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Sample records for river plain volcanic

  1. The Snake River Plain Volcanic Province: Insights from Project Hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shervais, J. W.; Potter, K. E.; Hanan, B. B.; Jean, M. M.; Duncan, R. A.; Champion, D. E.; Vetter, S.; Glen, J. M. G.; Christiansen, E. H.; Miggins, D. P.; Nielson, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Snake River Plain (SRP) Volcanic Province is the best modern example of a time-transgressive hotspot track beneath continental crust. The SRP began 17 Ma with massive eruptions of Columbia River basalt and rhyolite. After 12 Ma volcanism progressed towards Yellowstone, with early rhyolite overlain by basalts that may exceed 2 km thick. The early rhyolites are anorogenic with dry phenocryst assemblages and eruption temperatures up to 950C. Tholeiitic basalts have major and trace element compositions similar to ocean island basalts (OIB). Project Hotspot cored three deep holes in the central and western Snake River Plain: Kimama (mostly basalt), Kimberly (mostly rhyolite), and Mountain Home (lake sediments and basaslt). The Kimberly core documents rhyolite ash flows up to 700 m thick, possibly filling a caldera or sag. Chemical stratigraphy in Kimama and other basalt cores document fractional crystallization in relatively shallow magma chambers with episodic magma recharge. Age-depth relations in the Kimama core suggest accumulation rates of roughly 305 m/Ma. Surface and subsurface basalt flows show systematic variations in Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes with distance from Yellowstone interpreted to reflect changes in the proportion of plume source and the underlying heterogeneous cratonic lithosphere, which varies in age, composition, and thickness from west to east. Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes suggest <5% lithospheric input into a system dominated by OIB-like plume-derived basalts. A major flare-up of basaltic volcanism occurred 75-780 ka throughout the entire SRP, from Yellowstone in the east to Boise in the west. The youngest western SRP basalts are transitional alkali basalts that range in age from circa 900 ka to 2 ka, with trace element and isotopic compositions similar to the plume component of Hawaiian basalts. These observations suggest that ancient SCLM was replaced by plume mantle after the North America passed over the hotspot in the western SRP, which triggered renewed

  2. Ages of plains volcanism on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauber, Ernst; Jagert, Felix; Broz, Petr

    2010-05-01

    Plain-style volcanism [1] is widespread in the Tharsis and Elysium volcanic provinces on Mars, [2,3]. Detailed images and topographic data reveal the morphology and topography of clusters of low shields and associated lava flows. The landforms of plains volcanism on Mars have all well-known terrestrial analogues in basaltic volcanic regions, such as Hawaii, Iceland, and in particular the Snake River Plains [4]. The very gentle flank slopes (J. (1981) Icarus, 45, 586-601. [3] Hodges C.A. and Moore H.J. (1994) Atlas of volcanic features on Mars: USGS Prof. Paper 1534, 194 p. [4] Hauber E. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 69-95. [5] Wilson L. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 28-46. [6] Vaucher, J. et al. (2009) Icarus 204, 418-442. [7] Baratoux D. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 47-68. [8] Bleacher J.E. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 96-102. [9] Ivanov B.A. (2001) Space Sci. Rev. 96, 87-104. [10] Hartmann W.H. and Neukum G. (2001) Space Sci. Rev. 96, 165-194 [11] Kneissl T. et al. (2010) LPS XVI, submitted. [12] Michael, G.G. and Neukum G. (2010) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., in press. . [13] Malin M.C. et al. (2007) JGR 112, E05S04, doi: 10.1029/2006JE002808.

  3. GIS methodology for geothermal play fairway analysis: Example from the Snake River Plain volcanic province

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelo, Jacob; Shervais, John W.; Glen, Jonathan; Nielson, Dennis L.; Garg, Sabodh; Dobson, Patrick; Gasperikova, Erika; Sonnenthal, Eric; Visser, Charles; Liberty, Lee M.; Siler, Drew; Evans, James P.; Santellanes, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Play fairway analysis in geothermal exploration derives from a systematic methodology originally developed within the petroleum industry and is based on a geologic and hydrologic framework of identified geothermal systems. We are tailoring this methodology to study the geothermal resource potential of the Snake River Plain and surrounding region. This project has contributed to the success of this approach by cataloging the critical elements controlling exploitable hydrothermal systems, establishing risk matrices that evaluate these elements in terms of both probability of success and level of knowledge, and building automated tools to process results. ArcGIS was used to compile a range of different data types, which we refer to as ‘elements’ (e.g., faults, vents, heatflow…), with distinct characteristics and confidence values. Raw data for each element were transformed into data layers with a common format. Because different data types have different uncertainties, each evidence layer had an accompanying confidence layer, which reflects spatial variations in these uncertainties. Risk maps represent the product of evidence and confidence layers, and are the basic building blocks used to construct Common Risk Segment (CRS) maps for heat, permeability, and seal. CRS maps quantify the variable risk associated with each of these critical components. In a final step, the three CRS maps were combined into a Composite Common Risk Segment (CCRS) map for analysis that reveals favorable areas for geothermal exploration. Python scripts were developed to automate data processing and to enhance the flexibility of the data analysis. Python scripting provided the structure that makes a custom workflow possible. Nearly every tool available in the ArcGIS ArcToolbox can be executed using commands in the Python programming language. This enabled the construction of a group of tools that could automate most of the processing for the project. Currently, our tools are repeatable

  4. Reconstructing the paleo-topography and paleo-environmental features of the Sarno River plain (Italy) before the AD 79 eruption of Somma-Vesuvius volcanic complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Sebastian; Märker, Michael

    2010-05-01

    SSP1.4 Understanding mixed siliciclastic-volcaniclastic depositional systems and their relationships with geodynamics or GD2.3/CL4.14/GM5.8/MPRG22/SSP3.5 Reconstruction of ancient continents: Dating and characterization of paleosurfaces Reconstructing the paleo-topography and paleo-environmental features of the Sarno River plain (Italy) before the AD 79 eruption of Somma-Vesuvius volcanic complex Sebastian Vogel[1] & Michael Märker[1] [1] Heidelberg Academy of Sciences and Humanities c/o University of Tübingen, Rümelinstraße 19-23, D-72070 Tübingen, Germany. Within the geoarchaeological research project "Reconstruction of the Ancient Cultural Landscape of the Sarno River Plain" undertaken by the German Archaeological Institute in cooperation with the Heidelberg Academy of Sciences and Humanities/University of Tübingen a methodology was developed to model the spatial dispersion of volcanic deposits of Somma-Vesuvius volcanic complex since its Plinian eruption AD 79. Eventually, this was done to reconstruct the paleo-topography and paleo-environment of the Sarno River plain before the eruption AD 79. We collected, localized and digitized more than 1,800 core drillings to gain a representative network of stratigraphical information covering the entire plain. Besides other stratigraphical data including the characteristics of the pre-AD 79 stratum, the depth to the pre-AD 79 paleo-surface was identified from the available drilling documentation. Instead of applying a simple interpolation of the drilling data, we reconstructed the pre-AD 79 paleo-surface with a sophisticated geostatistical methodology using a machine based learning approach based on classification and regression trees. We hypothesize that the present-day topography reflects the ancient topography, because the eruption of AD 79 coated the ancient topography, leaving ancient physiographic elements of the Sarno River plain still recognizable in the present-day topography. Therefore, a high resolution

  5. Yellowstone-Snake River Plain seismic profilling experiment: Crustal structure of the eastern Snake River Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braile, L.W.; Smith, R.B.; Ansorge, J.; Baker, M.R.; Sparlin, M.A.; Prodehl, C.; Schilly, M.M.; Healy, J.H.; Mueller, S.; Olsen, K.H.

    1982-01-01

    Seismic refraction profiles recorded along the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) in southeastern Idaho during the 1978 Yellowstone-Snake River Plain cooperative seismic profiling experiment are interpreted to infer the crustal velocity and attenuation (Q-1) structure of the ESRP. Travel-time and synthetic seismogram modeling of a 250 km reversed refraction profile as well as a 100 km detailed profile indicate that the crust of the ESRP is highly anomalous. Approximately 3 to 6 km of volcanic rocks (with some interbedded sediments) overlie an upper-crustal layer (compressional velocity approx. =6.1 km/s) which thins southwestward along the ESRP from a thickness of 10 km near Island Park Caldera to 2 to 3 km beneath the central and southwestern portions of the ESRP. An intermediate-velocity (approx. =6.5 km/s) layer extends from approx. =10 to approx. =20 km depth. a thick (approx. =22 km) lower crust of compressional velocity 6.8 km/s, a total crustall thickness of approx. =42 km, and a P/sub n/ velocity of approx. =7.9 km/s is observed in the ESRP, similar to the western Snake River Plain and the Rocky Mountains Provinces. High attenuation is evident on the amplitude corrected seismic data due to low-Q values in the volcanic rocks (Q/sub p/ = 20 to 200) and throughout the crust (Q/sub p/ = 160 to 300). Based on these characteristics of the crustal structure and volcanic-age progression data, it is suggested that the ESRP has resulted from an intensitive period of intrusion of mantle-derived basaltic magma into the upper crust generating explosive silicic volcanism and associated regional uplift and caldera collapse. This activity began about 15 m.y. ago in southwestern Idaho and has migrated northeast to its present position at Yellowstone. Subsequent cooling of the intruded upper crust results in the 6.5 km/s velocity intermediate layer. Crustal subsidence and periodic basaltic volcanism as represented by the ESRP complete the sequence of crustal evolution

  6. Geothermal Alteration of Basaltic Core from the Snake River Plain, Idaho

    OpenAIRE

    Sant, Christopher Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The Snake River Plain is located in the southern part of the state of Idaho. The eastern plain, on which this study focuses, is a trail of volcanics from the Yellowstone hotspot. Three exploratory geothermal wells were drilled on the Snake River Plain. This project analyzes basaltic core from the first well at Kimama, north of Burley, Idaho. The objectives of this project are to establish zones of geothermal alteration and analyze the potential for geothermal power production using sub-aquife...

  7. First Results from HOTSPOT: The Snake River Plain Scientific Drilling Project, Idaho, U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Shervais

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available HOTSPOT is an international collaborative effort to understand the volcanic history of the Snake River Plain (SRP. The SRP overlies a thermal anomaly, the Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot, that is thought to represent a deep-seated mantle plume under North America. Theprimary goal of this project is to document the volcanic and stratigraphic history of the SRP, which represents the surface expression of this hotspot, and to understand how it affected the evolution of continental crust and mantle. An additional goal is to evaluate the geothermal potential of southern Idaho.Project HOTSPOT has completed three drill holes. (1 The Kimama site is located along the central volcanic axis of the SRP; our goal here was to sample a long-term record of basaltic volcanism in the wake of the SRP hotspot. (2 The Kimberly site is located near the margin of the plain; our goal here was to sample a record of high-temperaturerhyolite volcanism associated with the underlying plume. This site was chosen to form a nominally continuous record of volcanism when paired with the Kimama site. (3 The Mountain Home site is located in the western plain; our goal here was to sample the Pliocene-Pleistocene transition in lake sediments at this site and to sample older basalts that underlie the sediments.We report here on our initial results for each site, and on some of the geophysical logging studies carried out as part of this project.

  8. Regional implications of heat flow of the Snake River Plain, Northwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, D. D.

    1989-08-01

    The Snake River Plain is a major topographic feature of the Northwestern United States. It marks the track of an upper mantle and crustal melting event that propagated across the area from southwest to northeast at a velocity of about 3.5 cm/yr. The melting event has the same energetics as a large oceanic hotspot or plume and so the area is the continental analog of an oceanic hotspot track such as the Hawaiian Island-Emperor Seamount chain. Thus, the unique features of the area reflect the response of a continental lithosphere to a very energetic hotspot. The crust is extensively modified by basalt magma emplacement into the crust and by the resulting massive rhyolite volcanism from melted crustal material, presently occurring at Yellowstone National Park. The volcanism is associated with little crustal extension. Heat flow values are high along the margins of the Eastern and Western Snake River Plains and there is abundant evidence for low-grade geothermal resources associated with regional groundwater systems. The regional heat flow pattern in the Western Snake River Plains reflects the influence of crustal-scale thermal refraction associated with the large sedimentary basin that has formed there. Heat flow values in shallow holes in the Eastern Snake River Plains are low due to the Snake River Plains aquifer, an extensive basalt aquifer where water flow rates approach 1 km/yr. Below the aquifer, conductive heat flow values are about 100 mW m -2. Deep holes in the region suggest a systematic eastward increase in heat flow in the Snake River Plains from about 75-90 mW m -2 to 90-110 mW m -2. Temperatures in the upper crust do not behave similarly because the thermal conductivity of the Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary rocks in the west is lower than that in the volcanic rocks characteristic of the Eastern Snake River Plains. Extremely high heat loss values (averaging 2500 mW m -2) and upper crustal temperatures are characteristic of the Yellowstone caldera.

  9. Geohazards (floods and landslides in the Ndop plain, Cameroon volcanic line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wotchoko Pierre

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Ndop Plain, located along the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL, is a volcano-tectonic plain, formed by a series of tectonic movements, volcanic eruptions and sedimentation phases. Floods (annually and landslides (occasionally occur with devastating environmental effects. However, this plain attracts a lot of inhabitants owing to its fertile alluvial soils. With demographic explosion in the plain, the inhabitants (143,000 people tend to farm and inhabit new zones which are prone to these geohazards. In this paper, we use field observations, laboratory analyses, satellite imagery and complementary methods using appropriate software to establish hazard (flood and landslide maps of the Ndop Plain. Natural factors as well as anthropogenic factors are considered.

  10. Geothermal alteration of basaltic core from the Snake River Plain, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant, Christopher J.

    The Snake River Plain is located in the southern part of the state of Idaho. The eastern plain, on which this study focuses, is a trail of volcanics from the Yellowstone hotspot. Three exploratory geothermal wells were drilled on the Snake River Plain. This project analyzes basaltic core from the first well at Kimama, north of Burley, Idaho. The objectives of this project are to establish zones of geothermal alteration and analyze the potential for geothermal power production using sub-aquifer resources on the axial volcanic zone of the Snake River Plain. Thirty samples from 1,912 m of core were sampled and analyzed for clay content and composition using X-ray diffraction. Observations from core samples and geophysical logs are also used to establish alteration zones. Mineralogical data, geophysical log data and physical characteristics of the core suggest that the base of the Snake River Plain aquifer at the axial zone is located 960 m below the surface, much deeper than previously suspected. Swelling smectite clay clogs pore spaces and reduces porosity and permeability to create a natural base to the aquifer. Increased temperatures favor the formation of smectite clay and other secondary minerals to the bottom of the hole. Below 960 m the core shows signs of alteration including color change, formation of clay, and filling of other secondary minerals in vesicles and fractured zones of the core. The smectite clay observed is Fe-rich clay that is authigenic in some places. Geothermal power generation may be feasible using a low temperature hot water geothermal system if thermal fluids can be attained near the bottom of the Kimama well.

  11. Computations Of Critical Depth In Rivers With Flood Plains | Okoli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Critical flows may occur at more than one depth in rivers with flood plains. The possibility of multiple critical depths affects the water-surface profile calculations. Presently available algorithms determine only one of the critical depths which may lead to large errors. It is the purpose of this paper to present an analytical ...

  12. Field-trip guide to Columbia River flood basalts, associated rhyolites, and diverse post-plume volcanism in eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferns, Mark L.; Streck, Martin J.; McClaughry, Jason D.

    2017-08-09

    The Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) is the youngest and best preserved continental flood basalt province on Earth, linked in space and time with a compositionally diverse succession of volcanic rocks that partially record the apparent emergence and passage of the Yellowstone plume head through eastern Oregon during the late Cenozoic. This compositionally diverse suite of volcanic rocks are considered part of the La Grande-Owyhee eruptive axis (LOEA), an approximately 300-kilometer-long (185 mile), north-northwest-trending, middle Miocene to Pliocene volcanic belt located along the eastern margin of the Columbia River flood basalt province. Volcanic rocks erupted from and preserved within the LOEA form an important regional stratigraphic link between the (1) flood basalt-dominated Columbia Plateau on the north, (2) bimodal basalt-rhyolite vent complexes of the Owyhee Plateau on the south, (3) bimodal basalt-rhyolite and time-transgressive rhyolitic volcanic fields of the Snake River Plain-Yellowstone Plateau, and (4) the High Lava Plains of central Oregon.This field-trip guide describes a 4-day geologic excursion that will explore the stratigraphic and geochemical relationships among mafic rocks of the Columbia River Basalt Group and coeval and compositionally diverse volcanic rocks associated with the early “Yellowstone track” and High Lava Plains in eastern Oregon. Beginning in Portland, the Day 1 log traverses the Columbia River gorge eastward to Baker City, focusing on prominent outcrops that reveal a distal succession of laterally extensive, large-volume tholeiitic flood lavas of the Grande Ronde, Wanapum, and Saddle Mountains Basalt formations of the CRBG. These “great flows” are typical of the well-studied flood basalt-dominated Columbia Plateau, where interbedded silicic and calc-alkaline lavas are conspicuously absent. The latter part of Day 1 will highlight exposures of middle to late Miocene silicic ash-flow tuffs, rhyolite domes, and

  13. Radio monitoring of the Sozh-river flood plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsova, V.A.; Generalova, V.A.; Kol'nenkov, V.P.; Glaz, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    Periodic radiation monitoring supervision is the important parameter of the radioactivity level time control with reference to concrete landscapes, estimation and their ecological radiochemistry conditions forecast in order to accept practical measures for the risk radiation danger reduction. The early monitoring supervision was carried out in the area of radioactive anomalies in Sozh-river flood plain. The new data received in 1998 and 2000 are cited below. The radiation situation of the last landscape appropriating to conditions in central and near terrace Sozh-river flood plain, more than in 10 years, is nowadays characterized by the data of the structure of Veprin one. In coastal flood plain the maximal radioactivity is dated to meadow vegetable layer in downturn of relief or to humus horizon of actual soil on coastal shaft. In central flood plain it remains rather high with the tendency of accumulation in meliorative channels, which are nowadays strongly overgrown, in 1,6-1,9 times exceeding earlier supervision. Down the Sozh near the village Gronovo in 1988 the level of gamma activity meadow vegetable layer changed. Radioactive situation is low here nowadays: on meadow vegetable layer almost in 5 times lower than former one. It is explained by the active hydro mode snow melt flood streams at the abrupt bend of Sozh channel, resulting in meadows washing and silt material washout. The deepening of Cs-137 reaches 0,20 m and connects with the accumulation of isotope in the top part of humus horizon where it is fixed in the fixed form. Monitoring supervision on radio strontium in the section of Sozh-river flood plain near the village Gronovo shows, that in 1995 its maximal concentration is observed in humusided loamy sand under meadow vegetable layer; the main mass of isotope - up to 80 % - was concentrated in the top 30-sm layer. It is remarkable, that with depth, reducing the contents almost twice and not being marked in underlaying sands, this isotope

  14. 78 FR 49684 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago... the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago... the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

  15. 78 FR 36091 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

  16. 77 FR 65478 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago... the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago... segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River...

  17. 76 FR 63199 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal...

  18. 77 FR 60044 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago... the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago... segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River...

  19. Potential hydrothermal resource temperatures in the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanashayam Neupane; Earl D. Mattson; Cody J. Cannon; Trevor A. Atkinson; Travis L. McLing; Thomas R. Wood; Patrick F. Dobson; Mark E. Conrad

    2016-02-01

    The Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) in southern Idaho is a region of high heat flow. Sustained volcanic activities in the wake of the passage of the Yellowstone Hotspot have turned this region into an area with great potential for geothermal resources as evidenced by numerous hot springs scattered along the margins of the plain and several hot-water producing wells and hot springs within the plain. Despite these thermal expressions, it is hypothesized that the pervasive presence of an overlying groundwater aquifer in the region effectively masks thermal signatures of deep-seated geothermal resources. The dilution of deeper thermal water and re-equilibration at lower temperature are significant challenges for the evaluation of potential resource areas in the ESRP. Over the past several years, we collected approximately 100 water samples from springs/wells for chemical analysis as well as assembled existing water chemistry data from literature. We applied several geothermometric and geochemical modeling tools to these chemical compositions of ESRP water samples. Geothermometric calculations based on principles of multicomponent equilibrium geothermometry with inverse geochemical modeling capability (e.g., Reservoir Temperature Estimator, RTEst) have been useful for the evaluation of reservoir temperatures. RTEst geothermometric calculations of ESRP thermal water samples indicated numerous potential geothermal areas with elevated reservoir temperatures. Specifically, areas around southern/southwestern side of the Bennett Hills and within the Camas Prairies in the western-northwestern regions of the ESRP and its margins suggest temperatures in the range of 140-200°C. In the northeastern portions of the ESRP, Lidy Hot Springs, Ashton, Newdale, and areas east of Idaho Falls have expected reservoir temperature =140 °C. In the southern ERSP, areas near Buhl and Twin Falls are found to have elevated temperatures as high as 160 °C. These areas are likely to host

  20. Geochronology and Geomorphology of the Pioneer Archaeological Site (10BT676), Upper Snake River Plain, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keene, Joshua L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The Pioneer site in southeastern Idaho, an open-air, stratified, multi-component archaeological locality on the upper Snake River Plain, provides an ideal situation for understanding the geomorphic history of the Big Lost River drainage system. We conducted a block excavation with the goal of understanding the geochronological context of both cultural and geomorphological components at the site. The results of this study show a sequence of five soil formation episodes forming three terraces beginning prior to 7200 cal yr BP and lasting until the historic period, preserving one cultural component dated to ~3800 cal yr BP and multiple components dating to the last 800 cal yr BP. In addition, periods of deposition and stability at Pioneer indicate climate fluctuation during the middle Holocene (~7200-3800 cal yr BP), minimal deposition during the late Holocene, and a period of increased deposition potentially linked to the Little Ice Age. In addition, evidence for a high-energy erosion event dated to ~3800 cal yr BP suggest a catastrophic flood event during the middle Holocene that may correlate with volcanic activity at the Craters of the Moon lava fields to the northwest. This study provides a model for the study of alluvial terrace formations in arid environments and their potential to preserve stratified archaeological deposits.

  1. 77 FR 20295 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines...

  2. 75 FR 73966 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines...

  3. 77 FR 35854 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines...

  4. 76 FR 2829 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines...

  5. 75 FR 52462 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines...

  6. Geology of Pine and Crater Buttes: two basaltic constructs on the far eastern Snake River Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazierski, P.F.; King, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    The emplacement history and petrochemical evolution of the volcanics associated with Pine Butte, Crater Butte, and other nearby vents are developed and described. Four major vents were identified in the study area and their associated eruptive products were mapped. All of the vents show a marked physical elongation or linear orientation coincident with the observed rift set. Planetary exploration has revealed the importance of volcanic processes in the genesis and modification of extraterrestrial surfaces. Interpretation of surface features has identified plains-type basaltic volcanism in various mare regions of the Moon and the volcanic provinces of Mars. Identification of these areas with features that appear analogous to those observed in the Pine Butte area suggests similar styles of eruption and mode of emplacement. Such terrestrial analogies serve as a method to interpret the evolution of volcanic planetary surfaces on the inner planets

  7. Deep Geothermal Reservoir Temperatures in the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho using Multicomponent Geothermometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanashyam Neupane; Earl D. Mattson; Travis L. McLing; Carl D. Palmer; Robert W. Smith; Thomas R. Wood

    2014-02-01

    The U.S. Geological survey has estimated that there are up to 4,900 MWe of undiscovered geothermal resources and 92,000 MWe of enhanced geothermal potential within the state of Idaho. Of particular interest are the resources of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) which was formed by volcanic activity associated with the relative movement of the Yellowstone Hot Spot across the state of Idaho. This region is characterized by a high geothermal gradient and thermal springs occurring along the margins of the ESRP. Masking much of the deep thermal potential of the ESRP is a regionally extensive and productive cold-water aquifer. We have undertaken a study to infer the temperature of the geothermal system hidden beneath the cold-water aquifer of the ESRP. Our approach is to estimate reservoir temperatures from measured water compositions using an inverse modeling technique (RTEst) that calculates the temperature at which multiple minerals are simultaneously at equilibrium while explicitly accounting for the possible loss of volatile constituents (e.g., CO2), boiling and/or water mixing. In the initial stages of this study, we apply the RTEst model to water compositions measured from a limited number of wells and thermal springs to estimate the regionally extensive geothermal system in the ESRP.

  8. Savannah River Region: Transition between the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zullo, V.A.; Harris, W.B.; Price, V. [eds.

    1990-12-31

    The focus of the this conference of Coastal Plains geologists was on the Savannah River region of Georgia and South Carolina, and particularly on the geology of the US Department of Energy`s 300 square mile Savannah River Site (SRS) in western South Carolina. Current geological studies indicate that the Mesozoic-Cenozoic section in the Savannah River region is transitional between that of the Gulf Coastal Plain to the southwest and that of the Atlantic Coastal Plain to the northeast. With the transitional aspect of the region as its theme, the first session was devoted to overviews of Cretaceous and Paleogene geology in the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains. Succeeding presentations and resulting discussions dealt with more specific problems in structural, lithostratigraphic, hydrological, biostratigraphic, and cyclostratigraphic analysis, and of correlation to standard stratigraphic frameworks. For these conference proceedings, individual papers have been processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  9. Snake River Plain Play Fairway Analysis – Phase 1 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shervais, John W. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States). Dept. of Geology; Glen, Jonathan M. [US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Liberty, Lee M. [Boise State Univ., ID (United States). Center for Geophysical Investigation of the Shallow Subsurface; Dobson, Patrick [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gasperikova, Erika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Snake River volcanic province (SRP) overlies a thermal anomaly that extends deep into the mantle; it represents one of the highest heat flow provinces in North America. Our goals for this Phase 1 study are to: (1) adapt the methodology of Play Fairway Analysis for geothermal exploration to create a formal basis for its application to geothermal systems, (2) assemble relevant data for the SRP from publicly available and private sources, and (3) build a geothermal play fairway model for the SRP and identify the most promising plays, using software tools that are standard in the petroleum industry. The success of play fairway analysis in geothermal exploration depends critically on defining a systematic methodology that is grounded in theory (as developed within the petroleum industry over the last two decades) and within the geologic and hydrologic framework of real geothermal systems. Our preliminary assessment of the data suggests that important undiscovered geothermal resources may be located in several areas of the SRP, including the western SRP (associated with buried lineaments defined by gravity or magnetic anomalies, and capped by extensive deposits of lacustrine sediment), at lineament intersections in the central SRP (along the Banbury-Hagerman trend NW of Twin Falls, and along the northern margin of the Mt Bennett Hills-Camas Prairie area), and along the margins of the eastern SRP. Additional high temperature resources are likely associated with rhyolite domes and crypto-domes in the eastern SRP, but are masked by shallow groundwater flow leading to low upper crustal heat flow values. These blind resources may be exploitable with existing deep drilling technology. Groundwater modeling planned for later phases of the PFA project will address whether temperatures at viable producing depths are sufficient to support electricity production.

  10. In-situ monitoring of deformation of clayey and volcanic sequences in the lacustrine plain of Iztapalapa, Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreon-Freyre, D.; Cerca, M.; Barrientos, B.; Gutierrez, R.; Blancas, D.

    2012-12-01

    Major cities of Central Mexico with lowering of land elevation problems are located in inter-volcanic and fault bounded basins within the central Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB). The most representative and studied case of ground deformation is Mexico City, where the Iztapalapa Municipality presents the highest population density. This area is located over the geological contact between the "Sierra de Santa Catarina" volcanic range and a lacustrine plain. Filling of lacustrine basins includes silty and clayey sediments as well as pyroclastic deposits (coarse and fine grained) and volcanic rocks layers. We used Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and MASW prospection to evaluate contrasts in the physical properties of fine grained soils and identify geometry of the deformational features and implemented a mechanical system for in situ monitoring in fractured sites. Deformational features in this basin reflect an interplay between the geological history (depositional conditions), load history, seismic activity, and faulting. Plastic mechanical behaviour predominates in these clayey sediments and differential deformation locally triggers brittle fracturing and/or subsidence of the surface. In this work we present the results of monitoring and characterization of ground deformation and fracturing in different sequences, our results show a dynamic interplay between the mechanisms of ground fracturing and the stress history of sedimentary sequences. Relating the mechanical behaviour of the studied sequences with variations of physical and geological properties should be taken into account to estimate land level lowering and risk of fracturing for urban development planning.

  11. Peculiarities of 239,240Pu behaviour in flood-plain soils of the Techa river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailovskaya, L.N.; Molchanova, I.V.; Karavaeva, E.N.

    2004-01-01

    The Techa river was contaminated with the liquid nuclear waste discharged from the nuclear plant 'Mayak' within 1949-1956 years. In 1999-2002 flood-plain soils of the Techa river were investigated and the levels of content, a migration and a vertical distribution of 239,240 Pu in the flood-plain soils were studied. Reference plots were located in the pre-bed and in central flood plain at different distances from the source of contamination (78-240 km). It was shown that in the soils of the pre-bed the content of Pu isotopes was decreasing from 10.5 to 2.8 kBq/m 2 with the distance from the plant 'Mayak'. Besides, a non-uniform spatial distribution of 239,240 Pu was found in those plots, which were at the same distance from the source of the contamination. As a rule, the central flood plain (25-100 m from the river-bed) was contaminated with 239,240 Pu less than the area in the pre-bed (5-20 m from the the river-bed). Thus, in the area of the middle length of the river the density of the soil contamination with 239,240 Pu of the central flood plain is 0.3 to 0.8 kBq/m 2 and that of the pre-bed is 1.0 to 4.7 kBq/m 2 at a maximum migration depth being 25 to 30 cm and 40 to 50 cm, respectively. The determined value of the 239,240 Pu/ 137 Cs ratio proves that rates of the vertical migration of the Pu isotopes in the flood plain soils of the Techa river are comparable and higher (in some cases) than those of 137 Cs. (author)

  12. Braid-plain dynamics and bank erosion along the Matanuska River, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, J. H.

    2009-12-01

    Braid-plain activity and geomorphic features in the Matanuska River in southcentral Alaska between 1949 and 2006 were examined to support a bank erosion hazard assessment. The glacial Matanuska River drains 6,500 km2 and is braided for 85 percent of its 150 km course, which parallels a major highway and flows through the towns of Sutton and Palmer, Alaska. The historical braid plain was defined as the envelope of areas with active channels, unvegetated bars, or vegetated bars with evidence of channels since 1949 and delineated in a GIS from 1949, 1962, and 2006 aerial orthoimagery. We created a strip map of bank height and composition (primarily bedrock and unconsolidated sediment) at braid-plain margins and outlined valley bottom features (terraces and tributary fans) adjacent to the braid plain to assess erodibility. Braid-plain dynamism has created a mosaic of extensive lightly vegetated bars interspersed with forested bars in strips along the banks and in small mid-channel positions. Abandoned channels filled with groundwater or tributary streamflow have created clearwater side channels within these bars that serve as the primary spawning location for chum, sockeye, and coho salmon in the Matanuska River basin. Erosion magnitudes for the periods 1949-1962 and 1962-2006 were computed as braid-plain expansion at transects across the historical braid-plain boundaries. Episodic, spatially distributed erosion and the antiquity of some eroded surfaces suggests that average annual erosion rates at a location are not adequate for assessing future erosion at that location in a braid plain. Lateral expansion caused bank erosion of 100 -275 m at 20 locations over the full period, about half at tributary fans and most occurring in a single time period. Minor growth of tributary fans constricted the braid plain, and emerging terraces have the potential to shrink the braid plain. Eroded banks included undated but pre-historic fluvial terraces and tributary fans. Where

  13. 78 FR 17099 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago... the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago... Guard will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including...

  14. 76 FR 78161 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... INFORMATION: The Coast Guard will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake...

  15. 78 FR 65874 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago... the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago... Guard will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including...

  16. 78 FR 4071 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago... the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago... Coast Guard will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan...

  17. 75 FR 64673 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and, Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and, Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and... Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Ship and...: The Coast Guard will enforce Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des...

  18. 78 FR 40635 - Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... Coast Guard will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan...

  19. 78 FR 36092 - Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... Coast Guard will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan...

  20. 76 FR 35106 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago..., DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a permanent safety zone from Brandon... Safety Zones; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary...

  1. 75 FR 64147 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Ship and Sanitary Canal... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Coast Guard will enforce Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan...

  2. 77 FR 25595 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and [[Page 25596

  3. 76 FR 65609 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago... INFORMATION: The Coast Guard will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake...

  4. Solute geochemistry of the Snake River Plain regional aquifer system, Idaho and eastern Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, W.W.; Low, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    Three geochemical methods were used to determine chemical reactions that control solute concentrations in the Snake River Plain regional aquifer system: (1) calculation of a regional solute balance within the aquifer and of mineralogy in the aquifer framework to identify solute reactions, (2) comparison of thermodynamic mineral saturation indices with plausible solute reactions, and (3) comparison of stable isotope ratios of the groundwater with those in the aquifer framework. The geothermal groundwater system underlying the main aquifer system was examined by calculating thermodynamic mineral saturation indices, stable isotope ratios of geothermal water, geothermometry, and radiocarbon dating. Water budgets, hydrologic arguments, and isotopic analyses for the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer system demonstrate that most, if not all, water is of local meteoric and not juvenile or formation origin. Solute balance, isotopic, mineralogic, and thermodynamic arguments suggest that about 20% of the solutes are derived from reactions with rocks forming the aquifer framework. Reactions controlling solutes in the western Snake river basin are believed to be similar to those in the eastern basin but the regional geothermal system that underlies the Snake river Plain contains total dissolved solids similar to those in the overlying Snake River Plain aquifer system but contains higher concentrations of sodium, bicarbonate, silica, fluoride, sulfate, chloride, arsenic, boron, and lithium, and lower concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and hydrogen. 132 refs., 30 figs., 27 tabs

  5. Knife River: Early Village Life on the Plains. Teaching with Historic Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Fay

    This document, from the lesson plan series, "Teaching with Historic Places," examines the Native Americans who lived on the plains along the Knife River in what is now North Dakota. Following an introductory section, the document sets out student objectives, teaching activities, readings, and illustrations. The teaching activity…

  6. Response surfaces of vulnerability to climate change: The Colorado River Basin, the High Plains, and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano Foti; Jorge A. Ramirez; Thomas C. Brown

    2014-01-01

    We quantify the vulnerability of water supply to shortage for the Colorado River Basin and basins of the High Plains and California and assess the sensitivity of their water supply system to future changes in the statistical variability of supply and demand. We do so for current conditions and future socio-economic scenarios within a probabilistic framework that...

  7. Hydrology, geomorphology, and vegetation of Coastal Plain rivers in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff R. Hupp

    2000-01-01

    Rivers of the Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States are characteristically low-gradient meandering systems that develop broad floodplains subjected to frequent and prolonged flooding. These floodplains support a relatively unique forested wetland (Bottomland Hardwoods), which have received considerable ecological study, but distinctly less hydrogeomorphic...

  8. Lahar—River of volcanic mud and debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Jon J.; Pierson, Thomas C.; Vallance, James W.

    2018-05-09

    Lahar, an Indonesian word for volcanic mudflow, is a mixture of water, mud, and volcanic rock flowing swiftly along a channel draining a volcano. Lahars can form during or after eruptions, or even during periods of inactivity. They are among the greatest threats volcanoes pose to people and property. Lahars can occur with little to no warning, and may travel great distances at high speeds, destroying or burying everything in their paths.Lahars form in many ways. They commonly occur when eruptions melt snow and ice on snow-clad volcanoes; when rains fall on steep slopes covered with fresh volcanic ash; when crater lakes, volcano glaciers or lakes dammed by volcanic debris suddenly release water; and when volcanic landslides evolve into flowing debris. Lahars are especially likely to occur at erupting or recently active volcanoes.Because lahars are so hazardous, U.S. Geological Survey scientists pay them close attention. They study lahar deposits and limits of inundation, model flow behavior, develop lahar-hazard maps, and work with community leaders and governmental authorities to help them understand and minimize the risks of devastating lahars.

  9. 137Cs contamination of Techa river flood plain in Brodokalmak settlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesnokov, A.V.; Govorun, A.P.; Liksonov, V.I.; Shcherbak, S.B.; Ivanitskaya, M.V.

    1999-01-01

    137 Cs contamination of the Techa river flood plain inside the Brodokalmak settlement has been mapped. The collimated scintillated detector technique was used for 137 Cs deposit measurements. The 137 Cs contamination is very heterogeneous. A comparison of this technique with the traditional sample method was performed at selected locations. The sampling data are in good agreement with in-situ data. Soil surface activity of 90 Sr was determined from the samples. It was shown that 137 Cs contamination correlates with 90 Sr contamination within the flood plain of the settlement

  10. Holocene volcanism of the upper McKenzie River catchment, central Oregon Cascades, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligne, Natalia I.; Conrey, Richard M.; Cashman, Katharine V.; Champion, Duane E.; Amidon, William H.

    2016-01-01

    To assess the complexity of eruptive activity within mafic volcanic fields, we present a detailed geologic investigation of Holocene volcanism in the upper McKenzie River catchment in the central Oregon Cascades, United States. We focus on the Sand Mountain volcanic field, which covers 76 km2 and consists of 23 vents, associated tephra deposits, and lava fields. We find that the Sand Mountain volcanic field was active for a few decades around 3 ka and involved at least 13 eruptive units. Despite the small total volume erupted (∼1 km3 dense rock equivalent [DRE]), Sand Mountain volcanic field lava geochemistry indicates that erupted magmas were derived from at least two, and likely three, different magma sources. Single units erupted from one or more vents, and field data provide evidence of both vent migration and reoccupation. Overall, our study shows that mafic volcanism was clustered in space and time, involved both explosive and effusive behavior, and tapped several magma sources. These observations provide important insights on possible future hazards from mafic volcanism in the central Oregon Cascades.

  11. Summary of the Snake River plain Regional Aquifer-System Analysis in Idaho and eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    Regional aquifers underlying the 15,600-square-mile Snake River Plain in southern Idaho and eastern Oregon was studied as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer-System Analysis program. The largest and most productive aquifers in the Snake River Plain are composed of Quaternary basalt of the Snake River Group, which underlies most of the 10,8000-square-mile eastern plain. Aquifer tests and simulation indicate that transmissivity of the upper 200 feet of the basalt aquifer in the eastern plain commonly ranges from about 100,000 to 1,000,000 feet squared per day. However, transmissivity of the total aquifer thickness may be as much as 10 million feet squared per day. Specific yield of the upper 200 feet of the aquifer ranges from about 0.01 to 0.20. Average horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the upper 200 feet of the basalt aquifer ranges from less than 100 to 9,000 feet per day. Values may be one to several orders of magnitude higher in parts in individual flows, such as flow tops. Vertical hydraulic conductivity is probably several orders of magnitude lower than horizontal hydraulic conductivity and is generally related to the number of joints. Pillow lava in ancestral Snake River channels has the highest hydraulic conductivity of all rock types. Hydraulic conductivity of the basalt decreases with depth because of secondary filling of voids with calcite and silica. An estimated 80 to 120 million acre-feet of water is believed to be stored in the upper 200 feet of the basalt aquifer in the eastern plain. The most productive aquifers in the 4,800-square-mile western plain are alluvial sand and gravel in the Boise River valley. Although aquifer tests indicate that transmissivity of alluvium in the Boise River valley ranges from 5,000 to 160,000 feet squared per day, simulation suggests that average transmissivity of the upper 500 feet is generally less than 20,000 feet squared per day. Vertically averaged horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the upper

  12. 75 FR 26094 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago... establishing a temporary safety zone from Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan. This temporary safety...

  13. Structural mapping of Chikotra River basin in the Deccan Volcanic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    advanced processing techniques on regional scale ground magnetic data ... The Chikotra River lies between the deep borehole of ... tion of magnetic sources at shallow and deeper levels to ..... whose information inferred from interaction with.

  14. Overview of the issues surrounding thermal discharges in the Des Plaines River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    This review effort was undertaken to clarify and, if possible, quantify the issues surrounding the thermal input into the lower Des Plaines River from the Commonwealth Edison Joliet Electrical Generation Facility. The central issue is whether or not a reduction of the thermal discharge from the facility would produce beneficial environmental effects. This issue is clouded due to the fact of a number of environmental problems. These problems include: the river water quality, sediment quality, and barge traffic impacts. These variables, coupled with the uncertain future stream volume and conflicting data, prevent any simplistic conclusions from being drawn. Thus, any short-term study can only result in an overview of the situation.

  15. The geology of Pine and Crater Buttes: Two basaltic constructs on the far eastern Snake River Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazierski, Paul F.; King, John S.

    1987-01-01

    The emplacement history and petrochemical evolution of the volcanics associated with Pine Butte, Crater Butte, and other nearby vents are developed and described. Four major vents were identified in the study area and their associated eruptive products were mapped. All of the vents show a marked physical elongation or linear orientation coincident with the observed rift set. Planetary exploration has revealed the importance of volcanic processes in the genesis and modification of extraterrestrial surfaces. Interpretation of surface features has identified plains-type basaltic volcanism in various mare regions of the Moon and the volcanic provinces of Mars. Identification of these areas with features that appear analogous to those observed in the Pine Butte area suggests similar styles of eruption and mode of emplacement. Such terrestrial analogies serve as a method to interpret the evolution of volcanic planetary surfaces on the inner planets.

  16. Integrating channel form and processes in the Gangetic plains rivers: Implications for geomorphic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, N. G.; Sinha, R.

    2018-02-01

    Geomorphic diversity at a variety of spatial and temporal scales has been studied in the western Ganga plains (WGP), India, to isolate the dominating factors at each scale that have the potential to cause major geomorphic change. The Ganga River and its major tributaries draining the WGP have been investigated in terms of longitudinal, cross-sectional, and planform morphology to assess the influence of potential controls such as climate, geology, topography, land use, hydrology, and sediment transport. These data were then compared with those from the rivers draining the eastern Ganga plains (EGP) to understand the geomorphic diversity across the Ganga plains and the causal factors. Our investigations suggest that in-channel geomorphic diversity over decadal scale in rivers with low width-to-depth (W/D) ratio is caused by periodic incision/aggradation, but it is driven by channel avulsion in rivers characterized by high W/D ratio. Similarly, planform (reach-scale) parameters such as sinuosity and braid-channel-ratio are influenced by intrinsic factors such as changes in hydrological conditions and morphodynamics (cutoffs, small-scale avulsion) that are in turn impacted by natural and human-induced factors. Finally, we have isolated the climatic and hydrologic effects on the longitudinal profile concavity of alluvial trunk channels in tectonically stable and unstable landscapes. We demonstrate that the rivers flowing through a tectonically stable landscape are graded in nature where higher discharge tends to create more concave longitudinal profiles compared to those in tectonically unstable landscape at 103-year scale.

  17. Mixing effects on geothermometric calculations of the Newdale geothermal area in the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanashayam Neupane; Earl D. Mattson; Travis L. McLing; Cody J. Cannon; Thomas R. Wood; Trevor A. Atkinson; Patrick F. Dobson; Mark E. Conrad

    2016-02-01

    The Newdale geothermal area in Madison and Fremont Counties in Idaho is a known geothermal resource area whose thermal anomaly is expressed by high thermal gradients and numerous wells producing warm water (up to 51 °C). Geologically, the Newdale geothermal area is located within the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) that has a time-transgressive history of sustained volcanic activities associated with the passage of Yellowstone Hotspot from the southwestern part of Idaho to its current position underneath Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming. Locally, the Newdale geothermal area is located within an area that was subjected to several overlapping and nested caldera complexes. The Tertiary caldera forming volcanic activities and associated rocks have been buried underneath Quaternary flood basalts and felsic volcanic rocks. Two southeast dipping young faults (Teton dam fault and an unnamed fault) in the area provide the structural control for this localized thermal anomaly zone. Geochemically, water samples from numerous wells in the area can be divided into two broad groups – Na-HCO3 and Ca-(Mg)-HCO3 type waters and are considered to be the product of water-rhyolite and water-basalt interactions, respectively. Each type of water can further be subdivided into two groups depending on their degree of mixing with other water types or interaction with other rocks. For example, some bivariate plots indicate that some Ca-(Mg)-HCO3 water samples have interacted only with basalts whereas some samples of this water type also show limited interaction with rhyolite or mixing with Na-HCO3 type water. Traditional geothermometers [e.g., silica variants, Na-K-Ca (Mg-corrected)] indicate lower temperatures for this area; however, a traditional silica-enthalpy mixing model results in higher reservoir temperatures. We applied a new multicomponent equilibrium geothermometry tool (e.g., Reservoir Temperature Estimator, RTEst) that is based on inverse geochemical modeling which

  18. Sele coastal plain flood risk due to wave storm and river flow interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassai, Guido; Aucelli, Pietro; Di Paola, Gianluigi; Della Morte, Renata; Cozzolino, Luca; Rizzo, Angela

    2016-04-01

    Wind waves, elevated water levels and river discharge can cause flooding in low-lying coastal areas, where the water level is the interaction between wave storm elevated water levels and river flow interaction. The factors driving the potential flood risk include weather conditions, river water stage and storm surge. These data are required to obtain inputs to run the hydrological model used to evaluate the water surface level during ordinary and extreme events regarding both the fluvial overflow and storm surge at the river mouth. In this paper we studied the interaction between the sea level variation and the river hydraulics in order to assess the location of the river floods in the Sele coastal plain. The wave data were acquired from the wave buoy of Ponza, while the water level data needed to assess the sea level variation were recorded by the tide gauge of Salerno. The water stages, river discharges and rating curves for Sele river were provided by Italian Hydrographic Service (Servizio Idrografico e Mareografico Nazionale, SIMN).We used the dataset of Albanella station (40°29'34.30"N, 15°00'44.30"E), located around 7 km from the river mouth. The extreme river discharges were evaluated through the Weibull equation, which were associated with their return period (TR). The steady state river water levels were evaluated through HEC-RAS 4.0 model, developed by Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC) of the United States Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center (USACE,2006). It is a well-known 1D model that computes water surface elevation (WSE) and velocity at discrete cross-sections by solving continuity, energy and flow resistance (e.g., Manning) equation. Data requirements for HEC-RAS include topographic information in the form of a series of cross-sections, friction parameter in the form of Manning's n values across each cross-section, and flow data including flow rates, flow change locations, and boundary conditions. For a steady state sub

  19. Phreatomagmatic eruptions through unconsolidated coastal plain sequences, Maungataketake, Auckland Volcanic Field (New Zealand)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustín-Flores, Javier; Németh, Károly; Cronin, Shane J.; Lindsay, Jan M.; Kereszturi, Gábor; Brand, Brittany D.; Smith, Ian E. M.

    2014-04-01

    Maungataketake is a monogenetic basaltic volcano formed at ~ 85-89 ka in the southern part of the Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF), New Zealand. It comprises a basal 1100-m diameter tuff ring, with a central scoria/spatter cone and lava flows. The tuff ring was formed under hydrogeological and geographic conditions very similar to the present. The tuff records numerous density stratified, wet base surges that radiated outward up to 1 km, decelerating rapidly and becoming less turbulent with distance. The pyroclastic units dominantly comprise fine-grained expelled grains from various sedimentary deposits beneath the volcano mixed with a minor component of juvenile pyroclasts (~ 35 vol.%). Subtle lateral changes relate to deceleration with distance and vertical transformations are minor, pointing to stable explosion depths and conditions, with gradual transitions between units and no evidence for eruptive pauses. This volcano formed within and on ~ 60 m-thick Plio/Pleistocene, poorly consolidated, highly permeable shelly sands and silts (Kaawa Formation) capped by near-impermeable, water-saturated muds (Tauranga Group). These sediments rest on moderately consolidated Miocene-aged permeable turbiditic sandstones and siltstones (Waitemata Group). Magma-water fuelled thermohydraulic explosions remained in the shallow sedimentary layers, excavating fine-grained sediments without brittle fragmentation required. On the whole, the resulting cool, wet pyroclastic density currents were of low energy. The unconsolidated shallow sediments deformed to accommodate rapidly rising magma, leading to development of complex sill-like bodies and a range of magma-water contact conditions at any time. The weak saturated sediments were also readily liquefied to provide an enduring supply of water and fine sediment to the explosion loci. Changes in magma flux and/or subsequent stabilisation of the conduit area by a lava ring-barrier led to ensuing Strombolian and fire-fountaining eruption

  20. Morava River flood plain sediments deposited during the last millennium: Climatic and anthropogenic record

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlec, Jaroslav; Grygar, Tomáš; Světlík, Ivo; Ettler, V.; Mihaljevič, M.; Diehl, J.; Beske-Diehl, S.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 34, 4/6 (2008), s. 1338314-1338314 ISSN 0161-6951. [International Geological Congress /33./. 06.08.2008-14.08.2008, Oslo ] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130505; GA AV ČR IAA3013201; GA AV ČR IAAX00130801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516; CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Morava River * flood * plain sediments * magnetic minerals Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  1. Occurrence and variability of mining-related lead and zinc in the Spring River flood plain and tributary flood plains, Cherokee County, Kansas, 2009--11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2013-01-01

    Historical mining activity in the Tri-State Mining District (TSMD), located in parts of southeast Kansas, southwest Missouri, and northeast Oklahoma, has resulted in a substantial ongoing input of cadmium, lead, and zinc to the environment. To provide some of the information needed to support remediation efforts in the Cherokee County, Kansas, superfund site, a 4-year study was begun in 2009 by the U.S. Geological Survey that was requested and funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A combination of surficial-soil sampling and coring was used to investigate the occurrence and variability of mining-related lead and zinc in the flood plains of the Spring River and several tributaries within the superfund site. Lead- and zinc-contaminated flood plains are a concern, in part, because they represent a long-term source of contamination to the fluvial environment. Lead and zinc contamination was assessed with reference to probable-effect concentrations (PECs), which represent the concentrations above which adverse aquatic biological effects are likely to occur. The general PECs for lead and zinc were 128 and 459 milligrams per kilogram, respectively. The TSMD-specific PECs for lead and zinc were 150 and 2,083 milligrams per kilogram, respectively. Typically, surficial soils in the Spring River flood plain had lead and zinc concentrations that were less than the general PECs. Lead and zinc concentrations in the surficial-soil samples were variable with distance downstream and with distance from the Spring River channel, and the largest lead and zinc concentrations usually were located near the channel. Lead and zinc concentrations larger than the general or TSMD-specific PECs, or both, were infrequent at depth in the Spring River flood plain. When present, such contamination typically was confined to the upper 2 feet of the core and frequently was confined to the upper 6 inches. Tributaries with few or no lead- and zinc-mined areas in the basin—Brush Creek

  2. Comparison of Cottonwood Dendrochronology and Optically Stimulated Luminescence Geochronometers Along a High Plains Meandering River, Powder River, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasse, T. R.; Schook, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    Geochronometers at centennial scales can aid our understanding of process rates in fluvial geomorphology. Plains cottonwood trees (Populus deltoides ssp. Monilifera) in the high plains of the United States are known to germinate on freshly created deposits such as point bars adjacent to rivers. As the trees mature they may be partially buried (up to a few meters) by additional flood deposits. Cottonwood age gives a minimum age estimate of the stratigraphic surface where the tree germinated and a maximum age estimate for overlying sediments, providing quantitative data on rates of river migration and sediment accumulation. Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) of sand grains can be used to estimate the time since the sand grains were last exposed to sunlight, also giving a minimum age estimate of sediment burial. Both methods have disadvantages: Browsing, partial burial, and other damage to young cottonwoods can increase the time required for the tree to reach a height where it can be sampled with a tree corer, making the germination point a few years to a few decades older than the measured tree age; fluvial OSL samples can have inherited age (when the OSL age is older than the burial age) if the sediment was not completely bleached prior to burial. We collected OSL samples at 8 eroding banks of the Powder River Montana, and tree cores at breast height (±1.2 m) from cottonwood trees growing on the floodplain adjacent to the OSL sample locations. Using the Minimum Age Model (MAM) we found that OSL ages appear to be 500 to 1,000 years older than the adjacent cottonwood trees which range in age (at breast height) from 60 to 185 years. Three explanations for this apparent anomaly in ages are explored. Samples for OSL could be below a stratigraphic unconformity relative to the cottonwood germination elevation. Shallow samples for OSL could be affected by anthropogenic mixing of sediments due to plowing and leveling of hay fields. The OSL samples could have

  3. 137Cs contamination of the Techa river flood plain near the village of Muslumovo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesnokov, A.V.; Govorun, A.P.; Linnik, V.G.; Shcherbak, S.B.

    2000-01-01

    The results of a radiometric survey of the Techa river flood plain near the village of Muslumovo in the Chelyabinsk region of Russia are presented. The observed territory extended 16.6 km along the riverbed, with a total area of 2.5 km 2 . The collimated scintillation detector technique was applied to in situ field measurements of 137 Cs deposition on the soil. Maps of 137 Cs deposition and soil penetration depth were developed on the basis of approximately 5000 measurements. The total 137 Cs deposition within the surveyed territory has been estimated at 6.6 TBq. The means of the total 137 Cs soil depositions at half-kilometer sites on the flood plain and its distribution along the river have also been calculated. A maximum 137 Cs contamination above 7.5 MBq/m 2 is associated with a bank height up to 1 m above the usual water level. The data identify zones of intensive radionuclide sedimentation and transit zones

  4. Analysis of shallow-groundwater dynamic responses to water supply change in the Haihe River plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Z.; Lin, W.; Pengfei, L.

    2015-05-01

    When the middle route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project is completed, the water supply pattern of the Haihe River plain in North China will change significantly due to the replenishment of water sources and groundwater-exploitation control. The water-cycle-simulation model - MODCYCLE, has been used in simulating the groundwater dynamic balance for 2001-2010. Then different schemes of water supply in 2020 and 2030 were set up to quantitatively simulate the shallow-groundwater dynamic responses in the future. The results show that the total shallow-groundwater recharge is mainly raised by the increases in precipitation infiltration and surface-water irrigation infiltration. Meanwhile, the decrease of groundwater withdrawal contributes to reduce the total discharge. The recharge-discharge structure of local groundwater was still in a negative balance but improved gradually. The shallow-groundwater level in most parts was still falling before 2030, but more slowly. This study can benefit the rational exploitation of water resources in the Haihe River plain.

  5. [Growth analysis on modules of Cynodon dactylon clones in Yili River Valley Plain of Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Janar; Li, Hai-Yan; Liu, Ying; Yang, Yun-Fei

    2009-04-01

    By the method of randomly digging up whole ramet tuft while maintaining natural integrity, large samples of Cynodon dactylon clones were collected from a grape orchard abandoned for 2 years without any management in the Yili River Valley Plain of Xinjiang, aimed to quantitatively analyze the growth patterns of their modules. The results showed that the average ramet number of test 30 clones reached 272.6 +/- 186. 6, among which, vegetative ramets occupied 82.3%, being 4.3 times higher than reproductive ones. The total biomass of the clones was 45.4 +/- 40.0 g, in which, rhizomes accounted for 54.4%, while the vegetative ramets, stolons, and reproductive ramets occupied 21.0%, 14.8%, and 9.4% of the total, respectively. The accumulative length of rhizomes and stolons reached 5.1 + 4.7 m and 3.3 +/- 3.4 m, while the bud number on stolons and rhizomes was 291.5 +/- 246.8 and 78.8 +/- 87.4, respectively. The bud number on stolons and rhizomes was positively correlated to the quantitative characters of vegetative ramets, reproductive ramets, stolons, and rhizomes (P < 0.01), indicating that in Yili River Valley Plain, C. dactylon clone could achieve and maintain its continuous renovation via rhizome buds.

  6. Modeling of the solid-solution partitioning of heavy metals and arsenic in embanked flood plain soils of the rivers Rhine and Meuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, T.J.; Hiemstra, T.; Vink, J.P.M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to predict the solid-solution partitioning of heavy metals in river flood plain soils. We compared mechanistic geochemical modeling with a statistical approach. To characterize the heavy metal contamination of embanked river flood plain soils in The Netherlands, we collected

  7. A distribution of adsorbed forms of cesium 137 and strontium 90 in flood-plain formations of Sozh river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, V.A.; Generalova, V.A.

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of strontium 90 and cesium 137 forms in flood-plain geochemical system 'alluvial deposits - flood-plain turf - humus horizon - soil-source rock', where sorption and colloidal processes play main role in the isotopes migration, was studied. The bulk amount of strontium 90 is presented in adsorbed form in all investigated objects, whereas only 6% of cesium 137 amount in alluvial deposits, flood-plain turf and humus horizon is in adsorbed form. The content of exchange forms of cesium 137 and strontium 90 increases with the depth of the layer. The race of this increase for strontium 90 is large than for cesium 137. The distribution of radionuclides through the different parts of flood-plain of Sozh river has some distinctions due to more lability of adsorbed strontium 90 forms in comparison with cesium 137 ones

  8. 76 FR 23524 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago... safety zone from Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan. This proposed safety zone will cover 77.... This TIR established a 77 mile long safety zone from Brandon Road Lock to Lake Michigan in Chicago, IL...

  9. Aquifer recharge from infiltration basins in a highly urbanized area: the river Po Plain (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masetti, M.; Nghiem, S. V.; Sorichetta, A.; Stevenazzi, S.; Santi, E. S.; Pettinato, S.; Bonfanti, M.; Pedretti, D.

    2015-12-01

    Due to the extensive urbanization in the Po Plain in northern Italy, rivers need to be managed to alleviate flooding problems while maintaining an appropriate aquifer recharge under an increasing percentage of impermeable surfaces. During the PO PLain Experiment field campaign in July 2015 (POPLEX 2015), both active and under-construction infiltration basins have been surveyed and analyzed to identify appropriate satellite observations that can be integrated to ground based monitoring techniques. A key strategy is to have continuous data time series on water presence and level within the basin, for which ground based monitoring can be costly and difficult to be obtained consistently.One of the major and old infiltration basin in the central Po Plain has been considered as pilot area. The basin is active from 2003 with ground based monitoring available since 2009 and supporting the development of a calibrated unsaturated-saturated two-dimensional numerical model simulating the infiltration dynamics through the basin.A procedure to use satellite data to detect surface water change is under development based on satellite radar backscatter data with an appropriate incidence angle and polarization combination. An advantage of satellite radar is that it can observe surface water regardless of cloud cover, which can be persistent during rainy seasons. Then, the surface water change is correlated to the reservoir water stage to determine water storage in the basin together with integrated ground data and to give quantitative estimates of variations in the local water cycle.We evaluated the evolution of the infiltration rate, to obtain useful insights about the general recharge behavior of basins that can be used for informed design and maintenance. Results clearly show when the basin becomes progressively clogged by biofilms that can reduce the infiltration capacity of the basin by as much as 50 times compared to when it properly works under clean conditions.

  10. Reactivated basement structures in the central Savannah River area and their relationship to coastal plain deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumbest, R.J.; Price, V.; Temples, T.J.; Fallaw, W.C.; Snipes, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    Structural surface mapping and geophysical studies have identified several faults in the crystalline basement and overlying Coastal Plain sedimentary sequences in the central Savannah River area. Major subsurface basement shear zones occur parallel to and near Upper Three Runs Creek and Tinker Creek and are associated with linear aeromagnetic anomalies. Reflection seismic imaging of the basement shows a band of southeast dipping events parallel to Upper Three Runs Creek. Drill core from basement contain phyllonites, mylonites, fault breccia and pseudotachylite. The magnetic anomalies also mark the boundary separating greenschist facies metavolcanic rocks from amphibolite facies felsic gneiss, schist, and amphibolite. These features are similar to those that characterize other Paleozoic faults of the Eastern Piedmont Fault system. Reflection seismic imaging shows the sub-Cretaceous unconformity as well defined and easily identified event as well as easily traced laterally extensive events in Coastal Plain sequences. The unconformity and sedimentary sequences are faulted or deformed in several locations which also coincide with changes in dip of the unconformity. In the vicinity of Upper Three Runs Creek the unconformity shows a broad warping across which the elevation drops to the southeast and sedimentary sequences show a marked rate of thickening southeast. This indicates deformation of the basement exerted a control on deposition of the Coastal Plain sediments with down to the southeast movement. The basement shear zones are closely associated with the Dunbarton basin and are probable reactivated Paleozoic structures associated with extensional basin development as commonly seen associated with extensional basins on the east coast of North America

  11. Rheomorphic ignimbrites of the Rogerson Formation, central Snake River plain, USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Thomas R.; Reichow, Marc K.; Branney, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Rogerson Graben, USA, is critically placed at the intersection between the Yellowstone hotspot track and the southern projection of the west Snake River rift. Eleven rhyolitic members of the re-defined, ≥420-m-thick, Rogerson Formation record voluminous high-temperature explosive eruptions....... Between 11.9 and ∼8 Ma, the average frequency of large explosive eruptions in this region was 1 per 354 ky, about twice that at Yellowstone. The chemistry and mineralogy of the early rhyolites show increasing maturity with time possibly by progressive fractional crystallisation. This was followed......-margin monocline, which developed between 10.59 and 8 Ma. The syn-volcanic basin topography contrasted significantly with the present-day elevated Yellowstone hotspot plateau. Concurrent basin-and-range extension produced the N-trending Rogerson Graben: early uplift of the Shoshone Hills (≥10.34 Ma) was followed...

  12. STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTIC OF ICHTHYOPLANKTON IN A SMALL RIVER FLOWING WITHIN A BAR PLAIN OF THE DNIPRO RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Abramiuk

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Using as an example of a small river, which flows through a bar plain of the Dnipro, to study species composition of the littoral ichthyoplankton, dynamics of its structure during the season and its diversity in different parts of the river. Methodology. The littoral ichthyoplankton was investigated during four seasons of 2011-2014 on the Vita river, a right tributary of the Dnipro affected by the operation of Kaniv HPP. The research covered the main channel, a permanent backwater connected with the channel, as well as temporarily flooded areas of the floodplain and separated from the channel oxbow lakes. Samples were collected with standard sweep nets and Bagenal buoyant nets. Identification of young fish was carried out under binocular microscope MBS-9. Early life stages of larvae were determined according to the system of V. Vasnetsov. Species diversity of ichthyoplankton was assessed by the Shannon index. Findings. The littoral ichthyoplankton during May-July mostly consisted of limnophilic fish larvae belonging to a family Cyprinidae. In the river channel and the backwater at the beginning of the period the larvae of roach (Rutilus rutilus prevailed, later they were substituted by larvae of more thermophilic species, among which the rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus was the most abundant. In the oxbow lakes and temporarily flooded areas in spring the coastal ichthyoplankton was mainly structured by larvae of Carassius sp. and the rudd, in summer the larvae assemblages of oxbow lakes were quantitatively dominated by the sunbleak (Leucaspius delineatus. In areas covered with vegetation the larvae of invasive Chinese sleeper (Perccottus glenii were firstly found. Rheophilic species among young fish were absent, which indicates unfavorable conditions for their spawning at present hydrologic regime of the river. Originality. For the first time the coastal communities of early young fish in a small tributary of the Dnipro were

  13. Quantifying seining detection probability for fishes of Great Plains sand‐bed rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollenhauer, Robert; Logue, Daniel R.; Brewer, Shannon K.

