced a number of adverse situations in handling nitric acid. These have ranged from minor injuries to personnel to significant explosions. This document compiles many of these events and includes discussions of process upsets, fires, injuries, and toxic effects of nitric acid and its decomposition products. The purpose of the publication is to apprise those using the acid that it is a potentially dangerous material and can react in many ways as demonstrated by SRS experience. 10 refs.

  12. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program, third quarter 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1989 (July--September), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the third quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from third quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  13. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. Fourth quarter, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. During fourth quarter 1989 (October--December), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. An explanation of flagging criteria for the fourth quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from fourth quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  14. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program, first quarter 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. During first quarter 1989 (January--March), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the first quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from first quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  15. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program, second quarter 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1989 (April--June), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the second quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from second quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  16. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program: Third quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-02-04

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1992, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. Table 1 lists those well series with constituents in the groundwater above Flag 2 during third quarter 1992, organized by location. Results from all laboratory analyses are used to generate this table. Specific conductance and pH data from the field also are included in this table.

  17. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program, First Quarter 1996, Volumes I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1996-10-22

    This report summarizes the Savanna River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by EPD/EMS during the first quarter 1996. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program. It also provides a record of the program`s activities and serves as an official record of the analytical results.

  18. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. First quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-03

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted during the first quarter of 1992. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program`s activities; and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  19. The Savannah River Site`s groundwater monitoring program. First quarter 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted by EPD/EMS in the first quarter of 1991. In includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program`s activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  20. Transporter Development for the Tritium Extraction Facility at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, J.

    1998-12-17

    The Commercial Light Water Reactor-Tritium Extraction Facility (CLWR-TEF) is planned for location at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as part of the US Department of Energy CLWR tritium production alternative. This new facility will rely on processes and equipment that are significantly different from those proven in the past or currently in use at SRS. For instance, the CLWR-TEF reference design employs remote modules to provide an inert processing atmosphere, secondary confinement for tritium and the primary confinement for particulate contamination. The primary component of this modular system is the Transporter. A Transporter mock-up was developed to demonstrate concept feasibility of the required processing functions (sealing, attachment/alignment and materials handling). The module design, the seal door selection, and the planned test program are discussed.

  1. Review of the source term algorithm for emergency response at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpkins, A.A.; O' Kula, K.R.; Hunter, C.H.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to verify the Source Term Setup Module of the Reactor Accident Program (RAP) which is used to perform environmental consequence assessments during emergency response situations at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The Source Term Setup Module is that portion of the program that estimates the source term based on either an input number of melted assemblies or a derived number of melted assemblies based on the Total Stack Activity Monitor (TSAM) response. In order to verify the code, the following items were completed: a review of isotope and fuel specific data by examining the original literature, a complete derivation of all equations employed in the module, and a comparison study of hand calculations with computer results.

  2. Review of the source term algorithm for emergency response at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpkins, A.A.; O`Kula, K.R.; Hunter, C.H.

    1992-12-31

    The purpose of this work was to verify the Source Term Setup Module of the Reactor Accident Program (RAP) which is used to perform environmental consequence assessments during emergency response situations at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The Source Term Setup Module is that portion of the program that estimates the source term based on either an input number of melted assemblies or a derived number of melted assemblies based on the Total Stack Activity Monitor (TSAM) response. In order to verify the code, the following items were completed: a review of isotope and fuel specific data by examining the original literature, a complete derivation of all equations employed in the module, and a comparison study of hand calculations with computer results.

  3. Characterization recommendations for waste sites at the Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H.; Gordon, D.E.; Johnson, W.F.; Kaback, D.S.; Looney, B.B.; Nichols, R.L.; Shedrow, C.B.

    1987-11-01

    One hundred and sixty six disposal facilities that received or may have received waste materials resulting from operations at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) have been identified. These waste range from innocuous solid and liquid materials (e.g., wood piles) to process effluents that contain hazardous and/or radioactive constituents. The waste sites have been grouped into 45 categories according the the type of waste materials they received. Waste sites are located with SRP coordinates, a local Department of Energy (DOE) grid system whose grid north is 36 degrees 22 minutes west of true north. DOE policy is to close all waste sites at SRP in a manner consistent with protecting human health and environment and complying with applicable environmental regulations (DOE 1984). A uniform, explicit characterization program for SRP waste sites will provide a sound technical basis for developing closure plans. Several elements are summarized in the following individual sections including (1) a review of the history, geohydrology, and available characterization data for each waste site and (2) recommendations for additional characterization necessary to prepare a reasonable closure plan. Many waste sites have been fully characterized, while others have not been investigated at all. The approach used in this report is to evaluate available groundwater quality and site history data. For example, groundwater data are compared to review criteria to help determine what additional information is required. The review criteria are based on regulatory and DOE guidelines for acceptable concentrations of constituents in groundwater and soil.

  4. PROTECTING GROUNDWATER & THE COLUMBIA RIVER AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GERBER, M.S.

    2006-06-29

    Along the remote shores of the Columbia River in southeast Washington state, a race is on. Fluor Hanford, a prime cleanup contractor to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Hanford Site, is managing a massive, multi-faceted project to remove contaminants from the groundwater before they can reach the Columbia. Despite the daunting nature and size of the problem--about 80 square miles of aquifer under the site contains long-lived radionuclides and hazardous chemicals--significant progress is being made. Many groups are watching, speaking out, and helping. A large. passionate, diverse, and geographically dispersed community is united in its desire to protect the Columbia River--the eighth largest in the world--and have a voice in Hanford's future. Fluor Hanford and the DOE, along with the US. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) interact with all the stakeholders to make the best decisions. Together, they have made some remarkable strides in the battle against groundwater contamination under the site.

  5. Radioactive releases at the Savannah River Site, 1954--1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetrick, C.S.; Martin, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    Radioactive Releases at the Savannah River Site, 1954--1988 (WSRC-RP-89-737) is the continuation of a series of reports, previously titled Releases of Radioactivity at the Savannah River Plant (DPSU-1-YR-25). The series reflects the use of air and liquid effluent sample analyses in determining the amount of radioactivity released from Savannah River Site (SRS) operations. The identification and characterization of these source terms since plant startup in 1954 have aided Site personnel in confining and limiting the amount of radioactivity released to the environment from SRS facilities. Data contained in this report are used for a variety of purposes, including the calculation of offsite dose estimates and aiding special environmental studies. This document is an effluent/source term report. The report is divided into four summary sections. Summary A details volumes of air and water released from emission sources since plant startup. Summary B lists annual radioactive release data from these emission sources, grouped by nuclide and area. Summary C provides yearly totals of radioactive releases by radionuclide, under the headings Atmospheric,'' Liquid to streams,'' or Liquid to Seepage Basins'' accordingly. Monthly radioactive releases from each emission source from 1986 to 1988 are found in Summary D. Where appropriate, headings in the summary tables have been changed to clarify and simplify emission data (see Appendix B). Additionally, any new discharge points, such as the liquid discharge from the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), are included in this report. A listing of 1988 source term and onsite discharge designations is provided in Appendix C. 36 refs.

  6. Savannah River Site environmental report for 1991. [Contains Glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, M.W.; Karapatakis, L.K.; Mamatey, A.R.; Todd, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes environmental activities conducted on and in the vicinity of the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, S.C., from Jan. 1 to Dec. 31, 1991, with an update on compliance activities through April 1, 1992. The report is a single volume with a separate summary pamphlet highlighting the major findings for 1991. The report is divided into an executive summary and 14 chapters containing information on environmental compliance issues, environmental monitoring methods and programs, and environmental research activities for 1991, as well as historical data from previous years. Analytical results, figures, charts, and data tables relevant to the environmental monitoring program for 1991 at SRS are included.

  7. Sites for locations of nuclear reactors; Sitios para emplazamientos de reactores nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcazar, M.; Huerta, M.; Lopez, A., E-mail: miguel.balcazar@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    A restriction on sites of nuclear energy is the history of seismic activity, in its magnitude (Richter) and intensity (Mercalli). This article delimits the areas of greatest magnitude and national seismic intensity, with restrictions of ground acceleration; the supplement areas with a low magnitude of seismic activity are shown. Potential sites for the location of these sites are introduced into a geographic information system. The set of geo-referenced data contains the location of the active volcanic manifestations; the historical record of earthquake epicenters, magnitudes and intensities; major geological faults; surface hydrology and water bodies; location of population density; protected areas; contour lines; the rock type or geology. The geographic information system allows entering normative criteria and environmental restrictions that correlate with geo-referenced data described above, forms both probable and exclusion areas for the installation of nuclear sites. (Author)

  8. Savannah River Site Environmental Implentation Plan. Volume 3, Management and support programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-08-01

    This report describes the organizational responsibilities for the Savannah River Site Environmental program. Operations, Engineering and projects, Environment, safety, and health, Quality assurance, and the Savannah River Laboratory are described.

  9. Fiscal impacts associated with power reactor siting: a paired case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, D.J.

    1977-01-19

    The paper examines the fiscal impacts associated with siting nuclear-powered electrical stations. First, a framework for examining fiscal impacts is constructed. This framework consists of four elements: the ability of a local community to raise revenues, the degree to which this ability is used, the uses to which tax revenues are applied, and the effect of tax/expenditure decisions on the local economy. Changes in these four elements caused by the siting are termed fiscal impacts. Second, this framework is applied to two communities, Waterford, Connecticut and Plymouth, Massachusetts, which host operating reactors. In each community the ability to raise revenues through the property tax--the prime local revenue source--approximately doubled. As a result both communities chose ultimately to reduce tax rates. Moreover, it appears that the annual revenues raised through the public sector as a result of the reactor siting exceeded income changes that resulted from increased local employment associated with each reactor's operation. It therefore appears that for these two towns, the primary economic impact occurred through the public sector. The report concludes with suggestions for further research into local fiscal and economic effects associated with power reactor siting.

  10. A climatological description of the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, C.H.

    1990-05-22

    This report provides a general climatological description of the Savannah River Site. The description provides both regional and local scale climatology. The regional climatology includes a general regional climatic description and presents information on occurrence frequencies of the severe meteorological phenomena that are important considerations in the design and siting of a facility. These phenomena include tornadoes, thunderstorms, hurricanes, and ice/snow storms. Occurrence probabilities given for extreme tornado and non-tornado winds are based on previous site specific studies. Local climatological conditions that are significant with respect to the impact of facility operations on the environment are described using on-site or near-site meteorological data. Summaries of wind speed, wind direction, and atmospheric stability are primarily based on the most recently generated five-year set of data collected from the onsite meteorological tower network (1982--86). Temperature, humidity, and precipitation summaries include data from SRL's standard meteorological instrument shelter and the Augusta National Weather Service office at Bush Field through 1986. A brief description of the onsite meteorological monitoring program is also provided. 24 refs., 15 figs., 22 tabs.

  11. Application of UAVs at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Pendergast, M.M.

    1996-08-01

    Small, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) equipped with sensors for physical, chemical, and radiochemical measurements of remote environments have been tested at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A miniature helicopter was used as an aerial platform for testing a variety of sensors with outputs integrated with the flight control system for real-time data acquisition and evaluation. The sensors included a precision magnetometer, two broad band infra-red radiometers, a 1-inch by 1-inch Nal(TI) scintillation detector, and an on-board color video camera. Included in the avionics package was an ultrasonic altimeter, a precision barometer, and a portable Global Positioning System. Two separate demonstration locations at SRS were flown that had been previously characterized by careful sampling and analyses and by aerial surveys at high altitudes. The Steed Pond demonstration site contains elevated levels of uranium in the soil and pond silt due to runoff from one of the site`s uranium fuel and target production areas. The soil at the other site is contaminated with oil bearing materials and contains some buried objects. The results and limitations of the UAV surveys are presented and improvements for future measurements are discussed.

  12. Epidemiologic surveillance. Annual report for Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Epidemiologic surveillance at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences due to illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. In this annual report, the 1994 morbidity data for the Savannah River Site (SRS) are summarized. These analyses focus on absences of 5 or more consecutive workdays occurring among workers aged 16-75 years. They are arranged in five sets of tables that present: (1) the distribution of the labor force by occupational category and salary status; (2) the absences per person, diagnoses per absences, and diagnosis rates for the whole work force; (3) diagnosis rates by type of disease or injury; (4) diagnosis rates by occupational category; and (5) relative risks for specific types of disease or injury by occupational category.

  13. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted in the first quarter of 1990. It includes the analytical data, field data, well activity data, and the other documentation for this program and provides a record of the program's activities and rationale and an official document of the analytical results. The groundwater monitoring program includes the following activities: installation, maintenance, and abandonment of monitoring wells, environmental soil borings, development of the sampling and analytical schedule, collection and analyses of groundwater samples, review of the analytical data and other data, maintenance of the databases containing groundwater monitoring data and related data, quality assurance (QA) evaluations of laboratory performance, and reports of results to waste-site facility custodians and to the Environmental Protection Section (EPS) of EPD.

  14. Savannah River Site Environmental Implementation Plan. Volume 2, Protection programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-08-01

    Formal sitewide environmental planning at the . Savannah River Site (SRS) began in 1986 with the development and adoption of the Strategic Environmental Plan. The Strategic Environmental Plan describes the philosophy, policy, and overall program direction of environmental programs for the operation of the SRS. The Strategic Environmental Plan (Volume 2) provided the basis for development of the Environmental Implementation Plan (EIP). The EIP is the detailed, comprehensive environmental master plan for operating contractor organizations at the SRS. The EIP provides a process to ensure that all environmental requirements and obligations are being met by setting specific measurable goals and objectives and strategies for implementation. The plan is the basis for justification of site manpower and funding requests for environmental projects and programs over a five-year planning period.

  15. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-06-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted in the fourth quarter of 1990. It includes the analytical data, field data, well activity data, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program's activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results. The groundwater monitoring program includes the following activities: installation, maintenance, and abandonment of monitoring wells, environmental soil borings, development of the sampling and analytical schedule, collection and analyses of groundwater samples, review of analytical and other data, maintenance of the databases containing groundwater monitoring data, quality assurance (QA) evaluations of laboratory performance, and reports of results to waste-site facility custodians and to the Environmental Protection Section (EPS) of EPD.

  16. Consolidated Incineration Facility, Savannah River Site. Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) was prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the potential impacts associated with the siting, construction, and operation of the proposed Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF), at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina. The text of the document is unchanged from the EA issued in June 1992, with the following three exceptions: (1) Section 2.1 refers to recent solid waste forecast information; (2) Section 4.5.1 deletes the reference to dioxin emission standards; and (3) a footnote to Section 4.6.2 includes the results of a morr, conservative risk factor. An additional appendix has also been added to the EA. Appendix B presents comments received on the June 1992 EA and the Proposed FONSI from federal, state, and local agencies, interest groups, and individuals. Appendix B also contains both general and specific DOE responses to these comments.

  17. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program: First quarter 1993, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by the Environmental Protection Department`s Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) during the first quarter of 1993. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program`s activities; and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  18. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. Fourth quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-17

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted by the Environmental Protection Department`s Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) during the fourth quarter of 1992. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program`s activities; and serves as an official document of the analytical results.

  19. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. Second quarter 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    This document contains information concerning the groundwater monitoring program at Savannah River Plant. The EPD/EMS (environmental protection department/environmental monitoring section) is responsible for monitoring constituents in the groundwater at approximately 135 waste sites in 16 areas at SRS. This report consolidates information from field reports, laboratory analysis, and quality control. The groundwater in these areas has been contaminated with radioactive materials, organic compounds, and heavy metals.

  20. Investigation of the Strontium-90 Contaminant Plume along the Shoreline of the Columbia River at the 100-N Area of the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Patton, Gregory W.; Hartman, Mary J.; Spane, Frank A.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Fritz, Brad G.; Gilmore, Tyler J.; Mackley, Rob D.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Clayton, Ray E.

    2007-10-01

    Efforts are underway to remediate strontium-laden groundwater to the Columbia River at the 100-N Area of the Hanford Site. Past practices of the 100-N reactor liquid waste disposal sites has left strontium-90 sorbed onto sediments which is a continuing source of contaminant discharge to the river. The Remediation Task of the Science and Technology Project assessed the interaction of groundwater and river water at the hyporheic zone. Limited data have been obtained at this interface of contaminant concentrations, geology, groundwater chemistry, affects of river stage and other variables that may affect strontium-90 release. Efforts were also undertaken to determine the extent, both laterally and horizontally, of the strontium-90 plume along the shoreline and to potentially find an alternative constituent to monitor strontium-90 that would be more cost effective and could possibly be done under real time conditions. A baseline of strontium-90 concentrations along the shoreline was developed to help assess remediation technologies.

  1. Integration of Environmental Compliance at the Savannah River Site - 13024

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoel, David [United States Department of Energy - Savannah River Operations Office (United States); Griffith, Michael [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a large federal installation hosting diverse missions and multiple organizations with competing regulatory needs. Accordingly, there was a need to integrate environmental compliance strategies to ensure the consistent flow of information between Department of Energy-Savannah River (DOE-SR), the regulatory agencies and other interested parties. In order to meet this objective, DOE and major SRS contractors and tenants have committed to a strategy of collaboratively working together to ensure that a consistent, integrated, and fully coordinated approach to environmental compliance and regulator relationships is maintained. DOE-SR and Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC, the SRS management and operations contractor, have established an environmental compliance integration process that provides for the consistent flow down of requirements to projects, facilities, SRS contractors, and subcontractors as well as the upward flow of information to assist in the early identification and resolution of environmental regulatory issues and enhancement of compliance opportunities. In addition, this process strongly fosters teamwork to collaboratively resolve complex regulatory challenges, promote pollution prevention and waste minimization opportunities to advance site missions in a manner that balances near-term actions with the long-term site vision, while being protective of human health and the environment. Communication tools are being utilized, some with enhancements, to ensure appropriate information is communicated to all levels with environmental responsibility at SRS. SRS internal regulatory integration is accomplished through a variety of informational exchange forums (e.g., Challenges, Opportunities and Resolution (COR) Team, DOE's Joint Site Regulatory Integration Team, and the Senior Environmental Managers Council (SEMC)). SRS communications and problem-solving with the regulatory agencies have been enhanced through formation

  2. Geographic information system planning for geotechnical and earthquake engineering applications at the Savannah River Site, SC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R.

    1993-02-01

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) of the Savannah River Site is in the planning stages of compiling a geological, geophysical, and seismological data base on an industry standard Geographic Information System (GIS). The system will serve as a tool for management and integration of already collected site data,planning for additional investigations, and for special studies such as seismic hazard and risk analyses for the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  3. Geographic information system planning for geotechnical and earthquake engineering applications at the Savannah River Site, SC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R.

    1993-01-01

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) of the Savannah River Site is in the planning stages of compiling a geological, geophysical, and seismological data base on an industry standard Geographic Information System (GIS). The system will serve as a tool for management and integration of already collected site data,planning for additional investigations, and for special studies such as seismic hazard and risk analyses for the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  4. Reactor operation environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselow, J.S.; Price, V.; Stephenson, D.E.; Bledsoe, H.W.; Looney, B.B.

    1989-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) produces nuclear materials, primarily plutonium and tritium, to meet the requirements of the Department of Defense. These products have been formed in nuclear reactors that were built during 1950--1955 at the SRS. K, L, and P reactors are three of five reactors that have been used in the past to produce the nuclear materials. All three of these reactors discontinued operation in 1988. Currently, intense efforts are being extended to prepare these three reactors for restart in a manner that protects human health and the environment. To document that restarting the reactors will have minimal impacts to human health and the environment, a three-volume Reactor Operations Environmental Impact Document has been prepared. The document focuses on the impacts of restarting the K, L, and P reactors on both the SRS and surrounding areas. This volume discusses the geology, seismology, and subsurface hydrology. 195 refs., 101 figs., 16 tabs.

  5. Site Characterization at a Tidal Energy Site in the East River, NY (usa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, B.; Neary, V. S.; Colby, J.

    2012-12-01

    A comprehensive tidal energy site characterization is performed using ADV measurements of instantaneous horizontal current magnitude and direction at the planned hub centerline of a tidal turbine over a two month period, and contributes to the growing data base of tidal energy site hydrodynamic conditions. The temporal variation, mean current statistics, and turbulence of the key tidal hydrodynamic parameters are examined in detail, and compared to estimates from two tidal energy sites in Puget Sound. Tidal hydrodynamic conditions, including mean annual current (at hub height), the speed of extreme gusts (instantaneous horizontal currents acting normal to the rotor plane), and turbulence intensity (as proposed here, relative to a mean current of 2 m s-1) can vary greatly among tidal energy sites. Comparison of hydrodynamic conditions measured in the East River tidal straight in New York City with those reported for two tidal energy sites in Puget Sound indicate differences of mean annual current speeds, difference in the instantaneous current speeds of extreme gusts, and differences in turbulence intensities. Significant differences in these parameters among the tidal energy sites, and with the tidal resource assessment map, highlight the importance of conducting site resource characterization with ADV measurements at the machine scale. As with the wind industry, which adopted an International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) wind class standard to aid in the selection of wind turbines for a particular site, it is recommended that the tidal energy industry adopt an appropriate standard for tidal current classes. Such a standard requires a comprehensive field campaign at multiple tidal energy sites that can identify the key hydrodynamic parameters for tidal current site classification, select a list of tidal energy sites that exhibit the range of hydrodynamic conditions that will be encountered, and adopt consistent measurement practices (standards) for site

  6. Commercial integration and partnering at Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, J.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Babione, R.A.; Shikashio, L.A.; Wacaster, A.J.; Paterson, A.D. [SCIENTECH, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Savannah River Site (SRS), particularly the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) with the experience from the first successful Integrated Technology Demonstration, can provide an excellent foundation for meeting DOE-EM`s objectives with the new DOE-EM five focus area approach. With this in mind, SRTC established an activity to pursue full commercialization of environmental technologies. This report is an assessment of the status of commercialization at SRS and provides recommendations for enhancement as well as some tools critical to implementation. A review was made of the current situation at SRS with regards to taking technology development to commercial fruition. This was done from the perspective of comparing it to known commercialization models and processes. It was found that SRTC already works through many of the steps in these processes. With integration and action-oriented efforts of the inclusion of business and market factors, SRTC could become an aggressive, successful developer of commercialized technologies. Commercial success criteria tools were developed with regards to integrating them with SRTC selection criteria to ensure that all critical factors are covered in technology commercialization project evaluations. Private investors are very clear that their interest lies in funding commercial enterprises, not merely technologies. Mobilizing private capital is critical to real job growth and long-term economic development. Also, potential industry partners were identified that are willing to be involved with SRS` technology applications and regional development efforts. As another important component to success, regional support organizations were reviewed and evaluated.

  7. Human foot bones from Klasies River main site, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rightmire, G Philip; Deacon, H J; Schwartz, Jeffrey H; Tattersall, Ian

    2006-01-01

    The caves at Klasies River contain abundant archaeological evidence relating to human evolution in the late Pleistocene of southern Africa. Along with Middle Stone Age artifacts, animal bones, and other food waste, there are hominin cranial fragments, mandibles with teeth, and a few postcranial remains. Three foot bones can now be added to this inventory. An adult first metatarsal is similar in size and discrete anatomical features to those from Holocene burials in the Cape Province. A complete and well-preserved second metatarsal is especially long and heavy at midshaft in comparison to all Holocene and more recent South African homologues. A large fifth metatarsal is highly distinctive in its morphology. In overall size, these pedal elements resemble specimens from late Pleistocene sites in western Asia, but there are some differences in proportions. The fossils support earlier suggestions concerning a relatively high level of sexual dimorphism in the African Middle Stone Age population. Squatting facets on the two lateral metatarsals appear to indicate a high frequency of kneeling among members of this group. The new postcranial material also underlines the fact that the morphology of particular skeletal elements of some of the 100,000-year-old Klasies River individuals falls outside the range of modern variation.

  8. MOX Lead Assembly Fabrication at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geddes, R.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Spiker, D.L.; Poon, A.P.

    1997-12-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced its intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) on the disposition of the nations weapon-usable surplus plutonium.This EIS is tiered from the Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Material Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement issued in December 1996,and the associated Record of Decision issued on January, 1997. The EIS will examine reasonable alternatives and potential environmental impacts for the proposed siting, construction, and operation of three types of facilities for plutonium disposition. The three types of facilities are: a pit disassembly and conversion facility, a facility to immobilize surplus plutonium in a glass or ceramic form for disposition, and a facility to fabricate plutonium oxide into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel.As an integral part of the surplus plutonium program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the DOE Office of Fissile Material Disposition(MD) as the technical lead to organize and evaluate existing facilities in the DOE complex which may meet MD`s need for a domestic MOX fuel fabrication demonstration facility. The Lead Assembly (LA) facility is to produce 1 MT of usable test fuel per year for three years. The Savannah River Site (SRS) as the only operating plutonium processing site in the DOE complex, proposes two options to carry out the fabrication of MOX fuel lead test assemblies: an all Category I facility option and a combined Category I and non-Category I facilities option.

  9. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-10

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1991 EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Beginning in 1991, the flagging criteria are based on EPA drinking water standards and method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from second quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  10. Beneficially reusing LLRW the Savannah River Site Stainless Steel Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boettinger, W.L.

    1993-09-09

    With 68 radioactively contaminated excess Process Water Heat Exchangers the Savannah River Site launched its program to turn potential LLRW metal liabilities into assets. Each Heat Exchanger contains approximately 100 tons of 304 Stainless Steel and could be disposed as LLRW by land burial. Instead the 7000 tons of metal will be recycled into LLRW, HLW, and TRU waste containers thereby eliminating the need for near term land disposal and also eliminating the need to add more clean metal to the waste stream. Aspects of the partnership between DOE and Private Industry necessary to accomplish this new mission are described. A life cycle cost analysis associated with past practices of using carbon steel containers to indefinitely store material (contributing to the creation of today`s legacy waste problems) is presented. The avoided cost calculations needed to support the economics of the ``Indifference`` decision process in assessing the Beneficial Reuse option relative to the Burial option are described.

  11. Implementation of ISO140001 at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, S.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Reeves, R.D.

    1998-04-20

    The Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, SC recently received ISO14001 certification. ISO14001 is an internationally recognized standard that delineates the elements of an effective environmental management system (EMS) and enhances environmental stewardship. SRS preparations for ISO14001 certification involved a comparison of existing programs to the requirements of the standard. Gaps in the program were identified and work initiated to fill those gaps. Primarily, these deficiencies were related to documentation of the SRS EMS and employee training. Certification was granted after an extensive review by a team of independent auditors. The review included personnel interviews, documentation reviews, and work practice observations. An overview of the preparation process as well as the independent review will be presented.

  12. SALT CORE SAMPLING EVOLUTION AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nance, T; Daniel Krementz, D; William Cheng, W

    2007-11-29

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), a Department of Energy (DOE) facility, has over 30 million gallons of legacy waste from its many years of processing nuclear materials. The majority of waste is stored in 49 buried tanks. Available underground piping is the primary and desired pathway to transfer waste from one tank to another until the waste is delivered to the glass plant, DWPF, or the grout plant, Saltstone. Prior to moving the material, the tank contents need to be evaluated to ensure the correct destination for the waste is chosen. Access ports are available in each tank top in a number of locations and sizes to be used to obtain samples of the waste for analysis. Material consistencies vary for each tank with the majority of waste to be processed being radioactive salts and sludge. The following paper describes the progression of equipment and techniques developed to obtain core samples of salt and solid sludge at SRS.

  13. New instrument calibration facility for the DOE Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkie, W.H.; Polz, E.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    A new laboratory facility is being designed, constructed, and equipped at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as a fiscal year 1992 line item project. This facility will provide space and equipment for test, evaluation, repair, maintenance, and calibration of radiation monitoring instrumentation. The project will replace an obsolete facility and will allow implementation of program upgrades necessary to meet ANSI N323 requirements and National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) criteria for accreditation of federally owned secondary calibration laboratories. An outline of the project is presented including description, scope, cost, management organization, chronology, and current status. Selected design criteria and their impacts on the project are discussed. The upgraded SRS calibration program is described, and important features of the new facility and equipment that will accommodate this program are listed. The floor plan for the facility is shown, and equipment summaries and functional descriptions for each area are provided.

  14. SALT CORE SAMPLING EVOLUTION AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nance, T; Daniel Krementz, D; William Cheng, W

    2007-11-29

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), a Department of Energy (DOE) facility, has over 30 million gallons of legacy waste from its many years of processing nuclear materials. The majority of waste is stored in 49 buried tanks. Available underground piping is the primary and desired pathway to transfer waste from one tank to another until the waste is delivered to the glass plant, DWPF, or the grout plant, Saltstone. Prior to moving the material, the tank contents need to be evaluated to ensure the correct destination for the waste is chosen. Access ports are available in each tank top in a number of locations and sizes to be used to obtain samples of the waste for analysis. Material consistencies vary for each tank with the majority of waste to be processed being radioactive salts and sludge. The following paper describes the progression of equipment and techniques developed to obtain core samples of salt and solid sludge at SRS.

  15. Waste Tank Corrosion Program at Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, J.R.; Hsu, T.C.; Hobbs, D.T.; Iyer, N.C.; Marra, J.E.; Zapp, P.E.

    1993-11-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has approximately 30 million gallons of high level radioactive waste stored in 51 underground tanks. SRS has maintained an active corrosion research and corrosion control and monitoring program throughout the operating history of SRS nuclear waste storage tanks. This program is largely responsible for the successful waste storage experience at SRS. The program has consisted of extensive monitoring of the tanks and surrounding environment for evidence of leaks, extensive research to understand the potential corrosion processes, and development and implementation of corrosion chemistry control. Current issues associated with waste tank corrosion are primarily focused on waste processing operations and are being addressed by a number of active programs and initiatives.

  16. Sanitary landfill groundwater quality assessment plan Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, D.G.; Cook, J.W.

    1990-06-01

    This assessment monitoring plan has been prepared in accordance with the guidance provided by the SCDHEC in a letter dated December 7, 1989 from Pearson to Wright and a letter dated October 9, 1989 from Keisler to Lindler. The letters are included a Appendix A, for informational purposes. Included in the plan are all of the monitoring data from the landfill monitoring wells for 1989, and a description of the present monitoring well network. The plan proposes thirty-two new wells and an extensive coring project that includes eleven soil borings. Locations of the proposed wells attempt to follow the SCDHEC guidelines and are downgradient, sidegradient and in the heart of suspected contaminant plumes. Also included in the plan is the current Savannah River Site Sampling and Analysis Plan and the well construction records for all of the existing monitoring wells around the sanitary landfill.

  17. Site Selection for the Salt Disposition Facility at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladden, J.B.; Rueter, K.J.; Morin, J.P.

    2000-11-15

    A site selection study was conducted to identify a suitable location for the construction and operation of a new Salt Disposition Facility (SDF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The facility to be sited is a single processing facility and support buildings that could house either of three technology alternatives being developed by the High Level Waste Systems Engineering Team: Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation, Crystalline Silicotitanate Non-Elutable Ion Exchange or Caustic Side Solvent Extraction. A fourth alternative, Direct Disposal in grout, is not part of the site selection study because a location has been identified that is unique to this technology (i.e., Z-Area). Facility site selection at SRS is a formal, documented process that seeks to optimize siting of new facilities with respect to facility-specific engineering requirements, sensitive environmental resources, and applicable regulatory requirements. In this manner, the prime objectives of cost minimization, environmental protection, and regulatory compliance are achieved. The results from this geotechnical characterization indicated that continued consideration be given to Site B for the proposed SDF. Suitable topography, the lack of surface hydrology and floodplain issues, no significant groundwater contamination, the presence of minor soft zones along the northeast portion of footprint, and no apparent geological structure in the Gordon Aquitard support this recommendation.

  18. R- AND P- REACTOR BUILDING IN-SITU DECOMISSIONING VISUALIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobbitt, J.; Vrettos, N.; Howard, M.

    2010-06-15

    During the early 1950s, five production reactor facilities were built at the Savannah River Site. These facilities were built to produce materials to support the building of the nation's nuclear weapons stockpile in response to the Cold War. R-Reactor and P-Reactor were the first two facilities completed in 1953 and 1954.

  19. Zone of Interaction Between Hanford Site Groundwater and Adjacent Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Robert E.; Connelly, Michael P.

    2001-10-23

    This report describes the FY 2000 results of a Science and Technology investigation of the groundwater/river interface at the Hanford Site. The investigation focused on (1) a 2-D simulation of water flowpaths beneath the shoreline region under the influence of a transient river stage, and (2) mixing between groundwater and river water.

  20. CRITICAL RADIONUCLIDE AND PATHWAY ANALYSIS FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, T.

    2011-08-30

    This report is an update to the analysis, Assessment of SRS Radiological Liquid and Airborne Contaminants and Pathways, that was performed in 1997. An electronic version of this large original report is included in the attached CD to this report. During the operational history (1954 to the present) of the Savannah River Site (SRS), many different radionuclides have been released to the environment from the various production facilities. However, as will be shown by this updated radiological critical contaminant/critical pathway analysis, only a small number of the released radionuclides have been significant contributors to potential doses and risks to offsite people. The analysis covers radiological releases to the atmosphere and to surface waters, the principal media that carry contaminants offsite. These releases potentially result in exposure to offsite people. The groundwater monitoring performed at the site shows that an estimated 5 to 10% of SRS has been contaminated by radionuclides, no evidence exists from the extensive monitoring performed that groundwater contaminated with these constituents has migrated off the site (SRS 2011). Therefore, with the notable exception of radiological source terms originating from shallow surface water migration into site streams, onsite groundwater was not considered as a potential exposure pathway to offsite people. In addition, in response to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Order 435.1, several Performance Assessments (WSRC 2008; LWO 2009; SRR 2010; SRR 2011) and a Comprehensive SRS Composite Analysis (SRNO 2010) have recently been completed at SRS. The critical radionuclides and pathways identified in these extensive reports are discussed and, where applicable, included in this analysis.

  1. Characterizing the Environmental Availability of Trace Metals in Savannah River Site Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkiz, S.M.

    1999-03-18

    An eight step sequential extraction technique was used to characterize the environmental availability of trace metals from background and waste site soil samples collected from the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS).

  2. Evaluation of Cone Penetrometer Data for Permeability Correlation at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, M.K. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This report documents the results of an assessment of cone penetrometer technology (CPT) use at the Savannah River Site. The study is intended to provide valuable insight into methods of increasing the utility of CPT data for site characterization.

  3. Tritium in the Savannah River Site environment. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Bauer, L.R.; Hayes, D.W.; Marter, W.L.; Zeigler, C.C.; Stephenson, D.E.; Hoel, D.D.; Hamby, D.M.

    1991-05-01

    Tritium is released to the environment from many of the operations at the Savannah River Site. The releases from each facility to the atmosphere and to the soil and streams, both from normal operations and inadvertent releases, over the period of operation from the early 1950s through 1988 are presented. The fate of the tritium released is evaluated through environmental monitoring, special studies, and modeling. It is concluded that approximately 91% of the tritium remaining after decay is now in the oceans. A dose and risk assessment to the population around the site is presented. It is concluded that about 0.6 fatal cancers may be associated with the tritium released during all the years of operation to the population of about 625,000. This same population (based on the overall US cancer statistics) is expected to experience about 105,000 cancer fatalities from all types of cancer. Therefore, it is considered unlikely that a relationship between any of the cancer deaths occurring in this population and releases of tritium from the SRS will be found.

  4. The Savannah River Site's groundwater monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-06

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1990 (July through September) EPD/EMS conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. All analytical results from third quarter 1990 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all site custodians. One or more analytes exceeded Flag 2 in 87 monitoring well series. Analytes exceeded Flat 2 for the first since 1984 in 14 monitoring well series. In addition to groundwater monitoring, EPD/EMS collected drinking water samples from SRS drinking water systems supplied by wells. The drinking water samples were analyzed for radioactive constituents.

  5. Isotope hydrology of the Chalk River Laboratories site, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Zell; Neymark, Leonid; King-Sharp, K.J.; Gascoyne, Mel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results of hydrochemical and isotopic analyses of groundwater (fracture water) and porewater, and physical property and water content measurements of bedrock core at the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site in Ontario. Density and water contents were determined and water-loss porosity values were calculated for core samples. Average and standard deviations of density and water-loss porosity of 50 core samples from four boreholes are 2.73 ± 12 g/cc and 1.32 ± 1.24 percent. Respective median values are 2.68 and 0.83 indicating a positive skewness in the distributions. Groundwater samples from four deep boreholes were analyzed for strontium (87Sr/86Sr) and uranium (234U/238U) isotope ratios. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope analyses and selected solute concentrations determined by CRL are included for comparison. Groundwater from borehole CRG-1 in a zone between approximately +60 and −240 m elevation is relatively depleted in δ18O and δ2H perhaps reflecting a slug of water recharged during colder climatic conditions. Porewater was extracted from core samples by centrifugation and analyzed for major dissolved ions and for strontium and uranium isotopes. On average, the extracted water contains 15 times larger concentration of solutes than the groundwater. 234U/238U and correlation of 87Sr/86Sr with Rb/Sr values indicate that the porewater may be substantially older than the groundwater. Results of this study show that the Precambrian gneisses at Chalk River are similar in physical properties and hydrochemical aspects to crystalline rocks being considered for the construction of nuclear waste repositories in other regions.

  6. GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE AND BECHTEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, M; I. Arango, I; Michael Mchood, M

    2007-07-17

    The authors describe two aspects of geotechnical engineering; site characterization utilizing the CPT and recognition of aging as a factor affecting soil properties. These methods were pioneered by Professor Schmertmann and are practiced by the Bechtel Corporation in general and at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina, in particular. This paper describes a general subsurface exploration approach that we have developed over the years. It consists of ''phasing'' the investigation, employing the principles of the observational method suggested by Peck (1969) and others. In doing so, we have found that the recommendations proposed by Sowers in terms of borehole spacing and exploration cost, are reasonable for developing an investigation program, recognizing that through continuous review the final investigation program will evolve. At the SRS shallow subsurface soils are of Eocene and Miocene age. It was recognized that the age of these deposits would have a marked effect on their cyclic resistance. A field investigation and laboratory testing program was devised to measure and account for aging as it relates to the cyclic resistance of the site soils. Recently, a panel of experts (Youd et al., 2001) has made recommendations regarding the liquefaction assessment of soils. This paper will address some of those recommendations in the context of re-assessing the liquefaction resistance of the soils at the SRS. It will be shown that, indeed, aging plays a major role in the cyclic resistance of the soils at the SRS, and that aging should be accounted for in liquefaction potential assessments for soils older than Holocene age.

  7. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. First quarter, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted in the first quarter of 1990. It includes the analytical data, field data, well activity data, and the other documentation for this program and provides a record of the program`s activities and rationale and an official document of the analytical results. The groundwater monitoring program includes the following activities: installation, maintenance, and abandonment of monitoring wells, environmental soil borings, development of the sampling and analytical schedule, collection and analyses of groundwater samples, review of the analytical data and other data, maintenance of the databases containing groundwater monitoring data and related data, quality assurance (QA) evaluations of laboratory performance, and reports of results to waste-site facility custodians and to the Environmental Protection Section (EPS) of EPD.

  8. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. Second quarter, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-10

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1991 EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Beginning in 1991, the flagging criteria are based on EPA drinking water standards and method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from second quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  9. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. Fourth quarter, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-06-18

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater monitoring program conducted in the fourth quarter of 1990. It includes the analytical data, field data, well activity data, and other documentation for this program, provides a record of the program`s activities and rationale, and serves as an official document of the analytical results. The groundwater monitoring program includes the following activities: installation, maintenance, and abandonment of monitoring wells, environmental soil borings, development of the sampling and analytical schedule, collection and analyses of groundwater samples, review of analytical and other data, maintenance of the databases containing groundwater monitoring data, quality assurance (QA) evaluations of laboratory performance, and reports of results to waste-site facility custodians and to the Environmental Protection Section (EPS) of EPD.

  10. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program: Fourth quarter 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1992-06-02

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During fourth quarter 1991, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Beginning in 1991, the flagging criteria are based on EPA drinking water standards and method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from fourth quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  11. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program, second quarter 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-07

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1990 (April through June) EPD/EMS conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the second quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from second quarter 1990 are listed in this report.

  12. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program: Second quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1992-10-07

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1992, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of criteria to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Since 1991, the flagging criteria have been based on the federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking water standards and on method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from second quarter 1992 are listed in this report.

  13. Savannah River Site Footprint Reduction Results under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act - 13302

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flora, Mary [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions Bldg. 730-4B, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Adams, Angelia [United States Department of Energy Bldg. 730-B, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Pope, Robert [United States Environmental Protection Agency Region IV Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is an 802 square-kilometer United States Department of Energy (US DOE) nuclear facility located along the Savannah River near Aiken, South Carolina, managed and operated by Savannah River Nuclear Solutions. Construction of SRS began in the early 1950's to enhance the nation's nuclear weapons capability. Nuclear weapons material production began in the early 1950's, eventually utilizing five production reactors constructed to support the national defense mission. Past operations have resulted in releases of hazardous constituents and substances to soil and groundwater, resulting in 515 waste sites with contamination exceeding regulatory thresholds. More than 1,000 facilities were constructed onsite with approximately 300 of them considered radiological, nuclear or industrial in nature. In 2003, SRS entered into a Memorandum of Agreement with its regulators to accelerate the cleanup using an Area Completion strategy. The strategy was designed to focus cleanup efforts on the 14 large industrial areas of the site to realize efficiencies of scale in the characterization, assessment, and remediation activities. This strategy focuses on addressing the contaminated surface units and the vadose zone and addressing groundwater plumes subsequently. This approach streamlines characterization and remediation efforts as well as the required regulatory documentation, while enhancing the ability to make large-scale cleanup decisions. In February 2009, Congress approved the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) to create jobs and promote economic recovery. At SRS, ARRA funding was established in part to accelerate the completion of environmental remediation and facility deactivation and decommissioning (D and D). By late 2012, SRS achieved 85 percent footprint reduction utilizing ARRA funding by accelerating and coupling waste unit remediation with D and D of remnant facilities. Facility D and D activities were sequenced and

  14. Law enforcement tools available at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, K.J.

    2000-03-29

    A number of nuclear technologies developed and applied at the Savannah River Site in support of nuclear weapons material production and environmental remediation can be applied to problems in law enforcement. Techniques and equipment for high-sensitivity analyses of samples are available to identify and quantify trace elements and establish origins and histories of forensic evidence removed from crime scenes. While some of theses capabilities are available at local crime laboratories, state-of-the-art equipment and breakthroughs in analytical techniques are continually being developed at DOE laboratories. Extensive experience with the handling of radioactive samples at the DOE labs minimizes the chances of cross-contamination of evidence received from law enforcement. In addition to high-sensitivity analyses, many of the field techniques developed for use in a nuclear facility can assist law enforcement personnel in detecting illicit materials and operations, in retrieving of pertinent evidence and in surveying crime scenes. Some of these tools include chemical sniffers, hand-held detectors, thermal imaging, etc. In addition, mobile laboratories can be deployed to a crime scene to provide field screening of potential evidence. A variety of portable sensors can be deployed on vehicle, aerial, surface or submersible platforms to assist in the location of pertinent evidence or illicit operations. Several specific nuclear technologies available to law enforcement and their potential uses are discussed.