    2018-01-01

    Species detection error (i.e., imperfect and variable detection probability) is an essential consideration when investigators map distributions and interpret habitat associations. When fish detection error that is due to highly variable instream environments needs to be addressed, sand‐bed streams of the Great Plains represent a unique challenge. We quantified seining detection probability for diminutive Great Plains fishes across a range of sampling conditions in two sand‐bed rivers in Oklahoma. Imperfect detection resulted in underestimates of species occurrence using naïve estimates, particularly for less common fishes. Seining detection probability also varied among fishes and across sampling conditions. We observed a quadratic relationship between water depth and detection probability, in which the exact nature of the relationship was species‐specific and dependent on water clarity. Similarly, the direction of the relationship between water clarity and detection probability was species‐specific and dependent on differences in water depth. The relationship between water temperature and detection probability was also species dependent, where both the magnitude and direction of the relationship varied among fishes. We showed how ignoring detection error confounded an underlying relationship between species occurrence and water depth. Despite imperfect and heterogeneous detection, our results support that determining species absence can be accomplished with two to six spatially replicated seine hauls per 200‐m reach under average sampling conditions; however, required effort would be higher under certain conditions. Detection probability was low for the Arkansas River Shiner Notropis girardi, which is federally listed as threatened, and more than 10 seine hauls per 200‐m reach would be required to assess presence across sampling conditions. Our model allows scientists to estimate sampling effort to confidently assess species occurrence, which

  14. Mineralogy and geothermometry of high-temperature rhyolites from the central and western Snake River Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honjo, N.; Bonnichsen, B.; Leeman, W.P.; Stormer, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    Voluminous mid-Miocene rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs and lava flows are exposed along the northern and southern margins of the central and western Snake River Plain. These rhyolites are essentially anhydrous with the general mineral assemblage of plagioclase ??sanidine ?? quartz + augite + pigeonite ?? hypersthene ?? fayalitic olivine + Fe-Ti oxides + apatite + zircon which provides an opportunity to compare feldspar, pyroxene, and Fe-Ti oxide equilibration temperatures for the same rocks. Estimated pyroxene equilibration temperatures (based on the geothermometers of Lindsley and coworkers) range from 850 to 1000??C, and these are well correlated with whole-rock compositions. With the exception of one sample, agreement between the two-pyroxene thermometers tested is well within 50??C. Fe-Ti oxide geothermometers applied to fresh magnetite and ilmenite generally yield temperatures about 50 to 100??C lower than the pyroxene temperatures, and erratic results are obtained if these minerals exhibit effects of subsolidus oxidation and exsolution. Results of feldspar thermometry are more complicated, and reflect uncertainties in the thermometer calibrations as well as in the degree of attainment of equilibrium between plagioclase and sanidine. In general, temperatures obtained using the Ghiorso (1984) and Green and Usdansky (1986) feldspar thermometers agree with the pyroxene temperatures within the respective uncertainties. However, uncertainties in the feldspar temperatures are the larger of the two (and exceed ??60??C for many samples). The feldspar thermometer of Fuhrman and Lindsley (1988) produces systematically lower temperatures for many of the samples studied. The estimated pyroxene temperatures are considered most representative of actual magmatic temperatures for these rhyolites. This range of temperatures is significantly higher than those for rhyolites from many other suites, and is consistent with the hypothesis that the Snake River Plain rhyolitic magmas formed

  15. River basin affected by rare perturbation events: the Chaiten volcanic eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picco, Lorenzo; Iroumé, Andrés; Oss-Cazzador, Daniele; Ulloa, Hector

    2017-04-01

    Natural disasters can strongly and rapidly affect a wide array of environments. Among these, volcanic eruptions can exert severe impacts on the dynamic equilibrium of riverine environment. The production and subsequent mobilization of large amounts of sediment all over the river basin, can strongly affect both hydrology and sediment and large wood transport dynamics. The aim of this research is to quantify the impact of a volcanic eruption along the Blanco River basin (Southern Chile), considering the geomorphic settings, the sediment dynamics and wood transport. Moreover, an overview on the possible management strategies to reduce the risks will be proposed. The research was carried out mainly along a 2.2 km-long reach of the fourth-order Blanco stream. Almost the entire river basin was affected by the volcanic eruption, several meters of tephra (up to 8 m) were deposited, affecting the evergreen forest and the fluvial corridor. Field surveys and remote sense analysis were carried out to investigate the effect of such extreme event. A Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) was used to detect the morphological changes by computing Difference of Dems (DoDs), while field surveys were carried out to detect the amount of in-channel wood; moreover aerial photos have been analyzed to detect the extension of the impact of volcanic eruption over the river basin. As expected, the DoDs analysis permitted to detect predominant erosional processes along the channel network. In fact, over 190569 m2 there was erosion that produced about 362999 m3 of sediment mobilized, while the deposition happened just over 58715 m2 for a total amount of 23957 m3. Looking then to the LW recruited and transported downstream, was possible to detect as along the active channel corridor a total amount of 113 m3/ha of wood was present. Moreover, analyzing aerial photographs taken before and after the volcanic eruption was possible to define as a total area of about 2.19 km2 was affected by tephra

  16. Remote sensing, planform, and facies analysis of the Plain of Tineh, Egypt for the remains of the defunct Pelusiac River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanar, Jessica; Khan, Shuhab D.; Fathy, Mohamed S.; Zalat, Abdel-Fattah A.

    2013-11-01

    The Pelusiac Branch was a distributary river in the Nile Delta that splits off from the main trunk of the Nile River as it flowed toward the Mediterranean. At approximately 25 A.D., it was chocked by sand and silt deposits from prograding beach accretion processes. The lower course of the river and its bifurcation point from the trunk of the Nile have been hypothesized based on ancient texts and maps, as well as previous research, but results have been inconsistent. Previous studies partly mapped the lower course of the Pelusiac River in the Plain of Tineh, east of the Suez Canal, but rapid urbanization related to the inauguration of the Peace Canal mega-irrigation project has covered any trace of the linear feature reported by these previous studies. The present study used multispectral remote sensing data of GeoEYE-1 and Landsat-TM to locate and accurately map the course of the defunct Pelusiac River within the Plain of Tineh. Remote sensing analysis identified a linear feature that is 135 m wide at its maximum and approximately 13 km long. It extends from the Pelusium ruins to the Suez Canal, just north of the Peace Canal. This remotely located linear feature corresponds to the path of the Pelusiac River during Roman times. Planform geomorphology was applied to determine the hydrological regime and paleodischarge of the river prior to becoming defunct. Planform analysis derived a bankfull paleodischarge value of ~ 5700 m3 s- 1 and an average discharge of 650 m3 s- 1, using the reach average for the interpreted Pelusiac River. The derived values show a river distributary similar in discharge to the modern dammed Damietta river. Field work completed in April of 2012 derived four sedimentary lithofacies of the upper formation on the plain that included pro-delta, delta-front and delta-plain depositional environments. Diatom and fossil mollusk samples were also identified that support coastal beach and lagoonal environments of deposition. Measured section columns

  17. Decreased runoff response to precipitation, Little Missouri River Basin, northern Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Eleanor R.; Friedman, Jonathan M.

    2017-01-01

    High variability in precipitation and streamflow in the semiarid northern Great Plains causes large uncertainty in water availability. This uncertainty is compounded by potential effects of future climate change. We examined historical variability in annual and growing season precipitation, temperature, and streamflow within the Little Missouri River Basin and identified differences in the runoff response to precipitation for the period 1976-2012 compared to 1939-1975 (n = 37 years in both cases). Computed mean values for the second half of the record showed little change (precipitation, but average annual runoff at the basin outlet decreased by 22%, with 66% of the reduction in flow occurring during the growing season. Our results show a statistically significant (p runoff response to precipitation (runoff ratio). Surface-water withdrawals for various uses appear to account for 1°C increases in January through March, are the dominant driver of the observed decrease in runoff response to precipitation in the Little Missouri River Basin.

  18. Characteristics and origin of Earth-mounds on the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tullis, J.A.

    1995-09-01

    Earth-mounds are common features on the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. The mounds are typically round or oval in plan view, <0.5 m in height, and from 8 to 14 m in diameter. They are found on flat and sloped surfaces, and appear less frequently in lowland areas. The mounds have formed on deposits of multiple sedimentary environments. Those studied included alluvial gravel terraces along the Big Lost River (late Pleistocene/early Holocene age), alluvial fan segments on the flanks of the Lost River Range (Bull Lake and Pinedale age equivalents), and loess/slopewash sediments overlying basalt flows. Backhoe trenches were dug to allow characterization of stratigraphy and soil development. Each mound has features unique to the depositional and pedogenic history of the site; however, there are common elements to all mounds that are linked to the history of mound formation. Each mound has a {open_quotes}floor{close_quotes} of a sediment or basement rock of significantly different hydraulic conductivity than the overlying sediment. These paleosurfaces are overlain by finer-grained sediments, typically loess or flood-overbank deposits. Mounds formed in environments where a sufficient thickness of fine-grained sediment held pore water in a system open to the migration to a freezing front. Heaving of the sediment occurred by the growth of ice lenses. Mound formation occurred at the end of the Late Pleistocene or early in the Holocene, and was followed by pedogenesis. Soils in the mounds were subsequently altered by bioturbation, buried by eolian deposition, and eroded by slopewash runoff. These secondary processes played a significant role in maintaining or increasing the mound/intermound relief.

  19. Characteristics and origin of Earth-mounds on the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tullis, J.A.

    1995-09-01

    Earth-mounds are common features on the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. The mounds are typically round or oval in plan view, <0.5 m in height, and from 8 to 14 m in diameter. They are found on flat and sloped surfaces, and appear less frequently in lowland areas. The mounds have formed on deposits of multiple sedimentary environments. Those studied included alluvial gravel terraces along the Big Lost River (late Pleistocene/early Holocene age), alluvial fan segments on the flanks of the Lost River Range (Bull Lake and Pinedale age equivalents), and loess/slopewash sediments overlying basalt flows. Backhoe trenches were dug to allow characterization of stratigraphy and soil development. Each mound has features unique to the depositional and pedogenic history of the site; however, there are common elements to all mounds that are linked to the history of mound formation. Each mound has a open-quotes floorclose quotes of a sediment or basement rock of significantly different hydraulic conductivity than the overlying sediment. These paleosurfaces are overlain by finer-grained sediments, typically loess or flood-overbank deposits. Mounds formed in environments where a sufficient thickness of fine-grained sediment held pore water in a system open to the migration to a freezing front. Heaving of the sediment occurred by the growth of ice lenses. Mound formation occurred at the end of the Late Pleistocene or early in the Holocene, and was followed by pedogenesis. Soils in the mounds were subsequently altered by bioturbation, buried by eolian deposition, and eroded by slopewash runoff. These secondary processes played a significant role in maintaining or increasing the mound/intermound relief

  20. Origins and evolution of rhyolitic magmas in the central Snake River Plain: insights from coupled high-precision geochronology, oxygen isotope, and hafnium isotope analyses of zircon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón, Dylan P.; Bindeman, Ilya N.; Wotzlaw, Jörn-Frederik; Christiansen, Eric H.; Stern, Richard A.

    2018-02-01

    We present new high-precision CA-ID-TIMS and in situ U-Pb ages together with Hf and O isotopic analyses (analyses performed all on the same grains) from four tuffs from the 15-10 Ma Bruneau-Jarbidge center of the Snake River Plain and from three rhyolitic units from the Kimberly borehole in the neighboring 10-6 Ma Twin Falls volcanic center. We find significant intrasample diversity in zircon ages (ranges of up to 3 Myr) and in δ18O (ranges of up to 6‰) and ɛHf (ranges of up to 24 ɛ units) values. Zircon rims are also more homogeneous than the associated cores, and we show that zircon rim growth occurs faster than the resolution of in situ dating techniques. CA-ID-TIMS dating of a subset of zircon grains from the Twin Falls samples reveals complex crystallization histories spanning 104-106 years prior to some eruptions, suggesting that magma genesis was characterized by the cyclic remelting of buried volcanic rocks and intrusions associated with previous magmatic episodes. Age-dependent trends in zircon isotopic compositions show that rhyolite production in the Yellowstone hotspot track is driven by the mixing of mantle-derived melts (normal δ18O and ɛHf) and a combination of Precambrian basement rock (normal δ18O and ɛHf down to - 60) and shallow Mesozoic and Cenozoic age rocks, some of which are hydrothermally altered (to low δ18O values) by earlier stages of Snake River Plain magmatism. These crustal melts hybridize with juvenile basalts and rhyolites to produce the erupted rhyolites. We also observe that the Precambrian basement rock is only an important component in the erupted magmas in the first eruption at each caldera center, suggesting that the accumulation of new intrusions quickly builds an upper crustal intrusive body which is isolated from the Precambrian basement and evolves towards more isotopically juvenile and lower-δ18O compositions over time.

  1. Hydrology, vegetation, and soils of four north Florida River flood plains with an evaluation of state and federal wetland determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, H.M.; Darst, M.R.; MacLaughlin, M.T.; Sprecher, S.W.

    1993-01-01

    A study of hydrologic conditions, vegetation, and soils was made in wetland forests of four north Florida streams from 1987 to 1990. The study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation to support State and Federal efforts to improve wetland delineation methodology in flood plains. Plant communities and soils were described and related to topographic position and long-term hydrologic conditions at 10 study plots located on 4 streams. Detailed appendixes give average duration, frequency, and depth of flooding; canopy, subcanopy, and ground-cover vegetation; and taxonomic classification, series, and profile descriptions of soils for each plot. Topographic relief, range in stage, and depth of flooding were greatest on the alluvial flood plain of the Ochlockonee River, the largest of the four streams. Soils were silty in the lower elevations of the flood plain, and tree communities were distinctly different in each topographic zone. The Aucilla River flood plain was dominated by levees and terraces with very few depressions or low backwater areas. Oaks dominated the canopy of both lower and upper terraces of the Aucilla flood plain. Telogia Creek is a blackwater stream that is a major tributary of the Ochlockonee River. Its low, wet flood plain was dominated by Wyssa ogeche (Ogeechee tupelo) trees, had soils with mucky horizons, and was inundated by frequent floods of very short duration. The St. Marks River, a spring-fed stream with high base flow, had the least topographic relief and lowest range in stage of the four streams. St. Marks soils had a higher clay content than the other streams, and limestone bedrock was relatively close to the surface. Wetland determinations of the study plots based on State and Federal regulatory criteria were evaluated. Most State and Federal wetland determinations are based primarily on vegetation and soil characteristics because hydrologic records are usually not

  2. Plain formation on Mercury: tectonic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.

    1980-01-01

    Four major plain units, plus intermediates, are distinguished on Mercury. The chronologic relationships between these plains indicate that plains formation was a permanent process on Mercury. Their location and morphology seem to indicate a possible volcanic origin for these plains. The relationships between tectonism and volcanism seems to indicate the global contraction is not the only tectonic process on Mercury. (Auth.)

  3. Constraints on mantle melt geometries from body wave attenuation in the Salton Trough and Snake River Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, J. S.; Bezada, M.

    2017-12-01

    Melt can be retained in the mantle at triple junctions between grain boundaries, be spread in thin films along two-grain boundaries, or be organized by shear into elongate melt-rich bands. Which of these geometries is most prevalent is unknown. This ambiguity makes the interpretation of anomalous seismic velocities and quality factors difficult, since different geometries would result in different mechanical effects. Here, we compare observations of seismic attenuation beneath the Salton Trough and the Snake River Plain; two regions where the presence of melt has been inferred. The results suggest that seismic attenuation is diagnostic of melt geometry. We measure the relative attenuation of P waves from deep focus earthquakes using a time-domain method. Even though the two regions are underlain by comparably strong low-velocity anomalies, their attenuation signature is very different. The upper mantle beneath the Salton Trough is sufficiently attenuating that the presence of melt must lower Qp, while attenuation beneath the Snake River Plain is not anomalous with respect to surrounding regions. These seemingly contradictory results can be reconciled if different melt geometries characterize each region. SKS splitting from the Salton Trough suggests that melt is organized into melt-rich bands, while this is not the case for the Snake River Plain. We infer that beneath the Snake River Plain melt is retained at triple junctions between grain boundaries, a geometry that is not predicted to cause seismic attenuation. More elongate geometries beneath the Salton Trough may cause seismic attenuation via the melt-squirt mechanism. In light of these results, we conclude that prior observations of low seismic velocities with somewhat high quality factors beneath the East Pacific Rise and Southern California suggest that melt does not organize into elongate bands across much of the asthenosphere.

  4. {sup 210}Pb geochronology and chemical characterization of sediment cores from lakes of the Parana river alluvial plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, L.F.L.; Damatto, S.R.; Scapin, M.A. [IPEN - Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (Brazil); Remor, M.B.; Sampaio, S.C. [UNIOESTE - Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The flood plain of the upper Parana River is located among the lakes formed by the Brazilian hydroelectric plants being the last part of the Parana river, in Brazil, where there is an ecosystem with interaction river-flood plain. This flood plain has considerable habitat variability, with great diversity of terrestrial and aquatic species, and the floods are the main factor that regulates the operation of this ecosystem. The seasonality of the flood pulses is mainly influenced by the El Nino phenomenon, which increases precipitation in the drainage basin of the flood plain of the upper Parana River. Because of its unique characteristics this ecosystem is the subject of intense study since 1980, mainly from the ecological point of view. Therefore, two sediment cores were collected in the ponds formed by the floods, Patos pond and Garcas pond, in order to characterize the sediment chemically and evaluate a possible historic contamination. The trace element concentrations As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Hf, La, Lu, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn (mg.kg{sup -1}) and the major elements Si, Al, Fe, Ti, K, Ca, Mg, P, V, Mn, and Na (%) were determined in the sediment cores dated by {sup 210}Pb method, using instrumental neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence and gross beta counting, respectively. The results obtained for the elements Ce, Cr, Cs, La, Nd, Sc, Sm and Th are higher than the values of Upper Continental Crust for both ponds. The sedimentation rates obtained for Garca pond, 0.77 cm.y{sup -1}, and Patos pond, 0.62 cm.y{sup -1} are in agreement with studies performed in sedimentary environments similar to the present work, such as Brazilian wetland Pantanal. The enrichment factor and the geo-accumulation index were used to assess the presence of anthropogenic sources of pollution. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  5. Sediment records of Yellow River channel migration and Holocene environmental evolution of the Hetao Plain, northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingzhong; Wu, Jinglu; Pan, Baotian; Jia, Hongjuan; Li, Xiao; Wei, Hao

    2018-05-01

    The origin and evolution of lakes in the Hetao Plain, northern China, were influenced by climate variation, channel migration, and human activity. We analyzed a suite of sediment cores from the region to investigate Yellow River channel migration and environmental change in this region over the Holocene. Short sediment cores show that environmental indicators changed markedly around CE 1850, a time that corresponds to flood events, when large amounts of river water accumulated in the western part of the Hetao Plain, giving rise to abundant small lakes. Multiple sediment variables (environmental proxies) from two long cores collected in the Tushenze Paleolake area show that sediments deposited between 12.0 and 9.0 cal ka BP were yellow clay, indicative of fluvial deposition and channel migration. From 9.0 to 7.5 cal ka BP, sand was deposited, reflecting a desert environment. From 7.5 to 2.2 cal ka BP, however, the sediments were blue-gray clay that represents lacustrine facies of Lake Tushenze, which owes its origin to an increase in strength of the East Asian monsoon. At about 2.2 cal ka BP, the north branch of the Yellow River was flooded, and the Tushenze Paleolake developed further. Around 2.0 cal ka BP, the paleolake shrank and eolian sedimentation was recorded. The analyzed sediment records are consistent with the written history from the region, which documents channel migration and environmental changes in the Hetao Plain over the Holocene.

  6. Wintering bats of the upper Snake River Plain: occurrence in lava-tube caves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genter, D.L.

    1986-04-30

    Distribution and habitat selection of hibernating bats at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and adjacent area are reported. Exploration of over 30 lava-tube caves revealed that two species, Myotis leibii and Plecotus townsendii, hibernate in the upper Snake River Plain. Five species, M. lucifugus, M. evotis, Eptesicus fuscus, Lasionycteris noctivagans, and Lasiurus cinereus are considered migratory. Myotis leibii and P. townsendii hibernate throughout much of the area, occasionally in mixed-species groups. Myotis leibii uses the dark and protected regions of the cave, usually wedged into tiny pockets and crevices near or at the highest portion of the ceiling. Individuals of P. townsendii may be found at any height or depth in the cave. Temperature appears to be primary limiting factor in habitat selection. Myotis leibii was found in significantly cooler air temperatures than P. townsendii. Neither species tolerated continuous temperatures below 1.5 C. Relative humidity does not seem to be a significant factor in the distribution or habitat selection of the two species in lava-tube caves. 18 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  7. Cesium-137 in deer: Savannah River Plant vs. southeastern coastal plain herds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, J.R.; Rabon, E.W.; Dicks, A.S.

    1979-01-01

    The 137 Cs content in deer killed during programmed hunts at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) has averaged 9.0 pCi/g. This value, based on measurements of 13,907 deer taken over 14 years (1965 to 1978), similar to the value obtained for 552 deer from other southeastern Coastal Plain locations, indicating the 137 Cs content is due to fallout from the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons rather than from SRP operations. The computerized SRP data base for each harvested deer includes age, sex, weight, cesium content, kill location, date, and the hunter's name. Analysis of these data enables the estimation of population dose from ingestion of the edible meat. Consumption of all edible meat from deer killed at SRP from 1965 to 1978 gives a whole body population dose of 196 man-rem from 137 Cs. Assuming an annual consumption rate of 20 kg gives an average individual whole body dose of 13 mrem, about 10% of local annual background level. The radiation dose from 40 K of natural potassium content of deer is comparable to the radiation dose from 137 Cs

  8. Geophysical borehole logging in selected areas in the Greater Accra plains and the Densu river basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amartey, E. A.

    2009-06-01

    Geophysical borehole logging was complemented by Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) method to study fractured bedrock aquifer systems on the compounds of Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC), Water Research Institute (WRI) in the Accra Plains and the Hydrometric Station of the Department of Geology, University of Ghana at Buokrom in the Densu River Basin. Single-point resistance, resistivity and natural gamma logging in a total of nine boreholes were conducted to identify and characterize the various aquifers in the study areas. Results obtained from the single-point resistance and resistivity logs showed clearly the characteristics of water-bearing fracture zones in the various rock formations. The gamma logs obtained for each area were correlated to form hydrostratigraphic units to establish potential zones of high water-bearing fractures. VES modeled curves shows hydrogeological units of the geological formation which compares well with features obtained on the logs. The investigation identified fractured zone thicknesses of <1 m to 2 m at GAEC area, <1 m to 9 m at WRI area and <1 m to 10 m thicknesses at the Buokrom area. The fractured bedrock aquifers identified have been characterized based on their thicknesses as follows. Five minor (thickness < 5 m), two medium (thickness 5 m to 14 m) and three major (thickness ⩾15 m) fractures were identified at the GAEC area. At the WRI area three minor and five medium fractures were identified. Also four minor and five medium fractures were identified for the Buokrom area boreholes. (au)

  9. Northern Great Plains Network water quality monitoring design for tributaries to the Missouri National Recreational River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Barbara L.; Wilson, Stephen K.; Yager, Lisa; Wilson, Marcia H.

    2013-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) organized more than 270 parks with important natural resources into 32 ecoregional networks to conduct Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) activities for assessment of natural resources within park units. The Missouri National Recreational River (NRR) is among the 13 parks in the NPS Northern Great Plain Network (NGPN). Park managers and NGPN staff identified surface water resources as a high priority vital sign to monitor in park units. The objectives for the Missouri NRR water quality sampling design are to (1) assess the current status and long-term trends of select water quality parameters; and (2) document trends in streamflow at high-priority stream systems. Due to the large size of the Missouri River main stem, the NGPN water quality design for the Missouri NRR focuses on wadeable tributaries within the park unit. To correlate with the NGPN water quality protocols, monitoring of the Missouri NRR consists of measurement of field core parameters including dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, and temperature; and streamflow. The purpose of this document is to discuss factors examined for selection of water quality monitoring on segments of the Missouri River tributaries within the Missouri NRR.Awareness of the complex history of the Missouri NRR aids in the current understanding and direction for designing a monitoring plan. Historical and current monitoring data from agencies and entities were examined to assess potential NGPN monitoring sites. In addition, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 303(d) list was examined for the impaired segments on tributaries to the Missouri River main stem. Because major tributaries integrate water quality effects from complex combinations of land use and environmental settings within contributing areas, a 20-mile buffer of the Missouri NRR was used to establish environmental settings that may impact the water quality of tributaries that feed the Missouri River main stem. For selection of

  10. Hydrologic variability in the Red River of the North basin at the eastern margin of the northern Great Plains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiche, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    The temporal and spatial variations in streamflow in the Red River of the North basin on the eastern margin of the Great Plains are described and related to the various climatic conditions associated with the flows. The Red River drains about 290,000 square kilometers in parts of Minnesota, South Dakota, North Dakota, Saskatchewan and Manitoba, and a 200 year flood history is available from documents of fur traders, explorers and missionaries, as well as from gauging-station records. The coefficient of variation of mean annual streamflow ranges from ca 110% for streams in the southern and western parts of the Assiniboine River basin to ca 50% for streams along the eastern margin of the Red River of the North basin. Decadal streamflow variability is great in the Red River of the North basin, with mean annual streamflow for the 10 years ending 1940 of 489 cubic hectometers and for the 10 years ending 1975 of 3,670 cubic hectometers. Construction of the Rafferty Reservoir on the Souris River and the Almeda Reservoir on Moose Mountain Creek will cause changes in water quality in the Souris River, with most problems occurring during protracted low flow conditions

  11. Mercury adsorption in the Mississippi River deltaic plain freshwater marsh soil of Louisiana Gulf coastal wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Wang, Jim J; Xiao, Ran; Pensky, Scott M; Kongchum, Manoch; DeLaune, Ronald D; Seo, Dong-Cheol

    2018-03-01

    Mercury adsorption characteristics of Mississippi River deltaic plain (MRDP) freshwater marsh soil in the Louisiana Gulf coast were evaluated under various conditions. Mercury adsorption was well described by pseudo-second order and Langmuir isotherm models with maximum adsorption capacity of 39.8 mg g -1 . Additional fitting of intraparticle model showed that mercury in the MRDP freshwater marsh soil was controlled by both external surface adsorption and intraparticle diffusion. The partition of adsorbed mercury (mg g -1 ) revealed that mercury was primarily adsorbed into organic-bond fraction (12.09) and soluble/exchangeable fraction (10.85), which accounted for 63.5% of the total adsorption, followed by manganese oxide-bound (7.50), easily mobilizable carbonate-bound (4.53), amorphous iron oxide-bound (0.55), crystalline Fe oxide-bound (0.41), and residual fraction (0.16). Mercury adsorption capacity was generally elevated along with increasing solution pH even though dominant species of mercury were non-ionic HgCl 2 , HgClOH and Hg(OH) 2  at between pH 3 and 9. In addition, increasing background NaCl concentration and the presence of humic acid decreased mercury adsorption, whereas the presence of phosphate, sulfate and nitrate enhanced mercury adsorption. Mercury adsorption in the MRDP freshwater marsh soil was reduced by the presence of Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn with Pb showing the greatest competitive adsorption. Overall the adsorption capacity of mercury in the MRDP freshwater marsh soil was found to be significantly influenced by potential environmental changes, and such factors should be considered in order to manage the risks associated with mercury in this MRDP wetland for responding to future climate change scenarios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Witwatersrand gold deposits formed by volcanic rain, anoxic rivers and Archaean life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Christoph A.

    2015-03-01

    The Witwatersrand Basin in South Africa is one of the best-preserved records of fluvial sedimentation on an Archaean continent. The basin hosts the worlds biggest gold resource in thin pebble beds, but the process for gold enrichment is debated. Mechanical accumulation of gold particles from flowing river water is the prevailing hypothesis, yet there is evidence for hydrothermal mobilization of gold by fluids invading the metasedimentary rocks after their burial. Earth's atmosphere three billion years ago was oxygen free, but already sustained some of the oldest microbial life on land. Here I use thermodynamic modelling and mass-balance calculations to show that these conditions could have led to the chemical transport and precipitation of gold in anoxic surface waters, reconciling the evidence for fluvial deposition with evidence for hydrothermal-like chemical reactions. I suggest that the release of sulphurous gases from large volcanic eruptions created acid rain that enabled the dissolution and transport of gold in surface waters as sulphur complexes. Precipitation of the richest gold deposits could have been triggered by chemical reduction of the dissolved gold onto organic material in shallow lakes and pools. I conclude that the Witwatersrand gold could have formed only during the Archaean, after the emergence of continental life but before the rise of oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere.

  13. Why the coastal plain of Paraiba do Sul river not be denominated the classical model of wave dominated delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, L.

    1987-01-01

    Existing coastal sedimentation models have not properly incorporated the fundamental role of Holocene sea-level history in the development of modern coastal regions. For example the classical work by COLEMAN and WRIGHT (1975), although analyzing the influence of as many as 400 parameters on the geometry of deltaic sand bodies, did not address the effects of Holocene sea-level oscillations. Previous work on the central portion of the Brazilian coastline indicated that the relative construction of the coastal plains. Detailed mapping and radiocarbon dating have allowed us to establish the different phases involved in the depositional history of the plain situated at the Paraiba do Sul river mouth. This history is not in keeping with the classical model of wave dominated delta. (author)

  14. Parabolic distribution of circumeastern Snake River Plain seismicity and latest Quaternary faulting: Migratory pattern and association with the Yellowstone hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Mark H.; Geissman, John Wm.; Piety, Lucille A.; Sullivan, J. Timothy

    1989-02-01

    The Intermountain and Idaho seismic belts within Idaho, Wyoming, and Montana form an unusual parabolic pattern about the axis of the aseismic eastern Snake River Plain (SRP). This pattern is also reflected in the distribution of latest Quaternary normal faults. Several late Cenozoic normal faults that trend perpendicular to the axis of the eastern SRP extend from the aseismic region to the region of latest Quaternary faulting and seismicity. A study of the late Miocene to Holocene displacement history of one of these, the Grand Valley fault system in southeastern Idaho and western Wyoming, indicates that a locus of high displacement rates has migrated away from the eastern SRP to its present location in southern Star Valley in western Wyoming. In Swan Valley the studied area closest to the eastern SRP, isotopic ages, and paleomagnetic data for over 300 samples from 47 sites on well-exposed late Cenozoic volcanic rocks (the tuff of Spring Creek, the tuff of Heise, the Huckleberry Ridge tuff, the Pine Creek Basalt, and an older tuff thought to be the tuff of Cosgrove Road) are used to demonstrate differences in the displacement rate on the Grand Valley fault over the last ˜10 m.y. Tectonic tilts for these volcanic rocks are estimated by comparing the results of paleomagnetic analyses in Swan Valley to similar analyses of samples from undeformed volcanic rocks outside of Swan Valley. Basin geometry and tilt axes are established using seismic reflection profiles and field mapping. Combining these data with the tilt data makes it possible to calculate displacement rates during discrete temporal intervals. An average displacement rate of ˜1.8 mm/yr is calculated for the Grand Valley fault in Swan Valley between 4.4 and 2.0 Ma. In the subsequent 2.0-m.y. interval the rate dropped 2 orders of magnitude to ˜0.014 mm/yr; during the preceding 5.5-m.y. interval the displacement rate is ˜0.15 mm/yr, or about 1 order of magnitude less than the rate between 4.4 and 2.0 Ma

  15. Characterization of sediments laid on Solimoes/Amazonas river flood plains, using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Ana E.V.; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. do

    1997-01-01

    This paper proposes sediment analysis with high light elements fraction using dispersive energy X-ray fluorescence technique with radioisotopic excitation, The proposed procedure is based on the Fundamental Parameters for analytical elements (Z ≥ 13) evaluation, and coherent and incoherent scattered radiation for quantification of the light fraction of the matrix (Z < 13). Laid sediments samples on Solimoes/Amazonas river flood plains were analyzed, determining simultaneously the Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Sc, V, Mn, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr and Zr element concentrations, thus allowing chemical characterization and spatial variability, and some mineralogical and weathering sediments aspects. (author). 15 refs., 11 tabs

  16. Chlorine-36 in the Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: Origin and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beasley, T.M.; Cecil, L.D.; Mann, L.J.; Sharma, P.; Fehn, U.; Gove, H.E.; Kubik, P.W.

    1993-01-01

    Between 1952 and 1984, low-level radioactive waste was introduced directly into the Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho Falls, Idaho. These wastes were generated, principally, at the nuclear fuel reprocessing facility on the site. The measurements of 36 Cl in monitoring and production well waters, downgradient from disposal wells and seepage ponds, found easily detectable, nonhazardous concentrations of this radionuclide from the point of injection to the INEL southern site boundary. Comparisons are made between 3 H and 36 Cl concentrations in aquifer water and the advantages of 36 Cl as a tracer of subsurface-water dynamics at the site are discussed

  17. Chlorine-36 in the Snake River Plain Aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory; origin and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, T.M.; Cecil, L.D.; Sharma, P.; Kubik, P.W.; Fehn, U.; Mann, L.J.; Gove, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    Between 1952 and 1984, low-level radioactive waste was introduced directly into the Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho Falls, Idaho. These wastes were generated, principally, at the nuclear fuel reprocessing facility on the site. Our measurements of 36C1 in monitoring and production well waters, downgradient from disposal wells and seepage ponds, found easily detectable, nonhazardous concentrations of this radionuclide from the point of injection to the INEL southern site boundary. Comparisons are made between 3H and 36Cl concentrations in aquifer water and the advantages of 36C1 as a tracer of subsurface-water dynamics at the site are discussed.

  18. Phreatic explosions during basaltic fissure eruptions: Kings Bowl lava field, Snake River Plain, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Scott S.; Kobs Nawotniak, Shannon E.; Sears, Derek W. G.; Borg, Christian; Garry, William Brent; Christiansen, Eric H.; Haberle, Christopher W.; Lim, Darlene S. S.; Heldmann, Jennifer L.

    2018-02-01

    Physical and compositional measurements are made at the 7 km-long ( 2200 years B.P.) Kings Bowl basaltic fissure system and surrounding lava field in order to further understand the interaction of fissure-fed lavas with phreatic explosive events. These assessments are intended to elucidate the cause and potential for hazards associated with phreatic phases that occur during basaltic fissure eruptions. In the present paper we focus on a general understanding of the geological history of the site. We utilize geospatial analysis of lava surfaces, lithologic and geochemical signatures of lava flows and explosively ejected blocks, and surveys via ground observation and remote sensing. Lithologic and geochemical signatures readily distinguish between Kings Bowl and underlying pre-Kings Bowl lava flows, both of which comprise phreatic ejecta from the Kings Bowl fissure. These basalt types, as well as neighboring lava flows from the contemporaneous Wapi lava field and the older Inferno Chasm vent and outflow channel, fall compositionally within the framework of eastern Snake River Plain olivine tholeiites. Total volume of lava in the Kings Bowl field is estimated to be 0.0125 km3, compared to a previous estimate of 0.005 km3. The main (central) lava lake lost a total of 0.0018 km3 of magma by either drain-back into the fissure system or breakout flows from breached levees. Phreatic explosions along the Kings Bowl fissure system occurred after magma supply was cut off, leading to fissure evacuation, and were triggered by magma withdrawal. The fissure system produced multiple phreatic explosions and the main pit is accompanied by others that occur as subordinate pits and linear blast corridors along the fissure. The drop in magma supply and the concomitant influx of groundwater were necessary processes that led to the formation of Kings Bowl and other pits along the fissure. A conceptual model is presented that has relevance to the broader range of low-volume, monogenetic

  19. The fate of arsenic in a river acidified by volcanic activity and an acid thermal water and sedimentation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yasumasa; Yamada, Ryoichi; Shinoda, Kozo; Inoue, Chihiro; Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The Shozu-gawa river, located in the Aomori Prefecture, northern Japan, is affected by volcanic activities and acid thermal waters. The river is unique because both solid arsenic (As; as orpiment, As2S3) and dissolved As are supplied to the river from the uppermost caldera lake (Usori-ko Lake) and thermal ponds. The watershed is an excellent site for investigating the fate of different As species in a fluvial system. Upstream sediments near the caldera lake and geothermal ponds are highly contaminated by orpiment. This solid phase is transported as far as the mouth of the river. On the other hand, dissolved As is removed from the river system by hydrous ferric oxides (HFOs); however, HFO formation and removal of dissolved As do not occur in the uppermost area of the watershed, resulting in further downstream transport of dissolved As. Consequently, upstream river sediments are enriched in orpiment, whereas As(v), which is associated with HFOs in river sediments, increases downstream. Furthermore, orpiment particles are larger, and possibly heavier, than those of HFO with sorbed As. Fractionation between different chemical states of As during transport in the Shozu-gawa river is facilitated not only by chemical processes (i.e., sorption of dissolved As by HFOs), but also by physical factors (i.e., gravity). In contrast to acid mine drainage (AMD), in some areas of the Shozu-gawa river, both solid forms of As (as sulfide minerals) and dissolved As are introduced into the aquatic system. Considering that the stabilities of sulfide minerals are rather different from those of oxides and hydroxides, river sediments contacted with thermal waters possibly act as sources of As under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

  20. Digital geospatial presentation of geoelectrical and geotechnical data for the lower American River and flood plain, east Sacramento, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Lyndsay B.; Burton, Bethany L.; Powers, Michael H.; Asch, Theodore H.

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the extent and thickness of lithologic units that may have differing scour potential, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, has performed several geoelectrical surveys of the lower American River channel and flood plain between Cal Expo and the Rio Americano High School in east Sacramento, California. Additional geotechnical data have been collected by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and its contractors. Data resulting from these surveys have been compiled into similar database formats and converted to uniform geospatial datums and projections. These data have been visualized in a digital three-dimensional framework project that can be viewed using freely available software. These data facilitate a comprehensive analysis of the resistivity structure underlying the lower American River corridor and assist in levee system management.

  1. A field trip guide to the petrology of Quaternary volcanism on the Yellowstone Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Jorge A.; Stelten, Mark; Bindeman, Ilya N.; Cooper, Kari

    2017-12-19

    The Yellowstone Plateau is one of the largest manifestations of silicic volcanism on Earth, and marks the youngest focus of magmatism associated with the Yellowstone Hot Spot. The earliest products of Yellowstone Hot Spot volcanism are from ~17 million years ago, but may be as old as ~32 Ma, and include contemporaneous eruption of voluminous mafic and silicic magmas, which are mostly located in the region of northwestern Nevada and southeastern Oregon. Since 17 Ma, the main locus of Yellowstone Hot Spot volcanism has migrated northeastward producing numerous silicic caldera complexes that generally remain active for ~2–4 million years, with the present-day focus being the Yellowstone Plateau. Northeastward migration of volcanism associated with the Yellowstone Hot Spot resulted in the formation of the Snake River Plain, a low relief physiographic feature extending ~750 kilometers from northern Nevada to eastern Idaho. Most of the silicic volcanic centers along the Snake River Plain have been inundated by younger basalt volcanism, but many of their ignimbrites and lava flows are exposed in the extended regions at the margins of the Snake River Plain

  2. Petrophysical characteristics of basalt in the vadose zone, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutson, C.F.; Harrison, W.E.; Smith, R.P.

    1989-01-01

    We have used a core characterization system to measure bulk densities, porosities, and permeabilities of basalt lavas from the vadose zone at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). At the INEL, basalt lava flows with intercalated alluvial, aeolian, and lacustrine sediments extend to depths of one kilometer or more. Individual lava flows are generally less than 15 meters thick and commonly have vesicular tops and bottoms with massive basalt in their interiors. Petrophysical characterization is essential to an understanding of fluid movement in the vadose zone and in the saturated zone. Many hundreds of closely spaced permeability/porosity/bulk density measurements have defined the variability of these parameters within and between individual basalt flows. Based on geological logging and porosity/permeability measurements made on many hundred feet of core, we feel that a rather sophisticated and rigorous logging program is necessary to characterize these complex and highly variable basaltic flow units. This paper endeavors to provide a petrophysical/geological conceptual model of the Snake River Plain basalts from the vadose zone under the Radioactive Waste Management Complex area at the INEL. We hope that this model will aid in subsequent geotechnical logging in this portion of the Eastern Snake River Plain. 8 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Preliminary delineation of natural geochemical reactions, Snake River Plain aquifer system, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and vicinity, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knobel, L.L.; Bartholomay, R.C.; Orr, B.R.

    1997-05-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, is conducting a study to determine the natural geochemistry of the Snake River Plain aquifer system at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho. As part of this study, a group of geochemical reactions that partially control the natural chemistry of ground water at the INEL were identified. Mineralogy of the aquifer matrix was determined using X-ray diffraction and thin-section analysis and theoretical stabilities of the minerals were used to identify potential solid-phase reactants and products of the reactions. The reactants and products that have an important contribution to the natural geochemistry include labradorite, olivine, pyroxene, smectite, calcite, ferric oxyhydroxide, and several silica phases. To further identify the reactions, analyses of 22 representative water samples from sites tapping the Snake River Plain aquifer system were used to determine the thermodynamic condition of the ground water relative to the minerals in the framework of the aquifer system. Principal reactions modifying the natural geochemical system include congruent dissolution of olivine, diopside, amorphous silica, and anhydrite; incongruent dissolution of labradorite with calcium montmorillonite as a residual product; precipitation of calcite and ferric oxyhydroxide; and oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric iron. Cation exchange reactions retard the downward movement of heavy, multivalent waste constituents where infiltration ponds are used for waste disposal

  4. Hydrologic conditions and distribution of selected radiochemical and chemical constituents in water, Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho, 1992 through 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Tucker, B.J.; Ackerman, D.J.; Liszewski, M.J.

    1997-04-01

    Radiochemical and chemical wastewater discharged since 1952 to infiltration ponds and disposal wells at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has affected water quality in the Snake River Plain aquifer. The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, maintains a monitoring network at the INEL to determine hydrologic trends and to delineate the movement of radiochemical and chemical wastes in the aquifer. This report presents an analysis of water-level and water-quality data collected from the Snake River Plain aquifer during 1992--95

  5. Hydrologic conditions and distribution of selected radiochemical and chemical constituents in water, Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho, 1989 through 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Orr, B.R.; Liszewski, M.J.; Jensen, R.G.

    1995-08-01

    Radiochemical and chemical wastewater discharged since 1952 to infiltration ponds and disposal wells at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has affected water quality in the Snake River Plain aquifer. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, maintains a continuous monitoring network at the INEL to determine hydrologic trends and to delineate the movement of radiochemical and chemical wastes in the aquifer. This report presents an analysis of water-level and water-quality data collected from the Snake River Plain aquifer during 1989-91. Water in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer moves principally through fractures and interflow zones in basalt, generally flows southwestward, and eventually discharges at springs along the Snake River. The aquifer is recharged principally from irrigation water, infiltration of streamflow, and ground-water inflow from adjoining mountain drainage basins. Water levels in wells throughout the INEL generally declined during 1989-91 due to drought. Detectable concentrations of radiochemical constituents in water samples from wells in the Snake River Plain aquifer at the INEL decreased or remained constant during 1989-91. Decreased concentrations are attributed to reduced rates of radioactive-waste disposal, sorption processes, radioactive decay, and changes in waste-disposal practices. Detectable concentrations of chemical constituents in water from the Snake River Plain aquifer at the INEL were variable during 1989-91. Sodium and chloride concentrations in the southern part of the INEL increased slightly during 1989-91 because of increased waste-disposal rates and a lack of recharge from the Big Lost River. Plumes of 1,1,1-trichloroethane have developed near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant and the Radioactive Waste Management Complex as a result of waste disposal practices

  6. The Roles of the Yellowstone Hotspot and Crustal Assimilation in Generating Pleistocene-Holocene Basalts on the Eastern Snake River Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, H.; Chadwick, J.

    2017-12-01

    The southwest motion of the North American plate across the Yellowstone hotspot created a chain of age-progressive rhyolitic calderas over the past 16 myr. in southern Idaho, U.S. The focus of Yellowstone activity now resides in northwest Wyoming, but basaltic volcanism has continued in its wake in southern Idaho on the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP). These younger basaltic lavas are not age progressive and have buried the Yellowstone rhyolites on the ESRP. The ultimate source of the basalts is commonly ascribed to the passage or presence of the hotspot. However, the mechanisms involved, and the relative roles of the hotspot, other mantle sources, and the North American crust in generating the ESRP basalts remain unclear and have been the subject of recent geochemical and isotopic studies. In this study, the role of crustal assimilation is addressed by analyzing the chemical and isotopic characteristics of some of the youngest Pleistocene-Holocene tholeiitic volcanic fields on the ESRP, which were erupted through varying thicknesses of continental crust. Samples were analyzed from the Hell's Half Acre flow (5,200 years old; all dates Kuntz et al., 1986, 1994), Cerro Grande flow (13,380 years), and Black Butte Crater (a.k.a. Shoshone) flow (10,130 years), which were erupted at distances from between about 200 to 300 km from the current location of the hotspot. The crust of the ESRP thins from northeast to southwest, from about 47 km at the Hells Half Acre flow to 40 km at the Black Butte Crater flow, a thickness difference of about 15%. The apparently similar tectonic and magmatic environments of the three sampled flows suggest the crustal thickness variation may be a primary influence on the magnitude of assimilation and therefore the isotopic characteristics of the lavas. The goal of this work is to constrain the relative role of assimilation and to understand the source(s) of the magmas and the Yellowstone hotspot contribution. Major elements, trace elements

  7. Concentration and distribution patterns of naturally occurring radionuclides in sediments and flood plain soils of the catchment area of the river Elbe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, A.; Jurk, M.; Weiß, D.

    1998-01-01

    The impact of uranium mining and milling as well as that of traditional mining activities on river sediments and flood plain soils in the catchment area of the river Elbe was investigated over the years 1994 to 1995. Contamination resulting from mining activities has been identified by comparing the median values for the measured radionuclides, and by establishing the ratio between Ra-226 and Ra-228. The transport and deposition of contaminated materials as a result of high water events, and river discharge of waste water from mining and milling facilities, can be considered to be the main paths of sediment and soil contamination. Sediments and flood plain soils located in the vicinity of former uranium mining and milling sites are primarily influenced by discharges of waste water. Long distance transport and deposition at dams, barrages and on flood plains has mainly been caused by high water events. In many cases the radionuclide concentrations were higher in the subsurface layer than in the top layer of flood plain soil. Due to termination of uranium mining and milling activities, no significant contamination of newer or fresh sediments was found. Radiation exposure arising in relation to angling or walking on flood plains is low

  8. Flood-inundation maps for a nine-mile reach of the Des Plaines River from Riverwoods to Mettawa, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Soong, David T.; Sharpe, Jennifer B.

    2012-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 9-mile reach of the Des Plaines River from Riverwoods to Mettawa, Illinois, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Lake County Stormwater Management Commission and the Villages of Lincolnshire and Riverwoods. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (gage heights) at the USGS streamgage at Des Plaines River at Lincolnshire, Illinois (station no. 05528100). Current conditions at the USGS streamgage may be obtained on the Internet at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/usa/nwis/uv?05528100. In addition, this streamgage is incorporated into the Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system (http://water.weather.gov/ahps/) by the National Weather Service (NWS). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often co-located at USGS streamgages. The NWS forecasted peak-stage information, also shown on the Des Plaines River at Lincolnshire inundation Web site, may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The hydraulic model was then used to determine seven water-surface profiles for flood stages at roughly 1-ft intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from the 50- to 0.2-percent annual exceedance probability flows. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a Geographic Information System (GIS) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) (derived from Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data) in order to delineate the area flooded at each water level. These maps, along with information on the Internet regarding current gage height from USGS streamgages and forecasted stream stages from

  9. Dynamics of Plains Cottonwood ( Populus deltoides) Forests and Historical Landscape Change along Unchannelized Segments of the Missouri River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark D.; Johnson, W. Carter; Scott, Michael L.; Bowen, Daniel E.; Rabbe, Lisa A.

    2012-05-01

    Construction of six large dams and reservoirs on the Missouri River over the last 50-75 years has resulted in major landscape changes and alterations in flow patterns, with implications for riparian forests dominated by plains cottonwood ( Populus deltoides). We quantified changes in land cover from 1892-1950s and the 1950s-2006 and the current extent and age structure of cottonwood forests on seven segments (two reservoir and five remnant floodplain) comprising 1127 km (53 %) of the unchannelized upper two-thirds of the Missouri River. Riparian forest area declined by 49 %; grassland 61 %; shrubland 52 %; and sandbar habitat 96 %; while agricultural cropland increased six-fold and river/reservoir surface area doubled from 1892 to 2006. Net rates of erosion and accretion declined between the 1892-1950s and 1950s-2006 periods. Accretion exceeded erosion on remnant floodplain segments, resulting in declines in active channel width, particularly in 1950s-2006. Across all study segments in 2006, most cottonwood stands (67 %) were >50 years old, 22 % were 25-50 years old, and only 10 % were <25 years old. Among stands <50 years old, the higher proportion of 25-50 year old stands represents recruitment that accompanied initial post-dam channel narrowing; while declines in sandbar and shrubland area and the low proportion of stands <25 years old suggest declines in geomorphic dynamism and limited recruitment under recent river management. Future conservation and restoration efforts should focus both on limiting further loss of remnant cottonwood stands and developing approaches to restore river dynamics and cottonwood recruitment processes.

  10. Groundwater conservation and monitoring activities in the middle Brenta River plain (Veneto Region, Northern Italy: preliminary results about aquifer recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sottani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the middle Brenta River plain there is a unconfined aquifer that represents an important groundwater resource in Veneto region. In this area the main groundwater recharge factor is related to the stream seepage: the water dispersion from the Brenta river is active with variable intensity from the foothill to the alignment Nove di Bassano - Cartigliano (Province of Vicenza. In order to mitigate the expected groundwater effects, due to future important waterworks withdrawals provided by the regional water resources management plans, an experimental project of Managed Aquifer Recharge has started, by means of the realization of some river transversal ramps. The construction of pilot works, partially completed, were preceded by a specific hydrogeological monitoring program, aimed to the evaluation of the effectiveness of the MAR actions in terms of comparison between pre-and post-operam conditions. Thanks to the development of a site-specific methodology, aimed to the quantification of the artificial infiltration rate, and after some years of monitoring controls of the hydrological and hydrogeological regimes, it is now possible to evaluate the extent and the rate of the recharge effects in groundwater due to ramps realization. The monitoring plan will be continued in the medium-long term. Some innovative approaches, based for example on the use of groundwater temperature measurements as recharge tracer, will help to validate the preliminary results.

  11. 33 CFR 165.T09-0166 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock... Areas Ninth Coast Guard District § 165.T09-0166 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan.... waters of the Des Plaines River located between mile marker 286.0 (Brandon Road Lock and Dam) and mile...

  12. Application of remote sensing data to land use and land cover assessment in the Tubarao River coastal plain, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    By means of aerial photography and MSS-LANDSAT data a land use/land cover classification was applied to the Tubarao River coastal plain. The following classes were identified: coal related areas, permanently flooded wetlands, periodically flooded wetlands, agricultural lands, bare soils, water bodies, urban areas, forestlands.

  13. BIOCHEM-ORCHESTRA: A tool for evaluating chemical speciation and ecotoxicological impacts of heavy metals on river flood plain systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vink, J.P.M.; Meeussen, J.C.L.

    2007-01-01

    The chemical speciation model BIOCHEM was extended with ecotoxicological transfer functions for uptake of metals (As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) by plants and soil invertebrates. It was coupled to the object-oriented framework ORCHESTRA to achieve a flexible and dynamic decision support system (DSS) to analyse natural or anthropogenic changes that occur in river systems. The DSS uses the chemical characteristics of soils and sediments as input, and calculates speciation and subsequent uptake by biota at various scenarios. Biotic transfer functions were field-validated, and actual hydrological conditions were derived from long-term monitoring data. The DSS was tested for several scenarios that occur in the Meuse catchment areas, such as flooding and sedimentation of riverine sediments on flood plains. Risks are expressed in terms of changes in chemical mobility, and uptake by flood plain key species (flora and fauna). - A diagnostic risk-assessment tool for heavy metals, based on biotic and abiotic interactions, compares risks under different environmental scenarios

  14. Contaminant transport in the Snake River Plain Aquifer: Phase 1, Part 1: Simple analytical model of individual plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rood, A.S.; Arnett, R.C.; Barraclough, J.T.

    1989-05-01

    A preliminary, semi-quantitative assessment of the migration of INEL effluents in the Snake River Plain Aquifer (SRPA) was performed. This study focused on past tritium, 129 I, and 90 Sr effluents from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and Test Reactor Area (TRA) and carbon tetrachloride from the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The disposal ponds at TRA and the ICPP injection well were the primary means of liquid radioactive waste discharge from the ICPP and TRA. Drums containing solidified chlorinated solvents disposed of at the RWMC were the primary source of carbon tetrachloride. Water samples taken from wells located in the SRPA show detectable quantities of the four contaminants. The predicted radionuclide concentrations exceed drinking water limits in limited areas within the INEL boundaries. Without planned remedial action, carbon tetrachloride is predicted to exceed drinking water limits beyond the site boundaries near the middle of the next century. 16 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Groundwater-quality data from the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer, Jerome and Gooding Counties, south-central Idaho, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Kenneth D.

    2018-05-11

    Groundwater-quality samples and water-level data were collected from 36 wells in the Jerome/Gooding County area of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer during June 2017. The wells included 30 wells sampled for the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water-Quality Assessment project, plus an additional 6 wells were selected to increase spatial distribution. The data provide water managers with the ability for an improved understanding of groundwater quality and flow directions in the area. Groundwater-quality samples were analyzed for nutrients, major ions, trace elements, and stable isotopes of water. Quality-assurance and quality-control measures consisted of multiple blank samples and a sequential replicate sample. All data are available online at the USGS National Water Information System.

  16. Straddle-packer aquifer test analyses of the Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.S.; Frederick, D.B.

    1997-01-01

    The State of Idaho INEL Oversight Program, with the University of Idaho, Idaho State University, Boise State University, and the Idaho Geologic Survey, used a straddle-packer system to investigate vertical variations in characteristics of the Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in southeast Idaho. Sixteen single-well aquifer tests were conducted on.isolated intervals in three observation wells. Each of these wells has approximately 200 feet of open borehole below the water table, penetrating the E through G and I basalt flow groups and interbedded sediments of the Snake River Plain aquifer. The success of the aquifer tests was limited by the inability to induce measurable drawdown in several zones. Time-drawdown data from aquifer tests were matched to type curves for 8 of the 16 zones tested. A single aquifer test at the water table exhibited greater curvature than those at depth. The increased degree of curvature suggests an unconfined response and resulted in an estimate of specific yield of 0.03. Aquifer tests below the water table generally yielded time-drawdown graphs with a rapid initial response followed by constant drawdown throughout the duration of the tests; up to several hours in length. The rapid initial response implies that the aquifer responds as a confined system during brief pumping periods. The nearly constant drawdown suggests a secondary source of water, probably vertical flow from overlying and underlying aquifer layers. Three analytical models were applied for comparison to the conceptual model and to provide estimates of aquifer properties. This, Hantush-Jacob leaky aquifer, and the Moench double-porosity fractured rock models were fit to time-drawdown data. The leaky aquifer type curves of Hantush and Jacob generally provided the best match to observed drawdown. A specific capacity regression equation was also used to estimate hydraulic conductivity

  17. Project plan-Surficial geologic mapping and hydrogeologic framework studies in the Greater Platte River Basins (Central Great Plains) in support of ecosystem and climate change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Margaret E.; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Slate, Janet L.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Sawyer, David A.; VanSistine, D. Paco

    2011-01-01

    The Greater Platte River Basin area spans a central part of the Midcontinent and Great Plains from the Rocky Mountains on the west to the Missouri River on the east, and is defined to include drainage areas of the Platte, Niobrara, and Republican Rivers, the Rainwater Basin, and other adjoining areas overlying the northern High Plains aquifer. The Greater Platte River Basin contains abundant surficial deposits that were sensitive to, or are reflective of, the climate under which they formed: deposits from multiple glaciations in the mountain headwaters of the North and South Platte Rivers and from continental ice sheets in eastern Nebraska; fluvial terraces (ranging from Tertiary to Holocene in age) along the rivers and streams; vast areas of eolian sand in the Nebraska Sand Hills and other dune fields (recording multiple episodes of dune activity); thick sequences of windblown silt (loess); and sediment deposited in numerous lakes and wetlands. In addition, the Greater Platte River Basin overlies and contributes surface water to the High Plains aquifer, a nationally important groundwater system that underlies parts of eight states and sustains one of the major agricultural areas of the United States. The area also provides critical nesting habitat for birds such as plovers and terns, and roosting habitat for cranes and other migratory birds that travel through the Central Flyway of North America. This broad area, containing fragile ecosystems that could be further threatened by changes in climate and land use, has been identified by the USGS and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln as a region where intensive collaborative research could lead to a better understanding of climate change and what might be done to adapt to or mitigate its adverse effects to ecosystems and to humans. The need for robust data on the geologic framework of ecosystems in the Greater Platte River Basin has been acknowledged in proceedings from the 2008 Climate Change Workshop and in draft

  18. The Suwannee River Hydrologic Observatory: A Subtropical Coastal Plain Watershed in Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, W. D.

    2004-12-01

    The Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Sciences (CUAHSI) proposed to establish a network of 5-15 hydrologic observatories (HO's) across North America is to support fundamental research for the hydrologic science community into the next century. These HO's are projected to be 10,000 to 50,000 km2 and will include a broad range of hydrologic, climatic, bio-geochemical and ecosystem processes, including the critical linkages and couplings. This network is envisioned as the natural laboratory for experimental hydrology in support of scientific investigations focused on predictive understanding at a scale that will include both atmospheric- and ecosystem-hydrologic interaction, as well as the hydrologic response to larger-scale climate variation and change. A group of researchers from Florida and Georgia plan to propose the Suwannee River watershed as a Hydrologic Observatory. The Suwannee River flows through a diverse watershed relatively unimpacted by urbanization but in transition to more intense land-use practices. It thus provides excellent opportunities to study the effects of ongoing changes in land use and water supply on varied hydrological processes. Much background information is available on the hydrology, hydrogeology, geology, chemistry, and biology of the watershed. Several major on-going monitoring programs are supported by state and federal agencies. Four characteristics, discussed in greater detail below, make the Suwannee River watershed ideal for a Hydrologic Observatory: Unregulated and rural - The Suwannee River is one of few major rivers in the United States with largely unregulated flow through rural areas and is relatively unimpaired with regard to water quality, leading to its designation as one of twelve National Showcase Watersheds. At Risk and in Transition - Land use is trending toward increased urbanization and intensive agriculture with an apparent coupled increase in nutrient loads and decline in water quality

  19. The Plains of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpton, V. L.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic plains units of various types comprise at least 80% of the surface of Venus. Though devoid of topographic splendor and, therefore often overlooked, these plains units house a spectacular array of volcanic, tectonic, and impact features. Here I propose that the plains hold the keys to understanding the resurfacing history of Venus and resolving the global stratigraphy debate. The quasi-random distribution of impact craters and the small number that have been conspicuously modified from the outside by plains-forming volcanism have led some to propose that Venus was catastrophically resurfaced around 725×375 Ma with little volcanism since. Challenges, however, hinge on interpretations of certain morphological characteristics of impact craters: For instance, Venusian impact craters exhibit either radar dark (smooth) floor deposits or bright, blocky floors. Bright floor craters (BFC) are typically 100-400 m deeper than dark floor craters (DFC). Furthermore, all 58 impact craters with ephemeral bright ejecta rays and/or distal parabolic ejecta patterns have bright floor deposits. This suggests that BFCs are younger, on average, than DFCs. These observations suggest that DFCs could be partially filled with lava during plains emplacement and, therefore, are not strictly younger than the plains units as widely held. Because the DFC group comprises ~80% of the total crater population on Venus the recalculated emplacement age of the plains would be ~145 Ma if DFCs are indeed volcanically modified during plains formation. Improved image and topographic data are required to measure stratigraphic and morphometric relationships and resolve this issue. Plains units are also home to an abundant and diverse set of volcanic features including steep-sided domes, shield fields, isolated volcanoes, collapse features and lava channels, some of which extend for 1000s of kilometers. The inferred viscosity range of plains-forming lavas, therefore, is immense, ranging from the

  20. Water quality monitoring protocol for wadeable streams and rivers in the Northern Great Plains Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Marcia H.; Rowe, Barbara L.; Gitzen, Robert A.; Wilson, Stephen K.; Paintner-Green, Kara J.

    2014-01-01

    Preserving the national parks unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations is a fundamental purpose of the National Park Service (NPS). To address growing concerns regarding the overall physical, chemical, and biological elements and processes of park ecosystems, the NPS implemented science-based management through “Vital Signs” monitoring in 270 national parks (NPS 2007). The Northern Great Plains Network (NGPN) is among the 32 National Park Service Networks participating in this monitoring effort. The NGPN will develop protocols over the next several years to determine the overall health or condition of resources within 13 parks located in Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming.

  1. Controlling geological and hydrogeological processes in an arsenic contaminated aquifer on the Red River flood plain, Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, Flemming; Nhan Quy Pham; Nhan Duc Dang; Postma, Dieke; Jessen, Soren; Viet Hung Pham; Nguyen, Thao Bach; Trieu, Huy Duc; Luu Thi Tran; Hoan Nguyen; Chambon, Julie; Hoan Van Nguyen; Dang Hoang Ha; Nguyen Thi Hue; Mai Thanh Duc; Refsgaard, Jens Christian

    2008-01-01

    Geological and hydrogeological processes controlling recharge and the mobilization of As were investigated in a shallow Holocene aquifer on the Red River flood plain near Hanoi, Vietnam. The geology was investigated using surface resistivity methods, geophysical borehole logging, drilling of boreholes and installation of more than 200 piezometers. Recharge processes and surface-groundwater interaction were studied using (i) time-series of hydraulic head distribution in surface water and aquifers, (ii) the stable isotope composition of waters and (iii) numerical groundwater modeling. The Red River and two of its distributaries run through the field site and control the groundwater flow pattern. For most of the year, there is a regional groundwater flow towards the Red River. During the monsoon the Red River water stage rises up to 6 m and stalls the regional groundwater flow. The two distributaries recharge the aquifer from perched water tables in the dry season, whilst in the flooding period surface water enters the aquifer through highly permeable bank sediments. The result is a dynamic groundwater flow pattern with rapid fluctuations in the groundwater table. A transient numerical model of the groundwater flow yields an average recharge rate of 60-100 mm/a through the confining clay, and a total recharge of approximately 200 mm/a was estimated from 3 H/ 3 He dating of the shallow groundwater. Thus in the model area, recharge of surface water from the river distributaries and recharge through a confining clay is of the same magnitude, being on average around 100 mm/a. The thickness of the confining clay varies between 2 and 10 m, and affects the recharge rate and the transport of electron acceptors (O 2 , NO 3 - and SO 4 2- ) into the aquifer. Where the clay layer is thin, an up to 2 m thick oxic zone develops in the shallow aquifer. In the oxic zone the As concentration is less than 1 μg/L but increases in the reduced zone below to 550 μg/L. In the Holocene

  2. Fluvial response to Holocene volcanic damming and breaching in the Gediz and Geren rivers, western Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gorp, W.; Veldkamp, A.; Temme, A.J.A.M.; Maddy, D; Demir, T.; Schriek van der, T.; Reimann, T.; Wallinga, J.; Wijbrans, J.R.; Schoorl, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study discusses the complex late Holocene evolution of the Gediz River north of Kula, western Turkey, when a basaltic lava flow dammed and filled this river valley. Age control was obtained using established and novel feldspar luminescence techniques on fluvial sands below and on top of the

  3. Characterization of labile organic carbon in coastal wetland soils of the Mississippi River deltaic plain: Relationships to carbon functionalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodla, Syam K. [School of Plant, Environmental and Soil Sciences, Louisiana State Univ. Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Wang, Jim J., E-mail: jjwang@agcenter.lsu.edu [School of Plant, Environmental and Soil Sciences, Louisiana State Univ. Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); DeLaune, Ronald D. [Department of Oceanography and Coastal Sciences, School of the Coast and Environment, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Adequate characterization of labile organic carbon (LOC) is essential to the understanding of C cycling in soil. There has been very little evaluation about the nature of LOC characterizations in coastal wetlands, where soils are constantly influenced by different redox fluctuations and salt water intrusions. In this study, we characterized and compared LOC fractions in coastal wetland soils of the Mississippi River deltaic plain using four different methods including 1) aerobically mineralizable C (AMC), 2) cold water extractable C (CWEC), 3) hot water extractable C (HWEC), and 4) salt extractable C (SEC), as well as acid hydrolysable C (AHC) which includes both labile and slowly degradable organic C. Molecular organic C functional groups of these wetland soils were characterized by {sup 13}C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The LOC and AHC increased with soil organic C (SOC) regardless of wetland soil type. The LOC estimates by four different methods were positively and significantly linearly related to each other (R{sup 2} = 0.62-0.84) and with AHC (R{sup 2} = 0.47-0.71). The various LOC fractions accounted for {<=} 4.3% of SOC whereas AHC fraction represented 16-49% of SOC. AMC was influenced positively by O/N-alkyl and carboxyl C but negatively by alkyl C, whereas CWEC and SEC fractions were influenced only positively by carboxyl C but negatively by alkyl C in SOC. On the other hand, HWEC fraction was found to be only influenced positively by carbonyl C, and AHC positively by O/N-alkyl and alkyl C but negatively by aromatic C groups in SOC. Overall these relations suggested different contributions of various molecular organic C moieties to LOC in these wetlands from those often found for upland soils. The presence of more than 50% non-acid hydrolysable C suggested the dominance of relatively stable SOC pool that would be sequestered in these Mississippi River deltaic plain coastal wetland soils. The results have important implications to the

  4. Iodine-129 in the Snake River Plain Aquifer at and Near the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2003 and 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomay, Roy C.

    2009-01-01

    From 1953 to 1988, wastewater containing approximately 0.94 curies of iodine-129 (129I) was generated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho. Almost all of this wastewater was discharged at or near the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) on the INL site. Most of the wastewater was discharged directly into the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer through a deep disposal well until 1984; however, some wastewater also was discharged into unlined infiltration ponds or leaked from distribution systems below the INTEC. In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collected samples for 129I from 36 wells used to monitor the Snake River Plain aquifer, and from one well used to monitor a perched zone at the INTEC. Concentrations of 129I in the aquifer ranged from 0.0000066 +- 0.0000002 to 0.72 +- 0.051 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). Many wells within a 3-mile radius of the INTEC showed decreases of as much as one order of magnitude in concentration from samples collected during 1990-91, and all of the samples had concentrations less than the Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 1 pCi/L. The average concentration of 129I in 19 wells sampled during both collection periods decreased from 0.975 pCi/L in 1990-91 to 0.249 pCi/L in 2003. These decreases are attributed to the discontinuation of disposal of 129I in wastewater after 1988 and to dilution and dispersion in the aquifer. Although water from wells sampled in 2003 near the INTEC showed decreases in concentrations of 129I compared with data collected in 1990-91, some wells south and east of the Central Facilities Area, near the site boundary, and south of the INL showed slight increases. These slight increases may be related to variable discharge rates of wastewater that eventually moved to these well locations as a mass of water from a particular disposal period. In 2007, the USGS collected samples for

  5. Distribution and Risk Assessment of Antibiotics in a Typical River in North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingzhao; Gao, Junxia; Zhang, Qiuling; Liang, Lizhen; Tao, He

    2017-04-01

    We evaluated the occurrence and distribution of 12 antibiotics from the sulfonamide (SAs), fluoroquinolone (FQs) and tetracycline (TCs) groups in the Weihe River, North China. The total antibiotic concentrations in surface water, pore water, and sediment samples ranged from 11.1 to 173.1 ng/L, 5.8 to 103.9 ng/L, and 9.5 to 153.4 μg/kg, respectively. The values of the sediment-water partitioning coefficient in the Weihe River varied widely, from not detected to 943, 2213, and 2405 L/kg for SAs, FQs, and TCs, respectively. The values of the partitioning coefficients between sediment and surface water were generally lower than those between sediment and pore water, which indicated ongoing inputs to the water. The risk assessment showed that there were relatively high ecological risks to aquatic algae in this area from sulfamethoxazole, norfloxacin, tetracycline, ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin.

  6. Influence of the permafrost boundary on dissolved organic matter characteristics in rivers within the Boreal and Taiga plains of western Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olefeldt, D; Turetsky, M R; Persson, A

    2014-01-01

    Catchment export of terrestrial dissolved organic matter (DOM) and its downstream degradation in aquatic ecosystems are important components of landscape scale carbon balances. In order to assess the influence of peatland permafrost on river DOM characteristics, we sampled 65 rivers along a 900 km transect crossing into the southern discontinuous permafrost zone on the Boreal and Tundra Plains of western Canada. Catchment peatland cover and catchment location north or south of the permafrost boundary were found together to have strong influences on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and DOM chemical composition. River DOC concentrations increased with catchment peatland cover, but were consistently lower for catchments north of the permafrost boundary. In contrast, protein fluorescence (PARAFAC analysis), was unrelated to catchment peatland cover but increased significantly in rivers north of the permafrost boundary. Humic and fulvic acid contribution to DOM fluorescence was lower in rivers draining catchments with large lakes than in other rivers, consistent with extensive photodegradation, but humic and fulvic acid fluorescence were also lower in rivers north of the permafrost boundary than in rivers to the south. We hypothesize that shifts in river DOM characteristics when crossing the permafrost boundary are related to the influence of permafrost on peatland hydrological connectivity to stream networks, peatland DOM characteristics and differences in DOM degradation within aquatic ecosystems. (paper)

  7. Multilevel groundwater monitoring of hydraulic head and temperature in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2011-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Brian V.; Fisher, Jason C.

    2015-01-01

    From 2011 to 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey’s Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Project Office, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collected depth-discrete measurements of fluid pressure and temperature in 11 boreholes located in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. Each borehole was instrumented with a multilevel monitoring system (MLMS) consisting of a series of valved measurement ports, packer bladders, casing segments, and couplers.

  8. Multilevel groundwater monitoring of hydraulic head and temperature in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2009–10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Brian V.; Fisher, Jason C.

    2012-01-01

    During 2009 and 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey’s Idaho National Laboratory Project Office, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collected quarterly, depth-discrete measurements of fluid pressure and temperature in nine boreholes located in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. Each borehole was instrumented with a multilevel monitoring system consisting of a series of valved measurement ports, packer bladders, casing segments, and couplers. Multilevel monitoring at the Idaho National Laboratory has been ongoing since 2006. This report summarizes data collected from three multilevel monitoring wells installed during 2009 and 2010 and presents updates to six multilevel monitoring wells. Hydraulic heads (heads) and groundwater temperatures were monitored from 9 multilevel monitoring wells, including 120 hydraulically isolated depth intervals from 448.0 to 1,377.6 feet below land surface. Quarterly head and temperature profiles reveal unique patterns for vertical examination of the aquifer’s complex basalt and sediment stratigraphy, proximity to aquifer recharge and discharge, and groundwater flow. These features contribute to some of the localized variability even though the general profile shape remained consistent over the period of record. Major inflections in the head profiles almost always coincided with low-permeability sediment layers and occasionally thick sequences of dense basalt. However, the presence of a sediment layer or dense basalt layer was insufficient for identifying the location of a major head change within a borehole without knowing the true areal extent and relative transmissivity of the lithologic unit. Temperature profiles for boreholes completed within the Big Lost Trough indicate linear conductive trends; whereas, temperature profiles for boreholes completed within the axial volcanic high indicate mostly convective heat transfer resulting from the vertical movement of groundwater. Additionally, temperature profiles

  9. The 1988 INEL [Idaho National Engineering Laboratory] microearthquake survey near the western edge of the eastern Snake River Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, S.M.; Anderson, D.M.; Carpenter, G.S.; Gilbert, H.K.; Martin, S.M.; Permann, P.J.

    1989-08-01

    A network of seventeen analog recording seismograph, spaced approximately 2 km apart, were operated from May to November, 1988 near the western edge of the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) to record small magnitude microearthquakes. Two three-component digital seismographs were also installed to record the microearthquake activity for analysis of earthquake source parameters and any regional earthquakes for possible analysis of the localized site and crustal effects of the ESRP on earthquake ground motions. We determined near-surface crustal velocities for this area that were slightly lower than the near-surface crustal velocities presently used in routine locations of events recorded by the INEL Seismic Network from five 100 lb surface blasts. During the survey period, only two earthquakes were located near the network area. One of the events occurred in May and was recorded by four of the portable seismic stations and two of the permanent INEL Seismic Network stations. It had a coda magnitude (M c ) of approximately 0.3. The other event was recorded by seventeen portable analog stations and three of the permanent INEL Seismic Network stations. We located this microearthquake, M c =0.5, about 2 km west of Howe, Idaho, off of the ESRP. We determined an unconstrained focal mechanism for this event, which could be interpreted as normal faulting striking N 44 degree W or strike-slip faulting on a plane striking either N 44 degree W or N 47 degree E. 26 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Trend Detection for the Extent of Irrigated Agriculture in Idaho’s Snake River Plain, 1984–2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric W. Chance

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding irrigator responses to changes in water availability is critical for building strategies to support effective management of water resources. Using remote sensing data, we examine farmer responses to seasonal changes in water availability in Idaho’s Snake River Plain for the time series 1984–2016. We apply a binary threshold based on the seasonal maximum of the Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI using Landsat 5–8 images to distinguish irrigated from non-irrigated lands. We find that the NDMI of irrigated lands increased over time, consistent with trends in irrigation technology adoption and increased crop productivity. By combining remote sensing data with geospatial data describing water rights for irrigation, we show that the trend in NDMI is not universal, but differs by farm size and water source. Farmers with small farms that rely on surface water are more likely than average to have a large contraction (over −25% in irrigated area over the 33-year period of record. In contrast, those with large farms and access to groundwater are more likely than average to have a large expansion (over +25% in irrigated area over the same period.

  11. Geophysical logging studies in the Snake River Plain Aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: Wells 44, 45, and 46

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, R.H.; Paillet, F.L.; Taylor, T.A.; Barrash, W.

    1993-01-01

    A geophysical logging program was undertaken to vertically profile changes in the hydrology and hydrochemistry of the Snake River Plain aquifer underlies the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Field investigations were concentrated within an area west of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) in three wells that penetrated the upper 190 feet of the aquifer. The logs obtained in these wells consisted of temperature, caliper, nuclear (neutron porosity and gamma-gama density), natural gamma, borehole televiewer, gamma spectral, and thermal flowmeter (with and without pumping). The nuclear, caliper, and televiewer logs are used to delineate individual basalt flows or flow units and to recognize breaks between flows or flow units at interflow contact zones and sedimentary interbeds. The temperature logs and flowmeter measurements obtained under ambient hydraulic head conditions identified upward fluid-circulation patterns in the three wells. Gamma-spectral analyses performed at several depths in each well showed that the predominant source of gamma radiation in the formation at this site originates mainly from potassium ( 40 K). However, 137 Cesium was detected at 32 feet below land surface in well 45. An empirical investigation of the effect of source-receiver spacing on the response of the neutron-porosity logging tool was attempted in an effort to understand the conditions under which this tool might be applied to large-diameter boreholes in-unsaturated formations

  12. A comparative evaluation of conceptual models for the Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prahl, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    Geologic and hydrologic data collected by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) are used to evaluate the existing ground water monitoring well network completed in the upper portion of the Snake River Plain aquifer (SRPA) beneath the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The USGS data analyzed and compared in this study include: (a) lithologic, geophysical, and stratigraphic information, including the conceptual geologic models intrawell, ground water flow measurement (Tracejector tests) and (c) dedicated, submersible, sampling group elevations. Qualitative evaluation of these data indicate that the upper portion of the SRPA is both heterogeneous and anisotropic at the scale of the ICPP monitoring well network. Tracejector test results indicate that the hydraulic interconnection and spatial configuration of water-producing zones is extremely complex within the upper portion of the SRPA. The majority of ICPP monitoring wells currently are equipped to sample ground water only the upper lithostratigraphic intervals of the SRPA, primarily basalt flow groups E, EF, and F. Depth-specific hydrogeochemical sampling and analysis are necessary to determine if ground water quality varies significantly between the various lithostratigraphic units adjacent to individual sampling pumps

  13. Dating of river terraces along Lefthand Creek, western High Plains, Colorado, reveals punctuated incision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Melissa A.; Anderson, Robert S.; Gray, Harrison J.; Mahan, Shannon A.

    2017-10-01

    The response of erosional landscapes to Quaternary climate oscillations is recorded in fluvial terraces whose quantitative interpretation requires numerical ages. We investigate gravel-capped strath terraces along the western edge of Colorado's High Plains to constrain the incision history of this shale-dominated landscape. We use 10Be and 26Al cosmogenic radionuclides (CRNs), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), and thermally transferred OSL (TT-OSL) to date three strath terraces, all beveled in shale bedrock and then deposited upon by Lefthand Creek, which drains the crystalline core of the Front Range. Our study reveals: (i) a long history (hundreds of thousands of years) of fluvial occupation of the second highest terrace, T2 (Table Mountain), with fluvial abandonment at 92 ± 3 ka; (ii) a brief occupation of a narrow and spatially confined terrace, T3, at 98 ± 7 ka; and (iii) a 10-25 thousand year period of cutting and fluvial occupation of a lower terrace, T4, marked by the deposition of a lower alluvial unit between 59 and 68 ka, followed by deposition of an upper alluvial package at 40 ± 3 ka. In conjunction with other recent CRN studies of strath terraces along the Colorado Front Range (Riihimaki et al., 2006; Dühnforth et al., 2012), our data reveal that long periods of lateral planation and fluvial occupation of strath terraces, sometimes lasting several glacial-interglacial cycles, are punctuated by brief episodes of rapid vertical bedrock incision. These data call into question what a singular terrace age represents, as the strath may be cut at one time (its cutting-age) and the terrace surface may be abandoned at a much later time (its abandonment age), and challenge models of strath terraces that appeal to simple pacing by the glacial-interglacial cycles.

  14. Martian volcanism: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    Martian volcanism is reviewed. It is emphasized that lava plains constitute the major type of effusive flow, and can be differentiated by morphologic characteristics. Shield volcanoes, domes, and patera constitute the major constructional landforms, and recent work has suggested that explosive activity and resulting pyroclastic deposits may have been involved with formation of some of the small shields. Analysis of morphology, presumed composition, and spectroscopic data all indicate that Martian volcanism was dominantly basaltic in composition

  15. Long-term water chemistry database, Little River Experimental Watershed, southeast Coastal Plain, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyereisen, G. W.; Lowrance, R.; Strickland, T. C.; Sheridan, J. M.; Hubbard, R. K.; Bosch, D. D.

    2007-09-01

    A water quality sampling program was initiated in 1974 by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service on the 334 km2 Little River Experimental Watershed (LREW) near Tifton in south Georgia to monitor the effects of changing land use and agricultural practices over time and to support development of simulation models capable of predicting future impacts of agricultural land use and management changes. Stream samples were taken on a weekly or more frequent basis and were analyzed for chloride, ammonium nitrogen, nitrate plus nitrite nitrogen, total kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorus, and dissolved molybdate reactive phosphorus. Monitoring began in 1974 on the entire watershed and four nested subwatersheds, ranging in size from 16.7 to 114.9 km2, and continues until present. Partial records of 7, 10, and 19 years exist for three additional subwatersheds. Suspended solids data are available for all eight subwatersheds for 1974-1978 and 1979-1981, three subwatersheds for 1982-1986, and all eight subwatersheds again beginning in the year 2000. The concentration and associated load data are being published on the LREW database anonymous ftp site (ftp://www.tiftonars.org/).

  16. Geomorphological Approach for Regional Zoning In The Merapi Volcanic Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langgeng Wahyu Santosa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Geomorphologial approach can be used as the basic for identifying and analyzing the natural resources potentials, especially in volcanic landscape. Based on its geomorphology, Merapi volcanic landscape can be divided into 5 morphological units, i.e.: volcanic cone, volcanic slope, volcanic foot, volcanic foot plain, and fluvio-volcanic plain. Each of these morphological units has specific characteristic and natural resources potential. Based on the condition of geomorphology, the regional zoning can be compiled to support the land use planning and to maintain the conservation of environmental function in the Merapi Volcanic area.

  17. Monitoring recharge in areas of seasonally frozen ground in the Columbia Plateau and Snake River Plain, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Mark; Josberger, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Seasonally frozen ground occurs over approximately one‑third of the contiguous United States, causing increased winter runoff. Frozen ground generally rejects potential groundwater recharge. Nearly all recharge from precipitation in semi-arid regions such as the Columbia Plateau and the Snake River Plain in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, occurs between October and March, when precipitation is most abundant and seasonally frozen ground is commonplace. The temporal and spatial distribution of frozen ground is expected to change as the climate warms. It is difficult to predict the distribution of frozen ground, however, because of the complex ways ground freezes and the way that snow cover thermally insulates soil, by keeping it frozen longer than it would be if it was not snow covered or, more commonly, keeping the soil thawed during freezing weather. A combination of satellite remote sensing and ground truth measurements was used with some success to investigate seasonally frozen ground at local to regional scales. The frozen-ground/snow-cover algorithm from the National Snow and Ice Data Center, combined with the 21-year record of passive microwave observations from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager onboard a Defense Meteorological Satellite Program satellite, provided a unique time series of frozen ground. Periodically repeating this methodology and analyzing for trends can be a means to monitor possible regional changes to frozen ground that could occur with a warming climate. The Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System watershed model constructed for the upper Crab Creek Basin in the Columbia Plateau and Reynolds Creek basin on the eastern side of the Snake River Plain simulated recharge and frozen ground for several future climate scenarios. Frozen ground was simulated with the Continuous Frozen Ground Index, which is influenced by air temperature and snow cover. Model simulation results showed a decreased occurrence of frozen ground that coincided with

  18. Transfer and transformation of soil iron and implications for hydrogeomorpholocial changes in Naoli River catchment, sanjiang plain, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, J.; Xianguo, L.; Hongqing, W.; Yuanchun, Z.; Haitao, W.

    2011-01-01

    Wetland soils are characterized by alternating redox process due to the fluctuation of waterlogged conditions. Iron is an important redox substance, and its transfer and transformation in the wetland ecosystem could be an effective indicator for the environment changes. In this paper, we selected the Naoli River catchment in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China as the study area to analyze the dynamics of transfer and transformation of soil iron, and the relationship between iron content change and environmental factors. The results show that the total and crystalline iron contents reach the peak in the depth of 60 cm in soil profile, while the amorphous iron content is higher in the topsoil. In the upper reaches, from the low to high landscape positions, the total and crystalline iron contents decrease from 62.98 g/kg to 41.61 g/kg, 22.82 g/kg to 10.53 g/kg respectively, while the amorphous iron content increases from 2.42 g/kg to 8.88 g/kg. Amorphous iron content has positive correlation with organic matter and soil water contents, while negative correlation with pH. Moreover, both the crystalline and amorphous iron contents present no correlation with total iron content, indicating that environmental factors play a more important role in the transfer and transformation of iron other than the content of the total iron. Different redoximorphic features were found along the soil profile due to the transfer and transformation of iron. E and B horizons of wetland soil in the study area have a matrix Chroma 2 or less, and all the soil types can meet the criteria of American hydric soil indicators except albic soil. ?? Science Press, Science Press, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  19. Geochemistry of groundwater in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Laboratory and vicinity, eastern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattray, Gordon W.

    2018-05-30

    Nuclear research activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in eastern Idaho produced radiochemical and chemical wastes that were discharged to the subsurface, resulting in detectable concentrations of some waste constituents in the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer. These waste constituents may pose risks to the water quality of the aquifer. In order to understand these risks to water quality the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the DOE, conducted a study of groundwater geochemistry to improve the understanding of hydrologic and chemical processes in the ESRP aquifer at and near the INL and to understand how these processes affect waste constituents in the aquifer.Geochemistry data were used to identify sources of recharge, mixing of water, and directions of groundwater flow in the ESRP aquifer at the INL. The geochemistry data were analyzed from 167 sample sites at and near the INL. The sites included 150 groundwater, 13 surface-water, and 4 geothermal-water sites. The data were collected between 1952 and 2012, although most data collected at the INL were collected from 1989 to 1996. Water samples were analyzed for all or most of the following: field parameters, dissolved gases, major ions, dissolved metals, isotope ratios, and environmental tracers.Sources of recharge identified at the INL were regional groundwater, groundwater from the Little Lost River (LLR) and Birch Creek (BC) valleys, groundwater from the Lost River Range, geothermal water, and surface water from the Big Lost River (BLR), LLR, and BC. Recharge from the BLR that may have occurred during the last glacial epoch, or paleorecharge, may be present at several wells in the southwestern part of the INL. Mixing of water at the INL primarily included mixing of surface water with groundwater from the tributary valleys and mixing of geothermal water with regional groundwater. Additionally, a zone of mixing between tributary valley water and

  20. Effects of recent volcanic eruptions on aquatic habitat in the Drift River, Alaska, USA: Implications at other Cook Inlet region volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorava, J.M.; Milner, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Numerous drainages supporting productive salmon habitat are surrounded by active volcanoes on the west side of Cook Inlet in south-central Alaska. Eruptions have caused massive quantities of flowing water and sediment to enter the river channels emanating from glaciers and snowfields on these volcanoes. Extensive damage to riparian and aquatic habitat has commonly resulted, and benthic macroinvertebrate and salmonid communities can be affected. Because of the economic importance of Alaska's fisheries, detrimental effects on salmonid habitat can have significant economic implications. The Drift River drains glaciers on the northern and eastern flanks of Redoubt Volcano: During and following eruptions in 1989-1990, severe physical disturbances to the habitat features of the river adversely affected the fishery. Frequent eruptions at other Cook Inlet region volcanoes exemplify the potential effects of volcanic activity on Alaska's important commercial, sport, and subsistence fisheries. Few studies have documented the recovery of aquatic habitat following volcanic eruptions. The eruptions of Redoubt Volcano in 1989-1990 offered an opportunity to examine the recovery of the macroinvertebrate community. Macroinvertebrate community composition and structure in the Drift River were similar in both undisturbed and recently disturbed sites. Additionally, macroinvertebrate samples from sites in nearby undisturbed streams were highly similar to those from some Drift River sites. This similarity and the agreement between the Drift River macroinvertebrate community composition and that predicted by a qualitative model of typical macroinvertebrate communities in glacier-fed rivers indicate that the Drift River macroinvertebrate community is recovering five years after the disturbances associated with the most recent eruptions of Redoubt Volcano.

  1. RESEARCH: Effects of Recent Volcanic Eruptions on Aquatic Habitat in the Drift River, Alaska, USA: Implications at Other Cook Inlet Region Volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DORAVA; MILNER

    1999-02-01

    / Numerous drainages supporting productive salmon habitat are surrounded by active volcanoes on the west side of Cook Inlet in south-central Alaska. Eruptions have caused massive quantities of flowing water and sediment to enter the river channels emanating from glaciers and snowfields on these volcanoes. Extensive damage to riparian and aquatic habitat has commonly resulted, and benthic macroinvertebrate and salmonid communities can be affected. Because of the economic importance of Alaska's fisheries, detrimental effects on salmonid habitat can have significant economic implications. The Drift River drains glaciers on the northern and eastern flanks of Redoubt Volcano. During and following eruptions in 1989-1990, severe physical disturbances to the habitat features of the river adversely affected the fishery. Frequent eruptions at other Cook Inlet region volcanoes exemplify the potential effects of volcanic activity on Alaska's important commercial, sport, and subsistence fisheries. Few studies have documented the recovery of aquatic habitat following volcanic eruptions. The eruptions of Redoubt Volcano in 1989-1990 offered an opportunity to examine the recovery of the macroinvertebrate community. Macroinvertebrate community composition and structure in the Drift River were similar in both undisturbed and recently disturbed sites. Additionally, macroinvertebrate samples from sites in nearby undisturbed streams were highly similar to those from some Drift River sites. This similarity and the agreement between the Drift River macroinvertebrate community composition and that predicted by a qualitative model of typical macroinvertebrate communities in glacier-fed rivers indicate that the Drift River macroinvertebrate community is recovering five years after the disturbances associated with the most recent eruptions of Redoubt Volcano. KEY WORDS: Aquatic habitat; Volcanoes; Lahars; Lahar-runout flows; Macroinvertebrates; Community structure; Community composition

  2. Columbia River volcanism - The question of mantle heterogeneity or crustal contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, R. W.; Lugmair, G. W.; Macdougall, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    It is found that, although crystal fractionation played an important role in producing the chemical characteristics of Columbia River Province basalts displaying a wide range of chemical and isotopic compositions, the isotopic variability calls for the involvement of at least two isotopically distinct components. The major and trace element characteristics of the main volume of the basalts are not consistent with a metasomatized mantle source region, and the presence of a primordial mantel component is not supported by the chemical data. Models of simple binary mixing between a primary magma and Precambrian sialic crustal materials, while satisfying the observed Nd and Sr isotopic variations, fail to account for major trace element abundances. The combination of crustal assimilation and fractional crystalization is found to give a superior fit to the compositional data.

  3. Role of neotectonics and climate in development of the Holocene geomorphology and soils of the Gangetic Plains between the Ramganga and Rapti rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Pankaj; Parkash, B.; Sehgal, J. L.; Kumar, Sudhir

    1994-12-01

    Fifteen soil-geomorphic units have been delineated from the Gangetic Plains between the Ramganga and Rapti rivers. They were identified by remote sensing and field checks. On the basis of degree of profile development, their soils are grouped into five members (QGH1 to QGH5, QGH5 being the oldest) of a soil chrono-association. Tentative ages assigned to QGH1 to QGH5 are 500, > 2500, 8000 and 13,5000 yr B.P., respectively. From the early Holocene to about 6500 yr. B.P. a cold, arid to semi-arid climate prevailed and pedogenic calcrete developed over large areas in the Gangetic Plains. Later, a warm and humid climate and improved drainage resulted in complete removal of calcrete from soil profiles in some areas or its dissolution and re-precipitation in lower horizons in other areas. Neotectonics seems to have played a significant role in the evolution of the geomorphology and soils of the area. It determined areas of active sedimentation, pedogenesis and erosion (in upland regions). It led to tilting and sagging of large blocks resulting in shifting and increase in sinuosity of the rivers. Tectonic slopes/faults determined the courses of large rivers.

  4. Quaternary volcanism, tectonics, and sedimentation in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, W.R.; Smith, R.P.

    1992-09-01

    In this article, we discuss the regional context and describe localities for a two-day field excursion in the vicinity of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). We address several geologic themes: (1) Late Cenozoic, bimodal volcanism of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), (2) the regional tectonics and structural geology of the Basin and Range province to the northwest of the ESRP, (3) fluvial, lacustrine, and aeolian sedimentation in the INEL area, and (4) the influence of Quaternary volcanism and tectonics on sedimentation near the INEL.

  5. Quaternary volcanism, tectonics, and sedimentation in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, W.R.; Smith, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the regional context and describe localities for a two-day field excursion in the vicinity of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). We address several geologic themes: (1) Late Cenozoic, bimodal volcanism of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), (2) the regional tectonics and structural geology of the Basin and Range province to the northwest of the ESRP, (3) fluvial, lacustrine, and aeolian sedimentation in the INEL area, and (4) the influence of Quaternary volcanism and tectonics on sedimentation near the INEL.

  6. Iodine-129 in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2010-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomay, Roy C.

    2013-01-01

    From 1953 to 1988, approximately 0.941 curies of iodine-129 (129I) were contained in wastewater generated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with almost all of this wastewater discharged at or near the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). Most of the wastewater containing 129I was discharged directly into the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer through a deep disposal well until 1984; lesser quantities also were discharged into unlined infiltration ponds or leaked from distribution systems below the INTEC. During 2010–12, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy collected groundwater samples for 129I from 62 wells in the ESRP aquifer to track concentration trends and changes for the carcinogenic radionuclide that has a 15.7 million-year half-life. Concentrations of 129I in the aquifer ranged from 0.0000013±0.0000005 to 1.02±0.04 picocuries per liter (pCi/L), and generally decreased in wells near the INTEC, relative to previous sampling events. The average concentration of 129I in groundwater from 15 wells sampled during four different sample periods decreased from 1.15 pCi/L in 1990–91 to 0.173 pCi/L in 2011–12. All but two wells within a 3-mile radius of the INTEC showed decreases in concentration, and all but one sample had concentrations less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level of 1 pCi/L. These decreases are attributed to the discontinuation of disposal of 129I in wastewater and to dilution and dispersion in the aquifer. The decreases in 129I concentrations, in areas around INTEC where concentrations increased between 2003 and 2007, were attributed to less recharge near INTEC either from less flow in the Big Lost River or from less local snowmelt and anthropogenic sources. Although wells near INTEC sampled in 2011–12 showed decreases in 129I concentrations compared with previously collected data, some wells south and east of the Central Facilities Area

  7. Geochemistry of buried river sediments from Ghaggar Plains, NW India: Multi-proxy records of variations in provenance, paleoclimate, and paleovegetation patterns in the Late Quaternary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ajit; Paul, Debajyoti; Sinha, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    We report the first geochemical record in two drill-sediment cores from a buried channel in the Ghaggar Plains of NW India, which are used to infer variations in provenance, paleoclimate, and paleovegetation in the locality during the Late Quaternary. Aeolian sediments (~150 ka) in both the cores...... are overlain by fluvial sediments (~75 ka-recent). Major oxide compositions of the core sediments (n = 35) generally vary between that observed for the modern-day Ghaggar/Sutlej and Yamuna river sand. The isotopic composition (87Sr/86Sr: 0.7365 to 0.7783 and εNd: -14.6 to -19.0) of core sediments (n = 18......) suggest binary mixing of sediments from compositionally distinct Higher Himalaya (HH) and Lesser Himalaya (LH) endmembers in the catchment, and support involvement of a river system originating in the Himalayan hinterland. Distinctly higher 87Sr/86Sr and lower εNd in the core sediments during glacial...

  8. Reducing the impact of unplanned urbanization on a riparian ecosystem: a case study on designing a plan for sustainable utilization of flood plains on river Ravi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.U.

    2005-01-01

    This work emphasizes that utilization of flood plain must be preceded by a study that shows the extent of the flood plain with the primary objective to management and maintaining the integrity of riparian areas for their multiple values. One such design is presented here where the riparian land is used for designing a municipal waste water treatment plant in order to provide a reward feedback to river Ravi. Since the space is becoming expensive for setting up of a treatment plant, this high risk piece of land instead of being used for land filling and housing schemes should be used for designing multipurpose environmentally sustainable projects. The treatment plant is designed to mimic the functional properties of riparian corridor flood plains. This design is based on integrated series of interconnected basins including a sedimentation basin, infiltration basin and a created wetland. This system would promote ground water recharge and passively remove pollutants through a combination of filtering, settling and biological treatment mechanisms and providing an attractive recreation and learning environment for the community at large. Additionally, benefits of such treatment will allow a direct recycling of water and nutrients for beneficial use; the sewage becomes a valuable natural resource that is not simply disposed of untreated. (author)

  9. Multiconfiguration electromagnetic induction survey for paleochannel internal structure imaging: a case study in the alluvial plain of the River Seine, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejiba, Fayçal; Schamper, Cyril; Chevalier, Antoine; Deleplancque, Benoit; Hovhannissian, Gaghik; Thiesson, Julien; Weill, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    The La Bassée floodplain area is a large groundwater reservoir controlling most of the water exchanged between local aquifers and hydrographic networks within the Seine River basin (France). Preferential flows depend essentially on the heterogeneity of alluvial plain infilling, whose characteristics are strongly influenced by the presence of mud plugs (paleomeander clayey infilling). These mud plugs strongly contrast with the coarse sand material that composes most of the alluvial plain, and can create permeability barriers to groundwater flows. A detailed knowledge of the global and internal geometry of such paleomeanders can thus lead to a comprehensive understanding of the long-term hydrogeological processes of the alluvial plain. A geophysical survey based on the use of electromagnetic induction was performed on a wide paleomeander, situated close to the city of Nogent-sur-Seine in France. In the present study we assess the advantages of combining several spatial offsets, together with both vertical and horizontal dipole orientations (six apparent conductivities), thereby mapping not only the spatial distribution of the paleomeander derived from lidar data but also its vertical extent and internal variability.

  10. Evaluation of groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking, domestic, and agricultural uses in the Banana Plain (Mbanga, Njombe, Penja) of the Cameroon Volcanic Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ako, Andrew Ako; Shimada, Jun; Hosono, Takahiro; Ichiyanagi, Kimpei; Nkeng, George Elambo; Fantong, Wilson Yetoh; Eyong, Gloria Eneke Takem; Roger, Ntankouo Njila

    2011-12-01

    Groundwater quality of the Banana Plain (Mbanga, Njombe, Penja-Cameroon) was assessed for its suitability for drinking, domestic, and agricultural uses. A total of 67 groundwater samples were collected from open wells, springs, and boreholes. Samples were analyzed for physicochemical properties, major ions, and dissolved silica. In 95% of groundwater samples, calcium is the dominant cation, while sodium dominates in 5% of the samples. Eighty percent of the samples have HCO(3) as major anion, and in 20%, NO(3) is the major anion. Main water types in the study area are CaHCO(3), CaMgHCO(3), CaNaHCO(3), and CaNaNO(3)ClHCO(3). CO(2)-driven weathering of silicate minerals followed by cation exchange seemingly controls largely the concentrations of major ions in the groundwaters of this area. Nitrate, sulfate, and chloride concentrations strongly express the impact of anthropogenic activities (agriculture and domestic activities) on groundwater quality. Sixty-four percent of the waters have nitrate concentrations higher than the drinking water limit. Also limiting groundwater use for potable and domestic purposes are contents of Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and HCO(3) (-) and total hardness (TH) that exceed World Health Organization (WHO) standards. Irrigational suitability of groundwaters in the study area was also evaluated, and results show that all the samples are fit for irrigation. Groundwater quality in the Banana Plain is impeded by natural geology and anthropogenic activities, and proper groundwater management strategies are necessary to protect sustainably this valuable resource.

  11. Two Late Pleistocene climate-driven incision/aggradation rhythms in the middle Dnieper River basin, west-central Russian Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panin, Andrei; Adamiec, Grzegorz; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Matlakhova, Ekaterina; Moska, Piotr; Novenko, Elena

    2017-06-01

    In valleys of the River Seim and its tributaries in the middle Dnieper basin (west-central Russian Plain), two low terraces (T1, 10-16 m, and T0, 5-7 m above the river) and a floodplain (2-4 m) with characteristic large and small palaeochannels exist. A range of field and laboratory techniques was applied and ∼30 new numerical ages (OSL and 14C dates) were obtained to establish a chronology of incision and aggradation events that resulted in the current valley morphology. Two full incision/aggradation rhythms and one additional aggradation phase from the previous rhythm were recognized in the Late Pleistocene - Holocene climate cycle. The following events were detected. (1) Late MIS 5 - early MIS 4: aggradation of Terrace T1 following the deep incision at the end of MIS 6. (2) Late MIS 4 (40-30 ka): incision into Terrace T1 below the present-day river, formation of the main scarp in the bottom of the valley between Terrace T1 and Terrace T0/Floodplain levels. (3) MIS 2: aggradation of Terrace T0, lateral migrations of a shallow braided channel located few meters above the present-day river since ∼25 ka through the LGM. (4) 18-13 ka: incision into Terrace T0 below the modern river. Multiple-thread channels concentrated in a single flow that at some places formed large meanders. In the period 15-13 ka, high floods that rose above the present-day floods left large levees and overbank loams on Terrace T0. (5) Younger Dryas - Holocene transition: aggradation up to the modern channel level, transformation of large Late Glacial to small Holocene meanders. The established incision/aggradation rhythms are believed to be manifested over the Central Russian Plain outside the influence of ice sheets in the north and base level changes in the south. The two-phase deepening of the valley occurred in the last quarter of the last glacial epoch but can not be attributed directly to the glacial-interglacial transition. Both the detected incision events correspond to relatively

  12. Development of a regional groundwater flow model for the area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, J.M.; Arnett, R.C.; Neupauer, R.M.

    1995-03-01

    This report documents a study conducted to develop a regional groundwater flow model for the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer in the area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The model was developed to support Waste Area Group 10, Operable Unit 10-04 groundwater flow and transport studies. The products of this study are this report and a set of computational tools designed to numerically model the regional groundwater flow in the Eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. The objective of developing the current model was to create a tool for defining the regional groundwater flow at the INEL. The model was developed to (a) support future transport modeling for WAG 10-04 by providing the regional groundwater flow information needed for the WAG 10-04 risk assessment, (b) define the regional groundwater flow setting for modeling groundwater contaminant transport at the scale of the individual WAGs, (c) provide a tool for improving the understanding of the groundwater flow system below the INEL, and (d) consolidate the existing regional groundwater modeling information into one usable model. The current model is appropriate for defining the regional flow setting for flow submodels as well as hypothesis testing to better understand the regional groundwater flow in the area of the INEL. The scale of the submodels must be chosen based on accuracy required for the study

  13. Estimation of hydraulic properties and development of a layered conceptual model for the Snake River plain aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederick, D.B.; Johnson, G.S.

    1996-02-01

    The Idaho INEL Oversight Program, in association with the University of Idaho, Idaho Geological Survey, Boise State University, and Idaho State University, developed a research program to determine the hydraulic properties of the Snake River Plain aquifer and characterize the vertical distribution of contaminants. A straddle-packer was deployed in four observation wells near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Pressure transducers mounted in the straddle-packer assembly were used to monitor the response of the Snake River Plain aquifer to pumping at the ICPP production wells, located 2600 to 4200 feet from the observation wells. The time-drawdown data from these tests were used to evaluate various conceptual models of the aquifer. Aquifer properties were estimated by matching time-drawdown data to type curves for partially penetrating wells in an unconfined aquifer. This approach assumes a homogeneous and isotropic aquifer. The hydraulic properties of the aquifer obtained from the type curve analyses were: (1) Storativity = 3 x 10 -5 , (2) Specific Yield = 0.01, (3) Transmissivity = 740 ft 2 /min, (4) Anisotropy (Kv:Kh)= 1:360

  14. In Situ Production of Chlorine-36 in the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer, Idaho: Implications for Describing Ground-Water Contamination Near a Nuclear Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecil, L. D.; Knobel, L. L.; Green, J. R.; Frape, S. K.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the calculated contribution to ground water of natural, in situ produced 36Cl in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer and to compare these concentrations in ground water with measured concentrations near a nuclear facility in southeastern Idaho. The scope focused on isotopic and chemical analyses and associated 36Cl in situ production calculations on 25 whole-rock samples from 6 major water-bearing rock types present in the eastern Snake River Plain. The rock types investigated were basalt, rhyolite, limestone, dolomite, shale, and quartzite. Determining the contribution of in situ production to 36Cl inventories in ground water facilitated the identification of the source for this radionuclide in environmental samples. On the basis of calculations reported here, in situ production of 36Cl was determined to be insignificant compared to concentrations measured in ground water near buried and injected nuclear waste at the INEEL. Maximum estimated 36Cl concentrations in ground water from in situ production are on the same order of magnitude as natural concentrations in meteoric water

  15. Independent technical review and analysis of hydraulic modeling and hydrology under low-flow conditions of the Des Plaines River near Riverside, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over, Thomas M.; Straub, Timothy D.; Hortness, Jon E.; Murphy, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has operated a streamgage and published daily flows for the Des Plaines River at Riverside since Oct. 1, 1943. A HEC-RAS model has been developed to estimate the effect of the removal of Hofmann Dam near the gage on low-flow elevations in the reach approximately 3 miles upstream from the dam. The Village of Riverside, the Illinois Department of Natural Resources-Office of Water Resources (IDNR-OWR), and the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers-Chicago District (USACE-Chicago) are interested in verifying the performance of the HEC-RAS model for specific low-flow conditions, and obtaining an estimate of selected daily flow quantiles and other low-flow statistics for a selected period of record that best represents current hydrologic conditions. Because the USGS publishes streamflow records for the Des Plaines River system and provides unbiased analyses of flows and stream hydraulic characteristics, the USGS served as an Independent Technical Reviewer (ITR) for this study.

  16. Sedimentological techniques applied to the hydrology of the Atlantic coastal plain in South Carolina and Georgia near the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falls, F.W.; Baum, J.S.; Edwards, L.E.

    1994-01-01

    Potential for migration of contaminants in ground water under the Savannah River from South Carolina into Georgia near the US Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). The SRS is located in the inner Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina and is underlain by 200 to more than 300 meters of permeable, unconsolidated to poorly consolidated sediments of Cretaceous and Tertiary age. The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy and the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, is evaluating ground-water flow through the Coastal Plain sediments in the area. Preliminary hydrologic studies conducted to provide the data needed for digital modeling of the ground-water flow system identified the need for more extensive investigation into the influence of the geologic complexities on that flow system. The Coastal Plain physiographic province in South Carolina and Georgia is comprised of a complex wedge of fluvial, deltaic, and marine sedimentary deposits locally modified by faulting. Several techniques commonly used in petroleum basin analysis (sequence stratigraphy, biostratigraphy, detailed core description, and geophysical well log analysis), were used together with water-level measurements, aquifer-test data, and geochemical data to identify six regional aquifers. Hydraulic conductivity distribution maps within each of these aquifers were constructed using textural analysis of core materials, aquifer test data, and depositional system reconstruction. Sedimentological techniques were used to improve understanding of the depositional system and the ground-water flow system dynamics, and to help focus research in areas where additional hydrologic, geologic, and aquifer-test data are needed

  17. Large wood budget assessment along a gravel bed river affected by volcanic eruption: the Rio Blanco study case (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oss-Cazzador, Daniele; Iroume, Andres; Lenzi, Mario; Picco, Lorenzo

    2016-04-01

    Wood in riverine environments exerts different functions on ecological and geomorphic settings, influencing morphological processes, and increasing risks for sensitive structures. Large wood (LW) is defined as wood material, dead or alive, larger than 10 cm in diameter and 1 m in length. Natural hazards can strongly increase the presence of LW in waterways and flood events can transport it affecting the ecosystem and landscape. This study aims to increase the knowledge of wood budget, considering the effects of two subsequent slight flood events along a sub-reach of the Rio Blanco gravel bed river , in Chilean Patagonia, strongly affected by the eruption of Chaiten volcano in 2008. The volcanic eruption affected almost 3,5 km 2 of evergreen forest on the southern (left) bank, because of primary direct effects from pyroclastic density currents and lahar-floods that caused deposition up to 8 m of reworked tephra, alluvium, and wood on floodplains and terrace along the Rio Blanco. After the eruption, there was a considerable increase of LW into the main channel: into the bankfull channel, volume exceeds 100 m 3 /ha. Field surveys were carried out in January and March 2015, before and after two slight flood events (Recurrence Intervals lower than 1 year). The pre-event phase permitted to detect and analyze the presence of LW into the study area, along a 80 m-long reach of Rio Blanco (7500 m 2 . Every LW element was manually measured and described, a numbered metal tag was installed, and the position was recorded by GPS device. In January, there was a total amount of 113 m 3 /ha, 90% accumulated in LW jams (WJ) and 10% as single logs. The LW was characterized by mean dimensions of 3,36 m height, 0,25 m diameter and 0,26 m 3 volume, respectively. The WJ are characterized by wide range of dimension: volume varies from 0,28 m 3 to 672 m 3 , length from 1,20 m to 56 m, width from 0,40 m to 8,70 m and height from 0,20 m to 3 m, respectively. After the flood events, field

  18. Soft sediment deformation associated with the East Patna Fault south of the Ganga River, northern India: Influence of the Himalayan tectonics on the southern Ganga plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Aditya K.; Pati, Pitambar; Sharma, Vijay

    2017-08-01

    The geomorphic, tectonic and seismic aspects of the Ganga plain have been studied by several workers in the recent decades. However, the northern part of this tectonically active plain has been the prime focus in most of the studies. The region to the south of the Ganga River requires necessary attention, especially, regarding the seismic activities. The region lying immediately south of the Outer Himalayas (i.e. the Ganga plain) responds to the stress regime of the Himalayan Frontal Thrust Zone by movement along the existing basement faults (extending from the Indian Peninsula) and creating new surface faults within the sediment cover as well. As a result, several earthquakes have been recorded along these basement faults, such as the great earthquakes of 1934 and 1988 associated with the East Patna Fault. Large zones of ground failure and liquefaction in north Bihar (close to the Himalayan front), have been recorded associated with these earthquakes. The present study reports the soft sediment deformation structures from the south Bihar associated with the prehistoric earthquakes near the East Patna Fault for the first time. The seismites have been observed in the riverine sand bed of the Dardha River close to the East Patna Fault. Several types of liquefaction-induced deformation structures such as pillar and pocket structure, thixotropic wedge, liquefaction cusps and other water escape structures have been identified. The location of the observed seismites within the deformed zone of the East Patna Fault clearly indicates their formation due to activities along this fault. However, the distance of the liquefaction site from the recorded epicenters suggests its dissociation with the recorded earthquakes so far and hence possibly relates to any prehistoric seismic event. The occurrence of the earthquakes of a magnitude capable of forming liquefaction structure in the southern Ganga plain indicates the transfer of stress regime far from the Himalayan front into

  19. Surface Textures and Features Indicative of Endogenous Growth at the McCartys Flow Field, NM, as an Analog to Martian Volcanic Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, Jacob E.; Crumpler, L. S.; Garry, W. B.; Zimbelman, J. R.; Self, S.; Aubele, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    Basaltic lavas typically form channels or tubes, which are recognized on the Earth and Mars. Although largely unrecognized in the planetary community, terrestrial inflated sheet flows also display morphologies that share many commonalities with lava plains on Mars. The McCartys lava flow field is among the youngest (approx.3000 yrs) basaltic flows in the continental United States. The southwest sections of the flow displays smooth, flat-topped plateaus with irregularly shaped pits and hummocky inter-plateau units that form a polygonal surface. Plateaus are typically elongate in map view, up to 20 m high and display lineations within the glassy crust. Lineated surfaces occasionally display small < 1m diameter lava coils. Lineations are generally straight and parallel each other, sometimes for over 100 meters. The boundaries between plateaus and depressions are also lineated and tilted to angles sometimes approaching vertical. Plateau-parallel cracks, sometimes containing squeeze-ups, mark the boundary between tilted crust and plateau. Some plateau depressions display level floors with hummocky surfaces, while some are bowl shaped with floors covered in broken lava slabs. The lower walls of pits sometimes display lateral, sagged lava wedges. Infrequently, pit floors display the upper portion of a tumulus from an older flow. In some places the surface crust has been disrupted forming a slabby texture. Slabs are typically on the scale of a meter or less across and no less than 7-10 cm thick. The slabs preserve the lineated textures of the undisturbed plateau crust. It appears that this style of terrain represents the emplacement of an extensive sheet that experiences inflation episodes within preferred regions where lateral spreading of the sheet is inhibited, thereby forming plateaus. Rough surfaces represent inflation-related disruption of pahoehoe lava and not a a lava. Depressions are often the result of non-inflation and can be clearly identified by lateral

  20. Hydrostratigraphy of the Snake River Plain aquifer beneath the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegmann, M.J.; Wood, S.H.

    1994-01-01

    Geophysical logs for 6 wells which penetrate the Snake River Plain aquifer at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) were analyzed for preliminary information on the hydrostratigraphy. Using stratigraphic correlation of flow groups worked out by Anderson and Lewis (1989), and by Anderson, as well as gamma signatures of flows within these flow groups, correlation of individual flows is attempted. Within these flows, probable permeable zones, suggested by density and caliper logs, are identified, and zones of hydraulic connection are tentatively correlated. In order to understand the response of density and neutron logs in basalt, the geological characteristics are quantified for the 150-ft section of the well C1A core, from depth 550 to 710 ft. 9 refs., 4 figs

  1. Hydrologic influences on water-level changes in the Eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 1949-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomay, Roy C.; Twining, Brian V.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, has maintained a water-level monitoring program at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) since 1949 to systematically measure water levels to provide long-term information on groundwater recharge, discharge, movement, and storage in the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer. During 2014, water levels in the ESRP aquifer reached all-time lows for the period of record, prompting this study to assess the effect that future water-level declines may have on pumps and wells. Water-level data were compared with pump-setting depth to determine the hydraulic head above the current pump setting. Additionally, geophysical logs were examined to address changes in well productivity with water-level declines. Furthermore, hydrologic factors that affect water levels in different areas of the INL were evaluated to help understand why water-level changes occur.

  2. Mid-Holocene palaeoflood events recorded at the Zhongqiao Neolithic cultural site in the Jianghan Plain, middle Yangtze River Valley, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li; Zhu, Cheng; Ma, Chunmei; Li, Feng; Meng, Huaping; Liu, Hui; Li, Linying; Wang, Xiaocui; Sun, Wei; Song, Yougui

    2017-10-01

    Palaeo-hydrological and archaeological investigations were carried out in the Jianghan Plain in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River. Based on a comparative analysis of modern flood sediments and multidisciplinary approaches such as AMS14C and archaeological dating, zircon micromorphology, grain size, magnetic susceptibility, and geochemistry, we identified palaeoflood sediments preserved at the Zhongqiao archaeological site. The results indicate that three palaeoflood events (i.e. 4800-4597, 4479-4367, and 4168-3850 cal. yr BP) occurred at the Zhongqiao Site. Comparisons of palaeoflood deposit layers at a number of Neolithic cultural sites show that two extraordinary palaeoflood events occurred in the Jianghan Plain during approximately 4900-4600 cal. yr BP (i.e.mid-late Qujialing cultural period) and 4100-3800 cal. yr BP (i.e. from late Shijiahe cultural period to the Xia Dynasty). Further analysis of the environmental context suggests that these flooding events might have been connected with great climate variability during approximately 5000-4500 cal. yr BP and at ca. 4000 cal. yr BP. These two palaeoflood events were closely related to the expansion of the Jianghan lakes driven by the climatic change, which in turn influenced the rise and fall of the Neolithic cultures in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River. Other evidence also suggests that the intensified discrepancy between social development and environmental change processes (especially the hydrological process) during the late Shijiahe cultural period might be the key factor causing the collapse of the Shijiahe Culture. The extraordinary floods related to the climatic anomaly at ca. 4000 cal. yr BP and political conflicts from internal or other cultural areas all accelerated the collapse of the Shijiahe Culture.

  3. A Three-Year Study of Ichyoplankton in Coastal Plains Reaches of the Savannah River Site and its Tributaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D.

    2007-03-05

    Altering flow regimes of rivers has large effects on native floras and faunas because native species are adapted to the natural flow regime, many species require lateral connectivity with floodplain habitat for feeding or spawning, and the change in regime often makes it possible for invasive species to replace natives (Bunn & Arthington 2002). Floodplain backwaters, both permanent and temporary, are nursery areas for age 0+ fish and stable isotope studies indicate that much of the productivity that supports fish larvae is autochthonous to these habitats (Herwig et al. 2004). Limiting access by fish to floodplain habitat for feeding, spawning and nursery habitat is one of the problems noted with dams that regulate flow in rivers and is considered to be important as an argument to remove dams and other flow regulating structures from rivers (Shuman 1995; Bednarek 2001). While there have been a number of studies in the literature about the use of floodplain habitat for fish reproduction (Copp 1989; Killgore & Baker 1996; Humphries, et al. 1999; Humphries and Lake 2000; Crain et al. 2004; King 2004) there have been only a few studies that examined this aspect of stream ecology in more than a cursory way. The study reported here was originally designed to determine whether the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site was having a negative effect on fish reproduction in the Savannah River but its experimental design allowed examination of the interactions between the river, the floodplain and the tributaries entering the Savannah River across this floodplain. This study is larger in length of river covered than most in the literature and because of its landscape scale may be in important indicator of areas where further study is required.

  4. Dendrogeochronologic and Anatomic Analysis of Excavated Plains Cottonwoods Determine Overbank Sedimentation Rates and Historical Channel Positions Along the Interior of a Migrating Meander Bend, Powder River, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, T. L.; Pizzuto, J. E.; Schook, D. M.; Hasse, T. R.; Affinito, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    Dendrochronological dating of buried trees precisely determines the germination year and identifies the stratigraphic context of germination for the trees. This recently developed application of dendrochronology provides accurate time-averaged sedimentation rates of overbank deposition along floodplains and can be used to identify burial events. Previous studies have demonstrated that tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima) and sandbar willow (Salix exigua) develop anatomical changes within the tree rings (increased vessel size and decreased ring widths) on burial, but observations of plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides ssp. monilifera) are lacking. In September 2016 and June 2017, five buried plains cottonwoods were excavated along a single transect of the interior of a meander bend of the Powder River, Montana. Sediment samples were obtained near each tree for 210Pb and 137Cs dating, which will allow for comparison between dendrochronological and isotopic dating methods. The plains cottonwood samples collected exhibit anatomical changes associated with burial events that are observed in other species. All trees germinated at the boundary between thinly bedded fine sand and mud and coarse sand underlain by sand and gravel, indicating plains cottonwoods germinate on top of point bars prior to overbank deposition. The precise germination age and depth provide elevations and minimum age constraints for the point bar deposits and maximum ages for the overlying sediment, helping constrain past channel positions and overbank deposition rates. Germination years of the excavated trees, estimated from cores taken 1.5 m above ground level, range from 2014 to 1862. Accurate establishment years determined by cross-dating the buried section of the tree can add an additional 10 years to the cored age. The sedimentation rate and accumulation thickness varied with tree age. The germination year, total sediment accumulation, and average sedimentation rate at the five sampled trees is

  5. Does the Limpopo River Basin have sufficient water for massive irrigation development in the plains of Mozambique?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaag, van der P.; Juizo, D.; Vilanculos, A.; Bolding, J.A.; Post Uiterweer, N.C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper verifies whether the water resources of the transboundary Limpopo River Basin are sufficient for the planned massive irrigation developments in the Mozambique part of this basin, namely 73,000 ha, in addition to existing irrigation (estimated at 9400 ha), and natural growth of common use

  6. Importance of nanoparticles and colloids from volcanic ash for riverine transport of trace elements to the ocean: evidence from glacial-fed rivers after the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull Volcano, Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepe, Nathalie; Bau, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Volcanic ashes are often referenced as examples for natural nanoparticles, yet the particle size distribution eruptions at Eyjafjallajökull in 2010. In addition to the dissolved concentrations of rare earth elements (REE), Zr, Hf, Nb, and Th in the 450 nm-filtered waters, we also studied the respective filter residues (river particulates >450 nm) and volcanic ash. In spite of the low solubilities and high particle-reactivities of the elements studied, most water samples show high dissolved concentrations, such as up to 971 ng/kg of Ce and 501 ng/kg of Zr. Except for the pure glacial meltwater and glacial base flow, all waters display the same shale-normalized REE patterns with pronounced light and heavy REE depletion and positive Eu anomalies. While such patterns are unusual for river waters, they are similar to those of the respective river particulates and the volcanic ash, though at different concentration levels. The distribution of dissolved Zr, Hf, Nb, and Th in the waters also matches that of filter residues and ash. This strongly suggests that in all 450 nm-filtered river waters, the elements studied are associated with solid ash particles smaller than 450 nm. This reveals that volcanic ash-derived nanoparticles and colloids are present in these glacial-fed rivers and that such ultrafine particles control the trace element distribution in the surface runoff. Subsequent to explosive volcanic eruptions, these waters provide terrigenous input from landmasses to estuaries, that is characterized by a unique trace element signature and that subsequent to modification by estuarine processes delivers a pulse of nutrients to coastal seawater in regions not affected by plume fall-out. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. An update of hydrologic conditions and distribution of selected constituents in water, Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, Emphasis 1999-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Linda C.

    2006-01-01

    Radiochemical and chemical wastewater discharged since 1952 to infiltration ponds, evaporation ponds, and disposal wells at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has affected water quality in the Snake River Plain aquifer underlying the INL. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, maintains ground-water monitoring networks at the INL to determine hydrologic trends, and to delineate the movement of radiochemical and chemical wastes in the aquifer. This report presents an analysis of water-level and water-quality data collected from wells in the USGS ground-water monitoring networks during 1999-2001. Water in the Snake River Plain aquifer moves principally through fractures and interflow zones in basalt, generally flows southwestward, and eventually discharges at springs along the Snake River. The aquifer is recharged principally from infiltration of irrigation water, infiltration of streamflow, ground-water inflow from adjoining mountain drainage basins, and infiltration of precipitation. Water levels in wells rose in the northern and west-central parts of the INL by 1 to 3 feet, and declined in the southwestern parts of the INL by up to 4 feet during 1999-2001. Detectable concentrations of radiochemical constituents in water samples from wells in the Snake River Plain aquifer at the INL generally decreased or remained constant during 1999-2001. Decreases in concentrations were attributed to decreased rates of radioactive-waste disposal, radioactive decay, changes in waste-disposal methods, and dilution from recharge. Tritium concentrations in water samples decreased as much as 8.3 picocuries per milliliter (pCi/mL) during 1999-2001, ranging from 0.43?0.14 to 13.6?0.6 pCi/mL in October 2001. Tritium concentrations in five wells near the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) increased a few picocuries per milliliter from October 2000 to October 2001. Strontium-90 concentrations decreased or remained

  8. WATER QUALITY INDEX AS AN TOOL FOR RIVER ASSESSMENT IN AGRICULTURAL AREAS IN THE PAMPEAN PLAINS OF ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Moscuzza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The contributions of nutrients and xenobiotics by anthropogenic activities developed in riverside deteriorate water quality. In this context, the impact of different agroindustry effluents on the water quality of Salado River in Buenos Aires Province (Argentina was analyzed applying water quality indexes (WQI. Water quality index is an efficient a simple monitoring tool to instrument corrective and remediation policies. Winter and summer samplings were performed. A minimal water quality index (WQImin was calculated using only two parameters which can be easy determined in situ. The use of WQImin may be a useful methodology for river management. Meat industry appears as the most pollutant source. Since it is considered as point pollution source, effluents should be treated previous to its disposal with the available technologies.

  9. Does the Limpopo River Basin have sufficient water for massive irrigation development in the plains of Mozambique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zaag, Pieter; Juizo, Dinis; Vilanculos, Agostinho; Bolding, Alex; Uiterweer, Nynke Post

    This paper verifies whether the water resources of the transboundary Limpopo River Basin are sufficient for the planned massive irrigation developments in the Mozambique part of this basin, namely 73,000 ha, in addition to existing irrigation (estimated at 9400 ha), and natural growth of common use irrigation (4000 ha). This development includes the expansion of sugar cane production for the production of ethanol as a biofuel. Total additional water requirements may amount to 1.3 × 10 9 m 3/a or more. A simple river basin simulation model was constructed in order to assess different irrigation development scenarios, and at two storage capacities of the existing Massingir dam. Many uncertainties surround current and future water availability in the Lower Limpopo River Basin. Discharge measurements are incomplete and sometimes inconsistent, while upstream developments during the last 25 years have been dramatic and future trends are unknown. In Mozambique it is not precisely known how much water is currently consumed, especially by the many small-scale users of surface and shallow alluvial groundwater. Future impacts of climate change increase existing uncertainties. Model simulations indicate that the Limpopo River does not carry sufficient water for all planned irrigation. A maximum of approx. 58,000 ha of irrigated agriculture can be sustained in the Mozambican part of the basin. This figure assumes that Massingir will be operated at increased reservoir capacity, and implies that only about 44,000 ha of new irrigation can be developed, which is 60% of the envisaged developments. Any additional water use would certainly impact downstream users and thus create tensions. Some time will elapse before 44,000 ha of new irrigated land will have been developed. This time could be used to improve monitoring networks to decrease current uncertainties. Meanwhile the four riparian Limpopo States are preparing a joint river basin study. In this study a methodology could be

  10. An update of hydrologic conditions and distribution of selected constituents in water, Snake River Plain aquifer and perched groundwater zones, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, emphasis 2006-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Linda C.

    2010-01-01

    Since 1952, radiochemical and chemical wastewater discharged to infiltration ponds (also called percolation ponds), evaporation ponds, and disposal wells at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has affected water quality in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer and perched groundwater zones underlying the INL. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, maintains groundwater monitoring networks at the INL to determine hydrologic trends, and to delineate the movement of radiochemical and chemical wastes in the aquifer and in perched groundwater zones. This report presents an analysis of water-level and water-quality data collected from aquifer and perched groundwater wells in the USGS groundwater monitoring networks during 2006-08. Water in the Snake River Plain aquifer primarily moves through fractures and interflow zones in basalt, generally flows southwestward, and eventually discharges at springs along the Snake River. The aquifer primarily is recharged from infiltration of irrigation water, infiltration of streamflow, groundwater inflow from adjoining mountain drainage basins, and infiltration of precipitation. From March-May 2005 to March-May 2008, water levels in wells generally remained constant or rose slightly in the southwestern corner of the INL. Water levels declined in the central and northern parts of the INL. The declines ranged from about 1 to 3 feet in the central part of the INL, to as much as 9 feet in the northern part of the INL. Water levels in perched groundwater wells around the Advanced Test Reactor Complex (ATRC) also declined. Detectable concentrations of radiochemical constituents in water samples from wells in the Snake River Plain aquifer at the INL generally decreased or remained constant during 2006-08. Decreases in concentrations were attributed to decreased rates of radioactive-waste disposal, radioactive decay, changes in waste-disposal methods, and dilution from recharge and underflow. In April

  11. Radiometric and paleomagnetic evidence for the Emperor reversed polarity event at 0.46 ± 0.05 M.Y. in basalt lava flows from the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Duane E.; Dalrymple, G. Brent; Kuntz, Mel A.