  15. Mathematical model of the Savannah River Site waste tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F.G. III.

    1991-07-15

    A mathematical model has been developed to simulate operation of the waste tank farm and the associated evaporator systems at the Savannah River Site. The model solves material balance equations to predict the volumes of liquid waste, salt, and sludge for all of the tanks within each of the evaporator systems. Additional logic is included to model the behavior of waste tanks not directly associated with the evaporators. Input parameters include the Material Management Plan forecast of canyon operations, specification of other waste sources for the evaporator systems, evaporator operating characteristics, and salt and sludge removal schedules. The model determines how the evaporators will operate, when waste transfers can be made, and waste accumulation rates. Output from the model includes waste tank contents, summaries of systems operations, and reports of space gain and the remaining capacity to store waste materials within the tank farm. Model simulations can be made to predict waste tank capacities on a daily basis for up to 20 years. The model is coded as a set of three computer programs designed to run on either IBM compatible or Apple Macintosh II personal computers.

  16. VITRIFICATION OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Peeler, D.

    2009-06-17

    The objective of this study was to experimentally measure the properties and performance of a series of glasses with compositions that could represent high level waste Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) as vitrified at the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility. These data were used to guide frit optimization efforts as the SB5 composition was finalized. Glass compositions for this study were developed by combining a series of SB5 composition projections with a group of candidate frits. The study glasses were fabricated using depleted uranium and their chemical compositions, crystalline contents and chemical durabilities were characterized. Trevorite was the only crystalline phase that was identified in a few of the study glasses after slow cooling, and is not of concern as spinels have been shown to have little impact on the durability of high level waste glasses. Chemical durability was quantified using the Product Consistency Test (PCT). All of the glasses had very acceptable durability performance. The results of this study indicate that a frit composition can be identified that will provide a processable and durable glass when combined with SB5.

  17. Radiological Impact of 1993 Operations at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpkins, A.A.

    1994-10-28

    An offsite individual residing at the SRS boundary at the point of the maximum exposure (maximum individual) received a dose of 0.11 mrem from SRS atmospheric releases in 1993 (See Table 1 for a 5-yr history of doses). This dose was only 1.1% of the EPA public dose limit of 10 mrem/yr (DOE, 1990). Tritium oxide releases were responsible for 90% of the atmospheric dose. Ninety-nine percent of the atmospheric dose was accounted for with the inclusion of I-129, U-235, U-238, Pu-238 and Pu-239. The 50-mile population received a collective dose of 7.6 person-rem from 1993 atmospheric releases. Ninety-nine percent of this dose also resulted from the release of the same isotopes that dominated the maximum individual dose due to atmospheric releases. For both the individual and the population, atmospheric radiation dose was dominated by the inhalation and vegetation consumption pathways. The maximum dose received by an offsite individual as a result of SRS liquid releases in 1993 was 0.14 mrem (See Table 1 for a 5-yr history). This does was only 3.5% of the EPA limit for drinking water of 4 mrem/yr (DOE, 1990). This dose was dominated by Cs-137 accumulated in Savannah River fish and tritium in drinking water. More than 99% of the maximum individual dose from liquid releases resulted from tritium, Sr-90, Cs-137,and Pu-239. The population dose from liquid releases in 1993 was 1.5 person-rem. Again, tritium, Sr-90, Cs-137, and Pu-239 contributed more than 99% of this dose. The major exposure pathway to the population was drinking water. Radiation dose to the general public from operations at the Savannah River Site continued to be a very small fraction of the natural background dose. A resident of the CSRA receives about 300 mrem per year from background radiation. The population within 80 km of the SRS (620,000) and at the downstream water treatment facilities (65,000), therefore, received a natural background population dose of approximately 200,000 person-rem during 1993.

  18. Savannah River Site Spent Nuclear Fuel Management Final Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2000-04-14

    The proposed DOE action considered in this environmental impact statement (EIS) is to implement appropriate processes for the safe and efficient management of spent nuclear fuel and targets at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken County, South Carolina, including placing these materials in forms suitable for ultimate disposition. Options to treat, package, and store this material are discussed. The material included in this EIS consists of approximately 68 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) of spent nuclear fuel 20 MTHM of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel at SRS, as much as 28 MTHM of aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel from foreign and domestic research reactors to be shipped to SRS through 2035, and 20 MTHM of stainless-steel or zirconium-clad spent nuclear fuel and some Americium/Curium Targets stored at SRS. Alternatives considered in this EIS encompass a range of new packaging, new processing, and conventional processing technologies, as well as the No Action Alternative. A preferred alternative is identified in which DOE would prepare about 97% by volume (about 60% by mass) of the aluminum-based fuel for disposition using a melt and dilute treatment process. The remaining 3% by volume (about 40% by mass) would be managed using chemical separation. Impacts are assessed primarily in the areas of water resources, air resources, public and worker health, waste management, socioeconomic, and cumulative impacts.

  19. Reconnaissance survey of site 7 of the proposed Three Rivers Regional Landfill and Technology Center, Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabak, M.A.; Beck, M.L.; Gillam, C.; Sassaman, K.E.

    1996-02-01

    This report documents the archaeological investigation of Site 7 of the proposed Three Rivers Regional Landfill and Technology Center in Aiken County on the United States Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. Pedestrian and subsurface survey techniques were used to investigate the 1,403-acre project area. Survey resulted in the discovery of 23 previously unrecorded sites and 11 occurrences; six previously recorded sites were also investigated. These sites consist of six prehistoric sites, nine historic sites, and 14 sites with both prehistoric and historic components. Sites locations and project area boundaries are provided on a facsimile of a USGS 7.5 topographic map. The prehistoric components consist of very small, low-density lithic and ceramic scatters; most contain less than 10 artifacts. Six of the prehistoric components are of unknown cultural affiliation, the remaining prehistoric sites were occupied predominately in the Woodland period. The historic sites are dominated by postbellum/modem home places of tenant and yeoman farmers but four historic sites were locations of antebellum house sites (38AK136, 38AK613, 38AK660, and 38AK674). The historic sites also include an African-American school (38AK677).

  20. Field Summary Report for Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.C. Hulstrom

    2010-08-11

    This report summarizes field sampling activities conducted in support of WCH’s Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River. This work was conducted form 2008 through 2010. The work included preliminary mapping and measurement of Hanford Site contaminants in sediment, pore water, and surface water located in areas where groundwater upwelling were found.

  1. Field Summary Report for Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Coumbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.C. Hulstrom

    2010-11-10

    This report summarizes field sampling activities conducted in support of WCH’s Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River. This work was conducted form 2008 through 2010. The work included preliminary mapping and measurement of Hanford Site contaminants in sediment, pore water, and surface water located in areas where groundwater upwelling were found.

  2. Demonstration of Eastman Christensen horizontal drilling system -- Integrated Demonstration Site, Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    An innovative horizontal drilling system was used to install two horizontal wells as part of an integrated demonstration project at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, South Carolina. The SRS is located in south-central South Carolina in the upper Coastal Plain physiographic province. The demonstration site is located near the A/M Area, and is currently known as the Integated Demonstration Site. The Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development initiated an integrated demonstration of innovative technologies for cleanup of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in soils and groundwater at the SRS in 1989. The overall goal of the program is to demonstrate, at a single location, multiple technologies in the fields of drilling, characterization, monitoring, and remediation. Innovative technologies are compared to one another and to baseline technologies in terms of technical performance and cost effectiveness. Transfer of successfully demonstrated technologies and systems to DOE environmental restoration organizations, to other government agencies, and to industry is a critical part of the program.

  3. Demonstration of Eastman Christensen horizontal drilling system -- Integrated Demonstration Site, Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    An innovative horizontal drilling system was used to install two horizontal wells as part of an integrated demonstration project at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, South Carolina. The SRS is located in south-central South Carolina in the upper Coastal Plain physiographic province. The demonstration site is located near the A/M Area, and is currently known as the Integated Demonstration Site. The Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development initiated an integrated demonstration of innovative technologies for cleanup of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in soils and groundwater at the SRS in 1989. The overall goal of the program is to demonstrate, at a single location, multiple technologies in the fields of drilling, characterization, monitoring, and remediation. Innovative technologies are compared to one another and to baseline technologies in terms of technical performance and cost effectiveness. Transfer of successfully demonstrated technologies and systems to DOE environmental restoration organizations, to other government agencies, and to industry is a critical part of the program.

  4. The Savannah River Site`s groundwater monitoring program. Third quarter 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-06

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1990 (July through September) EPD/EMS conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. All analytical results from third quarter 1990 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all site custodians. One or more analytes exceeded Flag 2 in 87 monitoring well series. Analytes exceeded Flat 2 for the first since 1984 in 14 monitoring well series. In addition to groundwater monitoring, EPD/EMS collected drinking water samples from SRS drinking water systems supplied by wells. The drinking water samples were analyzed for radioactive constituents.

  5. Assessment of uncertainties in early off-site consequences from nuclear reactor accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madni, I.K.; Cazzoli, E.G. (Brookhaven National Lab., Dept. of Nuclear Energy, Upton, NY (US)); Khatib-Rahbar, M. (Energy Research, Inc., Rockville, MD (US))

    1990-04-01

    A simplified approach has been developed to calculate uncertainties in early off-site consequences from nuclear reactor accidents. The consequence model (SMART) is based on a solution procedure that uses simplified meteorology and involves direct analytic integration of air concentration equations over time and position. This is different from the discretization approach currently used in the CRAC2 and MACCS codes. The SMART code is fast running, thereby providing a valuable tool for sensitivity and uncertainty studies. The code was benchmarked against both MACCS version 1.4 and CRAC2. Results of benchmarketing and detailed sensitivity and uncertainty analyses using SMART are presented.

  6. Estimating river low flows statistics in ungauged sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, G.; Caporali, E.

    2010-12-01

    Knowledge of low flow events frequency is required for water resources planning and management and their definition is necessary for several purposes, including water supply planning and irrigation systems running and moreover to maintain amount and quality of water. Low flow regime is tightly dependent on the catchment hydrogeological feature and a detailed surface and groundwater catchment analysis is necessary for an accurate characterization. However on a practical perspective, although scientifically proven, statistical analysis is widely apply to derive indices to characterize low flow regimes and as a measure for environmental minimum flow. With these indices it is possible to identify the occurrence, the extent and magnitude of the hydrological droughts, the ones that affect mainly water supply systems. Low flow indices are commonly evaluated at gauged sites from observed streamflow time series. Their reliability can be affected by the lack of observed streamflow data, a diffuse problem in the real world. In order to overcome these problems and to estimate low flow statistics in ungauged sites it is possible to refer to a regional frequency analysis, widely used since long time and in different disciplines. It consists in inferring data in ungauged stations using hydrological and statistical methods applied over a more or less wide area, a region. The methods employ catchment and climatic characteristics, supposed to be measured over the investigated area, as independent variables, and data from other catchments where stream flow data are recorded. The analysis of low flow indices is carried out on the flow data of 65 consistent hydrometric stations located in Tuscany region, in Central Italy, recorded from 1949 to 2008. The area is subdivided into different regions using the L-moments method applied to indices derived from the flow duration curve (Q70 annual series), to the 7-day annual minimum (Q7,T) series and to the annual SQI, Standardized Discharge

  7. Savannah River Site Waste Removal Program - Past, Present and Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldivar, E.

    2002-02-25

    The Savannah River Site has fifty-one high level waste tanks in various phases of operation and closure. These tanks were originally constructed to receive, store, and treat the high level waste (HLW) created in support of the missions assigned by the Department of Energy (DOE). The Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) requires the high level waste to be removed from the tanks and stabilized into a final waste form. Additionally, closure of the tanks following waste removal must be completed. The SRS HLW System Plan identifies the interfaces of safe storage, waste removal, and stabilization of the high level waste and the schedule for the closure of each tank. HLW results from the dissolution of irradiated fuel components. Desired nuclear materials are recovered and the byproducts are neutralized with NaOH and sent to the High Level Waste Tank Farms at the SRS. The HLW process waste clarifies in the tanks as the sludge settles, resulting in a layer of dense sludge with salt supernate settling above the sludge. Salt supernate is concentrated via evaporation into saltcake and NaOH liquor. This paper discusses the history of SRS waste removal systems, recent waste removal experiences, and the challenges facing future removal operations to enhance efficiency and cost effectiveness. Specifically, topics will include the evolution and efficiency of systems used in the 1960's which required large volumes of water to current systems of large centrifugal slurry pumps, with significant supporting infrastructure and safety measures. Interactions of this equipment with the waste tank farm operations requirements will also be discussed. The cost and time improvements associated with these present-day systems is a primary focus for the HLW Program.

  8. Estimated recurrence frequencies for initiating accident categories associated with the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copus, E R

    1982-04-01

    Estimated recurrence frequencies for each of twenty-five generic LMFBR initiating accident categories were quantified using the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) design. These estimates were obtained using simplified systems fault trees and functional event tree models from the Accident Delineation Study Phase I Final Report coupled with order-of-magnitude estimates for the initiator-dependent failure probabilities of the individual CRBRP engineered safety systems. Twelve distinct protected accident categories where SCRAM is assumed to be successful are estimated to occur at a combined rate of 10/sup -3/ times per year while thirteen unprotected accident categories in which SCRAM fails are estimated to occur at a combined rate on the order of 10/sup -5/ times per year. These estimates are thought to be representative despite the fact that human performance factors, maintenance and repair, as well as input common cause uncertainties, were not treated explicitly. The overall results indicate that for the CRBRP design no single accident category appears to be dominant, nor can any be totally eliminated from further investigation in the areas of accident phenomenology for in-core events and post-accident phenomenology for containment.

  9. Don't fight the site: three geomorphic considerations in catchment-scale river rehabilitation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brierley, Gary; Fryirs, Kirstie

    2009-06-01

    Three geomorphic considerations that underpin the design and implementation of realistic and strategic river conservation and rehabilitation programs that work with the nature are outlined. First, the importance of appreciating the inherent diversity of river forms and processes is discussed. Second, river dynamics are appraised, framing the contemporary behavioral regime of a reach in relation to system evolution to explain changes to river character and behavior over time. Third, the trajectory of a reach is framed in relation to downstream patterns of river types, analyzing landscape connectivity at the catchment scale to interpret geomorphic river recovery potential. The application of these principles is demonstrated using extensive catchment-scale analyses of geomorphic river responses to human disturbance in the Bega and Upper Hunter catchments in southeastern Australia. Differing implications for reach- and catchment-scale rehabilitation planning prompt the imperative that management practices work with nature rather than strive to 'fight the site.'

  10. Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert M.

    1976-10-05

    1. A neutronic reactor having a moderator, coolant tubes traversing the moderator from an inlet end to an outlet end, bodies of material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy disposed within the coolant tubes, and means for circulating water through said coolant tubes characterized by the improved construction wherein the coolant tubes are constructed of aluminum having an outer diameter of 1.729 inches and a wall thickness of 0.059 inch, and the means for circulating a liquid coolant through the tubes includes a source of water at a pressure of approximately 350 pounds per square inch connected to the inlet end of the tubes, and said construction including a pressure reducing orifice disposed at the inlet ends of the tubes reducing the pressure of the water by approximately 150 pounds per square inch.

  11. Data Summary Report for teh Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulstrom, L.

    2011-02-07

    This data summary report summarizes the investigation results to evaluate the nature and distribution of Hanford Site-related contaminants present in the Columbia River. As detailed in DOE/RL-2008-11, more than 2,000 environmental samples were collected from the Columbia River between 2008 and 2010. These samples consisted of island soil, sediment, surface water, groundwater upwelling (pore water, surface water, and sediment), and fish tissue.

  12. Management approaches for improving environmental restoration at the Savannah River Site: Projectization, performance, and communications; Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, J.M.; Hoffman, W.D. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Goidell, L. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to communicate how new and established management techniques are applied to environmental restoration projects at the Savannah River Site. Specifically, the paper discusses application of four (4) management approaches: Total Quality Principles; Task Team Structure; Cost Time Management; SAFER (Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration). The objective is to share Savannah River Site experience and document case studies where certain approaches have enhanced projects at hand. Each management approach is demonstrated by its project application and impact on performance. The visibility given the project is discussed to emphasize communications as avenues for public information, technical exchange, and employee motivation.

  13. Management approaches for improving environmental restoration at the Savannah River Site: Projectization, performance, and communications; Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, J.M.; Hoffman, W.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Goidell, L. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to communicate how new and established management techniques are applied to environmental restoration projects at the Savannah River Site. Specifically, the paper discusses application of four (4) management approaches: Total Quality Principles; Task Team Structure; Cost Time Management; SAFER (Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration). The objective is to share Savannah River Site experience and document case studies where certain approaches have enhanced projects at hand. Each management approach is demonstrated by its project application and impact on performance. The visibility given the project is discussed to emphasize communications as avenues for public information, technical exchange, and employee motivation.

  14. PLUTONIUM SOLUBILITY IN SIMULATED SAVANNAH RIVER SITE WASTE SOLUTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudisill, T.; Hobbs, D.; Edwards, T.

    2010-09-27

    To address the accelerated disposition of the supernate and salt portions of Savannah River Site (SRS) high level waste (HLW), solubility experiments were performed to develop a predictive capability for plutonium (Pu) solubility. A statistically designed experiment was used to measure the solubility of Pu in simulated solutions with salt concentrations and temperatures which bounded those observed in SRS HLW solutions. Constituents of the simulated waste solutions included: hydroxide (OH{sup -}), aluminate (Al(OH){sub 4}{sup -}), sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}), carbonate (CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}), nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}), and nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup -}) anions. Each anion was added to the waste solution in the sodium form. The solubilities were measured at 25 and 80 C. Five sets of samples were analyzed over a six month period and a partial sample set was analyzed after nominally fifteen months of equilibration. No discernable time dependence of the measured Pu concentrations was observed except for two salt solutions equilibrated at 80 C which contained OH{sup -} concentrations >5 mol/L. In these solutions, the Pu solubility increased with time. This observation was attributed to the air oxidation of a portion of the Pu from Pu(IV) to the more soluble Pu(V) or Pu(VI) valence states. A data driven approach was subsequently used to develop a modified response surface model for Pu solubility. Solubility data from this study and historical data from the literature were used to fit the model. The model predicted the Pu solubility of the solutions from this study within the 95% confidence interval for individual predictions and the analysis of variance indicated no statistically significant lack of fit. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) model was compared with predicted values from the Aqueous Electrolyte (AQ) model developed by OLI Systems, Inc. and a solubility prediction equation developed by Delegard and Gallagher for Hanford tank waste. The agreement between

  15. Napa River Restoration Project: Oakville to Oak Knoll Reach, Group C Site 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP Napa River Restoration Project: Oakville to Oak Knoll Reach, Group C Site 14, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  16. Geochemical Data Package for Performance Assessment Calculations Related to the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, D

    2006-02-28

    The Savannah River Site disposes of certain types of radioactive waste within subsurface-engineered facilities. One of the tools used to establish the capacity of a given site to safely store radioactive waste (i.e., that a site does not exceed its Waste Acceptance Criteria) is the Performance Assessment (PA). The objective of this document is to provide the geochemical values for the PA calculations. This work is being conducted as part of the on-going maintenance program that permits the PA to periodically update existing calculations when new data becomes available. Because application of values without full understanding of their original purpose may lead to misuse, this document also provides the geochemical conceptual model, approach used for selecting the values, the justification for selecting data, and the assumptions made to assure that the conceptual and numerical geochemical models are reasonably conservative (i.e., reflect conditions that will tend to predict the maximum risk to the hypothetical recipient). The geochemical parameters describe transport processes for 38 elements (>90 radioisotopes) potentially occurring within eight disposal units (Slit Trenches, Engineered Trenches, Low Activity Waste (LAW) Vault, Intermediate Level (ILV) Vaults, TRU-Pad-1, Naval Reactor Waste Pads, Components-in-Grout Trenches, and Saltstone Facility). This work builds upon well-documented work from previous PA calculations (McDowell-Boyer et al. 2000). The new geochemical concepts introduced in this data package are: (1) In the past, solubility products were used only in a few conditions (element existing in a specific environmental setting). This has been expanded to >100 conditions. (2) Radionuclide chemistry in cementitious environments is described through the use of both the Kd and apparent solubility concentration limit. Furthermore, the solid phase is assumed to age during the assessment period (thousands of years), resulting in three main types of controlling

  17. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, D.E.; Pechmann, J.H.K.; Knox, J.N.; Estes, R.A.; McGregor, J.H.; Bailey, K. (ed.)

    1988-12-01

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory has completed 10 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) on the Savannah River Site. This progress report examines water quality studies on streams peripheral to the DWPF construction site and examines the effectiveness of refuge ponds'' in ameliorating the effects of construction on local amphibians. Individual papers on these topics are indexed separately. 93 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs. (MHB)

  18. Waterborne Release Monitoring and Surveillance Programs at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-03-26

    This report documents the liquid release environmental compliance programs currently in place at the Savannah river Site (SRS). Included are descriptions of stream monitoring programs, which measure chemical parameters and radionuclides in site streams and the Savannah river and test representative biological communities within the streams for chemical and radiological uptake. This report also explains the field sampling and analytical capabilities that are available at SRS during both normal and emergency conditions.

  19. Robotics Use in Source Recovery at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, C.W.

    2001-01-10

    The Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken South Carolina has a state of the art Instrument Calibrations facility that supports calibration and repair of an inventory of approximately 8000 portable radiological monitoring instruments. The Instrument Calibrations facility began operations in 1996. The Low Scatter Irradiator (LSI) system is a key part of the facility. The LSI room is a shielded 40-foot by 40-foot by 40-foot room designed to minimize radiation scatter during calibrations and evaluations. Aluminum floor grating with one-inch spacing is part of the design to minimize scatter. A shielded source storage carousel is used to select calibration sources via a computer-controlled system. The carousel has eight source slots with seven sources used providing a selection of 60Cobalt, 137Cesium, and 252Californium sources of different intensities. One slot is used for a dummy source for system function testing. Sources are contained in an aluminum container known as the source rabbit. Air pressure is used to blow the selected source through a transfer tube to the top of the tube where it is held in place by a suction cup and a maintained air vacuum. During calibrations, instruments are placed on four LSI tracks that move instruments to the proper distance from the source for the desired calibrated exposure rate. Sources are returned to the carousel using gravity with multiple interlocks and safeguards built into the system to ensure that the source has dropped before entry into the LSI after a source exposure. Two room radiation monitors provide a remote reading to the operator from the computer console as another indicator of the source status. Due to the design of the LSI, it was assumed that a source could not become lodged in the transfer tube. That proved to be a false assumption when in May 2000, a source did not return to its home position. At this time, the LSI was being tested due to some apparent difficulties in sources being held

  20. MX Siting Investigation. Gravity Survey - Southern White River Valley, Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-22

    included gravity surveys in ten valleys in Arizona (five), Nevada (two), New Mexico (two), and California (one). The gravity data were obtained for...Verification Sites, Nevada-Utah Siting Region, FN-TR-36. , 1980, Active Faults and Eartquake Hazards in the FY 79 Verification sites, Nevada-Utah Siting

  1. Monitoring and Evaluation of Environmental Flow Prescriptions for Five Demonstration Sites of the Sustainable Rivers Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Christopher P.

    2010-01-01

    The Nature Conservancy has been working with U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) through the Sustainable Rivers Project (SRP) to modify operations of dams to achieve ecological objectives in addition to meeting the authorized purposes of the dams. Modifications to dam operations are specified in terms of environmental flow prescriptions that quantify the magnitude, duration, frequency, and seasonal timing of releases to achieve specific ecological outcomes. Outcomes of environmental flow prescriptions implemented from 2002 to 2008 have been monitored and evaluated at demonstration sites in five rivers: Green River, Kentucky; Savannah River, Georgia/South Carolina; Bill Williams River, Arizona; Big Cypress Creek, Texas; and Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon. Monitoring and evaluation have been accomplished through collaborative partnerships of federal and state agencies, universities, and nongovernmental organizations.

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korinko, P.

    2013-01-24

    A task was undertaken to characterize glovebox gloves that are currently used in the facilities at Savannah River Site (SRS) as well as some experimental and advanced compound gloves that have been proposed for use. Gloves from four manufacturers were tested for permeation in hydrogen and air, thermal stability, tensile properties, puncture resistance and dynamic mechanical response. The gloves were compared to each other within the type and also to the butyl rubber glove that is widely used at the SRS. The permeation testing demonstrated that the butyl compounds from three of the vendors behaved similarly and exhibited hydrogen permeabilities of .52‐.84 x10{sup ‐7} cc H{sub 2}*cm / (cm{sup 2}*atm). The Viton glove performed at the lower edge of this bound, while the more advanced composite gloves exhibited permeabilities greater than a factor of two compared to butyl. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to determine the amount of material lost under slightly aggressive conditions. Glove losses are important since they can affect the life of glovebox stripper systems. During testing at 90, 120, and 150°C, the samples lost most of the mass in the initial 60 minutes of thermal exposure and as expected increasing the temperature increased the mass loss and shortened the time to achieve a steady state loss. The ranking from worst to best was Jung butyl‐Hypalon with 12.9 %, Piercan Hypalon with 11.4 %, and Jung butyl‐Viton with 5.2% mass loss all at approximately 140°C. The smallest mass losses were experienced by the Jung Viton and the Piercan polyurethane. Tensile properties were measured using a standard dog bone style test. The butyl rubber exhibited tensile strengths of 11‐15 MPa and elongations or 660‐843%. Gloves made from other compounds exhibited lower tensile strengths (5 MPa Viton) to much higher tensile strengths (49 MPa Urethane) with a comparable range of elongation. The puncture resistance of the gloves was measured

  3. Markovian reliability analysis under uncertainty with an application on the shutdown system of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papazoglou, I A; Gyftopoulos, E P

    1978-09-01

    A methodology for the assessment of the uncertainties about the reliability of nuclear reactor systems described by Markov models is developed, and the uncertainties about the probability of loss of coolable core geometry (LCG) of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) due to shutdown system failures, are assessed. Uncertainties are expressed by assuming the failure rates, the repair rates and all other input variables of reliability analysis as random variables, distributed according to known probability density functions (pdf). The pdf of the reliability is then calculated by the moment matching technique. Two methods have been employed for the determination of the moments of the reliability: the Monte Carlo simulation; and the Taylor-series expansion. These methods are adopted to Markovian problems and compared for accuracy and efficiency.

  4. Geochemical Data Package for Performance Assessment Calculations Related to the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, Daniel I. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-07-22

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) disposes of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and stabilizes high-level radioactive waste (HLW) tanks in the subsurface environment. Calculations used to establish the radiological limits of these facilities are referred to as Performance Assessments (PA), Special Analyses (SA), and Composite Analyses (CA). The objective of this document is to revise existing geochemical input values used for these calculations. This work builds on earlier compilations of geochemical data (2007, 2010), referred to a geochemical data packages. This work is being conducted as part of the on-going maintenance program of the SRS PA programs that periodically updates calculations and data packages when new information becomes available. Because application of values without full understanding of their original purpose may lead to misuse, this document also provides the geochemical conceptual model, the approach used for selecting the values, the justification for selecting data, and the assumptions made to assure that the conceptual and numerical geochemical models are reasonably conservative (i.e., bias the recommended input values to reflect conditions that will tend to predict the maximum risk to the hypothetical recipient). This document provides 1088 input parameters for geochemical parameters describing transport processes for 64 elements (>740 radioisotopes) potentially occurring within eight subsurface disposal or tank closure areas: Slit Trenches (ST), Engineered Trenches (ET), Low Activity Waste Vault (LAWV), Intermediate Level (ILV) Vaults, Naval Reactor Component Disposal Areas (NRCDA), Components-in-Grout (CIG) Trenches, Saltstone Facility, and Closed Liquid Waste Tanks. The geochemical parameters described here are the distribution coefficient, Kd value, apparent solubility concentration, ks value, and the cementitious leachate impact factor.

  5. Geochemical Data Package for Performance Assessment Calculations Related to the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, Daniel I. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-07-22

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) disposes of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and stabilizes high-level radioactive waste (HLW) tanks in the subsurface environment. Calculations used to establish the radiological limits of these facilities are referred to as Performance Assessments (PA), Special Analyses (SA), and Composite Analyses (CA). The objective of this document is to revise existing geochemical input values used for these calculations. This work builds on earlier compilations of geochemical data, referred to a geochemical data packages (Kaplan, 2007; Kaplan, 2010; McDowell-Boyer et al., 2000). This work is being conducted as part of the on-going maintenance program of the SRS PA programs that periodically updates calculations and data packages when new information becomes available. Because application of values without full understanding of their original purpose may lead to misuse, this document also provides the geochemical conceptual model, the approach used for selecting the values, the justification for selecting data, and the assumptions made to assure that the conceptual and numerical geochemical models are reasonably conservative (i.e., bias the recommended input values to reflect conditions that will tend to predict the maximum risk to the hypothetical recipient). This document provides 1088 input parameters for geochemical parameters describing transport processes for 64 elements (>740 radioisotopes) potentially occurring within eight subsurface disposal or tank closure areas: Slit Trenches (ST), Engineered Trenches (ET), Low Activity Waste Vault (LAWV), Intermediate Level (ILV) Vaults, Naval Reactor Component Disposal Areas (NRCDA), Components-in-Grout (CIG) Trenches, Saltstone Facility, and Closed Liquid Waste Tanks. The geochemical parameters described here are the distribution coefficient, Kd value, apparent solubility concentration, ks value, and the cementitious leachate impact factor.

  6. Modelling of moving bed biofilm membrane reactors (MBBMR) for on-site greywater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabornig, Simon; Rauch, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluates with a mechanistic model the pilot plant results of a combined moving bed biofilm process and membrane filtration (MBBMR) treating single household greywater. It mainly includes the simulation of reactor hydraulics, degradation of pollutants, development of biomass and settlement of sludge. Iterative calibration was made with steady-state results of a 10-month pilot test. The model shows good predictions of readily biodegradable chemical oxygen demand and ammonium removal, as well as biomass concentration on carriers and in suspension. Also, a sensitivity analysis was made which calculates the relative significance factor of each model coefficient and by this provides comparability with other studies. Simulation data and actually measured parameters show that the suggested process was rather independent of ambient temperatures and short-term load fluctuations. Obtained datasets and model structure could be of use for future designers, as well as sellers and users of this process for on-site greywater reclamation.

  7. Health effects models for off-site radiological consequence analysis on nuclear reactor accidents (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homma, Toshimitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Takahashi, Tomoyuki [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst; Yonehara, Hidenori [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)] [eds.

    2000-12-01

    This report is a revision of JAERI-M 91-005, 'Health Effects Models for Off-Site Radiological Consequence Analysis of Nuclear Reactor Accidents'. This revision provides a review of two revisions of NUREG/CR-4214 reports by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission which is the basis of the JAERI health effects models and other several recent reports that may impact the health effects models by international organizations. The major changes to the first version of the JAERI health effects models and the recommended parameters in this report are for late somatic effects. These changes reflect recent changes in cancer risk factors that have come from longer followup and revised dosimetry in major studies on the Japanese A-bomb survivors. This report also provides suggestions about future revisions of computational aspects on health effects models. (author)

  8. Analysis of production reactor response during a postulated Loss-of-River Water event using CONTAIN/SR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Kula, K.R.; Wooten, L.A. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Jenkins, T.B. (Concord Associates, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States))

    1992-06-01

    This report discusses the CONTAIN/SR computer code, developed at the Savannah River Technology Center and Sandia National Laboratories for Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) applications, which is used to analyze K Reactor plant conditions following a design basis earthquake to assist post-accident recovery planning. The postulated event, a Loss-of-River Water (LORW) accident, requires analysis of the K Reactor confinement system assuming seismic event-caused loss of forced air flow through Radiologically Controlled (RCAs) and other building areas, including adjoining personnel and auxiliary equipment zones. The CONTAIN/SR code calculations predict the expected environment in the K Reactor building with a seismically-qualified flow path for natural circulation, under design basis conditions specifying a 50 gal/min leak of tritiated heavy water. Despite loss of active fan flow, preferential air flow patterns are calculated to flow from clean'' areas towards the RCAs. Ventilation characteristics of the building reduce tritiated water vapor concentrations to habitable levels, assuming plastic suits and clean breathing air supplies are available. Unprotected dose rates to recovery workers in the heat exchanger zone of the building will range from 120 mrem/hour to 780 mrem/hour, depending on evaporation conditions near spilled heavy-water pools. It is concluded habitability issues for recovery are not driven by temperature concerns in reactor building zones. However, the results indicate radiological suits with cool air supplies will assure adequate conditions for operators and recovery teams, and mitigate tritium uptake hazards from splashing or other direct contact mechanisms.

  9. Analysis of production reactor response during a postulated Loss-of-River Water event using CONTAIN/SR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Kula, K.R.; Wooten, L.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Jenkins, T.B. [Concord Associates, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1992-06-01

    This report discusses the CONTAIN/SR computer code, developed at the Savannah River Technology Center and Sandia National Laboratories for Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) applications, which is used to analyze K Reactor plant conditions following a design basis earthquake to assist post-accident recovery planning. The postulated event, a Loss-of-River Water (LORW) accident, requires analysis of the K Reactor confinement system assuming seismic event-caused loss of forced air flow through Radiologically Controlled (RCAs) and other building areas, including adjoining personnel and auxiliary equipment zones. The CONTAIN/SR code calculations predict the expected environment in the K Reactor building with a seismically-qualified flow path for natural circulation, under design basis conditions specifying a 50 gal/min leak of tritiated heavy water. Despite loss of active fan flow, preferential air flow patterns are calculated to flow from ``clean`` areas towards the RCAs. Ventilation characteristics of the building reduce tritiated water vapor concentrations to habitable levels, assuming plastic suits and clean breathing air supplies are available. Unprotected dose rates to recovery workers in the heat exchanger zone of the building will range from 120 mrem/hour to 780 mrem/hour, depending on evaporation conditions near spilled heavy-water pools. It is concluded habitability issues for recovery are not driven by temperature concerns in reactor building zones. However, the results indicate radiological suits with cool air supplies will assure adequate conditions for operators and recovery teams, and mitigate tritium uptake hazards from splashing or other direct contact mechanisms.

  10. SITE SPECIFIC REFERENCE PERSON PARAMETERS AND DERIVED CONCENTRATION STANDARDS FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, T.

    2013-03-14

    The purpose of this report is twofold. The first is to develop a set of behavioral parameters for a reference person specific for the Savannah River Site (SRS) such that the parameters can be used to determine dose to members of the public in compliance with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 458.1 “Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment.” A reference person is a hypothetical, gender and age aggregation of human physical and physiological characteristics arrived at by international consensus for the purpose of standardizing radiation dose calculations. DOE O 458.1 states that compliance with the annual dose limit of 100 mrem (1 mSv) to a member of the public may be demonstrated by calculating the dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) or to a representative person. Historically, for dose compliance, SRS has used the MEI concept, which uses adult dose coefficients and adult male usage parameters. Beginning with the 2012 annual site environmental report, SRS will be using the representative person concept for dose compliance. The dose to a representative person will be based on 1) the SRS-specific reference person usage parameters at the 95th percentile of appropriate national or regional data, which are documented in this report, 2) the reference person (gender and age averaged) ingestion and inhalation dose coefficients provided in DOE Derived Concentration Technical Standard (DOE-STD-1196-2011), and 3) the external dose coefficients provided in the DC_PAK3 toolbox. The second purpose of this report is to develop SRS-specific derived concentration standards (DCSs) for all applicable food ingestion pathways, ground shine, and water submersion. The DCS is the concentration of a particular radionuclide in water, in air, or on the ground that results in a member of the public receiving 100 mrem (1 mSv) effective dose following continuous exposure for one year. In DOE-STD-1196-2011, DCSs were developed for the ingestion of water, inhalation of

  11. Economic impacts on the United States of siting decisions for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peerenboom, J.P.; Hanson, M.E.; Huddleston, J.R. [and others

    1996-08-01

    This report presents the results of a study that examines and compares the probable short-term economic impacts of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) on the United States (U.S.) if (1) ITER were to be sited in the U.S., or (2) ITER were to be sited in one of the other countries that, along with the U.S., is currently participating in the ITER program. Life-cycle costs associated with ITER construction, operation, and decommissioning are analyzed to assess their economic impact. A number of possible U.S. host and U.S. non-host technology and cost-sharing arrangements with the other ITER Parties are examined, although cost-sharing arrangements and the process by which the Parties will select a host country and an ITER site remain open issues. Both national and local/regional economic impacts, as measured by gross domestic product, regional output, employment, net exports, and income, are considered. These impacts represent a portion of the complex, interrelated set of economic considerations that characterize U.S. host and U.S. non-host participation in ITER. A number of other potentially important economic and noneconomic considerations are discussed qualitatively.

  12. Recovery of thermophilic Campylobacter by three sampling methods from classified river sites in Northeast Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is not clear how best to sample streams for the detection of Campylobacter which may be introduced from agricultural or community land use. Fifteen sites in the watershed of the South Fork of the Broad River (SFBR) in Northeastern Georgia, USA, were sampled in three seasons. Seven sites were cl...

  13. Subsurface transport modeling of the Savannah River and Yucca Mountain Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunlap, B.E.; Pepper, D.W. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Stephenson, D.E. [Westinghouse Res. Tech. Center, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    An adaptive two-dimensional finite element method is used to model groundwater flow and contaminant transport in variably saturated porous media. The model is applied to known groundwater contamination at the Savannah River Site, which consists of multiple ground strata. A simulation of the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository Site is also executed to assess potential burial of radioactive waste.

  14. Critical Radionuclide and Pathway Analysis for the Savannah River Site, 2016 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, Tim [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hartman, Larry [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-08

    During the operational history of Savannah River Site, many different radionuclides have been released from site facilities. However, as shown in this analysis, only a relatively small number of the released radionuclides have been significant contributors to doses to the offsite public. This report is an update to the 2011 analysis, Critical Radionuclide and Pathway Analysis for the Savannah River Site. SRS-based Performance Assessments for E-Area, Saltstone, F-Tank Farm, H-Tank Farm, and a Comprehensive SRS Composite Analysis have been completed. The critical radionuclides and pathways identified in those extensive reports are also detailed and included in this analysis.

  15. History of the 185-/189-D thermal hydraulics laboratory and its effects on reactor operations at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, M.S.

    1994-09-01

    The 185-D deaeration building and the 189-D refrigeration building were constructed at Hanford during 1943 and 1944. Both buildings were constructed as part of the influent water cooling system for D reactor. The CMS studies eliminated the need for 185-D function. Early gains in knowledge ended the original function of the 189-D building mission. In 1951, 185-D and 189-D were converted to a thermal-hydraulic laboratory. The experiments held in the thermal-hydraulic lab lead to historic changes in Hanford reactor operations. In late 1951, the exponential physics experiments were moved to the 189-D building. In 1958, new production reactor experiments were begun in 185/189-D. In 1959, Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor experiments were added to the 185/189-D facility. By 1960, the 185/189-D thermal hydraulics laboratory was one of the few full service facilities of its type in the nation. During the years 1961--1963 tests continued in the facility in support of existing reactors, new production reactors, and the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor. In 1969, Fast Flux Test Facility developmental testings began in the facility. Simulations in 185/189-D building aided in the N Reactor repairs in the 1980`s. In 1994 the facility was nominated to the National Register of Historic Places, because of its pioneering role over many years in thermal hydraulics, flow studies, heat transfer, and other reactor coolant support work. During 1994 and 1995 it was demolished in the largest decontamination and decommissioning project thus far in Hanford Site history.

  16. US EPA record of decision review for landfills: Sanitary landfill (740-G), Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of a review of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Record of Decision System (RODS) database search conducted to identify Superfund landfill sites where a Record of Decision (ROD) has been prepared by EPA, the States or the US Army Corps of Engineers describing the selected remedy at the site. ROD abstracts from the database were reviewed to identify site information including site type, contaminants of concern, components of the selected remedy, and cleanup goals. Only RODs from landfill sites were evaluated so that the results of the analysis can be used to support the remedy selection process for the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  17. Assessment of activation products in the Savannah River Site environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H.; Denham, M.

    1996-07-01

    This document assesses the impact of radioactive activation products released from SRS facilities since the first reactor became operational late in 1953. The isotopes reported here are those whose release resulted in the highest dose to people living near SRS: {sup 32}P, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 60}C, and {sup 65}Zn. Release pathways, emission control features, and annual releases to the aqueous and atmospheric environments are discussed. No single incident has resulted in a major acute release of activation products to the environment. The releases were the result of normal operations of the reactors and separations facilities. Releases declined over the years as better controls were established and production was reduced. The overall radiological impact of SRS activation product atmospheric releases from 1954 through 1994 on the offsite maximally exposed individual can be characterized by a total dose of 0.76 mrem. During the same period, such an individual received a total dose of 14,400 mrem from non-SRS sources of ionizing radiation present in the environment. SRS activation product aqueous releases between 1954 and 1994 resulted in a total dose of 54 mrem to the offsite maximally exposed individual. The impact of SRS activation product releases on offsite populations also has been evaluated.

  18. Instream biological assessment of NPDES point source discharges at the Savannah River Site, 1997-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    2000-02-28

    The Savannah River Site currently has 33 permitted NPDES outfalls that have been permitted by the South Carolina Department of Health an Environmental Control to discharge to SRS streams and the Savannah River. In order to determine the cumulative impacts of these discharges to the receiving streams, a study plan was developed to perform in-stream assessments of the fish assemblages, macroinvertebrate assemblages, and habitats of the receiving streams.

  19. Water Quality Sampling Locations Along the Shoreline of the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Robert E.; Patton, Gregory W.

    2009-12-14

    As environmental monitoring evolved on the Hanford Site, several different conventions were used to name or describe location information for various sampling sites along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. These methods range from handwritten descriptions in field notebooks to the use of modern electronic surveying equipment, such as Global Positioning System receivers. These diverse methods resulted in inconsistent archiving of analytical results in various electronic databases and published reports because of multiple names being used for the same site and inaccurate position data. This document provides listings of sampling sites that are associated with groundwater and river water sampling. The report identifies names and locations for sites associated with sampling: (a) near-river groundwater using aquifer sampling tubes; (b) riverbank springs and springs areas; (c) pore water collected from riverbed sediment; and (d) Columbia River water. Included in the listings are historical names used for a particular site and the best available geographic coordinates for the site, as of 2009. In an effort to create more consistency in the descriptive names used for water quality sampling sites, a naming convention is proposed in this document. The convention assumes that a unique identifier is assigned to each site that is monitored and that this identifier serves electronic database management requirements. The descriptive name is assigned for the convenience of the subsequent data user. As the historical database is used more intensively, this document may be revised as a consequence of discovering potential errors and also because of a need to gain consensus on the proposed naming convention for some water quality monitoring sites.

  20. Dry Deposition Velocity Estimation for the Savannah River Site: Part 2 -- Parametric and Site-Specific Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Cook, Kary M.

    2013-09-12

    Values for the dry deposition velocity of airborne particles were estimated with the GENII Version 2.10.1 computer code for the Savannah River site using assumptions about surface roughness parameters and particle size and density. Use of the GENII code is recommended by the U.S. Department of Energy for this purpose. Meteorological conditions evaluated include atmospheric stability classes D, E, and F and wind speeds of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 m/s. Local surface roughness values ranging from 0.03 to 2 meters were evaluated. Particles with mass mean diameters of 1, 5, and 10 microns and densities of 1, 3, 4, and 5 g/cm3 were evaluated. Site specific meteorology was used to predict deposition velocity for Savannah River conditions for a range of distances from 670 to 11,500 meters.