    1981-01-01

    K-Ar and paleomagnetic data from cores through a sequence of basalt flows in the eastern Snake River Plain provide evidence for a brief (0.005 to 0.01 m.y.) reversal of the geomagnetic field 0.46 ± 0.05 m.y. ago. This reversed polarity event has also been found in sea-floor magnetic anomalies and in sediment cores and is probably the Emperor event of Ryan [1972].

  12. Depth to water in the western Snake River Plain and surrounding tributary valleys, southwestern Idaho and eastern Oregon, calculated using water levels from 1980 to 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, Molly A.

    1991-01-01

    The vulnerability of ground water to contamination in Idaho is being assessed by the ISHW/DEQ (Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, Division of Environmental Quality), using a modified version of the Environmental Protection Agency DRASTIC methods (Allers and others, 1985). The project was designed as a technique to: (1) Assign priorities for development of ground-water management and monitoring programs; (2) build support for, and public awareness of, vulnerability of ground water to contamination; (3) assist in the development of regulatory programs; and (4) provide access to technical data through the use of a GIS (geographic information system) (C. Grantham, Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, written commun., 1989). Digital representation of first-encountered water below land surface is an important element in evaluating vulnerability of ground water to contamination. Depth-to-water values were developed using existing data and computer software to construct a GIS data set to be combined with a soils data set developed by the SCS (Soul Conservation Service) and the IDHW/WQB (Idaho Department of Health and Welfare/Water Quality Bureau), and a recharge data set developed by the IDWR/RSF (idaho Department of Water Resources/Remote Sensing Facility). The USGS (U.S. Geological Survey) has developed digital depth-to-water values for eleven 1:100,00-scale quadrangles on the eastern Snake River Plain and surrounding tributary valleys.

  13. Depth to water in the eastern Snake River Plain and surrounding tributary valleys, southwestern Idaho and eastern Oregon, calculated using water levels from 1980 to 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, Molly A.

    1992-01-01

    The vulnerability of ground water to contamination in Idaho is being assessed by the IDHW/DEQ (Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, Division of Environmental Quality), using a modified version of the Environmental Orotection Agency DRASTIC methods (Allers and others, 1985). The project was designed as a technique to: (1) Assign priorities for development of ground-water management and monitoring programs; (2) build support for, and public awareness of, vulnerability or ground water to contamination; (3) assist in the development of regulatory programs; and (4) provide access to technical data through the use of a GIS (geographic information system) (C. Grantha,, Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, written commun., 1989). A digital representation of first-encountered water below land surface is an important element in evaluating vulnerability of ground water to contamination. Depth-to-water values were developed using existing data and computer software to construct a GIS data set to be combined with a sols data set developed by the SCS (Soil Conservation Service) and IDHW/WQB (Idaho Department of Health and Welfare/Water Quality Bureau), and a recharge data set developed by the IDWR/RSF (Idaho Department of Water Resources/Remote Sensing Facility). The USGS (U.S. Geological Survey) developed digital depth-to-water values for eleven 1:100,000-scale quadrangles on the eastern Snake River Plain and surrounding tributary valleys.

  14. Preliminary study of uranium in Pennsylvanian and lower Permian strata in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana, and the Northern Great Plains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunagan, J.F. Jr.; Kadish, K.A.

    1977-11-01

    Persistent and widespread radiometric anomalies occur in Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian strata in the subsurface of the northern Great Plains and the Powder River Basin. The primary host lithology of these anomalies is shale interbedded with sandstone, dolomite, and dolomitic sandstone. Samples from the project area indicate that uranium is responsible for some anomalies. In some samples there seems to be a correlation between high uranium content and high organic-carbon content, which possibly indicates that carbonaceous material acted as a trapping mechanism in some strata. The Pennsylvanian and Permian rocks studied are predominantly marine carbonates and clastics, but there are rocks of fluvial origin in the basal Pennsylvanian of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota and in the Pennsylvanian and Permian deposits on the east flank of the Laramie Mountains. Fine-grained clastic rocks that flank the Chadron arch in western Nebraska are possibly of continental origin. The trend of the Chadron arch approximately parallels the trend of radiometric anomalies in the subsurface Permian-Pennsylvanian section. Possible source areas for uranium in the sediments studied were pre-Pennsylvanian strata of the Canadian Shield and Precambrian igneous rocks of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains

  15. Heavy mineral delineation of the Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene stratigraphic sections at the Savannah River Site, Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathcart, E.M.; Sargent, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Upper Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina consists of a fluvial-deltaic and shallow marine complex of unconsolidated sediments overlying the crystalline basement rocks of the North American continent. Because of the lateral and vertical variability of these sediments, stratigraphic boundaries have been difficult to distinguish. Portions of the Cretaceous, Paleocene, and eocene stratigraphic sections from cores recovered during the construction of two monitoring wells at the Savannah River Site were studied to determine if heavy mineral suites could be utilized to distinguish boundaries. The stratigraphic sections include: the Late Cretaceous Middendorf, Black Creek, and Steel Creek Formations, the Paleocene Snapp Formation, the late Paleocene-Early Eocene Fourmile Branch Formation, and the Early Eocene Congaree formation. In previous studies composite samples were taken over 2.5 ft. intervals along the cores and processed using a heavy liquid for heavy mineral recovery. During this study, heavy mineral distributions were determined by binocular microscope and the mineral identifications confirmed by x-ray diffraction analysis of hand-picked samples. The heavy mineral concentration data and grain size data were then compared to the stratigraphic boundary positions determined by other workers using more classical methods. These comparisons were used to establish the utility of this method for delineating the stratigraphic boundaries in the area of study

  16. Communities of gastrointestinal helminths of fish in historically connected habitats: habitat fragmentation effect in a carnivorous catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco from seven lakes in flood plain of the Yangtze River, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wei J

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Habitat fragmentation may result in the reduction of diversity of parasite communities by affecting population size and dispersal pattern of species. In the flood plain of the Yangtze River in China, many lakes, which were once connected with the river, have become isolated since the 1950s from the river by the construction of dams and sluices, with many larger lakes subdivided into smaller ones by road embankments. These artificial barriers have inevitably obstructed the migration of fish between the river and lakes and also among lakes. In this study, the gastrointestinal helminth communities were investigated in a carnivorous fish, the yellowhead catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, from two connected and five isolated lakes in the flood plain in order to detect the effect of lake fragmentation on the parasite communities. Results A total of 11 species of helminths were recorded in the stomach and intestine of P. fulvidraco from seven lakes, including two lakes connected with the Yangtze River, i.e. Poyang and Dongting lakes, and five isolated lakes, i.e. Honghu, Liangzi, Tangxun, Niushan and Baoan lakes. Mean helminth individuals and diversity of helminth communities in Honghu and Dongting lakes was lower than in the other five lakes. The nematode Procamallanus fulvidraconis was the dominant species of communities in all the seven lakes. No significant difference in the Shannon-Wiener index was detected between connected lakes (0.48 and isolated lakes (0.50. The similarity of helminth communities between Niushan and Baoan lakes was the highest (0.6708, and the lowest was between Tangxun and Dongting lakes (0.1807. The similarity was low between Dongting and the other lakes, and the similarity decreased with the geographic distance among these lakes. The helminth community in one connected lake, Poyang Lake was clustered with isolated lakes, but the community in Dongting Lake was separated in the tree. Conclusion The

  17. Reconstruction of the Late Holocene river channel shifts in the North-Eastern part of the Lower Danube Plain based on historical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuț-Alexandru CRISTEA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Several periods of increased fluvial activity and accelerated runoff / deposition have been identified during the Holocene in different regions of Europe (Macklin et al, 2006. According to Starkel (2002 the older phases were characterized by an incision of deeper and wider tracks and, since Roman period, especially during the past millennium, tendency had changed to aggradation, braiding and river avulsions. The turn to a more stable fluvial regime caused further incisions and the development of narrow and smaller meanders. All these fluvial responses can be mainly correlated with the climatic fluctuations (cooler and wetter phases alternating with drier and warmer ones, socio-economic changes (increased anthropic pressure or both. The last major period of concentration of extreme meteorological and hydrological events is the Little Ice Age (LIA, which conventionally took place between the 16th and mid 19th century (Lamb, 1984. However in Romania the study of LIA and the associate fluvial effects is rather poor. The data regarding hydro-climatological events (weather conditions, floods in the medieval period (mostly collected by Topor, 1960 is scarce and based on the few local chronicles and diaries of the foreign travelers. However these confirm the increased frequency and magnitude of the rainfalls in the summer (with several important peaks in the 1590 – 1690 interval as well as the hard winters well documented for the rest of the continent. Changes in the configuration of the stream network, due to avulsions, can be evaluated based on historical maps only with the first half of the 17th century and the dating of the fluvial records is still missing.The North-Eastern part of the Lower Danube Plain (Fig. 1 is a large alluvial floodplain where Siret River collects several major tributary streams draining SE Carpathians (Putna, Râmnicu Sărat, Buzău or the Moldavian Tableland (Bârlad, before joining Danube, near Galaţi. Surprisingly Siret

  18. Age dating ground water by use of chlorofluorocarbons (CCl3F and CCl2F2), and distribution of chlorofluorocarbons in the unsaturated zone, Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busenberg, E.; Weeks, E.P.; Plummer, L.N.; Bartholomay, R.C.

    1993-04-01

    Detectable concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's) were observed in ground water and unsaturated-zone air at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and vicinity. The recharge ages of waters were determined to be from 4 to more than 50 years on the basis of CFC concentrations and other environmental data; most ground waters have ages of 14 to 30 years. These results indicate that young ground water was added at various locations to the older regional ground water (greater than 50 years) within and outside the INEL boundaries. The wells drilled into the Snake River Plain aquifer at INEL sampled mainly this local recharge. The Big Lost River, Birch Creek, the Little Lost River, and the Mud Lake-Terreton area appear to be major sources of recharge of the Snake River Plain aquifer at INEL. An average recharge temperature of 9.7±1.3 degrees C (degrees Celsius) was calculated from dissolved nitrogen and argon concentrations in the ground waters, a temperature that is similar to the mean annual soil temperature of 9 degrees C measured at INEL. This similarity indicates that the aquifer was recharged at INEL and not at higher elevations that would have cooler soil temperatures than INEL. Soil-gas concentrations at Test Area North (TAN) are explained by diffusion theory

  19. Field-trip guides to selected volcanoes and volcanic landscapes of the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2017-06-23

    The North American Cordillera is home to a greater diversity of volcanic provinces than any comparably sized region in the world. The interplay between changing plate-margin interactions, tectonic complexity, intra-crustal magma differentiation, and mantle melting have resulted in a wealth of volcanic landscapes.  Field trips in this guide book collection (published as USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2017–5022) visit many of these landscapes, including (1) active subduction-related arc volcanoes in the Cascade Range; (2) flood basalts of the Columbia Plateau; (3) bimodal volcanism of the Snake River Plain-Yellowstone volcanic system; (4) some of the world’s largest known ignimbrites from southern Utah, central Colorado, and northern Nevada; (5) extension-related volcanism in the Rio Grande Rift and Basin and Range Province; and (6) the eastern Sierra Nevada featuring Long Valley Caldera and the iconic Bishop Tuff.  Some of the field trips focus on volcanic eruptive and emplacement processes, calling attention to the fact that the western United States provides opportunities to examine a wide range of volcanological phenomena at many scales.The 2017 Scientific Assembly of the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) in Portland, Oregon, was the impetus to update field guides for many of the volcanoes in the Cascades Arc, as well as publish new guides for numerous volcanic provinces and features of the North American Cordillera. This collection of guidebooks summarizes decades of advances in understanding of magmatic and tectonic processes of volcanic western North America. These field guides are intended for future generations of scientists and the general public as introductions to these fascinating areas; the hope is that the general public will be enticed toward further exploration and that scientists will pursue further field-based research.

  20. Mineralogy and depositional sources of sedimentary interbeds beneath the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory; eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, M.F.

    1994-01-01

    Idaho State University, in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey, and the U.S. Department of Energy, collected 57 samples of sedimentary interbeds at 19 sites at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for mineralogical analysis. Previous work by the U.S. Geological Survey on surficial sediments showed that ratios detrital of quartz, total feldspars, and calcite can be used to distinguish the sedimentary mineralogy of specific stream drainages at the INEL. Semi-quantitative x-ray diffraction analyses were used to determine mineral abundances in the sedimentary interbeds. Samples were collected from wells at the New Production Reactor (NPR) area, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), Test Reactor Area (TRA), miscellaneous sites, Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC), Naval Reactors Facility (NRF), and Test Area North (TAN). Normalized mean percentages of quartz, feldspar, and carbonate were calculated from sample data sets at each site. Percentages for quartz, feldspar, and carbonate from the NPR, ICPP, TRA, miscellaneous sites, RWMC, and NRF ranged from 37 to 59, 26 to 40, and 5 to 25, respectively. Percentages for quartz, feldspar, and carbonate from wells at Test Area North (TAN) were 24, 10, and 66, respectively. Mineralogical data indicate that sedimentary interbed samples collected from the NPR, ICPP, TRA, miscellaneous sites, RWMC, and NRF correlate with surficial sediment samples from the present day Big Lost River. Sedimentary interbeds from TAN sites correlate with surficial sediment samples from Birch Creek. These correlations suggest that the sources for the sediments at and near the INEL have remained relatively consistent for the last 580,000 years. 12 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Oligocene paleogeography of the northern Great Plains and adjacent mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeland, D.

    1985-01-01

    Early Oligocene paleogeography of the northern Great Plains and adjacent mountains is inferred in part from published surface and subsurface studies of the pre-Oligocene surface. These studies are combined with published and unpublished information on clast provenance, crossbedding orientation, and Eocene paleogeography. The Oligocene Arctic Ocean-Gulf of Mexico continental divide extended from the southern Absaroka Mountains east along the Owl Creek Mountains, across the southern Powder River Basin, through the northern Black Hills, and eastward across South Dakota. Streams north of the divide flowed northeastward. The Olligocene White River Group contains 50 to 90 percent airfall pyroclastic debris from a northern Great Basin source. Most of the uranium deposits of the region in pre-Oligocene rocks can be related to a uranium source in the volcanic ash of the White River; in many places the pre-Oligocene deposits can be related to specific Oligocene channels. Uranium deposits in sandstones of major Oligocene rivers are an important new type of deposit. The Oligocene channel sandstones also contain small quantities of gold, molybdenum, gas, and oil

  2. New Insights to the Mid Miocene Calc-alkaline Lavas of the Strawberry Volcanics, NE Oregon Surrounded by the Coeval Tholeiitic Columbia River Basalt Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, A. R.; Streck, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Strawberry Volcanics (SV) of NE Oregon were distributed over 3,400 km2 during the mid-Miocene and comprise a diverse volcanic suite, which span the range of compositions from basalt to rhyolite. The predominant composition of this volcanic suite is calc-alkaline (CA) basaltic andesite and andesite, although tholeiitic (TH) lavas of basalt to andesite occur as well. The coeval flood basalts of the Columbia River province surround the SV. Here we will discuss new ages and geochemical data, and present a new geologic map and stratigraphy of the SV. The SV are emplaced on top of pre-Tertiary accreted terranes of the Blue Mountain Province, Mesozoic plutonic rocks, and older Tertiary volcanic rocks thought to be mostly Oligocene of age. Massive rhyolites (~300 m thick) are exposed mainly along the western flank and underlie the intermediate composition lavas. In the southern portion of this study area, alkali basaltic lavas, thought to be late Miocene to early Pliocene in age, erupted and overlie the SV. In addition, several regional ignimbrites reach into the area. The 9.7 Ma Devine Canyon Tuff and the 7.1 Ma Rattlesnake Tuff also overlie the SV. The 15.9-15.4 Ma Dinner Creek Tuff is mid-Miocene, and clear stratigraphic relationships are found in areas where the tuff is intercalated between thick SV lava flows. All of the basalts of the SV are TH and are dominated by phenocryst-poor (≤2%) lithologies. These basalts have an ophitic texture dominated by plagioclase, clinopyroxene and olivine (often weathered to iddingsite). Basalts and basaltic andesites have olivine Fo #'s ranging from 44 at the rims (where weathered to iddingsite) and as high as 88 at cores. Pyroxene Mg #'s range from 65 to 85. Andesites of the SV are sub-alkaline, and like the basalts, are exceedingly phenocryst-poor (≤3%) with microphenocrysts of plagioclase and lesser pyroxene and olivine, which occasionally occur as crystal clots of ~1-3 mm instead of single crystals. In addition, minimal

  3. Straddle-packer determination of the vertical distribution of hydraulic properties in the Snake River Plain Aquifer at well USGS-44, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monks, J.I.

    1994-01-01

    Many of the monitor wells that penetrate the upper portion of the Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are open over large intervals that include multiple water-bearing zones. Most of these wells are equipped with dedicated submersible pumps. Water of varying quality from different water-bearing zones is mixed within the wells. The hydrologic properties of individual water bearing zones are difficult to determine. Water quality and water-level data on organic, heavy metal, and radioactive contaminants have been collected, reported, and interpreted from these monitor wells for more than forty years. The problems associated with well completions over large intervals through multiple water-bearing zones raise significant questions about the data. A straddle-packer system was developed and applied at the INEL site to investigate the monitor well network. The straddle-packer system, hydraulic testing methods, data analysis procedures, and testing results are described in this report. The straddle-packer system and the straddle-packer testing and data evaluation procedures can be improved for future testing at the INEL site. Recommended improvements to the straddle-packer system are: (1) improved transducer pressure sensing systems, (2) faster opening riser valve, and (3) an in-line flowmeter in the riser pipe. Testing and data evaluation recommended improvements are: (1) simultaneous valve opening during slug tests, (2) analysis of the ratio of the times for head change and recovery to occur, (3) constant-drawdown tests of high transmissivity intervals, (4) multiple-well aquifer tests, and (5) long term head monitoring

  4. Vertical variation in groundwater chemistry inferred from fluid specific-conductance well logging of the Snake River Plain Basalt aquifer, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, southeastern Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, S.H.; Bennecke, W.

    1994-01-01

    Well logging of electrical fluid specific conductance (C s ) shows that permeable zones yielding ground water to intrawell flows and the water columns in some wells at INEL have highly different chemistry, with as much as a two-fold variation in C s . This suggests that dedicated-pump sampling of ground water in the aquifer may not be representative of the chemistry of the waste plumes migrating southwest of the nuclear facilities. Natural background C s in basalt-aquifer ground water of this part of the Snake River Plain aquifer is less than 325μS/cm (microSiemans/cm), and total dissolved solids in mg/L units, (TDS) ∼ 0.6C s . This relationship underestimates TDS for waters with chemical waste, when C s is above 800 μS/cm. At well 59 near the ICPP water of 1115 μS/cm (∼6570+ mg/L TDS) enters the well from a permeable zone between 521 and 537 ft depth; the zone being 60 ft below the water level and water of 550 μS/cm. At the time of logging (9/14/93) the 1115/μS/cm water was flowing down the well, mixing with less concentrated waters and exciting at 600 or 624-ft depth. Waste water disposed of down the injection well at ICPP until 1984 was estimated to have a C 5 of 1140 μS/cm, identical to the water detected in logging. 29 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  5. Determination of Background Uranium Concentration in the Snake River Plain Aquifer under the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's Radioactive Waste Management Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molly K. Leecaster; L. Don Koeppen; Gail L. Olson

    2003-01-01

    Uranium occurs naturally in the environment and is also a contaminant that is disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. To determine whether uranium concentrations in the Snake River Plain Aquifer, which underlies the laboratory, are elevated as a result of migration of anthropogenic uranium from the Subsurface Disposal Area in the RWMC, uranium background concentrations are necessary. Guideline values are calculated for total uranium, 234U, 235U, and 238U from analytical results from up to five datasets. Three of the datasets include results of samples analyzed using isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) and two of the datasets include results obtained using alpha spectrometry. All samples included in the statistical testing were collected from aquifer monitoring wells located within 10 miles of the RWMC. Results from ID-TIMS and alpha spectrometry are combined when the data are not statistically different. Guideline values for total uranium were calculated using four of the datasets, while guideline values for 234U were calculated using only the alpha spectrometry results (2 datasets). Data from all five datasets were used to calculate 238U guideline values. No limit is calculated for 235U because the ID-TIMS results are not useful for comparison with routine monitoring data, and the alpha spectrometry results are too close to the detection limit to be deemed accurate or reliable for calculating a 235U guideline value. All guideline values presented represent the upper 95% coverage 95% confidence tolerance limits for background concentration. If a future monitoring result is above this guideline, then the exceedance will be noted in the quarterly monitoring report and assessed with respect to other aquifer information. The guidelines (tolerance limits) for total U, 234U, and 238U are 2.75 pCi/L, 1.92 pCi/L, and 0.90 pCi/L, respectively

  6. Hydrogeochemical characterization of the phreatic system of the coastal wetland located between Fiumi Uniti and Bevano rivers in the southern Po plain (Northern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, V.; Dinelli, E.; Antonellini, M.; Capaccioni, B.; Balugani, E.; Gabbianelli, G.

    2009-04-01

    A hydrogeochemical study has been undertaken on the phreatic system of the coastal area included between Fiumi Uniti and Bevano rivers (in the southern part of the Po plain, near the city of Ravenna) within the framework of the CIRCLE-ERANET project WATERKNOW on the effects of climate change on the mediterranean catchments. It is one of the first attempt in the area to characterize the shallow groundwater water system and to investigate if the arsenic anomaly, known in deeper groundwater (about 100 µg/l according to recent Annual Groundwater Quality Reports of Emilia-Romagna Region), occurs also in the phreatic system. The coastal part of the Po plain consists of a low-lying and mechanically-drained farmland further from the sea and of a narrow belt of dunes and pine forests in the backshore area. The study area is recognized as a protected area at european (ZPS and SIC, site code number: IT 14070009), national and regional level (Po delta Park area). As a result of an intensive exploitation of coastal aquifers for agricultural, industrial, and civil uses, both the phreatic aquifer and the surface waters (drainage ditches and ponds) have been contaminated by seawater and by deeper groundwater. Samples representative of the top of the water table were collected in Summer 2008 in 22 auger-holes and in 3 shallow piezometers (6 m deep) documenting the deeper layers of the phreatic groundwater system. Temperature, electrical conductivity, pH and Eh of the groundwater and of the surface water were measured on site using portable instruments. Samples were filtered directly in the field, an aliquot was acidified with diluted HCl for metal analysis. Cations were determined by Flame Atomic Absorption (thermo S-series spectrometer), anions by ion chromatography (Dionex ICS-90), Fe, As, Si, B by ICP-OES (Thermo iCAP6000). The data collected in the field show that a fresh groundwater lens is still present at the top of the phreatic aquifer in the backshore area and that the

  7. Radiocarbon dating of sediment cores from Hachinohe, the Kamikita Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitoki, Eri; Nakamura, Toshio; Matsumoto, Yui; Tsuji, Sei-ichiro; Fujine, Hisashi

    2013-01-01

    We investigated stratigraphy and chronology by analyses of Holocene sediments and radiocarbon dating of sediment cores from the Kamikita Plain. On the Kamikita Plain, which faces the Pacific coast of Northeast Japan, marine and fluvial terraces covered with tephras derived from Towada and Hakkoda volcanoes are well developed. We clarified that Towada Chuseri tephra and fluvial deposits consisted of volcanic sediments influenced an alluvial depositional system in the Kamikita Plain after a maximum of the Jomon Transgression. (author)

  8. Volcanic Flooding Experiments in Impact Basins and Heavily Cratered Terrain Using LOLA Data: Patterns of Resurfacing and Crater Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Jennifer L.; Head, James W.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial planetary bodies are characterized by extensive, largely volcanic deposits covering their surfaces. On Earth large igneous provinces (LIPs) abound, maria cover the nearside of the Moon, and volcanic plains cover large portions of Venus, Mars and Mercury.

  9. Volcanic eruptions on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, R. G.; Schneider, N. M.; Terrile, R. J.; Hansen, C.; Cook, A. F.

    1981-01-01

    Nine eruption plumes which were observed during the Voyager 1 encounter with Io are discussed. During the Voyager 2 encounter, four months later, eight of the eruptions were still active although the largest became inactive sometime between the two encounters. Plumes range in height from 60 to over 300 km with corresponding ejection velocities of 0.5 to 1.0 km/s and plume sources are located on several plains and consist of fissures or calderas. The shape and brightness distribution together with the pattern of the surface deposition on a plume 3 is simulated by a ballistic model with a constant ejection velocity of 0.5 km/s and ejection angles which vary from 0-55 deg. The distribution of active and recent eruptions is concentrated in the equatorial regions and indicates that volcanic activity is more frequent and intense in the equatorial regions than in the polar regions. Due to the geologic setting of certain plume sources and large reservoirs of volatiles required for the active eruptions, it is concluded that sulfur volcanism rather than silicate volcanism is the most likely driving mechanism for the eruption plumes.

  10. Stratigraphy of the Martian northern plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.

    1993-01-01

    The northern plains of Mars are roughly defined as the large continuous region of lowlands that lies below Martian datum, plus higher areas within the region that were built up by volcanism, sedimentation, tectonism, and impacts. These northern lowlands span about 50 x 10(exp 6) km(sup 2) or 35 percent of the planet's surface. The age and origin of the lowlands continue to be debated by proponents of impact and tectonic explanations. Geologic mapping and topical studies indicate that volcanic, fluvial, and eolian deposition have played major roles in the infilling of this vast depression. Periglacial, glacial, fluvial, eolian, tectonic, and impact processes have locally modified the surface. Because of the northern plains' complex history of sedimentation and modification, much of their stratigraphy was obscured. Thus the stratigraphy developed is necessarily vague and provisional: it is based on various clues from within the lowlands as well as from highland areas within and bordering the plains. The results are summarized.

  11. Utopia Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    5 March 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a dark-toned, cratered plain in southwest Utopia Planitia. Large, light-toned, windblown ripples reside on the floors of many of the depressions in the scene, including a long, linear, trough. Location near: 30.3oN, 255.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  12. Groundwater quality in the Columbia Plateau, Snake River Plain, and Oahu basaltic-rock and basin-fill aquifers in the Northwestern United States and Hawaii, 1992-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frans, Lonna M.; Rupert, Michael G.; Hunt, Charles D.; Skinner, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    This assessment of groundwater-quality conditions of the Columbia Plateau, Snake River Plain, and Oahu for the period 1992–2010 is part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. It shows where, when, why, and how specific water-quality conditions occur in groundwater of the three study areas and yields science-based implications for assessing and managing the quality of these water resources. The primary aquifers in the Columbia Plateau, Snake River Plain, and Oahu are mostly composed of fractured basalt, which makes their hydrology and geochemistry similar. In spite of the hydrogeologic similarities, there are climatic differences that affect the agricultural practices overlying the aquifers, which in turn affect the groundwater quality. Understanding groundwater-quality conditions and the natural and human factors that control groundwater quality is important because of the implications to human health, the sustainability of rural agricultural economies, and the substantial costs associated with land and water management, conservation, and regulation.

  13. Geology, Surficial, Neuse River Basin Mapping Project Core Locations �Äö?Ñ?¨ Ongoing project in Middle Coastal Plain to characterize geomorphology, surficial geology, and shallow aquifers and confining units; Excel spread sheet with core names, coordinates, and data co, Published in 2006, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Geology, Surficial dataset current as of 2006. Neuse River Basin Mapping Project Core Locations �Äö?Ñ?¨ Ongoing project in Middle Coastal Plain to characterize...

  14. Quickly erupted volcanic sections of the Steens Basalt, Columbia River Basalt Group: Secular variation, tectonic rotation, and the Steens Mountain reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarboe, Nicholas A.; Coe, Robert S.; Renne, Paul R.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Mankinen, Edward A.

    2008-01-01

    The Steens Basalt, now considered part of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG), contains the earliest eruptions of this magmatic episode. Lava flows of the Steens Basalt cover about 50,000 km2 of the Oregon Plateau in sections up to 1000 m thick. The large number of continuously exposed, quickly erupted lava flows (some sections contain over 200 flows) allows for small loops in the magnetic field direction paths to be detected. For volcanic rocks, this detail and fidelity are rarely found outside of the Holocene and yield estimates of eruption durations at our four sections of ∼2.5 ka for 260 m at Pueblo Mountains, 0.5 to 1.5 ka for 190 m at Summit Springs, 1–3 ka for 170 m at North Mickey, and ∼3 ka for 160 m at Guano Rim. That only one reversal of the geomagnetic field occurred during the eruption of the Steens Basalt (the Steens reversal at approximately 16.6 Ma) is supported by comparing 40Ar/39Ar ages and magnetic polarities to the geomagnetic polarity timescale. At Summit Springs two 40Ar/39Ar ages from normal polarity flows (16.72 ± ± 0.29 Ma (16.61) and 16.92 ± ± 0.52 Ma (16.82); ± ± equals 2σ error) place their eruptions after the Steens reversal, while at Pueblo Mountains an 40Ar/39Ar age of 16.72 ± ± 0.21 Ma (16.61) from a reverse polarity flow places its eruption before the Steens reversal. Paleomagnetic field directions yielded 50 nontransitional directional-group poles which, combined with 26 from Steens Mountain, provide a paleomagnetic pole for the Oregon Plateau of 85.7°N, 318.4°E, K = 15.1, A95 = 4.3. Comparison of this new pole with a reference pole derived from CRBG flows from eastern Washington and a synthetic reference pole for North America derived from global data implies relative clockwise rotation of the Oregon Plateau of 7.4 ± 5.0° or 14.5 ± 5.4°, respectively, probably due to northward decreasing extension of the basin and range.

  15. Variation of the fractal dimension anisotropy of two major Cenozoic normal fault systems over space and time around the Snake River Plain, Idaho and SW Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarpanah, A.; Babaie, H. A.

    2012-12-01

    The interaction of the thermally induced stress field of the Yellowstone hotspot (YHS) with existing Basin and Range (BR) fault blocks, over the past 17 m.y., has produced a new, spatially and temporally variable system of normal faults around the Snake River Plain (SRP) in Idaho and Wyoming-Montana area. Data about the trace of these new cross faults (CF) and older BR normal faults were acquired from a combination of satellite imageries, DEM, and USGS geological maps and databases at scales of 1:24,000, 1:100,000, 1:250,000, 1:1000, 000, and 1:2,500, 000, and classified based on their azimuth in ArcGIS 10. The box-counting fractal dimension (Db) of the BR fault traces, determined applying the Benoit software, and the anisotropy intensity (ellipticity) of the fractal dimensions, measured with the modified Cantor dust method applying the AMOCADO software, were measured in two large spatial domains (I and II). The Db and anisotropy of the cross faults were studied in five temporal domains (T1-T5) classified based on the geologic age of successive eruptive centers (12 Ma to recent) of the YHS along the eastern SRP. The fractal anisotropy of the CF system in each temporal domain was also spatially determined in the southern part (domain S1), central part (domain S2), and northern part (domain S3) of the SRP. Line (fault trace) density maps for the BR and CF polylines reveal a higher linear density (trace length per unit area) for the BR traces in the spatial domain I, and a higher linear density of the CF traces around the present Yellowstone National Park (S1T5) where most of the seismically active faults are located. Our spatio-temporal analysis reveals that the fractal dimension of the BR system in domain I (Db=1.423) is greater than that in domain II (Db=1.307). It also shows that the anisotropy of the fractal dimension in domain I is less eccentric (axial ratio: 1.242) than that in domain II (1.355), probably reflecting the greater variation in the trend of the BR

  16. Major and Trace Element Fluxes to the Ganges River: Significance of Small Flood Plain Tributary as Non-Point Pollution Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, V.; Sen, I. S.; Mishra, G.

    2017-12-01

    There has been much discussion amongst biologists, ecologists, chemists, geologists, environmental firms, and science policy makers about the impact of human activities on river health. As a result, multiple river restoration projects are on going on many large river basins around the world. In the Indian subcontinent, the Ganges River is the focal point of all restoration actions as it provides food and water security to half a billion people. Serious concerns have been raised about the quality of Ganga water as toxic chemicals and many more enters the river system through point-sources such as direct wastewater discharge to rivers, or non-point-sources. Point source pollution can be easily identified and remedial actions can be taken; however, non-point pollution sources are harder to quantify and mitigate. A large non-point pollution source in the Indo-Gangetic floodplain is the network of small floodplain rivers. However, these rivers are rarely studied since they are small in catchment area ( 1000-10,000 km2) and discharge (knowledge gap we have monitored the Pandu River for one year between February 2015 and April 2016. Pandu river is 242 km long and is a right bank tributary of Ganges with a total catchment area of 1495 km2. Water samples were collected every month for dissolved major and trace elements. Here we show that the concentration of heavy metals in river Pandu is in higher range as compared to the world river average, and all the dissolved elements shows a large spatial-temporal variation. We show that the Pandu river exports 192170, 168517, 57802, 32769, 29663, 1043, 279, 241, 225, 162, 97, 28, 25, 22, 20, 8, 4 Kg/yr of Ca, Na, Mg, K, Si, Sr, Zn, B, Ba, Mn, Al, Li, Rb, Mo, U, Cu, and Sb, respectively, to the Ganga river, and the exported chemical flux effects the water chemistry of the Ganga river downstream of its confluence point. We further speculate that small floodplain rivers is an important source that contributes to the dissolved chemical

  17. Electromagnetic exploration in high-salinity groundwater zones: case studies from volcanic and soft sedimentary sites in coastal Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Koichi; Kusano, Yukiko; Ochi, Ryota; Nishiyama, Nariaki; Tokunaga, Tomochika; Tanaka, Kazuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Estimating the spatial distribution of groundwater salinity in coastal plain regions is becoming increasingly important for site characterisation and the prediction of hydrogeological environmental conditions resulting from radioactive waste disposal and underground CO2 storage. In previous studies of the freshwater-saltwater interface, electromagnetic methods were used for sites characterised by unconsolidated deposits or Neocene soft sedimentary rocks. However, investigating the freshwater-saltwater interface in hard rock sites (e.g. igneous areas) is more complex, with the permeability of the rocks greatly influenced by fractures. In this study, we investigated the distribution of high-salinity groundwater at two volcanic rock sites and one sedimentary rock site, each characterised by different hydrogeological features. Our investigations included (1) applying the controlled source audio-frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) method and (2) conducting laboratory tests to measure the electrical properties of rock core samples. We interpreted the 2D resistivity sections by referring to previous data on geology and geochemistry of groundwater. At the Tokusa site, an area of inland volcanic rocks, low resistivity zones were detected along a fault running through volcanic rocks and shallow sediments. The results suggest that fluids rise through the Tokusa-Jifuku Fault to penetrate shallow sediments in a direction parallel to the river, and some fluids are diluted by rainwater. At the Oki site, a volcanic island on a continental shelf, four resistivity zones (in upward succession: low, high, low and high) were detected. The results suggest that these four zones were formed during a transgression-regression cycle caused by the last glacial period. At the Saijo site, located on a coastal plain composed of thick sediments, we observed a deep low resistivity zone, indicative of fossil seawater remnant from a transgression after the last glacial period. The current coastal

  18. Global Volcanism on Mercury at About 3.8 Ga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, P. K.; Ostrach, L. R.; Denevi, B. W.; Head, J. W., III; Hauck, S. A., II; Murchie, S. L.; Solomon, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    Smooth plains occupy c. 27% of the surface of Mercury. Embayment relations, spectral contrast with surroundings, and morphologic characteristics indicate that the majority of these plains are volcanic. The largest deposits are located in Mercury's northern hemisphere and include the extensive northern plains (NP) and the Caloris interior and exterior plains (with the latter likely including basin material). Both the NP and Caloris deposits are, within statistical error, the same age (~3.8-3.9 Ga). To test whether this age reflects a period of global volcanism on Mercury, we determined crater size-frequency distributions for four smooth plains units in the planet's southern hemisphere interpreted to be volcanic. Two deposits are situated within the Beethoven and Tolstoj impact basins; two are located close to the Debussy and the Alver and Disney basins, respectively. Each deposit hosts two populations of craters, one that postdates plains emplacement and one that consists of partially to nearly filled craters that predate the plains. This latter population indicates that some time elapsed between formation of the underlying basement and plains volcanism, though we cannot statistically resolve this interval at any of the four sites. Nonetheless, we find that the age given by the superposed crater population in each case is ~3.8 Ga, and crater density values are consistent with those for the NP and Caloris plains. This finding supports a global phase of volcanism near the end of the late heavy bombardment of Mercury and may indicate a period of widespread partial melting of Mercury's mantle. Notably, superposition relations between smooth plains, degraded impact structures, and contractional landforms suggest that by this time interior cooling had already placed Mercury's lithosphere in horizontal compression, tending to inhibit voluminous dike-fed volcanism such as that inferred responsible for the NP. Most smooth plains units, including the Caloris plains and our

  19. An update of hydrologic conditions and distribution of selected constituents in water, eastern Snake River Plain aquifer and perched groundwater zones, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, emphasis 2012-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomay, Roy C.; Maimer, Neil V.; Rattray, Gordon W.; Fisher, Jason C.

    2017-04-10

    Since 1952, wastewater discharged to in ltration ponds (also called percolation ponds) and disposal wells at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has affected water quality in the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer and perched groundwater zones underlying the INL. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, maintains groundwater-monitoring networks at the INL to determine hydrologic trends and to delineate the movement of radiochemical and chemical wastes in the aquifer and in perched groundwater zones. This report presents an analysis of water-level and water-quality data collected from the ESRP aquifer, multilevel monitoring system (MLMS) wells in the ESRP aquifer, and perched groundwater wells in the USGS groundwater monitoring networks during 2012-15.

  20. Multibeam bathymetry and sediment depth data at select locations on the Des Plaines River near Joliet, Illinois, February 13–14, 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — These data are high-resolution bathymetry (river bottom elevation) in XYZ format and measurements of sediment depth in CSV format, generated from the February 13–14,...

  1. Bedrock geologic map of the Spring Valley, West Plains, and parts of the Piedmont and Poplar Bluff 30'x60' quadrangles, Missouri, including the upper Current River and Eleven Point River drainage basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, David J.; Harrison, Richard W.; Orndorff, Randall C.; Weems, Robert E.; Schindler, J. Stephen; Repetski, John E.; Pierce, Herbert A.

    2015-01-01

    This map covers the drainage basins of the upper Current River and the Eleven Point River in the Ozark Plateaus physiographic province of southeastern Missouri. The two surface drainage basins are contiguous in their headwaters regions, but are separated in their lower reaches by the lower Black River basin in the southeast corner of the map area. Numerous dye-trace studies demonstrate that in the contiguous headwaters areas, groundwater flows from the Eleven Point River basin into the Current River basin. Much of the groundwater discharge of the Eleven Point River basin emanates from Big Spring, located on the Current River. This geologic map and cross sections were produced to help fulfill a need to understand the geologic framework of the region in which this subsurface flow occurs.

  2. Anticipating Central Asian Water Stress: Variation in River Flow Dependency on Melt Waters from Alpine to Plains in the Remote Tien Shan Range, Kyrgyzstan Using a Rapid Hydro Assessment Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, A. F.; Wilson, A. M.; Williams, M. W.

    2016-12-01

    The future of mountain water resources in High Asia is of high interest to water managers, development organizations and policy makers given large populations downstream reliant on snow and ice sourced river flow. Together with historical and cultural divides among ex-Soviet republics, a lack of central water management following the Soviet break-up has led to water stress as trans-boundary waters weave through and along borders. New upstream hydropower development, a thirsty downstream agricultural sector and a shrinking Aral Sea has led to increasing tension in the region. Despite these pressures and in contrast to eastern High Asia's Himalayan basins (Ganges, Brahmaputra), little attention has been given to western High Asia draining the Pamir and Tien Shan ranges (Syr Darya and Amu Darya basins) to better understand the hydrology of this vast and remote area. Difficult access and challenging terrain exacerbate challenges to working in this remote mountain region. As part of the Contributions to High Asia Runoff from Ice and Snow (CHARIS) project, we asked how does river flow source water composition change over an alpine-to-plains domain of Kyrgyzstan's Naryn River in the Syr Darya basin? In addition, what may the future hold for river flow in Central Asia given the differing responses of snow and ice to climate changes? Utilizing a Rapid Hydrologic Assessment methodology including a suite of pre-field mapping techniques we collected in situ water chemistry data at targeted, remote mountain sites over 450km of the Naryn River over an elevation gradient from glacial headwaters to the lower lying areas - places where people, hydropower and agriculture utilize water. Chemical and isotope tracers were used to separate stream flow to understand relative dependency on melt waters as the river moves downstream from glaciers and snow covered areas. This case study demonstrates a technique to acquire field data over large scales in remote regions that facilitates

  3. Assessing land-use changes driven by river dynamics in chronically flood affected Upper Brahmaputra plains, India, using RS-GIS techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabajit Hazarika

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This work documents land-use changes driven by river dynamics along two tributaries in the chronically flood affected Upper Brahmaputra floodplain which supports a population of more than half a million. Planform changes for a period of 40 years are documented using topographical map and Landsat data, and the associated land-use change is assessed by utilising hybrid classification in GIS environment. Quantification of bankline migration shows that the river courses are unstable. A reversal in the rate of erosion and deposition is also observed. Hybrid classification of Landsat images yielded a higher level of accuracy as evident from the confusion matrixes. Overall, the accuracy of land-use classification ranged between 88.5% and 96.25%. Land-use change shows that there is an increase in settlement and agriculture and a decrease in the grassland. The area affected by erosion–deposition and river migration comprises primarily of the agricultural land. Effect of river dynamics on settlements is also evident. Loss of agricultural land and homestead led to the loss of livelihood and internal migration in the floodplains. The observed pattern of river dynamics and the consequent land-use change in the recent decades have thrown newer environmental challenges at a pace and magnitude way beyond the coping capabilities of the dwellers.

  4. On the Sources of Salinity in Groundwater under Plain Areas. Insights from {delta}{sup 18}O, {delta}{sup 2}H and Hydrochemistry in the Azul River Basin, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabala, M. E.; Varni, M.; Weinzettel, P. [Instituto de Hidrologia de llanuras, Azul (Argentina); Manzano, M. [Technical University of Cartagena (Spain)

    2013-07-15

    The Azul River basin, with some 6200 km{sup 2}, is located in the plains of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. The Azul River flows along 160 km from the Tandilia Range, in the SW, to the Channel 11, in the NE. Average annual precipitation is 1005 mm (1988-2000); mean reference evapotranspiration is 1090 mm. The geology consists of Miocene to recent sediments, mostly sands and silts with some clay and calcrete layers, overlying crystalline rocks and marine sediments. The water table is shallow and groundwater in the aquifer upper 30 m displays an increasing salinity from SW to NE. The previous hypothesis to explain the salinity was infiltration of evapo-concentrated surface water, as the small soil slope in the northern basin (< 0.2%) induces rainfall accumulation in lowlands, where water evaporates prior to infiltration. But recent chemical and isotopic data reveal two salinity sources: evaporation of recent recharge water, and mixing with old saline groundwater of yet unknown origin. (author)

  5. Volcanic risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rancon, J.P.; Baubron, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    This project follows the previous multi-disciplinary studies carried out by the French Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM) on the two active volcanoes of the French lesser Antilles: Mt Pelee (Martinique) and Soufriere (Guadeloupe) for which geological maps and volcanic risk studies have been achieved. The research program comprises 5 parts: the study of pyroclastic deposits from recent eruptions of the two volcanoes for a better characterization of their eruptive phenomenology and a better definition of crisis scenarios; the study of deposits and structures of active volcanoes from Central America and the study of eruptive dynamics of andesite volcanoes for a transposition to Antilles' volcanoes; the starting of a methodological multi-disciplinary research (volcanology, geography, sociology...) on the volcanic risk analysis and on the management of a future crisis; and finally, the development of geochemical survey techniques (radon, CO 2 , H 2 O) on active volcanoes of Costa-Rica and Europe (Fournaise, Furnas, Etna) and their application to the Soufriere. (J.S.). 9 refs., 3 figs

  6. Two Late Pleistocene climate-driven incision/aggradation rhythms in the middle Dnieper River basin, west-central Russian Plain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panin, Andrei; Adamiec, Grzegorz; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter

    2017-01-01

    Pleistocene - Holocene climate cycle. The following events were detected. (1) Late MIS 5 - early MIS 4: aggradation of Terrace T1 following the deep incision at the end of MIS 6. (2) Late MIS 4 (40-30 ka): incision into Terrace T1 below the present-day river, formation of the main scarp in the bottom...... of the valley between Terrace T1 and Terrace T0/Floodplain levels. (3) MIS 2: aggradation of Terrace T0, lateral migrations of a shallow braided channel located few meters above the present-day river since ∼25 ka through the LGM. (4) 18-13 ka: incision into Terrace T0 below the modern river. Multiple...

  7. Evidence for Cyclical Fractional Crystallization, Recharge, and Assimilation in Basalts of the Kimama Core, Central Snake River Plain, Idaho: A 5.5-million-year Highlight Reel of Petrogenetic processes in a Mid-Crustal Sill Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Katherine E.; Shervais, John W.; Christiansen, Eric H.; Vetter, Scott K.

    2018-02-01

    Basalts erupted in the Snake River Plain of central Idaho and sampled in the Kimama drill core link eruptive processes to the construction of mafic intrusions over 5.5 Ma. Cyclic variations in basalt composition reveal temporal chemical heterogeneity related to fractional crystallization and the assimilation of previously-intruded mafic sills. A range of compositional types are identified within 1912 m of continuous drill core: Snake River olivine tholeiite (SROT), low K SROT, high Fe-Ti, and evolved and high K-Fe lavas similar to those erupted at Craters of the Moon National Monument. Detailed lithologic and geophysical logs document 432 flow units comprising 183 distinct lava flows and 78 flow groups. Each lava flow represents a single eruptive episode, while flow groups document chemically and temporally related flows that formed over extended periods of time. Temporal chemical variation demonstrates the importance of source heterogeneity and magma processing in basalt petrogenesis. Low-K SROT and high Fe-Ti basalts are genetically related to SROT as, respectively, hydrothermally-altered and fractionated daughters. Cyclic variations in the chemical composition of Kimama flow groups are apparent as 21 upward fractionation cycles, six recharge cycles, eight recharge-fractionation cycles, and five fractionation-recharge cycles. We propose that most Kimama basalt flows represent typical fractionation and recharge patterns, consistent with the repeated influx of primitive SROT parental magmas and extensive fractional crystallization coupled with varying degrees of assimilation of gabbroic to ferrodioritic sills at shallow to intermediate depths over short durations. Trace element models show that parental SROT basalts were generated by 5-10% partial melting of enriched mantle at shallow depths above the garnet-spinel lherzolite transition. The distinctive evolved and high K-Fe lavas are rare. Found at four depths, 319 m, 1045 m, 1078 m, and 1189 m, evolved and high K

  8. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flood plain management and protection. 801.8 Section 801.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain management and protection. (a) Periodic inundation of lands...

  9. Supervolcanoes within an ancient volcanic province in Arabia Terra, Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Joseph R; Bleacher, Jacob E

    2013-10-03

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars, represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized Martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae possess a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulphur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas probably fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. The discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars.

  10. Hydrochemical study of an arsenic-contaminated plain in Guandu, north Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yu-Hsiang

    2015-04-01

    Arsenic pollution in Guandu Plain, north Taiwan is a critical issue due to highly developed anthropogenic activities. It was considered that arsenic was carried in by surface water system. Two major rivers, Huanggang Creek and South Huang Greek, flow through Guandu Plain. Both creeks originate from Tatung Volcano Group, which is extensively active in post-volcanic activities. In this study, the hydrochemistry along the two major rivers was studied for tracing the source of arsenic pollution in Guandu Plain. The pH values in the upstream water are in the range from 6 to 8 but dramatically decrease down to 2-4.5 in the downstream area. It can be concluded that the creeks are recharged with very low pH geothermal water. In addition, arsenic shows a different spatial distribution. In Huanggang Creek, arsenic concentration is much higher, about 200 ppb to 500 ppb, in the downstream than in the upstream while arsenic concentration is extremely low, below 1 ppb, in the downstream of South Huang Greek. The geochemical results show that rare earth elements (REEs) are depleted in the upstream both in Huanggang creek and South Huang creek, and the NASC-normalized ratios of heavy to light REE (Lu/La) in the upstream are very close to 1. This demonstrates that the upstream water is geochemically dominated by the interaction between water and sedimentary rock. In the downstream, the NASC-normalized REE pattern shows a quit different type which is depleted in light REEs (much higher Lu/La ratio). It is well known that igneous rock is depleted in light REEs; therefore, arsenic is possibly volcanic origin. In this study, PHREEQC, a thermodynamic modeling program, was also utilized to calculate the saturation index (SI) of hydrous ferric oxide (HFO), which can effectively scavenge arsenic in water. The results demonstrate that SI of HFO is mainly controlled by pH in this study. When pH is greater than 3.5, HFO start to precipitate and remove arsenic from water. Therefore, it is

  11. Distribution of Areal Strain on Mercury: Insights into the Interaction of Volcanism and Global Contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, G. A.; Johnson, C. L.; Byrne, P. K.; Phillips, R. J.

    2018-05-01

    Wrinkle ridges within volcanic plains on Mercury host just as much shortening strain as lobate scarps and high relief ridges, suggesting that wrinkle ridges have accommodated much more strain from global contraction than previously thought.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging measurements of organs within the coelomic cavity of red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans), yellow-bellied sliders (Trachemys scripta scripta), Coastal plain cooters (Pseudemys concinna floridana), and hieroglyphic river cooters (Pseudemys concinna hieroglyphica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Karina A; Schnack, Marcus; Rohn, Karl; Fehr, Michael

    2017-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine anatomic reference points for 4 turtle species and to evaluate data on relative anatomic dimensions, signal intensities (SIs), and position of selected organs within the coelomic cavity by use of MRI. ANIMALS 3 turtle cadavers (1 red-eared slider [Trachemys scripta elegans], 1 yellow-bellied slider [Trachemys scripta scripta], and 1 Coastal plain cooter [Pseudemys concinna floridana]) and 63 live adult turtles (30 red-eared sliders, 20 yellow-bellied sliders, 5 Coastal plain cooters, and 8 hieroglyphic river cooters [Pseudemys concinna hieroglyphica]). PROCEDURES MRI and necropsy were performed on the 3 turtle cadavers. Physical examination, hematologic evaluation, and whole-body radiography were performed on the 63 live turtles. Turtles were sedated, and MRI in transverse, sagittal, and dorsal planes was used to measure organ dimensions, position within the coelomic cavity, and SIs. Body positioning after sedation was standardized with the head, neck, limbs, and tail positioned in maximum extension. RESULTS Measurements of the heart, liver, gallbladder, and kidneys in sagittal, transverse, and dorsal planes; relative position of those organs within the coelom; and SIs of the kidneys and liver were obtained with MRI and provided anatomic data for these 4 turtle species. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE MRI was a valuable tool for determining the position, dimensions, and SIs of selected organs. Measurement of organs in freshwater chelonians was achievable with MRI. Further studies are needed to establish reference values for anatomic structures in turtles. Results reported here may serve as guidelines and aid in clinical interpretation of MRI images for these 4 species.

  13. Volcanic features of Io

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, M.H.; Masursky, H.; Strom, R.G.; Terrile, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    The volcanic features of Io as detected during the Voyager mission are discussed. The volcanic activity is apparently higher than on any other body in the Solar System. Its volcanic landforms are compared with features on Earth to indicate the type of volcanism present on Io. (U.K.)

  14. An Update of Hydrologic Conditions and Distribution of Selected Constituents in Water, Snake River Plain Aquifer and Perched-Water Zones, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, Emphasis 2002-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Linda C.

    2008-01-01

    Radiochemical and chemical wastewater discharged since 1952 to infiltration ponds, evaporation ponds, and disposal wells at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has affected water quality in the Snake River Plain aquifer and perched-water zones underlying the INL. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, maintains ground-water monitoring networks at the INL to determine hydrologic trends, and to delineate the movement of radiochemical and chemical wastes in the aquifer and in perched-water zones. This report presents an analysis of water-level and water-quality data collected from aquifer and perched-water wells in the USGS ground-water monitoring networks during 2002-05. Water in the Snake River Plain aquifer primarily moves through fractures and interflow zones in basalt, generally flows southwestward, and eventually discharges at springs along the Snake River. The aquifer is recharged primarily from infiltration of irrigation water, infiltration of streamflow, ground-water inflow from adjoining mountain drainage basins, and infiltration of precipitation. From March-May 2001 to March-May 2005, water levels in wells declined throughout the INL area. The declines ranged from about 3 to 8 feet in the southwestern part of the INL, about 10 to 15 feet in the west central part of the INL, and about 6 to 11 feet in the northern part of the INL. Water levels in perched water wells declined also, with the water level dropping below the bottom of the pump in many wells during 2002-05. For radionuclides, concentrations that equal 3s, wheres s is the sample standard deviation, represent a measurement at the minimum detectable concentration, or 'reporting level'. Detectable concentrations of radiochemical constituents in water samples from wells in the Snake River Plain aquifer at the INL generally decreased or remained constant during 2002-05. Decreases in concentrations were attributed to decreased rates of radioactive-waste disposal

  15. The alkaline volcanic rocks of Craters of the Moon National Monument, Idaho and the Columbia Hills of Gusev Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neakrase, L. D.; Lim, D. S. S.; Haberle, C. W.; Hughes, S. S.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.; Christensen, P. R.

    2016-12-01

    Idaho's Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) is host to extensive expressions of basaltic volcanism dominated by non evolved olivine tholeiites (NEOT) with localized occurrences of evolved lavas. Craters of the Moon National Monument (COTM) is a polygenetic lava field comprised of more than 60 lava flows emplaced during 8 eruptive periods spanning the last 15 kyrs. The most recent eruptive period (period A; 2500-2000 yr B.P.) produced flows with total alkali vs. silica classifications spanning basalt to trachyte. Coeval with the emplacement of the COTM period A volcanic pile was the emplacement of the Wapi and King's Bowl NEOT 70 km SSE of COTM along the Great Rift. Previous investigations have determined a genetic link between these two compositionally distinct volcanic centers where COTM compositions can be generated from NEOT melts through complex ascent paths and variable degrees of fractionation and assimilation of lower-middle crustal materials. The Mars Exploration Rover, Spirit, conducted a robotic investigation of Gusev crater from 2004-2010. Spirit was equipped with the Athena science payload enabling the determination of mineralogy (mini-Thermal Emission Spectrometer, Pancam multispectral camera, and Mössbauer spectrometer), bulk chemistry (Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer) and context (Pancam and Microscopic Imager). During sol 32 Spirit investigated an olivine basalt named Adirondack, the type specimen for a class of rock that composes much of the plains material within Gusev Crater and embays the Columbia Hills. Following the characterization of the plains material, Spirit departed the plains targeting the Columbia Hills and ascending at Husband Hill. During Spirit's ascent of Husband Hill three additional classes of volcanic rock were identified as distinct by their mini-TES spectra; Wishstone, Backstay and Irvine. These rocks are classified as tephrite, trachy-basalt and basalt, respectively, and are the first alkaline rocks observed on Mars. These

  16. The Quequén Salado river basin: Geology and biochronostratigraphy of the Mio-Pliocene boundary in the southern Pampean plain, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilinson, E.; Gasparini, G. M.; Tomassini, R. L.; Zárate, M. A.; Deschamps, C. M.; Barendregt, R. W.; Rabassa, J.

    2017-07-01

    The Quequén Salado river basin has been the focus of several contributions since the first decades of the XX century, namely dealing with the general geological features of the deposits and with the vertebrate remains. In this paper, the Neogene geological history documented by the Quequén Salado river exposures is reconstructed by means of stratigraphic, sedimentological and paleomagnetic studies along with the paleontological analysis of vertebrate remains. The study area is a crucial setting not only to better understand the evolution of the southern Pampas basin during the late Miocene-early Pliocene interval, but also to test the validity of the biochronologic and biostratigraphic schemes, especially the "Irenense". A geological model for the Quequén Salado river valley is proposed: a case of downcutting and headward erosion that contributes with a coherent interpretation to explain the spatial distribution of facies and fossil taxa: the younger in the distal sector of the Quequén Salado middle basin and the older in the lower basin. The sedimentary record is believed to represent the distal reaches of a distributary fluvial system that drained from the Ventania ranges. The stratigraphic section of Paso del Indio Rico results a key stratigraphic site to fully understand the stratigraphic nature of the boundary between the Miocene and the Pliocene (the Huayquerian and Montehermosan stages/ages). In this sense, two stratigraphically superposed range zones have been recognized in the area: Xenodontomys ellipticus Range Zone (latest Miocene-early Pliocene; late Huayquerian), and Eumysops laeviplicatus Range Zone (early Pliocene; Montehermosan). Taking into account the available geological and paleontological evidences, the "Irenense" would not represent a valid biostratigraphic unit, since, according to the geological model here proposed, it would be represented by elements of the Xenodontomys ellipticus Range Zone in the lower QS basin and by elements of the

  17. An evaluation eMergetics of Itacoatiara's city in the central Amazon, their plywood, and cultivated plain of basin of Madeira's river; Uma avaliacao eMergetica da cidade de Itacoatiara na Amazonia Central, sua industria de compensado e laminado e a varzea da bacia do rio Madeira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comar, Vito

    1994-12-01

    The plywood production system of Itacoatiara's industry and the wooden extraction impact of cultivated plain of basin of Madeira's river are presented. The incorporated energy flows - eMergy are evaluated by the models mathematical simulation, which applies to specific indices derivation aiming at the comparison with other similar processes. Itacoatiara's city was going analyzed regarding the industry load energetics and of others urban components.

  18. An evaluation eMergetics of Itacoatiara's city in the central Amazon, their plywood, and cultivated plain of basin of Madeira's river; Uma avaliacao eMergetica da cidade de Itacoatiara na Amazonia Central, sua industria de compensado e laminado e a varzea da bacia do rio Madeira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comar, Vito

    1994-12-01

    The plywood production system of Itacoatiara's industry and the wooden extraction impact of cultivated plain of basin of Madeira's river are presented. The incorporated energy flows - eMergy are evaluated by the models mathematical simulation, which applies to specific indices derivation aiming at the comparison with other similar processes. Itacoatiara's city was going analyzed regarding the industry load energetics and of others urban components.

  19. Seismic and GPS constraints on the dynamics and kinematics of the Yellowstone volcanic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. B.; Farrell, J.; Jordan, M.; Puskas, C.; Waite, G. P.

    2007-12-01

    The seismically and volcanically Yellowstone hotspot resulted from interaction of a mantle plume with the overriding North America plate. This feature and related processes have modified continental lithosphere producing the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain-Newberry silicic volcanic field (YSRPN) system, with its NE volcanically active Yellowstone volcanic field. The size and accessibility of the Yellowstone area has allowed a range of geophysical experiments including earthquake monitoring and seismic and GPS imaging of this system. Seismicity is dominated by small-magnitude normal- to oblique-slip faulting earthquake swarms with shallow focal depths, maximum of ~5 km, restricted by high temperatures and a weak elastic layer. There is developing evidence of non-double couple events. Outside the caldera, earthquakes are deeper, ~20 km, and capable of M 7+ earthquakes. We integrate the results from a multi-institution experiment that recorded data from 110 seismic stations and 180 GPS stations for 1999-2004. The tomographic images confirm the existence of a low Vp-body beneath the Yellowstone caldera at depths greater than 8 km, possibly representing hot, crystallizing magma. A key result of our study is a volume of anomalously low Vp and Vp/Vs in the northwestern part of the volcanic field at shallow depths of stress field inverted from seismic and GPS data is dominated by regional SW extension with superimposed volumetric expansion and uplift from local volcanic sources. Mantle tomography derived from integrated inversion of teleseismic and local earthquake data constrained by geoid, crustal structure, discontinuity structure reveals an upper-mantle low P and S velocity body extends from 80 km to ~250 km directly beneath Yellowstone and then continues to 650 km with unexpected westward tilt to the west at ~60° with a 1% to 2% melt. This geometry is consistent with the ascent of the buoyant magma entrained in eastward return-flow of the upper mantle. Some remaining

  20. Peculiarities of Environment Pollution as a Special Type of Radioactive Waste: Field Means for Comprehensive Characterization of Soil and Bottom Sediments and their Application in the Survey at the Flood plain of Techa River - 13172

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Oleg; Danilovich, Alexey; Potapov, Victor; Stepanov, Vyacheslav; Smirnov, Sergey; Volkovich, Anatoly [National Research Centre - Kurchatov Institute, 1 Kurchatov Sq. (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Contamination of natural objects - zone alarm fallout, zones and flood plains near production sites (the result of technological accidents and resource extraction) occupy large areas. Large area and volume of contaminated matter, moderate specific activity (as low - medium-level wastes) make such objects specific types of radioactive waste. These objects exist for a long time, now they are characterized by a bound state of nuclides with the matrix. There is no cost-effective ways to remove these waste, the only solution for the rehabilitation of such areas is their isolation and regular monitoring through direct and indirect measurements. The complex of instruments was developed to field mapping of contamination. It consists of a portable spectrometric collimated detector, collimated spectrometric borehole detector, underwater spectrometer detector, spectrometer for field measurements of the specific activity of Sr-90, connected to a portable MCA 'Colibry (Hummingbird)'. The complex was used in settlements of Bryansk region, rivers Techa and Yenisei. The effectiveness of the developed complex considered by the example of characterization of the reservoir 10 (artificial lake) in Techinsky cascade containing a huge amount of radioactive waste. The developed field means for comprehensive characterization of soil and bottom sediments contamination are very effective for mapping and monitoring of environment contamination after accidents. Especially in case of high non-uniformity of fallout and may be very actual in Fukushima area. (authors)

  1. Peculiarities of Environment Pollution as a Special Type of Radioactive Waste: Field Means for Comprehensive Characterization of Soil and Bottom Sediments and their Application in the Survey at the Flood plain of Techa River - 13172

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Oleg; Danilovich, Alexey; Potapov, Victor; Stepanov, Vyacheslav; Smirnov, Sergey; Volkovich, Anatoly

    2013-01-01

    Contamination of natural objects - zone alarm fallout, zones and flood plains near production sites (the result of technological accidents and resource extraction) occupy large areas. Large area and volume of contaminated matter, moderate specific activity (as low - medium-level wastes) make such objects specific types of radioactive waste. These objects exist for a long time, now they are characterized by a bound state of nuclides with the matrix. There is no cost-effective ways to remove these waste, the only solution for the rehabilitation of such areas is their isolation and regular monitoring through direct and indirect measurements. The complex of instruments was developed to field mapping of contamination. It consists of a portable spectrometric collimated detector, collimated spectrometric borehole detector, underwater spectrometer detector, spectrometer for field measurements of the specific activity of Sr-90, connected to a portable MCA 'Colibry (Hummingbird)'. The complex was used in settlements of Bryansk region, rivers Techa and Yenisei. The effectiveness of the developed complex considered by the example of characterization of the reservoir 10 (artificial lake) in Techinsky cascade containing a huge amount of radioactive waste. The developed field means for comprehensive characterization of soil and bottom sediments contamination are very effective for mapping and monitoring of environment contamination after accidents. Especially in case of high non-uniformity of fallout and may be very actual in Fukushima area. (authors)

  2. Lunar cryptomaria: Physical characteristics, distribution, and implications for ancient volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Jennifer L.; Head, James W.

    2015-02-01

    Cryptomaria, lunar volcanic deposits obscured by crater and basin impact ejecta, can provide important information about the thermal and volcanic history of the Moon. The timing of cryptomare deposition has implications for the duration and flux of mare basalt volcanism. In addition, knowing the distribution of cryptomaria can provide information about mantle convection and lunar magma ocean solidification. Here we use multiple datasets (e.g., M3, LOLA, LROC, Diviner) to undertake a global analysis to identify the general characteristics (e.g., topography, surface roughness, rock abundance, albedo, etc.) of lunar light plains in order to better distinguish between ancient volcanic deposits (cryptomaria) and impact basin and crater ejecta deposits. We find 20 discrete regions of cryptomaria, covering approximately 2% of the Moon, which increase the total area covered by mare volcanism to 18% of the lunar surface. Comparisons of light plains deposits indicate that the two deposit types (volcanic and impact-produced) are best distinguished by mineralogic data. On the basis of cryptomaria locations, the distribution of mare volcanism does not appear to have changed in the time prior to its exposed mare basalt distribution. There are several hypotheses explaining the distribution of mare basalts, which include the influence of crustal thickness, mantle convection patterns, asymmetric distribution of source regions, KREEP distribution, and the influence of a proposed Procellarum impact basin. The paucity of farside mare basalts means that multiple factors, such as crustal thickness variations and mantle convection, are likely to play a role in mare basalt emplacement.

  3. Surface complexation modeling of groundwater arsenic mobility: Results of a forced gradient experiment in a Red River flood plain aquifer, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Søren; Postma, Dieke; Larsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    , suggesting a comparable As(III) affinity of Holocene and Pleistocene aquifer sediments. A forced gradient field experiment was conducted in a bank aquifer adjacent to a tributary channel to the Red River, and the passage in the aquifer of mixed groundwater containing up to 74% channel water was observed......Three surface complexation models (SCMs) developed for, respectively, ferrihydrite, goethite and sorption data for a Pleistocene oxidized aquifer sediment from Bangladesh were used to explore the effect of multicomponent adsorption processes on As mobility in a reduced Holocene floodplain aquifer......(III) while PO43− and Fe(II) form the predominant surface species. The SCM for Pleistocene aquifer sediment resembles most the goethite SCM but shows more Si sorption. Compiled As(III) adsorption data for Holocene sediment was also well described by the SCM determined for Pleistocene aquifer sediment...

  4. INEEL Subregional Conceptual Model Report; Volume 1 - Summary of Existing Knowledge of Natural and Anthropogenic Influences Governing Subsurface Contaminant Transport in the INEEL Subregion of the Eastern Snake River Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wichlacz, Paul Louis; Orr, Brennan

    2002-08-01

    The National Research Council has defined a conceptual model as ''an evolving hypothesis identifying the important features, processes, and events controlling fluid flow and contaminant transport of consequence at a specific field site in the context of a recognized problem''. Presently, several subregional conceptual models are under development at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Additionally, facility-specific conceptual models have been described as part of INEEL environmental restoration activities. Compilation of these models is required to develop a comprehensive conceptual model that can be used to strategically plan for future groundwater research activities at the INEEL. Conceptual models of groundwater flow and contaminant transport at the INEEL include the description of the geologic framework, matrix hydraulic properties, and inflows and outflows. They also include definitions of the contaminant source term and contaminant transport mechanisms. The geologic framework of the INEEL subregion is described by the geometry of the system, stratigraphic units within the system, and structural features that affect groundwater flow and contaminant transport. These elements define geohydrologic units that make up the Snake River Plain Aquifer (SRPA). The United States Geological Survey (USGS) conceptual model encompasses approximately 1,920 mi2 of the eastern Snake River Plain. The Waste Area Group (WAG)-10 model includes the USGS area and additional areas to the northeast and southeast. Both conceptual models are bounded to the northwest by the Pioneer Mountains, Lost River Range, and Lemhi Mountains. They are bounded to the southeast by groundwater flow paths determined from aquifer water-level contours. The upgradient extent of the USGS model is a water-level contour that includes the northeastern boundary of the INEEL. The WAG-10 model includes more of the Mud Lake area to utilize previous estimates of

  5. Surface complexation modeling of groundwater arsenic mobility: Results of a forced gradient experiment in a Red River flood plain aquifer, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Søren; Postma, Dieke; Larsen, Flemming; Nhan, Pham Quy; Hoa, Le Quynh; Trang, Pham Thi Kim; Long, Tran Vu; Viet, Pham Hung; Jakobsen, Rasmus

    2012-12-01

    Three surface complexation models (SCMs) developed for, respectively, ferrihydrite, goethite and sorption data for a Pleistocene oxidized aquifer sediment from Bangladesh were used to explore the effect of multicomponent adsorption processes on As mobility in a reduced Holocene floodplain aquifer along the Red River, Vietnam. The SCMs for ferrihydrite and goethite yielded very different results. The ferrihydrite SCM favors As(III) over As(V) and has carbonate and silica species as the main competitors for surface sites. In contrast, the goethite SCM has a greater affinity for As(V) over As(III) while PO43- and Fe(II) form the predominant surface species. The SCM for Pleistocene aquifer sediment resembles most the goethite SCM but shows more Si sorption. Compiled As(III) adsorption data for Holocene sediment was also well described by the SCM determined for Pleistocene aquifer sediment, suggesting a comparable As(III) affinity of Holocene and Pleistocene aquifer sediments. A forced gradient field experiment was conducted in a bank aquifer adjacent to a tributary channel to the Red River, and the passage in the aquifer of mixed groundwater containing up to 74% channel water was observed. The concentrations of As (SCM correctly predicts desorption for As(III) but for Si and PO43- it predicts an increased adsorption instead of desorption. The goethite SCM correctly predicts desorption of both As(III) and PO43- but failed in the prediction of Si desorption. These results indicate that the prediction of As mobility, by using SCMs for synthetic Fe-oxides, will be strongly dependent on the model chosen. The SCM based on the Pleistocene aquifer sediment predicts the desorption of As(III), PO43- and Si quite superiorly, as compared to the SCMs for ferrihydrite and goethite, even though Si desorption is still somewhat under-predicted. The observation that a SCM calibrated on a different sediment can predict our field results so well suggests that sediment based SCMs may be a

  6. Assessment of croplands dynamics in the river basins of the different landscape zones of the Russian plain for the last 30 years as factor of soil erosion rate trend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Maxim; Zalyaliev, Rinal; Efimov, Kirill; Kondrat'eva, Alina; Kinyashova, Anastasiya; Ionova, Yuliya

    2017-04-01

    After the collapse of the USSR in the period of transition from a state-controlled economy to a market-driven economy, there have been significant changes in land use. Information about changes in the structure of agricultural land is very important to assess the ecological condition of the territories. In this study was evaluated the changes of croplands in areas of the European territory of Russia located in different climate, landscape and geomorphological conditions. Mapping of the croplands in the territory of 9 river basins for the two time slices (the middle of the 1980s, and the present-day period 2013-2015) was carried out by visual interpretation of multi-seasonal images Landsat 5 and Landsat 8. We are using mapping technique realized in the CORINE Land Cover 2000 project (CLC2000), adjusted for the regional features and purposes of our study. Using vector layers, obtained as a result of digitization, the areas of croplands in the analyzed periods have been calculated and changes occurred in 30 years was evaluated. Croplands is the dominant category of land use in almost all regions, and it is in the range of 40-65% in 2015. The decrease of croplands area was established for the all studied river basins. The largest decrease of croplands (37.7%) is observed in the Izh river basin located in the forest landscape zone. Significantly smaller reduction of croplands (10%) observed in the basins belonging to the forest-steppe landscape zone. In the basins, located in the steppe zone of the reduction of croplands is in the range 10-20%. Land use changes are a powerful factor determining the rate of erosion and sedimentation and some other exogenic processes. However, for the evaluation of these rates is important to determine whether the decrease of cropland due to the abandonment the more steep slope, which are less suitable for traditional cultivation. For this aim, steepness of slopes was analyzed for the each river basin. Slope rasters for the studied river

  7. Volcanic signals in oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Delworth, Thomas L.; Ramaswamy, V.; Stouffer, Ronald J.; Wittenberg, Andrew; Zeng, Fanrong

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate aerosols resulting from strong volcanic explosions last for 2–3 years in the lower stratosphere. Therefore it was traditionally believed that volcanic impacts produce mainly short-term, transient climate perturbations. However, the ocean

  8. Depth and temporal variations in water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer in well USGS-59 near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederick, D.B.; Johnson, G.S.

    1997-03-01

    In-situ measurements of the specific conductance and temperature of ground water in the Snake River Plain aquifer were collected in observation well USGS-59 near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. These parameters were monitored at various depths in the aquifer from October 1994 to August 1995. The specific conductance of ground water in well USGS-59, as measured in the borehole, ranged from about 450 to 900 microS/cm at standard temperature (25 C). The pumping cycle of the production wells at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant causes changes in borehole circulation patterns, and as a result the specific conductance of ground water at some depths in the well varies by up to 50% over a period of about 14 hours. However, these variations were not observed at all depths, or during each pumping cycle. The temperature of ground water in the well was typically between 12.8 and 13.8 C. The results of this study indicate that temporal variations in specific conductance of the ground water at this location are caused by an external stress on the aquifer--pumping of a production well approximately 4,000 feet away. These variations are believed to result from vertical stratification of water quality in the aquifer and a subsequent change in intrawell flow related to pumping. When sampling techniques that do not induce a stress on the aquifer (i.e., thief sampling) are used, knowledge of external stresses on the system at the time of sampling may aid in the interpretation of geochemical data

  9. Application of Near-Surface Remote Sensing and computer algorithms in evaluating impacts of agroecosystem management on Zea mays (corn) phenological development in the Platte River - High Plains Aquifer Long Term Agroecosystem Research Network field sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okalebo, J. A.; Das Choudhury, S.; Awada, T.; Suyker, A.; LeBauer, D.; Newcomb, M.; Ward, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Long-term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network is a USDA-ARS effort that focuses on conducting research that addresses current and emerging issues in agriculture related to sustainability and profitability of agroecosystems in the face of climate change and population growth. There are 18 sites across the USA covering key agricultural production regions. In Nebraska, a partnership between the University of Nebraska - Lincoln and ARD/USDA resulted in the establishment of the Platte River - High Plains Aquifer LTAR site in 2014. The site conducts research to sustain multiple ecosystem services focusing specifically on Nebraska's main agronomic production agroecosystems that comprise of abundant corn, soybeans, managed grasslands and beef production. As part of the national LTAR network, PR-HPA participates and contributes near-surface remotely sensed imagery of corn, soybean and grassland canopy phenology to the PhenoCam Network through high-resolution digital cameras. This poster highlights the application, advantages and usefulness of near-surface remotely sensed imagery in agroecosystem studies and management. It demonstrates how both Infrared and Red-Green-Blue imagery may be applied to monitor phenological events as well as crop abiotic stresses. Computer-based algorithms and analytic techniques proved very instrumental in revealing crop phenological changes such as green-up and tasseling in corn. This poster also reports the suitability and applicability of corn-derived computer based algorithms for evaluating phenological development of sorghum since both crops have similarities in their phenology; with sorghum panicles being similar to corn tassels. This later assessment was carried out using a sorghum dataset obtained from the Transportation Energy Resources from Renewable Agriculture Phenotyping Reference Platform project, Maricopa Agricultural Center, Arizona.

  10. Chemical weathering outputs from the flood plain of the Ganga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickle, Michael J.; Chapman, Hazel J.; Tipper, Edward; Galy, Albert; De La Rocha, Christina L.; Ahmad, Talat

    2018-03-01

    Transport of sediment across riverine flood plains contributes a significant but poorly constrained fraction of the total chemical weathering fluxes from rapidly eroding mountain belts which has important implications for chemical fluxes to the oceans and the impact of orogens on long term climate. We report water and bedload chemical analyses from the Ganges flood-plain, a major transit reservoir of sediment from the Himalayan orogen. Our data comprise six major southern tributaries to the Ganga, 31 additional analyses of major rivers from the Himalayan front in Nepal, 79 samples of the Ganga collected close to the mouth below the Farakka barrage every two weeks over three years and 67 water and 8 bedload samples from tributaries confined to the Ganga flood plain. The flood plain tributaries are characterised by a shallow δ18O - δD array, compared to the meteoric water line, with a low δDexcess from evaporative loss from the flood plain which is mirrored in the higher δDexcess of the mountain rivers in Nepal. The stable-isotope data confirms that the waters in the flood plain tributaries are dominantly derived from flood plain rainfall and not by redistribution of waters from the mountains. The flood plain tributaries are chemically distinct from the major Himalayan rivers. They can be divided into two groups. Tributaries from a small area around the Kosi river have 87Sr/86Sr ratios >0.75 and molar Na/Ca ratios as high as 6. Tributaries from the rest of the flood plain have 87Sr/86Sr ratios ≤0.74 and most have Na/Ca ratios waters have lost up to 70% of their Ca (average ∼ 50%) to precipitation of secondary calcite which is abundant as a diagenetic cement in the flood plain sediments. 31% of the Sr, 8% of the Ca and 45% of the Mg are calculated to be derived from silicate minerals. Because of significant evaporative loss of water across the flood plain, and in the absence of hydrological data for flood plain tributaries, chemical weathering fluxes from the

  11. Study on ecological regulation of coastal plain sluice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wengong; Geng, Bing; Yu, Huanfei; Yu, Hongbo

    2018-02-01

    Coastal plains are densely populated and economically developed, therefore their importance is self-evident. However, there are some problems related with water in coastal plains, such as low flood control capacity and severe water pollution. Due to complicated river network hydrodynamic force, changeable flow direction and uncertain flood concentration and propagation mechanism, it is rather difficult to use sluice scheduling to realize flood control and tackle water pollution. On the base of the measured hydrological data during once-in-a-century Fitow typhoon in 2013 in Yuyao city, by typical analysis, theoretical analysis and process simulation, some key technologies were researched systematically including plain river network sluice ecological scheduling, “one tide” flood control and drainage scheduling and ecological running water scheduling. In the end, single factor health diagnostic evaluation, unit hydrograph of plain water level and evening tide scheduling were put forward.

  12. Limnology of the Touw River floodplain

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Allanson, BR

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info THE LIMNOLOGY OF THE TOUW RIVER FLOODPLAIN.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 41 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name THE LIMNOLOGY OF THE TOUW RIVER FLOODPLAIN.pdf.txt Content-Type text.../plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  13. Volcanic stratigraphy: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, Joan; Groppelli, Gianluca; Brum da Silveira, Antonio

    2018-05-01

    Volcanic stratigraphy is a fundamental component of geological mapping in volcanic areas as it yields the basic criteria and essential data for identifying the spatial and temporal relationships between volcanic products and intra/inter-eruptive processes (earth-surface, tectonic and climatic), which in turn provides greater understanding of the geological evolution of a region. Establishing precise stratigraphic relationships in volcanic successions is not only essential for understanding the past behaviour of volcanoes and for predicting how they might behave in the future, but is also critical for establishing guidelines for exploring economic and energy resources associated with volcanic systems or for reconstructing the evolution of sedimentary basins in which volcanism has played a significant role. Like classical stratigraphy, volcanic stratigraphy should also be defined using a systematic methodology that can provide an organised and comprehensive description of the temporal and spatial evolution of volcanic terrain. This review explores different methods employed in studies of volcanic stratigraphy, examines four case studies that use differing stratigraphic approaches, and recommends methods for using systematic volcanic stratigraphy based on the application of the concepts of traditional stratigraphy but adapted to the needs of volcanological environment.

  14. Characterization of sediments laid on Solimoes/Amazonas river flood plains, using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique; Caracterizacao dos sedimentos depositados nas planicies de inundacao do Rio Solimoes/Amazonas, utilizando a tecnica de fluorescencia de raios-X por dispersao de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Ana E.V. [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. do [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz]|[Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    1997-10-01

    This paper proposes sediment analysis with high light elements fraction using dispersive energy X-ray fluorescence technique with radioisotopic excitation, The proposed procedure is based on the Fundamental Parameters for analytical elements (Z {>=} 13) evaluation, and coherent and incoherent scattered radiation for quantification of the light fraction of the matrix (Z < 13). Laid sediments samples on Solimoes/Amazonas river flood plains were analyzed, determining simultaneously the Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Sc, V, Mn, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr and Zr element concentrations, thus allowing chemical characterization and spatial variability, and some mineralogical and weathering sediments aspects. (author). 15 refs., 11 tabs.

  15. Systematic change in global patterns of streamflow following volcanic eruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, Carley E; Hegerl, Gabriele C

    2015-11-01

    Following large explosive volcanic eruptions precipitation decreases over much of the globe1-6, particularly in climatologically wet regions4,5. Stratospheric volcanic aerosols reflect sunlight, which reduces evaporation, whilst surface cooling stabilises the atmosphere and reduces its water-holding capacity7. Circulation changes modulate this global precipitation reduction on regional scales1,8-10. Despite the importance of rivers to people, it has been unclear whether volcanism causes detectable changes in streamflow given large natural variability. Here we analyse observational records of streamflow volume for fifty large rivers from around the world which cover between two and 6 major volcanic eruptions in the 20 th and late 19 th century. We find statistically significant reductions in flow following eruptions for the Amazon, Congo, Nile, Orange, Ob, Yenisey and Kolyma amongst others. When data from neighbouring rivers are combined - based on the areas where climate models simulate either an increase or a decrease in precipitation following eruptions - a significant (peruptions is detected in northern South American, central African and high-latitude Asian rivers, and on average across wet tropical and subtropical regions. We also detect a significant increase in southern South American and SW North American rivers. This suggests that future volcanic eruptions could substantially affect global water availability.

  16. HOTSPOT: The Snake River Scientifi c Drilling Project— Tracking the Yellowstone Hotspot Through Space and Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas F. Williams

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The project “HOTSPOT: Scientifi c Drilling of the Snake River Plain” held its inaugural workshop in Twin Falls, Idaho, U.S.A. on 18–21 May 2006. This inter-disciplinary workshop, sponsored by the International Continental Scientifi c Drilling Program (ICDP, explored the major scientifi c and logistical issues central to a transect of boreholes along the hotspot track and addressing the geochemical evolution of continental lithosphere in response to interaction with deepseated mantle hotspots or plumes. A series of four to six bore holes is envisioned, each about 1.5–2.0 km deep and located along the axis of the Snake River Plain. The holes will specific ally target the origin and evolution of hotspot-related volcanism in space and time. To accomplish scientific and logistical planning, sixty scientists from six countries attended the workshop.

  17. Submarine Volcanic Eruptions and Potential Analogs for Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L.; Mouginismark, P. J.; Fryer, P.; Gaddis, L. R.

    1985-01-01

    As part of an analysis program to better understand the diversity of volcanic processes on the terrestrial planets, an investigation of the volcanic landforms which exist on the Earth's ocean floor was initiated. In part, this analysis is focused toward gaining a better understanding of submarine volcanic landforms in their own right, but also it is hoped that these features may show similarities to volcanic landforms on Venus, due to the high ambient water (Earth) and atmospheric (Venus) pressures. A series of numerical modelling experiments was performed to investigate the relative importance of such attributes as water pressure and temperature on the eruption process, and to determine the rate of cooling and emplacement of lava flows in the submarine environment. Investigations to date show that the confining water pressure and the buoyancy effects of the surrounding water significantly affect the styles of volcanism on the ocean floor. In the case of Venusian volcanism, confining pressures will not be as great as that found at the ocean's abyssal plains, but nevertheless the general trend toward reducing magma vesiculation will hold true for Venus as well as the ocean floor. Furthermore, other analogs may also be found between submarine volcanism and Venusian activity.

  18. A Study by Remote Sensing Methods of Volcanism at Craters of the Moon National Park, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberle, C. W.; Hughes, S. S.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.; Lim, D. S. S.; Garry, B.; Sears, D. W. G.; Downs, M.; Busto, J.; Skok, J. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Kobayashi, L.; Heldmann, J. L.; Christensen, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    Craters of the Moon (COTM) National Park, on the eastern Snake River Plain, and its associated lava fields are currently a focus of the NASA SSERVI FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) team. COTM was selected for study owing to similarities with volcanic features observed on the Moon, Mars and Vesta. The COTM basaltic lava fields emanate from an 80 km long rift zone where at least eight eruptive episodes, occurring 15,000 to 2,000 BP, have created an expansive volcanic field covering an area of approximately 1,650 km2. This polygenetic volcanic field hosts a diverse collection of basaltic volcanic edifices such as phreatic explosion craters, eruptive fissures, cinder cones, spatter cones, shield volcanoes and expansive lava flows. Engineering challenges and high cost limit the number of robotic and human field investigations of planetary bodies and, due to these constraints, exhaustive remote sensing investigations of planetary surface properties are undertaken prior to field deployment. This creates an unavoidable dependence upon remote sensing, a critical difference between field investigations of planetary bodies and most terrestrial field investigations. Studies of this nature have utility in terrestrial investigations as they can help link spatially encompassing datasets and conserve field resources. We present preliminary results utilizing Earth orbital datasets to determine the efficacy of products derived from remotely sensed data when compared to geologic field observations. Multispectral imaging data (ASTER, AVIRIS, TIMS) collected at a range of spatial and spectral resolutions are paired with high resolution imagery from both orbit and unmanned aircraft systems. This enables the creation of derived products detailing morphology, compositional variation, mineralogy, relative age and vegetation. The surface morphology of flows within COTM differs from flow to flow and observations of these properties can aid in

  19. Volcanism on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Ashley Gerard

    2014-03-01

    Preface; Introduction; Part I. Io, 1610 to 1995: Galileo to Galileo: 1. Io, 1610-1979; 2. Between Voyager and Galileo: 1979-95; 3. Galileo at Io; Part II. Planetary Volcanism: Evolution and Composition: 4. Io and Earth: formation, evolution, and interior structure; 5. Magmas and volatiles; Part III. Observing and Modeling Volcanic Activity: 6. Observations: thermal remote sensing of volcanic activity; 7. Models of effusive eruption processes; 8. Thermal evolution of volcanic eruptions; Part IV. Galileo at Io: the Volcanic Bestiary: 9. The view from Galileo; 10. The lava lake at Pele; 11. Pillan and Tvashtar: lava fountains and flows; 12. Prometheus and Amirani: Effusive activity and insulated flows; 13. Loki Patera: Io's powerhouse; 14. Other volcanoes and eruptions; Part V. Volcanism on Io: The Global View: 15. Geomorphology: paterae, shields, flows and mountains; 16. Volcanic plumes; 17. Hot spots; Part VI. Io after Galileo: 18. Volcanism on Io: a post-Galileo view; 19. The future of Io observations; Appendix 1; Appendix 2; References; Index.

  20. Evidence for young volcanism on Mercury from the third MESSENGER flyby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prockter, Louise M; Ernst, Carolyn M; Denevi, Brett W; Chapman, Clark R; Head, James W; Fassett, Caleb I; Merline, William J; Solomon, Sean C; Watters, Thomas R; Strom, Robert G; Cremonese, Gabriele; Marchi, Simone; Massironi, Matteo

    2010-08-06

    During its first two flybys of Mercury, the MESSENGER spacecraft acquired images confirming that pervasive volcanism occurred early in the planet's history. MESSENGER's third Mercury flyby revealed a 290-kilometer-diameter peak-ring impact basin, among the youngest basins yet seen, having an inner floor filled with spectrally distinct smooth plains. These plains are sparsely cratered, postdate the formation of the basin, apparently formed from material that once flowed across the surface, and are therefore interpreted to be volcanic in origin. An irregular depression surrounded by a halo of bright deposits northeast of the basin marks a candidate explosive volcanic vent larger than any previously identified on Mercury. Volcanism on the planet thus spanned a considerable duration, perhaps extending well into the second half of solar system history.

  1. Geomorphology of the Namoi alluvial plain, northwestern New South Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.W.; Young, A.R.M.; Price, D.M.; Wray, R.A.L.

    2002-01-01

    The Quaternary history of the extensive alluvial plains of the northern part of the Darling River Basin has received little attention, and has generally been assumed to be an analogue of the very detailed history compiled for the Riverine Plain of southeastern Australia. Our study of the Namoi valley, which is a tributary to the upper Darling, shows that this assumption is unfounded. Thermoluminescence dating demonstrates that the oldest palaeochannels of the Namoi River correspond only to the youngest palaeochannels on the Riverine Plain. The thermoluminescence analyses were carried out on the 90-125 μm quartz fraction thermally stimulated by ionizing radiation using the combined additive/regenerative technique. This technique utilises a second glow normalisation procedure that involves re-irradiating each of the quartz sample aliquots and measuring the thermoluminescence induced in the grains. It has ben demonstrated that unlike the streams on the Riverine Plain, the Namoi River has moved progressively away from its buried Tertiary palaeovalley, probably due to declining sediment input from its southern tributaries. In contrast to the streams of the Riverine Plain, the dimensions of the Namoi palaeochannels are indicative of substantially greater discharges until the mid-Holocene. There is also evidence of significant aeolian input throughout the Late Quaternary. The study indicates that the water resources of this increasingly important irrigated region seem to be considerably constrained by the Quaternary heritage of the Namoi valley. Copyright (2002) Geological Society of Australia

  2. Characterisation of the Ionian-Lucanian coastal plain aquifer

    OpenAIRE

    Polemio, M.; Limoni, P.P.; Mitolo, D.; Santaloia, F.

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with a Southern Italy area, 40 km by 10 km wide, located where four river valleys anastomose themselves in the coastal plain. The geological and hydrogeological features of the study area and the chemical-physical groundwater characterisation have been inferred from the data analysis of 1130 boreholes. Some aquifers, connected among them, constituted by soils of different geological origin -marine terraces deposits, river valley alluvial deposits and alluvial and coastal depo...

  3. Volcanic signals in oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2009-08-22

    Sulfate aerosols resulting from strong volcanic explosions last for 2–3 years in the lower stratosphere. Therefore it was traditionally believed that volcanic impacts produce mainly short-term, transient climate perturbations. However, the ocean integrates volcanic radiative cooling and responds over a wide range of time scales. The associated processes, especially ocean heat uptake, play a key role in ongoing climate change. However, they are not well constrained by observations, and attempts to simulate them in current climate models used for climate predictions yield a range of uncertainty. Volcanic impacts on the ocean provide an independent means of assessing these processes. This study focuses on quantification of the seasonal to multidecadal time scale response of the ocean to explosive volcanism. It employs the coupled climate model CM2.1, developed recently at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration\\'s Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, to simulate the response to the 1991 Pinatubo and the 1815 Tambora eruptions, which were the largest in the 20th and 19th centuries, respectively. The simulated climate perturbations compare well with available observations for the Pinatubo period. The stronger Tambora forcing produces responses with higher signal-to-noise ratio. Volcanic cooling tends to strengthen the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Sea ice extent appears to be sensitive to volcanic forcing, especially during the warm season. Because of the extremely long relaxation time of ocean subsurface temperature and sea level, the perturbations caused by the Tambora eruption could have lasted well into the 20th century.

  4. Assessment of soil contamination by potentially toxic trace elements (PTSD) (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn) in a lower plain of the Hron River according to Law no. 219/2008 Coll., by geo-accumulation index, anthropogenic factor and Tomlinson index; Zhodnotenie kontaminacie pod potencialne toxickymi stopovymi prvkami (PTSP) (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn) v dolnej casti nivy Hrona podla zakona c. 219/2008 Z.z., indexu geoakumulacie, antropogenneho faktora a Tomlinsonovho indexu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlodak, M [Univerzita Komenskeho v Bratislave, Prirodovedecka fakulta, Ustav laboratorneho vyskumu geomaterialov, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-04-25

    Soil contamination by different PTSD may have different geogenic and anthropogenic origin and occurs in all countries of the world. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the soils contamination of a lower plain of the Hron River. This paper used the results of the thesis Soil contamination of the Hron River floodplain by trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn) [1]. Soil contamination was evaluated by: Act. 219/2008 Coll. on the protection and use of agricultural land, by anthropogenic factor (AF), geo-accumulation index (IgeoE) and Tomlinson index - the index of the pollution load (PLI). (author)

  5. Sources and flow of north Canterbury Plains groundwater, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.B.; Brown, L.J.; Stewart, M.K.; Brailsford, G.W.; Wilson, D.D.; Burden, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Geological, hydrological, isotope (tritium and 18 O) and chemical evidence is interpreted to give a mutually consistent picture of the recharge sources and flow patterns of the important groundwater resource in the deep Quaternary deposits of the Canterbury Plains between Selwyn R. and Ashley R. The study period for tritium measurements extends over 27 years, encompassing the peak and decline of thermonuclear tritium fallout in this region. Major rivers emerging from mountain catchments to the west of the Plains are depleted in 18 O relative to average low-level precipitation. Most of the groundwater is river-recharged, but some areas with significant local precipitation recharge are clearly identified by 18 O and chemical concentrations. Artesian groundwater underlying Christchurch ascends from deeper aquifers into the shallowest aquifer via gaps in the confining layers; much of this flow is induced by withdrawal. The Christchurch aquifers are recharged by infiltration from Waimakariri R. in its central Plains reaches, and the resulting flow regime is E- and SE-directed; satisfactory water quality of the deeper Christchurch aquifer appears to be guaranteed for the future provided the river can be maintained in its present condition. Shallow groundwater, and water recharged to depth by other rivers, irrigation and local precipitation on the unconfined western areas of the Plains, are more susceptible to agricultural and other pollutants; none of this water is encountered in the deeper aquifers under Christchurch. (author). 15 refs., 12 figs

  6. Mountain-Plains Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain-Plains Education and Economic Development Program, Inc., Glasgow AFB, MT.

    The document lists the Mountain-Plains curriculum by job title (where applicable), including support courses. The curriculum areas covered are mathematics skills, communication skills, office education, lodging services, food services, marketing and distribution, welding support, automotive, small engines, career guidance, World of Work, health…

  7. Tietkens Plain karst - Maralinga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, J.M.

    1988-09-01

    The Tietkens Plain karst is located to the north of Maralinga village which is on the crest of the Ooldea Range on the north and east margin of the Nullarbor Plain in western South Australia. The geology of the carbonate rocks in the Maralinga area is summarised. On Tietkens Plain from 1955 to 1963 nuclear weapons tests dispersed radioactive materials over the Maralinga area. Six nuclear devices were detonated in the air and one was exploded a few metres below the surface. The effect such explosions have on the karst and the possible rate of recovery of its surface are discussed. This report is the record of a visit to the Maralinga area from the 15th -21st November 1986 which involved an inspection of the karst surface together with collection of water, soil and rock samples. Results of the measurements made in order to assess water quality and water contamination by radioactive nuclides are presented. The implications arising from the presence of radioactive materials on the surface and the possibility of their entering and contaminating the groundwater in the area are discussed in the context of the chemistry of uranium and plutonium. The potential for transmission of contaminants through groundwater conduits and aquifers in the dolomite is discussed. Evidence is produced to show that the caves of the Nullabor Plain are not contaminated at present and are unlikely to be so in the future. 21 refs., 2 figs. 3 tabs., ills

  8. Volcanic Rocks and Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Volcanoes have contributed significantly to the formation of the surface of our planet. Volcanism produced the crust we live on and most of the air we breathe. The...

  9. Topographic Rise in the Northern Smooth Plains of Mercury: Characteristics from Messenger Image and Altimetry Data and Candidate Modes of Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, James L.; Head, James W.; Whitten, Jennifer L.; Fassett, Caleb I.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Phillips, Roger J.

    2012-01-01

    MESSENGER observations from orbit around Mercury have revealed that a large contiguous area of smooth plains occupies much of the high northern latitudes and covers an area in excess of approx.6% of the surface of the planet [1] (Fig. 1). Smooth surface morphology, embayment relationships, color data, candidate flow fronts, and a population of partly to wholly buried craters provide evidence for the volcanic origin of these plains and their emplacement in a flood lava mode to depths at least locally in excess of 1 km. The age of these plains is similar to that of plains associated with and postdating the Caloris impact basin, confirming that volcanism was a globally extensive process in the post-heavy bombardment history of Mercury [1]. No specific effusive vent structures, constructional volcanic edifices, or lava distributary features (leveed flow fronts or sinuous rilles) have been identified in the contiguous plains, although vent structures and evidence of high-effusion-rate flood eruptions are seen in adjacent areas [1]. Subsequent to the identification and mapping of the extensive north polar smooth plains, data from the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) on MESSENGER revealed the presence of a broad topographic rise in the northern smooth plains that is 1,000 km across and rises more than 1.5 km above the surrounding smooth plains [2] (Fig. 2). The purpose of this contribution is to characterize the northern plains rise and to outline a range of hypotheses for its origin.

  10. Field-trip guide to a volcanic transect of the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Dennis; Wolff, John; Harpp, Karen

    2017-08-01

    The Pacific Northwest region of the United States provides world-class and historically important examples of a wide variety of volcanic features. This guide is designed to give a broad overview of the region’s diverse volcanism rather than focusing on the results of detailed studies; the reader should consult the reference list for more detailed information on each of the sites, and we have done our best to recognize previous field trip leaders who have written the pioneering guides. This trip derives from one offered as a component of the joint University of Idaho- Washington State University volcanology class taught from 1995 through 2014, and it borrows in theme from the classic field guide of Johnston and Donnelly-Nolan (1981). For readers interested in using this field guide as an educational tool, we have included an appendix with supplemental references to resources that provide useful background information on relevant topics, as well as a few suggestions for field-based exercises that could be useful when bringing students to these locations in the future. The 4-day trip begins with an examination of lava flow structures of the Columbia River Basalt, enormous lava fields that were emplaced during one of the largest eruptive episodes in Earth’s recent history. On the second day, the trip turns to the High Lava Plains, a bimodal volcanic province that transgressed from southeast to northwest from the Miocene through the Holocene, at the northern margin of the Basin and Range Province. This volcanic field provides excellent examples of welded ignimbrite, silicic lavas and domes, monogenetic basaltic lava fields, and hydrovolcanic features. The third day is devoted to a circumnavigation of Crater Lake, the result of one of the world’s best-documented caldera-forming eruptions. The caldera walls also expose the anatomy of Mount Mazama, a stratovolcano of the Cascade Range. The last day is spent at Newberry Volcano, a back-arc shield volcano topped by a

  11. Relation of major volcanic center concentration on Venus to global tectonic patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumpler, L. S.; Head, James W.; Aubele, Jayne C.

    1993-01-01

    Global analysis of Magellan image data indicates that a major concentration of volcanic centers covering about 40 percent of the surface of Venus occurs between the Beta, Atla, and Themis regions. Associated with this enhanced concentration are geological characteristics commonly interpreted as rifting and mantle upwelling. Interconnected low plains in an annulus around this concentration are characterized by crustal shortening and infrequent volcanic centers that may represent sites of mantle return flow and net downwelling. Together, these observations suggest the existence of relatively simple, large-scale patterns of mantle circulation similar to those associated with concentrations of intraplate volcanism on earth.

  12. Volcanic Eruptions and Climate: Outstanding Research Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Large volcanic eruptions inject sulfur gases into the stratosphere, which convert to sulfate aerosols with an e-folding residence time of about one year. The radiative and chemical effects of this aerosol cloud produce responses in the climate system. Based on observations after major eruptions of the past and experiments with numerical models of the climate system, we understand much about their climatic impact, but there are also a number of unanswered questions. Volcanic eruptions produce global cooling, and are an important natural cause of interannual, interdecadal, and even centennial-scale climate change. One of the most interesting volcanic effects is the "winter warming" of Northern Hemisphere continents following major tropical eruptions. During the winter in the Northern Hemisphere following every large tropical eruption of the past century, surface air temperatures over North America, Europe, and East Asia were warmer than normal, while they were colder over Greenland and the Middle East. This pattern and the coincident atmospheric circulation correspond to the positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation. While this response is observed after recent major eruptions, most state-of-the-art climate models have trouble simulating winter warming. Why? High latitude eruptions in the Northern Hemisphere, while also producing global cooling, do not have the same impact on atmospheric dynamics. Both tropical and high latitude eruptions can weaken the Indian and African summer monsoon, and the effects can be seen in past records of flow in the Nile and Niger Rivers. Since the Mt. Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines in 1991, there have been no large eruptions that affected climate, but the cumulative effects of small eruptions over the past decade have had a small effect on global temperature trends. Some important outstanding research questions include: How much seasonal, annual, and decadal predictability is possible following a large volcanic eruption? Do

  13. Volcanic hazards to airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffanti, M.; Mayberry, G.C.; Casadevall, T.J.; Wunderman, R.

    2009-01-01

    Volcanic activity has caused significant hazards to numerous airports worldwide, with local to far-ranging effects on travelers and commerce. Analysis of a new compilation of incidents of airports impacted by volcanic activity from 1944 through 2006 reveals that, at a minimum, 101 airports in 28 countries were affected on 171 occasions by eruptions at 46 volcanoes. Since 1980, five airports per year on average have been affected by volcanic activity, which indicates that volcanic hazards to airports are not rare on a worldwide basis. The main hazard to airports is ashfall, with accumulations of only a few millimeters sufficient to force temporary closures of some airports. A substantial portion of incidents has been caused by ash in airspace in the vicinity of airports, without accumulation of ash on the ground. On a few occasions, airports have been impacted by hazards other than ash (pyroclastic flow, lava flow, gas emission, and phreatic explosion). Several airports have been affected repeatedly by volcanic hazards. Four airports have been affected the most often and likely will continue to be among the most vulnerable owing to continued nearby volcanic activity: Fontanarossa International Airport in Catania, Italy; Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport in Alaska, USA; Mariscal Sucre International Airport in Quito, Ecuador; and Tokua Airport in Kokopo, Papua New Guinea. The USA has the most airports affected by volcanic activity (17) on the most occasions (33) and hosts the second highest number of volcanoes that have caused the disruptions (5, after Indonesia with 7). One-fifth of the affected airports are within 30 km of the source volcanoes, approximately half are located within 150 km of the source volcanoes, and about three-quarters are within 300 km; nearly one-fifth are located more than 500 km away from the source volcanoes. The volcanoes that have caused the most impacts are Soufriere Hills on the island of Montserrat in the British West Indies

  14. Organic-Carbon Sequestration in Soil/Sediment of the Mississippi River Deltaic Plain - Data; Landscape Distribution, Storage, and Inventory; Accumulation Rates; and Recent Loss, Including a Post-Katrina Preliminary Analysis (Chapter B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markewich, Helaine W.; Buell, Gary R.; Britsch, Louis D.; McGeehin, John P.; Robbins, John A.; Wrenn, John H.; Dillon, Douglas L.; Fries, Terry L.; Morehead, Nancy R.

    2007-01-01

    Soil/sediment of the Mississippi River deltaic plain (MRDP) in southeastern Louisiana is rich in organic carbon (OC). The MRDP contains about 2 percent of all OC in the surface meter of soil/sediment in the Mississippi River Basin (MRB). Environments within the MRDP differ in soil/sediment organic carbon (SOC) accumulation rate, storage, and inventory. The focus of this study was twofold: (1) develop a database for OC and bulk density for MRDP soil/sediment; and (2) estimate SOC storage, inventory, and accumulation rates for the dominant environments (brackish, intermediate, and fresh marsh; natural levee; distributary; backswamp; and swamp) in the MRDP. Comparative studies were conducted to determine which field and laboratory methods result in the most accurate and reproducible bulk-density values for each marsh environment. Sampling methods included push-core, vibracore, peat borer, and Hargis1 sampler. Bulk-density data for cores taken by the 'short push-core method' proved to be more internally consistent than data for samples collected by other methods. Laboratory methods to estimate OC concentration and inorganic-constituent concentration included mass spectrometry, coulometry, and loss-on-ignition. For the sampled MRDP environments, these methods were comparable. SOC storage was calculated for each core with adequate OC and bulk-density data. SOC inventory was calculated using core-specific data from this study and available published and unpublished pedon data linked to SSURGO2 map units. Sample age was estimated using isotopic cesium (137Cs), lead (210Pb), and carbon (14C), elemental Pb, palynomorphs, other stratigraphic markers, and written history. SOC accumulation rates were estimated for each core with adequate age data. Cesium-137 profiles for marsh soil/sediment are the least ambiguous. Levee and distributary 137Cs profiles show the effects of intermittent allochthonous input and/or sediment resuspension. Cesium-137 and 210Pb data gave the most

  15. Production of more durable and sustainable concretes using volcanic scoria as cement replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Swaidani, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate strength and durability-related properties of volcanic scoria-based cements. Compressive and tensile strength development of mortars and concretes containing volcanic scoria with replacement levels ranging from 10 to 35% was investigated. Water permeability, chloride penetrability and porosity of concretes cured for 2, 7, 28, 90 and 180 days were also examined. Results revealed that volcanic scoria could be suitable for making blended cements. The strength of mortar/concrete containing volcanic scoria was lower than that of plain cement mortar/concrete at all ages. However, at 90 day curing, the strengths of volcanic scoria-based mortars/concretes were comparable to those of plain cement. In addition, water permeability, chloride penetrability and porosity of scoria-based concretes were much lower than those of plain concrete. Further, the results were statistically analysed and estimation equations have been developed to predict the studied properties. SEM/EDX analysis was employed, as well. [es

  16. Large-scale volcanism associated with coronae on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, K. Magee; Head, James W.

    1993-01-01

    The formation and evolution of coronae on Venus are thought to be the result of mantle upwellings against the crust and lithosphere and subsequent gravitational relaxation. A variety of other features on Venus have been linked to processes associated with mantle upwelling, including shield volcanoes on large regional rises such as Beta, Atla and Western Eistla Regiones and extensive flow fields such as Mylitta and Kaiwan Fluctus near the Lada Terra/Lavinia Planitia boundary. Of these features, coronae appear to possess the smallest amounts of associated volcanism, although volcanism associated with coronae has only been qualitatively examined. An initial survey of coronae based on recent Magellan data indicated that only 9 percent of all coronae are associated with substantial amounts of volcanism, including interior calderas or edifices greater than 50 km in diameter and extensive, exterior radial flow fields. Sixty-eight percent of all coronae were found to have lesser amounts of volcanism, including interior flooding and associated volcanic domes and small shields; the remaining coronae were considered deficient in associated volcanism. It is possible that coronae are related to mantle plumes or diapirs that are lower in volume or in partial melt than those associated with the large shields or flow fields. Regional tectonics or variations in local crustal and thermal structure may also be significant in determining the amount of volcanism produced from an upwelling. It is also possible that flow fields associated with some coronae are sheet-like in nature and may not be readily identified. If coronae are associated with volcanic flow fields, then they may be a significant contributor to plains formation on Venus, as they number over 300 and are widely distributed across the planet. As a continuation of our analysis of large-scale volcanism on Venus, we have reexamined the known population of coronae and assessed quantitatively the scale of volcanism associated

  17. An update of hydrologic conditions and distribution of selected constituents in water, eastern Snake River Plain aquifer and perched groundwater zones, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, emphasis 2009–11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Linda C.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Rattray, Gordon W.

    2013-01-01

    Since 1952, wastewater discharged to infiltration ponds (also called percolation ponds) and disposal wells at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has affected water quality in the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer and perched groundwater zones underlying the INL. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, maintains groundwater monitoring networks at the INL to determine hydrologic trends, and to delineate the movement of radiochemical and chemical wastes in the aquifer and in perched groundwater zones. This report presents an analysis of water-level and water-quality data collected from aquifer, multilevel monitoring system (MLMS), and perched groundwater wells in the USGS groundwater monitoring networks during 2009–11. Water in the ESRP aquifer primarily moves through fractures and interflow zones in basalt, generally flows southwestward, and eventually discharges at springs along the Snake River. The aquifer primarily is recharged from infiltration of irrigation water, infiltration of streamflow, groundwater inflow from adjoining mountain drainage basins, and infiltration of precipitation. From March–May 2009 to March–May 2011, water levels in wells generally declined in the northern part of the INL. Water levels generally rose in the central and eastern parts of the INL. Detectable concentrations of radiochemical constituents in water samples from aquifer wells or MLMS equipped wells in the ESRP aquifer at the INL generally decreased or remained constant during 2009–11. Decreases in concentrations were attributed to radioactive decay, changes in waste-disposal methods, and dilution from recharge and underflow. In 2011, concentrations of tritium in groundwater from 50 of 127 aquifer wells were greater than or equal to the reporting level and ranged from 200±60 to 7,000±260 picocuries per liter. Tritium concentrations from one or more discrete zones from four wells equipped with MLMS were greater than or

  18. Modeling volcanic ash dispersal

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    The assessment of volcanic fallout hazard is an important scientific, economic, and political issue, especially in densely populated areas. From a scientific point of view, considerable progress has been made during the last two decades through the use of increasingly powerful computational models and capabilities. Nowadays, models are used to quantify hazard...

  19. Stratigraphy of the Caloris Basin, Mercury: Implications for Volcanic History and Basin Impact Melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Carolyn M.; Denevi, Brett W.; Barnouin, Olivier S.; Klimczak, Christian; Chabot, Nancy L.; Head, James W.; Murchie, Scott L.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Prockter, Louis M.; Robinson, Mark S.; hide

    2015-01-01

    Caloris basin, Mercury's youngest large impact basin, is filled by volcanic plains that are spectrally distinct from surrounding material. Post-plains impact craters of a variety of sizes populate the basin interior, and the spectra of the material they have excavated enable the thickness of the volcanic fill to be estimated and reveal the nature of the subsurface. The thickness of the interior volcanic plains is consistently at least 2.5 km, reaching 3.5 km in places, with thinner fill toward the edge of the basin. No systematic variations in fill thickness are observed with long-wavelength topography or azimuth. The lack of correlation between plains thickness and variations in elevation at large horizontal scales within the basin indicates that plains emplacement must have predated most, if not all, of the changes in long-wavelength topography that affected the basin. There are no embayed or unambiguously buried (ghost) craters with diameters greater than 10 km in the Caloris interior plains. The absence of such ghost craters indicates that one or more of the following scenarios must hold: the plains are sufficiently thick to have buried all evidence of craters that formed between the Caloris impact event and the emplacement of the plains; the plains were emplaced soon after basin formation; or the complex tectonic deformation of the basin interior has disguised wrinkle-ridge rings localized by buried craters. That low-reflectance material (LRM) was exposed by every impact that penetrated through the surface volcanic plains provides a means to explore near-surface stratigraphy. If all occurrences of LRM are derived from a single layer, the subsurface LRM deposit is at least 7.5-8.5 km thick and its top likely once made up the Caloris basin floor. The Caloris-forming impact would have generated a layer of impact melt 3-15 km thick; such a layer could account for the entire thickness of LRM. This material would have been derived from a combination of lower crust

  20. Backprojection of volcanic tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Matthew M.

    2014-01-01

    Backprojection has become a powerful tool for imaging the rupture process of global earthquakes. We demonstrate the ability of backprojection to illuminate and track volcanic sources as well. We apply the method to the seismic network from Okmok Volcano, Alaska, at the time of an escalation in tremor during the 2008 eruption. Although we are able to focus the wavefield close to the location of the active cone, the network array response lacks sufficient resolution to reveal kilometer-scale changes in tremor location. By deconvolving the response in successive backprojection images, we enhance resolution and find that the tremor source moved toward an intracaldera lake prior to its escalation. The increased tremor therefore resulted from magma-water interaction, in agreement with the overall phreatomagmatic character of the eruption. Imaging of eruption tremor shows that time reversal methods, such as backprojection, can provide new insights into the temporal evolution of volcanic sources.

  1. Long term acroecosystem research in the Southern Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean L. Steiner; Patrick J. Starks; Jurgen Garbrecht; Daniel Moriasi; Paul Bartholomew; Jim Neel; Kenneth E. Turner; Brian Northup

    2016-01-01

    The Southern Plains (SP) site of the Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network is headquartered at the USDA-ARS Grazinglands Research Laboratory (GRL) in El Reno, Oklahoma. The GRL was established in 1948. A long-term watershed and climate research program was established in the Little Washita River Experimental Watershed (LWREW) in 1961 and in the Fort Cobb...

  2. The intercrater plains of Mercury and the Moon: Their nature, origin and role in terrestrial planet evolution. Geologic map analyses: Correlation of geologic and cratering histories. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    Geologic map analyses are expanded, beginning with a discussion of particular regions which may illustrate volcanic and ballistic plains emplacement on Mercury. Major attention is focused on the surface history of Mercury through discussion of the areal distribution of plains and craters and the paleogeologic maps of the first quadrant. A summary of the lunar intercrater plains formation similarly interrelates the information from the Moon's geologic and cratering histories.

  3. River-corridor habitat dynamics, Lower Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Intensive management of the Missouri River for navigation, flood control, and power generation has resulted in substantial physical changes to the river corridor. Historically, the Missouri River was characterized by a shifting, multithread channel and abundant unvegetated sandbars. The shifting channel provided a wide variety of hydraulic environments and large areas of connected and unconnected off-channel water bodies.Beginning in the early 1800s and continuing to the present, the channel of the Lower Missouri River (downstream from Sioux City, Iowa) has been trained into a fast, deep, single-thread channel to stabilize banks and maintain commercial navigation. Wing dikes now concentrate the flow, and revetments and levees keep the channel in place and disconnect it from the flood plain. In addition, reservoir regulation of the Missouri River upstream of Yankton, South Dakota, has substantially changed the annual hydrograph, sediment loads, temperature regime, and nutrient budgets.While changes to the Missouri River have resulted in broad social and economic benefits, they have also been associated with loss of river-corridor habitats and diminished populations of native fish and wildlife species. Today, Missouri River stakeholders are seeking ways to restore some natural ecosystem benefits of the Lower Missouri River without compromising traditional economic uses of the river and flood plain.

  4. The History of the Environmental Conditions Research in the Braila Plain

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Gabriela Turtureanu

    2015-01-01

    The Romanian Plain has generally represented the study subject of research in the field of Geography and especially of the environment geography and resources. Due to the structure and the geological movements of the climate factors, the hydrography in the area of the Braila Plain has represents a subject of many geographers‘ interest. The divagation and the leaving of the water course phenomena of some rivers, the genesis and the classification of lake basins, underground waters, the links t...

  5. The History of the Environmental Conditions Research in the Brăila Plain

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Gabriela Turtureanu

    2015-01-01

    The Romanian Plain has generally represented the study subject of research in the field of Geography and especially of the environment geography and resources. Due to the structure and the geological movements of the climate factors, the hydrography in the area of the Braila Plain has represents a subject of many geographers‘ interest. The divagation and the leaving of the water course phenomena of some rivers, the genesis and the classification of lake basins, underground waters,...

  6. The volcanic foundation of Dutch architecture : Use of Rhenish tuff and trass in the Netherlands in the past two millennia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, TG; van Hees, R.P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Occasionally, a profound but distant connection between volcano and culture exists. This is the case between the volcanic Eifel region in Germany and historic construction in the Netherlands, with the river Rhine as physical and enabling connection. Volcanic tuff from the Eifel comprises a

  7. Evidence for volcanism in NW Ishtar Terra, Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaddis, L.; Greeley, R.

    1989-01-01

    Venera 15/16 radar data for an area in NW Ishtar Terra, Venus, show an area with moderate radar return and a smooth textured surface which embays low lying areas of the surrounding mountainous terrain. Although this unit may be an extension of the lava plains of Lakshmi Planum to the southeast, detailed study suggests a separate volcanic center in NW Ishtar Terra. Lakshmi Planum, on the Ishtar Terra highland, exhibits major volcanic and tectonic features. On the Venera radar image radar brightness is influenced by slope and roughness; radar-facing slopes (east-facing) and rough surfaces (approx. 8 cm average relief) are bright, while west-facing slopes and smooth surfaces are dark. A series of semi-circular features, apparently topographic depressions, do not conform in orientation to major structural trends in this region of NW Ishtar Terra. The large depression in NW Ishtar Terra is similar to the calderas of Colette and Sacajawea Paterae, as all three structures are large irregular depressions. NW Ishtar Terra appears to be the site of a volcanic center with a complex caldera structure, possibly more than one eruptive vent, and associated lobed flows at lower elevations. The morphologic similarity between this volcanic center and those of Colette and Sacajawea suggests that centralized eruptions have been the dominant form of volcanism in Ishtar. The location of this volcanic center at the intersection of two major compressional mountain belts and the large size of the calders (with an inferred larg/deep magma source) support a crustal thickening/melting rather than a hot-spot origin for these magmas

  8. Woodville Karst Plain, North Florida

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Map showing the largest mapped underwater cave systems and conduit flow paths confirmed by tracer testing relative to surface streams, sinkholes and potentiometric surface of the Florida aquifer in the Woodville Karst Plain, Florida

  9. Methods to estimate annual mean spring discharge to the Snake River between Milner Dam and King Hill, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjelstrom, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    Many individual springs and groups of springs discharge water from volcanic rocks that form the north canyon wall of the Snake River between Milner Dam and King Hill. Previous estimates of annual mean discharge from these springs have been used to understand the hydrology of the eastern part of the Snake River Plain. Four methods that were used in previous studies or developed to estimate annual mean discharge since 1902 were (1) water-budget analysis of the Snake River; (2) correlation of water-budget estimates with discharge from 10 index springs; (3) determination of the combined discharge from individual springs or groups of springs by using annual discharge measurements of 8 springs, gaging-station records of 4 springs and 3 sites on the Malad River, and regression equations developed from 5 of the measured springs; and (4) a single regression equation that correlates gaging-station records of 2 springs with historical water-budget estimates. Comparisons made among the four methods of estimating annual mean spring discharges from 1951 to 1959 and 1963 to 1980 indicated that differences were about equivalent to a measurement error of 2 to 3 percent. The method that best demonstrates the response of annual mean spring discharge to changes in ground-water recharge and discharge is method 3, which combines the measurements and regression estimates of discharge from individual springs.

  10. Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site: Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC. National Register of Historic Places.

    This guide provides history and social studies teachers, at all grade levels, with information and activities about the American Indians of the Northern Plains who lived in the area of the Knife River where it enters the Missouri River. Located in what is now North Dakota, this area is the Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site. The…

  11. Volcanic risk; Risque volcanique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rancon, J.P.; Baubron, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    This project follows the previous multi-disciplinary studies carried out by the French Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM) on the two active volcanoes of the French lesser Antilles: Mt Pelee (Martinique) and Soufriere (Guadeloupe) for which geological maps and volcanic risk studies have been achieved. The research program comprises 5 parts: the study of pyroclastic deposits from recent eruptions of the two volcanoes for a better characterization of their eruptive phenomenology and a better definition of crisis scenarios; the study of deposits and structures of active volcanoes from Central America and the study of eruptive dynamics of andesite volcanoes for a transposition to Antilles` volcanoes; the starting of a methodological multi-disciplinary research (volcanology, geography, sociology...) on the volcanic risk analysis and on the management of a future crisis; and finally, the development of geochemical survey techniques (radon, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O) on active volcanoes of Costa-Rica and Europe (Fournaise, Furnas, Etna) and their application to the Soufriere. (J.S.). 9 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Volcanic Eruptions and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGrande, Allegra N.; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions represent some of the most climatically important and societally disruptive short-term events in human history. Large eruptions inject ash, dust, sulfurous gases (e.g. SO2, H2S), halogens (e.g. Hcl and Hbr), and water vapor into the Earth's atmosphere. Sulfurous emissions principally interact with the climate by converting into sulfate aerosols that reduce incoming solar radiation, warming the stratosphere and altering ozone creation, reducing global mean surface temperature, and suppressing the hydrological cycle. In this issue, we focus on the history, processes, and consequences of these large eruptions that inject enough material into the stratosphere to significantly affect the climate system. In terms of the changes wrought on the energy balance of the Earth System, these transient events can temporarily have a radiative forcing magnitude larger than the range of solar, greenhouse gas, and land use variability over the last millennium. In simulations as well as modern and paleoclimate observations, volcanic eruptions cause large inter-annual to decadal-scale changes in climate. Active debates persist concerning their role in longer-term (multi-decadal to centennial) modification of the Earth System, however.

  13. Friction in volcanic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Jackie E.; Lavallée, Yan

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic landscapes are amongst the most dynamic on Earth and, as such, are particularly susceptible to failure and frictional processes. In rocks, damage accumulation is frequently accompanied by the release of seismic energy, which has been shown to accelerate in the approach to failure on both a field and laboratory scale. The point at which failure occurs is highly dependent upon strain-rate, which also dictates the slip-zone properties that pertain beyond failure, in scenarios such as sector collapse and pyroclastic flows as well as the ascent of viscous magma. High-velocity rotary shear (HVR) experiments have provided new opportunities to overcome the grand challenge of understanding faulting processes during volcanic phenomena. Work on granular ash material demonstrates that at ambient temperatures, ash gouge behaves according to Byerlee's rule at low slip velocities, but is slip-weakening, becoming increasingly lubricating as slip ensues. In absence of ash along a slip plane, rock-rock friction induces cataclasis and heating which, if sufficient, may induce melting (producing pseudotachylyte) and importantly, vesiculation. The viscosity of the melt, so generated, controls the subsequent lubrication or resistance to slip along the fault plane thanks to non-Newtonian suspension rheology. The shear-thinning behaviour and viscoelasticity of frictional melts yield a tendency for extremely unstable slip, and occurrence of frictional melt fragmentation. This velocity-dependence acts as an important feedback mechanism on the slip plane, in addition to the bulk composition, mineralogy and glass content of the magma, that all influence frictional behaviour. During sector collapse events and in pyroclastic density currents it is the frictional properties of the rocks and ash that, in-part, control the run-out distance and associated risk. In addition, friction plays an important role in the eruption of viscous magmas: In the conduit, the rheology of magma is integral

  14. Post-Columbia River Basalt Group stratigraphy and map compilation of the Columbia Plateau, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooqui, S.M.; Bunker, R.C.; Thoms, R.E.; Clayton, D.C.; Bela, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report presents the results of reconnaissance mapping of sedimentary deposits and volcanic rocks overlying the Columbia River Basalt. The project area covers parts of the Dalles, Pendleton, Grangeville, Baker, Canyon City, and Bend. The mapping was done to provide stratigraphic data on the sedimentary deposits and volcanic rocks overlying the Columbia River Basalt Group. 160 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab

  15. Long-term Agroecosystem Research in the Northern Great Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmer, M.; Sanderson, M.; Liebig, M. A.; Wienhold, B.; Awada, T.; Papiernik, S.; Osborne, S.; Kemp, W.; Okalebo, J. A.; Riedall, W.

    2015-12-01

    The Northern Great Plains is the bread basket of the United States, accounting for a substantial portion of U.S. agricultural production. This region faces critical challenges regarding balancing food needs, resource conservation (e.g Ogallala aquifer), environmental concerns, and rural economy development. Developing transformative, multifunctional systems will require equally imaginative and efficient tools to help farmers manage complex agroecosystems in a rapidly changing climate. The Northern Plains long-term agroecosystem research (LTAR) site at Mandan, ND and the Platte River High Plains LTAR (ARS/University of Nebraska-Lincoln) at Lincoln, NE in collaboration with USDA-ARS research units in Brookings, SD and Fargo, ND are collaborating to address the grand challenge of providing and sustaining multiple service provisions from Northern Great Plains agroecosystems. We propose to attain these goals through sustainable intensification based on the adoption of conservation agriculture principles including reduced soil disturbance, livestock integration, and greater complexity and diversity in the cropping system. Here, we summarize new concepts these locations have pioneered in dynamic cropping systems, resource use efficiency, and agricultural management technologies. As part of the LTAR network, we will conduct long-term cross-site research to design and assess new agricultural practices and systems aimed at improving our understanding of decision making processes and outcomes across an array of agricultural systems.

  16. Dendroclimatic potential of plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. monilifera) from the Northern Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonson, Jesse; Friedman, Jonathan; Meko, David; Touchan, Ramzi; Scott, Julian; Edmonson, Alan

    2014-01-01

    A new 368-year tree-ring chronology (A.D. 1643–2010) has been developed in western North Dakota using plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. monilifera) growing on the relatively undisturbed floodplain of the Little Missouri River in the North Unit of Theodore Roosevelt National Park. We document many slow-growing living trees between 150–370 years old that contradict the common understanding that cottonwoods grow fast and die young. In this northern location, cottonwood produces distinct annual rings with dramatic interannual variability that strongly crossdate. The detrended tree-ring chronology is significantly positively correlated with local growing season precipitation and soil moisture conditions (r  =  0.69). This time series shows periods of prolonged low radial tree growth during the known droughts of the instrumental record (e.g. 1931–1939 and 1980–1981) and also during prehistory (e.g. 1816–1823 and 1856–1865) when other paleoclimate studies have documented droughts in this region. Tree rings of cottonwood will be a useful tool to help reconstruct climate, streamflow, and the floodplain history of the Little Missouri River and other northern river systems.

  17. Closer look at lunar volcanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaniman, D.T.; Heiken, G.; Taylor, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    Although the American Apollo and Soviet Luna missions concentrated on mare basalt samples, major questions remain about lunar volcanism. Lunar field work will be indispensable for resolving the scientific questions about ages, compositions, and eruption processes of lunar volcanism. From a utilitarian standpoint, a better knowledge of lunar volcanism will also yield profitable returns in lunar base construction (e.g., exploitation of rille or lava-tube structures) and in access to materials such as volatile elements, pure glass, or ilmenite for lunar industry

  18. Estimation of age of Dali-Ganis rifting and associated volcanic activity, Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, A. T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper deals with the estimation of age for the Dali and Ganis Chasma rift zones and their associated volcanism based on photogeologic analysis of stratigraphic relations of rift-associated features with impact craters which have associated features indicative of their age. The features are radar-dark and parabolic, and they are believed to be mantles of debris derived from fallout of the craters' ejecta. They are thought to be among the youngest features on the Venusian surface, so their 'parent' craters must also be very young, evidently among the youngest 10 percent of Venus' crater population. Dali Chasma and Ganis Chasma are a part of a system of rift zones contained within eastern Aphrodite and Atla Regio which is a significant component of Venus tectonics. The rifts of this system are fracture belts which dissect typical Venusian plains with rare islands of tessera terrain. The rift zone system consists of several segments following each other (Diane, Dali, Ganis) and forming the major rift zone line, about 10,000 km long, which has junctions with several other rift zones, including Parga Chasma Rift. The junctions are usually locations of rift-associated volcanism in the form of volcanic edifices (Maat and Ozza Montes) or plain-forming flows flooding some areas within the rift zones and the adjacent plains.