  1. Reactor safeguards

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    1962-01-01

    Reactor Safeguards provides information for all who are interested in the subject of reactor safeguards. Much of the material is descriptive although some sections are written for the engineer or physicist directly concerned with hazards analysis or site selection problems. The book opens with an introductory chapter on radiation hazards, the construction of nuclear reactors, safety issues, and the operation of nuclear reactors. This is followed by separate chapters that discuss radioactive materials, reactor kinetics, control and safety systems, containment, safety features for water reactor

  2. Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins: Waste site assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselow, J.S.; Looney, B.B.; Nichols, R.L.

    1989-09-05

    This Waste Site Assessment for the SRL Seepage Basins is the second in a series of documents being prepared to support development of an appropriate closure plan for these basins. The closure of these basins will be designed to provide protection to human health and the environment and to meet the provisions of the Consent Decree. A Technical Data Summary for these basins has already been submitted as part of the Consent Decree. This Site Assessment Report includes a waste site characterization, and a discussion of closure options for the basins. A closure option is recommended in this report, but details of the recommended closure are not provided in this report since they will be provided in a subsequent closure plan. The closure plan is the third document required under the Consent Decree. 18 refs., 16 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. Conceptual design of a large heavy water reactor for US siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, N. L.; Jesick, J. F.; Molin, A. T.; Daniel, J. A.

    1979-09-01

    Information on the PHWR type reactor is presented concerning design characteristics; fuel management and resource utilization; economic evaluations; safety, licensing, and environmental impact; and commercial introduction.

  4. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT SUMMARY FOR 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, M.; Meyer, A.

    2013-09-12

    This report's purpose is to: Present summary environmental data that characterize Site environmental management performance, Describe compliance status with respect to environmental standards and requirements, and Highlight significant programs and efforts. Environmental monitoring is conducted extensively with a 2,000-square-mile network extending 25 miles from SRS, with some monitoring performed as far as 100 miles from the Site. The area includes neighboring cities, towns, and counties in Georgia (GA) and South Carolina (SC). Thousands of samples of air, rainwater, surface water, drinking water, groundwater, food products, wildlife, soil, sediment, and vegetation are collected by SRS and analyzed for the presence of radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants. During 2012, SRS accomplished several significant milestones while maintaining its record of environmental excellence, as its operations continued to result in minimal impact to the public and the environment. The Site's radioactive and chemical discharges to air and water were well below regulatory standards for environmental and public health protection; its air and water quality met applicable requirements; and the potential radiation dose to the public was well below the DOE public dose limit.

  5. Investigation of nonlinear dynamic soil property at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R.C.

    2000-01-17

    This document summarizes laboratory dynamic soil testing investigations conducted by the University of Texas at Austin (UTA) for the Savannah River Site (SRS) (Stokoe et al., 1995a, Stokoe et al., 1995b, Sponseller and Stokoe, 1995). The purpose of the investigation is to provide an evaluation of past testing results in the context of new test data and the development of consistent site wide models of material strain dependencies based upon geologic formation, depth, and relevant index properties.

  6. Outlet plenum flow stratification studies for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novendstern, E.H.; Woods, M.D.; Andreychek, T.S.; Flannigan, L.J.; Carr, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    The transient temperature behavior during a simulated reactor trip was studied in a 1/3 sector, 0.55 scale model of the reactor outlet plenum of the CRBRP. Buoyancy effects were simulated using water and salt solution. Effects of variations in Richardson Number (ratio of buoyancy/inertia forces) and Froude Number (ratio of inertia/viscous forces) were evaluated. Effects of geometrical changes of a component in the outlet plenum called the Upper Internals Structure on transient temperature response were studied; both height of the structure and leakage under this component were experimentally varied. The test results confirm that flow stratification occurs in the outlet plenum following a reactor trip. The colder, denser fluid issuing from the core assemblies during the transient fills the lower portion of the plenum while the hotter fluid is trapped in the region above the outlet nozzles.

  7. Savannah River Site Salt Processing Project: FY2002 Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, Harry D.; Leugemors, Robert K.; Schlahta, Stephan N.; Fink, Samuel D.; Thompson, Major C.; Walker, Darrell D.

    2001-10-31

    This Plan describes the technology development program for alpha/strontium removal and Caustic Side Solvent Extraction cesium removal in FY2002. Crystalline Silicotitanate and Small Tank Tetratphenylborate Precipitation are discussed as possible backup technologies. Previous results are summarized in the Savannah River Site Salt Processing Project Research and Development Summary Report

  8. Savannah River Site Salt Processing Project: FY2002 Research and Development Program Plan, Rev. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, Harry D.; Leugemors, Robert K.; Schlahta, Stephan N.; Fink, Samuel D.; Thompson, Major C.; Walker, Darrell D.

    2001-12-10

    This Plan describes the technology development program for alpha/strontium removal and Caustic Side Solvent Extraction cesium removal in FY2002. Crystalline Silicotitanate and Small Tank Tetratphenylborate Precipitation are discussed as possible backup technologies. Previous results are summarized in the Savannah River Site Salt Processing Project Research and Development Summary Report.

  9. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program, third quarter 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-17

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1991, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. Analytical results from third quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  10. Napa River Restoration Project: Oakville to Oak Knoll Reach, Group A Sites 21-23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP Napa River Restoration Project: Oakville to Oak Knoll Reach, Group A Sites 21-23, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources

  11. Savannah River Site Salt Processing Project: FY2002 Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, Harry D.; Leugemors, Robert K.; Schlahta, Stephan N.; Fink, Samuel D.; Thompson, Major C.; Walker, Darrell D.

    2001-10-31

    This Plan describes the technology development program for alpha/strontium removal and Caustic Side Solvent Extraction cesium removal in FY2002. Crystalline Silicotitanate and Small Tank Tetratphenylborate Precipitation are discussed as possible backup technologies. Previous results are summarized in the Savannah River Site Salt Processing Project Research and Development Summary Report

  12. A simple protocol using underwater epoxy to install annual temperature monitoring sites in rivers and streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Isaak; Dona L. Horan; Sherry P. Wollrab

    2013-01-01

    Thermal regimes in rivers and streams are fundamental determinants of biological processes and are often monitored for regulatory compliance. Here, we describe a simple technique for establishing annual monitoring sites that uses underwater epoxy to attach miniature sensors to large rocks and cement bridge supports, which then serve as protective anchors. More than 500...

  13. The seasonal factor at the prehistoric site of Shag River Mouth, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higham, T.F.G. [Waikato Univ., Hamilton (New Zealand)

    1997-12-31

    This paper addresses moa hunters` seasonality at the Shag River Mouth site. A two meters section in layer 4 of the SM/C: Dune site was left as a baulk in 1988 to enable the stratigraphic profile ({approx}2m) to be more carefully investigated. Within the baulk, detailed lensing and microstrata could be identified. Claassen (1991) has suggested that one of the most important variables in determining seasonal and prehistoric shell-bearing site formation more accurately is emphasizing finer stratigraphic resolution and more rigorous attention to retrieving midden components. At Shag River Mouth, seven sub-layers, or spits, were excavated within the 2m baulk to refine the precision of subsequent seasonal analyses and enable a detailed assessment of the components of each and their season of deposition. A variety of seasonal methods were utilised including {sup 18}O analysis of blue mussel shell carbonate and growth ring analysis of estuarine bivalves. In addition, sagital otoliths of red cod excavated from the site were sectioned and the annual and seasonal growth rings formed during the fishes` life were analysed for seasonal information. This has enabled a detailed analysis of the seasonality of this discrete area of the Shag River Mouth site. The significance of the results for understanding the prehistoric seasonal round of activities within the site and its wider orbit is presented. Paper no.40; Extended abstract. 6 refs.

  14. Differential arsenic binding in the sediments of two sites in Chile's lower Loa River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugueño, Manuel P; Acevedo, Sara E; Bonilla, Carlos A; Pizarro, Gonzalo E; Pasten, Pablo A

    2014-01-01

    Fluvial sediments from two lower Loa River basin sites in northern Chile were compared in order to probe the effects of vegetation and organic matter (OM) on As accumulation in fluvial environments. The two sites were the Sloman dam, which lacks macrophytes and has a low OM content (2.4%) in sediments, and the Quillagua Oasis, which is 23 km downstream from the Sloman site and has a higher OM (6.2%) in sediments and abundant aquatic plant life. The Quillagua site had preferential As enrichment with a co-occurrence pattern that differed from that of the Sloman site, which had a lower As concentration (1528 vs. 262 mg/kg d.w., respectively). At the Quillagua site, As concentration was strongly correlated with Mn and OM (r = 0.91 and 0.85, respectively); while at the Sloman site, As concentration in sediments was significantly correlated with Ca and Sr (r = 0.63 and 0.54, respectively). Sequential extraction analyses showed that the Sloman site had higher percentage of easily exchangeable As within the surface sediment (12%, 45 mg/kg d.w.) compared with the Quillagua site (3%, 40 mg/kg d.w.). These contrasting results suggest that both vegetation and OM control the immobilization and accumulation of As in the arid Loa River basin.

  15. Savannah River Plant - Project 8980 engineering and design history. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-01-01

    This volume provides an engineering and design history of the 100 area of the Savannah River Plant. This site consisted of five separate production reactor sites, 100-R, P, L, K, and C. The document summarizes work on design of the reactors, support facilities, buildings, siting, etc. for these areas.

  16. Site selection for installing plasma incinerator reactor using the GIS in Rudsar county, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi-Varaki, Mehdi; Davtalab, Mehri

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, the urban waste disposal and the proper location for doing so is considered as one of the most important urban service issues, which has the potential of causing environmental hazards for the citizens, if not done properly. One of the newest methods of waste burial is using plasma incinerator reactors. Using the advanced technology of plasma reactors in waste disposal has been the subject of study for a considerable number of researchers in the last few years. Moreover, insignificant emissions of environmental pollutants and high efficiency in these reactors have led to a high incentive for using them in the area of urban services. Therefore, finding the proper location for the plasma incinerator reactor in order to minimize environmental hazards is considered as a very important issue. In the present study, different parts of this reactor and its working procedure are presented at first. Then, quantitative and qualitative criteria effective on locating plasma incinerator reactor are presented, and these criteria are given proper weights using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) multi-criteria decision making method. Next, the data were collected for the studying area, and then, weighting, analysis, and presentation of geospatial data were performed using the geographic information system (GIS). Finally, the output map for installing location of the plasma incinerator reactor was developed in three classes of good, average, and bad.

  17. Assessment of tritium in the Savannah River Site environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Bauer, L.R. [and others

    1993-10-01

    This report is the first revision to a series of reports on radionuclides inn the SRS environment. Tritium was chosen as the first radionuclide in the series because the calculations used to assess the dose to the offsite population from SRS releases indicate that the dose due to tritium, through of small consequence, is one of the most important the radionuclides. This was recognized early in the site operation, and extensive measurements of tritium in the atmosphere, surface water, and ground water exist due to the effort of the Environmental Monitoring Section. In addition, research into the transport and fate of tritium in the environment has been supported at the SRS by both the local Department of Energy (DOE) Office and DOE`s Office of Health and Environmental Research.

  18. Training courses on neutron detection systems on the ISIS research reactor: on-site and through internet training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lescop, B.; Badeau, G.; Ivanovic, S.; Foulon, F. [National Institute for Nuclear science and Technology French Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission (CEA), Saclay Research Center, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2015-07-01

    Today, ISIS research reactor is an essential tool for Education and Training programs organized by the National Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology (INSTN) from CEA. In the field of nuclear instrumentation, the INSTN offers both, theoretical courses and training courses on the use of neutron detection systems taking advantage of the ISIS research reactor for the supply of a wide range of neutron fluxes. This paper describes the content of the training carried out on the use of neutron detectors and detection systems, on-site or remote. The ISIS reactor is a 700 kW open core pool type reactor. The facility is very flexible since neutron detectors can be inserted into the core or its vicinity, and be used at different levels of power according to the needs of the course. Neutron fluxes, typically ranging from 1 to 10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2}.s, can be obtained for the characterisation of the neutron detectors and detection systems. For the monitoring of the neutron density at low level of power, the Instrumentation and Control (I and C) system of the reactor is equipped with two detection systems, named BN1 and BN2. Each way contains a fission chamber, type CFUL01, connected to an electronic system type SIREX.The system works in pulse mode and exhibits two outputs: the counting rate and the doubling time. For the high level of power, the I and C is equipped with two detection systems HN1 and HN2.Each way contain a boron ionization chamber (type CC52) connected to an electronics system type SIREX. The system works in current mode and has two outputs: the current and the doubling time. For each mode, the trainees can observe and measure the signal at the different stages of the electronic system, with an oscilloscope. They can understand the role of each component of the detection system: detector, cable and each electronic block. The limitation of the detection modes and their operating range can be established from the measured signal. The trainees can also

  19. Evaluation of Potential Locations for Siting Small Modular Reactors near Federal Energy Clusters to Support Federal Clean Energy Goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belles, Randy J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Omitaomu, Olufemi A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) technology was applied to analyze federal energy demand across the contiguous US. Several federal energy clusters were previously identified, including Hampton Roads, Virginia, which was subsequently studied in detail. This study provides an analysis of three additional diverse federal energy clusters. The analysis shows that there are potential sites in various federal energy clusters that could be evaluated further for placement of an integral pressurized-water reactor (iPWR) to support meeting federal clean energy goals.

  20. Radiological bioconcentration factors for aquatic, terrestrial, and wetland ecosystems at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, C.L.

    1994-09-01

    As a result of operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS), over 50 radionuclides have been released to the atmosphere and to onsite streams and seepage basins. Now, many of these radionuclides are available to aquatic and/or terrestrial organisms for uptake and cycling through the food chain. Knowledge about the uptake and cycling of these radionuclides is now crucial in evaluating waste management and clean-up alternatives for the site. Numerous studies have been conducted at the SRS over the past forty years to study the uptake and distribution of radionuclides in the Savannah River Site environment. In many instances, bioconcentration factors have been calculated to quantify the uptake of a radionuclide by an organism from the surrounding medium (i.e., soil or water). In the past, it has been common practice to use bioconcentration factors from the literature because site-specific data were not readily available. However, because of the variability of bioconcentration factors due to experimental or environmental conditions, site-specific data should be used when available. This report compiles and summarizes site-specific bioconcentration factors for selected radionuclides released at the Savannah River Site (SRS). An extensive literature search yielded site-specific bioconcentration factors for cesium, strontium, cobalt, plutonium, americium, curium, and tritium. These eight radionuclides have been the primary radionuclides studied at SRS because of their long half lives or because they are major contributors to radiological dose from exposure. For most radionuclides, it was determined that the site-specific bioconcentration factors were higher than those reported in literature. This report also summarizes some conditions that affect radionuclide bioavailability to and bioconcentration by aquatic and terrestrial organisms.

  1. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program, third quarter 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program. During third quarter 1989 (July--September), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the third quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from third quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  2. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program, first quarter 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program. During first quarter 1989 (January--March), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the first quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from first quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  3. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program, second quarter 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1989 (April--June), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the second quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from second quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  4. Final Review of Safety Assessment Issues at Savannah River Site, August 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Bixler, Nathan E.

    2011-12-15

    At the request of Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS) management, a review team composed of experts in atmospheric transport modeling for environmental radiation dose assessment convened at the Savannah River Site (SRS) on August 29-30, 2011. Though the meeting was prompted initially by suspected issues related to the treatment of surface roughness inherent in the SRS meteorological dataset and its treatment in the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System Version 2 (MACCS2), various topical areas were discussed that are relevant to performing safety assessments at SRS; this final report addresses these topical areas.

  5. Demonstration of Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction with Savannah River Site High Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.D.

    2001-08-27

    Researchers successfully demonstrated the chemistry and process equipment of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) flowsheet for the decontamination of high level waste using a 33-stage, 2-cm centrifugal contactor apparatus at the Savannah River Technology Center. This represents the first CSSX process demonstration using Savannah River Site (SRS) high level waste. Three tests lasting 6, 12, and 48 hours processed simulated average SRS waste, simulated Tank 37H/44F composite waste, and Tank 37H/44F high level waste, respectively.

  6. Geochemical Data Package for Performance Assessment Calculations Related to the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, Daniel I. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2010-03-15

    The Savannah River Site disposes of low-activity radioactive waste within subsurface-engineered facilities. One of the tools used to establish the capacity of a given site to safely store radioactive waste (i.e., that a site does not exceed its Waste Acceptance Criteria) is the Performance Assessment (PA). The objective of this document is to provide the geochemical values for the PA calculations. This work is being conducted as part of the on-going maintenance program that permits the PA to periodically update existing calculations when new data become available.

  7. SRP baseline hydrogeologic investigation: Aquifer characterization. Groundwater geochemistry of the Savannah River Site and vicinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, R.N.; Kaback, D.S.

    1992-03-31

    An investigation of the mineralogy and chemistry of the principal hydrogeologic units and the geochemistry of the water in the principal aquifers at Savannah River Site (SRS) was undertaken as part of the Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation. This investigation was conducted to provide background data for future site studies and reports and to provide a site-wide interpretation of the geology and geochemistry of the Coastal Plain Hydrostratigraphic province. Ground water samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, minor and trace elements, gross alpha and beta, tritium, stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, and carbon-14. Sediments from the well borings were analyzed for mineralogy and major and minor elements.

  8. Evaluation of Mineral Deposits Along the Little Wind River, Riverton, WY, Processing Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Sam [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dam, Wiliam [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management

    2014-12-01

    In 2012, the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) began reassessing the former Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site area for potential contaminant sources impacting groundwater. A flood in 2010 along the Little Wind River resulted in increases in groundwater contamination (DOE 2013).This investigation is a small part of continued efforts by DOE and other stakeholders to update human health and ecological risk assessments, to make a comprehensive examination of all exposure pathways to ensure that the site remains protective through established institutional controls. During field inspections at the Riverton Site in 2013, a white evaporitic mineral deposit was identified along the bank of the Little Wind River within the discharge zone of the groundwater contamination plume. In December 2013, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel collected a sample for analysis by X-ray fluorescence (Figure 1 shows the type of material sampled). The sample had a uranium concentration of approximately 64 to 73 parts per million. Although the uranium in this mineral deposit is within the expected range for evaporatic minerals in the western United States (SRNL 2014), DOE determined that additional assessment of the mineral deposit was warranted. In response to the initial collection and analysis of a sample of the mineral deposit, DOE developed a work plan (Work Plan to Sample Mineral Deposits Along the Little Wind River, Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site [DOE 2014]) to further define the extent of these mineral deposits and the concentration of the associated contaminants (Appendix A). The work plan addressed field reconnaissance, mapping, sampling, and the assessment of risk associated with the mineral deposits adjacent to the Little Wind River.

  9. Stochastic modeling and its applications in selected sites in the Colorado River

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaotian

    Deposition is an important process in shaping the earth's surface. Most depositional processes involving turbulent flows in rivers, lakes and ocean margins are stochastic processes. Basic laws of fluid dynamics are reviewed as well as the scientific literature on fluid modeling to improve our understanding of the underlying dynamics of deposition of sediment in both theory and numerical experiments. Based upon probabilistic theory, fluid dynamics, and empirical formulas, a nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) model of stochastic processes is developed. The model illustrates time-dependent stochastic processes in detail. Development of the model starts with a one-dimensional simple random walk and ends with a three-dimensional random walk that incorporates turbulence and drift terms. For processes that are simple random walk, the model's underlying equation becomes the familiar heat equation. The major advantage of the stochastic model is that through the introduction of randomness, it can simulate turbulence. The stochastic model is used to examine the effect of drift on the diffusion process. Deposition, erosion, and river flow patterns are discussed. The stochastic model is modified to incorporate erosion and other geological factors. The numerical implementation of the mathematical model is discussed in detail. Due to computational stability, the fully implicit scheme is selected. Historical data at three selected sites along the Grand Canyon part of the Colorado River is applied to investigate the "trustworthiness" of the mathematical model developed in this research. The three sites River Mile 1.5, River Mile 18.0 (also called Eighteen Mile Wash), and River Mile 72.4 (referred as to Unkar Creek) represent three typically different fluvial depositional environments, which are channel marginal depositional environment, flow separation depositional environment and lateral accumulative depositional environment. The first two sites are numerically

  10. Technical summary of groundwater quality protection program at the Savannah River Site, 1952--1986. Volume 1, Site geohydrology and waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffner, J.D. [ed.] [Exploration Resources, Inc., Athens, GA (United States)

    1991-11-01

    This report provides information regarding the status of and groundwater quality at the waste sites at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). Specific information provided for each waste site at SRS includes its location, size, inventory (when known), and history. Many waste sites at SRS are considered to be of little environmental concern because they contain nontoxic or inert material such as construction rubble and debris. Other waste sites, however, either are known to have had an effect on groundwater quality or are suspected of having the potential to affect groundwater. Monitoring wells have been installed at most of these sites; monitoring wells are scheduled for installation at the remaining sites. Results of the groundwater analyses from these monitoring wells, presented in the appendices, are used in the report to help identify potential contaminants of concern, if any, at each waste site. The list of actions proposed for each waste site in Christensen and Gordon`s 1983 report are summarized, and an update is provided for each site. Planned actions for the future are also outlined.

  11. Site Selection for Surplus Plutonium Disposition Facilities at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.

    2000-08-17

    A site selection study was conducted to evaluate locations for the proposed Surplus Plutonium Disposition Facilities. Facilities to be located include the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility, the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF), and the Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP) facility. Objectives of the study include: (1) Confirm that the Department of Energy (DOE) selected locations for the MOX and PDCF were suitable based on selected siting criteria, (2) Recommend a site in the vicinity of F Area that is suitable for the PIP, and (3) Identify alternative suitable sites for one or more of these facilities in the event that further geotechnical characterization or other considerations result in disqualification of a currently proposed site.

  12. Achieving Accelerated Cleanup of Cesium Contaminated Stream at the Savannah River Site; Collaboration between Stakeholders, Regulators, and the Federal Government - 13182

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergren, Chris; Flora, Mary; Socha, Ron; Burch, Joseph [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC, Bldg. 730-4B, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Freeman, Candice; Hennessey, Brian [United States Department of Energy, Bldg. 730-B, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a 310-square-mile United States Department of Energy (US DOE) nuclear facility located along the Savannah River near Aiken, South Carolina that contains six primary stream/river systems. The Lower Three Runs Stream (LTR) is one of the primary streams within the site that is located in the southeast portion of the Savannah River Site and is a large black water stream system that originates in the northeast portion of SRS and follows a southerly direction before it enters the Savannah River. During reactor operations, secondary reactor cooling water, storm sewer discharges, and miscellaneous wastewater was discharged and contaminated a 36 kilometer stretch of Lower Three Runs Stream that narrows providing a limited buffer of US DOE property along the stream and flood plain. Based on data collected during 2009 and 2010 under Recover Act Funding, the stream was determined to be contaminated with cesium-137 at levels that exceeded acceptable risk based limits. As efficiencies were realized within the SRS Recovery Act Program, funding was made available to design, permit and execute remediation of the LTR. This accelerated Project allowed for the remediation of 36 kilometers of LTR in only nine months from inception to completion, contributing significantly to the Foot Print Reduction of SRS. The scope consisted of excavation and disposal of more than 2064 cubic meters of contaminated soil, and installing 11 kilometers of fence and 2,000 signs at 1000 locations. Confirmatory sampling and analysis, and radiological surveying were performed demonstrating that soil concentrations met the cleanup goals. The project completed with a very good safety record considering the harsh conditions including, excessive rain in the early stages of the project, high summer temperatures, swampy terrain, snakes, wild boar, insects and dense vegetation. The regulatory approval process was compressed by over 75% and required significant efforts from SRS

  13. DOE Research Set-Aside Areas of the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, C.E.; Janecek, L.L.

    1997-08-31

    Designated as the first of seven National Environmental Research Parks (NERPs) by the Atomic Energy Commission (now the Department of Energy), the Savannah River Site (SRS) is an important ecological component of the Southeastern Mixed Forest Ecoregion located along the Savannah River south of Aiken, South Carolina. Integral to the Savannah River Site NERP are the DOE Research Set-Aside Areas. Scattered across the SRS, these thirty tracts of land have been set aside for ecological research and are protected from public access and most routine Site maintenance and forest management activities. Ranging in size from 8.5 acres (3.44 ha) to 7,364 acres (2,980 ha), the thirty Set-Aside Areas total 14,005 acres (5,668 ha) and comprise approximately 7% of the Site`s total area. This system of Set-Aside Areas originally was established to represent the major plant communities and habitat types indigenous to the SRS (old-fields, sandhills, upland hardwood, mixed pine/hardwood, bottomland forests, swamp forests, Carolina bays, and fresh water streams and impoundments), as well as to preserve habitats for endangered, threatened, or rare plant and animal populations. Many long-term ecological studies are conducted in the Set-Asides, which also serve as control areas in evaluations of the potential impacts of SRS operations on other regions of the Site. The purpose of this document is to give an historical account of the SRS Set-Aside Program and to provide a descriptive profile of each of the Set-Aside Areas. These descriptions include a narrative for each Area, information on the plant communities and soil types found there, lists of sensitive plants and animals documented from each Area, an account of the ecological research conducted in each Area, locator and resource composition maps, and a list of Site-Use permits and publications associated with each Set-Aside.

  14. Breeding bird populations and habitat associations within the Savannah River Site (SRS).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthreaux, Sidney, A.; Steven J. Wagner.

    2005-06-29

    Gauthreaux, Sidney, A., and Steven J. Wagner. 2005. Breeding bird populations and habitat associations within the Savannah River Site (SRS). Final Report. USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, Aiken, SC. 48 pp. Abstract: During the 1970's and 1980's a dramatic decline occurred in the populations of Neotropical migratory birds, species that breed in North America and winter south of the border in Central and South America and in the Caribbean. In 1991 an international initiative was mounted by U. S. governmental land management agencies, nongovernmental conservation agencies, and the academic and lay ornithological communities to understand the decline of Neotropical migratory birds in the Americas. In cooperation with the USDA Forest Service - Savannah River (FS - SR) we began 1992 a project directed to monitoring population densities of breeding birds using the Breeding Bird Census (BBC) methodology in selected habitats within the Savannah River Site SRS. In addition we related point count data on the occurrence of breeding Neotropical migrants and other bird species to the habitat data gathered by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the USDA Forest Service and data on habitat treatments within forest stands.

  15. Intensive archaeological survey of the proposed Savannah River Ecology Laboratory Conference Center and Educational Facility, Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, K.; Crass, D.C.; Sassaman, K.E.

    1993-02-01

    Documented in this report are the methods and results of an intensive archaeological survey for the proposed University of Georgia Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) Conference Center and Educational Facility on the DOE Savannah River Site (SRS). Archaeological investigations conducted by the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) on the 70-acre project area and associated rights-of-way consisted of subsurface testing at two previously recorded sites and the discovery of one previously unrecorded site. The results show that 2 sites contain archaeological remains that may yield significant information about human occupations in the Aiken Plateau and are therefore considered eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. Adverse impacts to these sites can be mitigated through avoidance.

  16. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pechmann, J.H.K.; Scott, D.E.; McGregor, J.H.; Estes, R.A.; Chazal, A.C.

    1993-02-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was built on the Savannah River Site (SRS) during the mid-1980's. The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has completed 12 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF complex. Prior to construction, the 600-acre site (S-Area) contained a Carolina bay and the headwaters of a stream. Research conducted by the SREL has focused primarily on four questions related to these wetlands: (1) Prior to construction, what fauna and flora were present at the DWPF site and at similar, yet undisturbed, alternative sites (2) By comparing the Carolina bay at the DWPF site (Sun Bay) with an undisturbed control Carolina bay (Rainbow Bay), what effect is construction having on the organisms that inhabited the DWPF site (3) By comparing control streams with streams on the periphery of the DWPF site, what effect is construction having on the peripheral streams (4) How effective have efforts been to lessen the impacts of construction, both with respect to erosion control measures and the construction of refuge ponds'' as alternative breeding sites for amphibians that formerly bred at Sun Bay Through the long-term census-taking of biota at the DWPF site and Rainbow Bay, SREL has begun to evaluate the impact of construction on the biota and the effectiveness of mitigation efforts. Similarly, the effects of erosion from the DWPF site on the water quality of S-Area peripheral streams are being assessed. This research provides supporting data relevant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Executive Orders 11988 (Floodplain Management) and 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and United States Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetland Environmental Review Requirements (10CFR1022).

  17. ADVANCES IN SE-79 ANALYSES ON SAVANNAH RIVER SITE RADIOACTIVE WASTE MATRICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diprete, D; C Diprete, C; Ned Bibler, N; Cj Bannochie, C; Michael Hay, M

    2009-03-16

    Waste cleanup efforts underway at the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina, as well as other DOE nuclear sites, have created a need to characterize {sup 79}Se in radioactive waste inventories. Successful analysis of {sup 79}Se in high activity waste matrices is challenging for a variety of reasons. As a result of these unique challenges, the successful quantification of {sup 79}Se in the types of matrices present at SRS requires an extremely efficient and selective separation of {sup 79}Se from high levels of interfering radionuclides. A robust {sup 79}Se radiochemical separation method has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) which is routinely capable of successfully purifying {sup 79}Se from a wide range of interfering radioactive species. In addition to a dramatic improvements in the Kd, ease, and reproducibility of the analysis, the laboratory time has been reduced from several days to only 6 hours.

  18. Habitat preferences of foraging red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E.

    2004-12-31

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E. 2004. Habitat preferences of foraging red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. In: Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 9. Habitat Management and Habitat Relationships. Pp 553-561. Abstract: I constructed a foraging study to examine habitat use of red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. Because much of the land had been harvested in the late 1940s and early 1950s prior to being sold to the Department of Energy, the available habitat largely consisted of younger trees (e.g., less than 40 years old). From 1992 to 1995, I examined the foraging behavior and reproductive success of 7 groups of red-cockaded woodpeckers.

  19. Soil Stratigraphy from Three Pleistocene Archaeological Sites of the Middle Ter River Valley, Catalonia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayantani NEOGI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This dissertation summarizes the stratigraphic description of three Pleistocene archaeological sites inthe middle Ter river valley. A long history of archaeological research in this region suggests thepossibility of developing contextual studies. This work is basically an investigation of two soilformation processes from the deep soil horizons of the Mediterranean region: clay illuviation andcarbonatation. This approach has been developed by soil micromorphology, a technique well suitedfor this type of record, supplemented by fundamental field descriptions and basic cartography of the geomorphological terraces of the middle Ter river valley. The soil stratigraphy of archaeological sites and Pleistocene landscapes opens the opportunity to investigate a complex subject of study. The soils and paleosols are a source of information for palaeoecology and human occupations. It has been attempted here only to lay the groundwork for the interpretation of genetic factors pointing to the classification of soils.

  20. TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF THE INTERACTION OF GROUNDWATER WITH THE COLUMBIA RIVER AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE 100-D AREA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN SW

    2008-11-05

    Groundwater beneath much of Hanford's 100 Areas is contaminated with hexavalent chromium (Cr{sup +6}) as a consequence of treating reactor cooling water to prevent corrosion. Several treatment systems are in place to remove Cr{sup +6} from the groundwater; however, these systems currently do not reduce Cr{sup +6} to concentrations below aquatic standards. Of concern is the transport of Cr{sup +6} to areas within the channel of the river, as sensitive species inhabit the river and its associated transition zone. The aquatic standard for Cr{sup +6} is currently 11 ug/l under the Record of Decision (ROD) for Interim Action and Department of Energy (DOE) currently plans to pursue remediation of the groundwater to achieve the 11 ug/l standard. Because the compliance wells used to monitor the current remediation systems are located some distance from the river, they may not provide an accurate indication of Cr{sup +6} concentrations in the water that reaches the riverbed. In addition, because salmon spawning areas are considered a high priority for protection from Hanford contaminants, it would be advantageous to understand (1) to what extent Cr{sup +6} discharged to the near-shore or river ecosystems is diluted or attenuated and (2) mechanisms that could mitigate the exposure of the river ecosystems to the discharging Cr{sup +6}. The current concentration target for Cr{sup +6} at near-river groundwater monitoring locations is 20 {micro}g/L; it is assumed that this groundwater mixes with river water that contains virtually no chromium to meet Washington Department of Ecology's (Ecology) water quality standard of 10 {micro}g/L in the river environment. This dynamic mixing process is believed to be driven by daily and seasonal changes in river stage and groundwater remediation system operations, and has been validated using analytical data from numerous groundwater samples obtained adjacent to and within the banks of the river. Although the mean mixing factor of

  1. Exposure rate response analysis of criticality accident dectector at Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zino, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    This analysis investigated the exposure response behavior of gamma-ray ionization chambers used in the criticality accident systems at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The project consisted of performing exposure response measurements with a calibrated {sup 137}Cs source for benchmarking of the MCNP Monte Carlo code. MCNP was then used to extrapolate the ion chamber`s response to gamma-rays with energies outside the current domain of measured data for criticality fission sources.

  2. 2003 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-05

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Savannah River Site. DOE is commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The report monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  3. Nuclear incident monitor criticality alarm instrument for the Savannah River Site: Technical manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, J.B.

    1996-05-21

    The Savannah River Site is a Department of Energy facility. The facility stores, processes, and works with fissionable material at a number of locations. Technical standards and US Department of Energy orders, require these locations to be monitored by criticality alarm systems under certain circumstances. The Savannah River Site calls such instruments Nuclear Incident Monitors or NIMs. The Sole purpose of the Nuclear Incident Monitor is to provide an immediate evacuation signal in the case of an accidental criticality in order to minimize personnel exposure to radiation. The new unit is the third generation Nuclear Incident Monitor at the Savannah River Site. The second generation unit was developed in 1979. It was designed to eliminate vacuum-tube circuits, and was the first solid state NIM at SRS. The major design objectives of the second generation NIM were to improve reliability and reduce maintenance costs. Ten prototype units have been built and tested. This report describes the design of the new NIM and the testing that took place to verify its acceptability.

  4. Effect of Hydrologic Alteration on the Community Succession of Macrophytes at Xiangyang Site, Hanjiang River, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the intensification of human activities over the past three decades in China, adverse effects on river ecosystem become more serious especially in the Hanjiang River. Xiangyang site is an important spawn ground for four domestic fishes in the downstream region of Hanjiang River. Based on the field survey results of macrophytes during 1997–2000 and 2013-2014, community succession of aquatic macrophytes at Xiangyang site was evaluated and discussed. Two-key ecologic-related hydrologic characteristics, flow regime and water level, were identified as the main influence factors. The EFC (environmental flow components parameters were adopted to evaluate the alteration of flow regimes at Xiangyang site during 1941–2013. Evaluation results demonstrate a highly altered flow process after being regulated by reservoir. The flow patterns tend to be an attenuation process with no large floods occurring but a higher monthly low flow. Furthermore, the water level decreased and fluctuation reduced after the dam was built, which caused the decrease of biomass but favored the submerged macrophytes during 1995–2009. However, with the water level increasing after 2010 and gently fluctuating, due to uplift by the hydraulic projects downstream as well as the flow attenuation, the dominant position of submerged macrophytes will be weakened.

  5. Effect of Hydrologic Alteration on the Community Succession of Macrophytes at Xiangyang Site, Hanjiang River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Kai

    2017-01-01

    With the intensification of human activities over the past three decades in China, adverse effects on river ecosystem become more serious especially in the Hanjiang River. Xiangyang site is an important spawn ground for four domestic fishes in the downstream region of Hanjiang River. Based on the field survey results of macrophytes during 1997–2000 and 2013-2014, community succession of aquatic macrophytes at Xiangyang site was evaluated and discussed. Two-key ecologic-related hydrologic characteristics, flow regime and water level, were identified as the main influence factors. The EFC (environmental flow components) parameters were adopted to evaluate the alteration of flow regimes at Xiangyang site during 1941–2013. Evaluation results demonstrate a highly altered flow process after being regulated by reservoir. The flow patterns tend to be an attenuation process with no large floods occurring but a higher monthly low flow. Furthermore, the water level decreased and fluctuation reduced after the dam was built, which caused the decrease of biomass but favored the submerged macrophytes during 1995–2009. However, with the water level increasing after 2010 and gently fluctuating, due to uplift by the hydraulic projects downstream as well as the flow attenuation, the dominant position of submerged macrophytes will be weakened. PMID:28127493

  6. EVALUATION OF ACTIVATION PRODUCTS IN REMAINING IN REMAINING K-, L- AND C-REACTOR STRUCTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinson, D.; Webb, R.

    2010-09-30

    An analytic model and calculational methodology was previously developed for P-reactor and R-reactor to quantify the radioisotopes present in Savannah River Site (SRS) reactor tanks and the surrounding structural materials as a result of neutron activation of the materials during reactor operation. That methodology has been extended to K-reactor, L-reactor, and C-reactor. The analysis was performed to provide a best-estimate source term input to the Performance Assessment for an in-situ disposition strategy by Site Decommissioning and Demolition (SDD). The reactor structure model developed earlier for the P-reactor and R-reactor analyses was also used for the K-reactor and L-reactor. The model was suitably modified to handle the larger Creactor tank and associated structures. For all reactors, the structure model consisted of 3 annular zones, homogenized by the amount of structural materials in the zone, and 5 horizontal layers. The curie content on an individual radioisotope basis and total basis for each of the regions was determined. A summary of these results are provided herein. The efficacy of this methodology to accurately predict the radioisotopic content of the reactor systems in question has been demonstrated and is documented in Reference 1. As noted in that report, results for one reactor facility cannot be directly extrapolated to other SRS reactors.

  7. Radiological bioconcentration factors for aquatic, terrestrial, and wetland ecosystems at the Savannah River site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friday, G.P.; Cummins, C.L.; Schwartzman, A.L.

    1996-12-31

    Since the early 1950s, the Savannah River Site (SRS) released over 50 radionuclides into the environment while producing nuclear defense materials. These releases directly exposed aquatic and terrestrial biota to ionizing radiation from surface water, soil, and sediment, and also indirectly by the ingestion of items in the food chain. As part of new missions to develop waste management strategies and identify cost-effective environmental restoration options, knowledge concerning the uptake and distribution of these radionuclides is essential. This report compiles and summarizes site-specific bioconcentration factors for selected radionuclides released at SRS.

  8. 75 FR 65466 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Savannah River Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Double Tree Hotel, 2651 Perimeter Parkway, Augusta, GA 30909. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Gerri... Updates Public Comment Session Chair and Facilitator Updates Facility Disposition and Site Remediation... business. Individuals wishing to make public comments will be provided a maximum of five minutes to present...

  9. Feasibility determination of low head hydroelectric power development at existing sites: Mousam River Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of low head hydroelectric power development at existing sites along the Mousam River in southeastern Maine was studied. The following areas were investigated: determination of available energy; development of restoration concepts; environmental studies; historical and archeological studies; assessment of civil construction requirements; geotechnical and geologic assessment of existing dams; assessment of turbine alternatives; assessment of generator and utility interface alternatives; economic analysis; and restoration concept evaluation and selection. The results of the hydropower evaluation showed that: of the seven sites evaluated, only four can be considered economically feasible for refurbishment at this time; the use of used and/or rebuilt equipment is more economically attractive than new equipment; the cost of equipment at each site was of the same order as the cost of the dam reconstruction; and the cost of fuel prices will be the determining feature of whether the sites should be reconstructed.

  10. Assessment of susceptibility of Type 304 stainless steel to intergranular stress corrosion cracking in simulated Savannah River Reactor environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ondrejcin, R.S.; Caskey, C.R. Jr.

    1989-12-01

    Intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of Type 304 stainless steel rate tests (CERT) of specimens machined was evaluated by constant extension from Savannah River Plant (SRP) decontaminated process water piping. Results from 12 preliminary CERT tests verified that IGSCC occurred over a wide range of simulated SRP envirorments. 73 specimens were tested in two statistical experimental designs of the central composite class. In one design, testing was done in environments containing hydrogen peroxide; in the other design, hydrogen peroxide was omitted but oxygen was added to the environment. Prediction equations relating IGSCC to temperature and environmental variables were formulated. Temperature was the most important independent variable. IGSCC was severe at 100 to 120C and a threshold temperature between 40C and 55C was identified below which IGSCC did not occur. In environments containing hydrogen peroxide, as in SRP operation, a reduction in chloride concentration from 30 to 2 ppB also significantly reduced IGSCC. Reduction in sulfate concentration from 50 to 7 ppB was effective in reducing IGSCC provided the chloride concentration was 30 ppB or less and temperature was 95C or higher. Presence of hydrogen peroxide in the environment increased IGSCC except when chloride concentration was 11 ppB or less. Actual concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, oxygen and carbon dioxide did not affect IGSCC. Large positive ECP values (+450 to +750 mV Standard Hydrogen Electrode (SHE)) in simulated SRP environments containing hydrogen peroxide and were good agreement with ECP measurements made in SRP reactors, indicating that the simulated environments are representative of SRP reactor environments. Overall CERT results suggest that the most effective method to reduce IGSCC is to reduce chloride and sulfate concentrations.

  11. Assessment of susceptibility of Type 304 stainless steel to intergranular stress corrosion cracking in simulated Savannah River Reactor environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ondrejcin, R.S.; Caskey, C.R. Jr.

    1989-12-01

    Intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of Type 304 stainless steel rate tests (CERT) of specimens machined was evaluated by constant extension from Savannah River Plant (SRP) decontaminated process water piping. Results from 12 preliminary CERT tests verified that IGSCC occurred over a wide range of simulated SRP envirorments. 73 specimens were tested in two statistical experimental designs of the central composite class. In one design, testing was done in environments containing hydrogen peroxide; in the other design, hydrogen peroxide was omitted but oxygen was added to the environment. Prediction equations relating IGSCC to temperature and environmental variables were formulated. Temperature was the most important independent variable. IGSCC was severe at 100 to 120C and a threshold temperature between 40C and 55C was identified below which IGSCC did not occur. In environments containing hydrogen peroxide, as in SRP operation, a reduction in chloride concentration from 30 to 2 ppB also significantly reduced IGSCC. Reduction in sulfate concentration from 50 to 7 ppB was effective in reducing IGSCC provided the chloride concentration was 30 ppB or less and temperature was 95C or higher. Presence of hydrogen peroxide in the environment increased IGSCC except when chloride concentration was 11 ppB or less. Actual concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, oxygen and carbon dioxide did not affect IGSCC. Large positive ECP values (+450 to +750 mV Standard Hydrogen Electrode (SHE)) in simulated SRP environments containing hydrogen peroxide and were good agreement with ECP measurements made in SRP reactors, indicating that the simulated environments are representative of SRP reactor environments. Overall CERT results suggest that the most effective method to reduce IGSCC is to reduce chloride and sulfate concentrations.

  12. Cavitation and two-phase flow characteristics of SRPR (Savannah River Plant Reactor) pump. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-01

    The possible head degradation of the SRPR pumps may be attributable to two independent phenomena, one due to the inception of cavitation and the other due to the two-phase flow phenomena. The head degradation due to the appearance of cavitation on the pump blade is hardly likely in the conventional pressurized water reactor (PWR) since the coolant circulating line is highly pressurized so that the cavitation is difficult to occur even at LOCA (loss of coolant accident) conditions. On the other hand, the suction pressure of SRPR pump is order-of-magnitude smaller than that of PWR so that the cavitation phenomena, may prevail, should LOCA occur, depending on the extent of LOCA condition. In this study, therefore, both cavitation phenomena and two-phase flow phenomena were investigated for the SRPR pump by using various analytical tools and the numerical results are presented herein.