  19. Research and absence of bats across habitat scales in the upper coastal plain of South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Mark Ford; Jennifer M. Menzel; Michael A. Menzel; John W. Edwards; John C. Kilgo

    2006-01-01

    During 2001, we used active acoustical sampling (Anabat 11) to survey foraging habitat relationships of bats on the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Using an a priori information-theoretic approach, we conducted logistic regression analysis to examine presence of individual bat species relative to a suite of microhabitat, stand,...

  20. Volcanology: Volcanic bipolar disorder explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinek, Mark

    2014-02-01

    Eruptions come in a range of magnitudes. Numerical simulations and laboratory experiments show that rare, giant super-eruptions and smaller, more frequent events reflect a transition in the essential driving forces for volcanism.

  1. Lidar sounding of volcanic plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorani, Luca; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Angelini, Federico; Borelli, Rodolfo; Del Franco, Mario; Murra, Daniele; Pistilli, Marco; Puiu, Adriana; Santoro, Simone

    2013-10-01

    Accurate knowledge of gas composition in volcanic plumes has high scientific and societal value. On the one hand, it gives information on the geophysical processes taking place inside volcanos; on the other hand, it provides alert on possible eruptions. For this reasons, it has been suggested to monitor volcanic plumes by lidar. In particular, one of the aims of the FP7 ERC project BRIDGE is the measurement of CO2 concentration in volcanic gases by differential absorption lidar. This is a very challenging task due to the harsh environment, the narrowness and weakness of the CO2 absorption lines and the difficulty to procure a suitable laser source. This paper, after a review on remote sensing of volcanic plumes, reports on the current progress of the lidar system.

  2. Volcanic eruption plumes on Io

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strom, R.G.; Terrile, R.J.; Masursky, H.; Hansen, C.

    1979-01-01

    The detection of an umbrella-shaped plume extending about 280 km above the bright limb of Io was one of the most important discoveries made during the Voyager 1 encounter with the jovian system. This discovery proves that Io is volcanically active at present, and the number and magnitude of these eruptions indicate that Io is the most volcanically active body so far discovered in the Solar System. Preliminary analyses of these eruptive plumes are presented. (U.K.)

  3. Volcanic hazards and aviation safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Thomas J.; Thompson, Theodore B.; Ewert, John W.; ,

    1996-01-01

    An aeronautical chart was developed to determine the relative proximity of volcanoes or ash clouds to the airports and flight corridors that may be affected by volcanic debris. The map aims to inform and increase awareness about the close spatial relationship between volcanoes and aviation operations. It shows the locations of the active volcanoes together with selected aeronautical navigation aids and great-circle routes. The map mitigates the threat that volcanic hazards pose to aircraft and improves aviation safety.

  4. Volcanic crisis in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mgs. Víctor Manuel Pérez Martínez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is the result of an investigation which is focussed on some deontological aspects of the scientificjournalism. In the first place it gives a theoretical vision about science, journalism, internet and including some reflectionsabout the deontological principles in handling the information about science and technology. This focus is useful as it formsthe base of an investigation where we deal with the information about a possible ”volcanic crisis” in El Teide during the years2004-2005 done by the digital newspaper” El Dïa” a canarian newspaper from Tenerife. The work required the revision of theinformation which was published and a followed analysis of its context. It was used the digital version with the purpose ofvisualizing the news which was published. It was also compared with a printed version, with local cover but divulged theinformation to the public who was most affected by this particular news. The results give rise to some questions regardinghow the information is given to a topic which is of local interest as well as national and international interest due to therepercussions in the social, economical and tourist field (the tourist field is the main industrial sector in Tenerife by receivingthis type of news.

  5. 49 CFR 229.64 - Plain bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plain bearings. 229.64 Section 229.64 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION....64 Plain bearings. A plain bearing box shall contain visible free oil and may not be cracked to the...

  6. Geomorphology and river dynamics of the lower Copper River, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabets, Timothy P.; Conaway, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Located in south-central Alaska, the Copper River drains an area of more than 24,000 square miles. The average annual flow of the river near its mouth is 63,600 cubic feet per second, but is highly variable between winter and summer. In the winter, flow averages approximately 11,700 cubic feet per second, and in the summer, due to snowmelt, rainfall, and glacial melt, flow averages approximately 113,000 cubic feet per second, an order of magnitude higher. About 15 miles upstream of its mouth, the Copper River flows past the face of Childs Glacier and enters a large, broad, delta. The Copper River Highway traverses this flood plain, and in 2008, 11 bridges were located along this section of the highway. The bridges cross several parts of the Copper River and in recent years, the changing course of the river has seriously damaged some of the bridges.Analysis of aerial photography from 1991, 1996, 2002, 2006, and 2007 indicates the eastward migration of a channel of the Copper River that has resulted in damage to the Copper River Highway near Mile 43.5. Migration of another channel in the flood plain has resulted in damage to the approach of Bridge 339. As a verification of channel change, flow measurements were made at bridges along the Copper River Highway in 2005–07. Analysis of the flow measurements indicate that the total flow of the Copper River has shifted from approximately 50 percent passing through the bridges at Mile 27, near the western edge of the flood plain, and 50 percent passing through the bridges at Mile 36–37 to approximately 5 percent passing through the bridges at Mile 27 and 95 percent through the bridges at Mile 36–37 during average flow periods.The U.S. Geological Survey’s Multi-Dimensional Surface-Water Modeling System was used to simulate water-surface elevation and velocity, and to compute bed shear stress at two areas where the Copper River is affecting the Copper River Highway. After calibration, the model was used to examine the

  7. The intercrater plains of Mercury and the Moon: Their nature, origin and role in terrestrial planet evolution. Cratering histories of the intercrater plains. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    The intercrater plains of Mercury and the Moon are defined, in part, by their high densities of small craters. The crater size frequency statistics presented in this chapter may help constrain the relative ages and origins of these surfaces. To this end, the effects of common geologic processes on crater frequency statistics are compared with the diameter frequency distributions of the intercrater regions of the Moon and Mercury. Such analyses may determine whether secondary craters dominate the distribution at small diameters, and whether volcanic plains or ballistic deposits form the intercrater surface. Determining the mass frequency distribution and flux of the impacting population is a more difficult problem. The necessary information such as scaling relationships between projectile energy and crater diameter, the relative fluxes of solar system objects, and the absolute ages of surface units is model dependent and poorly constrained, especially for Mercury.

  8. The intercrater plains of Mercury and the Moon: Their nature, origin and role in terrestrial planet evolution. Chronology of surface history of the Moon. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    The sequence of events is described that occurred from the time that the ancient lunar crust solidified (about 4.4. billion years ago) and anorthositic high lands dominated the surface, until the global contraction (cooling) that began around 3.3 billion years ago when late stage basalts were emplaced at basin margins where fractures penetrated to subsurface tensional zones. The lunar intercrater plains may be linked with early KREEP volcanism, the LKFM basalt source region, and the first stages of mare volcanism. Ages of KREEP bracket the possible ages of the pre-Imbrian plains, and overlap the initial stages of mare basalt emplacement. Both plains are extruded under the same tensional tectonic regime.

  9. Climatic impact of volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampino, Michael R.

    1991-01-01

    Studies have attempted to 'isolate' the volcanic signal in noisy temperature data. This assumes that it is possible to isolate a distinct volcanic signal in a record that may have a combination of forcings (ENSO, solar variability, random fluctuations, volcanism) that all interact. The key to discovering the greatest effects of volcanoes on short-term climate may be to concentrate on temperatures in regions where the effects of aerosol clouds may be amplified by perturbed atmospheric circulation patterns. This is especially true in subpolar and midlatitude areas affected by changes in the position of the polar front. Such climatic perturbation can be detected in proxy evidence such as decrease in tree-ring widths and frost rings, changes in the treeline, weather anomalies, severity of sea-ice in polar and subpolar regions, and poor grain yields and crop failures. In low latitudes, sudden temperature drops were correlated with the passage overhead of the volcanic dust cloud (Stothers, 1984). For some eruptions, such as Tambora, 1815, these kinds of proxy and anectdotal information were summarized in great detail in a number of papers and books (e.g., Post, 1978; Stothers, 1984; Stommel and Stommel, 1986; C. R. Harrington, in press). These studies lead to the general conclusion that regional effects on climate, sometimes quite severe, may be the major impact of large historical volcanic aerosol clouds.

  10. Rate of volcanism on Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fegley, B. Jr.; Prinn, R.G.

    1988-07-01

    The maintenance of the global H 2 SO 4 clouds on Venus requires volcanism to replenish the atmospheric SO 2 which is continually being removed from the atmosphere by reaction with calcium minerals on the surface of Venus. The first laboratory measurements of the rate of one such reaction, between SO 2 and calcite (CaCO 3 ) to form anhydrite (CaSO 4 ), are reported. If the rate of this reaction is representative of the SO 2 reaction rate at the Venus surface, then we estimate that all SO 2 in the Venus atmosphere (and thus the H 2 SO 4 clouds) will be removed in 1.9 million years unless the lost SO 2 is replenished by volcanism. The required rate of volcanism ranges from about 0.4 to about 11 cu km of magma erupted per year, depending on the assumed sulfur content of the erupted material. If this material has the same composition as the Venus surface at the Venera 13, 14 and Vega 2 landing sites, then the required rate of volcanism is about 1 cu km per year. This independent geochemically estimated rate can be used to determine if either (or neither) of the two discordant (2 cu km/year vs. 200 to 300 cu km/year) geophysically estimated rates is correct. The geochemically estimated rate also suggests that Venus is less volcanically active than the Earth

  11. Changes in plain bearing technology

    CERN Document Server

    Koring, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    A unique fusion of theoretical and practical knowledge, Changes in Plain Bearing Technology, by Rolf Koring, covers a meaningful range of expertise in this field.Drawing from years of experience in design development, materials selection, and their correlation to real-life part failure, this title, co-published by SAE International and expert Verlag (Germany), concentrates on hydrodynamic bearings lined with white metals, also known as Babbits.Written under the assumption that even the most mature body of knowledge can be revisited and improved, Changes in Plain Bearing Technology is a courageous and focused approach to questioning accepted test results and looking at alternative material compounds, and their application suitability.The process, which leads to innovative answers on how the technology is transforming itself to respond to new market requirements, shows how interdisciplinary thinking can recognize new potential in long-established industrial modus operandi.Tackling the highly complex issue of co...

  12. Origin and potential geothermal significance of China Hat and other late Pleistocene topaz rhyolite lava domes of the Blackfoot Volcanic Field, SE Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurry, M. O.; Pearson, D. M.; Welhan, J. A.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.; Fisher, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Snake River Plain and neighboring regions are well known for their high heat flow and robust Neogene-Quaternary tectonic and magmatic activity. Interestingly, however, there are comparatively few surficial manifestations of geothermal activity. This study is part of a renewed examination of this region as a possible hidden or blind geothermal resource. We present a testable, integrated volcanological, petrogenetic, tectonic and hydrothermal conceptual model for 57 ka China Hat and cogenetic topaz rhyolite lava domes of the Blackfoot Volcanic Field. This field is well suited for analysis as a blind resource because of its distinctive combination of (1) young bimodal volcanism, petrogenetic evidence of shallow magma storage and evolution, presence of coeval extension, voluminous travertine deposits, and C- and He-isotopic evidence of active magma degassing; (2) a paucity of hot springs or other obvious indicators of a geothermal resource in the immediate vicinity of the lava domes; and (3) proximity to a region of high crustal heat flow, high-T geothermal fluids at 2.5-5 km depth and micro-seismicity characterized by its swarming nature. Eruptions of both basalt and rhyolite commonly evolve from minor phreatomagmatic to effusive. In our model, transport of both magmatic and possible deep crustal aqueous fluids may be controlled by preexisting crustal structures, including west-dipping thrust faults. Geochemical evolution of rhyolite magma is dominated by mid- to upper-crustal fractional crystallization (with pre-eruption storage and phenocryst formation at ~14 km). Approximately 1.2 km3 of topaz rhyolite have been erupted since 1.4 Ma, yielding an average eruption rate of 0.8 km3/m.y. Given reasonable assumptions of magma cumulate formation and eruption rates, and initial and final volatile concentrations, we infer average H2O and CO2 volatile fluxes from the rhyolite source region of ~2MT/year and 340 T/day, respectively. Lithium flux may be comparable to CO2.

  13. Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, John

    2014-05-01

    Welcome to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). It is very important that all visitors comply with all DOE and ANL safety requirements, as well as those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and with other requirements as applicable.

  14. Volcanic Eruptions in Kamchatka

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Sheveluch Stratovolcano Click on the image for full resolution TIFF Klyuchevskoy Stratovolcano Click on the image for full resolution TIFF One of the most volcanically active regions of the world is the Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Siberia, Russia. It is not uncommon for several volcanoes to be erupting at the same time. On April 26, 2007, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radioneter (ASTER) on NASA's Terra spacecraft captured these images of the Klyuchevskoy and Sheveluch stratovolcanoes, erupting simultaneously, and 80 kilometers (50 miles) apart. Over Klyuchevskoy, the thermal infrared data (overlaid in red) indicates that two open-channel lava flows are descending the northwest flank of the volcano. Also visible is an ash-and-water plume extending to the east. Sheveluch volcano is partially cloud-covered. The hot flows highlighted in red come from a lava dome at the summit. They are avalanches of material from the dome, and pyroclastic flows. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and

  15. Geology and geophysics of the southern Raft River Valley geothermal area, Idaho, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul L.; Mabey, Don R.; Zohdy, Adel A.R.; Ackermann, Hans D.; Hoover, Donald B.; Pierce, Kenneth L.; Oriel, Steven S.

    1976-01-01

    The Raft River valley, near the boundary of the Snake River plain with the Basin and Range province, is a north-trending late Cenozoic downwarp bounded by faults on the west, south, and east. Pleistocene alluvium and Miocene-Pliocene tuffaceous sediments, conglomerate, and felsic volcanic rocks aggregate 2 km in thickness. Large gravity, magnetic, and total field resistivity highs probably indicate a buried igneous mass that is too old to serve as a heat source. Differing seismic velocities relate to known or inferred structures and to a suspected shallow zone of warm water. Resistivity anomalies reflect differences of both composition and degree of alteration of Cenozoic rocks. Resistivity soundings show a 2 to 5 ohm·m unit with a thickness of 1 km beneath a large part of the valley, and the unit may indicate partly hot water and partly clayey sediments. Observed self-potential anomalies are believed to indicate zones where warm water rises toward the surface. Boiling wells at Bridge, Idaho are near the intersection of north-northeast normal faults which have moved as recently as the late (?) Pleistocene, and an east-northeast structure, probably a right-lateral fault. Deep circulation of ground water in this region of relatively high heat flow and upwelling along faults is the probable cause of the thermal anomaly.

  16. Sediment transport in headwaters of a volcanic catchment—Kamchatka Peninsula case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalov, Sergey R.; Tsyplenkov, Anatolii S.; Pietron, Jan; Chalova, Aleksandra S.; Shkolnyi, Danila I.; Jarsjö, Jerker; Maerker, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Due to specific environmental conditions, headwater catchments located on volcanic slopes and valleys are characterized by distinctive hydrology and sediment transport patterns. However, lack of sufficient monitoring causes that the governing processes and patterns in these areas are rarely well understood. In this study, spatiotemporal water discharge and sediment transport from upstream sources was investigated in one of the numerous headwater catchments located in the lahar valleys of the Kamchatka Peninsula Sukhaya Elizovskaya River near Avachinskii and Koryakskii volcanoes. Three different subcatchments and corresponding channel types (wandering rivers within lahar valleys, mountain rivers within volcanic slopes and rivers within submountain terrains) were identified in the studied area. Our measurements from different periods of observations between years 2012-2014 showed that the studied catchment was characterized by extreme diurnal fluctuation of water discharges and sediment loads that were influenced by snowmelt patterns and high infiltration rates of the easily erodible lahar deposits. The highest recorded sediment loads were up to 9•104 mg/L which was related to an increase of two orders of magnitude within a one day of observations. Additionally, to get a quantitative estimate of the spatial distribution of the eroded material in the volcanic substrates we applied an empirical soil erosion and sediment yield model-modified universal soil loss equation (MUSLE). The modeling results showed that even if the applications of the universal erosion model to different non-agricultural areas (e.g., volcanic catchments) can lead to irrelevant results, the MUSLE model delivered might be acceptable for non-lahar areas of the studied volcanic catchment. Overall the results of our study increase our understanding of the hydrology and associated sediment transport for prediction of risk management within headwater volcanic catchments.

  17. Volcanic eruptions and solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothers, Richard B.

    1989-01-01

    The historical record of large volcanic eruptions from 1500 to 1980 is subjected to detailed time series analysis. In two weak but probably statistically significant periodicities of about 11 and 80 yr, the frequency of volcanic eruptions increases (decreases) slightly around the times of solar minimum (maximum). Time series analysis of the volcanogenic acidities in a deep ice core from Greenland reveals several very long periods ranging from about 80 to about 350 yr which are similar to the very slow solar cycles previously detected in auroral and C-14 records. Solar flares may cause changes in atmospheric circulation patterns that abruptly alter the earth's spin. The resulting jolt probably triggers small earthquakes which affect volcanism.

  18. The Lathrop Wells volcanic center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.; Morley, R.

    1992-01-01

    The Lathrop Wells volcanic center is located 20 km south of the potential Yucca Mountain site, at the south end of the Yucca Mountain range. This paper discusses a detailed Study Plan which was prepared describing planned geochronology and field studies to assess the chronology of the Lathrop Wells volcanic center and other Quaternary volcanic centers in the region. A paper was published discussing the geomorphic and soil evidence for a late Pleistocene or Holoceno age for the main cone of the center. The purpose of this paper was to expose the ideas concerning the age of the Lathrop Wells center to scientific scrutiny. Additionally, field evidence was described suggesting the Lathrop Wells center may have formed from multiple eruptive events with significant intervals of no activity between events. This interpretation breaks with established convention in the volcanological literature that small volume basalt centers are monogenetic

  19. The History of the Environmental Conditions Research in the Brăila Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Gabriela Turtureanu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian Plain has generally represented the study subject of research in the field of Geography and especially of the environment geography and resources. Due to the structure and the geological movements of the climate factors, the hydrography in the area of the Braila Plain has represents a subject of many geographers‘ interest. The divagation and the leaving of the water course phenomena of some rivers, the genesis and the classification of lake basins, underground waters, the links that are established between these hydrographical units, the water balance, the water chemism, the existence of the oil and gas resources made the researchers study them as a whole.

  20. Huygens Crater: Insights into Noachian Volcanism, Stratigraphy, and Aqueous Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackiss, S. E.; Wray, J. J.; Seelos, K. D.; Niles, P. B.

    2015-01-01

    Huygens crater is a well preserved peak ring structure on Mars centered at 13.5 deg S, 55.5 deg E in the Noachian highlands between Terras Tyrrhena and Sabaea near the NW rim of Hellas basin. With a diameter of approximately 470 km, it uplifted and exhumed pre-Noachian crustal materials from depths greater than 25 km, penetrating below the thick, ubiquitous layer of Hellas ejecta. In addition, Huygens served as a basin for subsequent aqueous activity, including erosion/deposition by fluvial valley networks and subsurface alteration that is now exposed by smaller impacts. Younger mafic-bearing plains that partially cover the basin floor and surrounding intercrater areas were likely emplaced by later volcanism.

  1. Recurrence models of volcanic events: Applications to volcanic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.; Picard, R.; Valentine, G.; Perry, F.V.

    1992-01-01

    An assessment of the risk of future volcanism has been conducted for isolation of high-level radioactive waste at the potential Yucca Mountain site in southern Nevada. Risk used in this context refers to a combined assessment of the probability and consequences of future volcanic activity. Past studies established bounds on the probability of magmatic disruption of a repository. These bounds were revised as additional data were gathered from site characterization studies. The probability of direct intersection of a potential repository located in an eight km 2 area of Yucca Mountain by ascending basalt magma was bounded by the range of 10 -8 to 10 -10 yr -1 2 . The consequences of magmatic disruption of a repository were estimated in previous studies to be limited. The exact releases from such an event are dependent on the strike of an intruding basalt dike relative to the repository geometry, the timing of the basaltic event relative to the age of the radioactive waste and the mechanisms of release and dispersal of the waste radionuclides in the accessible environment. The combined low probability of repository disruption and the limited releases associated with this event established the basis for the judgement that the risk of future volcanism was relatively low. It was reasoned that that risk of future volcanism was not likely to result in disqualification of the potential Yucca Mountain site

  2. Modeling Spatial and Temporal Changes in Groundwater Quality in Arid Zones Using Geostatistical Methods(Case Study: Koohpaye– Segzi Plain in Esfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Abbasi Jondani

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: The resultsshow thatwaterquality inKoohpaye– SegziPlainhavedramaticallyreduced in 1389than in1374.Most ofthechangeshave been occurrednearzayanderood river, as critical points have been appeared in Southern area of this plain. This show the effective role of zayanderood river in groundwater aquifer.

  3. The Volcanism Ontology (VO): a model of the volcanic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, J.; Babaie, H. A.

    2017-12-01

    We have modeled a part of the complex material and process entities and properties of the volcanic system in the Volcanism Ontology (VO) applying several top-level ontologies such as Basic Formal Ontology (BFO), SWEET, and Ontology of Physics for Biology (OPB) within a single framework. The continuant concepts in BFO describe features with instances that persist as wholes through time and have qualities (attributes) that may change (e.g., state, composition, and location). In VO, the continuants include lava, volcanic rock, and volcano. The occurrent concepts in BFO include processes, their temporal boundaries, and the spatio-temporal regions within which they occur. In VO, these include eruption (process), the onset of pyroclastic flow (temporal boundary), and the space and time span of the crystallization of lava in a lava tube (spatio-temporal region). These processes can be of physical (e.g., debris flow, crystallization, injection), atmospheric (e.g., vapor emission, ash particles blocking solar radiation), hydrological (e.g., diffusion of water vapor, hot spring), thermal (e.g., cooling of lava) and other types. The properties (predicates) relate continuants to other continuants, occurrents to continuants, and occurrents to occurrents. The ontology also models other concepts such as laboratory and field procedures by volcanologists, sampling by sensors, and the type of instruments applied in monitoring volcanic activity. When deployed on the web, VO will be used to explicitly and formally annotate data and information collected by volcanologists based on domain knowledge. This will enable the integration of global volcanic data and improve the interoperability of software that deal with such data.

  4. Late Miocene-Pleistocene evolution of a Rio Grande rift subbasin, Sunshine Valley-Costilla Plain, San Luis Basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruleman, C.A.; Thompson, R.A.; Shroba, R.R.; Anderson, M.; Drenth, B.J.; Rotzien, J.; Lyon, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Sunshine Valley-Costilla Plain, a structural subbasin of the greater San Luis Basin of the northern Rio Grande rift, is bounded to the north and south by the San Luis Hills and the Red River fault zone, respectively. Surficial mapping, neotectonic investigations, geochronology, and geophysics demonstrate that the structural, volcanic, and geomorphic evolution of the basin involves the intermingling of climatic cycles and spatially and temporally varying tectonic activity of the Rio Grande rift system. Tectonic activity has transferred between range-bounding and intrabasin faults creating relict landforms of higher tectonic-activity rates along the mountain-piedmont junction. Pliocene–Pleistocene average long-term slip rates along the southern Sangre de Cristo fault zone range between 0.1 and 0.2 mm/year with late Pleistocene slip rates approximately half (0.06 mm/year) of the longer Quaternary slip rate. During the late Pleistocene, climatic influences have been dominant over tectonic influences on mountain-front geomorphic processes. Geomorphic evidence suggests that this once-closed subbasin was integrated into the Rio Grande prior to the integration of the once-closed northern San Luis Basin, north of the San Luis Hills, Colorado; however, deep canyon incision, north of the Red River and south of the San Luis Hills, initiated relatively coeval to the integration of the northern San Luis Basin.Long-term projections of slip rates applied to a 1.6 km basin depth defined from geophysical modeling suggests that rifting initiated within this subbasin between 20 and 10 Ma. Geologic mapping and geophysical interpretations reveal a complex network of northwest-, northeast-, and north-south–trending faults. Northwest- and northeast-trending faults show dual polarity and are crosscut by north-south– trending faults. This structural model possibly provides an analog for how some intracontinental rift structures evolve through time.

  5. Candidate constructional volcanic edifices on Mercury

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, J.; Rothery, D. A.; Balme, M. R.; Conway, S. J.

    2018-01-01

    [Introduction] Studies using MESSENGER data suggest that Mercury’s crust is predominantly a product of effusive volcanism that occurred in the first billion years following the planet’s formation. Despite this planet-wide effusive volcanism, no constructional volcanic edifices, characterized by a topographic rise, have hitherto been robustly identified on Mercury, whereas constructional volcanoes are common on other planetary bodies in the solar system with volcanic histories. Here, we descri...

  6. Disruptive event analysis: volcanism and igneous intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.

    1979-01-01

    Three basic topics are addressed for the disruptive event analysis: first, the range of disruptive consequences of a radioactive waste repository by volcanic activity; second, the possible reduction of the risk of disruption by volcanic activity through selective siting of a repository; and third, the quantification of the probability of repository disruption by volcanic activity

  7. Characterizing groundwater/surface-water interactions in the interior of Jianghan Plain, central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yao; Ma, Teng; Deng, Yamin; Shen, Shuai; Lu, Zongjie

    2018-01-01

    Quantifying groundwater/surface-water interactions is essential for managing water resources and revealing contaminant fate. There has been little concern on the exchange between streams and aquifers through an extensive aquitard thus far. In this study, hydrogeologic calculation and tritium modeling were jointly applied to characterize such interactions through an extensive aquitard in the interior of Jianghan Plain, an alluvial plain of Yangtze River, China. One groundwater simulation suggested that the lateral distance of influence from the river was about 1,000 m; vertical flow in the aquitard followed by lateral flow in the aquifer contributed significantly more ( 90%) to the aquifer head change near the river than lateral bank storage in the aquitard followed by infiltration. The hydrogeologic calculation produced vertical fluxes of the order 0.01 m/day both near and farther from the river, suggesting that similar shorter-lived (half-monthly) vertical fluxes occur between the river and aquitard near the river, and between the surface end members and aquitard farther from the river. Tritium simulation based on the OTIS model produced an average groundwater residence time of about 15 years near the river and a resulting vertical flux of the order 0.001 m/day. Another tritium simulation based on a dispersion model produced a vertical flux of the order 0.0001 m/day away from the river, coupled with an average residence time of around 90 years. These results suggest an order of magnitude difference for the longer-lived (decadal) vertical fluxes between surface waters and the aquifer near and away from the river.

  8. Anastomosing rivers: a review of their classification, origin and sedimentary products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makaske, B.

    2001-01-01

    Anastomosing rivers constitute an important category of multi-channel rivers on alluvial plains. Most often they seem to form under relatively low-energetic conditions near a (local) base level. It appears to be impossible to define anastomosing rivers unambiguously on the basis of channel plantform

  9. A Volcanic Hydrogen Habitable Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The classical habitable zone (HZ) is the circular region around a star in which liquid water could exist on the surface of a rocky planet. The outer edge of the traditional N_2–CO_2–H_2O HZ extends out to nearly ∼1.7 au in our solar system, beyond which condensation and scattering by CO_2 outstrips its greenhouse capacity. Here, we show that volcanic outgassing of atmospheric H_2 can extend the outer edge of the HZ to ∼2.4 au in our solar system. This wider volcanic-hydrogen HZ (N_2–CO_2–H_2O–H_2) can be sustained as long as volcanic H_2 output offsets its escape from the top of the atmosphere. We use a single-column radiative-convective climate model to compute the HZ limits of this volcanic hydrogen HZ for hydrogen concentrations between 1% and 50%, assuming diffusion-limited atmospheric escape. At a hydrogen concentration of 50%, the effective stellar flux required to support the outer edge decreases by ∼35%–60% for M–A stars. The corresponding orbital distances increase by ∼30%–60%. The inner edge of this HZ only moves out ∼0.1%–4% relative to the classical HZ because H_2 warming is reduced in dense H_2O atmospheres. The atmospheric scale heights of such volcanic H_2 atmospheres near the outer edge of the HZ also increase, facilitating remote detection of atmospheric signatures.

  10. A Volcanic Hydrogen Habitable Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kaltenegger, Lisa, E-mail: rmr277@cornell.edu [Carl Sagan Institute, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The classical habitable zone (HZ) is the circular region around a star in which liquid water could exist on the surface of a rocky planet. The outer edge of the traditional N{sub 2}–CO{sub 2}–H{sub 2}O HZ extends out to nearly ∼1.7 au in our solar system, beyond which condensation and scattering by CO{sub 2} outstrips its greenhouse capacity. Here, we show that volcanic outgassing of atmospheric H{sub 2} can extend the outer edge of the HZ to ∼2.4 au in our solar system. This wider volcanic-hydrogen HZ (N{sub 2}–CO{sub 2}–H{sub 2}O–H{sub 2}) can be sustained as long as volcanic H{sub 2} output offsets its escape from the top of the atmosphere. We use a single-column radiative-convective climate model to compute the HZ limits of this volcanic hydrogen HZ for hydrogen concentrations between 1% and 50%, assuming diffusion-limited atmospheric escape. At a hydrogen concentration of 50%, the effective stellar flux required to support the outer edge decreases by ∼35%–60% for M–A stars. The corresponding orbital distances increase by ∼30%–60%. The inner edge of this HZ only moves out ∼0.1%–4% relative to the classical HZ because H{sub 2} warming is reduced in dense H{sub 2}O atmospheres. The atmospheric scale heights of such volcanic H{sub 2} atmospheres near the outer edge of the HZ also increase, facilitating remote detection of atmospheric signatures.

  11. Mass movement processes associated with volcanic structures in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Carlos Valerio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Mexico City, one of the most populated areas of the world, has been affected by various hazards of natural origin, such as subsidence and cracking of the soil, seismicity, floods and mass movement processes (MMPs. Owing to the lack of space on the plain, in recent years urban growth has been concentrated particularly on the slopes of the surrounding mountain ranges, and this has significantly modified the dynamics of the relief as well as the hydrogeological conditions. The specific character of natural susceptibility to mass movements is strongly dependent on the geological–structural and morphological characteristics of the volcanic bodies that form the mountainous relief. This natural susceptibility, combined with the characteristics of vulnerability of the society, creates risk conditions that can generate severe consequences for the population and the economy. Hence, based on an inventory of mass movement processes comprising 95 data points, the present study aimed to achieve a zoning of the areas susceptible to these processes, as well as to characterize the mechanisms of instability in the volcanic structures that form the relief of the area in question. The results of this work clearly show the role of the lithology, the mode of emplacement and the morpho–structural characteristics of the volcanic structures, in the types of mass movement processes. In addition, it identifies the diverse activities of anthropogenic origin that favour slope instability in the zone: deforestation and burning of rubbish, felling of timber on the slopes for building infrastructure and dwellings, leakages of water, vibrations of vehicles, rotating machinery and the use of explosives in mining works, overloading the heads of the slopes, disturbance of the geohydrological regime, generation of rubbish tips, terracing of the slopes for cultivation, inadequate building regulations, and the use of counterproductive or ineffectual stabilization measures.

  12. Using Volcanic Ash to Remove Dissolved Uranium and Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, David S.; Cuero, Raul G.

    2009-01-01

    Experiments have shown that significant fractions of uranium, lead, and possibly other toxic and/or radioactive substances can be removed from an aqueous solution by simply exposing the solution, at ambient temperature, to a treatment medium that includes weathered volcanic ash from Pu'u Nene, which is a cinder cone on the Island of Hawaii. Heretofore, this specific volcanic ash has been used for an entirely different purpose: simulating the spectral properties of Martian soil. The treatment medium can consist of the volcanic ash alone or in combination with chitosan, which is a natural polymer that can be produced from seafood waste or easily extracted from fungi, some bacteria, and some algae. The medium is harmless to plants and animals and, because of the abundance and natural origin of its ingredient( s), is inexpensive. The medium can be used in a variety of ways and settings: it can be incorporated into water-filtration systems; placed in contact or mixed with water-containing solids (e.g., soils and sludges); immersed in bodies of water (e.g., reservoirs, lakes, rivers, or wells); or placed in and around nuclear power plants, mines, and farm fields.

  13. Sediment transport dynamics in steep, tropical volcanic catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkel, Christian; Solano Rivera, Vanessa; Granados Bolaños, Sebastian; Brenes Cambronero, Liz; Sánchez Murillo, Ricardo; Geris, Josie

    2017-04-01

    How volcanic landforms in tropical mountainous regions are eroded, and how eroded materials move through these mostly steep landscapes from the headwaters to affect sediment fluxes are critical to water resources management in their downstream rivers. Volcanic landscapes are of particular importance because of the short timescales (transform. Owing to volcanism and seismic activity, landslides and other mass movements frequently occur. These processes are amplified by high intensity precipitation inputs resulting in significant, but natural runoff, erosion and sediment fluxes. Sediment transport is also directly linked to carbon and solute export. However, knowledge on the sediment sources and transport dynamics in the humid tropics remains limited and their fluxes largely unquantified. In order to increase our understanding of the dominant erosion and sediment transport dynamics in humid tropical volcanic landscapes, we conducted an extensive monitoring effort in a pristine and protected (biological reserve Alberto Manuel Brenes, ReBAMB) tropical forest catchment (3.2 km2), located in the Central Volcanic Cordillera of Costa Rica (Figure 1A). Typical for tropical volcanic and montane regions, deeply incised V-form headwaters (Figure 1B) deliver the majority of water (>70%) and sediments to downstream rivers. At the catchment outlet (Figure 1C) of the San Lorencito stream, we established high temporal resolution (5min) water quantity and sediment monitoring (turbidity). We also surveyed the river network on various occasions to characterize fluvial geomorphology including material properties. We could show that the rainfall-runoff-sediment relationships and their characteristic hysteresis patterns are directly linked to variations in the climatic input (storm intensity and duration) and the size, form and mineralogy of the transported material. Such a relationship allowed us to gain the following insights: (i) periodic landslides contribute significant volumes of

  14. Holocene volcanic geology, volcanic hazard, and risk on Taveuni, Fiji

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronin, S.J.; Neall, V.E.

    2001-01-01

    The Holocene volcanic geology of Taveuni has been mapped in order to produce a volcanic hazard and risk assessment for the island. Taveuni is the third-largest island of the Fiji group and home to 14,500 people. At least cubic km 2.7 of olivine-alkali-basalt magma was erupted from over 100 events throughout the Holocene. Vents are concentrated along a northeast-striking rift zone that is parallel to other regional structural trends. There is an overall trend of younging southward along the rift. Holocene lavas and tephras are grouped within six newly defined eruptive periods, established on a basis of radiocarbon dating. Within these periods, 14 tephra layers, useful as local marker horizons, are recognised. At least 58% of Holocene eruptions produced lava flows, while almost all produced some tephra. Individual eruption event volumes ranged between 0.001 and cubic km 0.20 (dense rock equivalent). Many eruptions involved at least some phases of phreatic and/or phreato-magmatic activity, although dominant hydrovolcanic activity was limited to only a few events. A volcanic hazard map is presented, based on the Holocene geology map and statistical analyses of eruption recurrence. The highest levels of ground-based and near-vent hazards are concentrated along the southern portion of the island's rift axis, with the paths of initial lava flows predicted from present topography. Tephra fall hazards are based on eruption parameters interpreted from mapped Holocene tephra layers. Hawaiian explosive-style eruptions appear to be a dominant eruptive process, with prevailing low-level (<3 km) southeasterly winds dispersing most tephra to the northwestern quadrant. Vulnerable elements (population centres, infrastructure, and economy) on Taveuni have been considered in deriving a volcanic risk assessment for the island. A number of infrastructural and subdivision developments are either under way or planned for the island, driven by its highly fertile soils and availability of

  15. Using Radon and Radium isotopes to trace submarine groundwater discharge in Yilan Plain, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Kai; Su, Chih-Chieh

    2015-04-01

    The Yilan Plain which located in the northeast Taiwan was selected for submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) study. The geomorphic and climatic conditions induce lush rain drenched mountains and create abundant groundwater resource in the Yilan Plain. The annual precipitation in 2014 is 2025 mm with most of the precipitation concentrated on autumn (from September to November). In this study, radon and radium isotopes are used as tracers for SGD survey. The 224Ra (t1/2 =3.6 days) was measured by a delayed coincidence counter (RaDeCC). The 222Rn (t1/2 =3.8 days) was measured by RAD-7 equipped with RAD H2O and RAD AQUA system. The river-water samples were collected from the main stream of Lanyang River and its tributaries from upstream to river mouth. The spring-water samples were collected at 8 sites in April, July and October 2014. Ten surface seawater samples along the coastline of the Yilan Plain were collected in August 2014. Our results show the activities of 222Rn and 224Ra in springs ranging from 3400 to 30850 Bq/m3 and 0.02 to 0.29 Bq/m3, and there are no significant differences between wet and dry seasons. Unexpectedly, the springs are characterized with high 222Rn and low 224Ra activities. For river samples, the activities of 224Ra in downstream and river mouth (0.18 to 1.48 Bq/m3) are higher than upstream (0 to 0.3 Bq/m3). The average activity of 224Ra in downstream samples which collected in April (0.98 Bq/m3) has the highest value than other seasons (0.41-0.51 Bq/m3). In coastal seawater, the activities of 222Rn and 224Ra ranged from 0 to 366 Bq/m3 and 0.10 to 1.14 Bq/m3 in August 2014. In summary, this study points out in some coastal regions of the Yilan Plain, where without riverine input, have high 222Rn and 224Ra activities in seawater. We suggest the SGD plays an important role on land-sea exchange along the coastline of the Yilan Plain. Compare with the spring water samples, the 224Ra activities in coastal seawater are 3-4 times higher than

  16. Can rain cause volcanic eruptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Larry G.

    1993-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions are renowned for their violence and destructive power. This power comes ultimately from the heat and pressure of molten rock and its contained gases. Therefore we rarely consider the possibility that meteoric phenomena, like rainfall, could promote or inhibit their occurrence. Yet from time to time observers have suggested that weather may affect volcanic activity. In the late 1800's, for example, one of the first geologists to visit the island of Hawaii, J.D. Dana, speculated that rainfall influenced the occurrence of eruptions there. In the early 1900's, volcanologists suggested that some eruptions from Mount Lassen, Calif., were caused by the infiltration of snowmelt into the volcano's hot summit. Most such associations have not been provable because of lack of information; others have been dismissed after careful evaluation of the evidence.

  17. Source mechanisms of volcanic tsunamis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Raphaël

    2015-10-28

    Volcanic tsunamis are generated by a variety of mechanisms, including volcano-tectonic earthquakes, slope instabilities, pyroclastic flows, underwater explosions, shock waves and caldera collapse. In this review, we focus on the lessons that can be learnt from past events and address the influence of parameters such as volume flux of mass flows, explosion energy or duration of caldera collapse on tsunami generation. The diversity of waves in terms of amplitude, period, form, dispersion, etc. poses difficulties for integration and harmonization of sources to be used for numerical models and probabilistic tsunami hazard maps. In many cases, monitoring and warning of volcanic tsunamis remain challenging (further technical and scientific developments being necessary) and must be coupled with policies of population preparedness. © 2015 The Author(s).

  18. A New Boundary for the High Plains - Ogallala Aquifer Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haacker, E. M.; Nozari, S.; Kendall, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    In the semi-arid Great Plains, water is the key ingredient for crop growth: the difference between meager yields for many crops and an agricultural bonanza. The High Plains-Ogallala Aquifer complex (HPA) underlies 452,000 square kilometers of the region, and over 95% of water withdrawn from the aquifer is used for irrigation. Much of the HPA is being pumped unsustainably, and since the region is heavily reliant on this resource for its social and economic health, the High Plains has been a leader in groundwater management planning. However, the geographic boundary of the High Plains region fails to reflect the hydrogeological realities of the aquifer. The current boundary, recognizable from countless textbooks and news articles, is only slightly modified from a version from the 1980's, and largely follows the physiographic borders of the High Plains - defined by surface features such as escarpments and rivers - rather than the edges of water-bearing sediment sufficient for high-volume pumping. This is supported by three lines of evidence: hydrogeological observations from the original aquifer boundary determination; the extent of irrigated land, as estimated by MODIS-MIrAD data; and statistical estimates of saturated thickness, incorporating improved maps of the aquifer base and an additional 35 years of water table measurements. In this project, new maps of saturated thickness are used to create an updated aquifer boundary, which conforms with the standard definition of an aquifer as a package of sediment that yields enough water to be economically pumped. This has major implications for social and physical models, as well as water planning and estimates of sustainability for the HPA. Much of the area of the HPA that has been labeled `sustainable' based upon estimates of recharge relative to pumping estimates falls outside the updated aquifer boundary. In reality, the sustainably-pumped area of this updated aquifer boundary is far smaller—a fact that if more

  19. River meander modeling of the Wabash River near the Interstate 64 Bridge near Grayville, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lant, Jeremiah G.; Boldt, Justin A.

    2018-01-16

    Natural river channels continually evolve and change shape over time. As a result, channel evolution or migration can cause problems for bridge structures that are fixed in the flood plain. A once-stable bridge structure that was uninfluenced by a river’s shape could be encroached upon by a migrating river channel. The potential effect of the actively meandering Wabash River on the Interstate 64 Bridge at the border with Indiana near Grayville, Illinois, was studied using a river migration model called RVR Meander. RVR Meander is a toolbox that can be used to model river channel meander migration with physically based bank erosion methods. This study assesses the Wabash River meandering processes through predictive modeling of natural meandering over the next 100 years, climate change effects through increased river flows, and bank protection measures near the Interstate 64 Bridge.

  20. Hydrologic, Water-Quality, and Biological Data for Three Water Bodies, Texas Gulf Coast Plain, 2000-2002

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    East, Jeffery W; Hogan, Jennifer L

    2003-01-01

    During July 2000 September 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed site-specific hydrologic, water-quality, and biological data in Dickinson Bayou, Armand Bayou, and the San Bernard River in the Gulf Coastal Plain of Texas...

  1. Environmental isotopes in New Zealand hydrology ; 4. Oxygen isotope variations in subsurface waters of the Waimea Plains, Nelson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.; Dicker, M.J.I.; Johnston, M.R.

    1981-01-01

    Oxygen isotope measurements of ground and surface waters of the Waimea Plains, Nelson, have been used to identify sources of water in aquifers beneath the plains. Major rivers flowing onto the plains are from higher-altitude catchments (maximum altitude 2000 m) and have delta O 18 approximately equal to -7.2%, whereas rainfall on the plains and adjacent low-altitude catchment streams have delta O 18 approximately equal to -6.2%. The delta O 18 measurements indicate that the 3 major aquifer units, the ''Lower Confined Aquifers'' and the ''Upper Confined Aquifers'' in the Hope Gravel (Late Pleistocene) and the ''Unconfined Aquifers'' in the Appleby Gravel (Holocene) are recharged from different sources. The ''Lower Confined Aquifers'' probably receive slow recharge in the south near Brightwater. The ''Upper Confined Aquifers'' are recharged, in the south, from the Wairoa River and locally in the north are connected with the unconfined aquifers. The ''Unconfined Aquifers'' are recharged from the Waimea River and, away from the river, from rainfall. Intermixing of water, via multiple screened wells, between the various aquifers is also indicated. (author). 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  2. Volcanic hazards in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, William I.; Bluth, Gregg J.S.; Carr, Michael J.; Ewert, John W.; Patino, Lina C.; Vallance, James W.

    2006-01-01

    This volume is a sampling of current scientific work about volcanoes in Central America with specific application to hazards. The papers reflect a variety of international and interdisciplinary collaborations and employ new methods. The book will be of interest to a broad cross section of scientists, especially volcanologists. The volume also will interest students who aspire to work in the field of volcano hazards mitigation or who may want to work in one of Earth’s most volcanically active areas.

  3. Volcanic deformation in the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddick, S.; Fournier, T.; Pritchard, M.

    2009-05-01

    We present the results from an InSAR survey of volcanic activity in South America. We use data from the Japanese Space Agency's ALOS L-band radar satellite from 2006-2009. The L-band instrument provides better coherence in densely vegetated regions, compared to the shorter wave length C-band data. The survey reveals volcano related deformation in regions, north, central and southern, of the Andes volcanic arc. Since observations are limited to the austral summer, comprehensive coverage of all volcanoes is not possible. Yet, our combined observations reveal volcanic/hydrothermal deformation at Lonquimay, Llaima, Laguna del Maule, and Chaitén volcanoes, extend deformation measurements at Copahue, and illustrate temporal complexity to the previously described deformation at Cerro Hudson and Cordón Caulle. No precursory deformation is apparent before the large Chaitén eruption (VEI_5) of 2 May 2008, (at least before 16 April) suggesting rapid magma movement from depth at this long dormant volcano. Subsidence at Ticsani Volcano occurred coincident with an earthquake swarm in the same region.

  4. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg-1) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg-1). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark—in pyroclastic wounds—and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg-1) and bark (6.0 μg kg-1) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  5. Source mechanism of volcanic tremor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrick, M.G.; Qamar, A.; St. Lawrence, W.F.

    1982-10-10

    Low-frequency (<10 Hz) volcanic earthquakes originate at a wide range of depths and occur before, during, and after magmatic eruptions. The characteristics of these earthquakes suggest that they are not typical tectonic events. Physically analogous processes occur in hydraulic fracturing of rock formations, low-frequency icequakes in temperate glaciers, and autoresonance in hydroelectric power stations. We propose that unsteady fluid flow in volcanic conduits is the common source mechanism of low-frequency volcanic earthquakes (tremor). The fluid dynamic source mechanism explains low-frequency earthquakes of arbitrary duration, magnitude, and depth of origin, as unsteady flow is independent of physical properties of the fluid and conduit. Fluid transients occur in both low-viscosity gases and high-viscosity liquids. A fluid transient analysis can be formulated as generally as is warranted by knowledge of the composition and physical properties of the fluid, material properties, geometry and roughness of the conduit, and boundary conditions. To demonstrate the analytical potential of the fluid dynamic theory, we consider a single-phase fluid, a melt of Mount Hood andesite at 1250/sup 0/C, in which significant pressure and velocity variations occur only in the longitudinal direction. Further simplification of the conservation of mass and momentum equations presents an eigenvalue problem that is solved to determine the natural frequencies and associated damping of flow and pressure oscillations.

  6. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg(-1)) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg(-1)). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark-in pyroclastic wounds-and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg(-1)) and bark (6.0 μg kg(-1)) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  7. Sensitivity Analysis for Hydraulic Behavior of Shiraz Plain Aquifer Using PMWIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza karimipour

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, hydraulic behavior of Shirazplain aquifer, with an area of ~300 km2, was simulated using PMWIN model. The performance of recently constructed drainage system in the plain was modeled and parameters affecting hydraulic behavior of the aquifer were analyzed. Measured rainfall and evaporation rates in the plain, recharge and discharge rates through the aqueducts, Khoshk and Chenar Rahdar rivers, as well as amount of water discharged from production wells and recharge due to returned wastewater were considered in the model. Plain hydrodynamic coefficients were estimated via calibration and sensitivity analysis of the model was performed for four important parameters. Results showed that the model is most sensitive to recharge rate and hydraulic conductivity, respectively, such that a small variation in these two parameters causes a dramatic change in hydraulic head distribution in the plain. Furthermore, specific yield coefficient influences the seasonal water level fluctuations, but the aqueducts conductance coefficient only affects the aqueduct radius of influence with little effect on the overall hydraulic behavior of the plain.

  8. Disruptive event analysis: volcanism and igneous intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.

    1980-08-01

    An evaluation is made of the disruptive effects of volcanic activity with respect to long term isolation of radioactive waste through deep geologic storage. Three major questions are considered. First, what is the range of disruption effects of a radioactive waste repository by volcanic activity. Second, is it possible, by selective siting of a repository, to reduce the risk of disruption by future volcanic activity. And third, can the probability of repository disruption by volcanic activity be quantified. The main variables involved in the evaluation of the consequences of repository disruption by volcanic activity are the geometry of the magma-repository intersection (partly controlled by depth of burial) and the nature of volcanism. Potential radionuclide dispersal by volcanic transport within the biosphere ranges in distance from several kilometers to global. Risk from the most catastrophic types of eruptions can be reduced by careful site selection to maximize lag time prior to the onset of activity. Certain areas or volcanic provinces within the western United States have been sites of significant volcanism and should be avoided as potential sites for a radioactive waste repository. Examples of projection of future sites of active volcanism are discussed for three areas of the western United States. Probability calculations require two types of data: a numerical rate or frequency of volcanic activity and a numerical evaluation of the areal extent of volcanic disruption for a designated region. The former is clearly beyond the current state of art in volcanology. The latter can be approximated with a reasonable degree of satisfaction. In this report, simplified probability calculations are attempted for areas of past volcanic activity

  9. Estimating SGD flux in the Pingtung Plain coastal area by using Radon and Radium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li Chang, Yao; Chieh Su, Chih

    2015-04-01

    In the past two decades, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been recognized as an important pathway to transport material into coastal area. Our study area is located at Pingtung Plain which is the second largest plain in Taiwan with three major rivers, including Gaoping, Donggang and Linbian Rivers, flow through the plain. The Gaoping River, which has the largest drainage area, flows throughout the central part of the plain. The Pingtung Plain composed by four aquifers in different depths (0, 50, 100, and 200 m) and each layer extends to coastal area. Groundwater is an important water resource for local agriculture and aquaculture. However, the long-term over-pumping induced subsidence problem makes salinization at some coastal area. Some previous studies pointed out the SGD accounts for 80% or more of the mass of freshwater in Fangshan coast, depends on salinity and stable isotopes research. In this study, the radioactive tracers, Radon (222Rn, T1/2=3.8 d) and short-lived Ra isotopes (223Ra, T1/2=11.4 d & 224Ra, T1/2=3.6 d) are used in tracing SGD off the Pingtung Plain. During 2013 to 2014, the terrestrial water samples were collected from Gaoping, Donggang, Linbian Rivers and springs in different seasons. We also conducted two coastal waters cruises by using R/V Ocean Researcher 3 (OR3-1768 and 1799 cruises in May and September 2014). Continuous 222Rn was measured by RAD7 equipped with RAD-AQUA system and large volume (20 L) seawater samples were collected by CTD/Rosette water sampler with Niskin sterile bottles. Water samples were flow through Mn-fiber (flow rate < 1 LPM) to concentrate the Ra isotopes, and counted via RaDeCC system. In spatial variation, our result shows the excess 224Ra in the downstream of Gaoping River (2.39 dpm 100L-1) is higher than upstream (1.09 dpm 100L-1). It indicates the groundwater input may play an important role at the downstream of Gaoping River. For temporal variation, excess 224Ra in the Gaoping River are higher in wet

  10. River engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, M.

    1993-01-01

    One dimension models - basic eauations, analytical models, numberical models. One dimensional models -suspended load, roughness and resistance of river beds. Solving river problems - tools, flood mitigation, bank protection.

  11. The intercrater plains of Mercury and the Moon: Their nature, origin and role in terrestrial planet evolution. Alternative thermal histories. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    Interpretations supporting a differentiated, once active Mercury are listed. Alternative scenarios of the planet's thermal history involve: different distributions of accreted materials, including uranium and thorium-rich materials; variations of early melting; and different modes of plains and scarp formation. Arguments are advanced which strongly favor plains formation by volcanism, lack of a primordial surface, and possible identification of remnant tensional features. Studies of remotely sensed data which strongly suggest a modestly homogeneous surface of silicates imply core separation. Reasons for accepting or rejecting various hypotheses for thermal histories of the planet are mentioned.

  12. Gold-silver mining districts, alteration zones, and paleolandforms in the Miocene Bodie Hills Volcanic Field, California and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikre, Peter G.; John, David A.; du Bray, Edward A.; Fleck, Robert J.

    2015-09-25

    The Bodie Hills is a ~40 by ~30 kilometer volcanic field that straddles the California-Nevada state boundary between Mono Lake and the East Walker River. Three precious metal mining districts and nine alteration zones are delineated in Tertiary-Quaternary volcanic and Mesozoic granitic and metamorphic rocks that comprise the volcanic field. Cumulative production from the mining districts, Bodie, Aurora, and Masonic, is 3.4 million ounces of gold and 28 million ounces of silver. Small amounts of mercury were produced from the Potato Peak, Paramount-Bald Peak, and Cinnabar Canyon-US 395 alteration zones; a native sulfur resource in the Cinnabar Canyon-US 395 alteration zone has been identified by drilling. There are no known mineral resources in the other six alteration zones, Red Wash-East Walker River, East Brawley Peak, Sawtooth Ridge, Aurora Canyon, Four Corners, and Spring Peak. The mining districts and alteration zones formed between 13.4 and 8.1 Ma in predominantly ~15–9 Ma volcanic rocks of the Bodie Hills volcanic field. Ages of hydrothermal minerals in the districts and zones are the same as, or somewhat younger than, the ages of volcanic host rocks.

  13. Hydrological balance of Chicu River basin, using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos P, R.T.; Valderrama B, J.O.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis made part of the ARCAL X III Project, referring to the groundwater study en the Bogota Plain (Sabana de Bogota, Colombia). In the Bogota plain, is found located the Chicu River basin, in such basin are located two towns Tabio and Tenjo, in this zone have been taken advantage the groundwater in the last years. The objective of this work was determined by means of isotopic techniques, the determination of the groundwater origin and its quality using physical and chemical parameters

  14. King's Bowl Pit Crater, Lava Field and Eruptive Fissure, Idaho - A Multipurpose Volcanic Planetary Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S. S.; Garry, B.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.; Sears, D. W. G.; Borg, C.; Elphic, R. C.; Haberle, C. W.; Kobayashi, L.; Lim, D. S. S.; Sears, H.; Skok, J. R.; Heldmann, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    King's Bowl (KB) and its associated eruptive fissure and lava field on the eastern Snake River Plain, is being investigated by the NASA SSERVI FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) team as a planetary analog to similar pits on the Moon, Mars and Vesta. The 2,220 ± 100 BP basaltic eruption in Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve represents early stages of low shield growth, which was aborted when magma supply was cut off. Compared to mature shields, KB is miniscule, with ~0.02 km3 of lava over ~3 km2, yet the ~6 km long series of fissures, cracks and pits are well-preserved for analog studies of volcanic processes. The termination of eruption was likely related to proximity of the 2,270 ± 50 BP eruption of the much larger Wapi lava field (~5.5 km3 over 325 km2 area) on the same rift. Our investigation extends early work by R. Greeley and colleagues, focusing on imagery, compositional variations, ejecta distribution, dGPS profiles and LiDAR scans of features related to: (1) fissure eruptions - spatter ramparts, cones, feeder dikes, extension cracks; (2) lava lake formation - surface morphology, squeeze-ups, slab pahoehoe lava mounds, lava drain-back, flow lobe overlaps; and (3) phreatic steam blasts - explosion pits, ejecta blankets of ash and blocks. Preliminary results indicate multiple fissure eruptions and growth of a basin-filled lava lake up to ~ 10 m thick with outflow sheet lava flows. Remnant mounds of original lake crust reveal an early high lava lake level, which subsided as much as 5 m as the molten interior drained back into the fissure system. Rapid loss of magma supply led to the collapse of fissure walls allowing groundwater influx that triggered multiple steam blasts along at least 500 m. Early blasts occurred while lake magma pressure was still high enough to produce squeeze-ups when penetrated by ejecta blocks. The King's Bowl pit crater exemplifies processes of a small, but highly energetic

  15. Climate variability and Great Plains agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, N.J.; Katz, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    The ways in which inhabitants of the Great Plains, including Indians, early settlers, and 20th century farmers, have adapted to climate changes on the Great Plains are explored. The climate of the Great Plains, because of its variability and extremes, can be very stressful to plants, animals and people. It is suggested that agriculture and society on the Great Plains have, during the last century, become less vulnerable to the stresses imposed by climate. Opinions as to the sustainability of agriculture on the Great Plains vary substantially. Lockeretz (1981) suggests that large scale, high cost technologies have stressed farmers by creating surpluses and by requiring large investments. Opie (1989) sees irrigation as a climate substitute, however he stresses that the Ogallala aquifer must inevitably become depleted. Deborah and Frank Popper (1987) believe that farming on the Plains is unsustainable, and destruction of shelterbelts, out-migration of the rural population and environmental problems will lead to total collapse. With global warming, water in the Great Plains is expected to become scarcer, and although improvements in irrigation efficiency may slow depletion of the Ogallala aquifer, ultimately the acreage under irrigation must decrease to levels that can be sustained by natural recharge and reliable surface flows. 23 refs., 2 figs

  16. Stratigraphy and depositional environments of the upper Pleistocene Chemehuevi Formation along the lower Colorado River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmon, Daniel V.; Howard, Keith A.; House, P. Kyle; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Pearthree, Philip A.; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei M.; Wan, Elmira; Wahl, David B.

    2011-01-01

    The Chemehuevi Formation forms a conspicuous, widespread, and correlative set of nonmarine sediments lining the valleys of the Colorado River and several of its larger tributaries in the Basin and Range geologic province. These sediments have been examined by geologists since J. S. Newberry visited the region in 1857 and are widely cited in the geologic literature; however their origin remains unresolved and their stratigraphic context has been confused by inconsistent nomenclature and by conflicting interpretations of their origin. This is one of the most prominent stratigraphic units along the river below the Grand Canyon, and the formation records an important event or set of events in the history of the Colorado River. Here we summarize what is known about these deposits throughout their range, present new stratigraphic, sedimentologic, topographic, and tephrochronologic data, and formally define them as a lithostratigraphic unit. The Chemehuevi Formation consists primarily of a bluff-forming mud facies, consisting of gypsum-bearing, horizontally bedded sand, silt, and clay, and a slope-forming sand facies containing poorly bedded, well sorted, quartz rich sand and scattered gravel. The sedimentary characteristics and fossil assemblages of the two facies types suggest that they were deposited in flood plain and channel environments, respectively. In addition to these two primary facies, we identify three other mappable facies in the formation: a thick-bedded rhythmite facies, now drowned by Lake Mead; a valley-margin facies containing abundant locally derived sediment; and several tributary facies consisting of mixed fluvial and lacustrine deposits in the lower parts of major tributary valleys. Observations from the subsurface and at outcrops near the elevation of the modern flood plain suggest that the formation also contains a regional basal gravel member. Surveys of numerous outcrops using high-precision GPS demonstrate that although the sand facies commonly

  17. Tamarisk and river restoration along the San Pedro and Gila Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliet Stromberg; Sharon Lite; Charles Paradzick

    2005-01-01

    The abundance of tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima and related species) along the San Pedro and Gila River flood plains varies with differences in stream flow regimes. Tamarisk abundance, relative to Fremont cottonwood and Goodding willow, is greater at sites with more intermittent stream flows and deeper and more fluctuating ground-water levels....

  18. Geologic map and profile of the north wall of the Snake River Canyon, Eden, Murtaugh, Milner Butte, and Milner quadrangles, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covington, H.R.; Weaver, Jean N.

    1990-01-01

    The Snake River Plain is a broad, arcuate region of low relief that extends more than 300 mi across southern Idaho. The Snake River enters the plain near Idaho Falls and flows westward along the southern margin of the eastern Snake River Plain (fig 1), a position mainly determined by the basaltic lava flows that erupted near the axis of the plain. The highly productive Snake River Plain aquifer (water table) is typically less than 500 ft below the land surface, but us deeper than 1,000 ft in a few areas. The Snake River has excavated a canyon into the nearly flat lying basaltic and sedimentary rocks of the  eastern Snake River Plain between Milner Dam and King Hill (fig. 2), a distance of almost 90 mi. For much of its length the canyon intersects the Snake River Plain aquifer, which discharges form the northern canyon wall as springs of variable size, spacing and altitude. Geologic controls on wprings are of importance because nearly 60 percent of the aquifer's discharge occurs as spring flow along this reach of the canyon. This report is one of the several that describes the geologic occurrence of the springs along the northern wall of the Snake River canyone from Milner Dam to King Hill. 

  19. Geochemical characterisation of Elbe river high flood sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, F. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Falkenberg (Germany). Sektion Boden-/Gewaesserforschung]|[UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Magdeburg (Germany). Sektion Gewaesserforschung; Rupp, H.; Meissner, R. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Falkenberg (Germany). Sektion Boden-/Gewaesserforschung; Lohse, M.; Buettner, O.; Friese, K. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Magdeburg (Germany). Sektion Gewaesserforschung; Miehlich, G. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Bodenkunde

    2001-07-01

    Quality aims for land usage in flood plains have to be worked out in the Russian-German research project 'Effects of floods on the pollution of agricultural used flood plain soils of the Oka River and the Elbe River'. It is financed by the Germany Ministry of Education and Research (FKZ 02 WT 9617/0). Beside the characterisation of the present pollution of soils for the middle Elbe, it is necessary to prognosticate the current pollutant input. At the examination site nearby Wittenberge, Elbe River kilometers 435 and 440, natural deposited flood sediments were sampled by artificial lawn mats. By the geochemical characterisation it is possible to record the metal input into the flood plain and to win knowledge about the sedimentation process. The results of sediment investigation of the high flood in spring 1997 are presented. (orig.)