  13. Demonstration of innovative monitoring technologies at the Savannah River Integrated Demonstration Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossabi, J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Jenkins, R.A.; Wise, M.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1993-12-31

    The Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development initiated an Integrated Demonstration Program at the Savannah River Site in 1989. The objective of this program is to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate innovative technologies that can improve present-day environmental restoration methods. The Integrated Demonstration Program at SRS is entitled ``Cleanup of Organics in Soils and Groundwater at Non-Arid Sites.`` New technologies in the areas of drilling, characterization, monitoring, and remediation are being demonstrated and evaluated for their technical performance and cost effectiveness in comparison with baseline technologies. Present site characterization and monitoring methods are costly, time-consuming, overly invasive, and often imprecise. Better technologies are required to accurately describe the subsurface geophysical and geochemical features of a site and the nature and extent of contamination. More efficient, nonintrusive characterization and monitoring techniques are necessary for understanding and predicting subsurface transport. More reliable procedures are also needed for interpreting monitoring and characterization data. Site characterization and monitoring are key elements in preventing, identifying, and restoring contaminated sites. The remediation of a site cannot be determined without characterization data, and monitoring may be required for 30 years after site closure.

  14. Savannah River Site nuclear materials management plan FY 2017-2031

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magoulas, V. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-22

    The purpose of the Nuclear Materials Management Plan (herein referred to as “this Plan”) is to integrate and document the activities required to disposition the legacy and/or surplus Enriched Uranium (EU) and Plutonium (Pu) and other nuclear materials already stored or anticipated to be received by facilities at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) as well as the activities to support the DOE Tritium mission. It establishes a planning basis for EU and Pu processing operations in Environmental Management Operations (EMO) facilities through the end of their program missions and for the tritium through the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Defense Programs (DP) facilities. Its development is a joint effort among the Department of Energy - Savannah River (DOE-SR), DOE – Environmental Management (EM), NNSA Office of Material Management and Minimization (M3), NNSA Savannah River Field Office (SRFO), and the Management and Operations (M&O) contractor, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC (SRNS). Life-cycle program planning for Nuclear Materials Stabilization and Disposition and the Tritium Enterprise may use this Plan as a basis for the development of the nuclear materials disposition scope and schedule. This Plan assumes full funding to accomplish the required project and operations activities. It is recognized that some aspects of this Plan are pre decisional with regard to National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA); in such cases new NEPA actions will be required.

  15. Thermal and physical property determination for IONSIV/256 IE-911 crystalline silicotitanate and Savannah River Site waste simulant solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-08

    This document describes physical and thermophysical property determinations that were made in order to resolve questions associated with the decontamination of Savannah River Site waste streams using ion exchange on crystalline silicotitanate.

  16. Reactor service life extension program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, G.R.; Sindelar, R.L.; Ondrejcin, R.S.; Baumann, E.W.

    1990-12-31

    A review of the Savannah River Site production reactor systems was initiated in 1980 and led to implementation of the Reactor Materials Program in 1984 to assess reactor safety and reactor service life. The program evaluated performance of the reactor tanks, primary coolant piping, and thermal shields, components of welded construction that were fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel. The structural integrity analysis of the primary coolant system has shown that the pressure boundary is not susceptible to gross rupture, including a double ended guillotine break or equivalent large area bank. Residual service life is potentially limited by two material degradation modes, irradiation damage and intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Analysis of the structural integrity of the tanks and piping has shown that continued safe operation of the reactors for several additional decades is not limited by the material performance of the primary coolant system. Although irradiation damage has not degraded material behavior to an unacceptable level, past experience has revealed serious difficulties with repair welding on irradiated stainless steel. Stress corrosion can be mitigated by newly identified limits on impurity concentrations in the coolant water and by stress mitigation of weld residual stresses. Work continues in several areas: the effects of helium on mechanical behavior of irradiated stainless steel; improved weld methods for piping and the reactor tanks; and a surveillance program to track irradiation effects on the tank walls.

  17. Reactor service life extension program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, G.R.; Sindelar, R.L.; Ondrejcin, R.S.; Baumann, E.W.

    1990-01-01

    A review of the Savannah River Site production reactor systems was initiated in 1980 and led to implementation of the Reactor Materials Program in 1984 to assess reactor safety and reactor service life. The program evaluated performance of the reactor tanks, primary coolant piping, and thermal shields, components of welded construction that were fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel. The structural integrity analysis of the primary coolant system has shown that the pressure boundary is not susceptible to gross rupture, including a double ended guillotine break or equivalent large area bank. Residual service life is potentially limited by two material degradation modes, irradiation damage and intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Analysis of the structural integrity of the tanks and piping has shown that continued safe operation of the reactors for several additional decades is not limited by the material performance of the primary coolant system. Although irradiation damage has not degraded material behavior to an unacceptable level, past experience has revealed serious difficulties with repair welding on irradiated stainless steel. Stress corrosion can be mitigated by newly identified limits on impurity concentrations in the coolant water and by stress mitigation of weld residual stresses. Work continues in several areas: the effects of helium on mechanical behavior of irradiated stainless steel; improved weld methods for piping and the reactor tanks; and a surveillance program to track irradiation effects on the tank walls.

  18. BIOTIC INTEGRITY OF STREAMS IN THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INTEGRATOR OPERABLE UNITS, 1996 TO 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M; Susan Dyer, S

    2004-11-08

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been divided into six Integrator Operable Units (IOUs) that correspond to the watersheds of the five major streams on the SRS (Upper Three Runs, Fourmile Branch, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs) and the portions of the Savannah River and Savannah River Swamp associated with the SRS. The streams are the primary integrators within each IOU because they potentially receive, through surface or subsurface drainage, soluble contaminants from all waste sites within their watersheds. If these contaminants reach biologically significant levels, they would be expected to effect the numbers, types, and health of stream organisms. In this study, biological sampling was conducted within each IOU as a measure of the cumulative ecological effects of the waste sites within the IOUs. The use of information from biological sampling to assess environmental quality is often termed bioassessment. The IOU bioassessment program included 38 sites in SRS streams and nine sites in the Savannah River. Sampling was conducted in 1996 to 1998, 2000, and 2003. Four bioassessment methods were used to evaluate ecological conditions in the IOU streams: the Index of Biotic Integrity, the Fish Health Assessment Index, measurement of fish tissue contaminant levels, and two benthic macroinvertebrate indices. The Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) is an EPA supported method based on comparison of ecologically important and sensitive fish assemblage variables between potentially disturbed and reference (i.e., undisturbed) sites. It is designed to assess the ability of a stream to support a self-sustaining biological community and ecological processes typical of undisturbed, natural conditions. Since many types of contaminants can bioaccumulate, fish tissue contaminant data were used to determine the types of chemicals fish were exposed to and their relative magnitudes among IOUs. The Fish Health Assessment Index (HAI) is an EPA supported method for assessing

  19. REACTOR GROUT THERMAL PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimke, J.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Guerrero, H.

    2011-01-28

    Savannah River Site has five dormant nuclear production reactors. Long term disposition will require filling some reactor buildings with grout up to ground level. Portland cement based grout will be used to fill the buildings with the exception of some reactor tanks. Some reactor tanks contain significant quantities of aluminum which could react with Portland cement based grout to form hydrogen. Hydrogen production is a safety concern and gas generation could also compromise the structural integrity of the grout pour. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a non-Portland cement grout to fill reactors that contain significant quantities of aluminum. Grouts generate heat when they set, so the potential exists for large temperature increases in a large pour, which could compromise the integrity of the pour. The primary purpose of the testing reported here was to measure heat of hydration, specific heat, thermal conductivity and density of various reactor grouts under consideration so that these properties could be used to model transient heat transfer for different pouring strategies. A secondary purpose was to make qualitative judgments of grout pourability and hardened strength. Some reactor grout formulations were unacceptable because they generated too much heat, or started setting too fast, or required too long to harden or were too weak. The formulation called 102H had the best combination of characteristics. It is a Calcium Alumino-Sulfate grout that contains Ciment Fondu (calcium aluminate cement), Plaster of Paris (calcium sulfate hemihydrate), sand, Class F fly ash, boric acid and small quantities of additives. This composition afforded about ten hours of working time. Heat release began at 12 hours and was complete by 24 hours. The adiabatic temperature rise was 54 C which was within specification. The final product was hard and displayed no visible segregation. The density and maximum particle size were within specification.

  20. Establishing Specifications for Low Enriched Uranium Fuel Operations Conducted Outside the High Flux Isotope Reactor Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkston, Daniel [ORNL; Primm, Trent [ORNL; Renfro, David G [ORNL; Sease, John D [ORNL

    2010-10-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has funded staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to study the conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from the current, high enriched uranium fuel to low enriched uranium fuel. The LEU fuel form is a metal alloy that has never been used in HFIR or any HFIR-like reactor. This report provides documentation of a process for the creation of a fuel specification that will meet all applicable regulations and guidelines to which UT-Battelle, LLC (UTB) the operating contractor for ORNL - must adhere. This process will allow UTB to purchase LEU fuel for HFIR and be assured of the quality of the fuel being procured.

  1. Partially Enriched U235 for Use as Fuel in Off-Site Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, C. E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1953-08-10

    This is in reply to the memorandum of July 21, 1953, from R.W. Cook to S.R. Sapirie, requesting opinions on several questions involved in substituting uranium of low enrichment for the highly enriched material now used in the active lattice of the reactor in the Bulk Shielding Facility. The numbered paragraphs below correspond to the numbered paragraphs in Mr. Cook's memorandum.

  2. Population Sensitivity Evaluation of Two Proposed Hampton Roads Area Sites for a Possible Small Modular Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belles, R. J. [ORNL; Omitaomu, O. A. [ORNL

    2014-08-01

    The overall objective of this research project is to use the OR-SAGE tool to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) in evaluating future electrical generation deployment options for small modular reactors (SMRs) in areas with significant energy demand from the federal sector. Deployment of SMRs in zones with high federal energy use can provide a means of meeting federal clean energy goals.

  3. Preliminary Review of Safety Assessment Issues at Savannah River Site, August 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Bixler, Nathan E.

    2011-09-19

    At the request of Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS) management, a review team composed of experts in atmospheric transport modeling for environmental radiation dose assessment convened at the Savannah River Site (SRS) on August 29-30, 2011. Several issues were presented at the meeting for discussion. This is a short summary that is organized in accordance with the primary issues discussed, which is not necessarily a chronological record. Issues include: SRS Meteorological Data and its Use in MACCS2; Deposition Velocities for Particles; Deposition Velocities for Tritium; MACCS2 Dispersion Coefficients; Use of Low Surface Roughness in Open Areas; Adequacy of Meteorological Tower and Instrumentation; Displacement Height; and Validity of MACCS2 Calculations at Close-in Distances. A longer report will be issued at a later date that expands upon these topics and recommendations.

  4. Preliminary Review of Safety Assessment Issues at Savannah River Site, August 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Bixler, Nathan E.

    2011-09-19

    At the request of Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS) management, a review team composed of experts in atmospheric transport modeling for environmental radiation dose assessment convened at the Savannah River Site (SRS) on August 29-30, 2011. Several issues were presented at the meeting for discussion. This is a short summary that is organized in accordance with the primary issues discussed, which is not necessarily a chronological record. Issues include: SRS Meteorological Data and its Use in MACCS2; Deposition Velocities for Particles; Deposition Velocities for Tritium; MACCS2 Dispersion Coefficients; Use of Low Surface Roughness in Open Areas; Adequacy of Meteorological Tower and Instrumentation; Displacement Height; and Validity of MACCS2 Calculations at Close-in Distances. A longer report will be issued at a later date that expands upon these topics and recommendations.

  5. Lightning protection for the process canyons at the Savannah River site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAfee, D.E.

    1995-12-31

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has performed Lightning Studies for the existing Process Canyons at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These studies were initiated to verify the lightning protection systems for the facilities and to compare the installations to the National Fire Protection (NFPA) Standard 780, Lighting Protection Code, 1992. The original study of the F-Canyon was initiated to develop answers to concerns raised by the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB). Once this study was completed it was determined that a similar study for H-Canyon would be prudent; followed by an evaluation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Vitrification Building (S-Canyon). This paper will provide an overview of the nature of lightning and the principals of lightning protection. This will provide the reader with a basic understanding of the phenomena of lighting and its potential for damaging structures, components, and injuring personnel in or near the structure.

  6. Hydrogeology and Physical Characteristics of Water Samples at the Red River Aluminum Site, Stamps, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, J. B.; Stanton, G. P.; Freiwald, D. A.

    2001-12-01

    The Red River Aluminum site near Stamps, Arkansas, contains waste piles of salt cake and metal byproducts from the smelting of aluminum. The waste piles are subjected to about 50 inches of rainfall a year, resulting in the dissolution of the salts and metal. To assess the potential threat to underlying ground-water resources at the site, its hydrogeology was characterized by measuring water levels and field parameters of water quality in 23 wells and at 2 surface-water sites. Seventeen of these monitor wells were constructed at various depths for this study to allow for the separate characterization of the shallow and deep ground-water systems, the calculation of vertical gradients, and the collection of water samples at different depths within the flow system. Lithologic descriptions from drill-hole cuttings and geophysical logs indicate the presence of interbedded sands, gravels, silts, and clays to depths of 65 feet. The regionally important Sparta aquifer underlies the site. Water levels in shallow wells indicate radial flow away from the salt-cake pile located near the center of the site. Flow in the deep system is to the west and southwest toward Bodcau Creek. Water-level data from eight piezometer nests indicate a downward hydraulic gradient from the shallow to deep systems across the site. Values of specific conductance (an indicator of dissolved salts) ranged from 215 to 196,200 microsiemens per centimeter and indicate that saline waters are being transported horizontally and vertically downward away from the site.

  7. Raccoon (Procyon lotor) as a bioindicator of mercury contamination at the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, C.G.; Gaines, K.F.; Boring, C.S.; Brisbin, L.L.; Gochfeld, M.; Burger, J. [Environmental & Occupational Health Science Institute, Piscataway, NJ (USA). Consortium Risk Evaluation and Stakeholder Participation

    2002-07-01

    Raccoons were collected from the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) and from public hunting areas. Raccoons were collected near a stream drainage system (Steel Creek delta) and a former reactor-cooling reservoir (pond 13) that received inputs of mercury-contaminated Savannah River water. Mercury concentrations were determined for hair, liver, kidney, muscle, and spleen tissues. Samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CVAAS). Raccoons were also collected from a natural stream floodplain system (Upper Three Runs/Tinker Creek) located upstream of Hg use and storage areas and near coal ash basins. These samples were compared to samples collected from off-site hunting areas near the SRS. Hg concentrations between internal tissues were significantly correlated. Hair did not correlate well with internal tissue and was a weak indicator of raccoon exposure to Hg. Nonetheless, raccoons are potentially good indicators of Hg contamination because tissue concentrations were higher in raccoons from areas with known Hg input than in those from reference areas, and muscle biopsies can be used as biomarkers for contaminant exposure.

  8. Removal Site Evaluation Report to the C-Reactor Seepage Basins (904-066, -067 and -068G)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Removal Site Evaluation Reports are prepared in accordance with Section 300.410 of the National Contingency Plan (NCP) and Section X of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA). The C-Reactor Seepage Basins (904-066G,-067G,-068G) are listed in Appendix C, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)/Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Units List, of the FFA. The purpose of this investigation is to report information concerning conditions at this unit sufficient to assess the threat (if any) posed to human health and the environment and to determine the need for additional CERCLA action. The scope of the investigation included a review of past survey and investigation data, the files, and a visit to the unit.Through this investigation unacceptable conditions of radioactive contaminant uptake in on-site vegetation were identified. This may have resulted in probable contaminant migration and become introduced into the local ecological food chain. As a result, the SRS will initiate a time critical removal action in accordance with Section 300.415 of the NCP and FFA Section XIV to remove, treat (if required), and dispose of contaminated vegetation from the C-Reactor Seepage Basins. Erosion in the affected areas will be managed by an approved erosion control plan. further remediation of this unit will be conducted in accordance with the FFA.

  9. Long Term Remote Monitoring of TCE Contaminated Groundwater at Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, C.; Gudavalli, R.; Lagos, L.; Tansel, B.; Varona, J.; Allen, M.

    2004-10-06

    The purpose of this study was to develop a mobile self powered remote monitoring system enhanced for field deployment at Savannah River Site (SRS). The system used a localized power source with solar recharging and has wireless data collection, analysis, transmission, and data management capabilities. The prototype was equipped with a Hydrolab's DataSonde 4a multi-sensor array package managed by a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system, with an adequate pumping capacity of water samples for sampling and analysis of Trichloroethylene (TCE) in contaminated groundwater wells at SRS. This paper focuses on a study and technology development efforts conducted at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU) to automate the sampling of contaminated wells with a multi-sensor array package developed using COTS (Commercial Off The shelf) parts. Bladder pumps will pump water from different wells to the sensors array, water quality TCE indicator parameters are measured (i.e. pH, redox, ORP, DO, NO3 -, Cl-). In order to increase user access and data management, the system was designed to be accessible over the Internet. Remote users can take sample readings and collect data remotely over a web. Results obtained at Florida International University in-house testing and at a field deployment at the Savannah River Site indicate that this long term monitoring technique can be a feasible solution for the sampling of TCE indicator parameters at remote contaminated sites.

  10. Environment and Economic Activity of the Pestretsy 2 Site Inhabitants on the Mesha River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galimova Madina Sh.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary results of integrated archaeological and paleo-ecological research in the multilayer site Pestretsy 2 on the Mesha river (Middle Volga region are discussed in the article. As a result of geology and geomorphology studies, it was found that cultural layers of the Bronze and Early Iron Ages occurred in the buried soil complex, which was coated by river fresh deposits formed in 19th–20th centuries. According paleo-geography data, the site was situated on elevated plot in the lake-marsh basin, the basin, which radiocarbon age is about 4 thousand years ago. The site seems to be the remnants of the Late Bronze long-term settlement (at least in excavated part belonging to so called Zaymishche cultural type as shown by stratigraphy, planigraphy and stone artifacts data. The shouldered arrowhead with barbs and triangular stem of the Seyma type found in this layer allows us to refer it to the 18th–16thth centuries. As for the subsequent Ananyino and Azelino cultural layers, they were apparently short-term camps. Numerous faunal remains studied using archaeo-zoological methods, demonstrated animal husbandry practice houses adjoining (so called “forest” type combined with highly developed hunting and seasonal fishing. Use-wear analysis of stone inventory confirms the authors conclusion.

  11. Environmental Assessment for the new Whole Body Counter facility at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy proposes to construct and operate a new in-vivo counting facility at the Savannah River Site for the monitoring of employees for internal radionuclides. The proposed facility, titled the new Whole Body Counter (WBC) facility, would house both the existing and additional new invivo counting equipment and facility support operations. The proposed facility would be sited and located in an area of the SRS in which background radiation levels are sufficiently low to assure accurate in-vivo counts and a location that would assure ease of access for occupational workers. This Environmental Assessment has been prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended, and the requirements of the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing NEPA (40 CPR Parts 1500-1508). NEPA requires the assessment of environmental consequences of Federal actions that may affect the quality of the human environment. The proposed action has independent utility to the Savannah River operations and will be necessary to support plant activities regardless of the makeup of the future mission at the site. As such, the proposed new WBC facility is treated as part of the preliminary Reconfiguration Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement ``No Action`` alternative.

  12. TRITIUM UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS FOR SURFACE WATER SAMPLES AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, R.

    2012-07-31

    Radiochemical analyses of surface water samples, in the framework of Environmental Monitoring, have associated uncertainties for the radioisotopic results reported. These uncertainty analyses pertain to the tritium results from surface water samples collected at five locations on the Savannah River near the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). Uncertainties can result from the field-sampling routine, can be incurred during transport due to the physical properties of the sample, from equipment limitations, and from the measurement instrumentation used. The uncertainty reported by the SRS in their Annual Site Environmental Report currently considers only the counting uncertainty in the measurements, which is the standard reporting protocol for radioanalytical chemistry results. The focus of this work is to provide an overview of all uncertainty components associated with SRS tritium measurements, estimate the total uncertainty according to ISO 17025, and to propose additional experiments to verify some of the estimated uncertainties. The main uncertainty components discovered and investigated in this paper are tritium absorption or desorption in the sample container, HTO/H{sub 2}O isotopic effect during distillation, pipette volume, and tritium standard uncertainty. The goal is to quantify these uncertainties and to establish a combined uncertainty in order to increase the scientific depth of the SRS Annual Site Environmental Report.

  13. [Radiation ecological environment in the Republic of Kazakhstan in the vicinity of the reactors and on the territory of the Semipalatinsk Test Site].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D S

    2012-01-01

    The results of research into the environmental conditions in the regions of location of the pressurized water reactor WWR-K, fast neutron breeder BN-350 and on the territory of the Semipalatinsk Test Site are represented. The effects of the exposure to aerosol emissions from WWR-K and BN-350 reactors on the environment are summarized. We present some arguments in favor of the safe operation of fission reactors in compliance with the rules and norms of nuclear and radiation protection and the efficient disposal of radioactive waste on the territory of the Republic.

  14. Insect community structure and function in Upper Three Runs, Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, J.C.; English, W.R. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Entomology; Looney, B.B. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-07-08

    A project to document the insect species in the upper reaches of Upper Three Runs at the Savannah River site was recently completed. This research was supported by the US Department of Energy under the National Environmental Research Park Program. The work was performed by the Department of Entomology at Clemson University in clemson, SC, by John C. Morse (principal investigator), William R. English and their colleagues. The major output from this study was the dissertation of Dr. William R. English entitled ``Ecosystem Dynamics of a South Carolina Sandhills Stream.`` He investigated selected environmental resources and determined their dynamics and the dynamics of the aquatic invertebrate community structure in response to them.

  15. Clay Cap Test Program for the Mixed Waste Management Facility closure at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, J.W. (Main (Charles T.), Inc., Charlotte, NC (USA))

    1989-01-01

    A 58 acre low-level radioactive waste disposal facility at the Savannah River Site, a Department of Energy facility near Aiken, South Carolina, requires closure with a RCRA clay cap. A three-foot thick can requiring 300,000 cubic yards of local Tertiary Kaolin clay with an in-situ permeability of less than or equal to 1 {times} 10{sup -7} centimeters per second is to be constructed. The Clay Cap Test Program was conducted to evaluate the source, lab permeability, in-situ permeability, compaction characteristics, representative kaolin clays from the Aiken, SC vicinity. 11 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Independent Technical Review of In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    An Independent Technical Review of In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) and Extended Sludge Processing (ESP) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) was carried out in March, 1993. The review focused on ITP/ESP equipment and chemical processes, integration of ITP/ESP within the High Level Waste (HLW) and Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) systems, and management and regulatory concerns. Following the ITR executive summary, this report includes: Chapter I--summary assessment; Chapter II--recommendations; and Chapter III--technical evaluations.

  17. Corrosion Control Measures For Liquid Radioactive Waste Storage Tanks At The Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B. J.; Subramanian, K. H.

    2012-11-27

    The Savannah River Site has stored radioactive wastes in large, underground, carbon steel tanks for approximately 60 years. An assessment of potential degradation mechanisms determined that the tanks may be vulnerable to nitrate- induced pitting corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. Controls on the solution chemistry and temperature of the wastes are in place to mitigate these mechanisms. These controls are based upon a series of experiments performed using simulated solutions on materials used for construction of the tanks. The technical bases and evolution of these controls is presented in this paper.

  18. Savannah River Site Interim Waste Management Program Plan FY 1991--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavis, D.M.

    1992-05-01

    The primary purpose of the Waste Management Program Plan is to provide an annual report of how Waste Management`s operations are conducted, what facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, and what plans are in store for the coming fiscal year. In addition, this document projects activities for several years beyond the coming fiscal year in order to adequately plan for safe handling, storage, and disposal of radioactive wastes generated at the Savannah River Site and for developing technology for improved management of wastes. In this document, work descriptions and milestone schedules are current as of December 1991.

  19. Savannah River Site Interim Waste Management Program Plan FY 1991--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavis, D.M.

    1992-05-01

    The primary purpose of the Waste Management Program Plan is to provide an annual report of how Waste Management's operations are conducted, what facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, and what plans are in store for the coming fiscal year. In addition, this document projects activities for several years beyond the coming fiscal year in order to adequately plan for safe handling, storage, and disposal of radioactive wastes generated at the Savannah River Site and for developing technology for improved management of wastes. In this document, work descriptions and milestone schedules are current as of December 1991.

  20. Determination of fast neutron flux distribution in irradiation sites of the Malaysian Nuclear Agency research reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavar, A R; Sarmani, S B; Wood, A K; Fadzil, S M; Radir, M H; Khoo, K S

    2011-05-01

    Determination of thermal to fast neutron flux ratio (f(fast)) and fast neutron flux (ϕ(fast)) is required for fast neutron reactions, fast neutron activation analysis, and for correcting interference reactions. The f(fast) and subsequently ϕ(fast) were determined using the absolute method. The f(fast) ranged from 48 to 155, and the ϕ(fast) was found in the range 1.03×10(10)-4.89×10(10) n cm(-2) s(-1). These values indicate an acceptable conformity and applicable for installation of the fast neutron facility at the MNA research reactor.

  1. SAVANNAH RIVER TECHNOLOGY CENTER MONTHLY REPORT AUGUST 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M.

    1999-06-21

    'This monthly report summarizes Programs and Accomplishments of the Savannah River Technology Center in support of activities at the Savannah River Site. The following categories are addressed: Reactor, Tritium, Separations, Environmental, Waste Management, General, and Items of Interest.'

  2. Natural resource management activities at the Savannah River Site. Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) reviews the environmental consequences of ongoing natural resource management activities on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Appendix A contains the Natural Resources Management Plant (NRMP). While several SRS organizations have primary responsibilities for different elements of the plan, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, Savannah River Forest Station (SRFS) is responsible for most elements. Of the river scenarios defined in 1985, the High-Intensity Management alternative established the upper bound of environmental consequences; it represents a more intense level of resource management than that being performed under current resource management activities. This alternative established compliance mechanisms for several natural resource-related requirements and maximum practical timber harvesting. Similarly, the Low-Intensity Management alternative established the lower bound of environmental consequences and represents a less intense level of resource management than that being performed under current resource management activities. This alternative also established compliance mechanisms, but defined a passively managed natural area. The Proposed Action of this EA describes the current level of multiple-natural resource management. This EA reviews the proposed action, and the high and low intensity alternative scenarios.

  3. Effective Half-Life of Caesium-137 in Various Environmental Media at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M. H.; Jannik, G. T.; Baker, R. A.

    2014-05-01

    During the operational history of the Savannah River Site (SRS), many different radionuclides have been released from site facilities into the SRS environment. However, only a relatively small number of pathways, most importantly 137Cs in fish and deer, have contributed significantly to doses and risks to the public. The “effective” half-lives (Te) of 137Cs (which include both physical decay and environmental dispersion) in Savannah River floodplain soil and vegetation and in fish and white-tailed deer from the SRS were estimated using long-term monitoring data. For 1974–2011, the Tes of 137Cs in Savannah River floodplain soil and vegetation were 17.0 years (95% CI = 14.2–19.9) and 13.4 years (95% CI = 10.8–16.0), respectively. These Tes were greater than in a previous study that used data collected only through 2005 as a likely result of changes in the flood regime of the Savannah River. Field analyses of 137Cs concentrations in deer collected during yearly controlled hunts at the SRS indicated an overall Te of 15.9 years (95% CI = 12.3–19.6) for 1965–2011; however, the Te for 1990–2011 was significantly shorter (11.8 years, 95% CI = 4.8–18.8) due to an increase in the rate of 137Cs removal. The shortest Tes were for fish in SRS streams and the Savannah River (3.5–9.0 years), where dilution and dispersal resulted in rapid 137Cs removal. Long-term data show that Tes are significantly shorter than the physical half-life of 137Cs in the SRS environment but that they can change over time. Therefore, it is desirable have a long period of record for calculating Tes and risky to extrapolate Tes beyond this period unless the processes governing 137Cs removal are clearly understood.

  4. The terrestrial carbon inventory on the Savannah River Site: Assessing the change in Carbon pools 1951-2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Zhaohua; Trettin, Carl, C.; Parresol, Bernard, R.

    2011-11-30

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has changed from an agricultural-woodland landscape in 1951 to a forested landscape during that latter half of the twentieth century. The corresponding change in carbon (C) pools associated land use on the SRS was estimated using comprehensive inventories from 1951 and 2001 in conjunction with operational forest management and monitoring data from the site.

  5. Seismic Hazard Characterization at the DOE Savannah River Site (SRS): Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savy, J.B.

    1994-06-24

    The purpose of the Seismic Hazard Characterization project for the Savannah River Site (SRS-SHC) is to develop estimates of the seismic hazard for several locations within the SRS. Given the differences in the geology and geotechnical characteristics at each location, the estimates of the seismic hazard are to allow for the specific local conditions at each site. Characterization of seismic hazard is a critical factor for the design of new facilities as well as for the review and potential retrofit of existing facilities at SRS. The scope of the SRS seismic hazard characterization reported in this document is limited to the Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA). The goal of the project is to provide seismic hazard estimates based on a state-of-the-art method which is consistent with developments and findings of several ongoing studies which are deemed to bring improvements in the state of the seismic hazard analyses.

  6. Dismantlement and decontamination of a plutonium-238 facility at the Savannah river site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.H.; Hootman, H.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Very little documented decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) experience exists on which to project cleanup costs and schedules for plutonium facilities at DOE sites. A plutonium-238 processing facility at Savannah River Site (SRS) has been undergoing D&D intermittently since 1984. Although this cleanup effort was not originally intended to quantify results, some key data have been accumulated, and the project has demonstrated effective methods of performing D&D work under conditions of high contamination. Some data is presented here; however, more specific tests and data may be obtained during the remainder of this project. This project has been recommended as a candidate test facility for a DOE planned {open_quotes}Integrated D&D Demonstration{close_quotes} managed by EM-50 to develop and demonstrate technology for D&D and surplus facilities deactivation.

  7. MOVING BEYOND PUMP AND TREAT TOWARD ENHANCED ATTENUATION AND COMBINED REMEDIES T-AREA, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B; Brian Riha, B; Warren Hyde, W; Jay Noonkester, J; Gerald Blount, G

    2008-04-03

    Groundwater beneath T-Area, a former laboratory and semiworks operation at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site, is contaminated by chlorinated solvents (cVOCs). Since the contamination was detected in the 1980s, the cVOCs at T-Area have been treated by a combination of soil vapor extraction and groundwater pump and treat. The site has received approval to discontinue the active treatments and implement a full scale test of enhanced attenuation--an engineering and regulatory strategy that has recently been developed by DOE and the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council. Enhanced attenuation uses active engineering solutions to alter the target site in such a way that the contaminant plume will passively stabilize and shrink and to document that the action will be effective, timely, and sustainable. The paradigm recognizes that attenuation remedies are fundamentally based on a mass balance. Thus, long-term plume dynamics can be altered either by reducing the contaminant loading from the source or by increasing the rate of natural attenuation processes within all, or part of, the plume volume. The combination of technologies that emerged for T-Area included: (1) neat (pure) vegetable oil deployment in the deep vadose zone in the former source area, (2) emulsified vegetable oil deployment within the footprint of the groundwater plume, and (3) identification of attenuation mechanisms and rates for the distal portion of the plume. In the first part, neat oil spreads laterally forming a thin layer on the water table to intercept and reduce future cVOC loading (via partitioning) and reduce oxygen inputs (via biostimulation). In the second and third parts, emulsified oil forms active bioremediation reactor zones within the plume footprint to degrade existing groundwater contamination (via reductive dechlorination) and stimulates long-term attenuation capacity in the distal plume (via cometabolism). For T-Area, the enhanced attenuation development

  8. Characterization of ecological risks at the Milltown Reservoir-Clark Fork River Sediments Superfund Site, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, Gary A.; Blanchet, Richard J.; Linder, Greg L.; Palawski, Don; Brumbaugh, William G.; Canfield, Tim J.; Kemble, Nile E.; Ingersoll, Chris G.; Farag, Aïda M.; DalSoglio, Julie A.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive field and laboratory approach to the ecological risk assessment for the Milltown Reservoir-Clark Fork River Sediments Site, a Superfund site in the Rocky Mountains of Montana, has been described in the preceding reports of this series. The risk assessment addresses concerns over the ecological impacts of upstream releases of mining wastes to fisheries of the upper Clark Fork River (CFR) and the benthic and terrestrial habitats further downstream in Milltown Reservoir. The risk characterization component of the process integrated results from a triad of information sources: (a) chemistry studies of environmental media to identify and quantify exposures of terrestrial and aquatic organisms to site-related contaminants; (b) ecological or population studies of terrestrial vegetation, birds, benthic communities, and fish; and (c) in situ and laboratory toxicity studies with terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates and plants, small mammals, amphibians, and fish exposed to contaminated surface water, sediments, wetland soils, and food sources. Trophic transfer studies were performed on waterfowl, mammals, and predatory birds using field measurement data on metals concentrations in environmental media and lower trophic food sources. Studies with sediment exposures were incorporated into the Sediment Quality Triad approach to evaluate risks to benthic ecology. Overall results of the wetland and terrestrial studies suggested that acute adverse biological effects were largely absent from the wetland; however, adverse effects to reproductive, growth, and physiological end points of various terrestrial and aquatic species were related to metals exposures in more highly contaminated depositional areas. Feeding studies with contaminated diet collected from the upper CFR indicated that trout are at high risk from elevated metals concentrations in surface water, sediment, and aquatic invertebrates. Integration of chemical analyses with toxicological and ecological

  9. Alternate particle removal technologies for the Airborne Activity Confinement System at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockmann, J.E.; Adkins, C.L.J.; Gelbard, F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1991-09-01

    This report presents a review of the filtration technologies available for the removal of particulate material from a gas stream. It was undertaken to identify alternate filtration technologies that may be employed in the Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS) at the Savannah River Plant. This report is organized into six sections: (1) a discussion of the aerosol source term and its definition, (2) a short discussion of particle and gaseous contaminant removal mechanisms, (3) a brief overview of particle removal technologies, (4) a discussion of the existing AACS and its potential shortcomings, (5) an enumeration of issues to be addressed in upgrading the AACS, and, (6) a detailed discussion of the identified technologies. The purpose of this report is to identity available options to the existing particle removal system. This system is in continuous operation during routine operation of the reactor. As will be seen, there are a number of options and the selection of any technology or combination of technologies will depend on the design aerosol source term (yet to be appropriately defined) as well as the flow requirements and configuration. This report does not select a specific technology. It focuses on particulate removal and qualitatively on the removal of radio-iodine and mist elimination. Candidate technologies have been selected from industrial and nuclear gas cleaning applications.

  10. Alternate particle removal technologies for the Airborne Activity Confinement System at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockmann, J.E.; Adkins, C.L.J.; Gelbard, F. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1991-09-01

    This report presents a review of the filtration technologies available for the removal of particulate material from a gas stream. It was undertaken to identify alternate filtration technologies that may be employed in the Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS) at the Savannah River Plant. This report is organized into six sections: (1) a discussion of the aerosol source term and its definition, (2) a short discussion of particle and gaseous contaminant removal mechanisms, (3) a brief overview of particle removal technologies, (4) a discussion of the existing AACS and its potential shortcomings, (5) an enumeration of issues to be addressed in upgrading the AACS, and, (6) a detailed discussion of the identified technologies. The purpose of this report is to identity available options to the existing particle removal system. This system is in continuous operation during routine operation of the reactor. As will be seen, there are a number of options and the selection of any technology or combination of technologies will depend on the design aerosol source term (yet to be appropriately defined) as well as the flow requirements and configuration. This report does not select a specific technology. It focuses on particulate removal and qualitatively on the removal of radio-iodine and mist elimination. Candidate technologies have been selected from industrial and nuclear gas cleaning applications.

  11. Geochronology and Geomorphology of the Pioneer Archaeological Site (10BT676), Upper Snake River Plain, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keene, Joshua L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The Pioneer site in southeastern Idaho, an open-air, stratified, multi-component archaeological locality on the upper Snake River Plain, provides an ideal situation for understanding the geomorphic history of the Big Lost River drainage system. We conducted a block excavation with the goal of understanding the geochronological context of both cultural and geomorphological components at the site. The results of this study show a sequence of five soil formation episodes forming three terraces beginning prior to 7200 cal yr BP and lasting until the historic period, preserving one cultural component dated to ~3800 cal yr BP and multiple components dating to the last 800 cal yr BP. In addition, periods of deposition and stability at Pioneer indicate climate fluctuation during the middle Holocene (~7200-3800 cal yr BP), minimal deposition during the late Holocene, and a period of increased deposition potentially linked to the Little Ice Age. In addition, evidence for a high-energy erosion event dated to ~3800 cal yr BP suggest a catastrophic flood event during the middle Holocene that may correlate with volcanic activity at the Craters of the Moon lava fields to the northwest. This study provides a model for the study of alluvial terrace formations in arid environments and their potential to preserve stratified archaeological deposits.

  12. Determination of fast neutron flux distribution in irradiation sites of the Malaysian Nuclear Agency research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavar, A.R. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, National University of Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Sarmani, S.B. [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, National University of Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Wood, A.K. [Analytical Chemistry Application Group, Industrial Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (MNA), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Fadzil, S.M. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, National University of Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Radir, M.H. [Analytical Chemistry Application Group, Industrial Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (MNA), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Khoo, K.S., E-mail: khoo@ukm.m [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, National University of Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-05-15

    Determination of thermal to fast neutron flux ratio (f{sub fast}) and fast neutron flux ({phi}{sub fast}) is required for fast neutron reactions, fast neutron activation analysis, and for correcting interference reactions. The f{sub fast} and subsequently {phi}{sub fast} were determined using the absolute method. The f{sub fast} ranged from 48 to 155, and the {phi}{sub fast} was found in the range 1.03x10{sup 10}-4.89x10{sup 10} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. These values indicate an acceptable conformity and applicable for installation of the fast neutron facility at the MNA research reactor.

  13. A Report of Archaeological Investigations at the Two Rivers Site (45BN14), at the Confluence of the Snake and Columbia Rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of Occupation Surfaces .. ....... .... 26S 41.5 Lithic Analysis of Cascade Components at .- the Two Rivers Site...91F mag. N. *-scraper F920 3.00 plan map TPI 1 05/ 10W 1614/OOWbottom of level 14 -3 3- N" N-...r.- ,-..... . ... . ...- 4.5 Lithic Analysis of Cascade

  14. Conditions and processes affecting sand resources at archeological sites in the Colorado River corridor below Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Amy E.; Collins, Brian D.; Sankey, Joel B.; Corbett, Skye C.; Fairley, Helen C.; Caster, Joshua

    2016-05-17

    This study examined links among fluvial, aeolian, and hillslope geomorphic processes that affect archeological sites and surrounding landscapes in the Colorado River corridor downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona. We assessed the potential for Colorado River sediment to enhance the preservation of river-corridor archeological resources through aeolian sand deposition or mitigation of gully erosion. By identifying locally prevailing wind directions, locations of modern sandbars, and likely aeolian-transport barriers, we determined that relatively few archeological sites are now ideally situated to receive aeolian sand supply from sandbars deposited by recent controlled floods. Whereas three-fourths of the 358 river-corridor archeological sites we examined include Colorado River sediment as an integral component of their geomorphic context, only 32 sites currently appear to have a high degree of connectivity (coupled interactions) between modern fluvial sandbars and sand-dominated landscapes downwind. This represents a substantial decrease from past decades, as determined by aerial-photograph analysis. Thus, we infer that recent controlled floods have had a limited, and declining, influence on archeological-site preservation.

  15. Evaluation of Suitability of Selected Set of Coal Plant Sites for Repowering with Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belles, Randy [ORNL; Copinger, Donald A [ORNL; Mays, Gary T [ORNL; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Poore III, Willis P [ORNL

    2013-03-01

    This report summarizes the approach that ORNL developed for screening a sample set of small coal stations for possible repowering with SMRs; the methodology employed, including spatial modeling; and initial results for these sample plants. The objective in conducting this type of siting evaluation is to demonstrate the capability to characterize specific sample coal plant sites to identify any particular issues associated with repowering existing coal stations with SMRs using OR-SAGE; it is not intended to be a definitive assessment per se as to the absolute suitability of any particular site.

  16. Thermal discharges from the Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.J.; Jacobsen, W.R.; Rabon, E.W.; Tilly, L.J.

    1972-09-01

    The nuclear production reactors at the AEC's Savannah River Plant, located by siting requirements, utilize on-site natural watercourses, swamps, and cooling water impoundments to dissipate heat in effluent cooling water. Stream-swamp cooling is the most efficient and economical cooling mechanism available to the two reactors presently using this method of heat dissipation. The effects on the Savannah River of high temperature water discharged from the reactors are thus minimized, and detrimental environmental consequences are confined to the plantsite. A large cooling water impoundment, which is currently being used to dissipate heat from one reactor, has furnished an extensive area for biological research into the effects on the aquatic community resulting from its varied thermal conditions.

  17. Mycorrhizal Fungal Community of Poplars Growing on Pyrite Tailings Contaminated Site near the River Timok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Katanić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Mycorrhizal fungi are of high importance for functioning of forest ecosystems and they could be used as indicators of environmental stress. The aim of this research was to analyze ectomycorrhizal community structure and to determine root colonization rate with ectomycorrhizal, arbuscular mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi of poplars growing on pyrite tailings contaminated site near the river Timok (Eastern Serbia. Materials and Methods: Identification of ectomycorrhizal types was performed by combining morphological and anatomical characterization of ectomycorrhizae with molecular identification approach, based on sequencing of the nuclear ITS rRNA region. Also, colonization of poplar roots with ectomycorrhizal, arbuscular mycorrhizal and dark septated endophytic fungi were analysed with intersection method. Results and Conclusions: Physico-chemical analyses of soil from studied site showed unfavourable water properties of soil, relatively low pH and high content of heavy metals (copper and zinc. In investigated samples only four different ectomycorrhizal fungi were found. To the species level were identified Thelephora terrestris and Tomentella ellisi, while two types remained unidentified. Type Thelephora terrestris made up 89% of all ectomycorrhizal roots on studied site. Consequently total values of Species richness index and Shannon-Weaver diversity index were 0.80 and 0.43, respectively. No structures of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were recorded. Unfavourable environmental conditions prevailing on investigated site caused decrease of ectomycorrhizal types diversity. Our findings point out that mycorrhyzal fungal community could be used as an appropriate indicator of environmental changes.

  18. DISTRIBUTION AND RANGE OF RADIONUCLIDE SORPTION COEFFICIENTS IN A SAVANNAH RIVER SITE SUBSURFACE: STOCHASTIC MODELING CONSIDERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, D.; et. al

    2010-01-11

    The uncertainty associated with the sorption coefficient, or K{sub d} value, is one of the key uncertainties in estimating risk associated with burying low-level nuclear waste in the subsurface. The objective of this study was to measure >648 K{sub d} values and provide a measure of the range and distribution (normal or log-normal) of radionuclide K{sub d} values appropriate for the E-Area disposal site, within the Savannah River Site, near Aiken South Carolina. The 95% confidence level for the mean K{sub d} was twice the mean in the Aquifer Zone (18-30.5 m depth), equal to the mean for the Upper Vadose Zone (3.3-10 m depth), and half the mean for the Lower Vadose Zone (3.10-18 m depth). The distribution of K{sub d} values was log normal in the Upper Vadose Zone and Aquifer Zone, and normal in the Lower Vadose Zone. To our knowledge, this is the first report of natural radionuclide Kd variability in the literature. Using ranges and distribution coefficients that are specific to the hydrostratigraphic unit improved model accuracy and reduced model uncertainty. Unfortunately, extension of these conclusions to other sites is likely not appropriate given that each site has its own sources of hydrogeological variability. However, this study provides one of the first examples of the development stochastic ranges and distributions of K{sub d} values for a hydrological unit for stochastic modeling.

  19. Hanford Site environmental data for calendar year 1994: Surface and Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1995-07-01

    Environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, is conducted by Battelle Memorial Institute, Pacific Northwest Division, as part of its contract to operate the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy. The data collected provide a historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels attributable to natural causes, worldwide fallout, and Hanford operations. Data are also collected to monitor several chemicals. Pacific Northwest Laboratory publishes an annual environmental report for the Hanford Site each calendar year. The Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1994 describes the Site mission and activities, general environmental features, radiological and chemical releases from operations, status of compliance with environmental regulations, status of programs to accomplish compliance, and environmental monitoring activities and results. The report includes a summary of offsite and onsite environmental monitoring data collected during 1994 b PNL`s Environmental Monitoring Program. Appendix A of that report contains data summaries created from raw surface and river monitoring data. This volume contains the actual raw data used to create the summaries.

  20. Impacts of glycolate and formate radiolysis and thermolysis on hydrogen generation rate calculations for the Savannah River Site tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-14

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) personnel requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluate available data and determine its applicability to defining the impact of planned glycolate anion additions to Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) on Tank Farm flammability (primarily with regard to H2 production). Flammability evaluations of formate anion, which is already present in SRS waste, were also needed. This report describes the impacts of glycolate and formate radiolysis and thermolysis on Hydrogen Generation Rate (HGR) calculations for the SRS Tank Farm.

  1. Persistence of uranium groundwater plumes: Contrasting mechanisms at two DOE sites in the groundwater-river interaction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachara, John M.; Long, Philip E.; Bargar, John; Davis, James A.; Fox, Patricia; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Freshley, Mark D.; Konopka, Allan E.; Liu, Chongxuan; McKinley, James P.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Yabusaki, Steve B.

    2013-04-01

    We examine subsurface uranium (U) plumes at two U.S. Department of Energy sites that are located near large river systems and are influenced by groundwater-river hydrologic interaction. Following surface excavation of contaminated materials, both sites were projected to naturally flush remnant uranium contamination to levels below regulatory limits (e.g., 30 μg/L or 0.126 μmol/L; U.S. EPA drinking water standard), with 10 years projected for the Hanford 300 Area (Columbia River) and 12 years for the Rifle site (Colorado River). The rate of observed uranium decrease was much lower than expected at both sites. While uncertainty remains, a comparison of current understanding suggests that the two sites have common, but also different mechanisms controlling plume persistence. At the Hanford 300 A, the persistent source is adsorbed U(VI) in the vadose zone that is released to the aquifer during spring water table excursions. The release of U(VI) from the vadose zone and its transport within the oxic, coarse-textured aquifer sediments is dominated by kinetically-limited surface complexation. Modeling implies that annual plume discharge volumes to the Columbia River are small (metal reducing bacteria are present at low natural abundance that are capable of enzymatic U(VI) reduction in localized zones of accumulated detrital organic carbon or after organic carbon amendment. Major differences between the sites include the geochemical nature of residual, contaminant U; the rates of current kinetic processes (both biotic and abiotic) influencing U(VI) solid-liquid distribution; the presence of detrital organic matter and the resulting spatial heterogeneity in microbially-driven redox properties; and the magnitude of groundwater hydrologic dynamics controlled by river-stage fluctuations, geologic structures, and aquifer hydraulic properties. The comparative analysis of these sites provides important guidance to the characterization, understanding, modeling, and remediation

  2. Streamflow and water-quality characteristics at selected sites of the St. Johns River in central Florida, 1933 to 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroening, Sharon E.

    2004-01-01

    To meet water-supply needs in central Florida for 2020, the St. Johns River is being considered as a source of water supply to augment ground water from the Floridan aquifer system. Current (2004) information on streamflow and water-quality characteristics of the St. Johns River in east-central Florida is needed by water resources planners to assess the feasibility of using the river as an alternate source of water supply and to design water treatment facilities. To address this need, streamflow and water quality of the 90-mile-long middle reach of the St. Johns River, Florida, from downstream of Lake Poinsett to near DeLand, were characterized by using retrospective (1991-99) and recently collected data (2000-02). Streamflow characteristics were determined by using data from water years 1933-2000. Water-quality characteristics were described using data from 1991-99 at 15 sites on the St. Johns River and 1 site each near the mouths of the Econlockhatchee and Wekiva Rivers. Data were augmented with biweekly water-quality data and continuous physical properties data at four St. Johns River sites and quarterly data from sites on the Wekiva River, Blackwater Creek, and downstream of Blue Springs from 2000-02. Water-quality constituents described were limited to information on physical properties, major ions and other inorganic constituents, nutrients, organic carbon, suspended solids, and phytoplankton chlorophyll-a. The occurrence of antibiotics, human prescription and nonprescription drugs, pesticides, and a suite of organic constituents, which may indicate domestic or industrial waste, were described at two St. Johns River sites using limited data collected in water years 2002-03. The occurrence of these same constituents in water from a pilot water treatment facility on Lake Monroe also was described using data from one sampling event conducted in March 2003. Dissolved oxygen concentration and water pH values in the St. Johns River were significantly lower during

  3. Department of Energy's High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR), September 15--19, 1980: An independent on-site safety review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    The intent of this on-site safety review was to make a broad management assessment of HFBR operations, rather than conduct a detailed in-depth audit. The result of the review should only be considered as having identified trends or indications. The Team's observations and recommendations for the most part are based upon licensed reactor facility practices used to meet industry standards. These standards form the basis for many of the comments in this report. The Team believes that a uniform minimum standard of performance should be achieved in the operation of DOE reactors. In order to assure that this is accomplished, clear standards are necessary. Consistent with the past AEC and ERDA policy, the team has used the standards of the commercial nuclear power industry. It is recognized that this approach is conservative in that the HFBR reactor has a significantly greater degree of inherent safety (low pressure, temperature, power, etc.) than a licensed reactor.

  4. Climate Change Projection for the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, D. W.

    2014-12-01

    As per recent Department of Energy (DOE) sustainability requirements, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is developing a climate projection for the DOE's Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, SC. This will comprise data from both a statistical and a dynamic downscaling process, each interpolated to the SRS. We require variables most relevant to operational activities at the site (such as the US Forest Service's forest management program), and select temperature, precipitation, wind, and humidity as being most relevant to energy and water resource requirements, fire and forest ecology, and facility and worker safety. We then develop projections of the means and extremes of these variables, estimate the effect on site operations, and develop long-term mitigation strategies. For example, given that outdoor work while wearing protective gear is a daily facet of site operations, heat stress is of primary importance to work planning, and we use the downscaled data to estimate changes in the occurrence of high temperatures. For the statistical downscaling, we use global climate model (GCM) data from the Climate Model Intercomparison Project, version 5 (CMIP-5), which was used in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). GCM data from five research groups was selected, and two climate change scenarios - RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 - are used with observed data from site instruments and other databases to produce the downscaled projections. We apply a quantile regression downscaling method, which involves the use of the observed cumulative distribution function to correct that of the GCM. This produces a downscaled projection with an interannual variability closer to that of the observed data and allows for more extreme values in the projections, which are often absent in GCM data. The statistically downscaled data is complemented with dynamically downscaled data from the NARCCAP database, which comprises output from regional climate models forced with GCM output from the

  5. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph E.; Ross, Steven B.; Buxton, Kenneth A.; England, Jeffery L.; McConnell, Paul E.

    2013-09-30

    This report fulfills the M2 milestone M2FT-13PN0912022, “Stranded Sites De-Inventorying Report.” In January 2013, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste (DOE 2013). Among the elements contained in this strategy is an initial focus on accepting used nuclear fuel from shutdown reactor sites. This focus is consistent with the recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future, which identified removal of stranded used nuclear fuel at shutdown sites as a priority so that these sites may be completely decommissioned and put to other beneficial uses (BRC 2012). Shutdown sites are defined as those commercial nuclear power reactor sites where the nuclear power reactors have been shut down and the site has been decommissioned or is undergoing decommissioning. In this report, a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel from 12 shutdown sites was conducted. The shutdown sites were Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, and San Onofre. These sites have no other operating nuclear power reactors at their sites and have also notified the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission that their reactors have permanently ceased power operations and that nuclear fuel has been permanently removed from their reactor vessels. Shutdown reactors at sites having other operating reactors are not included in this evaluation.

  6. Savannah River Site chemical, metal, and pesticide (CMP) waste vitrification treatability studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicero, C.A.

    1997-01-13

    Numerous Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, as well as Department of Defense (DOD) and commercial facilities, have used earthen pits for disposal of chemicals, organic contaminants, and other waste materials. Although this was an acceptable means of disposal in the past, direct disposal into earthen pits without liners or barriers is no longer a standard practice. At the Savannah River Site (SRS), approximately three million pounds of such material was removed from seven chemical, metal, and pesticide disposal pits. This material is known as the Chemical, Metal, and Pesticide (CMP) Pit waste and carries several different listed waste codes depending on the contaminants in the respective storage container. The waste is not classified as a mixed waste because it is believed to be non-radioactive; however, in order to treat the material in a non-radioactive facility, the waste would first have to be screened for radioactivity. The Defense Waste Processing Technology (DWPT) Section of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) was requested by the DOE-Savannah River (SR) office to determine the viability of vitrification of the CMP Pit wastes. Radioactive vitrification facilities exist which would be able to process this waste, so the material would not have to be analyzed for radioactive content. Bench-scale treatability studies were performed by the DWPT to determine whether a homogeneous and durable glass could be produced from the CMP Pit wastes. Homogeneous and durable glasses were produced from the six pits sampled. The optimum composition was determined to be 68.5 wt% CMP waste, 7.2 wt% Na{sub 2}O, 9 wt% CaO, 7.2 wt% Li{sub 2}O and 8.1 wt% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. This glass melted at 1,150 C and represented a two fold volume reduction.

  7. Independent Assessment of the Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Salt Disposition Alternatives Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. T. Case (DOE-ID); M. L. Renfro (INEEL)

    1998-12-01

    This report presents the results of the Independent Project Evaluation (IPE) Team assessment of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company High-Level Waste Salt Disposition Systems Engineering (SE) Team's deliberations, evaluations, and selections. The Westinghouse Savannah River Company concluded in early 1998 that production goals and safety requirements for processing SRS HLW salt to remove Cs-137 could not be met in the existing In-Tank Precipitation Facility as currently configured for precipitation of cesium tetraphenylborate. The SE Team was chartered to evaluate and recommend an alternative(s) for processing the existing HLW salt to remove Cs-137. To replace the In-Tank Precipitation process, the Savannah River Site HLW Salt Disposition SE Team downselected (October 1998) 140 candidate separation technologies to two alternatives: Small-Tank Tetraphenylborate (TPB) Precipitation (primary alternative) and Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Nonelutable Ion Exchange (backup alternative). The IPE Team, commissioned by the Department of Energy, concurs that both alternatives are technically feasible and should meet all salt disposition requirements. But the IPE Team judges that the SE Team's qualitative criteria and judgments used in their downselection to a primary and a backup alternative do not clearly discriminate between the two alternatives. To properly choose between Small-Tank TPB and CST Ion Exchange for the primary alternative, the IPE Team suggests the following path forward: Complete all essential R and D activities for both alternatives and formulate an appropriate set of quantitative decision criteria that will be rigorously applied at the end of the R and D activities. Concurrent conceptual design activities should be limited to common elements of the alternatives.

  8. Indoor air quality at five site museums of Yangtze River civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tafeng; Jia, Wenting; Cao, Junji; Huang, Rujin; Li, Hua; Liu, Suixin; Ma, Tao; Zhu, Yuqing

    2015-12-01

    The Yangtze River civilization, dating back to more than 7 thousand years ago, is one of the most historic culture aggregates in China. For long-term conservation of archaeological artifacts and historical ruins along the Yangtze River, indoor air quality at five site museums were investigated during summer and winter. Unstable microclimate conditions were observed at all five museums. The maximal seasonal variations in temperature and relative humidity were 25.7 °C and 40.0%, respectively. The mass concentration of PM2.5 inside the museums remained at high levels, ranging from 33.9 to 79.6 μg/m3 in winter and from 52.8 to 113.0 μg/m3 in summer. Organic matter (OM) constituted a major fraction (39.3%-53.9% in summer, 22.1%-27.8% in winter) of total PM2.5. The results showed that besides short-term fluctuation and seasonal variation in microclimate conditions, infiltration of gaseous and particulate air pollutants should be of increasing concern at museums in Southern China.

  9. Reactor operation environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.; Specht, W.L.; Mackey, H.E.; Paller, M.H.; Wilde, E.W.; Dicks, A.S.

    1989-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a large United States Department of Energy installation on the upper Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina. The SRS contains diverse habitats, flora, and fauna. Habitats include upland terrestrial areas, varied wetlands including Carolina Bays, the Savannah River swamp system, and impoundment related and riparian wetlands, and the aquatic habitats of several stream systems, two large cooling reservoirs, and the Savannah River. These diverse habitats support a large variety of plants and animals including many commercially or recreational valuable species and several rare, threatened or endangered species. This volume describes the major habitats and their biota found on the SRS, and discuss the impacts of continued operation of the K, L, and P production reactors.

  10. Disposal of low-level radioactive waste at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauls, V.W. [Dept. of Energy, Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Field Office

    1993-03-01

    An important objective of the Savannah River Site`s low-level radioactive waste management program is to isolate the waste from the environment both now and well into the future. A key element in achieving this is the disposal of low-level radioactive waste in sealed concrete vaults. Historically the Site has disposed of low-level radioactive waste via shallow land burial. In 1987, it was decided that better isolation from the environment was required. At that time several options for achieving this isolation were studied and below grade concrete vaults were chosen as the best method. This paper discusses the performance objectives for the vaults, the current design of the vaults and plans for the design of future vaults, the cost to construct the vaults, and the performance assessment on the vaults. Construction of the first set of vaults is essentially complete and readiness reviews before the start of waste receipt are being performed. Startup is to begin late in calendar year 1992 and continue through early CY 1993. The performance assessment is under way and the first draft is to be completed in early 1993.

  11. Estimating groundwater dynamics at a Colorado River floodplain site using historical hydrological data and climate information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinsong; Hubbard, Susan S.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Ficklin, Darren L.

    2016-03-01

    Long-term prediction of groundwater dynamics is important for assessing water resources and their impacts on biogeochemical cycling. However, estimating future groundwater dynamics is challenging due to the wide range of spatiotemporal scales in hydrological processes and uncertainty in future climate conditions. In this study, we develop a Bayesian model to combine small-scale historical hydrological data with large-scale climate information to estimate groundwater dynamics at a floodplain site in Rifle, Colorado. Although we have only a few years of groundwater elevation measurements, we have 47 years of streamflow data from a gaging station approximately 43 km upstream and long-term climate prediction on the Upper Colorado River Basin. To estimate future daily groundwater dynamics, we first develop a time series model to downscale the monthly streamflow derived from climate information to daily streamflow, and then transform the daily streamflow to groundwater dynamics at the downstream floodplain site. We use Monte Carlo methods to estimate future groundwater dynamics at the site through sampling from the joint posterior probability distribution. The results suggest that although future groundwater levels are expected to be similar to the current levels, the timing of the high groundwater levels is predicted to occur about 1 month earlier. The developed framework is extendable to other sites to estimate future groundwater dynamics given disparate data sets and climate projections. Additionally, the obtained estimates are being used as input to a site-specific watershed reactive transport models to predict how climate-induced changes will influence future biogeochemical cycling relevant to a variety of ecosystem services.

  12. Savannah River Site Environmental Monitoring Plan. Volume 1, Section 1000 Addendum: Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, G.T.

    1994-10-01

    This document -- the Savannah River Site Environmental Monitoring Plan (SRS EM Plan) -- has been prepared according to guidance contained in the DOE 5400 Series orders, in 10 CFR 834, and in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and environmental Surveillance [DOE, 1991]. The SRS EM Plan`s purpose is to define the criteria, regulations, and guideline requirements with which SRS will comply. These criteria and requirements are applicable to environmental monitoring activities performed in support of the SRS Environmental Monitoring Program (SRS EM Program), WSRC-3Q1-2, Volume 1, Section 1100. They are not applicable to monitoring activities utilized exclusively for process monitoring/control. The environmental monitoring program requirements documented in the SRS EM Plan incorporate all applicable should requirements of DOE/EH-0173T and expand upon them to include nonradiological environmental monitoring program requirements.

  13. Point and Fixed Plot Sampling Inventory Estimates at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parresol, Bernard, R.

    2004-02-01

    This report provides calculation of systematic point sampling volume estimates for trees greater than or equal to 5 inches diameter breast height (dbh) and fixed radius plot volume estimates for trees < 5 inches dbh at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken County, South Carolina. The inventory of 622 plots was started in March 1999 and completed in January 2002 (Figure 1). Estimates are given in cubic foot volume. The analyses are presented in a series of Tables and Figures. In addition, a preliminary analysis of fuel levels on the SRS is given, based on depth measurements of the duff and litter layers on the 622 inventory plots plus line transect samples of down coarse woody material. Potential standing live fuels are also included. The fuels analyses are presented in a series of tables.

  14. Fluidized-bed potato waste drying experiments at the Raft River Geothermal Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, L.T.; Schmitt, R.C.

    1980-06-01

    A fluidized-bed dryer was built and operated at the Raft River Geothermal Test Site in south central Idaho to test the feasibility of using low-temperature (145/sup 0/C or lower) geothermal fluids as an energy source for drying operations. The dryer performed successfully on two potato industry waste products that had a solid content of 5 to 13%. The dried product was removed as a sand-like granular material or as fines with a flour-like texture. Test results, observations, and design recommendations are presented. Also presented is an economic evaluation for commercial-scale drying plants using either geothermal low-temperature water or oil as a heat source.

  15. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program: Second quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1992-10-07

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1992, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of criteria to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Since 1991, the flagging criteria have been based on the federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking water standards and on method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from second quarter 1992 are listed in this report.

  16. Dry Deposition Velocity Estimation for the Savannah River Site: Part 1 – Parametric Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.

    2012-01-16

    Values for the dry deposition velocity of airborne particles were estimated with the GENII Version 2.10 computer code for the Savannah River site using assumptions about surface roughness parameters and particle size and density. Use of the GENII code is recommended by the U.S. Department of Energy for this purpose. Meteorological conditions evaluated include atmospheric stability classes D, E, and F and wind speeds of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 3.0 m/s. Local surface roughness values ranging from 0.03 to 2 meters were evaluated. Particles with mass mean diameters of 1, 5, and 10 microns and densities of 1, 3, and 5 g/cm3 were evaluated.

  17. A summary of ecological investigations at the burial ground complex, Savannah River Site - 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friday, G.P.; Hartman, G.D.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.; Roach, J.L.; Specht, W.L.; Westbury, H.M.; Wike, L.D.

    1994-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of three ecological investigations that were conducted in 1994 at the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The three topics of study included remote sensing, aquatic toxicity testing, and qualitative surveys of herpetofauna and small mammals. Interim reports from each investigation are included in the appendices (A, B, and C). The objectives of the remote sensing effort were to compile historical aerial photography of the BGC and to develop a land use/cover map of the complex using recent aerial imagery. The goal of the aquatic toxicity testing was to determine if surface waters were toxic to aquatic biota whereas the objectives of the vertebrate surveys were to identify the species diversity and relative abundances of amphibians, reptiles, and small mammals inhabiting the study area.

  18. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program: Fourth quarter 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, C.D. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1992-06-02

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During fourth quarter 1991, EPD/EMS conducted extensive sampling of monitoring wells. EPD/EMS established two sets of criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria do not define contamination levels; instead, they aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. Beginning in 1991, the flagging criteria are based on EPA drinking water standards and method detection limits. A detailed explanation of the current flagging criteria is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. Analytical results from fourth quarter 1991 are listed in this report.

  19. Rapid Bioassessment Methods for Assessing Stream Macroinvertebrate Community on the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1999-11-22

    Macroinvertebrate sampling was performed at 16 locations in the Savannah River Site (SRS) streams using Hester-Dendy multiplate samplers and EPA Rapid Bioassessment Protocols (RBP). Some of the sampling locations were unimpacted, while other locations had been subject to various forms of perturbation by SRS activities. In general, the data from the Hester-Dendy multiplate samplers were more sensitive at detecting impacts than were the RBP data. We developed a Biotic Index for the Hester-Dendy data which incorporated eight community structure, function, and balance parameters. when tested using a data set that was unrelated to the data set that was used in developing the Biotic Index, the index was very successful at detecting impact.

  20. Studying wildlife at local and landscape scales: Bachman's Sparrows at the Savannah River Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, J.B.; Danielson, B.J.; Watts, B.D.; Liu, L.; Krementz, D.G.; Dunning, John B.=; Kilgo, John C.

    2000-01-01

    In the late 1980s and early 1990s, mutual research interests between land managers at the Savannah River Site and biologists at the University of Georgia resulted in a landscape-ecology study of the Bachman's Sparrow (Aimophila aestivalis). This species had been declining throughout its range for several decades and was considered a species of management concern by the U.S. Forest Service. The reasons for its decline were obscure, but the distribution of suitable habitat across complex landscapes was a possible factor. Thus the species seemed well suited for a pioneer study on landscape influences on avian population dynamics. A cooperative research program developed from these mutual interests, including quantifying the landscape and local habitat patterns shown by the sparrow, spatially explicit modeling of population response to landscape change, and demographic field studies of reproductive success, survivorship and dispersal. These studies are summarized, and the value of the research to both management and research interests is discussed.

  1. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program, second quarter 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-07

    The Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) administers the Savannah River Site's (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1990 (April through June) EPD/EMS conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EPD/EMS established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the second quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from second quarter 1990 are listed in this report.

  2. Environmental assessment for the A-01 outfall constructed wetlands project at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed A-01 outfall constructed wetlands project at the Savannah River site (SRS), located near aiken, South Carolina. The proposed action would include the construction and operation of an artificial wetland to treat effluent from the A-01 outfall located in A Area at SRS. The proposed action would reduce the outfall effluent concentrations in order to meet future outfall limits before these go into effect on October 1, 1999. This document was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended; the requirements of the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing NEPA (40 CFR Parts 1500--1508); and the DOE Regulations for Implementing NEPA (10 CFR Part 1021).

  3. High-level waste processing at the Savannah River Site: An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, J.E.; Bennett, W.M.; Elder, H.H.; Lee, E.D.; Marra, S.L.; Rutland, P.L.

    1997-09-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, SC mg began immobilizing high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass in 1996. Currently, the radioactive glass is being produced as a ``sludge-only`` composition by combining washed high-level waste sludge with glass frit. The glass is poured in stainless steel canisters which will eventually be disposed of in a permanent, geological repository. To date, DWPF has produced about 100 canisters of vitrified waste. Future processing operations will, be based on a ``coupled`` feed of washed high-level waste sludge, precipitated cesium, and glass frit. This paper provides an update of the processing activities completed to date, operational/flowsheet problems encountered, and programs underway to increase production rates.

  4. Gamma well-logging in burial ground of Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winn, W.G.; Hofstetter, K.J.; MacMurdo, K.W. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Gamma well-logging measurements were conducted in an inactive radioactive waste burial ground of the Savannah River site to appraise whether any evidence existed for downward movement of radioactivity toward the water table. Similar measurements on the same wells were conducted in 1980, providing a baseline from which to measure any changes in their radioactive plumes. In particular, the recent measurements sought to detect significant changes in depth location and radiation magnitude of the plumes, as well as the existence of any new plumes. By comparing measurements on a number of these wells, which were distributed on a grid pattern, it was anticipated that the general status of this section of the burial ground could be established.

  5. SOLUBILITY OF URANIUM AND PLUTONIUM IN ALKALINE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE SOLUTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W.; Hobbs, D.; Wilmarth, B.; Edwards, T.

    2010-03-10

    Five actual Savannah River Site tank waste samples and three chemically-modified samples were tested to determine solubility limits for uranium and plutonium over a one year time period. Observed final uranium concentrations ranged from 7 mg U/L to 4.5 g U/L. Final plutonium concentrations ranged from 4 {micro}g Pu/L to 12 mg Pu/L. Actinide carbonate complexation is believed to result in the dramatic solubility increases observed for one sample over long time periods. Clarkeite, NaUO{sub 2}(O)OH {center_dot} H{sub 2}O, was found to be the dominant uranium solid phase in equilibrium with the waste supernate in most cases.

  6. A QUICK KEY TO THE SUBFAMILIES AND GENERA OF ANTS OF THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D

    2007-09-04

    This taxonomic key was devised to support development of a Rapid Bioassessment Protocol using ants at the Savannah River Site. The emphasis is on 'rapid' and, because the available keys contained a very large number of genera not known to occur at the Savannah River Site, we found that the available keys were unwieldy. Because these keys contained many more genera than we would ever encounter and because this larger number of genera required more couplets in the key and often required examination of characters that are difficult to assess without higher magnifications (60X or higher), more time was required to process samples. In developing this set of keys I emphasized character states that are easier for nonspecialists to recognize. I recognize that the character sets used may lead to some errors but I believe that the error rate will be small and, for the purpose of rapid bioassessment, this error rate will be acceptable provided that overall sample sizes are adequate. Oliver and Beattie (1996a, 1996b) found that for rapid assessment of biodiversity the same results were found when identifications were done to morphospecies by people with minimal expertise as when the same data sets were identified by subject matter experts. Basset et al. (2004) concluded that it was not as important to correctly identify all species as it was to be sure that the study included as many functional groups as possible. If your study requires high levels of accuracy, it is highly recommended that, when you key out a specimen and have any doubts concerning the identification, you should refer to keys in Bolton (1994) or to the other keys used to develop this area specific taxonomic key.

  7. Data Validation Package, June 2016 Groundwater Sampling at the Hallam, Nebraska, Decommissioned Reactor Site, August 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surovchak, Scott [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Miller, Michele [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The 2008 Long-Term Surveillance Plan [LTSP] for the Decommissioned Hallam Nuclear Power Facility, Hallam, Nebraska (http://www.lm.doe.gov/Hallam/Documents.aspx) requires groundwater monitoring once every 2 years. Seventeen monitoring wells at the Hallam site were sampled during this event as specified in the plan. Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. Water levels were measured at all sampled wells and at two additional wells (6A and 6B) prior to the start of sampling. Additionally, water levels of each sampled well were measured at the beginning of sampling. See Attachment 2, Trip Report, for additional details. Sampling and analysis were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and-analysis-plan-us-department- energy-office-legacy-management-sites). Gross alpha and gross beta are the only parameters that were detected at statistically significant concentrations. Time/concentration graphs of the gross alpha and gross beta data are included in Attachment 3, Data Presentation. The gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations observed are consistent with values previously observed and are attributed to naturally occurring radionuclides (e.g., uranium and uranium decay chain products) in the groundwater.

  8. Deployment of Performance Management Methodology as part of Liquid Waste Program at Savannah River Site - 12178

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prod' homme, A.; Drouvot, O.; Gregory, J. [AREVA, Paris (France); Barnes, B.; Hodges, B.; Hart, M. [SRR, Aiken, SC (United States)

    2012-07-01

    In 2009, Savannah River Remediation LLC (SRR) assumed the management lead of the Liquid Waste (LW) Program at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The four SRR partners and AREVA, as an integrated subcontractor are performing the ongoing effort to safely and reliably: - Close High Level Waste (HLW) storage tanks; - Maximize waste throughput at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF); - Process salt waste into stable final waste form; - Manage the HLW liquid waste material stored at SRS. As part of these initiatives, SRR and AREVA deployed a performance management methodology based on Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) at the DWPF in order to support the required production increase. This project took advantage of lessons learned by AREVA through the deployment of Total Productive Maintenance and Visual Management methodologies at the La Hague reprocessing facility in France. The project also took advantage of measurement data collected from different steps of the DWPF process by the SRR team (Melter Engineering, Chemical Process Engineering, Laboratory Operations, Plant Operations). Today the SRR team has a standard method for measuring processing time throughout the facility, a reliable source of objective data for use in decision-making at all levels, and a better balance between engineering department goals and operational goals. Preliminary results show that the deployment of this performance management methodology to the LW program at SRS has already significantly contributed to the DWPF throughput increases and is being deployed in the Saltstone facility. As part of the liquid waste program on Savannah River Site, SRR committed to enhance production throughput of DWPF. Beyond technical modifications implemented at different location of the facility, SRR deployed performance management methodology based on OEE metrics. The implementation benefited from the experience gained by AREVA in its own facilities in France. OEE proved to be a valuable tool in order

  9. Water-quality assessment of the Sacramento River basin, California : water quality of fixed sites, 1996-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagalski, Joseph L.; Dileanis, Peter D.

    2000-01-01

    Water-quality samples were collected from 12 sites in the Sacramento River Basin, Cali-fornia, from February 1996 through April 1998. Field measurements (dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, alkalinity, and water tem-perature) were completed on all samples, and laboratory analyses were done for suspended sediments, nutrients, dissolved and particulate organic carbon, major ions, trace elements, and mercury species. Samples were collected at four types of locations on the Sacramento River?large tributaries to the Sacramento River, agricul-tural drainage canals, an urban stream, and a flood control channel. The samples were collected across a range of flow conditions representative of those sites during the timeframe of the study. The water samples from the Sacramento River indi-cate that specific conductance increases slightly downstream but that the water quality is indicative of dilute water. Water temperature of the Sacramento River increases below Shasta Lake during the spring and summer irrigation season owing to diversion of water out of the river and subsequent lower flow. All 12 sites had generally low concentrations of nutrients, but chlorophyll concentrations were not measured; therefore, the actual consequences of nutrient loading could not be adequately assessed. Concentrations of dis-solved organic carbon in samples from the Sacramento River and the major tributaries were generally low; the formation of trihalomethanes probably does not currently pose a problem when water from the Sacramento River and its major tributaries is chlorinated for drinking-water purposes. However, dissolved organic carbon concentrations were higher in the urban stream and in agricultural drainage canals, but were diluted upon mixing with the Sacramento River. The only trace element that currently poses a water-quality problem in the Sacramento River is mercury. A federal criterion for the protection of aquatic life was exceeded during this study, and floodwater

  10. A Bayesian Approach to Integrated Ecological and Human Health Risk Assessment for the South River, Virginia Mercury-Contaminated Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Meagan J; Stinson, Jonah; Landis, Wayne G

    2017-07-01

    We conducted a regional-scale integrated ecological and human health risk assessment by applying the relative risk model with Bayesian networks (BN-RRM) to a case study of the South River, Virginia mercury-contaminated site. Risk to four ecological services of the South River (human health, water quality, recreation, and the recreational fishery) was evaluated using a multiple stressor-multiple endpoint approach. These four ecological services were selected as endpoints based on stakeholder feedback and prioritized management goals for the river. The BN-RRM approach allowed for the calculation of relative risk to 14 biotic, human health, recreation, and water quality endpoints from chemical and ecological stressors in five risk regions of the South River. Results indicated that water quality and the recreational fishery were the ecological services at highest risk in the South River. Human health risk for users of the South River was low relative to the risk to other endpoints. Risk to recreation in the South River was moderate with little spatial variability among the five risk regions. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis identified stressors and other parameters that influence risk for each endpoint in each risk region. This research demonstrates a probabilistic approach to integrated ecological and human health risk assessment that considers the effects of chemical and ecological stressors across the landscape. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. Decommissioning process of the experimental nuclear reactor ARGOS, sited at the Technical School of Industrial Engineering in Barcelona; Proceso de desmantelamiento del reactor nuclear experimental Argos de la Universidad Politecnica de Catalunya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega Aramburu, X.; Duch Guillen, M. A.

    2005-07-01

    The experimental nuclear reactor ARGOS, sited at the Technical School of Industrial Engineering in Barcelona, was an experimental reactor used for training purposes, from 1963 to 1977. Due to economic and administrative circumstances this facility was closed down at the end of this period and the fuel remained the fuel inside the reactor core. In 1994 the fuel was removed. The administrative licence was finally agreed with the authorities in 1998 after a long delay. The decommissioning operations began in 2001. The University dismantled, temporarily stored, checked and classified about 1200 components with a total weight of 154.4 t. The material which was declassified from the radiation protection point of view was approximately 99.9% of all the material. After presenting the final documents to the appropriate authorities the formal closing declaration was agreed in December 2003. After this date the site could be used for any purpose and it was the first case of the decommissioning of a nuclear reactor in Spain. Recently the ARGOS building have been finally demolished. (Author)

  12. Macroinvertebrate-based assessment of biological condition at selected sites in the Eagle River watershed, Colorado, 2000-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuellig, Robert E.; Bruce, James F.; Healy, Brian D.; Williams, Cory A.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Colorado River Water Conservation District, Eagle County, Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority, Colorado Department of Transportation, City of Aurora, Town of Eagle, Town of Gypsum, Town of Minturn, Town of Vail, Vail Resorts, Colorado Springs Utilities, Denver Water, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (FS), compiled macroinvertebrate (73 sites, 124 samples) data previously collected in the Eagle River watershed from selected USGS and FS studies, 2000-07. These data were analyzed to assess the biological condition (that is, biologically ?degraded? or ?good?) at selected sites in the Eagle River watershed and determine if site class (for example, urban or undeveloped) described biological condition. An independently developed predictive model was applied to calculate a site-specific measure of taxonomic completeness for macroinvertebrate communities, where taxonomic completeness was expressed as the ratio of observed (O) taxa to those expected (E) to occur at each site. Macroinvertebrate communities were considered degraded at sites were O/E values were less than 0.80, indicating that at least 20 percent of expected taxa were not observed. Sites were classified into one of four classes (undeveloped, adjacent road or highway or both, mixed, urban) using a combination of riparian land-cover characteristics, examination of topographic maps and aerial imagery, screening for exceedances in water-quality standards, and best professional judgment. Analysis of variance was used to determine if site class accounted for variability in mean macroinvertebrate O/E values. Finally, macroinvertebrate taxa observed more or less frequently than expected at urban sites were indentified. This study represents the first standardized assessment of biological condition of selected sites distributed across the Eagle River watershed. Of the 73 sites evaluated, just over

  13. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Green River, Utah. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase 1) and the Ground Water Project (phase 2). For the UMTRA Project site located near Green River, Utah, the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1988 to 1989. The tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials were removed from their original locations and placed into a disposal cell on the site. The disposal cell is designed to minimize radiation emissions and minimize further contamination of ground water beneath the site. The UMTRA Project`s second phase, the Ground Water Project, evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and determines a strategy for ground water compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. For the Green River site, the risk assessment helps determine whether human health risks result from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Green River site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine what is necessary, if anything, to protect human health and the environment while complying with EPA standards.

  14. Persistence of uranium groundwater plumes: Contrasting mechanisms at two DOE sites in the groundwater-river interaction zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachara, John M.; Long, Philip E.; Bargar, John; Davis, James A.; Fox, Patricia M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Freshley, Mark D.; Konopka, Allan; Liu, Chongxuan; McKinley, James P.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Yabusaki, Steven B.

    2013-04-01

    We examine subsurface uranium (U) plumes at two U.S. Department of Energy sites that are located near large river systems and that are influenced by groundwater-river hydrologic interaction. Following surface excavation of contaminated materials, both sites were projected to naturally flush remnant uranium contamination to levels below regulatory limits (e.g., 30 µg/L or 0.126 µmol/L; U.S. EPA drinking water standard), with 10 years projected for the Hanford 300 Area (Columbia River) and 12 years for the Rifle site (Colorado River). The rate of observed uranium decrease was much lower than expected at both sites. While uncertainty remains, a comparison of current understanding suggests that the two sites have common, but also different mechanisms controlling plume persistence. At the Hanford 300 A, the persistent source is adsorbed U(VI) in the vadose zone that is released to the aquifer during spring water table excursions. The release of U(VI) from the vadose zone and its transport within the oxic, coarse-textured aquifer sediments is dominated by kinetically-limited surface complexation. Modeling implies that annual plume discharge volumes to the Columbia River are small (< one pore volume). At the Rifle site, slow oxidation of naturally reduced, contaminant U(IV) in the saturated zone and a continuous influx of U(VI) from natural, up-gradient sources influences plume persistence. Rate-limited mass transfer and surface complexation also control U(VI) migration velocity in the sub-oxic Rifle groundwater. Flux of U(VI) from the vadose zone at the Rifle site may be locally important, but it is not the dominant process that sustains the plume. A wide range in microbiologic functional diversity exists at both sites. Strains of Geobacter and other metal reducing bacteria are present at low natural abundance that are capable of enzymatic U(VI) reduction in localized zones of accumulated detrital organic carbon or after organic carbon amendment. Major differences

  15. Minimizing Characterization - Derived Waste at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Pelt, R. S.; Amidon, M. B.; Reboul, S. H.

    2002-02-25

    Environmental restoration activities at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS) utilize innovative site characterization approaches and technologies that minimize waste generation. Characterization is typically conducted in phases, first by collecting large quantities of inexpensive data, followed by targeted minimally invasive drilling to collect depth-discrete soil/groundwater data, and concluded with the installation of permanent multi-level groundwater monitoring wells. Waste-reducing characterization methods utilize non-traditional drilling practices (sonic drilling), minimally intrusive (geoprobe, cone penetrometer) and non-intrusive (3-D seismic, ground penetration radar, aerial monitoring) investigative tools. Various types of sensor probes (moisture sensors, gamma spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, laser induced and X-ray fluorescence) and hydrophobic membranes (FLUTe) are used in conjunction with depth-discrete sampling techniques to obtain high-resolution 3-D plume profiles. Groundwater monitoring (short/long-term) approaches utilize multi-level sampling technologies (Strata-Sampler, Cone-Sipper, Solinst Waterloo, Westbay) and low-cost diffusion samplers for seepline/surface water sampling. Upon collection of soil and groundwater data, information is portrayed in a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) format for interpretation and planning purposes. At the SRS, the use of non-traditional drilling methods and minimally/non intrusive investigation approaches along with in-situ sampling methods has minimized waste generation and improved the effectiveness and efficiency of characterization activities.

  16. Geochemical and physical properties of soils and shallow sediments at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B.B.; Eddy, C.A.; Ramdeen, M.; Pickett, J. (Savannah River Lab., Aiken, SC (USA)); Rogers, V. (Soil Conservation Service, Aiken, SC (USA). Savannah River Site Savannah River Lab., Aiken, SC (USA)); Scott, M.T.; Shirley, P.A. (Sirrine Environmental Consultants, Greenville, SC (USA))

    1990-08-31

    A program to characterize the geochemical and physical properties of the unimpacted soils and shallow sediments at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has been completed. The maximum, minimum, median, standard deviation, and mean values for metals, radionuclides, inorganic anions, organic compounds, and agricultural indicator parameters are summarized for six soil series that were identified as representative of the 29 soil series at SRS. The soils from unimpacted areas of SRS are typical of soils found in moderately aggressive weathering environments, including the southeastern United States. Appendix 8 organic compounds were detected in all samples. Since these constituents are not generally present in soil, this portion of the investigation was intended to assess possible laboratory artifacts. An additional objective of the SRS Soil Study was to determine if the composition of the split spoon sampler biased chemical analysis of the soils. Twenty-five duplicate samples were analyzed for a number of metals, radiological and agricultural parameters, and organics by two laboratories currently contracted with to analyze samples during waste site characterization. In all cases, the absolute values of the average differences are relatively small compared to the overall variability in the population. 31 refs., 14 figs., 48 tabs.

  17. Lower Columbia River and Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program Reference Site Study: 2011 Restoration Analysis - FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borde, Amy B.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Kaufmann, Ronald M.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Sagar, Jina; Buenau, Kate E.; Corbett, C.

    2012-05-31

    The Reference Site (RS) study is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) effort developed by the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration [BPA], U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District [USACE], and U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) in response to Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinions (BiOp). While the RS study was initiated in 2007, data have been collected at relatively undisturbed reference wetland sites in the LCRE by PNNL and collaborators since 2005. These data on habitat structural metrics were previously summarized to provide baseline characterization of 51 wetlands throughout the estuarine and tidal freshwater portions of the 235-km LCRE; however, further analysis of these data has been limited. Therefore, in 2011, we conducted additional analyses of existing field data previously collected for the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program (CEERP) - including data collected by PNNL and others - to help inform the multi-agency restoration planning and ecosystem management work underway in the LCRE.

  18. Classification of hydrostratigraphic units at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aadland, R.K.; Bledsoe, H.W.

    1990-12-01

    A detailed synthesis of the hydrologic, geophysical and core data from wells penetrating the updip Mesozoic-Cenozoic Coastal Plain sequence at and near the Savannah River Site (SRS) was conducted to define and classify the hydrostratigraphic units. The purpose of the study was to give the SRS a single unified hydrostratigraphic classification that defines and addresses the hydrogeologic characteristics of the aquifers underlying the site. The characterization, areal distribution and classification of the aquifer and aquifer systems gives SRS the tools to evaluate ground water movement and contaminant transport in a comprehensive regional context. An alpha-numeric nomenclature has been temporarily adopted in this report for classifying the aquifers and aquifer systems at SRS. Formal geographic names for the aquifers and aquifer systems will be proposed in the near future but must be agreed upon and ratified by the South Carolina Hydrostratigraphic Subcommittee which was in part organized for the purpose. The classification utilizes a hierarchy of terms ranked at three levels: Aquifer Systems that transmit ground water regionally; Aquifer Units which are mappable units > 400 square miles in area; and Aquifer Zones that differentiate aquifers internally on the basis of locally significant characteristics.

  19. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program First Quarter 1998 (January through March 1998)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, J.B.

    1999-05-26

    This report summarizes the Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by the Savannah River Site during first quarter 1998. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official record of the analytical results.

  20. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program First Quarter 1999 (January through March 1999)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, J.B.

    1999-12-08

    This report summarizes the Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by Savannah River Site during first quarter 1999. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official record of the analytical results.

  1. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program - Fourth Quarter 1999 (October through December 1999)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, J.B.

    2000-10-12

    This report summarizes the Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by the Savannah River site during fourth quarter 1999. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official records of the analytical results.

  2. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program - Third Quarter 1999 (July through September 1999)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, J.B.

    2000-09-05

    This report summarizes the Savannah River Site Groundwater Monitoring Program during the third quarter 1999. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program activities; and serves as an official record of the analytical results.

  3. Fine-scale characteristics of fluvial bull trout redds and adjacent sites in Rapid River, Idaho, 1993-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Guzevich; Russell F. Thurow

    2017-01-01

    From 1993 to 2007, we used single pass, September surveys to locate and measure fluvial bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) redds in Rapid River, Idaho. Here we describe substrate sizes, redd dimensions, and water depths, velocities, and temperatures within and adjacent to 337 redds. Most (79%) spawning sites had fewer than 20% surface fines (< 2 mm) and mean,...