  20. Upper pliocene-lower pleistocene 40Ar/39Ar ages of Pudahuel ignimbrite (Diamante-Maipo volcanic complex), Central Chile (33.50S)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, R.M.; Lara, L.E.; Perez de Arce, C

    2001-01-01

    The Pudahuel Ignimbrite (Wall et al., 1996) is a characteristic pyroclastic flow deposit placed in the Central Depression, within the Maipo, Mapocho and Cachapoal valleys and, in the eastern side of the Andes, at Yaucha and Papagayos rivers as well (Harrington, 1989; Guerstein, 1993). Close to Santiago, Pudahuel Ignimbrite reaches 40 m in thickness (Dragicevic, 1962) which decreces up to 5 m 60 km to the west. The deposit is compounded by ash and lapilli size pumice within a cineritic matrix with shards, crystals and pumice fragments. Facies of both, laminar and turbulent flow regime can be distinguished, the latter prevailing near topographic barriers and on river plain floors. There, traction structures like cross-bedding and important amount of litic clasts are characteristic. Pumices are rhyolitic in composition (ca. 75% SiO 2 ; Stern et al., 1984; Guerstein, 1993) and have few 0.5-2 mm long biotite crystals. Two 40 Ar/ 39 Ar step-heating experiments on biotite from pumices of two localities, Maipu (Santiago) and Bollenar (Melipilla), show plateau ages of 2.3±0.3 Ma (RW-371) and 2.2±0.3 Ma (RW-1009). In both cases, the first step of the experiment indicates loss of Ar from the cristal rims wich was removed for the plateau calculus only in the second case. For the RW-371 sample an inverse isocrone age of 1.4±0.8 Ma (MSWD: 0.98) was obtained. Previously, the Pudahuel Ignimbrite was dated by Stern et al. (1984) in ca. 450 ka using zircon fission-tracks. Although inconsistent with our new ages, these pleistocene age seemed coherent with the discovery of an Antifer (deer) bone by Tavera (1978) within the ignimbrite close to Santiago. Nevertheless, as was apointed by Tavera (1978) himself, the Antifer genus is recognized in Argentina in the Pliocene-Quaternary interval and make possible a review of the well known 'pleistocene' mammal vertebrate associations in Chile. Another consequence of the new possible pliocene ages is that, since the ignimbrite does not show

  1. Volcanic hazards and public response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Donald W.

    1988-05-01

    Although scientific understanding of volcanoes is advancing, eruptions continue to take a substantial toll of life and property. Some of these losses could be reduced by better advance preparation, more effective flow of information between scientists and public officials, and better understanding of volcanic behavior by all segments of the public. The greatest losses generally occur at volcanoes that erupt infrequently where people are not accustomed to dealing with them. Scientists sometimes tend to feel that the blame for poor decisions in emergency management lies chiefly with officials or journalists because of their failure to understand the threat. However, the underlying problem embraces a set of more complex issues comprising three pervasive factors. The first factor is the volcano: signals given by restless volcanoes are often ambiguous and difficult to interpret, especially at long-quiescent volcanoes. The second factor is people: people confront hazardous volcanoes in widely divergent ways, and many have difficulty in dealing with the uncertainties inherent in volcanic unrest. The third factor is the scientists: volcanologists correctly place their highest priority on monitoring and hazard assessment, but they sometimes fail to explain clearly their conclusions to responsible officials and the public, which may lead to inadequate public response. Of all groups in society, volcanologists have the clearest understanding of the hazards and vagaries of volcanic activity; they thereby assume an ethical obligation to convey effectively their knowledge to benefit all of society. If society resists, their obligation nevertheless remains. They must use the same ingenuity and creativity in dealing with information for the public that they use in solving scientific problems. When this falls short, even excellent scientific results may be nullified.

  2. Thermal vesiculation during volcanic eruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallée, Yan; Dingwell, Donald B; Johnson, Jeffrey B; Cimarelli, Corrado; Hornby, Adrian J; Kendrick, Jackie E; von Aulock, Felix W; Kennedy, Ben M; Andrews, Benjamin J; Wadsworth, Fabian B; Rhodes, Emma; Chigna, Gustavo

    2015-12-24

    Terrestrial volcanic eruptions are the consequence of magmas ascending to the surface of the Earth. This ascent is driven by buoyancy forces, which are enhanced by bubble nucleation and growth (vesiculation) that reduce the density of magma. The development of vesicularity also greatly reduces the 'strength' of magma, a material parameter controlling fragmentation and thus the explosive potential of the liquid rock. The development of vesicularity in magmas has until now been viewed (both thermodynamically and kinetically) in terms of the pressure dependence of the solubility of water in the magma, and its role in driving gas saturation, exsolution and expansion during decompression. In contrast, the possible effects of the well documented negative temperature dependence of solubility of water in magma has largely been ignored. Recently, petrological constraints have demonstrated that considerable heating of magma may indeed be a common result of the latent heat of crystallization as well as viscous and frictional heating in areas of strain localization. Here we present field and experimental observations of magma vesiculation and fragmentation resulting from heating (rather than decompression). Textural analysis of volcanic ash from Santiaguito volcano in Guatemala reveals the presence of chemically heterogeneous filaments hosting micrometre-scale vesicles. The textures mirror those developed by disequilibrium melting induced via rapid heating during fault friction experiments, demonstrating that friction can generate sufficient heat to induce melting and vesiculation of hydrated silicic magma. Consideration of the experimentally determined temperature and pressure dependence of water solubility in magma reveals that, for many ascent paths, exsolution may be more efficiently achieved by heating than by decompression. We conclude that the thermal path experienced by magma during ascent strongly controls degassing, vesiculation, magma strength and the effusive

  3. Crustal-scale recycling in caldera complexes and rift zones along the Yellowstone hotspot track: O and Hf isotopic evidence in diverse zircons from voluminous rhyolites of the Picabo volcanic field, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Dana L.; Bindeman, Ilya N.; Watts, Kathryn E.; Schmitt, Axel K.; Fu, Bin; McCurry, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Rhyolites of the Picabo volcanic field (10.4–6.6 Ma) in eastern Idaho are preserved as thick ignimbrites and lavas along the margins of the Snake River Plain (SRP), and within a deep (>3 km) borehole near the central axis of the Yellowstone hotspot track. In this study we present new O and Hf isotope data and U–Pb geochronology for individual zircons, O isotope data for major phenocrysts (quartz, plagioclase, and pyroxene), whole rock Sr and Nd isotope ratios, and whole rock geochemistry for a suite of Picabo rhyolites. We synthesize our new datasets with published Ar–Ar geochronology to establish the eruptive framework of the Picabo volcanic field, and interpret its petrogenetic history in the context of other well-studied caldera complexes in the SRP. Caldera complex evolution at Picabo began with eruption of the 10.44±0.27 Ma (U–Pb) Tuff of Arbon Valley (TAV), a chemically zoned and normal-δ18O (δ18O magma=7.9‰) unit with high, zoned 87Sr/86Sri (0.71488–0.72520), and low-εNd(0) (−18) and εHf(0) (−28). The TAV and an associated post caldera lava flow possess the lowest εNd(0) (−23), indicating ∼40–60% derivation from the Archean upper crust. Normal-δ18O rhyolites were followed by a series of lower-δ18O eruptions with more typical (lower crustal) Sr–Nd–Hf isotope ratios and whole rock chemistry. The voluminous 8.25±0.26 Ma West Pocatello rhyolite has the lowest δ18O value (δ18Omelt=3.3‰), and we correlate it to a 1,000 m thick intracaldera tuff present in the INEL-1 borehole (with published zircon ages 8.04–8.35 Ma, and similarly low-δ18O zircon values). The significant (4–5‰) decrease in magmatic-δ18O values in Picabo rhyolites is accompanied by an increase in zircon δ18O heterogeneity from ∼1‰ variation in the TAV to >5‰ variation in the late-stage low-δ18O rhyolites, a trend similar to what is characteristic of Heise and Yellowstone, and which indicates remelting of variably hydrothermally altered tuffs

  4. Backcasting the decline of a vulnerable Great Plains reproductive ecotype: identifying threats and conservation priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Thomas A.; Brewer, Shannon K.; Grabowski, Timothy B.; Mueller, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Conservation efforts for threatened or endangered species are challenging because the multi-scale factors that relate to their decline or inhibit their recovery are often unknown. To further exacerbate matters, the perceptions associated with the mechanisms of species decline are often viewed myopically rather than across the entire species range. We used over 80 years of fish presence data collected from the Great Plains and associated ecoregions of the United States, to investigate the relative influence of changing environmental factors on the historic and current truncated distributions of the Arkansas River shiner Notropis girardi. Arkansas River shiner represent a threatened reproductive ecotype considered especially well adapted to the harsh environmental extremes of the Great Plains. Historic (n = 163 records) and current (n = 47 records) species distribution models were constructed using a vector-based approach in MaxEnt by splitting the available data at a time when Arkansas River shiner dramatically declined. Discharge and stream order were significant predictors in both models; however, the shape of the relationship between the predictors and species presence varied between time periods. Drift distance (river fragment length available for ichthyoplankton downstream drift before meeting a barrier) was a more important predictor in the current model and indicated river segments 375–780 km had the highest probability of species presence. Performance for the historic and current models was high (area under the curve; AUC > 0.95); however, forecasting and backcasting to alternative time periods suggested less predictive power. Our results identify fragments that could be considered refuges for endemic plains fish species and we highlight significant environmental factors (e.g., discharge) that could be manipulated to aid recovery.

  5. The Pliocene initiation and Early Pleistocene volcanic disruption of the palaeo-Gediz fluvial system, Western Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maddy, D.; Demir, T.; Bridgland, D.R.; Veldkamp, A.; Stemerdink, C.; Schriek, van der T.; Schreve, D.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we report our latest observations concerning a Pliocene and Early Pleistocene record from Western Turkey. The sedimentary sequence described comprises the fluvial deposits of an Early Pleistocene palaeo-Gediz river system and its tributaries prior to the onset of volcanism around Kula

  6. Seismic echo character northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCreery, C.J.; Laine, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    Latest efforts in echo-character mapping of the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain have discerned variations in thickness in a near-surface sedimentary sequence which has been designated seismic unit A. This unit probably represents the last episode of progradation of the Hatteras Deep Sea Fan in the southern part of the study area, and has infilled probable paleochannels from the Wilmington Canyon and Sohm Gap in the north. Unit A thins to a minimum in the central part of the plain, where older sediments come within 1 meter of the surface. Variations in the character of the surface reflector probably represent differing degrees of microtopography developed on a Late Pleistocene surface overlain by Holocene sediments. With the exception of one area identified as a relict surface outcropping in the western plain, this microtopography seems related to present-day thalweg locations on the abyssal plain. 11 references, 13 figures

  7. Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site (SGP-ARM) is the oldest and largest of DOE's Arm sites. It was established in 1992. It consists of...

  8. flexural improvement of plain concrete beams strengthened

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muhammad Nura Isa

    Results show significant improvement in both stiffness and load bearing capacity of plain concrete ... Various methods have been developed to increase their strength capacity by using .... obtained by carrying out uniaxial direct tensile strength.

  9. Defining 'plain language' in contemporary South Africa | Cornelius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Defining the concept 'plain language' has been hugely problematic since the origins of the socalled Plain Language Movement in the 1970s in the United States and elsewhere in the world. Definitions of 'plain language' abound, yet James (2008: 6) warns, in relation to plain language practitioners, that “we can't yet call ...

  10. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions of... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44 CFR...

  11. Volcanism and associated hazards: the Andean perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilling, R. I.

    2009-12-01

    Andean volcanism occurs within the Andean Volcanic Arc (AVA), which is the product of subduction of the Nazca Plate and Antarctica Plates beneath the South America Plate. The AVA is Earth's longest but discontinuous continental-margin volcanic arc, which consists of four distinct segments: Northern Volcanic Zone, Central Volcanic Zone, Southern Volcanic Zone, and Austral Volcanic Zone. These segments are separated by volcanically inactive gaps that are inferred to indicate regions where the dips of the subducting plates are too shallow to favor the magma generation needed to sustain volcanism. The Andes host more volcanoes that have been active during the Holocene (past 10 000 years) than any other volcanic region in the world, as well as giant caldera systems that have produced 6 of the 47 largest explosive eruptions (so-called "super eruptions") recognized worldwide that have occurred from the Ordovician to the Pleistocene. The Andean region's most powerful historical explosive eruption occurred in 1600 at Huaynaputina Volcano (Peru). The impacts of this event, whose eruptive volume exceeded 11 km3, were widespread, with distal ashfall reported at distances >1000 km away. Despite the huge size of the Huaynaputina eruption, human fatalities from hazardous processes (pyroclastic flows, ashfalls, volcanogenic earthquakes, and lahars) were comparatively small owing to the low population density at the time. In contrast, lahars generated by a much smaller eruption (Colombia) killed about 25 000 people - the worst volcanic disaster in the Andean region as well as the second worst in the world in the 20th century. The Ruiz tragedy has been attributed largely to ineffective communications of hazards information and indecisiveness by government officials, rather than any major deficiencies in scientific data. Ruiz's disastrous outcome, however, together with responses to subsequent hazardous eruptions in Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru has spurred significant

  12. High-resolution hydro- and geo-stratigraphy at Atlantic Coastal Plain drillhole CR-622 (Strat 8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrege, B.M.; Isely, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    We interpret borehole geophysical logs in conjunction with lithology developed from continuous core to produce high-resolution hydro- and geo-stratigraphic profiles for the drillhole CR-622 (Strat 8) in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of North Carolina. The resulting hydrologic and stratigraphic columns show a generalized relation between hydrologic and geologic units. Fresh-water aquifers encountered are the surficial, Yorktown, Pungo River and Castle Hayne. Geologic units present are of the middle and upper Tertiary and Quaternary periods, these are the Castle Hayne (Eocene), Pungo River (Miocene), Yorktown (Pliocene), James City and Flanner Beach (Pleistocene), and the topsoil (Holocene). The River Bend Formation (Oligocene) is missing as a distinct unit between the Pungo River Formation and the Castle Hayne Formation. The confining unit underlying the Yorktown Aquifer corresponds to the Yorktown Geologic Unit. The remaining hydrologic units and geologic units are hydrologically transitional and non-coincident. The lower Pungo River Formation serves as the confining unit for the Castle Hayne Aquifer, rather than the River Bend Aquifer, and separates the Pungo River Aquifer from the upper Castle Hayne Aquifer. All geologic formations were bound by unconformities. All aquifers were confined by the anticipated hydrologic units. We conclude that CR-622 (Strat 8) represents a normal sequence in the Atlantic Coastal Plain.

  13. Electrostatic phenomena in volcanic eruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, S J; James, M R; Gilbert, J S, E-mail: s.lane@lancaster.ac.uk [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-23

    Electrostatic phenomena have long been associated with the explosive eruption of volcanoes. Lightning generated in volcanic plumes is a spectacular atmospheric electrical event that requires development of large potential gradients over distances of up to kilometres. This process begins as hydrated liquid rock (magma) ascends towards Earth's surface. Pressure reduction causes water supersaturation in the magma and the development of bubbles of supercritical water, where deeper than c. 1000 m, and water vapour at shallower depths that drives flow expansion. The generation of high strain rates in the expanding bubbly magma can cause it to fracture in a brittle manner, as deformation relaxation timescales are exceeded. The brittle fracture provides the initial charge separation mechanism, known as fractoemission. The resulting mixture of charged silicate particles and ions evolves over time, generating macro-scale potential gradients in the atmosphere and driving processes such as particle aggregation. For the silicate particles, aggregation driven by electrostatic effects is most significant for particles smaller than c. 100 {mu}m. Aggregation acts to change the effective aerodynamic behaviour of silicate particles, thus altering the sedimentation rates of particles from volcanic plumes from the atmosphere. The presence of liquid phases also promotes aggregation processes and lightning.

  14. Lava tubes and aquifer vulnerability in the upper Actopan River basin, Veracruz, México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinasa-Pereña, R.; Delgado Granados, H.

    2011-12-01

    Rapid infiltration leads to very dry conditions on the surface of some volcanic terrains, with large allogenic streams sometimes sinking underground upon reaching a lava flow. Aquifers in lava flows tend to be heterogeneous and discontinuous, generally unconfined and fissured, and have high transmissivity. Springs associated with basalts may be very large but are typically restricted to lava-flow margins. Concern has been expressed regarding the potential for lava-tube caves to facilitate groundwater contamination similar to that afflicting some karst aquifers (Kempe et al., 2003; Kiernan et al., 2002; Halliday 2003). The upper Actopan River basin is a series of narrow valleys excavated in Tertiary volcanic brechias. Several extensive Holocene basaltic tube-fed lava flows have partially filled these valleys. The youngest and longest flow originates at El Volcancillo, a 780 ybP monogenetic volcano. It is over 50 km long, and was fed through a major master tube, the remains of which form several lava-tube caves (Gassos and Espinasa-Pereña, 2008). Another tube-fed flow initiates at a vent at the bottom of Barranca Huichila and can be followed for 7 km to where it is covered by the Volcancillo flow. The Huichila River is captured by this system of lava tubes and can be followed through several underground sections. In dry weather the stream disappears at a sump in one of these caves, although during hurricanes it overflows the tube, floods the Tengonapa plain, and finally sinks through a series of skylights into the master tube of the Volcancillo flow. Near villages, the cave entrances are used as trash dumps, which are mobilized during floods. These include household garbage, organic materials associated with agriculture and even medical supplies. This is a relatively recent phenomenon, caused by population growth and the building of houses above the lava flows. The water resurges at El Descabezadero, gushing from fractures in the lava above the underlying brechias

  15. Remote Sensing Insights into Storage Capacities among Plains Village Horticulturalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiewel, Adam S.

    Maize was a fundamental component of the diet and economy of Middle Missouri Plains Village groups, sedentary farmers with settlements along the Missouri River during the last millennia. More than a century of study has contributed to our understanding of agricultural production among these peoples, but little effort has been made to consider temporal variation in production. Such an understanding is crucial to examining changes that occurred before and after the arrival of colonists and their trade goods in the seventeenth century. Plains archaeologists have suggested that the storage capacity of Middle Missouri villages increased during the sixteenth through the eighteenth centuries. In fact, the number and size of subterranean storage pits, ubiquitous features within most settlements, are thought to have grown during these centuries, which reflects greater agricultural production. To further examine changes in production and storage capacity during this centuries-long period, I combine information from historical documents, excavations, and geophysical investigations. At Huff Village, a fifteenth-century community, excavations and magnetic gradiometry surveys reveal the size and distribution of storage pits. Their number and average volume suggest the villagers grew immense amounts of food and contributed to widespread intertribal trade. Furthermore, storage pit excavation data from 20 regional sites, dating from the thirteenth to the nineteenth century, indicate pit volumes increased through the seventeenth century. A sharp decrease subsequently occurred during the eighteenth century due to epidemic disease. However, mean pit volumes were significantly larger during the nineteenth century, evidence of the resilience of Mandans, Hidatsas, and Arikaras and the continued significance of maize. In fact, historical documents and remote sensing data suggest the Mandans and Arikaras, successive occupants of an earthlodge village near the American Fur Company's Fort

  16. Volcanics of the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D

    stream_size 2 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Geol_Soc_India_70_883.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Geol_Soc_India_70_883.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  17. Linking Indian rivers vs Bay of Bengal monsoon Activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajamani, V.; Mohanty, U.C.; Ramesh, R.; Bhat, G.S.; Vinayachandran, P.N.; Sengupta, D.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Kolli, R.K.

    stream_size 12553 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name CurrSci_2006_Linking_rivers.pdf.txt stream_source_info CurrSci_2006_Linking_rivers.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859.... Stratification below the mixed layer also affects the chemical and bi o logical pro c esses in the Bay. It is worth noting here that because the low salinity layer in the BOB prevents vertical mi x ing, the Bay is not a source of CO 2 to the atmo s- phere...

  18. Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, R.G.; Gregory, R.T.; Brown, G.F.

    2016-01-01

    The Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia cover about 90,000 km2, one of the largest areas of alkali olivine basalt in the world. These volcanic rocks are in 13 separate fields near the eastern coast of the Red Sea and in the western Arabian Peninsula highlands from Syria southward to the Yemen Arab Republic.

  19. Quaternary basaltic volcanism in the Payenia volcanic province, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina

    primitive basalts and trachybasalts but also more evolved samples from the retroarc region and the larger volcanoes Payún Matrú and Payún Liso are presented. The samples cover a broad range of compositions from intraplate lavas similar to ocean island basalts to arc andesites. A common feature found...... are isotopically similar to the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone arc rocks and their mantle source possibly resembled the source of South Atlantic N-MORB prior to addition of fluids and melts from the subduction channel. However, it must have been more enriched than the estimates of depleted upper mantle from...... the lithosphere is thinnest and possibly in areas of elevated mantle temperatures. The pyroxenite melts formed at deeper levels react with the surrounding peridotite and thereby changes composition leading to eruption of melts which experienced variable degrees of melt-peridotite interaction. This can presumably...

  20. Floodplain hydrodynamic modelling of the Lower Volta River in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Yaw Logah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of dam releases from re-operation scenarios of the Akosombo and Kpong hydropower facilities on downstream communities along the Lower Volta River were examined through hydrodynamic modelling using the HEC-RAS hydraulic model. The model was used to simulate surface water elevation along the river reach for specified discharge hydrographs from proposed re-operation dam release scenarios. The morphology of the river and its flood plains together with cross-sectional profiles at selected river sections were mapped and used in the hydrodynamic modelling. In addition, both suspended and bed-load sediment were sampled and analysed to determine the current sediment load of the river and its potential to carry more sediment. The modelling results indicate that large areas downstream of the dam including its flood plains would be inundated if dam releases came close to or exceeded 2300 m3/s. It is therefore recommended to relocate communities along the banks and in the flood plains of the Lower Volta River when dam releases are to exceed 2300 m3/s. Suspended sediment transport was found to be very low in the Lower Volta River and the predominant soil type in the river banks and bed is sandy soil. Thus, the geomorphology of the river can be expected to change considerably with time, particularly for sustained high releases from the Akosombo and Kpong dams. The results obtained from this study form a basis for assessing future sedimentation problems in the Lower Volta River and for underpinning the development of sediment control and management strategies for river basins in Ghana. Keywords: Geomorphology, HEC-RAS model, Dam release, Floodplain, Lower Volta River, Ghana

  1. Mid-Holocene hydrology change in the south Taihu area of the Yangtze delta plain, China, and its relationship to the development of Neolithic cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T.; Ryves, D.; Wang, Z.; Lewis, J.

    2017-12-01

    During the middle Holocene, the hydrological environments in the Taihu Plain, Yangtze Delta, China, varied tremendously under the influence of sea-level and climate change. Simultaneously, several Neolithic cultures, such as, the Majiabang, Songze, and Liangzhu culture, developed in this region. Basing on AMS14C dating, diatom identification, measurements of C-N elements and their stable isotopes of sediments from core DTX4 and DTX10, obtained in the East Tiaoxi Plain, south Taihu plain, we discussed the influence of hydrology changes on the development of Neolithic cultures. The results revealed that the East Tiaoxi River plain was in an estuary (the Palaeo-Taihu Estuary) condition at 7500 cal. yr BP, undergoing elevated in-fill in response to rapid sea-level rise. After 7500 cal. yr BP, low salinity conditions occurred, likely influenced by the Yangtze freshwater evidenced by constant occurrence of Aulacoseira granulata, which implied Yangtze runoff discharged along the channel of Palaeo-incised Taihu valley into the Hangzhou Bay during the middle Holocene. Sea-water penetration interrupted after 7000 cal. yr BP caused by an abrupt sea-level rise. During 6500-5600 cal. yr BP, sea-water retreated gradually, corresponding to the infilling of Palaeo-Taihu Estuary. Combing records from previously studied cores in the Taihu plain, stable freshwater condition (or dry land) established in most area of the Taihu plain after 5600 cal. yr BP due to the closure of the Palaeo-Taihu Estuary. We speculate that the low-salinity marsh started at about 7500-7000 cal. yr BP probably attracted the early Majiabang people to live around the Palaeo-Taihu Estuary. The sea water penetration between 7000-6500 cal. yr BP matches the left of the late Majiabang and the early-middle Songze people lived in the east of the Palaeo-Taihu Estuary, to the north and east of the Taihu Plain. The context of stable freshwater condition (or dry land) in the East Tiaoxi River plain promoted the

  2. Large Volcanic Rises on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Stofan, Ellen R.

    1997-01-01

    Large volcanic rises on Venus have been interpreted as hotspots, or the surface manifestation of mantle upwelling, on the basis of their broad topographic rises, abundant volcanism, and large positive gravity anomalies. Hotspots offer an important opportunity to study the behavior of the lithosphere in response to mantle forces. In addition to the four previously known hotspots, Atla, Bell, Beta, and western Eistla Regiones, five new probable hotspots, Dione, central Eistla, eastern Eistla, Imdr, and Themis, have been identified in the Magellan radar, gravity and topography data. These nine regions exhibit a wider range of volcano-tectonic characteristics than previously recognized for venusian hotspots, and have been classified as rift-dominated (Atla, Beta), coronae-dominated (central and eastern Eistla, Themis), or volcano-dominated (Bell, Dione, western Eistla, Imdr). The apparent depths of compensation for these regions ranges from 65 to 260 km. New estimates of the elastic thickness, using the 90 deg and order spherical harmonic field, are 15-40 km at Bell Regio, and 25 km at western Eistla Regio. Phillips et al. find a value of 30 km at Atla Regio. Numerous models of lithospheric and mantle behavior have been proposed to interpret the gravity and topography signature of the hotspots, with most studies focusing on Atla or Beta Regiones. Convective models with Earth-like parameters result in estimates of the thickness of the thermal lithosphere of approximately 100 km. Models of stagnant lid convection or thermal thinning infer the thickness of the thermal lithosphere to be 300 km or more. Without additional constraints, any of the model fits are equally valid. The thinner thermal lithosphere estimates are most consistent with the volcanic and tectonic characteristics of the hotspots. Estimates of the thermal gradient based on estimates of the elastic thickness also support a relatively thin lithosphere (Phillips et al.). The advantage of larger estimates of

  3. Classification of Tropical River Using Chemometrics Technique: Case Study in Pahang River, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Khairul Amri Kamarudin; Mohd Ekhwan Toriman; Nur Hishaam Sulaiman

    2015-01-01

    River classification is very important to know the river characteristic in study areas, where this database can help to understand the behaviour of the river. This article discusses about river classification using Chemometrics techniques in mainstream of Pahang River. Based on river survey, GIS and Remote Sensing database, the chemometric analysis techniques have been used to identify the cluster on the Pahang River using Hierarchical Agglomerative Cluster Analysis (HACA). Calibration and validation process using Discriminant Analysis (DA) has been used to confirm the HACA result. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) study to see the strong coefficient where the Pahang River has been classed. The results indicated the main of Pahang River has been classed to three main clusters as upstream, middle stream and downstream. Base on DA analysis, the calibration and validation model shows 100 % convinced. While the PCA indicates there are three variables that have a significant correlation, domination slope with R"2 0.796, L/D ratio with R"2 -0868 and sinuosity with R"2 0.557. Map of the river classification with moving class also was produced. Where the green colour considered in valley erosion zone, yellow in a low terrace of land near the channels and red colour class in flood plain and valley deposition zone. From this result, the basic information can be produced to understand the characteristics of the main Pahang River. This result is important to local authorities to make decisions according to the cluster or guidelines for future study in Pahang River, Malaysia specifically and for Tropical River generally. The research findings are important to local authorities by providing basic data as a guidelines to the integrated river management at Pahang River, and Tropical River in general. (author)

  4. Dinasour extinction and volcanic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gledhill, J. A.

    There is at present some controversy about the reason for the mass extinction of dinosaurs and other forms of life at the end of the Cretaceous. A suggestion by Alvarez et al. [1980] that this was due to the collision of the earth with a meteorite 10 km or so in diameter has excited considerable interest [Silver and Schultz, 1982] and also some criticism [Stanley, 1984]. A recent publication [Wood, 1984] describing the catastrophic effects of a relatively minor lava flow in Iceland suggests that intense volcanic activity could have played a large part in the extinctions. In this letter it is pointed out that the Deccan lava flows in India took place in the appropriate time and may well have been of sufficient magnitude to be a major factor in the Cretaceous-Tertiary (C-T) boundary catastrophe.

  5. Lacustrine-fluvial interactions in Australia's Riverine Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Justine; Pietsch, Timothy; Gontz, Allen; Olley, Jon

    2017-06-01

    Climatic forcing of fluvial systems has been a pre-occupation of geomorphological studies in Australia since the 1940s. In the Riverine Plain, southeastern Australia, the stable tectonic setting and absence of glaciation have combined to produce sediment loads that are amongst the lowest in the world. Surficial sediments and landforms exceed 140,000 yr in age, and geomorphological change recorded in the fluvial, fluvio-lacustrine and aeolian features have provided a well-studied record of Quaternary environmental change over the last glacial cycle. The region includes the Willandra Lakes, whose distinctive lunette lakes preserve a history of water-level variations and ecological change that is the cornerstone of Australian Quaternary chronostratigraphy. The lunette sediments also contain an ancient record of human occupation that includes the earliest human fossils yet found on the Australian continent. To date, the lake-level and palaeochannel records in the Lachlan-Willandra system have not been fully integrated, making it difficult to establish the regional significance of hydrological change. Here, we compare the Willandra Lakes environmental record with the morphology and location of fluvial systems in the lower Lachlan. An ancient channel belt of the Lachlan, Willandra Creek, acted as the main feeder channel to Willandra Lakes before channel avulsion caused the lakes to dry out in the late Pleistocene. Electromagnetic surveys, geomorphological and sedimentary evidence are used to reconstruct the evolution of the first new channel belt following the avulsion. Single grain optical dating of floodplain sediments indicates that sedimentation in the new Middle Billabong Palaeochannel had commenced before 18.4 ± 1.1 ka. A second avulsion shifted its upper reaches to the location of the present Lachlan River by 16.2 ± 0.9 ka. The timing of these events is consistent with palaeohydrological records reconstructed from Willandra Lakes and with the record of

  6. Presence of trace elements in fishes from the Chaco-Pampeana plain (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra V. Volpedo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Chaco-Pampean plain is one of the greatest plains worldwide; present a wetland macro system (lagoons, marshes, rivers, streams, channels. The water quality of these environments is diverse and has different trace elements natural (As, F, Mo and V and anthropogenic (Cr, Cu and Pb. The Chaco Pampean plain has an important diversity of fish species however the species of commercial importance are limited. This paper presents the reviews of the studies related to the presence of trace elements in tissues of commercial fishes (shad Prochilodus lineatus and silversides Odontesthes bonariensis in the Chaco-Pampean plain in recent decades and a discussion about associated information gaps is presented. The presence of trace elements in commercial fish muscle is a major problem for food security. The results showed that most of the elements present in shad are in lower levels than the maximum limits set by the Argentine Food Code (CAA, 2014. In the case of Pb present in the muscle of the shad, the determined values exceed those considered by the European Food Safety Authority. In the case of silversides the values of As, Pb, Hg are mostly lower than those maximum recommended by the Argentine Food Code. However, according to the European Food Safety Authority, the lower limit on the benchmark dose for a 10% response (BMDL values associated with health risk for As.

  7. Environmental changes in the central Po Plain (northern Italy) due to fluvial modifications and anthropogenic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Mauro

    2002-05-01

    The fluvial environment of the central Po Plain, the largest plain in Italy, is discussed in this paper. Bounded by the mountain chains of the Alps and the Apennines, this plain is a link between the Mediterranean environment and the cultural and continental influences of both western and eastern Europe. In the past decades, economic development has been responsible for many changes in the fluvial environment of the area. This paper discusses the changes in fluvial dynamics that started from Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene due to distinct climatic changes. The discussion is based on geomorphological, pedological, and archaeological evidences and radiocarbon dating. In the northern foothills, Late Pleistocene palaeochannels indicate several cases of underfit streams among the northern tributaries of the River Po. On the other hand, on the southern side of the Po Plain, no geomorphological evidence of similar discharge reduction has been found. Here, stratigraphic sections, together with archaeological remains buried under the fluvial deposits, show a reduction in the size of fluvial sediments after the 10th millennium BC. During the Holocene, fluvial sedimentation became finer, and was characterised by minor fluctuations in the rate of deposition, probably related to short and less intense climatic fluctuations. Given the high rate of population growth and the development of human activities since the Neolithic Age, human influence on fluvial dynamics, especially since the Roman Age, prevailed over other factors (i.e., climate, tectonics, vegetation, etc.). During the Holocene, the most important changes in the Po Plain were not modifications in water discharge but in sediment. From the 1st to 3rd Century AD, land grants to war veterans caused almost complete deforestation, generalised soil erosion, and maximum progradation of the River Po delta. At present, land abandonment in the mountainous region has led to reafforestation. Artificial channel control in the

  8. Impacts of climate change on freshwater fisheries of the Great Plains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regier, H.A.; Holmes, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    The diversity and habitats of fish in Great Plains hydrologic systems are described. Fisheries on the Great Plains consist of commercial, subsistence, and recreational. Direct effects of climate change on Great Plains fisheries will involve temperature and hydrology. Increased temperature could expand suitable habitat for fish with preferred temperatures between 10 and 27.5 degree C by 2.5 times base conditions. Reductions in precipitation will reduce river flows and lake levels, and an overall reduction in habitat for the most preferred species is expected. Indirect effects stem from human responses to climate change, and streams, wetlands and coastal zones will likely bear the brunt of such activity. More river systems may be damned or channelized, which could lead to increases in eutrophication or pollution, most severely affecting the preferred white fishes. Geographical shifts of species in response to climate change will likely favour black fish over grey fish over white fish, and when longitudinal or lateral movement is blocked, local extinctions may occur. 22 refs., 1 tab

  9. Evaluation of the applicability of the SWAT model in an arid piedmont plain oasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yong; Li, Changyou; Zhang, Chengfu; Shi, Xiaohong; Bourque, Charles P-A; Zhao, Shengnan

    2016-01-01

    Hetao Oasis is located in a typical piedmont alluvial plain bounded by the Langshan Mountain Range in the north, desert in the west, and the Yellow River in the south. Agricultural activities within the oasis significantly impact the hydrological cycle and water quality in downstream locations. The research uses the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for a piedmont plain by defining the watershed boundary as coinciding with the natural mountain ridge, the border between the oasis and the desert, and the Yellow River. The model simulates water discharge with coefficient of determination and a Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency of 0.78 and 0.62 during model calibration, and 0.75 and 0.69 during model validation, suggesting that delineation of the watershed as carried out in this research is suitable for piedmont plain topography. From the results, the mountains contribute 28.4% to the water discharge at the outlet of the watershed, and water-use efficiency of irrigated water is about 40%, which is consistent with field-based measurements. Methodologies used in delineating watershed boundaries and parameterizing SWAT provide a solid foundation for water balance studies in other regions of the world with similar topography.

  10. Holocene tectono-geomorphic evolution of parts of the Upper and Middle Gangetic plains, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Pitambar; Parkash, B.; Awasthi, A. K.; Acharya, Vivekanand

    2011-05-01

    Using multispectral scanning (MSS) images and digital elevation models (DEMs), 26 terrain morphological units were delineated in the study area between the Rapti and Kosi Rivers in the Gangetic plains. Based on the degree of soil development and the infrared stimulated luminescence chronology, these terrain morphological units have been grouped into six members of a morphostratigraphic sequence with ages ≤ 1.65, 1.65-5.3, 5.3-7.5, 7.5-8.5, 8.5-10, and > 10 Ka. Integrated use of geomorphic markers including different drainage patterns identified from MSS images, significant breaks in topographic profiles, terminal fans, and artifact terrain features (e.g., 'cliffs' and 'significant breaks in slopes') in DEMs/digital terrain models (DTMs) with highly exaggerated vertical dimensions were made to infer and map 20 nascent faults in the region between the Ghaghara and Kosi Rivers in the flat Gangetic plains. The three major tectonic blocks are; the upland Ghaghara-Rapti block of the Upper Gangetic Plain, and the Rapti-Gandak and Gandak-Kosi blocks of the Middle Gangetic Plain, marked by high rates of subsidence and sedimentation. The Ghaghara-Rapti block bounded by the incised Ghaghara and Rapti rivers is an upland region and is primarily overlain by > 10 Ka old soils. Subsequent activity along the NE-SW trending transverse normal faults led to deposition of young terminal fans. Southward tilt of the Ghaghara-Rapti block generated two E-W trending terraces on the left bank of the Ghaghara River. Southwestward tilting of the upper part of the Ghaghara-Rapti block led to development of the widest Old Ghaghara Plain and Rapti Floodplain in the SW direction. Northeastward tilting of the Rapti-Gandak block shifted the Gandak River from west to east over a distance of 80 km during the period from 10 to 8.5 Ka. Further compression from the SW caused development of four extensional normal faults. The activity of three faults between 5.7 and 1.0 Ka generated four terminal

  11. Volcanic Eruption: Students Develop a Contingency Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisinger, Philipp; Wittlich, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Dangerous, loud, sensational, exciting - natural hazards have what it takes to get students attention around the globe. Arising interest is the first step to develop an intrinsic motivation to learn about the matter and endure the hardships that students might discover along the way of the unit. Natural hazards thereby establish a close-knit connection between physical and anthropological geography through analyzing the hazardous event and its consequences for the people living in the affected area. Following a general principle of didactics we start searching right on our doorsteps to offer students the possibility to gain knowledge on the familiar and later transfer it to the unknown example. Even in Southwest Germany - a region that is rather known for its wine than its volcanic activity - we can find a potentially hazardous region. The "Laacher See" volcano (a caldera lake) in northern Rhineland-Palatinate is according to Prof. H.U. Schminke a "potentially active volcano" . Its activity can be proven by seismic activities, or experienced when visiting the lake's southeastern shore, where carbondioxid and sulphur gases from the underlying magma chamber still bubble up. The Laacher See is part of a range of volcanoes (classified from 'potentially active' to 'no longer active') of the East Eifel Volcanic Field. Precariously the Laacher See is located closely to the densely populated agglomerations of Cologne (NE, distance: 45 km) and the former capital Bonn (NE: 35km), as well as Koblenz (E: 24km) and the Rhine river. Apart from that, the towns of Andernach (E: 8km ± 30 000 inhabitants) and Mayen (SW: 11km ±20 000 inhabitants) and many smaller towns and villages are nearby due to economic reasons. The number of people affected by a possible eruption easily exceeds two million people considering the range as prime measurement. The underlying danger, as projected in a simulation presented by Prof. Schminke, is a lava stream running down the Brohltal valley

  12. Charles River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the efforts of the US EPA, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the municipalities within the Charles River Watershed and nongovernmental organizations to improve the water quality of the Charles River.

  13. A decade of investigations on groundwater arsenic contamination in Middle Ganga Plain, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Dipankar; Sahu, Sudarsan

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater arsenic (As) load in excess of drinking limit (50 µg L(-1)) in the Gangetic Plains was first detected in 2002. Though the menace was known since about two decades from the downstream part of the plains in the Bengal Basin, comprising of Lower Ganga Plain and deltaic plains of Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna River system, little thought was given to its possible threat in the upstream parts in the Gangetic Plains beyond Garo-Rajmahal Hills. The contamination in Bengal Basin has become one of the extensively studied issues in the world and regarded as the severest case of health hazard in the history of mankind. The researches and investigations in the Gangetic Plains during the last decade (2003-2013) revealed that the eastern half of the plains, also referred as Middle Ganga Plain (MGP), is particularly affected by contamination, jeopardising the shallow aquifer-based drinking water supply. The present paper reviews researches and investigations carried out so far in MGP by various research institutes and government departments on wide array of issues of groundwater As such as its spatio-temporal variation, mobilisation paths, water level behaviour and flow regime, configuration of contaminated and safe aquifers and their recharge mechanism. Elevated conc. of groundwater As has been observed in grey and dark grey sediments of Holocene age (Newer Alluvium) deposited in a fluvio-lacustrine environment in the floodplain of the Ganga and most of its northern tributaries from Himalayas. Older Alluvium, comprising Pleistocene brownish yellow sediment, extending as deeper aquifers in Newer Alluvium areas, is low in groundwater As. Similarities and differences on issues between the MGP and the Bengal Basin have been discussed. The researches point towards the mobilisation process as reductive dissolution of iron hydroxide coating, rich in adsorbed As, mediated by microbial processes. The area is marked with shallow water level (<8.0 m below ground) with ample

  14. Volcanic Plume Measurements with UAV (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, H.; Kaneko, T.; Ohminato, T.

    2013-12-01

    Volatiles in magmas are the driving force of volcanic eruptions and quantification of volcanic gas flux and composition is important for the volcano monitoring. Recently we developed a portable gas sensor system (Multi-GAS) to quantify the volcanic gas composition by measuring volcanic plumes and obtained volcanic gas compositions of actively degassing volcanoes. As the Multi-GAS measures variation of volcanic gas component concentrations in the pumped air (volcanic plume), we need to bring the apparatus into the volcanic plume. Commonly the observer brings the apparatus to the summit crater by himself but such measurements are not possible under conditions of high risk of volcanic eruption or difficulty to approach the summit due to topography etc. In order to overcome these difficulties, volcanic plume measurements were performed by using manned and unmanned aerial vehicles. The volcanic plume measurements by manned aerial vehicles, however, are also not possible under high risk of eruption. The strict regulation against the modification of the aircraft, such as installing sampling pipes, also causes difficulty due to the high cost. Application of the UAVs for the volcanic plume measurements has a big advantage to avoid these problems. The Multi-GAS consists of IR-CO2 and H2O gas analyzer, SO2-H2O chemical sensors and H2 semiconductor sensor and the total weight ranges 3-6 kg including batteries. The necessary conditions of the UAV for the volcanic plumes measurements with the Multi-GAS are the payloads larger than 3 kg, maximum altitude larger than the plume height and installation of the sampling pipe without contamination of the exhaust gases, as the exhaust gases contain high concentrations of H2, SO2 and CO2. Up to now, three different types of UAVs were applied for the measurements; Kite-plane (Sky Remote) at Miyakejima operated by JMA, Unmanned airplane (Air Photo Service) at Shinomoedake, Kirishima volcano, and Unmanned helicopter (Yamaha) at Sakurajima

  15. Fluid volcanism on Miranda and Ariel - Flow morphology and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    Several types of volcanic units have been recognized on the icy Uranian satellites Miranda and Ariel. On Miranda, ridges characterized by crest grooves are up to 10 km wide and 500 m high. A continuous flat-topped flow band also 10 km wide and 500 m high forms the outer southern margin of Elsinore Corona, which appears to comprise coalesced flow bands and ridges. On Ariel, in addition to at least one ridge unit similar to those on Miranda, flood plains material has covered the floors of deep chasmata (grabens) and an irregular depression. Flows on both satellites are characterized by linear vent geometries and distinct topographic margins, which indicate extrusion of a relatively viscous material. The topography of the flows can be used to estimate flow viscosity or yield strength using a Bingham plastic model. Extrusion viscosity estimates, incorporating plausible volcanologically based emplacement time scales and a rigid crust correction, range from 10 MP to 1 GP (10 TP in the unlikely absence of a chilled crust). Viscosity estimates are dependent on the assumed emplacement time scale, however, and could be as high as 10 PP, if a solid-state-based time scale is assumed.

  16. [Ichthyofauna and its community diversity in volcanic barrier lakes of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fu-Yi; Lü, Xian-Guo; Lou, Yan-Jing; Lou, Xiao-Nan; Xue, Bin; Yao, Shu-Chun; Xiao, Hai-Feng

    2012-12-01

    Based on the investigations of fish resources in Jingpo Lake and Wudalianchi Lakes in 2008-2011 and the historical data, this paper analyzed the characteristics of ichthyofauna and its community diversity in volcanic barrier lakes of Northeast China. The ichthyofauna in the volcanic barrier lakes of Northeast China was consisted of 64 native species, belonging to 47 genera, 16 families, and 9 orders, among which, one species was the second class National protected wild animal, four species were Chinese endemic species, and five species were Chinese vulnerable species. In the 64 recorded species, there were 44 species of Cypriniformes order and 37 species of Cyprinidae family dominated, respectively. The ichthyofauna in the volcanic barrier lakes of Northeast China was formed by 7 fauna complexes, among which, the eastern plain fauna complex was dominant, the common species from the South and the North occupied 53.1%, and the northern endemic species took up 46.9%. The Shannon, Fisher-alpha, Pielou, Margalef, and Simpson indices of the ichthyofauna were 2.078, 4.536, 0.575, 3.723, and 0.269, respectively, and the abundance distribution pattern of native species accorded with lognormal model. The Bray-Curtis, Morisita-Horn, Ochiai, Sørensen, and Whittaker indices between the communities of ichthyofauna in the volcanic barrier lakes of Northeast China and the Jingpo Lake were 0.820, 0.992, 0.870, 0.862 and 0.138, respectively, and those between the communities of ichthyofauna in the volcanic barrier lakes and the Wudalianchi Lakes were 0.210, 0.516, 0.838, 0.825, and 0.175, respectively. The ichthyofauna in volcanic barrier lakes of Northeast China was characterized by the mutual infiltration between the South and the North, and the overlap and transition between the Palaeoarctic realm and the Oricetal realm. It was suggested that the ichthyofauna community species diversity in the volcanic barrier lakes of Northeast China was higher, the species structure was more

  17. The Eel River, northwestern California; high sediment yields from a dynamic landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas E. Lisle

    1990-01-01

    The Eel River draining the Coast Range of northwestern California has the highest recorded average suspended sediment yield per drainage area of any river of its size or larger unaffected by volcanic eruptions or active glaciers in the conterminous United States (1,720 t/km 2 yr from 9,390 km 2 ; Brown and Ritter, 1971).

  18. THE GAPS BETWEEN AN INTEGRATED UNDERSTANDING OF CHANNELIZATION, HYDROLOGY AND WATER QUALITY VERSUS HOLISTIC FUTURE MANAGEMENT: A CASE STUDY OF THE WILLAMETTE RIVER, OREGON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the last 150 years the main channel of the Willamette River has been drastically altered by human activity. It has changed from a generally meandering and anastamosing river with extensive reaches of broad, active and connected flood plain features to a river with 13 major ...

  19. Coastal geomorphology of the Martian northern plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Timothy J.; Gorsline, Donn S.; Saunders, Stephen R.; Pieri, David C.; Schneeberger, Dale M.

    1993-01-01

    The paper considers the question of the formation of the outflow channels and valley networks discovered on the Martian northern plains during the Mariner 9 mission. Parker and Saunders (1987) and Parker et al. (1987, 1989) data are used to describe key features common both in the lower reaches of the outflow channels and within and along the margins of the entire northern plains. It is suggested, that of the geological processes capable of producing similar morphologies on earth, lacustrine or marine deposition and subsequent periglacial modification offer the simplest and most consistent explanation for the suit of features found on Mars.

  20. Hydrothermal Solute Flux from Ebeko Volcanic Center, Paramushir, Kuril Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taran, Y.; Kalacheva, E.; Kotenko, T.; Chaplygin, I.

    2014-12-01

    Ebeko volcano on the northern part of Paramushir Island, Northern Kurils, is characterized by frequent phreatic eruptions, a strong low-temperature fumarolic activity at the summit and was the object of comprehensive volcanological and geochemical studies during the last half a century. The volcanic center is composed of several Pleistocene volcanic structures aadjacent to Ebeko and hosts a hydrothermal system with a high outflow rate of hot SO4-Cl acidic water (Upper Yurieva springs) with the current maximum temperature of ~85oC, pH 1.3 and TDS ~ 10 g/L. All discharging thermal waters are drained by the Yurieva River to the Sea of Okhotsk. The hot springs have been changing in time, generally decreasing their activity from near boiling in 1960s, with TDS ~ 20 g/L and the presence of a small steaming field at the upper part of the ~ 700 m long discharging area, to a much lower discharge rate of main vents, lower temperature and the absence of the steaming ground. The spring chemistry did not react to the Ebeko volcanic activity (14 strong phreato-magmatic events during the last 60 years).The total measured outputs of chloride and sulfur from the system last time (2006-2010) were estimated on average as 730 g/s and 980 g/s, respectively, which corresponds to the equivalent fluxes of 64 t/d of HCl and 169 t/d of SO2. These values are higher than the fumarolic volatile output from Ebeko. The estimated discharge rate of hot (85oC) water from the system with ~ 3500 ppm of chloride is about 0.3 m3/s which is much higher than the thermal water discharge from El Chichon or Copahue volcano-hydrothermal systems and among the highest hot water natural outputs ever measured for a volcano-hydrothermal system. We also report the chemical composition (major and ~ 60 trace elements including REE) of water from the main hot spring vents and the Yurieva river mouth.

  1. Volcanic Ash Advisory Database, 1983-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Volcanic ash is a significant hazard to aviation and can also affect global climate patterns. To ensure safe navigation and monitor possible climatic impact, the...

  2. Age of the Auckland Volcanic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, J.; Leonard, G.S.

    2009-01-01

    In 2008 a multi-disciplinary research programme was launched, a GNS Science-University of Auckland collaboration with the aim of DEtermining VOlcanic Risk in Auckland (DEVORA). A major aspiration of DEVORA is development of a probabilistic hazard model for the Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF). This will be achieved by investigating past eruption magnitude-frequency relationships and comparing these with similar data from analogous volcanic fields. A key data set underpinning this is an age database for the AVF. To this end a comprehensive dating campaign is planned as part of DEVORA. This report, Age of the Auckland Volcanic Field, is a synthesis of all currently available age data for the AVF. It represents one of several reports carried out as part of the 'synthesis' phase of DEVORA, whereby existing data from all previous work is collated and summarised, so that gaps in current knowledge can be identified and addressed. (author). 60 refs., 7 figs., 31 tabs.

  3. Volcanic eruptions are cooling the earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern

    2005-01-01

    The article discusses how volcanic eruptions may influence the climate. The environmental impacts both on the earth surface and the atmosphere are surveyed. Some major eruptions in modern times are mentioned

  4. Stochastic Modeling of Past Volcanic Crises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Gordon

    2018-01-01

    The statistical foundation of disaster risk analysis is past experience. From a scientific perspective, history is just one realization of what might have happened, given the randomness and chaotic dynamics of Nature. Stochastic analysis of the past is an exploratory exercise in counterfactual history, considering alternative possible scenarios. In particular, the dynamic perturbations that might have transitioned a volcano from an unrest to an eruptive state need to be considered. The stochastic modeling of past volcanic crises leads to estimates of eruption probability that can illuminate historical volcanic crisis decisions. It can also inform future economic risk management decisions in regions where there has been some volcanic unrest, but no actual eruption for at least hundreds of years. Furthermore, the availability of a library of past eruption probabilities would provide benchmark support for estimates of eruption probability in future volcanic crises.

  5. A new species of dusky salamander (Amphibia: Plethodontidae: Desmognathus) from the Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain of the United States and a redescription of D. auriculatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, D Bruce; Lamb, Jennifer Y; Bernardo, Joseph

    2017-05-10

    The Coastal Plain of the southeastern U. S. is one of the planet's top biodiversity hotspots and yet many taxa have not been adequately studied. The plethodontid salamander, Desmognathus auriculatus, was originally thought to occur from east Texas to Virginia, a range spanning dozens of interfluves and large river systems. Beamer and Lamb (2008) found five independent mitochondrial lineages of what has been called D. auriculatus in the Atlantic Coastal Plain, but did not examine the extensive distribution of D. auriculatus in the Gulf Coastal Plain. We present morphological and molecular genetic data distinguishing two evolutionarily independent and distantly related lineages that are currently subsumed under the taxon D. auriculatus in the eastern Gulf Coastal Plain. We describe one of these as a new species, Desmognathus valentinei sp. nov., and assign the second one to D. auriculatus which we formally redescribe.

  6. Paleogeographical evolution of the Itapoa coastal plain, Northern coast of Santa Catarina, SC, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Maria Cristina de; Angulo, Rodolfo Jose; angulo@geologia.ufpr.br; Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz

    2001-01-01

    The paper aims to characterize the paleogeographical evolution of the Itapoa coastal plain during the Quaternary and to compare this evolution with other proposed models. To reach the objectives the area was mapped in scale 1:50.000, sub-surface information were obtained from geotechnical drillings and paleosea-levels were inferred by radiocarbon dating performed on vermetids tubes, wood fragments and shells of Anomalocardia brasiliana samples. The paleosea-level reconstructions are consistent with the sea level curve proposed in previous works. The evolution model for the Itapoa coastal plain proposed in this work is similar to the model proposed for the coastal plain of Paranagua. The paleogeographical evolution of the Itapoa coastal plain can be summarized as: formation of fans during Lower Miocene, with sea level similar or lower than the present one; island-barrier formation during the Upper Pleistocene transgression maximum; formation of extensive regressive barriers and later dissection by a rectangular pattern drainage system, during sea level low stand; island barrier formation during the Holocene transgression maximum, with inlets associated to the present mouth of Sai-Mirim and Sai-Guacu rivers; formation of extensive regressive barriers during falling sea level period. During the Holocene regression, spits grew northward, moving northward the estuarine inlets as well. This drift direction is the same that was suggested for Parana and Santa Catarina north coast. During regression until present the Sai-Mirim River has eroded the Holocene barrier inland portion, that probably caused the erosion of most of the Holocene transgressive barrier-islands. (author)

  7. Drilling a ';super-volcano': volcanology of the proximal rhyolitic volcanic succession in the HOTSPOT deep drill hole, Idaho, Yellowstone hot-spot track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, T.; Branney, M. J.; Christiansen, E. H.; Reichow, M. K.; McCurry, M. O.; Shervais, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    Project HOTSPOT seeks to understand the bimodal volcanism in the Yellowstone-Snake River large igneous province, including the magma generation and eruption history. The 1.9 km-deep Kimberly well in southern Idaho, USA, reveals a proximal mid-Miocene rhyolitic and basaltic volcanic succession marginal to the postulated Twin Falls eruptive centre. Three rhyolitic eruption-units (each we interpret to record a single eruption, based on core descriptions) are separated by basaltic lavas, palaeosols and volcaniclastic sediments, and are being dated by 40Ar-39Ar on plagioclases. Whole-rock and mineral chemical data, from each unit, has been compiled to facilitate correlation with well-studied eruption-units at more distal outcrops, where we have detailed chemical, palaeomagnetic and radiometric characterisation. Results will contribute to frequency and volume calculations for some of the most catastrophic super-eruptions in Earth history. As the volcanism is of Snake River (SR)-type and lacks typical pumice fall deposits and low-moderate grade ignimbrites, interpreting the physical origin of the units can be difficult; many SR-type rheomorphic ignimbrites are flow-banded and resemble lavas, and the distinction between these and true lavas involves interpretation of critical evidence from lower contacts (e.g., distinguishing basal lava autobreccias from peperitic contacts, which can occur at the bases of SR-type lavas and ignimbrites). The lower most eruption-unit, ';Kimberly Rhyolite 1,' is >1323 m thick (base not seen) and suggests ponding in the margin of a caldera. Few vitroclastic textures are preserved, but a rheomorphic ignimbrite origin is inferred by folded fabrics and scattered obsidian chips (2-5 mm in size) within a thick lithoidal zone, which passes sharply upwards into a 39.6 m thick vitrophyre with an autobrecciated top and it is overlain by 18 m (caldera?) lake sediments. However, lithic mesobreccia, that characterise caldera fills elsewhere, are not seen

  8. Combining Landform Thematic Layer and Object-Oriented Image Analysis to Map the Surface Features of Mountainous Flood Plain Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, H.-K.; Lin, M.-L.; Huang, W.-C.

    2012-04-01

    The Typhoon Morakot on August 2009 brought more than 2,000 mm of cumulative rainfall in southern Taiwan, the extreme rainfall event caused serious damage to the Kaoping River basin. The losses were mostly blamed on the landslides along sides of the river, and shifting of the watercourse even led to the failure of roads and bridges, as well as flooding and levees damage happened around the villages on flood bank and terraces. Alluvial fans resulted from debris flow of stream feeders blocked the main watercourse and debris dam was even formed and collapsed. These disasters have highlighted the importance of identification and map the watercourse alteration, surface features of flood plain area and artificial structures soon after the catastrophic typhoon event for natural hazard mitigation. Interpretation of remote sensing images is an efficient approach to acquire spatial information for vast areas, therefore making it suitable for the differentiation of terrain and objects near the vast flood plain areas in a short term. The object-oriented image analysis program (Definiens Developer 7.0) and multi-band high resolution satellite images (QuickBird, DigitalGlobe) was utilized to interpret the flood plain features from Liouguei to Baolai of the the Kaoping River basin after Typhoon Morakot. Object-oriented image interpretation is the process of using homogenized image blocks as elements instead of pixels for different shapes, textures and the mutual relationships of adjacent elements, as well as categorized conditions and rules for semi-artificial interpretation of surface features. Digital terrain models (DTM) are also employed along with the above process to produce layers with specific "landform thematic layers". These layers are especially helpful in differentiating some confusing categories in the spectrum analysis with improved accuracy, such as landslides and riverbeds, as well as terraces, riverbanks, which are of significant engineering importance in disaster

  9. Imaging volcanic CO2 and SO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrieli, A.; Wright, R.; Lucey, P. G.; Porter, J. N.

    2017-12-01

    Detecting and quantifying volcanic carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions is of relevance to volcanologists. Changes in the amount and composition of gases that volcanoes emit are related to subsurface magma movements and the probability of eruptions. Volcanic gases and related acidic aerosols are also an important atmospheric pollution source that create environmental health hazards for people, animals, plants, and infrastructures. For these reasons, it is important to measure emissions from volcanic plumes during both day and night. We present image measurements of the volcanic plume at Kīlauea volcano, HI, and flux derivation, using a newly developed 8-14 um hyperspectral imaging spectrometer, the Thermal Hyperspectral Imager (THI). THI is capable of acquiring images of the scene it views from which spectra can be derived from each pixel. Each spectrum contains 50 wavelength samples between 8 and 14 um where CO2 and SO2 volcanic gases have diagnostic absorption/emission features respectively at 8.6 and 14 um. Plume radiance measurements were carried out both during the day and the night by using both the lava lake in the Halema'uma'u crater as a hot source and the sky as a cold background to detect respectively the spectral signatures of volcanic CO2 and SO2 gases. CO2 and SO2 path-concentrations were then obtained from the spectral radiance measurements using a new Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR)-based inversion algorithm, which was developed as part of this project. Volcanic emission fluxes were determined by combining the path measurements with wind observations, derived directly from the images. Several hours long time-series of volcanic emission fluxes will be presented and the SO2 conversion rates into aerosols will be discussed. The new imaging and inversion technique, discussed here, are novel allowing for continuous CO2 and SO2 plume mapping during both day and night.

  10. Drought variability over Thessaly plain, Greece. Present and future changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastos, Panagiotis T.; Kapsomenakis, John; Dalezios, Nicolas R.; Kotsopoulos, Spyridon; Poulos, Serafim

    2015-04-01

    The diachronic variability of precipitation is of major scientific concern, because it is linked to water availability or deficiency on regional scale. The latter, resulted from a prolonged period of abnormally low precipitation or permanent absence of precipitation, is associated with dryness, having on one hand, a substantial impact on agricultural production and thus the society itself, and on the other hand, the redistribution of flora and fauna. In some cases, dryness drive climate refugees, and this is a great challenge - threat - that must be faced - mitigated - by stake holders in international organizations and fora. The Aridity Index (AI) measures the degree of dryness of the climate at a given region, and according to the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) it is defined as the ratio of precipitation to the potential evapotranspiration. In this study, we investigate the climate change impacts on AI over Thessaly plain, Greece. Thessaly, the largest plain and granary of Greece, includes a total area of 14,036 km2, which represents almost 11% of the Greek territory. Regarding the geomorphology, the ground is 50% mountainous-hilly and 50% flat, irrigated by Peneus, the third largest river in the country, which flows through the axis east-west. The assessment of AI was conducted utilizing daily evapotranspiration losses, based on the modified FAO-56 Penman-Monteith formula, and daily precipitation totals from a number of Regional Climate Models (RCMs), within the ENSEMBLE European Project. Further, the projected changes of AI between the period 1961-1990 (reference period) and the periods 2021-2050 (near future) and 2071-2100 (far future) along with the inter-model standard deviations are presented, under SRES A1B. The findings of the analysis revealed significant spatiotemporal changes of AI over Thessaly plain, focusing on their societal aspects. Acknowlegdements. This work is supported by the project AGROCLIMA (11SYN_3_1913), which is funded by

  11. An isotopic approach to study the recharge mechanism in Haripur plain contribution to the area from Tarbela and Khanpur lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajjad, M.I.; Tasneem, M.A.; Khan, I.H.; Ahmad, M.; Akram, W.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental isotopic investigation were carried out in Haripur plain to determine the recharge mechanism in the area. The Haripur plain is bounded by river Doar (that falls in Tarbela lake) in the north mountain ranges in the east and west, while the river Haro flows on the south eastern boundary upon which Khanpur dam has been built. Effort were made to identify the different sources which recharge the aquifer in the area. Isotopic data reveals that the major source of recharge is the rainfall on adjoining hills There is no contribution of Tarbela and Khanpur lakes. The residence time varies from a few years to more than fifty years depending upon the geology of the area. 14 figs. (author)

  12. Local and remote infrasound from explosive volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoza, R. S.; Fee, D.; LE Pichon, A.

    2014-12-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions can inject large volumes of ash into heavily travelled air corridors and thus pose a significant societal and economic hazard. In remote volcanic regions, satellite data are sometimes the only technology available to observe volcanic eruptions and constrain ash-release parameters for aviation safety. Infrasound (acoustic waves ~0.01-20 Hz) data fill this critical observational gap, providing ground-based data for remote volcanic eruptions. Explosive volcanic eruptions are among the most powerful sources of infrasound observed on earth, with recordings routinely made at ranges of hundreds to thousands of kilometers. Advances in infrasound technology and the efficient propagation of infrasound in the atmosphere therefore greatly enhance our ability to monitor volcanoes in remote regions such as the North Pacific Ocean. Infrasound data can be exploited to detect, locate, and provide detailed chronologies of the timing of explosive volcanic eruptions for use in ash transport and dispersal models. We highlight results from case studies of multiple eruptions recorded by the International Monitoring System and dedicated regional infrasound networks (2008 Kasatochi, Alaska, USA; 2008 Okmok, Alaska, USA; 2009 Sarychev Peak, Kuriles, Russian Federation; 2010 Eyjafjallajökull, Icleand) and show how infrasound is currently used in volcano monitoring. We also present progress towards characterizing and modeling the variability in source mechanisms of infrasound from explosive eruptions using dedicated local infrasound field deployments at volcanoes Karymsky, Russian Federation and Sakurajima, Japan.

  13. Assessment of Heavy Metals Level of River Kaduna at Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    1&2 Dept. of Environmental Management, Kaduna State University. ... mass education of people on the impact of indiscriminate waste discharge on the water quality, ... along the flood plain of the River and aquatic foods ... petroleum industry, the land-use pattern is fast .... cause ill health such as gastro intestinal irritation.

  14. Hydrogeological evolution of the Luni river basin, Rajasthan ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    a vertical litho-column warrant further studies on fine resolution stratigraphy and high resolution ... the Luni river in Barmer region from Karna to .... are without flood plain development. Lesser ... basemen t ro ck a t differen t tub e w ell and dug w ell sites in the. Luni basin. ... together with drainage network flowing across the.

  15. Alien fish species in upper Sakarya River and their distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the fact that the flood plains have been reclaimed, excessive hunting, destruction of the ecologic balance and invasion of the area by the alien fish species threatens the fish stocks in Sakarya River. In this study, we aimed to determine the dispersion area of Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782), Oreochromis niloticus ...

  16. Groundwater declines are linked to changes in Great Plains stream fish assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkin, Joshuah S; Gido, Keith B; Falke, Jeffrey A; Fausch, Kurt D; Crockett, Harry; Johnson, Eric R; Sanderson, John

    2017-07-11

    Groundwater pumping for agriculture is a major driver causing declines of global freshwater ecosystems, yet the ecological consequences for stream fish assemblages are rarely quantified. We combined retrospective (1950-2010) and prospective (2011-2060) modeling approaches within a multiscale framework to predict change in Great Plains stream fish assemblages associated with groundwater pumping from the United States High Plains Aquifer. We modeled the relationship between the length of stream receiving water from the High Plains Aquifer and the occurrence of fishes characteristic of small and large streams in the western Great Plains at a regional scale and for six subwatersheds nested within the region. Water development at the regional scale was associated with construction of 154 barriers that fragment stream habitats, increased depth to groundwater and loss of 558 km of stream, and transformation of fish assemblage structure from dominance by large-stream to small-stream fishes. Scaling down to subwatersheds revealed consistent transformations in fish assemblage structure among western subwatersheds with increasing depths to groundwater. Although transformations occurred in the absence of barriers, barriers along mainstem rivers isolate depauperate western fish assemblages from relatively intact eastern fish assemblages. Projections to 2060 indicate loss of an additional 286 km of stream across the region, as well as continued replacement of large-stream fishes by small-stream fishes where groundwater pumping has increased depth to groundwater. Our work illustrates the shrinking of streams and homogenization of Great Plains stream fish assemblages related to groundwater pumping, and we predict similar transformations worldwide where local and regional aquifer depletions occur.

  17. Defining 'plain language' in contemporary South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    dimensions that are “characteristically human [and take the form of] the logical, the historical, ... the philosopher Cicero (James 2008: 3), are still important in plain language work: invention ... databases, help files, content management systems, etc., that essentially serve the same ...... From a talent to a scientific discipline.

  18. Porosity Prediction of Plain Weft Knitted Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Owais Raza Siddiqui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wearing comfort of clothing is dependent on air permeability, moisture absorbency and wicking properties of fabric, which are related to the porosity of fabric. In this work, a plug-in is developed using Python script and incorporated in Abaqus/CAE for the prediction of porosity of plain weft knitted fabrics. The Plug-in is able to automatically generate 3D solid and multifilament weft knitted fabric models and accurately determine the porosity of fabrics in two steps. In this work, plain weft knitted fabrics made of monofilament, multifilament and spun yarn made of staple fibers were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the developed plug-in. In the case of staple fiber yarn, intra yarn porosity was considered in the calculation of porosity. The first step is to develop a 3D geometrical model of plain weft knitted fabric and the second step is to calculate the porosity of the fabric by using the geometrical parameter of 3D weft knitted fabric model generated in step one. The predicted porosity of plain weft knitted fabric is extracted in the second step and is displayed in the message area. The predicted results obtained from the plug-in have been compared with the experimental results obtained from previously developed models; they agreed well.

  19. Necrotizing fasciitis : plain radiographic and CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Dae; Park, Jeong Hee; Jeon, Hae Jeong; Lim, Jong Nam; Heo, Tae Haeng; Park, Dong Rib [Konkuk Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    To evaluate the plain radiographic and CT findings of the necrotizing fasciitis. We retrospectively reviewed the radiologic findings of 4 cases with necrotizing fasciitis. Three cases were proven pathologically. We evaluated pattern and extent of the gas shadows in plain films. CT findings were analysed, with emphasis on : (a) gas pattern, (b) extent, (c) location and involved site, (d) associated focal abscess, and (e) swelling of the adjacent muscles. On plain radiographs, four cases showed streaky or mottled gas densities in the pelvis, three cases in the perineum, one case in the abdomen, and two cases in the thigh. On CT images, gas pattern was mottled and streaky appearance with swelling of the adjacent muscles. Gas shadows located in the extraperitoneal space in four cases, fascial layer in four cases, and subcutaneous layer in four cases. There were gas shadows in pelvic wall, perineum, abdominal wall, buttock, thigh, and scrotum. Focal low density lesion suggestive of focal abscess was not visualized. Plain radiography is useful for early diagnosis of the necrotizing fasciitis and CT is very useful for detection of precise location and extent of the disease. CT is also useful for differentiation of necrotizing fasciitis from focal abscess and cellulitis.

  20. Cardiac Arrest Following Spinal Anaesthesia With Plain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    year old woman who was admitted for an elective caesarean section. After preoperative evaluation and premedication she received a spinal anaesthesia in the L3-4 interspace with plain bupivacaine 0.5%. After being replaced in the supine ...

  1. Radiocesium in wheat of the Po plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominici, G.; Malvicini, A.

    1988-01-01

    The Cs-137 measurements of many wheat samples, which was cultivated in Po plain during 1986 and 1987, are reported. A relationship is also shown between the quantity of Cs-137, which is contained in total fall-out, and that in the wheat by direct deposition

  2. Second chance for the plains bison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Curtis H.; Aune, K.; Boyd, D.; Derr, James N.; Forrest, Steven C.; Gates, C. Cormack; Gogan, Peter J.; Grassel, Shaun M.; Halbert, Natalie D.; Kunkel, Kyran; Redford, Kent

    2007-01-01

    Before European settlement the plains bison (Bison bison bison) numbered in the tens of millions across most of the temperate region of North America. Within the span of a few decades during the mid- to late-1800s its numbers were reduced by hunting and other factors to a few hundred. The plight of the plains bison led to one of the first major movements in North America to save an endangered species. A few individuals and the American Bison Society rescued the remaining animals. Attempts to hybridize cattle and bison when bison numbers were low resulted in extensive cattle gene introgression in bison. Today, though approximately 500,000 plains bison exist in North America, few are free of cattle gene introgression, 96% are subject to anthropogenic selection for commodity production, and only 4% are in herds managed primarily for conservation purposes. Small herd size, artificial selection, cattle-gene introgression, and other factors threaten the diversity and integrity of the bison genome. In addition, the bison is for all practical purposes ecologically extinct across its former range, with multiple consequences for grassland biodiversity. Urgent measures are needed to conserve the wild bison genome and to restore the ecological role of bison in grassland ecosystems. Socioeconomic trends in the Great Plains, combined with new information about bison conservation needs and new conservation initiatives by both the public and public sectors, have set the stage for significant progress in bison conservation over the next few years.

  3. Great plains regional climate assessment technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Great Plains region (GP) plays important role in providing food and energy to the economy of the United States. Multiple climatic and non-climatic stressors put multiple sectors, livelihoods and communities at risk, including agriculture, water, ecosystems and rural and tribal communities. The G...

  4. The Origin of Widespread Long-lived Volcanism Across the Galapagos Volcanic Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, J. M.; Stoffers, P.; Wijbrans, J. R.; Worthington, T. J.

    2005-12-01

    40Ar/39Ar ages for rocks dredged (SO144 PAGANINI expedition) and drilled (DSDP) from the Galapagos Volcanic Province (Cocos, Carnegie, Coiba and Malpelo aseismic ridges and associated seamounts) show evidence of 1) increasing age with distance from the Galapagos Archipelago, 2) long-lived episodic volcanism at many locations, and 3) broad overlapping regions of coeval volcanism. The widespread nature of synchronous volcanism across the Galapagos Volcanic Province (GVP) suggests a correspondingly large Galapagos hotspot melting anomaly (O'Connor et al., 2004). Development of the GVP via Cocos and Nazca plate migration and divergence over this broad melting anomaly would explain continued multiple phases of volcanism over millions of years following the initial onset of hotspot volcanism. The question arising from these observations is whether long-lived GVP episodic volcanism is equivalent to `rejuvenescent' or a `post-erosional' phase of volcanism that occurs hundreds of thousands or million years after the main shield-building phase documented on many mid-plate seamount chains, most notably along the Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount Chain? Thus, investigating the process responsible for long-lived episodic GVP volcanism provides the opportunity to evaluate this little understood process of rejuvenation in a physical setting very different to the Hawaiian-Emperor Chain (i.e. on/near spreading axis versus mid-plate). We consider here timing and geochemical information to test the various geodynamic models proposed to explain the origin of GVP hotspot volcanism, especially the possibility of rejuvenated phases that erupt long after initial shield-building.

  5. Mercury speciation, fluxes, and fate in the volcanically acidified fluids of Copahue volcano, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kading, T.; Varekamp, J. C.; Andersson, M.; Balcom, P.; Mason, R. P.

    2010-12-01

    The behavior of mercury in volcanic acid springs and acidified rivers is poorly known, despite the potential impact this vector of contamination has on local surface and ground water quality. Mercury was measured in a volcanically acidified river system (pHvolcano, determined from river water flux measurements and Hg concentrations, was modest and varied between the 3/2008 and 3/2009 sampling campaigns resp. from 0.7 to 1.1 moles/year. The Hg:S ratio of the acid fluids was ~10-8, several orders of magnitude lower than that typically found in volcanic plumes and fumaroles. The small Hg flux and low Hg:S values suggest that the system is either inherently Hg-poor or has lost Hg through vapor loss deeper in the hydrothermal system. Support for the latter comes from high Hg concentrations in geothermal vents and mudpots on the flank of the mountain (24 - 55 ppm Hg). Mercury concentrations decreased conservatively downstream in the river as based on Hg/Cl and Hg/SO4. Non-conservative depletion occurs in the less acidic Lake Caviahue, suggesting that mercury is removed from the water column by sorption to organic matter or other phases. Mercury analyses of a short lake sediment core confirm this (Hg = 0.01 to 0.70 ppm). No evidence was found for preferential uptake of mercury by jarosite, schwertmannite, or goethite, although the latter two phases precipitate in the most distal and Hg-depleted section of the fluvial system.

  6. The extent of tidal influence in the Waccamaw River, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin Thepaut; John Shelton; Susan Libes; Paul Conrads; Robert Sheehan

    2016-01-01

    The Waccamaw River Basin is located in the coastal plain and meanders from North Carolina to South Carolina. This tidal black-water river flows parallel to the coast past the cities of Conway and Georgetown, terminating in Winyah Bay. The river is hydrologically connected to the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (AIW) and experiences semi-diurnal tides with a range ...

  7. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and bearing...

  8. 7 CFR 650.25 - Flood-plain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... user how alternative land use decisions may affect the aquatic and terrestial ecosystems, human safety... Flood-plain management. Through proper planning, flood plains can be managed to reduce the threat to... encourages sound flood-plain management decisions by land users. (a) Policy—(1) General. NRCS provides...

  9. 49 CFR 215.111 - Defective plain bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective plain bearing. 215.111 Section 215.111... § 215.111 Defective plain bearing. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car has a plain bearing— (a) That is missing, cracked, or broken; (b) On which the bearing liner— (1) Is...

  10. 49 CFR 215.113 - Defective plain bearing wedge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective plain bearing wedge. 215.113 Section 215... Suspension System § 215.113 Defective plain bearing wedge. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if a plain bearing wedge on that car is— (a) Missing; (b) Cracked; (c) Broken; or (d) Not located...

  11. Plains Energy Services Ltd. 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Plains Energy Services Ltd. (Plains) is a two year old public company in the oil and gas service industry. It provides an integrated pool of services, concentrating on the life cycle of oil and gas wells as the driver for its expansion. Although the industry saw a marked decrease in well drilling activity for 1998, Plains was able to sustain a consistent income and cash flow because of its focus on ensuring access to the well during drilling, completion, production and abandonment. For 1998, revenue reached a record $93.3 million, an 85 per cent increase over 1997. This report presented Plain's major achievements for 1998. These included the completed construction of a technical, machining and manufacturing facility to enhance the development and implementation of technology and equipment among all business units. The company also introduced coiled tubing drilling services in the North American marketplace, as well as the first commercial version of a casing inspection tool. Plain's also introduced production logging through their wireline services business and applied for four new patents in relation to downhole tool development. In 1998, the company consolidated their operations into four divisions including consolidation of administration, benefits, banking and related overhead services. This report also described the company's efforts in addressing the year 2000 challenge. The company's consolidated financial statements were presented for the benefit of shareholders. These included statements of earnings and deficit, balance sheets, as well as statements of changes in financial position. Notes to the consolidated financial statements included highlights of significant accounting policies, changes in accounting policies, acquisitions, discontinued operations, and capital assets. tabs., figs

  12. Volcanism on differentiated asteroids (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L.

    2013-12-01

    after passing through optically dense fire fountains. At low eruption rates and high volatile contents many clasts cooled to form spatter or cinder deposits, but at high eruption rates and low volatile contents most clasts landed hot and coalesced into lava ponds to feed lava flows. Lava flow thickness varies with surface slope, acceleration due to gravity, and lava yield strength induced by cooling. Low gravity on asteroids caused flows to be relatively thick which reduced the effects of cooling, and many flows probably attained lengths of tens of km and stopped as a result of cessation of magma supply from the reservoir rather than cooling. On most asteroids larger than 100 km radius experiencing more than ~30% mantle melting, the erupted volcanic deposits will have buried the original chondritic surface layers of the asteroid to such great depths that they were melted, or at least heavily thermally metamorphosed, leaving no present-day meteoritical evidence of their prior existence. Tidal stresses from close encounters between asteroids and proto-planets may have very briefly increased melting and melt migration speeds in asteroid interiors but only gross structural disruption would have greatly have changed volcanic histories.

  13. Volcanic Supersites as cross-disciplinary laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzale, Antonello; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Giamberini, Mariasilvia; Pennisi, Maddalena; Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    Volcanic Supersites, defined in the frame of the GEO-GSNL Initiative, are usually considered mainly for their geohazard and geological characteristics. However, volcanoes are extremely challenging areas from many other points of view, including environmental and climatic properties, ecosystems, hydrology, soil properties and biogeochemical cycling. Possibly, volcanoes are closer to early Earth conditions than most other types of environment. During FP7, EC effectively fostered the implementation of the European volcano Supersites (Mt. Etna, Campi Flegrei/Vesuvius and Iceland) through the MED-SUV and FUTUREVOLC projects. Currently, the large H2020 project ECOPOTENTIAL (2015-2019, 47 partners, http://www.ecopotential-project.eu/) contributes to GEO/GEOSS and to the GEO ECO Initiative, and it is devoted to making best use of remote sensing and in situ data to improve future ecosystem benefits, focusing on a network of Protected Areas of international relevance. In ECOPOTENTIAL, remote sensing and in situ data are collected, processed and used for a better understanding of the ecosystem dynamics, analysing and modelling the effects of global changes on ecosystem functions and services, over an array of different ecosystem types, including mountain, marine, coastal, arid and semi-arid ecosystems, and also areas of volcanic origin such as the Canary and La Reunion Islands. Here, we propose to extend the network of the ECOPOTENTIAL project to include active Volcanic Supersites, such as Mount Etna and other volcanic Protected Areas, and we discuss how they can be included in the framework of the ECOPOTENTIAL workflow. A coordinated and cross-disciplinary set of studies at these sites should include geological, biological, ecological, biogeochemical, climatic and biogeographical aspects, as well as their relationship with the antropogenic impact on the environment, and aim at the global analysis of the volcanic Earth Critical Zone - namely, the upper layer of the Earth

  14. Volcanic Alert System (VAS) developed during the (2011-2013) El Hierro (Canary Islands) volcanic process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Ramon; Berrocoso, Manuel; Marrero, Jose Manuel; Fernandez-Ros, Alberto; Prates, Gonçalo; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Garcia, Alicia

    2014-05-01

    In volcanic areas with long repose periods (as El Hierro), recently installed monitoring networks offer no instrumental record of past eruptions nor experience in handling a volcanic crisis. Both conditions, uncertainty and inexperience, contribute to make the communication of hazard more difficult. In fact, in the initial phases of the unrest at El Hierro, the perception of volcanic risk was somewhat distorted, as even relatively low volcanic hazards caused a high political impact. The need of a Volcanic Alert System became then evident. In general, the Volcanic Alert System is comprised of the monitoring network, the software tools for the analysis of the observables, the management of the Volcanic Activity Level, and the assessment of the threat. The Volcanic Alert System presented here places special emphasis on phenomena associated to moderate eruptions, as well as on volcano-tectonic earthquakes and landslides, which in some cases, as in El Hierro, may be more destructive than an eruption itself. As part of the Volcanic Alert System, we introduce here the Volcanic Activity Level which continuously applies a routine analysis of monitoring data (particularly seismic and deformation data) to detect data trend changes or monitoring network failures. The data trend changes are quantified according to the Failure Forecast Method (FFM). When data changes and/or malfunctions are detected, by an automated watchdog, warnings are automatically issued to the Monitoring Scientific Team. Changes in the data patterns are then translated by the Monitoring Scientific Team into a simple Volcanic Activity Level, that is easy to use and understand by the scientists and technicians in charge for the technical management of the unrest. The main feature of the Volcanic Activity Level is its objectivity, as it does not depend on expert opinions, which are left to the Scientific Committee, and its capabilities for early detection of precursors. As a consequence of the El Hierro

  15. Composição florística e estrutura do componente arbóreo de uma Floresta Paludosa na planície costeira da bacia do rio Itaguaré, Bertioga, SP, Brasil. Floristic composition andstructure of an arboreal component of the Paludal Forest in the coastal plain of the Itaguaré river basin, Bertioga (São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Regina de Gouveia SOUZA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As Florestas Paludosas costeiras ou “caxetais” ocorrem no Domínio Atlântico, em geral associadas a depressões paleolagunares, cujos terrenos são permanentemente encharcados. Essas florestas se caracterizam por apresentar elevada densidade de indivíduos da espécie Tabebuia cassinoides (Lam. DC., conhecida popularmente por “caxeta”. O presente estudo foi desenvolvido em uma Floresta Paludosa situada na planície costeira do rio Itaguaré, município de Bertioga, Baixada Santista, Estado de São Paulo. A composição florística e a estrutura fitossociológica foram investigadas através da amostragem por parcelas, sendo incluídos todos os indivíduos com 10 cm ou mais de diâmetro a 1,3 m de altura do peito (DAP. Foram registradas 20 espécies e 11 famílias botânicas, resultando em uma densidade total de 450 ind./ha-1. A família com maior riqueza de espécies foi Myrtaceae, com quatro espécies. A análise de similaridade indicou dois grupos florísticos. Tabebuia cassinoides foi, de fato, a espécie mais importante, apresentando grande densidade e dominância de indivíduos, o que reforça sua posição de espécie indicadora deste tipo vegetacional, conforme difundido na literatura. The coastal Paludal Forest or “Caxetal” occurs on the Atlantic Domain, associated to wetlands within palaeolagoonal depressions. It is characterized by a high density of individuals of Tabebuia cassinoides (Lam. DC., which is popularly known as “caxeta”. A Paludal Forest located in the Itaguaré river coastal plain, in the municipality of Bertioga, Santos Lowland, São Paulo State, Brazil was studied. The floristic composition and phytossociological structure was investigated through a plot method including all individuals with diameter at 1.3 m (DBH ≥ 10 cm. A total of 20species and 11 botanic families were sampled, resulting in a total density of 450 ind./ha-1. Myrtaceae showed the highest species richness. The similarity index indicated

  16. Indirect Climatic Effects of Major Volcanic Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, D. J.

    2007-05-01

    The direct effects on climate, related to atmospheric emissions to the atmosphere following major volcanic eruptions, are well-known although the sparseness of such eruptions make detailed study on the range of such variations difficult. In general terms, infrared absorption by volcanic emissions to the stratosphere result in local heating early in the event when gaseous sulfur compounds exist. This early period is followed by gas to particle conversion, on a time scale of 1-2 months, promoting the formation of sulfuric acid-water droplets. Coagulation and droplet growth result in the "volcanic stratospheric aerosol layer" which is related to the predominant direct climatic effect of large eruptions, the cooling of the troposphere by backscattering of solar visible radiation to space with a recovery time scale of 1-2 years. In this paper we will discuss some of the less-known "indirect" effects of the volcanic stratospheric aerosol on climate. We label them indirect as they act on climate through intermediary atmospheric constituents. The intermediaries in the volcanic indirect climatic effect are generally atmospheric greenhouse gases or other atmospheric gases and conditions which affect greenhouse gases. For example, cooling of the troposphere following major eruptions reduces the growth rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide related to respiration by the terrestrial biosphere. In addition, redirection of part of the direct solar beam into diffuse radiation by the volcanic stratospheric aerosol stimulates plant photosynthesis, further reducing the carbon dioxide growth rate. The growth rate of the second-most important atmospheric greenhouse gas, methane, is also affected by volcanic emissions. Volcanic stratospheric aerosol particles provide surface area which catalyzes heterogeneous chemical reactions thus stimulating removal of stratospheric ozone, also a greenhouse gas. Although major droughts usually related to ENSO events have opposite effects on carbon

  17. The 26.5 ka Oruanui eruption, New Zealand : a review of the roles of volcanism and climate in the post-eruptive sedimentary response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manville, V.R.; Wilson, C.J.N.

    2004-01-01

    The landscape response to large explosive pyroclastic volcanic eruptions is one of the most dramatic processes in sedimentology and geomorphology. Processes of post-eruptive erosion and resedimentation are maximised by large erupted volumes, abundant unconsolidated ash-sized material, destruction of the vegetation cover (particularly by burial by ignimbrite), and inhibition of vegetation regrowth (e.g., by harsh climatic conditions). The 26.5 ka Oruanui eruption from Taupo volcano in the central North Island of New Zealand created optimal conditions for a large-scale sedimentary response that was influenced and prolonged by the succeeding climatic nadir of the Last Glacial Maximum. About 530 km 3 of rhyolitic magma was erupted as 420 km 3 of fall deposits, 320 km 3 of pyroclastic density current deposits (mostly non-welded ignimbrite), and 430 km 3 of primary intracaldera fill. The eruption, and formation of the Oruanui caldera, destroyed one major lake but created the forerunner to modern Lake Taupo. This lake initially stably overflowed to the northwest before breaking out in a catastrophic flood during establishment of a northeasterly outlet along the line of the modern Waikato River. Suppression of revegetation by the contemporaneous harsh periglacial climate contributed to intense erosion and remobilisation of Oruanui pyroclastic units, triggering massive downstream fluvial aggradation in impacted catchments. In particular, aggradation caused the lower 180 km of the Waikato River to avulse from its long-established route via the Hauraki Plains into the Hamilton Basin where it was subsequently trapped. Aeolian reworking created localised dune fields, while generation of tephric loess formed deposits over much of the central North Island. The initial perturbation to fluvial sedimentary systems created by the eruption was generally sustained by climatic conditions until c. 17 ka. Climatic amelioration eventually stabilised primary sediment sources through the re

  18. Active Volcanic Eruptions on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Six views of the volcanic plume named Prometheus, as seen against Io's disk and near the bright limb (edge) of the satellite by the SSI camera on the Galileo spacecraft during its second (G2) orbit of Jupiter. North is to the top of each frame. To the south-southeast of Prometheus is another bright spot that appears to be an active plume erupting from a feature named Culann Patera. Prometheus was active 17 years ago during both Voyager flybys, but no activity was detected by Voyager at Culann. Both of these plumes were seen to glow in the dark in an eclipse image acquired by the imaging camera during Galileo's first (G1) orbit, and hot spots at these locations were detected by Galileo's Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer.The plumes are thought to be driven by heating sulfur dioxide in Io's subsurface into an expanding fluid or 'geyser'. The long-lived nature of these eruptions requires that a substantial supply of sulfur dioxide must be available in Io's subsurface, similar to groundwater. Sulfur dioxide gas condenses into small particles of 'snow' in the expanding plume, and the small particles scatter light and appear bright at short wavelengths. The images shown here were acquired through the shortest-wavelength filter (violet) of the Galileo camera. Prometheus is about 300 km wide and 75 km high and Culann is about 150 km wide and less than 50 km high. The images were acquired on September 4, 1996 at a range of 2,000,000 km (20 km/pixel resolution). Prometheus is named after the Greek fire god and Culann is named after the Celtic smith god.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can

  19. Chenier plain development: feedbacks between waves, mud and sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardin, W.; Fagherazzi, S.

    2015-12-01

    Cheniers are sandy ridges parallel to the coast established by high energy waves. Here we discuss Chenier plains ontogeny through dimensional analysis and numerical results from the morphodynamic model Delft3D-SWAN. Our results show that wave energy and shelf slope play an important role in the formation of Chenier plains. In our numerical experiments waves affect Chenier plain development in three ways: by winnowing sediment from the mudflat, by eroding mud and accumulating sand over the beach during extreme wave events. We further show that different sediment characteristics and wave climates can lead to three alternative coastal landscapes: strand plains, mudflats, or the more complex Chenier plains. Low inner-shelf slopes are the most favorable for strand plain and Chenier plain formation, while high slopes decrease the likelihood of mudflat development and preservation.

  20. Hydrology and ecology of the Apalachicola River, Florida : a summary of the river quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, John F.; Flagg, Sherron D.; Mattraw, Harold C.

    1988-01-01

    During 1979-81, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a large-scale study of the Apalachicola River in northwest Florida, the largest and one of the most economically important rivers in the State. Termed the Apalachicola River Quality Assessment, the study emphasized interrelations among hydrodynamics, the flood-plain forest, and the nutrient-detritus flow through the river system to the estuary. This report summarizes major findings of the study. Data on accumulation of toxic substances in sediments and benthic organisms in the river were also collected. Because of the multiple uses of the Apalachicola River system, there are many difficult management decisions. The river is a waterway for shipping; hence there is an economic incentive for modification to facilitate movement of barge traffic. Such modifications include the proposed construction of dams, levees, bend easings, and training dikes; ditching and draining in the flood plain; and dredging and snagging in the river channel. The river is also recognized as an important supplier of detritus, nutrients, and freshwater to the Apalachicola Bay, which maintains an economically important shellfish industry. The importance of this input to the bay creates an incentive to keep the river basin in a natural state. Other values, such as timber harvesting, recreation, sport hunting, nature appreciation, and wildlife habitat, add even more to the difficulty of selecting management strategies. Water and nutrient budgets based on data collected during the river assessment study indicate the relative importance of various inputs and outflows in the system. Waterflow is controlled primarily by rainfall in upstream watersheds and is not greatly affected by local precipitation, ground-water exchanges, or evapotranspiration in the basin. On an annual basis, the total nutrient inflow to the system is nearly equal in quantity to total outflow, but there is a difference between inflow and outflow in the chemical and physical

  1. River nomads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    sail on the Niger River between Nigeria and Mali. Crossing villages, borders and cultures, they stop only to rest by setting up camp on riverbanks or host villages. In River Nomads, we join the nomadic Kebbawa fishermen on one of their yearly crossing, experiencing their relatively adventurous...

  2. River Piracy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    There was this highly venerated river Saraswati flowing through. Haryana, Marwar and Bahawalpur in Uttarapath and emptying itself in the Gulf ofKachchh, which has been described in glowing terms by the Rigveda. "Breaking through the mountain barrier", this "swift-flowing tempestuous river surpasses in majesty and.

  3. National volcanic ash operations plan for aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; ,

    2007-01-01

    The National Aviation Weather Program Strategic Plan (1997) and the National Aviation Weather Initiatives (1999) both identified volcanic ash as a high-priority informational need to aviation services. The risk to aviation from airborne volcanic ash is known and includes degraded engine performance (including flameout), loss of visibility, failure of critical navigational and operational instruments, and, in the worse case, loss of life. The immediate costs for aircraft encountering a dense plume are potentially major—damages up to $80 million have occurred to a single aircraft. Aircraft encountering less dense volcanic ash clouds can incur longer-term costs due to increased maintenance of engines and external surfaces. The overall goal, as stated in the Initiatives, is to eliminate encounters with ash that could degrade the in-flight safety of aircrews and passengers and cause damage to the aircraft. This goal can be accomplished by improving the ability to detect, track, and forecast hazardous ash clouds and to provide adequate warnings to the aviation community on the present and future location of the cloud. To reach this goal, the National Aviation Weather Program established three objectives: (1) prevention of accidental encounters with hazardous clouds; (2) reduction of air traffic delays, diversions, or evasive actions when hazardous clouds are present; and (3) the development of a single, worldwide standard for exchange of information on airborne hazardous materials. To that end, over the last several years, based on numerous documents (including an OFCMsponsored comprehensive study on aviation training and an update of Aviation Weather Programs/Projects), user forums, and two International Conferences on Volcanic Ash and Aviation Safety (1992 and 2004), the Working Group for Volcanic Ash (WG/VA), under the OFCM-sponsored Committee for Aviation Services and Research, developed the National Volcanic Ash Operations Plan for Aviation and Support of the

  4. Helium isotopes in geothermal systems: Iceland, The Geysers, Raft River and Steamboat Springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgersen, T.

    1982-01-01

    Helium isotope ratios have been measured in geothermal fluids from Iceland, The Geysers, Raft River, Steamboat Springs and Hawaii. These ratios have been interpreted in terms of the processes which supply He in distinct isotopic ratios and in terms of the processes which can alter the isotopic ratio. Using this interpretational scheme, Iceland is found to be an area of hot-spot magmatic He implying an active volcanic source although the data are suggestive of high-temperature weathering release of crustal He incorporated in the geothermal fluids. By comparison to fumarolic gases from Hawaii and Juan De Fuca and Cayman Trench basaltic glass samples, The Geysers contains MOR type magmatic He again implying an active volcanic source possibly a 'leaky' transform related to the San Andreas Fault System. Raft River contains only crustal He indicating no active volcanic sources. Steamboat Springs He isotope ratios are distinctly less than typical plate margin volcanics but must still have a magmatic source. (author)

  5. Genetics, medicine, and the Plain people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Kevin A; Puffenberger, Erik G

    2009-01-01

    The Old Order Amish and Old Order Mennonite populations of Pennsylvania are descended from Swiss Anabaptist immigrants who came to the New World in the early eighteenth century. Today they live in many small endogamous demes across North America. Genetically, these demes have dissimilar allele frequencies and disease spectra owing to unique founders. Biological and social aspects of Old Order communities make them ideal for studies in population genetics and genomic medicine, and over the last 40 years, advances in genomic science coincided with investigational studies in Plain populations. Newer molecular genetic technologies are sufficiently informative, rapid, and flexible to use in a clinical setting, and we have successfully integrated these tools into a rural pediatric practice. Our studies with the Pennsylvania Plain communities show that population-specific genetic knowledge provides a powerful framework in which to prevent disease, reduce medical costs, and create new insights into human biology.

  6. Venus - Volcanic features in Atla Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This Magellan image from the Atla region of Venus shows several types of volcanic features and superimposed surface fractures. The area in the image is approximately 350 kilometers (217 miles) across, centered at 9 degrees south latitude, 199 degrees east longitude. Lava flows emanating from circular pits or linear fissures form flower-shaped patterns in several areas. A collapse depression approximately 20 kilometers by 10 kilometers (12 by 6 miles) near the center of the image is drained by a lava channel approximately 40 kilometers (25 miles) long. Numerous surface fractures and graben (linear valleys) criss-cross the volcanic deposits in north to northeast trends. The fractures are not buried by the lavas, indicating that the tectonic activity post-dates most of the volcanic activity.

  7. Ozone depletion following future volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Klobas, J.; Wilmouth, David M.; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Anderson, James G.; Salawitch, Ross J.

    2017-07-01

    While explosive volcanic eruptions cause ozone loss in the current atmosphere due to an enhancement in the availability of reactive chlorine following the stratospheric injection of sulfur, future eruptions are expected to increase total column ozone as halogen loading approaches preindustrial levels. The timing of this shift in the impact of major volcanic eruptions on the thickness of the ozone layer is poorly known. Modeling four possible climate futures, we show that scenarios with the smallest increase in greenhouse gas concentrations lead to the greatest risk to ozone from heterogeneous chemical processing following future eruptions. We also show that the presence in the stratosphere of bromine from natural, very short-lived biogenic compounds is critically important for determining whether future eruptions will lead to ozone depletion. If volcanic eruptions inject hydrogen halides into the stratosphere, an effect not considered in current ozone assessments, potentially profound reductions in column ozone would result.

  8. Geochemistry of volcanic series of Aragats province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meliksetyan, Kh.B.

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution we discuss geochemical and isotope characteristics of volcanism of the Aragats volcanic province and possible petrogenetical models of magma generation in collision zone of Armenian highland. We talk about combination of some specific features of collision related volcanism such as dry and high temperature conditions of magma generation, that demonstrate some similarities to intraplate-like petrogenesis and presence of mantle source enriched by earlier subductions, indicative to island-arc type magma generation models. Based on comprehensive analysis of isotope and geochemical data and some published models of magma generation beneath Aragats we lead to a petrogenetic model of origin of Aragats system to be a result of magma mixture between mantle originated mafic magma with felsic, adakite-type magmas

  9. Wind-Eroded Crater Floors and Intercrater Plains, Terra Sabaea, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Rossman P.; Wray, James J.; Mest, Scott C.; Maxwell, Ted A.

    2018-02-01

    Ancient impact craters with wind-eroded layering on their floors provide a record of resurfacing materials and processes on early Mars. In a 54 km Noachian crater in Terra Sabaea (20.2°S, 42.6°E), eolian deflation of a friable, dark-toned layer up to tens of meters thick has exposed more resistant, underlying light-toned material. These layers differ significantly from strata of similar tone described in other regions of Mars. The light-toned material has no apparent internal stratification, and visible/near-infrared spectral analysis suggests that it is rich in feldspar. Its origin is ambiguous, as we cannot confidently reject igneous, pyroclastic, or clastic alternatives. The overlying dark-toned layer is probably a basaltic siltstone or sandstone that was emplaced mostly by wind, although its weak cementation and inverted fluvial paleochannels indicate some modification by water. Negative-relief channels are not found on the crater floor, and fluvial erosion is otherwise weakly expressed in the study area. Small impacts onto this crater's floor have exposed deeper friable materials that appear to contain goethite. Bedrock outcrops on the crater walls are phyllosilicate bearing. The intercrater plains contain remnants of a post-Noachian thin, widespread, likely eolian mantle with an indurated surface. Plains near Hellas-concentric escarpments to the north are more consistent with volcanic resurfacing. A 48 km crater nearby contains similar dark-over-light outcrops but no paleochannels. Our findings indicate that dark-over-light stratigraphy has diverse origins across Mars and that some dark-toned plains with mafic mineralogy are not of igneous origin.

  10. Tropical Volcanic Soils From Flores Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmatullah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils that are developed intropical region with volcanic parent materials have many unique properties, and high potential for agricultural use.The purpose of this study is to characterize the soils developed on volcanic materials from Flores Island, Indonesia,and to examine if the soils meet the requirements for andic soil properties. Selected five soils profiles developed fromandesitic volcanic materials from Flores Island were studied to determine their properties. They were compared intheir physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics according to their parent material, and climatic characteristicdifferent. The soils were developed under humid tropical climate with ustic to udic soil moisture regimes withdifferent annual rainfall. The soils developed from volcanic ash parent materials in Flores Island showed differentproperties compared to the soils derived from volcanic tuff, even though they were developed from the sameintermediary volcanic materials. The silica contents, clay mineralogy and sand fractions, were shown as the differences.The different in climatic conditions developed similar properties such as deep solum, dark color, medium texture, andvery friable soil consistency. The soils have high organic materials, slightly acid to acid, low to medium cationexchange capacity (CEC. The soils in western region have higher clay content and showing more developed than ofthe eastern region. All the profiles meet the requirements for andic soil properties, and classified as Andisols order.The composition of sand mineral was dominated by hornblende, augite, and hypersthenes with high weatherablemineral reserves, while the clay fraction was dominated by disordered kaolinite, and hydrated halloysite. The soilswere classified into subgroup as Thaptic Hapludands, Typic Hapludands, and Dystric Haplustands

  11. Tellurium in active volcanic environments: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Silvia; Calabrese, Sergio; D'Alessandro, Walter; Brusca, Lorenzo; Bellomo, Sergio; Parello, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Tellurium is a toxic metalloid and, according to the Goldschmidt classification, a chalcophile element. In the last years its commercial importance has considerably increased because of its wide use in solar cells, thermoelectric and electronic devices of the last generation. Despite such large use, scientific knowledge about volcanogenic tellurium is very poor. Few previous authors report result of tellurium concentrations in volcanic plume, among with other trace metals. They recognize this element as volatile, concluding that volcanic gases and sulfur deposits are usually enriched with tellurium. Here, we present some results on tellurium concentrations in volcanic emissions (plume, fumaroles, ash leachates) and in environmental matrices (soils and plants) affected by volcanic emissions and/or deposition. Samples were collected at Etna and Vulcano (Italy), Turrialba (Costa Rica), Miyakejima, Aso, Asama (Japan), Mutnovsky (Kamchatka) at the crater rims by using common filtration techniques for aerosols (polytetrafluoroethylene filters). Filters were both eluted with Millipore water and acid microwave digested, and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Volcanic ashes emitted during explosive events on Etna and Copahue (Argentina) were analyzed for tellurium bulk composition and after leaching experiments to evaluate the soluble fraction of tellurium. Soils and leaves of vegetation were also sampled close to active volcanic vents (Etna, Vulcano, Nisyros, Nyiragongo, Turrialba, Gorely and Masaya) and investigated for tellurium contents. Preliminary results showed very high enrichments of tellurium in volcanic emissions comparing with other volatile elements like mercury, arsenic, thallium and bismuth. This suggests a primary transport in the volatile phase, probably in gaseous form (as also suggested by recent studies) and/or as soluble salts (halides and/or sulfates) adsorbed on the surface of particulate particles and ashes. First

  12. Volcanic air pollution hazards in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Tamar; Sutton, A. Jeff

    2017-04-20

    Noxious sulfur dioxide gas and other air pollutants emitted from Kīlauea Volcano on the Island of Hawai‘i react with oxygen, atmospheric moisture, and sunlight to produce volcanic smog (vog) and acid rain. Vog can negatively affect human health and agriculture, and acid rain can contaminate household water supplies by leaching metals from building and plumbing materials in rooftop rainwater-catchment systems. U.S. Geological Survey scientists, along with health professionals and local government officials are working together to better understand volcanic air pollution and to enhance public awareness of this hazard.

  13. Winter warming from large volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, Alan; Mao, Jianping

    1992-01-01

    An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95-percent level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of warming, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight.

  14. Soil moisture retention and mass movement of volcanic soils from the “Sabinas” sector in Caldas, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    William Chavarriaga Montoya; Josè Gabriel Cruz Cerón; Johan Cuervo Correa

    2017-01-01

    The mass movement of soils, are soil, rocks displacements or both, caused by soil water excesses in terrains due to gravity effects and other factors. The aim of this research was to quantify the moisture retention capacity of volcanic soils as a threat indicator in the mass removal phenomena. This research was carried out on soils of the Malteria - Las Margaritas road transept to Magdalena river, right bank of the Chinchiná river in the Department of Caldas, Colombia. Through soil sample des...

  15. The intercrater plains of Mercury and the Moon: Their nature, origin and role in terrestrial planet evolution. Estimated thickness of ejecta deposits compared to to crater rim heights. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    The area of the continuous ejecta deposits on mercury was calculated to vary from 2.24 to 0.64 times the crater's area for those of diameter 40 km to 300 km. Because crater boundaries on the geologic map include the detectable continuous ejecta blanket, plains exterior to these deposits must consist of farther-flung ejecta (of that or other craters), or volcanic deposits flooding the intervening areas. Ejecta models are explored.

  16. Evidences for a volcanic province in the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Sudhakar, M.

    Based on various lines of evidence such as the widespread occurrence of basalts, pumice, volcanic glass shards and their transformational products (zeolites, palagonites, and smectite-rich sediments), we suggest the presence of a volcanic province...

  17. Flood plain analysis for Petris, , Troas, and Monoros, tia watersheds, the Arad department, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Győri, M.-M.; Haidu, I.

    2012-04-01

    The present study sets out to determine the flood plains corresponding to flood discharges having 10, 50 and 100 year recurrence intervals on the Monoroštia, Petriš and Troaš Rivers, located in Western Romania, the Arad department. The data of the study area is first collected and pre-processed in ArcGIS. It consists of land use data, soil data, the DEM, stream gauges' and meteorological stations' locations, on the basis of which the watersheds' hydrologic parameters' are computed using the Geospatial Hydrologic Modelling Extension (HEC Geo-HMS). HEC Geo-HMS functions as an interface between ArcGIS and HEC-HMS (Hydrologic Engineering Centre- Hydrologic Modelling System) and converts the data collected and generated in ArcGIS to data useable by HEC-HMS. The basin model component in HEC-HMS represents the physical watershed. It facilitates the effective rainfall computation on the basis of the input hyetograph, passing the results to a transform function that converts the excess precipitation into runoff at the subwatersheds' outlet. This enables the estimation and creation of hydrographs for the ungauged watersheds. In the present study, the results are achieved through the SCS CN loss method and the SCS Unit hydrograph transform method. The simulations use rainfall data that is registered at the stations situated in the catchments' vicinity, data that spans over two decades (1989-2009) and which allows the rainfall hyetographs to be determined for the above mentioned return periods. The model will be calibrated against measured streamflow data from the gauging stations on the main rivers, leading to the adjustment of watershed parameters, such as the CN parameter. As the flood discharges for 10, 50 and 100 year return periods have been determined, the profile of the water surface elevation along the channel will be computed through a steady flow analysis, with HEC-RAS (Hydrologic Engineering Centre- River Analysis System). For each of the flood frequencies, a

  18. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Costa Rica Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This perspective view shows the northern coastal plain of Costa Rica with the Cordillera Central, composed of a number of active and dormant volcanoes, rising in the background. This view looks toward the south over the Rio San Juan, which marks the boundary between Costa Rica and Nicaragua. The smaller river joining Rio San Juan in the center of the image is Rio Sarapiqui, which is navigable upstream as far inland as Puerto Viejo (Old Port) de Sarapiqui at the mountain's base. This river was an important transportation route for those few hardy settlers who first moved into this region, although as recently as 1953 a mere three thatched-roof houses were all that comprised the village of Puerto Viejo.This coastal plain is a sedimentary basin formed about 50 million years ago composed of river alluvium and lahar (mud and ash flow) deposits from the volcanoes of the Cordillera Central. It comprises the province of Heredia (the smallest of Costa Rica's seven) and demonstrates a wide range of climatic conditions, from warm and humid lowlands to cool and damp highlands, and including the mild but seasonally wet and dry Central Valley.This image was generated in support of the Central American Commission for Environment and Development through an agreement with NASA. The Commission involves eight nations working to develop the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, an effort to study and preserve some of the most biologically diverse regions of the planet.This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 7 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 5, 4, and 2 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated 2X.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat

  19. THE SNOW DRIFT POTENTIAL IN THE PLAIN AREA OF BUZĂU COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romulus COSTACHE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze and identify the most exposed areas to snowdrifts, in case of a blizzard phenomenon, in the plain area of Buzău County. Blizzard is the most frequently occurring climatic hazard in the study area, in the cold season, that causes the blocking of the roads and the massive snow accumulation in th built-up areas found in the open field or in negative relief forms. In order to identify areas with high potential snowdrifts, the Snow Drifts Potential Index (SDPI was defined, calculated and localized. This was achieved in the GIS by integrating three factors, namely: the use of land, river valleys and the surfaces exposure in the study area. Finally, the results showed that the most exposed areas to the the snow-drift phenomenon are the built areas found in the river beds, and also those on slopes sheltered from contact with the Carpathian. The importance of this study lies in the fact that once established and localized the areas with high potential for snow-drifts, measures can be taken in order to combat the disastrous effects generated by blizzards in the plains of Buzău County.

  20. Modeling Flood Plain Hydrology and Forest Productivity of Congaree Swamp, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    An ecological field and modeling study was conducted to examine the flood relations of backswamp forests and park trails of the flood plain portion of Congaree National Park, S.C. Continuous water level gages were distributed across the length and width of the flood plain portion - referred to as 'Congaree Swamp' - to facilitate understanding of the lag and peak flood coupling with stage of the Congaree River. A severe and prolonged drought at study start in 2001 extended into late 2002 before backswamp zones circulated floodwaters. Water levels were monitored at 10 gaging stations over a 4-year period from 2002 to 2006. Historical water level stage and discharge data from the Congaree River were digitized from published sources and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) archives to obtain long-term daily averages for an upstream gage at Columbia, S.C., dating back to 1892. Elevation of ground surface was surveyed for all park trails, water level gages, and additional circuits of roads and boundaries. Rectified elevation data were interpolated into a digital elevation model of the park trail system. Regression models were applied to establish time lags and stage relations between gages at Columbia, S.C., and gages in the upper, middle, and lower reaches of the river and backswamp within the park. Flood relations among backswamp gages exhibited different retention and recession behavior between flood plain reaches with greater hydroperiod in the lower reach than those in the upper and middle reaches of the Congaree Swamp. A flood plain inundation model was developed from gage relations to predict critical river stages and potential inundation of hiking trails on a real-time basis and to forecast the 24-hour flood In addition, tree-ring analysis was used to evaluate the effects of flood events and flooding history on forest resources at Congaree National Park. Tree cores were collected from populations of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), baldcypress (Taxodium distichum), water

  1. Groundwater Management Innovations in the High Plains Aquifer, USA: A possible path towards sustainability? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophocleous, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    The U.S. High Plains aquifer, one of the largest freshwater aquifer systems in the world covering parts of eight US states, continues to decline, threatening the long-term viability of the region’s irrigation-based economy. The theory of the commons has meaningful messages for High-Plains jurisdictions as no private incentive exists to save for tomorrow, and agricultural prosperity depends on mining water from large portions of the aquifer. The eight High Plains states take different approaches to the development and management of the aquifer based on each state’s body of water laws that abide by different legal doctrines, on which Federal laws are superposed, thus creating difficulties in integrated regional water management efforts. Although accumulating hydrologic stresses and competing demands on groundwater resources are making groundwater management increasingly complex, they are also leading to innovative approaches to the management of groundwater supplies, and those are highlighted in this presentation as good examples for emulation in managing groundwater resources. The highlighted innovations include (1) the Texas Groundwater Availability Modeling program, (2) Colorado’s water-augmentation program, (3) Kansas’ Intensive Groundwater Use Control Area policy, (4) the Kansas Groundwater Management Districts’ “safe yield” policies, (5) the water-use reporting program in Kansas, (6) the Aquifer Storage and Recovery program of the City of Wichita, Kansas, and (7) Nebraska’s Natural Resources Districts. It is concluded that the fragmented and piecemeal institutional arrangements for managing the supplies and quality of water are unlikely to be sufficient to meet the water challenges of the future. A number of recommendations for enhancing the sustainability of the aquifer are presented, including the formation of an interstate groundwater commission for the High Plains aquifer along the lines of the Delaware and Susquehanna River Basins

  2. Multiple edifice-collapse events in the Eastern Mexican Volcanic Belt: The role of sloping substrate and implications for hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Nunez, Gerardo; Diaz-Castellon, Rodolfo; Siebert, L.; Hubbard, B.; Sheridan, M.F.; Rodriguez, Sergio R.

    2006-01-01

    The Citlalte??petl-Cofre de Perote volcanic chain forms an important physiographic barrier that separates the Central Altiplano (2500??masl) from the Gulf Coastal Plain (GCP) (1300??masl). The abrupt eastward drop in relief between these provinces gives rise to unstable conditions and consequent gravitational collapse of large volcanic edifices built at the edge of the Altiplano. Eastward sloping substrate, caused by the irregular configuration of the basement rocks, is the dominant factor that controls the direction of collapsing sectors in all major volcanoes in the region to be preferentially towards the GCP. These collapses produced voluminous debris avalanches and lahars that inundated the well-developed drainages and clastic aprons that characterize the Coastal Plain. Large catastrophic collapses from Citlalte??petl, Las Cumbres, and Cofre de Perote volcanoes are well documented in the geologic record. Some of the avalanches and transformed flows have exceptionally long runouts and reach the Gulf of Mexico traveling more than 120??km from their source. So far, no direct evidence has been found for magmatic activity associated with the initiation of these catastrophic flank-collapses. Apparently, instability of the volcanic edifices has been strongly favored by very intense hydrothermal alteration, abrupt topographic change, and intense fracturing. In addition to the eastward slope of the substrate, the reactivation of pre-volcanic basement structures during the Late Tertiary, and the E-W to ENE-SSW oriented regional stress regimes may have played an important role in the preferential movement direction of the avalanches and flows. In addition to magmatic-hydrothermal processes, high amounts of rainfall in the area is another factor that enhances alteration and eventually weakens the rocks. It is very likely that seismic activity may be the principal triggering mechanism that caused the flank collapse of large volcanic edifices in the Eastern Mexican Volcanic

  3. Improving volcanic ash forecasts with ensemble-based data assimilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, Guangliang

    2017-01-01

    The 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcano eruption had serious consequences to civil aviation. This has initiated a lot of research on volcanic ash forecasting in recent years. For forecasting the volcanic ash transport after eruption onset, a volcanic ash transport and diffusion model (VATDM) needs to be

  4. Volcanic Characteristics of Kueishantao in Northeast Taiwan and Their Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Lung Chiu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Kueishantao (KST is a small offshore volcanic island located at the southernmost part of the Okinawa Trough. In this study, we conducted a detailed mapping incorporating the new high resolution LiDAR DTM laser scanning device to accurately construct a volcanic sequence. A new 1/5000 geological map was established. One primary volcanic cone, composed of layers of both lava flows and pyroclastic rocks constituted the major edifice of KST. The other minor volcanic cone, which consists of volcanic lapillis and blocks, is seated to the east of the main cone. The escarped and nearly straight coast in the southern part of the KST indicates that the volcano suffered a large post-volcanic edifice collapse erasing nearly one half of the volume of both volcanic cones. The increase in the abundance of the xenoliths of sedimentary rocks from the lower to the upper part of the volcanic sequence indicates that the formation of volcanic rocks of the KST involved an intensification of crustal contamination. The possibility of volcanic eruption can not be excluded in the future based on the present thermolu¬minescene age data of 7 ka. The associated eruptive ash fall and tsunami induced by the further collapse of the KST volcanic edifice might have great influence to the adjacent inland. Thus, long-term monitoring of volcanic activities around KST should be required for future hazard assessments.

  5. Apollo 15 mare volcanism: constraints and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delano, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Apollo 15 landing site contains more volcanics in the form of crystalline basalts and pristine glasses, which form the framework for all models dealing with the mantle beneath that site. Major issues on the petrology of the mare source regions beneath that portion of Mare Imbrium are summarized

  6. Monogenetic volcanism: personal views and discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, K.; Kereszturi, G.

    2015-11-01

    Monogenetic volcanism produces small-volume volcanoes with a wide range of eruptive styles, lithological features and geomorphic architectures. They are classified as spatter cones, scoria (or cinder) cones, tuff rings, maars (maar-diatremes) and tuff cones based on the magma/water ratio, dominant eruption styles and their typical surface morphotypes. The common interplay between internal, such as the physical-chemical characteristics of magma, and external parameters, such as groundwater flow, substrate characteristics or topography, plays an important role in creating small-volume volcanoes with diverse architectures, which can give the impression of complexity and of similarities to large-volume polygenetic volcanoes. In spite of this volcanic facies complexity, we defend the term "monogenetic volcano" and highlight the term's value, especially to express volcano morphotypes. This study defines a monogenetic volcano, a volcanic edifice with a small cumulative volume (typically ≤1 km3) that has been built up by one continuous, or many discontinuous, small eruptions fed from one or multiple magma batches. This definition provides a reasonable explanation of the recently recognized chemical diversities of this type of volcanism.

  7. Payenia volcanic province, southern Mendoza, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Holm, Paul Martin; Llambias, Eduardo Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The Pleistocene to Holocene Payenia volcanic province is a backarc region of 60,000 km2 in Mendoza, Argentina, which is dominated by transitional to alkaline basalts and trachybasalts. We present major and trace element compositions of 139 rocks from this area of which the majority are basaltic...

  8. Monitoring and forecasting Etna volcanic plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Scollo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the results of a project ongoing at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV. The objective is to develop and implement a system for monitoring and forecasting volcanic plumes of Etna. Monitoring is based at present by multispectral infrared measurements from the Spin Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager on board the Meteosat Second Generation geosynchronous satellite, visual and thermal cameras, and three radar disdrometers able to detect ash dispersal and fallout. Forecasting is performed by using automatic procedures for: i downloading weather forecast data from meteorological mesoscale models; ii running models of tephra dispersal, iii plotting hazard maps of volcanic ash dispersal and deposition for certain scenarios and, iv publishing the results on a web-site dedicated to the Italian Civil Protection. Simulations are based on eruptive scenarios obtained by analysing field data collected after the end of recent Etna eruptions. Forecasting is, hence, supported by plume observations carried out by the monitoring system. The system was tested on some explosive events occurred during 2006 and 2007 successfully. The potentiality use of monitoring and forecasting Etna volcanic plumes, in a way to prevent threats to aviation from volcanic ash, is finally discussed.

  9. X-ray microanalysis of volcanic ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearns, S L; Buse, B

    2012-01-01

    The 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland demonstrated the disruptive nature of high-level volcanic ash emissions to the world's air traffic. The chemistry of volcanic material is complex and varied. Different eruptions yield both compositional and morphological variation. Equally a single eruption, such as that in Iceland will evolve over time and may potentially produce a range of volcanic products of varying composition and morphology. This variability offers the petrologist the opportunity to derive a tracer to the origins both spatially and temporally of a single particle by means of electron microbeam analysis. EPMA of volcanic ash is now an established technique for this type of analysis as used in tephrachronology. However, airborne paniculate material may, as in the case of Eyjafjallajökull, result in a particle size that is too small and too dispersed for preparation of standard EPMA mounts. Consequently SEM-EDS techniques are preferred for this type of quantitative analysis . Results of quantitative SEM-EDS analysis yield data with a larger precision error than EPMA yet sufficient to source the original eruption. Uncoated samples analyzed using variable pressure SEM yield slightly poorer results at modest pressures.

  10. Amazonian volcanism inside Valles Marineris on Mars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brož, Petr; Hauber, E.; Wray, J. J.; Michael, G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 473, September (2017), s. 122-130 ISSN 0012-821X Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : Mars * Valles Marineris * volcanism * scoria cone * hydrothermal activity Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure OBOR OECD: Volcanology Impact factor: 4.409, year: 2016

  11. The Elusive Evidence of Volcanic Lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genareau, K; Gharghabi, P; Gafford, J; Mazzola, M

    2017-11-14

    Lightning strikes are known to morphologically alter and chemically reduce geologic formations and deposits, forming fulgurites. A similar process occurs as the result of volcanic lightning discharge, when airborne volcanic ash is transformed into lightning-induced volcanic spherules (LIVS). Here, we adapt the calculations used in previous studies of lightning-induced damage to infrastructure materials to determine the effects on pseudo-ash samples of simplified composition. Using laboratory high-current impulse experiments, this research shows that within the lightning discharge channel there is an ideal melting zone that represents roughly 10% or less of the total channel radius at which temperatures are sufficient to melt the ash, regardless of peak current. The melted ash is simultaneously expelled from the channel by the heated, expanding air, permitting particles to cool during atmospheric transport before coming to rest in ash fall deposits. The limited size of this ideal melting zone explains the low number of LIVS typically observed in volcanic ash despite the frequent occurrence of lightning during explosive eruptions.

  12. Sources of Quaternary volcanism in the Itasy and Ankaratra volcanic fields, Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoazanamparany, C.; Widom, E.; Kuentz, D. C.; Raharimahefa, T.; Rakotondrazafy, F. M. A.; Rakotondravelo, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    We present new major and trace element and Sr, Nd, Pb and Os isotope data for Quaternary basaltic lavas and tephra from the Itasy and Ankaratra volcanic fields, representing the most recent volcanism in Madagascar. Mafic magmas from Itasy and Ankaratra exhibit significant inter- and intra-volcanic field geochemical heterogeneity. The Itasy eruptive products range in composition from foidite to phonotephrite whereas Ankaratra lavas range from basanite to trachybasalts. Trace element signatures of samples from both volcanic fields are very similar to those of ocean island basalts (OIB), with significant enrichment in Nb and Ta, depletion in Rb, Cs, and K, and relatively high Nb/U and Ce/Pb. However, the Itasy volcanic rocks show enrichment relative to those of Ankaratra in most incompatible elements, indicative of a more enriched source and/or lower degrees of partial melting. Significant inter- and intra-volcanic field heterogeneity is also observed in Sr, Nd, Pb and Os isotope signatures. The Itasy volcanic rocks generally have less radiogenic Sr and Nd isotopic ratios but more radiogenic Pb isotopic signatures than the Ankaratra volcanic field. Together, the Itasy and Ankaratra volcanic rocks form a well-defined negative correlation in Sr vs. Pb isotopes that could be attributed to lithospheric contamination or variable degrees of mixing between distinct mantle sources. However, the lack of correlation between isotopes and indices of crustal contamination (e.g. MgO and Nb/U) are inconsistent with shallow lithospheric contamination, and instead suggest mixing between compositionally distinct mantle sources. Furthermore, although Sr-Pb isotope systematics are apparently consistent with mixing between two different sources, distinct trends in Sr vs. Nd isotopes displayed by samples from Itasy and Ankaratra, respectively, argue for more complex source mixing involving three or more sources. The current data demonstrate that although the Itasy and Ankaratra volcanic

  13. Microphysical Properties of Alaskan Volcanic Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthukkudy, A.; Espinosa, R.; Rocha Lima, A.; Remer, L.; Colarco, P. R.; Whelley, P.; Krotkov, N. A.; Young, K.; Dubovik, O.; Wallace, K.; Martins, J. V.

    2017-12-01

    Volcanic ash has the potential to cause a variety of severe problems for human health and the environment. Therefore, effective monitoring of the dispersion and fallout from volcanic ash clouds and characterization of the aerosol particle properties are essential. One way to acquire information from volcanic clouds is through satellite remote sensing: such images have greater coverage than ground-based observations and can present a "big picture" perspective. A challenge of remote sensing is that assumptions of certain properties of the target are often a pre-requisite for making accurate and quantitative retrievals. For example, detailed information about size distribution, sphericity, and optical properties of the constituent matter is needed or must be assumed. The same kind of information is also needed for atmospheric transport models to properly simulate the dispersion and fallout of volcanic ash. Presented here is a laboratory method to determine the microphysical and optical properties of volcanic ash samples collected from two Alaskan volcanoes with markedly different compositions. Our method uses a Polarized Imaging Nephelometer (PI-Neph) and a system that re-suspends the particles in an air flow. The PI-Neph measures angular light scattering and polarization of the re-suspended particles from 3o to 175o in scattering angle, with an angular resolution of 1o . Primary measurements include phase function and polarized phase function at three wavelengths (445nm, 532nm, and 661nm). Size distribution, sphericity, and complex refractive index are retrieved indirectly from the PI-Neph measurements using the GRASP (Generalized Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Properties) inversion algorithm. We report the results of this method applied to samples from the Mt. Okmok (2008) and Mt. Katmai (1912) volcanic eruptions. To our knowledge, this is the first time direct measurements of phase matrix elements of ash from Mt. Okmok and Mt. Katmai have been reported. Retrieved

  14. Fluids in volcanic and geothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigvaldason, Gudmundur E.

    Mineral buffers control the composition of most volatile components of magmas and dissolved species in geothermal fluids. The only element which occurs in significant quantities in volcanic and geothermal fluids and is not controlled by mineral buffers is chlorine. It is argued that in absence of marine influence, geothermal fluids reflect the chlorine content of associated magmatic fluids. The chlorine content of oceanic volcanic rocks has a positive correlation with elements, which are believed to indicate a heterogenous source region. Since the source is generally believed to be the Earth's mantle, the implication is that the mantle is heterogenous with regard to chlorine and other volatiles. Such heterogeneities would have important consequences for genesis and distribution of ore. All major magma types of the oceanic environment occur in Iceland. Their spatial distribution is closely related to a volcanotectonic pattern, suggesting crustal control. A geophysical model of crustal accretion in a rift zone is used in conjunction with classical petrology to predict geochemical processes in a rift zone crust. The model has two kinematic parameters-drift rate and subsidence rate-which combined describe trajectories of mass particles deposited on the surface. When considering in conjunction with thermal gradients of the rift zone a series of metamorphic reactions and chemical fractionation processes are bound to occur, eventually resulting in a layering of the oceanic crust. The physical parameters result in a derived variable, rift zone residence time, which depends on the width of a rift zone. Long residence times in a wide rift zone lead to multistage recycling of material. Other properties of the model, based on geometric arrangement of productive fissure swarms within a rift zone, explain off-rift volcanism as directly related to rift zone processes, either as plate trapped magmatic domains or a transgressive thermal anomaly into an older crust. Off

  15. Effects of Concrete Channels on Stream Biogeochemistry, Maryland Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestegaard, K. L.; Gilbert, L.; Phemister, K.

    2005-05-01

    much larger urban river channels further downstream. These downstream redox zonations, microbial habitats, and pH characteristics observed in channelized tributaries are very different from non-urban watersheds in the Maryland Coastal Plain, which have pH values less than 7 and do not have the prominent redox zonations and associated microbial habitats. These downstream changes in redox chemistry and pH in urban stream channels have implications for the transport and retention of heavy metals in urban streams.

  16. Constraining Silicate Weathering Processes in an Active Volcanic Complex: Implications for the Long-term Carbon Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, K.; West, A. J.; Hartmann, J.; Amann, T.; Hosono, T.; Ide, K.

    2017-12-01

    While analyzing geochemical archives and carbon cycle modelling can further our understanding of the role of silicate weathering as a sink in the long-term carbon cycle, it is necessary to study modern weathering processes to inform these efforts. A recent compilation of data from rivers draining basaltic catchments estimates that rock weathering in active volcanic fields (AVFs) consumes atmospheric CO2 approximately three times faster than in inactive volcanic fields (IVFs), suggesting that the eruption and subsequent weathering of large igneous provinces likely played a major role in the carbon cycle in the geologic past [1]. The study demonstrates a significant correlation between catchment mean annual temperature (MAT) and atmospheric CO2 consumption rate for IVFs. However CO2 consumption due to weathering of AVFs is not correlated with MAT as the relationship is complicated by variability in hydrothermal fluxes, reactive surface area, and groundwater flow paths. To investigate the controls on weathering processes in AVFs, we present data for dissolved and solid weathering products from Mount Aso Caldera, Japan. Aso Caldera is an ideal site for studying the how the chemistry of rivers draining an AVF is impacted by high-temperature water/rock interactions, volcanic ash weathering, and varied groundwater flow paths and residence times. Samples were collected over five field seasons from two rivers and their tributaries, cold groundwater springs, and thermal springs. These samples capture the region's temperature and precipitation seasonality. Solid samples of unaltered volcanic rocks, hydrothermally-altered materials, volcanic ash, a soil profile, and suspended and bedload river sediments were also collected. The hydrochemistry of dissolved phases were analyzed at the University of Hamburg, while the mineralogy and geochemical compositions of solid phases were analyzed at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles. This work will be discussed in the context of

  17. River crossing: combining basic hydraulics with pipe protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnicero, Martin [TGN Transportadora de Gas del Norte, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Integrity Dept.], e-mail: Martin.Carnicero@tgn.com.ar

    2009-07-01

    As a complement to the paper presented in 2003 (IBP505-03 River crossings: a decision making scheme for the execution of protection works), this paper is about sharing the experience collected during the following 6 years, regarding the performance of remediation works. At that time, alternatives were presented for erosion control in river beds (free spanning, unburied and buried pipe), river banks (curves and meanders), flood plains, river diversions through the right of way, and rivers subject to debris flow. While developing a solution, basic hydraulic principles must be taken into consideration, keeping in mind that the primary objective is to protect a pipeline. For each of the typical solutions discussed in the 2003 paper