  4. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program second quarter 1999 (April through June 1999)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, J.B.

    1999-12-16

    This report summarizes the Groundwater Monitoring Program conducted by Savannah River Site during first quarter 1999. It includes the analytical data, field data, data review, quality control, and other documentation for this program; provides a record of the program's activities; and serves as an official record of the analytical results.

  5. Radiological environmental dose assessment methods and compliance dose results for 2015 operations at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, G. T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Dixon, K. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-01

    This report presents the environmental dose assessment methods and the estimated potential doses to the offsite public from 2015 Savannah River Site (SRS) atmospheric and liquid radioactive releases. Also documented are potential doses from special-case exposure scenarios - such as the consumption of deer meat, fish, and goat milk.

  6. Radiological environmental dose assessment methods and compliance dose results for 2015 operations at the savannah river site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, G. T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Dixon, K. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-01

    This report presents the environmental dose assessment methods and the estimated potential doses to the offsite public from 2015 Savannah River Site (SRS) atmospheric and liquid radioactive releases. Also documented are potential doses from special-case exposure scenarios - such as the consumption of deer meat, fish, and goat milk.

  7. Subsurface stratigraphy and structure of A/M area at the Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallaw, W.C.; Sims, W.R.; Haselow, J.S.

    1991-08-01

    This report is a study of the stratigraphy and structure of the A/M Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility Post-Closure Care Permit process on the Savannah River Site. The data from the lithologic and geophysical logs of 93 wells is the basis of this analysis.

  8. Subsurface stratigraphy and structure of A/M area at the Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallaw, W.C.; Sims, W.R.; Haselow, J.S.

    1991-08-01

    This report is a study of the stratigraphy and structure of the A/M Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility Post-Closure Care Permit process on the Savannah River Site. The data from the lithologic and geophysical logs of 93 wells is the basis of this analysis.

  9. Mercury Exposure in Piscivorous Birds at the Carson River (NV) Superfund Site, 1997-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The persistence and degree of mercury contamination of the lower Carson River system (LCRS) have led to placement of a portion of the Carson River Basin (including...

  10. Aerial photo mosaic of the Illinois River repeat photo site in 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Rogue River drains 13,390 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean near the town of Gold Beach, Oregon. The Rogue River...

  11. Aerial photo mosaic of the Applegate River repeat photo sites in 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Rogue River drains 13,390 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean near the town of Gold Beach, Oregon. The Rogue River...

  12. 76 FR 7835 - Great River Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Scoping Meetings and Environmental Site Review and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Scoping Meetings and Environmental... River Hydropower, LLC. e. Name of Project: Upper Mississippi River Lock & Dam No. 21 Hydroelectric... hydropower structure consisting of 30 turbine bays, located about 100 feet downstream of the existing dam; (2...

  13. Geochemical and physical properties of wetland soils at the Savannah River site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, K.L; Rogers, V.A.; Conner, S.P.; Cummings, C.L.; Gladden, J.B.; Weber, J.M.

    1996-05-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), located in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina, is a nuclear production facility operated for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). To facilitate future human health and ecological risk assessments, treatability studies, remedial investigations, and feasibility studies for its wetland areas, SRS needs a database of background geochemical and physical properties of wetland soils. These data are needed for comparison to data collected from wetland soils that may have been affected by SRS operations. SRS contains 36,000 acres of wetlands and an additional 5,000 acres of bottom land soils subject to flooding. Recent studies of wetland soils near various waste units at SRS show that some wetlands have been impacted by releases of contaminants resulting from SRS operations (WSRC, 1992). Waste waters originating from the operations facilities typically have been discharged into seepage basins located in upland soils, direct discharge of waste water to wetland areas has been minimal. This suggests that impacted wetland areas have been affected indirectly as a result of transport mechanisms such as surface runoff, groundwater seeps, fluvial or sediment transport, and leaching. Looney et al. (1990) conducted a study to characterize the geochemical and physical properties of upland soils and shallow sediments on the SRS. A primary objective of the upland study was to collect the data needed to assess the qualitative and quantitative impacts of SRS operations on the environment. By comparing the upland soils data to data collected from waste units located in similar soils, SRS impacts could be assessed. The data were also intended to aid in selection of remediation alternatives. Because waste units at SRS have historically been located in upland areas, wetland soils were not sampled. (Abstract Truncated)

  14. Greater Green River Basin production improvement project, Phase 1: Site characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeJarnett, B.B.; Krystinik, L.F.; Mead, R.H.; Poe, S.C.

    1996-05-01

    Several tight, naturally-fractured, gas-productive formations in the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) in Wyoming have been exploited using conventional vertical well technology. Typically, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed in completing these wells to increase gas production rates to economic levels. However, with the maturation of horizontal drilling technology hydraulic fracture treatments may not be the most effective method for improving gas production from these tight reservoirs. Two of the most prolific tight gas reservoirs in the Green River Basin, the Frontier and the Mesaverde, are candidates for the application of horizontal well completion technology. The objective of the proposed project is to apply the DOE`s technical concept to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift. Previous industry attempts to produce in commercial quantities from the Second Frontier Formation have been hampered by lack of understanding of both the in-situ natural fracture system and lack of adequate stimulation treatments. The proposed technical approach involves drilling a vertical characterization well to the Second Frontier Formation at a depth of approximately 16,000 ft. from a site located about 18 miles northwest of Rock Springs, Wyoming. Logging, coring, and well testing information from the vertical well will be used to design a hydraulic fracturing treatment and to assess the resulting production performance. Data from the vertical drilling phase will be used to design a 2,500 to 3,000-ft lateral wellbore which will be kicked off from the vertical hole and extend into the blanket marine sandstone bench of the Second Frontier Formation. The trajectory of this wellbore will be designed to intersect the maximum number of natural fractures to maximize production rates. Production testing of the resulting completion will provide an assessment of reserve potential related to horizontal lateral completions.

  15. Factors affecting food chain transfer of mercury in the vicinity of the Nyanza site, Sudbury River, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, T.A.; May, T.W.; Finlayson, R.T.; Mierzykowski, S.E.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of the Nyanza Chemical Waste Dump Superfund Site on the Sudbury River, Massachusetts, was assessed by analysis of sediment, fish prey organisms, and predator fish from four locations in the river system. Whitehall Reservoir is an impoundment upstream of the site, and Reservoir #2 is an impoundment downstream of the site. Cedar Street is a flowing reach upstream of the site, and Sherman Bridge is a flowing reach downstream of the site. Collections of material for analysis were made three times, in May, July, and October. Sediment was analyzed for acid-volatile sulfide (AVS), simultaneously-extracted (SEM) metals (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Sb, Zn), and total recoverable Hg. The dominant predatory fish species collected at all sites, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), was analyzed for the same suite of metals as sediment. Analysis of stomach contents of bass identified small fish (yellow perch Perca flavescens, bluegill Lepomis macrochirus, and pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus), crayfish, and dragonfly larvae as the dominant prey organisms. Samples of the prey were collected from the same locations and at the same times as predator fish, and were analyzed for total and methyl mercury. Results of AVS and SEM analyses indicated that sediments were not toxic to aquatic invertebrates at any site. The SEM concentrations of As, Cd, and Cr were significantly higher at Reservoir #2 than at the reference sites, and SEM As and Cd were significantly higher at Sherman Bridge than at Cedar St. Sediment total Hg was elevated only at Reservoir #2. Hg was higher at site-influenced locations in all fish species except brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus). Cd was higher in bluegill, black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), and brown bullhead, and Cr was higher in largemouth bass fillet samples but not in whole-body samples. There were no seasonal differences in sediment or prey organism metals, but some metals in some fish species did vary over time in an inconsistent manner

  16. Seismic local site effects characterization in the Andarax River Valley (SE Spain) from ambient seismic noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Enrique; García-Jerez, Antonio; Luzón, Francisco; Sánchez-Martos, Francisco; Sánchez-Sesma, Francisco J.; Piña, José

    2014-05-01

    This work is focused on the characterization of seismic local effects in the Low Andarax River Valley (SE Spain). The Low Andarax River valley is located in an active seismic region, with the higher seismic hazard values in Spain. The landform is composed mainly by sedimentary materials which increase its seismic hazard due to the amplification of the seismic inputs and spectral resonances. We study seismic local effects in the Low Andarax River by analyzing the Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) of ambient noise records. The noise data were recorded during two field campaigns in 2012 and 2013. There have been a total of 374 noise measurements with 15 and 30 minutes duration. The acquisition was performed with a Digital Broadband Seismometer Guralp CMG-6TD. The distance between measurements was about 200 meters, covering an area around 40 km2. There have been 6 significant peak frequencies between 0.3 Hz and 5 Hz. It was possible to find interesting areas with similar spectral peaks that coincide with zones with similar microgravimetric anomalies at the alluvial valley. It is also observed a decrease in the frequency peaks from West to East suggesting increased sediment layer. We also compute the soil models at those sites where geotechnical information is available, assuming that the seismic noise is diffuse. We invert the HVSR for these places using horizontally layered models and in the imaginary part the Green functions at the source. It is observed that the S wave velocity inverted models are consistent with the known geotechnical information obtained from drilled boreholes. We identify the elastodynamic properties of the limestone-dolomite materials with a formation of phyllites and quartzite that form the basement of the depression, and those properties of the Miocene and Pliocene detrital deposits (marls, sandy silts, sands and conglomerates) that fill the valley. These results together with the observed resonant frequencies along the Andarax

  17. Environmental Assessment for the Health Protection Instrument Calibration Facility at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to review the possible environmental consequences associated with the construction and operation of a Health Protection Instrument Calibration Facility on the Savannah River Site (SRS). The proposed replacement calibration facility would be located in B Area of SRS and would replace an inadequate existing facility currently located within A Area of SRS (Building 736-A). The new facility would provide laboratories, offices, test equipment and the support space necessary for the SRS Radiation Monitoring Instrument Calibration Program to comply with DOE Orders 5480.4 (Environmental Protection, Safety and Health Protection Standards) and 5480.11 (Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers). The proposed facility would serve as the central site source for the evaluation, selection, inspection, testing, calibration, and maintenance of all SRS radiation monitoring instrumentation. The proposed facility would be constructed on a currently undeveloped portion in B Area of SRS. The exact plot associated with the proposed action is a 1.2 hectare (3 acre) tract of land located on the west side of SRS Road No. 2. The proposed facility would lie approximately 4.4 km (2.75 mi) from the nearest SRS site boundary. The proposed facility would also lie within the confines of the existing B Area, and SRS safeguards and security systems. Archaeological, ecological, and land use reviews have been conducted in connection with the use of this proposed plot of land, and a detailed discussion of these reviews is contained herein. Socioeconomic, operational, and accident analyses were also examined in relation to the proposed project and the findings from these reviews are also contained in this EA.

  18. Screening for potential fermentative hydrogen production from black water and kitchen waste in on-site UASB reactor at 20 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luostarinen, S; Pakarinen, O; Rintala, J

    2008-06-01

    The potential of black water and a mixture of black water and kitchen waste as substrates for on-site dark fermentative hydrogen production was screened in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors at 20 degrees C. Three different inocula were used with and without heat treatment. With glucose, the highest specific hydrogenogenic activity was 69 ml H2 g volatile solids(-1) d(-1) in batch assays and the highest hydrogen yield 0.44 mol H2 mol glucose(-1) in upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor. The mixture of black water and kitchen waste degraded readily into volatile fatty acids in the reactors, thus showing potential for hydrogen production. In the conditions applied, however, the highest end product was propionate and no hydrogen was produced. Black water alone apparently contained too little readily soluble carbohydrates for hydrogen producing bacteria, and little VFA and no hydrogen was produced.

  19. Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogerton, John

    1964-01-01

    This pamphlet describes how reactors work; discusses reactor design; describes research, teaching, and materials testing reactors; production reactors; reactors for electric power generation; reactors for supply heat; reactors for propulsion; reactors for space; reactor safety; and reactors of tomorrow. The appendix discusses characteristics of U.S. civilian power reactor concepts and lists some of the U.S. reactor power projects, with location, type, capacity, owner, and startup date.

  20. Computation Of The Residual Radionuclide Activity Within Three Natural Waterways At The Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiergesell, R. A.; Phifer, M. A.

    2014-01-07

    In 2010 a Composite Analysis (CA) of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Savannah River Site (SRS) was completed. This investigation evaluated the dose impact of the anticipated SRS End State residual sources of radionuclides to offsite members of the public. Doses were assessed at the locations where SRS site streams discharge into the Savannah River at the perimeter of the SRS. Although the model developed to perform this computation indicated that the dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/yr (30 mrem/yr), associated with CA, was not approached at the Points of Assessment (POAs), a significant contribution to the total computed dose was derived from the radionuclides (primarily Cs-137) bound-up in the soil and sediment of the drainage corridors of several SRS streams. DOE’s Low Level Waste Federal Review Group (LFRG) reviewed the 2010 CA and identified several items to be addressed in the SRS Maintenance Program. One of the items recognized Cs-137 in the Lower Three Runs (LTR) Integrator Operable Unit (IOU), as a significant CA dose driver. The item made the recommendation that SRS update the estimated radionuclide inventory, including Cs-137, in the LTR IOU. That initial work has been completed and its radionuclide inventory refined. There are five additional streams at SRS and the next phase of the response to the LFRG concern was to obtain a more accurate inventory and distribution of radionuclides in three of those streams, Fourmile Branch (FMB), Pen Branch (PB) and Steel Creek (SC). Each of these streams is designated as an IOU, which are defined for the purpose of this investigation as the surface water bodies and associated wetlands, including the channel sediment, floodplain sed/soil, and related biota. If present, radionuclides associated with IOUs are adsorbed to the streambed sediment and soils of the shallow floodplains that lie immediately adjacent to stream channels. The scope of this effort included the evaluation of any previous sampling and

  1. A Three-Year Study of Ichyoplankton in Coastal Plains Reaches of the Savannah River Site and its Tributaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D.

    2007-03-05

    Altering flow regimes of rivers has large effects on native floras and faunas because native species are adapted to the natural flow regime, many species require lateral connectivity with floodplain habitat for feeding or spawning, and the change in regime often makes it possible for invasive species to replace natives (Bunn & Arthington 2002). Floodplain backwaters, both permanent and temporary, are nursery areas for age 0+ fish and stable isotope studies indicate that much of the productivity that supports fish larvae is autochthonous to these habitats (Herwig et al. 2004). Limiting access by fish to floodplain habitat for feeding, spawning and nursery habitat is one of the problems noted with dams that regulate flow in rivers and is considered to be important as an argument to remove dams and other flow regulating structures from rivers (Shuman 1995; Bednarek 2001). While there have been a number of studies in the literature about the use of floodplain habitat for fish reproduction (Copp 1989; Killgore & Baker 1996; Humphries, et al. 1999; Humphries and Lake 2000; Crain et al. 2004; King 2004) there have been only a few studies that examined this aspect of stream ecology in more than a cursory way. The study reported here was originally designed to determine whether the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site was having a negative effect on fish reproduction in the Savannah River but its experimental design allowed examination of the interactions between the river, the floodplain and the tributaries entering the Savannah River across this floodplain. This study is larger in length of river covered than most in the literature and because of its landscape scale may be in important indicator of areas where further study is required.

  2. TREATABILITY STUDY FOR EDIBLE OIL DEPLOYMENT FOR ENHANCED CVOC ATTENUATION FOR T-AREA, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riha, B.; Looney, B.; Noonkester, J.; Hyde, W.; Walker, R.

    2012-05-15

    Groundwater beneath T-Area, a former laboratory and semiworks operation at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS), is contaminated by chlorinated solvents (cVOCs). Since the contamination was detected in the 1980s, the cVOCs at T-Area have been treated by a combination of soil vapor extraction and groundwater pump and treat. The site received approval to temporarily discontinue the active groundwater treatment and implement a treatability study of enhanced attenuation - an engineering and regulatory strategy that has recently been developed by DOE and the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC 2007). Enhanced attenuation uses active engineering solutions to alter the target site in such a way that the contaminant plume will passively stabilize and shrink and to document that the action will be effective, timely, and sustainable. The paradigm recognizes that attenuation remedies are fundamentally based on a mass balance. Thus, long-term plume dynamics can be altered either by reducing the contaminant loading from the source or by increasing the rate of natural attenuation processes within all, or part of, the plume volume. The combination of technologies that emerged for T-Area included: (1) neat (pure) vegetable oil deployment in the deep vadose zone in the former source area, (2) emulsified vegetable oil deployment within the footprint of the groundwater plume, and (3) identification of attenuation mechanisms and rates for the distal portion of the plume. In the first part, neat oil spreads laterally forming a thin layer on the water table to intercept and reduce future cVOC loading (via partitioning) and reduce oxygen inputs (via biostimulation). In the second and third parts, emulsified oil forms active bioremediation reactor zones within the plume footprint to degrade existing groundwater contamination (via reductive dechlorination and/or cometabolism) and stimulates long-term attenuation capacity in the distal plume (via

  3. Evaluation of Gamma Fluence Rate Predictions for 41-argon Releases to the Atmosphere at a Nuclear Research Reactor Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas-Palma, Carlos; Aage, Helle Karina; Astrup, Poul

    2004-01-01

    An experimental study of radionuclide dispersion in the atmosphere has been conducted at the BR1 research reactor in Mol, Belgium. Artificially generated aerosols ('white smoke') were mixed with the routine releases of Ar-41 in the reactor's 60-m tall venting stack. The detailed plume geometry...

  4. Evaluation of Gamma Fluence Rate Predictions for 41-argon Releases to the Atmosphere at a Nuclear Research Reactor Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas-Palma, Carlos; Aage, Helle Karina; Astrup, Poul

    2004-01-01

    An experimental study of radionuclide dispersion in the atmosphere has been conducted at the BR1 research reactor in Mol, Belgium. Artificially generated aerosols ('white smoke') were mixed with the routine releases of Ar-41 in the reactor's 60-m tall venting stack. The detailed plume geometry...

  5. Water-quality data from continuously monitored sites in the Pamlico and Neuse River estuaries, North Carolina, 1990-91

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Ronald G.

    1992-01-01

    Water quality measurements were made at six sites in or near North Carolina's Pamlico River estuary and at five sites in or near the Neuse River estuary. Measurements taken at 15-minute intervals included near-surface and near-bottom specific conductance; near-surface water temperature; and near-surface, mid-depth, and near-bottom dissolved-oxygen concentrations. In the Pamlico River estuary, salinities generally ranged from near zero to about 20 parts per thousand during the period April 1989 through September 1991; however, unnaturally high salinities (up to about 51 parts per thousand) were observed at one site on July 11, 1990. Recorded water temperatures in the Pamlico River were between 0 and 33 degrees Celsius during the measurement period. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations ranged from less than 1 to 20 milligrams per liter. In the Neuse River estuary, salinities ranged from less than 0.1 to nearly 33 parts per thousand between May 1989 and September 1991. During the same period, recorded water temperatures in this estuary were between 0 and 33 degrees Celsius. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations ranged from less than 1 to 21 milligrams per liter. Instantaneous values for selected periods are summarized in a series of box plots. Daily mean values of salinity, water temperature, dissolved-oxygen concentrations, and dissolved oxygen, percent saturation, are presented in tables and graphs, as are 5-day mean values for day and night conditions. This is the second in a series of reports summarizing water quality data obtained from these continuously monitored sites.

  6. Aquatic biological communities and associated habitats at selected sites in the Big Wood River Watershed, south-central Idaho, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCoy, Dorene E.; Short, Terry M.

    2016-09-28

    Assessments of streamflow (discharge) parameters, water quality, physical habitat, and biological communities were completed between May and September 2014 as part of a monitoring program in the Big Wood River watershed of south-central Idaho. The sampling was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Blaine County, Trout Unlimited, the Nature Conservancy, and the Wood River Land Trust to help identify the status of aquatic resources at selected locations in the watershed. Information in this report provides a basis with which to evaluate and monitor the long-term health of the Big Wood River and its major tributaries. Sampling sites were co-located with existing U.S. Geological Survey streamgaging stations: three on the main stem Big Wood River and four on the North Fork Big Wood River (North Fork), Warm Springs Creek (Warm Sp), Trail Creek (Trail Ck), and East Fork Big Wood River (East Fork) tributaries.The analytical results and quality-assurance information for water quality, physical habitat, and biological community samples collected at study sites during 2 weeks in September 2014 are summarized. Water-quality data include concentrations of major nutrients, suspended sediment, dissolved oxygen, and fecal-coliform bacteria. To assess the potential effects of nutrient enrichment on algal growth, concentrations of periphyton biomass (chlorophyll-a and ash free dry weight) in riffle habitats were determined at each site. Physical habitat parameters include stream channel morphology, habitat volume, instream structure, substrate composition, and riparian vegetative cover. Biological data include taxa richness, abundance, and stream-health indicator metrics for macroinvertebrate and fish communities. Statistical summaries of the water-quality, habitat, and biological data are provided along with discussion of how these findings relate to the health of aquatic resources in the Big Wood River watershed.Seasonal discharge patterns using statistical

  7. Speciation of iodine isotopes inside and outside of a contaminant plume at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwehr, Kathleen A. [Laboratory for Oceanographic and Environmental Research, Department of Marine Sciences, Texas A and M University, OCSB 3029, 200 Seawolf Parkway, Galveston, TX 77553 (United States); Otosaka, Shigeyoshi [Laboratory for Oceanographic and Environmental Research, Department of Marine Sciences, Texas A and M University, OCSB 3029, 200 Seawolf Parkway, Galveston, TX 77553 (United States); Research Group for Environmental Science, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai Mura, Ibaraki 319 1195 (Japan); Merchel, Silke [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Kaplan, Daniel I. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Zhang, Saijin; Xu, Chen; Li, Hsiu-Ping; Ho, Yi-Fang [Laboratory for Oceanographic and Environmental Research, Department of Marine Sciences, Texas A and M University, OCSB 3029, 200 Seawolf Parkway, Galveston, TX 77553 (United States); Yeager, Chris M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Santschi, Peter H. [Laboratory for Oceanographic and Environmental Research, Department of Marine Sciences, Texas A and M University, OCSB 3029, 200 Seawolf Parkway, Galveston, TX 77553 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    A primary obstacle in understanding the fate and transport of the toxic radionuclide {sup 129}I (a thyroid seeker) is an accurate method to distinguish it from the stable isotope, {sup 127}I, and to quantify the various species at environmentally relevant concentrations (∼ 10{sup −8} M). A pH-dependent solvent extraction and combustion method was paired with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to measure ambient levels of {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I isotope ratios and iodine speciation (iodide (I{sup −}), iodate (IO{sub 3}{sup −}), and organo-I (OI)) in aquatic systems. The method exhibited an overall uncertainty of 10% or less for I{sup −} and IO{sub 3}{sup −}, and less than 30% for OI species concentrations and enabled {sup 129}I measurements as low as 0.001 Bq/L (1 Bq/L = 10{sup −13} M). The method was used to analyze groundwater from the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, USA, along a pH, redox potential (Eh), and organic carbon gradient (8–60 μM DOC). The data confirmed that the {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratios and species distribution were strongly pH dependent and varied in a systematic manner from the strongly acidic source. While {sup 129}I speciation in plume samples containing total I concentrations > 1.7 Bq/L was similar whether measured by AMS or GC–MS ([I{sup −}] ≫ [IO{sub 3}{sup −}] = [OI]), AMS enabled {sup 129}I speciation measurements at much lower concentrations than what was possible with GC–MS. AMS analyses demonstrated that groundwater samples minimally impacted by the plume were still orders of magnitude higher than ambient {sup 129}I concentrations typically found elsewhere in the USA groundwaters and rivers. This is likely due to past atmospheric releases of volatile {sup 129}I species by SRS nuclear reprocessing facilities near the study site. Furthermore, the results confirmed the existence of {sup 129}I not only as I{sup −}, but also as OI and IO{sub 3}{sup −} species. - Highlights: • Total {sup 129}I in a

  8. High resolution seismic survey, Pen Branch Fault, Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkman, E. (Emerald Exploration Consultants, Inc., Austin, TX (United States))

    1991-04-01

    An investigation of the Pen Branch Fault at the Savannah River Site by a series of short, high resolution seismic reflection lines was conducted. The purpose was to acquire, process, and interpret 19.9 miles of data, optimized for the upper 300 ft of geologic strata, in sufficient density such that processing performed in the conventional stepwise approach, followed by detailed interpretation, would define small scale spatial variability and structural features in the vicinity of the fault leading to definition of the location of the fault, the shallowest extent of the fault, and the quantification of the sense and magnitude of motion. The depth of optimization for the last two lines was modified to the 300 ft of geologic strata immediately above basement. Three older seismic surveys, other geophysical data, and associated borehole and geologic data were reviewed. The equipment and the acquisition, processing, and interpretation procedures are discussed in the report. The report includes a detailed line by line description and discussion of the interpretation. Figures include reference maps, contour displays of the stacking and interval velocities, diagrammatic references sketches of the interpreted layering and sedimentary features, index sketches, and specific color prints made on the workstation during the course of the interpretation. A volume of manuals on seismic devices and related equipment is included.

  9. High resolution seismic survey, Pen Branch Fault, Savannah River Site, South Carolina. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkman, E. [Emerald Exploration Consultants, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    1991-04-01

    An investigation of the Pen Branch Fault at the Savannah River Site by a series of short, high resolution seismic reflection lines was conducted. The purpose was to acquire, process, and interpret 19.9 miles of data, optimized for the upper 300 ft of geologic strata, in sufficient density such that processing performed in the conventional stepwise approach, followed by detailed interpretation, would define small scale spatial variability and structural features in the vicinity of the fault leading to definition of the location of the fault, the shallowest extent of the fault, and the quantification of the sense and magnitude of motion. The depth of optimization for the last two lines was modified to the 300 ft of geologic strata immediately above basement. Three older seismic surveys, other geophysical data, and associated borehole and geologic data were reviewed. The equipment and the acquisition, processing, and interpretation procedures are discussed in the report. The report includes a detailed line by line description and discussion of the interpretation. Figures include reference maps, contour displays of the stacking and interval velocities, diagrammatic references sketches of the interpreted layering and sedimentary features, index sketches, and specific color prints made on the workstation during the course of the interpretation. A volume of manuals on seismic devices and related equipment is included.

  10. Retention and chemical speciation of uranium in an oxidized wetland sediment from the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dien; Seaman, John C.; Chang, Hyun-Shik; Jaffe, Peter R.; Koster van Groos, Paul; Jiang, De-Tong; Chen, Ning; Lin, Jinru; Arthur, Zachary; Pan, Yuanming; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Newville, Matthew; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Kaplan, Daniel I.

    2014-05-01

    Uranium speciation and retention mechanism onto Savannah River Site (SRS) wetland sediments was studied using batch (ad)sorption experiments, sequential extraction desorption tests and U L{sub 3}-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy of contaminated wetland sediments. U was highly retained by the SRS wetland sediments. In contrast to other similar but much lower natural organic matter (NOM) sediments, significant sorption of U onto the SRS sediments was observed at pH <4 and pH >8. Sequential extraction tests indicated that the U(VI) species were primarily associated with the acid soluble fraction (weak acetic acid extractable) and NOM fraction (Na-pyrophosphate extractable). Uranium L3- edge XANES spectra of the U-retained sediments were nearly identical to that of uranyl acetate. The primary oxidation state of U in these sediments was as U(VI), and there was little evidence that the high sorptive capacity of the sediments could be ascribed to abiotic or biotic reduction to the less soluble U(IV) species. The molecular mechanism responsible for the high U retention in the SRS wetland sediments is likely related to the chemical bonding of U to organic carbon.

  11. Leaf area index measurements at the middle reaches of Heihe River forest sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jie; Yan, Guang-jian; Zhang, Wu-ming; Zhu, Ling; Chen, Ling

    2008-12-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is one of the most important parameters of canopy structure as it related to many biophysical and physiological processes, including photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration, carbon cycling, rain intercepting, net primary productivity, energy exchanging etc. Rapid, accurate and reliable estimations of LAI are required in these studies above. There are two main categories of procedures to estimate LAI: direct and indirect methods. The objective of this study is to evaluate LAI estimations obtained by different methods in HeiHe River forest sites. These methods include the LAI-2000 plant canopy analyzer, HemiView, fifty-seven degree photography method, fisheye photography method, the tracing radiation and architecture of canopies (TRAC), and Multi-Purpose Canopy Observation System (MCOS). HemiView shows a large variation on gap fraction measurements compared to LAI-2000, fifty-seven degree photography method is the superior choice to provide initial LAI values compared to other methods. To determine the non-photosynthesis elements and foliage clumping effects for optical methods, a new device named MCOS (Multi- Purpose Canopy Observation System) and TRAC were used. Finally, the results show that with the combination of MCOS or TRAC and LAI-2000 or hemispherical photography can provide accurate and efficient LAI values.

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF VITRIFIED SAVANNAH RIVER SITE SB4 WASTE SURROGATE PRODUCED IN COLD CRUCIBLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, J

    2008-08-05

    Savannah River Site (SRS) sludge batch 4 (SB4) waste surrogate with high aluminum and iron content was vitrified with commercially available Frit 503-R4 (8 wt.% Li{sub 2}O, 16 wt.% B2O3, 76 wt.% SiO{sub 2}) by cold crucible inductive melting using lab- (56 mm inner diameter), bench- (236 mm) and large-scale (418 mm) cold crucible. The waste loading ranged between 40 and 60 wt.%. The vitrified products obtained in the lab-scale cold crucible were nearly amorphous with traces of unreacted quartz in the product with 40 wt.% waste loading and traces of spinel phase in the product with 50 wt.% waste loading. The glassy products obtained in the bench-scale cold crucible are composed of major vitreous and minor iron-rich spinel phase whose content at {approx}60 wt.% waste loading may achieve {approx}10 vol.%. The vitrified waste obtained in the large-scale cold crucible was also composed of major vitreous and minor spinel structure phases. No nepheline phase has been found. Average degree of crystallinity was estimated to be {approx}12 vol.%. Anionic motif of the glass network is built from rather short metasilicate chains and boron-oxygen constituent based on boron-oxygen triangular units.

  13. Treatment of M-area mixed wastes at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy has prepared this environmental assessment, DOE/EA-0918, to assess the potential environmental impacts of the treatment of mixed wastes currently stored in the M-Area at the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina. DOE is proposing to treat and stabilize approximately 700,000 gallons of mixed waste currently stored in the Interim Treatment/Storage Facility (IT/SF) and Mixed Waste Storage Shed (MWSS). This waste material is proposed to be stabilized using a vitrification process and temporarily stored until final disposal is available by the year 2005. This document has been prepared to assess the potential environmental impacts attributable to the treatment and stabilization of M-area mixed wastes, the closure of the interim storage area, and storage of the vitrified waste until disposal in onsite RCRA vaults. Based on the analyses in the environmental assessment, the Department of Energy has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and the Department of Energy is issuing this finding of no significant impact.

  14. Microcrustaceans (Branchipoda and Copepoda) of Wetland Impoundments on the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBiase, Adrienne E; Taylor, Barbara E

    2005-09-21

    The United States Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina, contains an abundance of freshwater wetlands and impoundments. Four large impoundments, as well as several small, abandoned farm and mill ponds, and about 400 Carolina bays and other small, isolated depression wetland ponds are located within the 893 km2 area of the SRS. Crustaceans of the orders Branchiopoda and Copepoda are nearly ubiquitous in these water bodies. Although small in size, these organisms are often very abundant. They consequently play an important trophic role in freshwater food webs supporting fish, larval salamanders, larval insects, and numerous other animals, aquatic and terrestrial. This report provides an introduction to the free-living microcrustaceans of lentic water bodies on the SRS and a comprehensive list of species known to occur there. Occurrence patterns are summarized from three extensive survey studies, supplemented with other published and unpublished records. In lieu of a key, we provide a guide to taxonomic resources and notes on undescribed species. Taxa covered include the orders Cladocera, Anostraca, Laevicaudata, and Spinicaudata of the Subclass Branchiopoda and the Superorders Calanoida and Cyclopoida of Subclass Copepoda. Microcrustaceans of the Superorder Harpacticoida of the Subclass Copepoda and Subclass Ostracoda are also often present in lentic water bodies. They are excluded from this report because they have not received much study at the species level on the SRS.

  15. Variation in Bachman's Sparrow home-range size at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stober, J.M.; Krementz, D.G.

    2006-01-01

    Using radiotelemetry, we studied variation in home-range size of the Bachman's Sparrow (Aimophila aestivalis) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, during the 1995 breeding season. At SRS, sparrows occurred primarily in two habitats: mature pine habitats managed for Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) and pine plantations 1 to 6 years of age. The mean 95% minimum convex polygon home-range size for males and females combined (n = 14) was 2.95 ha + 0.57 SE, across all habitats. Mean homerange size for males in mature pine stands (4.79 ha + 0.27, n = 4) was significantly larger than that in 4-year-old (3.00 ha + 0.31, n = 3) and 2-year-old stands (1.46 ha + 0.31, it = 3). Home-range sizes of paired males and females (it = 4 pairs) were similar within habitat type; mean distances between consecutive locations differed by habitat type and sex. We hypothesize that a gradient in food resources drives home-range dynamics.

  16. Evaluation Of Sludge Heel Dissolution Efficiency With Oxalic Acid Cleaning At Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudduth, Christie; Vitali, Jason; Keefer, Mark

    2014-01-08

    The chemical cleaning process baseline strategy at the Savannah River Site was revised to improve efficiency during future execution of the process based on lessons learned during previous bulk oxalic acid cleaning activities and to account for operational constraints imposed by safety basis requirements. These improvements were also intended to transcend the difficulties that arise from waste removal in higher rheological yield stress sludge tanks. Tank 12 implemented this improved strategy and the bulk oxalic acid cleaning efforts concluded in July 2013. The Tank 12 radiological removal results were similar to previous bulk oxalic acid cleaning campaigns despite the fact that Tank 12 contained higher rheological yield stress sludge that would make removal more difficult than the sludge treated in previous cleaning campaigns. No appreciable oxalate precipitation occurred during the cleaning process in Tank 12 compared to previous campaigns, which aided in the net volume reduction of 75-80%. Overall, the controls established for Tank 12 provide a template for an improved cleaning process.

  17. Field Measurements at River and Tidal Current Sites for Hydrokinetic Energy Development: Best Practices Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neary, Vincent S [ORNL; Gunawan, Budi [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2011-09-01

    In this report, existing data collection techniques and protocols for characterizing open channel flows are reviewed and refined to further address the needs of the MHK industry. The report provides an overview of the hydrodynamics of river and tidal channels, and the working principles of modern acoustic instrumentation, including best practices in remote sensing methods that can be applied to hydrokinetic energy site characterization. Emphasis is placed upon acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) and acoustic-Doppler current profiler (ADCP) instruments, as these represent the most practical and economical tools for use in the MHK industry. Incorporating the best practices as found in the literature, including the parameters to be measured, the instruments to be deployed, the instrument deployment strategy, and data post-processing techniques. The data collected from this procedure aims to inform the hydro-mechanical design of MHK systems with respect to energy generation and structural loading, as well as provide reference hydrodynamics for environmental impact studies. The standard metrics and protocols defined herein can be utilized to guide field experiments with MHK systems.

  18. Endangered, threatened, and rare vascular flora of the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, J.N.; Sharitz, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    This report summarizes information on the 30 endangered, threatened, or rare plants found on the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina. Of these 30 species, eight are under review by the US Fish and Wildlife Service as possible candidates for the proposed threatened and endangered list. Twenty-seven of the species are on the state of South Carolina's list prepared by the South Carolina Advisory Committee on Rare, Threatened, and Endangered Vascular Plants. These 27 plants include regionally threatened species, statewide threatened species, and rare species. Approximately two-thirds of these plants are found in wetland habitats. Also included in this report are summaries of 29 plant species that are likely to occur on the SRS, but have not been found there. Fourteen of these plants are on the federal list and range in status from endangered to possible candidates for deletion from the list. Twenty-eight are on the state of South Carolina list; approximately two-thirds of these also occur in wetland habitats. 31 refs., 45 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Summary Of Cold Crucible Vitrification Tests Results With Savannah River Site High Level Waste Surrogates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanovsky, Sergey; Marra, James; Lebedev, Vladimir

    2014-01-13

    The cold crucible inductive melting (CCIM) technology successfully applied for vitrification of low- and intermediate-level waste (LILW) at SIA Radon, Russia, was tested to be implemented for vitrification of high-level waste (HLW) stored at Savannah River Site, USA. Mixtures of Sludge Batch 2 (SB2) and 4 (SB4) waste surrogates and borosilicate frits as slurries were vitrified in bench- (236 mm inner diameter) and full-scale (418 mm inner diameter) cold crucibles. Various process conditions were tested and major process variables were determined. Melts were poured into 10L canisters and cooled to room temperature in air or in heat-insulated boxes by a regime similar to Canister Centerline Cooling (CCC) used at DWPF. The products with waste loading from ~40 to ~65 wt.% were investigated in details. The products contained 40 to 55 wt.% waste oxides were predominantly amorphous; at higher waste loadings (WL) spinel structure phases and nepheline were present. Normalized release values for Li, B, Na, and Si determined by PCT procedure remain lower than those from EA glass at waste loadings of up to 60 wt.%.

  20. Characteristics of sediment transport at selected sites along the Missouri River, 2011–12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, David L.; Galloway, Joel M.; Alexander, Jason S.

    2015-10-22

    Extreme flooding in the Missouri River in 2011, followed by a year of more typical streamflows in 2012, allowed the sediment-transport regime to be compared between the unprecedented conditions of 2011 and the year immediately following the flooding. As part of a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, this report follows up U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2013–5006 by comparing sediment transport between years and among sampling sites spanning the Garrison Segment in North Dakota, the Gavins Point Segment downstream from Lewis and Clark Lake, and a part of the Channelized Segment along the Nebraska-Iowa border. Suspended sediment, bed material, bedload, and streamflow data from June 2011 through November 2012 were designated as “measured” total loads, wash loads, and bed-material loads; and, alternatively, were applied to the Modified-Einstein Procedure to compute sediment loads that were designated as “estimated” total loads.

  1. Savannah River Site A/M Area Southern Sector Characterization Cone Penetrometer Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raabe, B.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is located in the Atlantic Coastal Plaingeologic province. This area is characterized by low relief, predominantly unconsolidated sediments of Cretaceous though Tertiary age. A multiple aquifer system underlies the A/M Area and affects the definition and distribution of a contaminant plume. The water table and uppermost confined aquifer (Steed Pond Aquifer) are contaminated with elevated concentrations of trichloroethylene(TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and their associated compounds. The deeper aquifers in this area have less widely spread chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination.Cone penetrometer testing was selected as the method of investigation because it is minimally invasive, offers advanced technological capabilities in gathering lithologic data, and offers groundwater sampling capabilities. CPT testing utilizes a hydraulic push tool system. The probe collects real-time data that is processed by computer into soil/lithology classifications. The system can also be used to collect sediment and soil vapor samples although these features were not utilized during this project. Advantages of the CPT system include a small borehole diameter which minimizes cross-contamination of lithologic units, virtual elimination of drill cuttings and fluids that require disposal, collection of various types of undisturbed sediment and water samples and plotting of hydrostratigraphic and lithologic data while in the field.

  2. Summary Of Cold Crucible Vitrification Tests Results With Savannah River Site High Level Waste Surrogates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanovsky, Sergey; Marra, James; Lebedev, Vladimir

    2014-01-13

    The cold crucible inductive melting (CCIM) technology successfully applied for vitrification of low- and intermediate-level waste (LILW) at SIA Radon, Russia, was tested to be implemented for vitrification of high-level waste (HLW) stored at Savannah River Site, USA. Mixtures of Sludge Batch 2 (SB2) and 4 (SB4) waste surrogates and borosilicate frits as slurries were vitrified in bench- (236 mm inner diameter) and full-scale (418 mm inner diameter) cold crucibles. Various process conditions were tested and major process variables were determined. Melts were poured into 10L canisters and cooled to room temperature in air or in heat-insulated boxes by a regime similar to Canister Centerline Cooling (CCC) used at DWPF. The products with waste loading from ~40 to ~65 wt.% were investigated in details. The products contained 40 to 55 wt.% waste oxides were predominantly amorphous; at higher waste loadings (WL) spinel structure phases and nepheline were present. Normalized release values for Li, B, Na, and Si determined by PCT procedure remain lower than those from EA glass at waste loadings of up to 60 wt.%.

  3. Intermediate-Scale Ion Exchange Removal of Technetium from Savannah River Site Tank 44 F Supernate Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W.D.

    2000-08-23

    As part of the Hanford River Protection Project waste Treatment facility design contracted to BNFL, Inc., a sample of Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 4 F waste solution was treated for the removal of technetium (as pertechnetate ion). Interest in treating the SRS sample for Tc removal resulted from the similarity between the Tank 44 F supernate composition and Hanford Envelope A supernate solutions. The Tank 44 F sample was available as a by-product of tests already conducted at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) as part of the Alternative Salt Disposition Program for treatment of SRS wastes. Testing of the SRS sample resulted in considerable cost-savings since it was not necessary to ship a sample of Hanford supernate to SRS.

  4. Transfer of Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant and N Reactor irradiated fuel for storage at the 105-KE and 105-KW fuel storage basins, Hanford Site, Richland Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) needs to remove irradiated fuel from the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant and N Reactor at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, to stabilize the facilities in preparation for decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) and to reduce the cost of maintaining the facilities prior to D&D. DOE is proposing to transfer approximately 3.9 metric tons (4.3 short tons) of unprocessed irradiated fuel, by rail, from the PUREX Plant in the 200 East Area and the 105 N Reactor (N Reactor) fuel storage basin in the 100 N Area, to the 105-KE and 105-KW fuel storage basins (K Basins) in the 100 K Area. The fuel would be placed in storage at the K Basins, along with fuel presently stored, and would be dispositioned in the same manner as the other existing irradiated fuel inventory stored in the K Basins. The fuel transfer to the K Basins would consolidate storage of fuels irradiated at N Reactor and the Single Pass Reactors. Approximately 2.9 metric tons (3.2 short tons) of single-pass production reactor, aluminum clad (AC) irradiated fuel in four fuel baskets have been placed into four overpack buckets and stored in the PUREX Plant canyon storage basin to await shipment. In addition, about 0.5 metric tons (0.6 short tons) of zircaloy clad (ZC) and a few AC irradiated fuel elements have been recovered from the PUREX dissolver cell floors, placed in wet fuel canisters, and stored on the canyon deck. A small quantity of ZC fuel, in the form of fuel fragments and chips, is suspected to be in the sludge at the bottom of N Reactor`s fuel storage basin. As part of the required stabilization activities at N Reactor, this sludge would be removed from the basin and any identifiable pieces of fuel elements would be recovered, placed in open canisters, and stored in lead lined casks in the storage basin to await shipment. A maximum of 0.5 metric tons (0.6 short tons) of fuel pieces is expected to be recovered.

  5. Dating of sediment record at two contrasting sites of the Seine River using radioactivity data and hydrological time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrel, Anne; Boust, Dominique; Lesueur, Patrick; Deloffre, Julien; Dubrulle-Brunaud, Carole; Solier, Luc; Rozet, Marianne; Thouroude, Coralie; Cossonnet, Catherine; Thomas, Sandrine

    2013-12-01

    Sediment cores were collected at the outlet of the highly anthropogenized catchment of the Seine River at two contrasting sites: a flood plain of the lower Seine River and a quasi-permanently submerged harbour basin (or wet dock) in the upper tidal estuary. Analyses of artificial radionuclides ((137)Cs and plutonium isotopes), coupled with hydrological and bathymetric data, lead to a precise dating of the sediment cores collected at the two sites. (137)Cs signals originating from global fallout (early 1960s) and from the Chernobyl accident (1986) are identified, but at different levels due to the incomplete nature or variable continuity of the records. Anomalous (238)Pu concentrations found at both sites (1-2 Bq kg(-1)) are attributed to unknown industrial releases originating from upstream. Interpolating (137)Cs sediment activities under the assumption of a constant sediment rate, those releases were dated back to 1975 ± 1, thus providing a local but reliable time-marker. Age models have highlighted a very contrasting sediment filling dynamics in these two sites. This study presents the first sediment record of alpha- and gamma-emitting artificial radionuclides obtained at the outlet of the huge catchment area of the River Seine, over a period covering the last 50 years.

  6. Regulatory Framework for Salt Waste Disposal and Tank Closure at the Savannah River Site - 13663

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Steve; Dickert, Ginger [Savannah River Remediation LLC, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The end of the Cold War has left a legacy of approximately 37 million gallons of radioactive waste in the aging waste tanks at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). A robust program is in place to remove waste from these tanks, treat the waste to separate into a relatively small volume of high-level waste and a large volume of low-level waste, and to actively dispose of the low-level waste on-site and close the waste tanks and associated ancillary structures. To support performance-based, risk-informed decision making and to ensure compliance with all regulatory requirements, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its current and past contractors have worked closely with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to develop and implement a framework for on-site low-level waste disposal and closure of the SRS waste tanks. The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, provides DOE the authority to manage defense-related radioactive waste. DOE Order 435.1 and its associated manual and guidance documents detail this radioactive waste management process. The DOE also has a requirement to consult with the NRC in determining that waste that formerly was classified as high-level waste can be safely managed as either low-level waste or transuranic waste. Once DOE makes a determination, NRC then has a responsibility to monitor DOE's actions in coordination with SCDHEC to ensure compliance with the Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 61 (10CFR61), Subpart C performance objectives. The management of hazardous waste substances or components at SRS is regulated by SCDHEC and the EPA. The foundation for the interactions between DOE, SCDHEC and EPA is the SRS Federal Facility Agreement (FFA). Managing this array of requirements and successfully interacting with regulators, consultants and stakeholders is a challenging task but

  7. Long-Term Assessment of Critical Radionuclides and Associated Environmental Media at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, G. T.; Baker, R. A.; Lee, P. L.; Eddy, T. P.; Blount, G. C.; Whitney, G. R.

    2012-11-06

    During the operational history of the Savannah River Site (SRS), many different radionuclides have been released from site facilities. However, only a relatively small number of the released radionuclides have been significant contributors to doses and risks to the public. At SRS dose and risk assessments indicate tritium oxide in air and surface water, and Cs-137 in fish and deer have been, and continue to be, the critical radionuclides and pathways. In this assessment, indepth statistical analyses of the long-term trends of tritium oxide in atmospheric and surface water releases and Cs-137 concentrations in fish and deer are provided. Correlations also are provided with 1) operational changes and improvements, 2) geopolitical events (Cold War cessation), and 3) recent environmental remediation projects and decommissioning of excess facilities. For example, environmental remediation of the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins and the Solid Waste Disposal Facility have resulted in a measurable impact on the tritium oxide flux to the onsite Fourmile Branch stream. Airborne releases of tritium oxide have been greatly affected by operational improvements and the end of the Cold War in 1991. However, the effects of SRS environmental remediation activities and ongoing tritium operations on tritium concentrations in the environment are measurable and documented in this assessment. Controlled hunts of deer and feral hogs are conducted at SRS for approximately six weeks each year. Before any harvested animal is released to a hunter, SRS personnel perform a field analysis for Cs-137 concentrations to ensure the hunter's dose does not exceed the SRS administrative game limit of 0.22 millisievert (22 mrem). However, most of the Cs-137 found in SRS onsite deer is not from site operations but is from nuclear weapons testing fallout from the 1950's and early 1960's. This legacy source term is trended in the SRS deer, and an assessment of the ''effective'' half-life of Cs-137 in deer

  8. Radionuclide transport in the Yenisei River

    CERN Document Server

    Vakulovsky, S M; Kabanov, A I

    2012-01-01

    Data characterizing the pollution of the Yenisei River (water and bottom sediment) by radionuclide resulting from the use of the river water for cooling industrial reactors in the Mining-Chemical Complex are presented. Studies have been made of the contamination of the river during the period when reactors with direct flow cooling were used and after these were shut down. Distinctive features of the migration of radionuclide in the Yenisei are noted, in particular, their distribution between the solid and liquid phases. The amounts of 137Cs, 65Zn, 60Co, 54Mn, and 152Eu in the channel are determined from the effluent discharge site to Dudinka port. The rate of continuous self removal of 137Cs is estimated to be 0.19 1/year, corresponding to a half purification time of 3.6 years for a 600 km long segment of the river bed.

  9. Intensive archaeological survey of the proposed Central Sanitary Wastewater Treatment Facility, Savannah River Site, Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, D.K.; Sassaman, K.E.

    1993-11-01

    The project area for the proposed Central Sanitary Wastewater Treatment Facility on the Savannah River Site includes a six-acre tract along Fourmile Branch and 18 mi of trunk line corridors. Archaeological investigations of the six-acre parcel resulted in the discovery of one small prehistoric site designated 38AK465. This cultural resource does not have the potential to add significantly to archaeological knowledge of human occupation in the region. The Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) therefore recommends that 38AK465 is not eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) and further recommends a determination of no effect. Archaeological survey along the trunk line corridors implicated previously recorded sites 38AK92, 38AK145, 38AK415, 38AK417, 38AK419, and 38AK436. Past disturbance from construction had severely disturbed 38AK92 and no archaeological evidence of 38AK145, 38AK419, and 38AK436 was recovered during survey. Lacking further evidence for the existence of these sites, the SRARP recommends that 38AK92, 38AK145, 38AK419, and 38AK436 are not eligible for nomination to the NRHP and thus warrant a determination of no effect. Two of these sites, 38Ak415 and 38AK417, required further investigation to evaluate their archaeological significance. Both of the sites have the potential to yield significant data on the prehistoric period occupation of the Aiken Plateau and the SRARP recommends that they are eligible for nomination to the NRHP. The Savannah River Archaeological Research Program recommends that adverse effects to sites 38AK415 and 38AK417 from proposed construction can be mitigated through avoidance.

  10. Changes in water quality of a small urban river triggered by deep drainage of a construction site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartnik Adam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the monitoring of the selected physicochemical properties of the Jasień River waters (in Łódź, the third biggest city of Poland and their changes under the influence of drainage of a railway station Łódź Fabryczna construction site. Even 25 years ago the Jasień River was a receiver for the sewage from the Łódź textile factories. The drainage of the excavations and disposal of the water into the Jasień River was started on January 2014 and changed stable hydrological, physical and chemical regime of the river once again. In a consequence, average monthly flows exceeded the Jasień River flow in its upper section by six times, and at the beginning by even ten times. Chloride concentration was systematically growing over the study period. This growth and higher water pH were probably associated with increasing level of contaminants in the discharged water and its gradually decreasing uptake. Average annual water temperature increased and a decrease in its amplitude was observed. The annual conductivity and pH patterns became more uniform and the changes in pH followed a clear trend of monthly changes. Water turbidity increased by two times and during summer floods this parameter was often even a few times higher than before the drainage commenced. Chlorides improved water conductance and sodium and potassium increased basicity.

  11. Reactor Materials Program: Mechanical properties of irradiated Types 304 and 304L stainless steel weldment components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, R.L.; Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1991-12-01

    The vessels (reactor tanks) of the Savannah River Site nuclear production reactors constructed in the 1950`s are comprised of Type 304 stainless steel with Type 308 stainless steel weld filler. Irradiation exposure to the reactor tank sidewalls through reactor operation has caused a change in the mechanical properties of these materials. A database of as-irradiated mechanical properties for site-specific materials and irradiation conditions has been produced for reactor tank structural analyses and to quantify the effects of radiation-induced materials degradation for evaluating reactor service life. The data has been collected from the SRL Reactor Materials Program (RMP) irradiations and testing of archival stainless steel weldment components and from previous SRL programs to measure properties of irradiated reactor Thermal Shield weldments and reactor tank (R-tank) sidewall material. Irradiation programs of the RMP are designed to quantify mechanical properties at tank operating temperatures following irradiation to present and future tank wall maximum exposure conditions. The exposure conditions are characterized in terms of fast neutron fluence (E{sub n} > 0.1 MeV) and displacements per atom (dpa){sup 3}. Tensile properties, Charpy-V notch toughness, and elastic-plastic fracture toughness were measured for base, weld, and weld heat-affected zone (HAZ) weldment components from archival piping specimens following a Screening Irradiation in the University of Buffalo Reactor (UBR) and following a Full-Term Irradiation in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR).

  12. Reactor Materials Program: Mechanical properties of irradiated Types 304 and 304L stainless steel weldment components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, R.L.; Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1991-12-01

    The vessels (reactor tanks) of the Savannah River Site nuclear production reactors constructed in the 1950's are comprised of Type 304 stainless steel with Type 308 stainless steel weld filler. Irradiation exposure to the reactor tank sidewalls through reactor operation has caused a change in the mechanical properties of these materials. A database of as-irradiated mechanical properties for site-specific materials and irradiation conditions has been produced for reactor tank structural analyses and to quantify the effects of radiation-induced materials degradation for evaluating reactor service life. The data has been collected from the SRL Reactor Materials Program (RMP) irradiations and testing of archival stainless steel weldment components and from previous SRL programs to measure properties of irradiated reactor Thermal Shield weldments and reactor tank (R-tank) sidewall material. Irradiation programs of the RMP are designed to quantify mechanical properties at tank operating temperatures following irradiation to present and future tank wall maximum exposure conditions. The exposure conditions are characterized in terms of fast neutron fluence (E{sub n} > 0.1 MeV) and displacements per atom (dpa){sup 3}. Tensile properties, Charpy-V notch toughness, and elastic-plastic fracture toughness were measured for base, weld, and weld heat-affected zone (HAZ) weldment components from archival piping specimens following a Screening Irradiation in the University of Buffalo Reactor (UBR) and following a Full-Term Irradiation in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR).

  13. Evaluation of Alternate Materials and Methods for Strontium and Alpha Removal from Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D.T.

    2000-11-07

    A literature survey indicated a number of alternate materials and methods for the removal of strontium and alpha-emitting radionuclides (actinides). We evaluated the use of alternate materials versus proposed flowsheets for salt processing at the Savannah River Site (SRS). From this evaluation we recommend the following materials for further testing to determine the rate and extent of removal. We do not recommend testing of liquid/liquid extraction and polymer filtration methods at this time.

  14. Characterization and reclamation assessment for the Central Shops Diesel Storage Facility, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliermans, C.B.; Hazen, T.C.; Bledsoe, H.

    1993-10-01

    The contamination of subsurface terrestrial environments by organic contaminants is a global phenomenon. The remediation of such environments requires innovative assessment techniques and strategies for successful clean-ups. Central Shops Diesel Storage Facility at Savannah River Site was characterized to determine the extent of subsurface diesel fuel contamination using innovative approaches and effective bioremediation techniques for clean-up of the contaminant plume have been established.

  15. Compliance of the Savannah River Site D-Area cooling system with environmental regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.; Mackey, H.E.; Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.; Wilde, E.W. (eds.)

    1990-08-01

    This document presents information relating to a demonstration under Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act for the 400-D Area cooling system at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The demonstration was mandated because the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for SRS (SC0000175), granted on January 1, 1984, specified in-stream temperature limits in SRS streams of 32.2{degree}C and a {Delta}T limit of 2.8{degree}C above ambient. To achieve compliance with in-stream temperature limits, the Department of Energy (DOE) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) entered into a Consent Order (84-4-W) which temporarily superseded the temperature requirements and identified a process for attaining compliance. The preferred option for achieving thermal compliance in Beaver Dam Creek consisted of increased flow, with mixing of the raw water basin overflow with the cooling water discharge during the summer months. Although this action can achieve instream temperatures of less than 32.2{degree}C, {Delta}T's still exceed 2.8{degree}C. Therefore, a 316 (a) Demonstration was initiated to determine whether a balanced indigenous biological community can be supported in the receiving stream with {Delta}T's in excess of 2.8{degree}C. A Biological Monitoring Program for Beaver Dam Creek was approved by SCDHEC in June 1988 and implemented in September 1988. The program monitored the water quality, habitat formers, zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, fish, other vertebrate wildlife and threatened and endangered species in Beaver Dam Creek for an 18-month period (September 1988-February 1990). This document summarizes information collected during the monitoring program and evaluates the data to determine whether Beaver Dam Creek presently supports a balanced indigenous biological community. 97 refs., 32 figs., 51 tabs.

  16. Evaluation and Mitigation of the Risk Due to Climate Change at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, D. W.

    2016-12-01

    The state of South Carolina, home to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS), has been identified as facing an `above average' risk due to extreme heat, and the threat due to wildfire is expected to nearly double by 2050. To comply with DOE requirements that each of its sites prepares for climate change, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is involved in an ongoing process to evaluate the site vulnerability and establish policies to mitigate those effects. This requires close cooperation between the managers of various site facilities and on-site climate researchers. The Atmospheric Technologies Group at SRNL currently provides short-term weather forecasts to support outdoor activities on site, but is also now working with site decision-makers to achieve DOE's goals of climate change mitigation and adaptation. We will discuss the results of our climate vulnerability assessment, which includes the effects of climate change on the energy requirements for mission critical infrastructure, the health, safety and productivity of the outdoor workforce, the danger of fire in the SRS forest, and the levels of surface water impoundments. (The latter of which must be maintained to avoid the release of radioactive contaminants sequestered beneath them). For each of these, existing climate change projections were carefully studied and `translated' into numerical indices relevant to facility personnel at SRS, along with a vulnerability rating (also based on conversations with site workers) to estimate the most endangered `assets'. We will also explain the process we have developed to facilitate effective communication between researchers and managers - involving them both in the development of the climate vulnerability assessment and the next steps toward planning, resource allocation, actions to mitigate rising costs, and safety considerations as well as helping the site remain sustainable throughout the future of its missions.

  17. U.S. Department of Energy electric and hybrid vehicle Site Operator Program at Platte River Power Authority. Final report, July 3, 1991--August 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmert, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    The Platte River Power Authority (Platte River) is a political subdivision of the state of Colorado, owned by the four municipalities of Fort Collins, Loveland, Longmont and Estes Park, Colorado. Platte River is a non-profit, publicly owned, joint-action agency formed to construct, operate and maintain generating plants, transmission systems and related facilities for the purpose of delivering to the four municipalities electric energy for distribution and resale. Platte River, as a participant in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Site Operator Program, worked to accomplish the Site Operator Program goals and objectives to field test and evaluate electric and electric-hybrid vehicles and electric vehicle systems in a real world application/environment. This report presents results of Platte River`s program (Program) during the five-years Platte River participated in the DOE Site Operator Program. Platte River participated in DOE Site Operator Program from July 3, 1991 through August 31, 1996. During its Program, Platte River conducted vehicle tests and evaluations, and electric vehicle demonstrations in the Front Range region of Northern Colorado. Platte River also investigated electric vehicle infrastructure issues and tested infrastructure components. Platte River`s Program objectives were as follows: evaluate the year round performance, operational costs, reliability, and life cycle costs of electric vehicles in the Front Range region of Northern Colorado; evaluate an electric vehicle`s usability and acceptability as a pool vehicle; test any design improvements or technological improvements on a component level that may be made available to PRPA and which can be retrofit into vehicles; and develop, test and evaluate, and demonstrate components to be used in charging electric vehicles.

  18. Fish and other faunal remains from a Late Iron Age site on the Letaba River, Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Plug

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available Fish remains from Late Iron Age sites in the Transvaal are relatively scarce. It seems as if the people did not utilize the riverine resources extensively. Therefore the unique assemblage of large numbers of fish bones on a Late Iron Age site, provides some insight into the fish population of a section of the Letaba River a few hundred years ago. The presence of other faunal remains provides some information on prehistoric utilization of the environment in general. Hunting strategies and aspects of herding can also be deduced from the faunal remains.

  19. Redd Site Selection and Spawning Habitat Use by Fall Chinook Salmon, Hanford Reach, Columbia River : Final Report 1995 - 1998.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, David R.

    1999-05-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted from 1995 through 1998 on identifying the spawning habitat requirements of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The project investigated whether traditional spawning habitat models could be improved in order to make better predictions of available habitat for fall chinook salmon in the Snake River. Results suggest models could be improved if they used spawning area-specific, rather than river-specific, spawning characteristics; incorporated hyporheic discharge measurements; and gave further consideration to the geomorphic features that are present in the unconstrained segments of large alluvial rivers. Ultimately the recovery of endangered fall chinook salmon will depend on how well we are able to recreate the characteristics once common in alluvial floodplains of large rivers. The results from this research can be used to better define the relationship between these physical habitat characteristics and fall chinook salmon spawning site selection, and provide more efficient use of limited recovery resources. This report is divided into four chapters which were presented in the author's doctoral dissertation which he completed through the Department of Fisheries and Wildlife at Oregon State University. Each of the chapters has been published in peer reviewed journals or is currently under review. Chapter one is a conceptual spawning habitat model that describes how geomorphic features of river channels create hydraulic processes, including hyporheic flows, that influence where salmon spawn in unconstrained reaches of large mainstem alluvial rivers. Chapter two describes the comparison of the physical factors associated with fall chinook salmon redd clusters located at two sites within the Reach. Spatial point pattern analysis of redds showed that redd clusters averaged approximately 10 hectares in area and their locations were consistent from

  20. Data Validation Package - June 2016 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Green River, Utah, Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Joshua [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Price, Jeffrey [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-10-10

    This event included annual sampling of groundwater and surface water locations at the Green River, Utah, Disposal Site. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for US. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lrnldownloads/sampling-and- analysis-plan-us-department-energy-office-legacy-management-sites). Samples were collected from 15 monitoring wells and two surface locations at the disposal site as specified in the draft 2011 Ground Water Compliance Action Plan for the Green River, Utah, Disposal Site. Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. A duplicate sample was collected from location 0179. One equipment blank was collected during this sampling event. Water levels were measured at all monitoring wells that were sampled. See Attachment 2, Trip Reports for additional details. The analytical data and associated qualifiers can be viewed in environmental database reports and are also available for viewing with dynamic mapping via the GEMS (Geospatial Environmental Mapping System) website at http://gems.lm.doe.gov/#. No issues were identified during the data validation process that requires additional action or follow-up.

  1. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 113: Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Building Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. L. Smith

    2001-01-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the action necessary for the closure in place of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 113 Area 25 Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility (R-MAD). CAU 113 is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (NDEP, 1996). The CAU is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-04-01, R-MAD Facility (Figures 1-2). This plan provides the methodology for closure in place of CAU 113. The site contains radiologically impacted and hazardous material. Based on preassessment field work, there is sufficient process knowledge to close in place CAU 113 using the SAFER process. At a future date when funding becomes available, the R-MAD Building (25-3110) will be demolished and inaccessible radiologic waste will be properly disposed in the Area 3 Radiological Waste Management Site (RWMS).

  2. Vegetation response to invasive Tamarix control in southwestern U.S. rivers: A collaborative study including 416 sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Eduardo; Sher, Anna A; Anderson, Robert M.; Bay, Robin F.; Bean, Daniel W.; Bissonnete, Gabriel J.; Bourgeois, Bérenger; Cooper, David J.; Dohrenwend, Kara; Eichhorst, Kim D.; El Waer, Hisham; Kennard, Deborah K.; Harms-Weissinger, Rebecca; Henry, Annie L.; Makarick, Lori J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Reynolds, Lindsay V.; Robinson, W. Wright; Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2017-01-01

    Most studies assessing vegetation response following control of invasive Tamarix trees along southwestern U.S. rivers have been small in scale (e.g., river reach), or at a regional scale but with poor spatial-temporal replication, and most have not included testing the effects of a now widely used biological control. We monitored plant composition following Tamarix control along hydrologic, soil, and climatic gradients in 244 treated and 172 reference sites across six U.S. states. This represents the largest comprehensive assessment to date on the vegetation response to the four most common Tamarix control treatments. Biocontrol by a defoliating beetle (treatment 1) reduced the abundance of Tamarix less than active removal by mechanically using hand and chain-saws (2), heavy machinery (3) or burning (4). Tamarix abundance also decreased with lower temperatures, higher precipitation, and follow-up treatments for Tamarix resprouting. Native cover generally increased over time in active Tamarix removal sites, however, the increases observed were small and was not consistently increased by active revegetation. Overall, native cover was correlated to permanent stream flow, lower grazing pressure, lower soil salinity and temperatures, and higher precipitation. Species diversity also increased where Tamarix was removed. However, Tamarix treatments, especially those generating the highest disturbance (burning and heavy machinery), also often promoted secondary invasions of exotic forbs. The abundance of hydrophytic species was much lower in treated than in reference sites, suggesting that management of southwestern U.S. rivers has focused too much on weed control, overlooking restoration of fluvial processes that provide habitat for hydrophytic and floodplain vegetation. These results can help inform future management of Tamarix-infested rivers to restore hydrogeomorphic processes, increase native biodiversity and reduce abundance of noxious species.

  3. Aquatic biological communities and associated habitats at selected sites in the Big Wood River Watershed, south-central Idaho, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCoy, Dorene E.; Short, Terry M.

    2016-09-28

    Assessments of streamflow (discharge) parameters, water quality, physical habitat, and biological communities were completed between May and September 2014 as part of a monitoring program in the Big Wood River watershed of south-central Idaho. The sampling was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Blaine County, Trout Unlimited, the Nature Conservancy, and the Wood River Land Trust to help identify the status of aquatic resources at selected locations in the watershed. Information in this report provides a basis with which to evaluate and monitor the long-term health of the Big Wood River and its major tributaries. Sampling sites were co-located with existing U.S. Geological Survey streamgaging stations: three on the main stem Big Wood River and four on the North Fork Big Wood River (North Fork), Warm Springs Creek (Warm Sp), Trail Creek (Trail Ck), and East Fork Big Wood River (East Fork) tributaries.The analytical results and quality-assurance information for water quality, physical habitat, and biological community samples collected at study sites during 2 weeks in September 2014 are summarized. Water-quality data include concentrations of major nutrients, suspended sediment, dissolved oxygen, and fecal-coliform bacteria. To assess the potential effects of nutrient enrichment on algal growth, concentrations of periphyton biomass (chlorophyll-a and ash free dry weight) in riffle habitats were determined at each site. Physical habitat parameters include stream channel morphology, habitat volume, instream structure, substrate composition, and riparian vegetative cover. Biological data include taxa richness, abundance, and stream-health indicator metrics for macroinvertebrate and fish communities. Statistical summaries of the water-quality, habitat, and biological data are provided along with discussion of how these findings relate to the health of aquatic resources in the Big Wood River watershed.Seasonal discharge patterns using statistical

  4. Integrated Project Management Planning for the Deactivation of the Savannah River Site F-Canyon Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, T.G.

    2000-12-01

    This paper explains the planning process that is being utilized by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company to take the F-Canyon Complex facilities from operations to a deactivated condition awaiting final decommissioning.

  5. Survey for contaminants in sediments and fish at selected sites on the Illinois River and tributaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A basin-wide survey of contaminants in sediments and biota at several locations on the Illinois River and selected tributaries was conducted during the 1989 field...

  6. Poverty Alleviation through Ecotourism in the Three Parallel Rivers World Heritage Site, Yunnan China

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, (Jenny) Juhyung

    2011-01-01

    Based on the material gathered from two months of fieldwork, this thesis explores the relations between ecotourism and poverty alleviation in the villages within the Three Parallel Rivers of the Yangtze (Jinsha), the Mekong (Lancang) and the Salween (Nu) rivers (henceforth TPR) in north-west Yunnan, China. The purpose of this research is to examine the mechanism of community-based ecotourism activities (horseback riding, nongjiale) and the dynamics of collaboration in maintaining these ecotou...

  7. Analysis of Dissolved Selenium Loading for Selected Sites in the Lower Gunnison River Basin, Colorado, 1978-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Judith C.; Leib, Kenneth J.; Mayo, John W.

    2008-01-01

    Elevated selenium concentrations in streams are a water-quality concern in western Colorado. The U.S. Geologic Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, summarized selenium loading in the Lower Gunnison River Basin to support the development of total maximum daily selenium loads at sites that represent the cumulative contribution to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 303(d) list segments. Analysis of selenium loading included quantifying loads and determining the amount of load that would need to be reduced to bring the site into compliance, referred to as 'the load reduction,' with the State chronic aquatic-life standard for dissolved selenium [85th percentile selenium concentration not to exceed 4.6 ?g/L (micrograms per liter)], referred to as 'the water-quality standard.' Streamflow and selenium concentration data for 54 historical water-quality/water-quantity monitoring sites were compiled from U.S. Geological Survey and Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment data sources. Three methods were used for analysis of selenium concentration data to address the variable data density among sites. Mean annual selenium loads were determined for only 10 of the 54 sites due to data availability limitations. Twenty-two sites had 85th percentile selenium concentrations that exceeded the water-quality standard, 3 sites had 85th percentile selenium concentrations less than the State standard, and 29 sites could not be evaluated with respect to 85th percentile selenium concentration (sample count less than 5). To bring selenium concentrations into compliance with the water-quality standard, more than 80 percent of the mean annual selenium load would need to be reduced at Red Rock Canyon, Dry Cedar Creek, Cedar Creek, Loutzenhizer Arroyo, Sunflower Drain, and Whitewater Creek. More than 50 percent of the mean annual load would need to be reduced at Dry Creek to bring the site into compliance with the water

  8. 78 FR 20625 - Spent Nuclear Fuel Management at the Savannah River Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... uranium using solvent extraction. \\2\\ Target materials are residual materials left after the desired... treatment system or H-Canyon's solvent extraction capacity and raffinate systems. The air and liquid... the production in a research reactor of molybdenum-99, which decays to technetium-99, a...

  9. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Site. Annual report, FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    Construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) on the Savannah River Site (SRS) began during FY-1984. The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has completed 15 years of ecological studies related to the construction of the DWPF complex. Prior to construction, the 600-acre site (S-Area) contained a Carolina bay and the headwaters of a stream. Through the long-term census taking of biota at the DWPF site and Rainbow Bay, SREL has been evaluating the impact of construction on the biota and the effectiveness of mitigation efforts. similarly, the effects of erosion from the DWPF site on the water quality of S-Area peripheral streams are being assessed. This research provides supporting data relevant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Executive orders 11988 (Floodplain Management) and 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and United States Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines for Compliance with Floodplain/Wetland Environmental Review Requirements (10 CFR 1022).

  10. Sanitary landfill local-scale flow and transport modeling in support of alternative concentrations limit demonstrations, Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, V.A.; Beach, J.A.; Statham, W.H.; Pickens, J.F. [INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    1993-02-19

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility located near Aiken, South Carolina which is currently operated and managed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Sanitary Landfill (Sanitary Landfill) at the SRS is located approximately 2,000 feet Northwest of Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) on an approximately 70 acre site located south of Road C between the SRS B-Area and UTRC. The Sanitary Landfill has been receiving wastes since 1974 and operates as an unlined trench and fill operation. The original landfill site was 32 acres. This area reached its capacity around 1987 and a Northern Expansion of 16 acres and a Southern Expansion of 22 acres were added in 1987. The Northern Expansion has not been used for waste disposal to date and the Southern Expansion is expected to reach capacity in 1992 or 1993. The waste received at the Sanitary Landfill is predominantly paper, plastics, rubber, wood, metal, cardboard, rags saturated with degreasing solvents, pesticide bags, empty cans, and asbestos in bags. The landfill is not supposed to receive any radioactive wastes. However, tritium has been detected in the groundwater at the site. Gross alpha and gross beta are also evaluated at the landfill. The objectives of this modeling study are twofold: (1) to create a local scale Sanitary Landfill flow model to study hydraulic effects resulting from capping the Sanitary Landfill; and (2) to create a Sanitary Landfill local scale transport model to support ACL Demonstrations for a RCRA Part B Permit Renewal.

  11. Identification of characteristic organic contaminants in wastewaters from modern paper production sites and subsequent tracing in a river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Botalova, Oxana; Illgut, Sarah; Bosowski, Sylwana; Schwarzbauer, Jan

    2015-12-30

    The paper industry is one of the most significant industrial branches that contributes to water pollution. Recent studies regarding the chemical composition of wastewaters from modern paper production sites are sparse, and organic contaminants originating from this source may remain undetected and uncontrolled. Therefore, for this study, non-target screening analyses of wastewaters from five different paper production sites were performed, including an extended analysis of one facility, for the identification of volatile non-polar to semi-polar organic contaminants. The identified contaminants were also traced in the adjacent river. Several specific agents related to paper production, including photoinitiators, ink and thermal paper constituents, were present in most wastewaters and were therefore considered to be characteristic paper industry contaminants. A couple of contaminants identified in this study are being reported for the first time and might be toxic, but have been neglected in previous studies. Bisphenol A and 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyne-4,7-diol were found in untreated wastewaters, treated wastewater and in river water. Bisphenol A was present in river water downstream from where the paper industry discharges at a concentration that was reported to affect the reproduction of gastropods. Thus, our findings imply that paper industry discharges pose a risk to the populations of sensitive macroinvertebrates.

  12. In-service Inspection of Radioactive Waste Tanks at the Savannah River Site – 15410

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, Bruce [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Maryak, Matthew [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Baxter, Lindsay [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States); Harris, Stephen [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Elder, James [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-12

    Liquid radioactive wastes from the Savannah River Site (SRS) separation process are stored in large underground carbon steel tanks. The high level wastes are processed in several of the tanks and then transferred by piping to other site facilities for further processing before they are stabilized in a vitrified or grout waste form. Based on waste removal and processing schedules, many of the tanks will be required to be in service for times exceeding the initial intended life. Until the waste is removed from storage, transferred, and processed, the materials and structures of the tanks must maintain a confinement function by providing a barrier to the environment and by maintaining acceptable structural stability during design basis events, which include loadings from both normal service and abnormal (e.g., earthquake) conditions. A structural integrity program is in place to maintain the structural and leak integrity functions of these waste tanks throughout their intended service life. In-service inspection (ISI) is an essential element of a comprehensive structural integrity program for the waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The ISI program was developed to determine the degree of degradation the waste tanks have experienced due to service conditions. As a result of the inspections, an assessment can be made of the effectiveness of corrosion controls for the waste chemistry, which precludes accelerated localized and general corrosion of the waste tanks. Ultrasonic inspections (UT) are performed to detect and quantify the degree of general wall thinning, pitting and cracking as a measure of tank degradation. The results from these inspections through 2013, for the 27 Type III/IIIA tanks, indicate no reportable in-service corrosion degradation in the primary tank (i.e., general, pitting, or cracking). The average wall thickness for all tanks remains above the manufactured nominal thickness minus 0.25 millimeter and the largest pit identified is

  13. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INCIPIENT SLUDGE MIXING IN RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE STORAGE TANKS DURING SALT SOLUTION BLENDING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Lee, S.; Steeper, T.; Fowley, M.; Parkinson, K.

    2011-01-12

    This paper is the second in a series of four publications to document ongoing pilot scale testing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of mixing processes in 85 foot diameter, 1.3 million gallon, radioactive liquid waste, storage tanks at Savannah River Site (SRS). Homogeneous blending of salt solutions is required in waste tanks. Settled solids (i.e., sludge) are required to remain undisturbed on the bottom of waste tanks during blending. Suspension of sludge during blending may potentially release radiolytically generated hydrogen trapped in the sludge, which is a safety concern. The first paper (Leishear, et. al. [1]) presented pilot scale blending experiments of miscible fluids to provide initial design requirements for a full scale blending pump. Scaling techniques for an 8 foot diameter pilot scale tank were also justified in that work. This second paper describes the overall reasons to perform tests, and documents pilot scale experiments performed to investigate disturbance of sludge, using non-radioactive sludge simulants. A third paper will document pilot scale CFD modeling for comparison to experimental pilot scale test results for both blending tests and sludge disturbance tests. That paper will also describe full scale CFD results. The final paper will document additional blending test results for stratified layers in salt solutions, scale up techniques, final full scale pump design recommendations, and operational recommendations. Specifically, this paper documents a series of pilot scale tests, where sludge simulant disturbance due to a blending pump or transfer pump are investigated. A principle design requirement for a blending pump is UoD, where Uo is the pump discharge nozzle velocity, and D is the nozzle diameter. Pilot scale test results showed that sludge was undisturbed below UoD = 0.47 ft{sup 2}/s, and that below UoD = 0.58 ft{sup 2}/s minimal sludge disturbance was observed. If sludge is minimally disturbed, hydrogen will not be

  14. Subsurface Nitrogen-Cycling Microbial Communities at Uranium Contaminated Sites in the Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarelli, E.; Bargar, J.; Williams, K. H.; Dam, W. L.; Francis, C.

    2015-12-01

    Throughout the Colorado River Basin (CRB), uranium (U) persists as a relic contaminant of former ore processing activities. Elevated solid-phase U levels exist in fine-grained, naturally-reduced zone (NRZ) sediments intermittently found within the subsurface floodplain alluvium of the following Department of Energy-Legacy Management sites: Rifle, CO; Naturita, CO; and Grand Junction, CO. Coupled with groundwater fluctuations that alter the subsurface redox conditions, previous evidence from Rifle, CO suggests this resupply of U may be controlled by microbially-produced nitrite and nitrate. Nitrification, the two-step process of archaeal and bacterial ammonia-oxidation followed by bacterial nitrite oxidation, generates nitrate under oxic conditions. Our hypothesis is that when elevated groundwater levels recede and the subsurface system becomes anoxic, the nitrate diffuses into the reduced interiors of the NRZ and stimulates denitrification, the stepwise anaerobic reduction of nitrate/nitrite to dinitrogen gas. Denitrification may then be coupled to the oxidation of sediment-bound U(IV) forming mobile U(VI), allowing it to resupply U into local groundwater supplies. A key step in substantiating this hypothesis is to demonstrate the presence of nitrogen-cycling organisms in U-contaminated, NRZ sediments from the upper CRB. Here we investigate how the diversity and abundances of nitrifying and denitrifying microbial populations change throughout the NRZs of the subsurface by using functional gene markers for ammonia-oxidation (amoA, encoding the α-subunit of ammonia monooxygenase) and denitrification (nirK, nirS, encoding nitrite reductase). Microbial diversity has been assessed via clone libraries, while abundances have been determined through quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), elucidating how relative numbers of nitrifiers (amoA) and denitrifiers (nirK, nirS) vary with depth, vary with location, and relate to uranium release within NRZs in sediment

  15. NEPTUNIUM IV AND V SORPTIN TO END-MEMBER SUBSURFACE SEDIMENTS TO THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, D.

    2009-11-13

    Migration of Np through the subsurface is expected to be primarily controlled by sorption to sediments. Therefore, understanding and quantifying Np sorption to sediments and sediments from the Savannah River Site (SRS) is vital to ensure safe disposal of Np bearing wastes. In this work, Np sorption to two sediments representing the geological extremes with respect to sorption properties expected in the SRS subsurface environment (named 'subsurface sandy sediment' and 'subsurface clayey sediment') was examined under a variety of conditions. First a series of baseline sorption tests at pH 5.5 under an oxic atmosphere was performed to understand Np sorption under typical subsurface conditions. These experiments indicated that the baseline K{sub d} values for the subsurface sandy and subsurface clayey sediments are 4.26 {+-} 0.24 L kg{sup -1} and 9.05 {+-} 0.61 L kg{sup -1}, respectively. These Np K{sub d} values of SRS sediments are the first to be reported since Sheppard et al. (1979). The previous values were 0.25 and 0.16 L kg{sup -1} for a low pH sandy sediment. To examine a possible range of K{sub d} values under various environmental scenarios, the effects of natural organic matter (NOM, also a surrogate for cellulose degradation products), the presence of various chemical reductants, and an anaerobic atmosphere on Np sorption were examined. The presence of NOM resulted in an increase in the Np K{sub d} values for both sediments. This behavior is hypothesized to be the result of formation of a ternary Np-NOM-sediment complex. Slight increases in the Np sorption (K{sub d} 13-24 L kg{sup -1}) were observed when performing experiments in the presence of chemical reductants (dithionite, ascorbic acid, zero-valent iron) or under anaerobic conditions. Presumably, the increased sorption can be attributed to a slight reduction of Np(V) to Np(IV), the stronger sorbing form of Np. The most significant result of this study is the finding that Np weakly

  16. DEMONSTRATION AND EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL HIGH LEVEL WASTE MELTER DECONTAMINATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weger, Hans, Ph.D.; Kodanda, Raja Tilek Meruva; Mazumdar, Anindra; Srivastava, Rajiv Ph.D.; Ebadian, M.A. Ph.D.

    2003-02-27

    Four hand-held tools were tested for failed high-level waste melter decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). The forces felt by the tools during operation were measured using a tri-axial accelerometer since they will be operated by a remote manipulator. The efficiency of the tools was also recorded. Melter D&D consists of three parts: (1) glass fracturing: removing from the furnace the melted glass that can not be poured out through normal means, (2) glass cleaning: removing the thin layer of glass that has formed over the surface of the refractory material, and (3) K-3 refractory breakup: removing the K-3 refractory material. Surrogate glass, from a formula provided by the Savannah River Site, was melted in a furnace and poured into steel containers. K-3 refractory material, the same material used in the Defense Waste Processing Facility, was utilized for the demonstrations. Four K-3 blocks were heated at 1150 C for two weeks with a glass layer on top to simulate the hardened glass layer on the refractory surface in the melter. Tools chosen for the demonstrations were commonly used D&D tools, which have not been tested specifically for the different aspects of melter D&D. A jackhammer and a needle gun were tested for glass fracturing; a needle gun and a rotary grinder with a diamond face wheel (diamond grinder) were tested for glass cleaning; and a jackhammer, diamond grinder, and a circular saw with a diamond blade were tested for refractory breakup. The needle gun was not capable of removing or fracturing the surrogate glass. The diamond grinder only had a removal rate of 3.0 x 10-4 kg/s for K-3 refractory breakup and needed to be held firmly against the material. However, the diamond grinder was effective for glass cleaning, with a removal rate of 3.9 cm2/s. The jackhammer was successful in fracturing glass and breaking up the K-3 refractory block. The jackhammer had a glass-fracturing rate of 0.40 kg/s. The jackhammer split the K-3 refractory block into two

  17. Hydrogeology and physical characteristics of water samples at the Red River aluminum site, Stamps, Arkansas, April 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, John B.; Stanton, Gregory P.; Freiwald, David A.

    2001-01-01

    The Red River Aluminum site near Stamps, Arkansas, contains waste piles of salt cake and metal byproducts from the smelting of aluminum. The waste piles are subjected to about 50 inches of rainfall a year, resulting in the dissolution of the salts and metal. To assess the potential threat to underlying ground-water resources at the site, its hydrogeology was characterized by measuring water levels and field parameters of water quality in 23 wells and at 2 surface-water sites. Seventeen of these monitor wells were constructed at various depths for this study to allow for the separate characterization of the shallow and deep ground-water systems, the calculation of vertical gradients, and the collection of water samples at different depths within the flow system. Lithologic descriptions from drill-hole cuttings and geophysical logs indicate the presence of interbedded sands, gravels, silts, and clays to depths of 65 feet. The regionally important Sparta aquifer underlies the site. Water levels in shallow wells indicate radial flow away from the salt-cake pile located near the center of the site. Flow in the deep system is to the west and southwest toward Bodcau Creek. Water-level data from eight piezometer nests indicate a downward hydraulic gradient from the shallow to deep systems across the site. Values of specific conductance (an indicator of dissolved salts) ranged from 215 to 196,200 microsiemens per centimeter and indicate that saline waters are being transported horizontally and vertically downward away from the site

  18. Kootenai River velocities, depth, and white sturgeon spawning site selection – A mystery unraveled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paragamian, V.L.; McDonald, R.; Nelson, G.J.; Barton, G.

    2009-01-01

    The Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus population in Idaho, US and British Columbia (BC), Canada became recruitment limited shortly after Libby Dam became fully operational on the Kootenai River, Montana, USA in 1974. In the USA the species was listed under the Endangered Species Act in September of 1994. Kootenai River white sturgeon spawn within an 18-km reach in Idaho, river kilometer (rkm) 228.0–246.0. Each autumn and spring Kootenai River white sturgeon follow a ‘short two-step’ migration from the lower river and Kootenay Lake, BC, to staging reaches downstream of Bonners Ferry, Idaho. Initially, augmented spring flows for white sturgeon spawning were thought to be sufficient to recover the population. Spring discharge mitigation enhanced white sturgeon spawning but a series of research investigations determined that the white sturgeon were spawning over unsuitable incubation and rearing habitat (sand) and that survival of eggs and larvae was negligible. It was not known whether post-Libby Dam management had changed the habitat or if the white sturgeon were not returning to more suitable spawning substrates farther upstream. Fisheries and hydrology researchers made a team effort to determine if the spawning habitat had been changed by Libby Dam operations. Researchers modeled and compared velocities, sediment transport, and bathymetry with post-Libby Dam white sturgeon egg collection locations. Substrate coring studies confirmed cobbles and gravel substrates in most of the spawning locations but that they were buried under a meter or more of post-Libby Dam sediment. Analysis suggested that Kootenai River white sturgeon spawn in areas of highest available velocity and depths over a range of flows. Regardless of the discharge, the locations of accelerating velocities and maximum depth do not change and spawning locations remain consistent. Kootenai River white sturgeon are likely spawning in the same locations as pre-dam, but post

  19. Drinking Water Quality Criterion - Based site Selection of Aquifer Storage and Recovery Scheme in Chou-Shui River Alluvial Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H. E.; Liang, C. P.; Jang, C. S.; Chen, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Land subsidence due to groundwater exploitation is an urgent environmental problem in Choushui river alluvial fan in Taiwan. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR), where excess surface water is injected into subsurface aquifers for later recovery, is one promising strategy for managing surplus water and may overcome water shortages. The performance of an ASR scheme is generally evaluated in terms of recovery efficiency, which is defined as percentage of water injected in to a system in an ASR site that fulfills the targeted water quality criterion. Site selection of an ASR scheme typically faces great challenges, due to the spatial variability of groundwater quality and hydrogeological condition. This study proposes a novel method for the ASR site selection based on drinking quality criterion. Simplified groundwater flow and contaminant transport model spatial distributions of the recovery efficiency with the help of the groundwater quality, hydrological condition, ASR operation. The results of this study may provide government administrator for establishing reliable ASR scheme.

  20. Palaeolithic sites in their landscape: El Horno Cave in the context of the Asón River Basin (Cantabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro GARCÍA MORENO

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on Palaeolithic groups has been based essentially on the study of the archaeological deposits resulting from the groups’ everyday activities. The present paper stresses the importance of information related to the location and characteristics of sites containing these Palaeolithic deposits. If an understanding of a site involves knowing its local and regional context, as the mobile nature of Palaeolithic societies seems to require, it is obviously necessary to obtain precise knowledge about the places where archaeological deposits have been preserved. In turn, this will strengthen our hypotheses about the role played by the different sites within their social context. A specific example is given, El Horno Cave (Ramales, Cantabria in order to show the type of observations that can be made through the application of a particular methodology, and their importance within a regional setting, such as the one proposed for societies in the Asón river basin at the end of the Palaeolithic.

  1. RECOMMENDED TRITIUM OXIDE DEPOSITION VELOCITY FOR USE IN SAVANNAH RIVER SITE SAFETY ANALYSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, P.; Murphy, C.; Viner, B.; Hunter, C.; Jannik, T.

    2012-04-03

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) has recently questioned the appropriate value for tritium deposition velocity used in the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System Ver. 2 (Chanin and Young 1998) code when estimating bounding dose (95th percentile) for safety analysis (DNFSB 2011). The purpose of this paper is to provide appropriate, defensible values of the tritium deposition velocity for use in Savannah River Site (SRS) safety analyses. To accomplish this, consideration must be given to the re-emission of tritium after deposition. Approximately 85% of the surface area of the SRS is forested. The majority of the forests are pine plantations, 68%. The remaining forest area is 6% mixed pine and hardwood and 26% swamp hardwood. Most of the path from potential release points to the site boundary is through forested land. A search of published studies indicate daylight, tritiated water (HTO) vapor deposition velocities in forest vegetation can range from 0.07 to 2.8 cm/s. Analysis of the results of studies done on an SRS pine plantation and climatological data from the SRS meteorological network indicate that the average deposition velocity during daylight periods is around 0.42 cm/s. The minimum deposition velocity was determined to be about 0.1 cm/s, which is the recommended bounding value. Deposition velocity and residence time (half-life) of HTO in vegetation are related by the leaf area and leaf water volume in the forest. For the characteristics of the pine plantation at SRS the residence time corresponding to the average, daylight deposition velocity is 0.4 hours. The residence time corresponding to the night-time deposition velocity of 0.1 cm/s is around 2 hours. A simple dispersion model which accounts for deposition and re-emission of HTO vapor was used to evaluate the impact on exposure to the maximally exposed offsite individual (MOI) at the SRS boundary (Viner 2012). Under conditions that produce the bounding, 95th percentile MOI exposure

  2. Physico-chemical indices of breeding sites of Simulium damnosum in the lower Cross River Basin, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OPARA, K.N.; FAGBEMI, B.O.

    2005-01-01

    To determine the factor influencing the abundance development and distribution of Simulium damnosum(S. I) immature stages in the lower Cross River Basin, Nigeria, the physico-chemical characteristics of water at breeding sites were analysed longitudinally over a 12month period. Analysis of the water samples showed that water current correlated positively and significantly( p < 0.05), with dissolved oxygen( r = 0.95 vs 0.10); conductivity( r = 0.95 vs 0.81); hydrogen ion concentration( r = 0.03 vs 0.46); and biochemical oxygen demand( r = 0. 80 vs 0.64); from Agbokim Waterfalls and Afi River respectively. The result indicates that these parameters and Iow ionic concentration are the most essential requirement for the development of S. damnosum pre-imaginal stages. Amplitudes of annual variability as measured by co-efficient of variation varied between the parameters. From the trends in hydrological variables it was deduced that the integrated impact of precipitation, input of surface runoff and municipal effluents played an overriding role in determining the absolute levels and temporal pattern in the water quality attributes. Of the 3578 pre-imaginal stages of S. damnosum collected, 52.52%and 47.4% were collected from Agbokim Waterfall and Afl River respectively. There was a significant difference( p < 0.05) in the number of pre-imaginal stages collected from both sites. The highest number of pre-imaginal stages of S. damnosum collected were at the peak of rain(July-September) indicating that S. damnosum in the River Basin is a wet season breeder. The need for long term laboratory colonization of blackfly immature stages becomes imperative especially how these parameters could be exploited in control programme through the testing of larvicides without adverse ecological damage to the aquatic habitat.

  3. A prototype of radar-drone system for measuring the surface flow velocity at river sites and discharge estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moramarco, Tommaso; Alimenti, Federico; Zucco, Graziano; Barbetta, Silvia; Tarpanelli, Angelica; Brocca, Luca; Mezzanotte, Paolo; Rosselli, Luca; Orecchini, Giulia; Virili, Marco; Valigi, Paolo; Ciarfuglia, Thomas; Pagnottelli, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    Discharge estimation at a river site depends on local hydraulic conditions identified by recording water levels. In fact, stage monitoring is straightforward and relatively inexpensive compared with the cost necessary to carry out flow velocity measurements which are, however, limited to low flows and constrained by the accessibility of the site. In this context the mean flow velocity is hard to estimate for high flow, affecting de-facto the reliability of discharge assessment for extreme events. On the other hand, the surface flow velocity can be easily monitored by using radar sensors allowing to achieve a good estimate of discharge by exploiting the entropy theory applied to rivers hydraulic (Chiu,1987). Recently, a growing interest towards the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UVA), henceforth drone, for topographic applications is observed and considering their capability drones may be of a considerable interest for the hydrological monitoring and in particular for streamflow measurements. With this aim, for the first time, a miniaturized Doppler radar sensor, operating at 24 GHz, will be mounted on a drone to measure the surface flow velocity in rivers. The sensor is constituted by a single-board circuit (i.e. is a fully planar circuits - no waveguides) with the antenna on one side and the front-end electronic on the other side (Alimenti et al., 2007). The antenna has a half-power beam width of less than 10 degrees in the elevation plane and a gain of 13 dBi. The radar is equipped with a monolithic oscillator and transmits a power of about 4 mW at 24 GHz. The sensor is mounted with an inclination of 45 degrees with respect to the drone flying plane and such an angle is considered in recovering the surface speed of the water. The drone is a quadricopter that has more than 30 min, flying time before recharging the battery. Furthermore its flying plan can be scheduled with a suitable software and is executed thanks to the on-board sensors (GPS, accelerometers

  4. Enhanced Geothermal System Potential for Sites on the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert K Podgorney; Thomas R. Wood; Travis L McLing; Gregory Mines; Mitchell A Plummer; Michael McCurry; Ahmad Ghassemi; John Welhan; Joseph Moore; Jerry Fairley; Rachel Wood

    2013-09-01

    The Snake River volcanic province overlies a thermal anomaly that extends deep into the mantle and represents one of the highest heat flow provinces in North America (Blackwell and Richards, 2004). This makes the Snake River Plain (SRP) one of the most under-developed and potentially highest producing geothermal districts in the United States. Elevated heat flow is typically highest along the margins of the topographic SRP and lowest along the axis of the plain, where thermal gradients are suppressed by the Snake River aquifer. Beneath this aquifer, however, thermal gradients rise again and may tap even higher heat flows associated with the intrusion of mafic magmas into the mid-crustal sill complex (e.g., Blackwell, 1989).

  5. Analytical Study of High Concentration PCB Paint at the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, N.J.

    1998-10-21

    This report provides results of an analytical study of high concentration PCB paint in a shutdown nuclear test reactor located at the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). The study was designed to obtain data relevant for an evaluation of potential hazards associated with the use of and exposure to such paints.

  6. Plutonium immobilization plant using glass in existing facilities at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiSabatino, A., LLNL

    1998-06-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a glass immobilization process, converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors.

  7. Post-test evaluation of the geology, geochemistry, microbiology, and hydrology of the in situ air stripping demonstration site at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy Dilek, C.A.; Looney, B.B.; Hazen, T.C.; Nichols, R.L.; Fliermans, C.B.; Parker, W.H.; Dougherty, J.M.; Kaback, D.S.; Simmons, J.L.

    1993-07-01

    A full-scale demonstration of the use of horizontal wells for in situ air stripping for environment restoration was completed as part of the Savannah River Integrated Demonstration Program. The demonstration of in situ air stripping was the first in a series of demonstrations of innovative remediation technologies for the cleanup of sites contaminated with volatile organic contaminants. The in situ air stripping system consisted of two directionally drilled wells that delivered gases to and extract contamination from the subsurface. The demonstration was designed to remediate soils and sediments in the unsaturated and saturated zones as well as groundwater contaminated with volatile organic compounds. The demonstration successfully removed significant quantities of solvent from the subsurface. The field site and horizontal wells were subsequently used for an in situ bioremediation demonstration during which methane was added to the injected air. The field conditions documented herein represent the baseline status of the site for evaluating the in situ bioremediation as well as the post-test conditions for the in situ air stripping demonstration. Characterization activities focused on documenting the nature and distribution of contamination in the subsurface. The post-test characterization activities discussed herein include results from the analysis of sediment samples, three-dimensional images of the pretest and post-test data, contaminant inventories estimated from pretest and post-test models, a detailed lithologic cross sections of the site, results of aquifer testing, and measurements of geotechnical parameters of undisturbed core sediments.

  8. Identification of American shad spawning sites and habitat use in the Pee Dee River, North Carolina and South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Julianne E.; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined spawning site selection and habitat use by American shad Alosa sapidissima in the Pee Dee River, North Carolina and South Carolina, to inform future management in this flow-regulated river. American shad eggs were collected in plankton tows, and the origin (spawning site) of each egg was estimated; relocations of radio-tagged adults on spawning grounds illustrated habitat use and movement in relation to changes in water discharge rates. Most spawning was estimated to occur in the Piedmont physiographic region within a 25-river-kilometer (rkm) section just below the lowermost dam in the system; however, some spawning also occurred downstream in the Coastal Plain. The Piedmont region has a higher gradient and is predicted to have slightly higher current velocities and shallower depths, on average, than the Coastal Plain. The Piedmont region is dominated by large substrates (e.g., boulders and gravel), whereas the Coastal Plain is dominated by sand. Sampling at night (the primary spawning period) resulted in the collection of young eggs (≤1.5 h old) that more precisely identified the spawning sites. In the Piedmont region, most radio-tagged American shad remained in discrete areas (average linear range = 3.6 rkm) during the spawning season and generally occupied water velocities between 0.20 and 0.69 m/s, depths between 1.0 and 2.9 m, and substrates dominated by boulder or bedrock and gravel. Tagged adults made only small-scale movements with changes in water discharge rates. Our results demonstrate that the upstream extent of migration and an area of concentrated spawning occur just below the lowermost dam. If upstream areas have similar habitat, facilitating upstream access for American shad could increase the spawning habitat available and increase the population's size.

  9. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Pond B Dam Repair Project at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-09-27

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1285) for the proposed repair of the Pond B dam at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and Floodplain Statement of Findings.

  10. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Implementation of the Wetland Mitigation Bank Program at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-04-28

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1205) for the proposed implementation of a wetland mitigation bank program at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and Floodplain Statement of Findings.

  11. Finding of no significant impact for the tritium facility modernization and consolidation project at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1222) for the proposed modernization and consolidation of the existing tritium facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issueing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  12. Online Spectrophotometric Measurements of Uranium and Nitrate Concentrations for Savannah River Site's H-Canyon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascola, R.

    2001-02-13

    Safe and efficient operation of the Savannah River Site's solvent extraction process for uranium purification requires accurate measurement of uranium and nitric acid concentrations. Previous operations have relied only on laboratory analysis of process samples. To improve the efficiency of the process, we have installed an online fiber optic based analyzer that uses a multiplexer and diode array spectrometer to rapidly acquire absorption spectra at multiple process locations. This paper describes the hardware and software developments we have made to handle the requirements imposed by the unique sampling methods in H-Canyon. Performance characteristics of the spectrometer are also demonstrated.

  13. Desorption Behavior of Trichloroethene and Tetrachloroethene in U.S. Department of Energy Savannah River Site Unconfined Aquifer Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert G.; Szecsody, Jim E.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2006-06-21

    The DOE Savannah River Site (SRS) is evaluating the potential applicability of the monitored natural attenuation (MNA) process as a contributor to the understanding of the restoration of its unconfined groundwater aquifer known to be contaminated with the chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE). This report discusses the results from aqueous desorption experiments on SRS aquifer sediments from two different locations at the SRS (A/M Area; P-Area) with the objective of providing technically defensible TCE/PCE distribution coefficient (Kd) data and data on TCE/PCE reversible and irreversible sorption behavior needed for further MNA evaluation.

  14. A comparison of geospatially modeled fire behavior and potential application to fire and fuels management for the Savannah River Site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurth, Laurie; Hollingsworth, LaWen; Shea, Dan

    2011-12-20

    This study evaluates modeled fire behavior for the Savannah River Site in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the southeastern U.S. using three data sources: FCCS, LANDFIRE, and SWRA. The Fuel Characteristic Classification System (FCCS) was used to build fuelbeds from intensive field sampling of 629 plots. Custom fire behavior fuel models were derived from these fuelbeds. LANDFIRE developed surface fire behavior fuel models and canopy attributes for the U.S. using satellite imagery informed by field data. The Southern Wildfire Risk Assessment (SWRA) developed surface fire behavior fuel models and canopy cover for the southeastern U.S. using satellite imagery.

  15. Desorption Behavior of Trichloroethene and Tetrachloroethene in U.S. Department of Energy Savannah River Site Unconfined Aquifer Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert G.; Szecsody, Jim E.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2006-06-21

    The DOE Savannah River Site (SRS) is evaluating the potential applicability of the monitored natural attenuation (MNA) process as a contributor to the understanding of the restoration of its unconfined groundwater aquifer known to be contaminated with the chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE). This report discusses the results from aqueous desorption experiments on SRS aquifer sediments from two different locations at the SRS (A/M Area; P-Area) with the objective of providing technically defensible TCE/PCE distribution coefficient (Kd) data and data on TCE/PCE reversible and irreversible sorption behavior needed for further MNA evaluation.

  16. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Site Number 1, Dead River Dam (NH 00473) Androscoggin River Basin, Berlin, New Hampshire. Phase I inspection Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-07-01

    Project Manager N.H. P.E. 2339 9 ’" "° , S U S S S S 5 S S 5 , This Phase I Inspection Report on Site No. 1, Dead River Dam 0 has been reviewed by the...Berlin, including the Central Business District. The dam is , 0 located on the U.S.G.S. Quadrangle, Mt. Washington, N.H. with coordinates at N 440 29’ 47...ccca--icn&J. higly Vce -thcz-d -chi-,t3. 1 Exccztions: F’our feet of be-drock (biotite gnoisn) w.a5 easily eccsv-ted L frn5- 9 feet in tcLt pit (T

  17. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE TANK CLEANING: CORROSION RATE FOR ONE VERSUS EIGHT PERCENT OXALIC ACID SOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketusky, E.; Subramanian, K.

    2011-01-20

    Until recently, the use of oxalic acid for chemically cleaning the Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive waste tanks focused on using concentrated 4 and 8-wt% solutions. Recent testing and research on applicable dissolution mechanisms have concluded that under appropriate conditions, dilute solutions of oxalic acid (i.e., 1-wt%) may be more effective. Based on the need to maximize cleaning effectiveness, coupled with the need to minimize downstream impacts, SRS is now developing plans for using a 1-wt% oxalic acid solution. A technology gap associated with using a 1-wt% oxalic acid solution was a dearth of suitable corrosion data. Assuming oxalic acid's passivation of carbon steel was proportional to the free oxalate concentration, the general corrosion rate (CR) from a 1-wt% solution may not be bound by those from 8-wt%. Therefore, after developing the test strategy and plan, the corrosion testing was performed. Starting with the envisioned process specific baseline solvent, a 1-wt% oxalic acid solution, with sludge (limited to Purex type sludge-simulant for this initial effort) at 75 C and agitated, the corrosion rate (CR) was determined from the measured weight loss of the exposed coupon. Environmental variations tested were: (a) Inclusion of sludge in the test vessel or assuming a pure oxalic acid solution; (b) acid solution temperature maintained at 75 or 45 C; and (c) agitation of the acid solution or stagnant. Application of select electrochemical testing (EC) explored the impact of each variation on the passivation mechanisms and confirmed the CR. The 1-wt% results were then compared to those from the 8-wt%. The immersion coupons showed that the maximum time averaged CR for a 1-wt% solution with sludge was less than 25-mils/yr for all conditions. For an agitated 8-wt% solution with sludge, the maximum time averaged CR was about 30-mils/yr at 50 C, and 86-mils/yr at 75 C. Both the 1-wt% and the 8-wt% testing demonstrated that if the sludge was removed

  18. SUPPLEMENTAL COLUMBIA RIVER PROTECTION ACTIVITIES AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE 2008 TECHNICAL REVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B; Dawn S. Kaback, D; Eugene L. LeBoeuf, E; Joe Rossabi, J; Karen L. Skubal, K; David L. Cocke, D; Paul C. Deutsch, P

    2008-09-30

    Beginning in 2006, the US Department of Energy (DOE) supported nine applied research projects to improve the protection of the Columbia River and mitigate the impacts of Hanford Site groundwater. These projects were funded through a supplemental Congressional budget allocation, and are now in various stages of completion in accordance with the research plans. The DOE Office of Environmental Management Groundwater and Soil Cleanup Technologies (EM-22) sponsored a technical peer review meeting for these projects in Richland WA, July 28-31, 2008. The overall objective of the peer review is to provide information to support DOE decisions about the status and potential future application of the various technologies. The charge for the peer review panel was to develop recommendations for each of the nine 'technologies'. Team members for the July 2008 review were Brian Looney, Gene LeBoeuf, Dawn Kaback, Karen Skubal, Joe Rossabi, Paul Deutsch, and David Cocke. Previous project reviews were held in May 2007 and March-May of 2006. The team used the following four rating categories for projects: (a) Incorporate the technology/strategy in ongoing and future EM activities; (b) Finish existing scope of applied research and determine potential for EM activities when research program is finished; (c) Discontinue current development activities and do not incorporate technology/strategy into ongoing and future EM activities unless a significant and compelling change in potential viability is documented; and (d) Supplement original funded work to obtain the data needed to support a DOE decision to incorporate the technology into ongoing and future EM activities. The supplemental funding portfolio included two projects that addressed strontium, five projects that addressed chromium, one project that addressed uranium and one project that addressed carbon tetrachloride. The projects ranged from in situ treatment methods for immobilizing contaminants using chemical

  19. REMOVING SLUDGE HEELS FROM SAVANNAH RIVER SITE WASTE TANKS BY OXALIC ACID DISSOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M; David Herman, D; Fernando Fondeur, F; John Pareizs, J; Michael Hay, M; Bruce Wiersma, B; Kim Crapse, K; Thomas Peters, T; Samuel Fink, S; Donald Thaxton, D

    2009-03-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) will remove sludge as part of waste tank closure operations. Typically the bulk sludge is removed by mixing it with supernate to produce a slurry, and transporting the slurry to a downstream tank for processing. Experience shows that a residual heel may remain in the tank that cannot be removed by this conventional technique. In the past, SRS used oxalic acid solutions to disperse or dissolve the sludge heel to complete the waste removal. To better understand the actual conditions of oxalic acid cleaning of waste from carbon steel tanks, the authors developed and conducted an experimental program to determine its effectiveness in dissolving sludge, the hydrogen generation rate, the generation rate of other gases, the carbon steel corrosion rate, the impact of mixing on chemical cleaning, the impact of temperature, and the types of precipitates formed during the neutralization process. The test samples included actual SRS sludge and simulated SRS sludge. The authors performed the simulated waste tests at 25, 50, and 75 C by adding 8 wt % oxalic acid to the sludge over seven days. They conducted the actual waste tests at 50 and 75 C by adding 8 wt % oxalic acid to the sludge as a single batch. Following the testing, SRS conducted chemical cleaning with oxalic acid in two waste tanks. In Tank 5F, the oxalic acid (8 wt %) addition occurred over seven days, followed by inhibited water to ensure the tank contained enough liquid to operate the mixer pumps. The tank temperature during oxalic acid addition and dissolution was approximately 45 C. The authors analyzed samples from the chemical cleaning process and compared it with test data. The conclusions from the work are: (1) Oxalic acid addition proved effective in dissolving sludge heels in the simulant demonstration, the actual waste demonstration, and in SRS Tank 5F. (2) The oxalic acid dissolved {approx} 100% of the uranium, {approx} 100% of the iron, and {approx} 40% of the manganese

  20. Reactor operation environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, L.R.; Hayes, D.W.; Hunter, C.H.; Marter, W.L.; Moyer, R.A.

    1989-12-01

    This volume is a reactor operation environmental information document for the Savannah River Plant. Topics include meteorology, surface hydrology, transport, environmental impacts, and radiation effects. 48 figs., 56 tabs. (KD)

  1. History of the production complex: The methods of site selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-09-01

    Experience taught the Atomic Energy Commission how to select the best possible sites for its production facilities. AEC officials learned from the precedents set by the wartime Manhattan Project and from their own mistakes in the immediate postwar years. This volume discusses several site selections. The sites covered are: (1) the Hanford Reservation, (2) the Idaho reactor site, (3) the Savannah River Plant, (4) the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, (5) the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, (6) the Fernald Production Center, (7) the PANTEX and Spoon River Plants, (8) the Rocky Flats Fabrication Facility, and (9) the Miamisburg and Pinellas plants. (JDH)

  2. Heavy metals in oysters, mussels and clams collected from coastal sites along the Pearl River Delta, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Concentrations of 8 heavy metals: cadmium (Cd), copper(Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), antimony(Sb) and tin (Sn) were examined in 3 species of bivalves (Pernaviridis, Crassostrea rivularis and Ruditapes philippinarum)collected from 25 sites along the Pearl River Delta coastal watersin the South China Sea from July to August 1996. In general, Cd,Cu, Zn and Sn concentrations in the three bivalve species collectedfrom the Estuarine Zone were significantly higher than thosecollected from the Western and Eastern Zones of the Pearl RiverDelta, which are related to the existence of various anthropogenicactivities in the catchment of the Pearl River Delta. The WesternEstuarine Zone is mainly impacted by Cr, Ni and Cu contamination.In Victoria Harbor, heavy metal contamination is mainly due to Cuand Pb. Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations in oysters were significantlyhigher than those in mussels and clams. This could be explained bythe fact that oysters live mainly in the Estuarine Zone of thePearl River Delta which receives most of the polluting dischargesfrom the catchment of the Delta. During turbid condition, heavymetals (soluble or adsorbed on suspended particulates) dischargedfrom the Delta are filtered from the water column and subsequentlyaccumulated into the soft body tissues of oysters. Heavy metalconcentrations in the three bivalve species were compared with themaximum permissible levels of heavy metals in seafood regulated bythe Public Health and Municipal Services Ordinance, Laws of HongKong, and it was revealed that Cd and Cr concentrations in thethree bivalve species exceeded the upper limits. At certainhotspots in the Delta, the maximum acceptable daily load for Cd wasalso exceeded.

  3. Biological monitoring of Upper Three Runs Creek, Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina, March 1990--July 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    In anticipation of the fall 1988 start up of effluent discharges into Upper Three Runs Creek by the F/H Area Effluent Treatment Facility of the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC, a two and one half year biological study was initiated in June 1987. Upper Three Runs Creek is an intensively studied fourth order stream known for its high species richness. Designed to assess the potential impact of F/H area effluent on the creek, the study included qualitative and quantitative macroinvertebrate stream surveys at five sites (see map), chronic toxicity testing of the effluent, water chemistry and bioaccumulation analysis. In a March 1990 study of the potential impact of F/H Area effluent on the macroinvertebrate communities of Upper Three Runs Creek was extended, with reductions in the number of sites to be sampled and in the frequency of water chemistry sampling. This report presents the results of macroinvertebrate stream surveys at three sites, chronic toxicity testing of the effluent and water chemistry analysis of the three stream sites and the effluent from March 1990 to July 1991.

  4. Biological monitoring of Upper Three Runs Creek, Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina, March 1990--July 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    In anticipation of the fall 1988 start up of effluent discharges into Upper Three Runs Creek by the F/H Area Effluent Treatment Facility of the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC, a two and one half year biological study was initiated in June 1987. Upper Three Runs Creek is an intensively studied fourth order stream known for its high species richness. Designed to assess the potential impact of F/H area effluent on the creek, the study included qualitative and quantitative macroinvertebrate stream surveys at five sites (see map), chronic toxicity testing of the effluent, water chemistry and bioaccumulation analysis. In a March 1990 study of the potential impact of F/H Area effluent on the macroinvertebrate communities of Upper Three Runs Creek was extended, with reductions in the number of sites to be sampled and in the frequency of water chemistry sampling. This report presents the results of macroinvertebrate stream surveys at three sites, chronic toxicity testing of the effluent and water chemistry analysis of the three stream sites and the effluent from March 1990 to July 1991.

  5. Technical summary of groundwater quality protection program at Savannah River Plant. Volume 1. Site geohydrology, and solid and hazardous wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, E.J.; Gordon, D.E. (eds.)

    1983-12-01

    The program for protecting the quality of groundwater underlying the Savannah River Plant (SRP) is described in this technical summary report. The report is divided into two volumes. Volume I contains a discussion of the general site geohydrology and of both active and inactive sites used for disposal of solid and hazardous wastes. Volume II includes a discussion of radioactive waste disposal. Most information contained in these two volumes is current as of December 1983. The groundwater quality protection program has several elements which, taken collectively, are designed to achieve three major goals. These goals are to evaluate the impact on groundwater quality as a result of SRP operations, to restore or protect groundwater quality by taking corrective action as necessary, and to ensure disposal of waste materials in accordance with regulatory guidelines.

  6. Plutonium immobilization plant using glass in new facilities at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiSabatino, A.

    1998-06-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a glass immobilization process, converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. This immobilization process is shown conceptually in Figure 1-1. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors.

  7. River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morel Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The OECD report “Boosting Resilience through Innovative Risk Governance” examines the efforts of OECD countries to prevent or reduce future disaster impacts, and highlights several key areas where improvements can be made. International collaboration is insufficiently utilised to address shocks that have increasingly global consequences. Institutional design plays a significant role in facilitating or hampering the engagement and investments of governmental and non-governmental stakeholders in disaster risk prevention and mitigation. To inform the design of “better” institutions, the OECD proposes the application of a diagnostic framework that helps governments identify institutional shortcomings and take actions to improve them. The goal of the case study on the Rhone River is to conduct an analysis of the progress, achievements and existing challenges in designing and implementing disaster risk reduction strategies through the Rhone Plan from a comparative perspective across a set of selected countries of this study, like Austria and Switzerland, will inform how to improve institutional frameworks governing risk prevention and mitigation. The case study will be used to identify examples of successful practice taking into account their specific country contexts, and analyse their potential for policy transfer.

  8. FORM AND AGING OF PLUTONIUM IN SAVANNAH RIVER SITE WASTE TANK 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D.

    2012-02-24

    This report provides a summary of the effects of aging on and the expected forms of plutonium in Tank 18 waste residues. The findings are based on available information on the operational history of Tank 18, reported analytical results for samples taken from Tank 18, and the available scientific literature for plutonium under alkaline conditions. These findings should apply in general to residues in other waste tanks. However, the operational history of other waste tanks should be evaluated for specific conditions and unique operations (e.g., acid cleaning with oxalic acid) that could alter the form of plutonium in heel residues. Based on the operational history of other tanks, characterization of samples from the heel residues in those tanks would be appropriate to confirm the form of plutonium. During the operational period and continuing with the residual heel removal periods, Pu(IV) is the dominant oxidation state of the plutonium. Small fractions of Pu(V) and Pu(VI) could be present as the result of the presence of water and the result of reactions with oxygen in air and products from the radiolysis of water. However, the presence of Pu(V) would be transitory as it is not stable at the dilute alkaline conditions that currently exists in Tank 18. Most of the plutonium that enters Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste (HLW) tanks is freshly precipitated as amorphous plutonium hydroxide, Pu(OH){sub 4(am)} or hydrous plutonium oxide, PuO{sub 2(am,hyd)} and coprecipitated within a mixture of hydrous metal oxide phases containing metals such as iron, aluminum, manganese and uranium. The coprecipitated plutonium would include Pu{sup 4+} that has been substituted for other metal ions in crystal lattice sites, Pu{sup 4+} occluded within hydrous metal oxide particles and Pu{sup 4+} adsorbed onto the surface of hydrous metal oxide particles. The adsorbed plutonium could include both inner sphere coordination and outer sphere coordination of the plutonium. PuO{sub 2

  9. FORM AND AGING OF PLUTONIUM IN SAVANNAH RIVER SITE WASTE TANK 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D.

    2012-02-24

    This report provides a summary of the effects of aging on and the expected forms of plutonium in Tank 18 waste residues. The findings are based on available information on the operational history of Tank 18, reported analytical results for samples taken from Tank 18, and the available scientific literature for plutonium under alkaline conditions. These findings should apply in general to residues in other waste tanks. However, the operational history of other waste tanks should be evaluated for specific conditions and unique operations (e.g., acid cleaning with oxalic acid) that could alter the form of plutonium in heel residues. Based on the operational history of other tanks, characterization of samples from the heel residues in those tanks would be appropriate to confirm the form of plutonium. During the operational period and continuing with the residual heel removal periods, Pu(IV) is the dominant oxidation state of the plutonium. Small fractions of Pu(V) and Pu(VI) could be present as the result of the presence of water and the result of reactions with oxygen in air and products from the radiolysis of water. However, the presence of Pu(V) would be transitory as it is not stable at the dilute alkaline conditions that currently exists in Tank 18. Most of the plutonium that enters Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste (HLW) tanks is freshly precipitated as amorphous plutonium hydroxide, Pu(OH){sub 4(am)} or hydrous plutonium oxide, PuO{sub 2(am,hyd)} and coprecipitated within a mixture of hydrous metal oxide phases containing metals such as iron, aluminum, manganese and uranium. The coprecipitated plutonium would include Pu{sup 4+} that has been substituted for other metal ions in crystal lattice sites, Pu{sup 4+} occluded within hydrous metal oxide particles and Pu{sup 4+} adsorbed onto the surface of hydrous metal oxide particles. The adsorbed plutonium could include both inner sphere coordination and outer sphere coordination of the plutonium. PuO{sub 2

  10. Laboratory And Lysimeter Experimentation And Transport Modeling Of Neptunium And Strontium In Savannah River Site Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, Daniel I.; Powell, B. A.; Miller, Todd J.

    2012-09-24

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) conducts performance assessment (PA) calculations to determine the appropriate amount of low-level radiological waste that can be safely disposed on site. Parameters are included in these calculations that account for the interaction between the immobile solid phase and the mobile aqueous phase. These parameters are either the distribution coefficient (K{sub d} value) or the apparent solubility value (K{sub sp}). These parameters are readily found in the literature and are used throughout the DOE complex. One shortcoming of K{sub d} values is that they are only applicable to a given set of solid and aqueous phase conditions. Therefore, a given radionuclide may have several K{sub d} values as it moves between formations and comes into contact with different solids and different aqueous phases. It is expected that the K{sub d} construct will be appropriate to use for a majority of the PA and for a majority of the radionuclides. However, semi-mechanistic models would be more representative in isolated cases where the chemistry is especially transitory or the radionuclide chemistry is especially complex, bringing to bear multiple species of varying sorption tendencies to the sediment. Semi-mechanistic models explicitly accommodate the dependency of K{sub d} values, or other sorption parameters, on contaminant concentration, competing ion concentrations, pH-dependent surface charge on the adsorbent, and solute species distribution. Incorporating semi-mechanistic concepts into geochemical models is desirable to make the models more robust and technically defensible. Furthermore, these alternative models could be used to augment or validate a Kd?based DOE Order 435.1 Performance Assessment. The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop a quantitative thermodynamically-based model for neptunium sorption to SRS sediments, and 2) determine a sorption constant from an SRS 11-year lysimeter study. The modeling studies were conducted with

  11. Laboratory And Lysimeter Experimentation And Transport Modeling Of Neptunium And Strontium In Savannah River Site Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, Daniel I.; Powell, B. A.; Miller, Todd J.

    2012-09-24

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) conducts performance assessment (PA) calculations to determine the appropriate amount of low-level radiological waste that can be safely disposed on site. Parameters are included in these calculations that account for the interaction between the immobile solid phase and the mobile aqueous phase. These parameters are either the distribution coefficient (K{sub d} value) or the apparent solubility value (K{sub sp}). These parameters are readily found in the literature and are used throughout the DOE complex. One shortcoming of K{sub d} values is that they are only applicable to a given set of solid and aqueous phase conditions. Therefore, a given radionuclide may have several K{sub d} values as it moves between formations and comes into contact with different solids and different aqueous phases. It is expected that the K{sub d} construct will be appropriate to use for a majority of the PA and for a majority of the radionuclides. However, semi-mechanistic models would be more representative in isolated cases where the chemistry is especially transitory or the radionuclide chemistry is especially complex, bringing to bear multiple species of varying sorption tendencies to the sediment. Semi-mechanistic models explicitly accommodate the dependency of K{sub d} values, or other sorption parameters, on contaminant concentration, competing ion concentrations, pH-dependent surface charge on the adsorbent, and solute species distribution. Incorporating semi-mechanistic concepts into geochemical models is desirable to make the models more robust and technically defensible. Furthermore, these alternative models could be used to augment or validate a Kd?based DOE Order 435.1 Performance Assessment. The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop a quantitative thermodynamically-based model for neptunium sorption to SRS sediments, and 2) determine a sorption constant from an SRS 11-year lysimeter study. The modeling studies were conducted with

  12. Balancing Energy, Food Security, and Critical Ecosystems: Dam Siting, Design and Operations in the Mekong River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, T. B.; Reed, P. M.; Loucks, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Mekong River basin in Southeast Asia is one of several river basins with exceptionally high biodiversity value where intensive hydropower dam development is anticipated. In the Mekong basin, over 100 dams are planned to be constructed in the next 20-30 years. As planned, these dams will alter the river's natural water, sediment and nutrient flows, and will fragment fish migration pathways. In doing so, they will degrade one of the world's most productive freshwater fish habitats, upon which some 60 million people depend for food and income security. For those dams that have not yet been constructed, there still exist opportunities to modify their siting, design and operation (SDO) to achieve a more balanced set of tradeoffs among hydropower production, sediment/nutrient passage and adult fish/larvae passage. We present a successful case study wherein we explored such alternative SDO opportunities in partnership with the Government of Cambodia for Sambor Dam, planned to be built on the main stem of the Mekong. Sambor would be one of the world's longest dams, spanning 18 km across the river just upstream of (1) Tonle Sap Lake, which supplies 70% of Cambodians' protein, and (2) the Mekong Delta in Vietnam, responsible for 50% of Vietnam's rice production. We will describe key dam siting and design modifications required to mitigate ecological impacts. We will then focus on the most promising alternative dam siting/design concept, exploring the reservoir operations space to demonstrate that a complex set of tradeoffs exist among a diverse set of energy and ecosystem objectives. Results indicate that even for a hydrologically small reservoir, a wide array of potential reservoir operating policies exist that have vastly different food-energy implications. While some policies would significantly mitigate ecological impacts, many policies exist that would pose a severe threat to the sustainability of the fishery. Failure to sample the reservoir operations space at

  13. Characterization of the geology, geochemistry, hydrology and microbiology of the in-situ air stripping demonstration site at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, C.A.; Looney, B.B.; Dougherty, J.M.; Hazen, T.C.; Kaback, D.S.

    1991-05-01

    The Savannah River Site is the location of an Integrated Demonstration Project designed to evaluate innovative remediation technologies for environmental restoration at sites contaminated with volatile organic contaminants. This demonstration utilizes directionally drilled horizontal wells to deliver gases and extract contaminants from the subsurface. Phase I of the Integrated Demonstration focused on the application and development of in-situ air stripping technologies to remediate soils and sediments above and below the water table as well as groundwater contaminated with volatile organic contaminants. The objective of this report is to provide baseline information on the geology, geochemistry, hydrology, and microbiology of the demonstration site prior to the test. The distribution of contaminants in soils and sediments in the saturated zone and groundwater is emphasized. These data will be combined with data collected after the demonstration in order to evaluate the effectiveness of in-situ air stripping. New technologies for environmental characterization that were evaluated include depth discrete groundwater sampling (HydroPunch) and three-dimensional modeling of contaminant data.

  14. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the INL Waste Associated with the Unirradiated Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shott, Gregory [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-03-21

    This special analysis (SA) evaluates whether the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Waste Associated with the Unirradiated Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) waste stream (INEL167203QR1, Revision 0) is suitable for shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). Disposal of the INL Waste Associated with the Unirradiated LWBR waste meets all U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Manual DOE M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management Manual,” Chapter IV, Section P performance objectives (DOE 1999). The INL Waste Associated with the Unirradiated LWBR waste stream is recommended for acceptance with the condition that the total uranium-233 (233U) inventory be limited to 2.7E13 Bq (7.2E2 Ci).

  15. SUPPLEMENTAL COLUMBIA RIVER PROTECTION ACTIVITIES AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE: 2006 TECHNICAL PEER REVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B; Dawn Kaback; Gene Leboeuf; Jason Mulvihill-Kuntz; Lynn Lefkoff

    2006-12-20

    Prompted by a $10 million Congressional allocation to identify supplemental actions to protect the Columbia River from groundwater contamination beneath the Hanford Reservation, the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Office of Clean-up Technology identified twenty-three potential technical projects and then down-selected ten of these for further evaluation. An independent expert peer review was conducted for the ten down-selected proposals. The review panel consisted of twenty-three recognized subject matter experts that broadly represented academia, industry, and federal laboratories. Of the initial ten proposals reviewed, one was given unconditional support, six were given conditional support, and three were not supported as proposed. Three additional proposals were then submitted by DOE for review--these proposals were structured, in part, to respond to the initial round of technical peer review comments. Peer reviews of these additional proposals provided conditional support. For those proposals that received conditional support, DOE requested specific implementation and work plans and assessed whether the plans adequately addressed the technical conditions identified by the review panel. The final list of technology proposals receiving support, or conditional support, primarily focused on understanding and reducing the potential impacts of uranium, chromium, and strontium from facilities adjacent to the Columbia River, with a secondary focus on understanding and limiting the future Columbia River impacts from the large carbon tetrachloride groundwater plume underlying and downgradient of the Hanford Central Plateau facilities. The results and recommendations of the peer reviews informed the final DOE project selections and supported implementation of the selected projects to protect the Columbia River and address groundwater contamination at Hanford.

  16. Heparin binding sites on Ross River virus revealed by electron cryo-microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wei; Heil, Marintha; Kuhn, Richard J.; Baker, Timothy S.

    2005-01-01

    Cell surface glycosaminoglycans play important roles in cell adhesion and viral entry. Laboratory strains of two alphaviruses, Sindbis and Semliki Forest virus, have been shown to utilize heparan sulfate as an attachment receptor, whereas Ross River virus (RRV) does not significantly interact with it. However, a single amino acid substitution at residue 218 in the RRV E2 glycoprotein adapts the virus to heparan sulfate binding and expands the host range of the virus into chicken embryo fibrob...

  17. Health protection at the Savannah River Site: A guide to records series of the Department of Energy and its contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    As part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project, History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide to the records series pertaining to health protection activities at the DOE`s Savannah River Site (SRS). Since its inception in the early 1950s, the SRS, formerly known as the Savannah River Plant (SRP), has demonstrated significant interest in safeguarding facilities, protecting employees` health, and monitoring the environment. The guide describes records that concern health protection program administration, radiological monitoring of the plant and the environment, calibration and maintenance of monitoring instruments, internal and external dosimetry practices, medical surveillance of employees, occupational safety and training measures, site visitation, and electronic information systems. The introduction to the guide describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project and HAI`s role in the project. It provides brief histories of the DOE, SRS, and the SRS organizational units responsible for health protection activities. This introduction also summarizes HAI`s methodology in developing criteria and conducting its verification of the SRS inventory of active and inactive SRS Health Protection records. Furthermore, it furnishes information on the production of the guide, the content of the records series descriptions, the location of the records, and the procedures for accessing records repositories.

  18. Plutonium isotopes in the terrestrial environment at the Savannah River Site, USA: a long-term study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Christopher R; Nuessle, Patterson R; Brant, Heather A; Hall, Gregory; Halverson, Justin E; Cadieux, James R

    2015-02-01

    This work presents the findings of a long-term plutonium (Pu) study at Savannah River Site (SRS) conducted between 2003 and 2013. Terrestrial environmental samples were obtained at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in the A-Area. Plutonium content and isotopic abundances were measured over this time period by α particle and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (3STIMS). We detail the complete process of the sample collection, radiochemical separation, and measurement procedure specifically targeted to trace plutonium in bulk environmental samples. Total plutonium activities were determined to be not significantly above atmospheric global fallout. However, the (238)Pu/(239+240)Pu activity ratios attributed to SRS are substantially different than fallout due to past (238)Pu production on the site. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios are reasonably consistent from year to year and are lower than fallout indicating an admixture of weapons-grade material, while the (242)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios are higher than fallout values, again due to actinide production activities. Overall, the plutonium signatures obtained in this study reflect a distinctive mixture of weapons-grade, heat source, and higher burn-up plutonium with fallout material. This study provides a unique opportunity for developing and demonstrating a blue print for long-term low-level monitoring of trace plutonium in the environment.

  19. Optimization of wetland restoration siting and zoning in flood retention areas of river basins in China: A case study in Mengwa, Huaihe River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Song, Yuqin

    2014-11-01

    Wetland restoration in floodplains is an ecological solution that can address basin-wide flooding issues and minimize flooding and damages to riverine and downstream areas. High population densities, large economic outputs, and heavy reliance on water resources make flood retention and management pressing issues in China. To balance flood control and sustainable development economically, socially, and politically, flood retention areas have been established to increase watershed flood storage capacities and enhance the public welfare for the populace living in the areas. However, conflicts between flood storage functions and human habitation appear irreconcilable. We developed a site-specific methodology for identifying potential sites and functional zones for wetland restoration in a flood retention area in middle and eastern China, optimizing the spatial distribution and functional zones to maximize flood control and human and regional development. This methodology was applied to Mengwa, one of 21 flood retention areas in China's Huaihe River Basin, using nine scenarios that reflected different flood, climatic, and hydraulic conditions. The results demonstrated improved flood retention and ecological functions, as well as increased economic benefits.

  20. Environmental Assessment for the construction and operation of the Three Rivers Solid Waste Authority regional waste management center at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the potential environmental impacts associated with the construction and operation of a landfill and technology center for regionally-generated municipal solid waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The facility would serve the municipal solid waste disposal needs for SRS and at least nine of the surrounding counties who currently comprise the Three Rivers Solid Waste Authority (TRSWA). Additional counties could become included in the proposed action at some future date. Current Federal and state requirements do not afford individual counties and municipalities within the region encompassing SRS the ability to efficiently or economically operate modern waste management facilities. In addition, consolidation of regional municipal solid waste at one location would have the benefit of reducing the duplicity of environmental consequences associated with the construction and operation of county-level facilities. The option to seek a combined disposal and technology development facility based on a regionally-cooperative effort was selected as a viable alternative to the existing individual SRS or county disposal activities. This document was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended, the requirements of the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing NEPA (40 CFR Part 1021). NEPA requires the assessment of environmental consequences of Federal actions that may affect the quality of the human environment. Based on the potential for impacts described for impacts described herein, DOE will either publish a Finding of No Significant Impact or prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS).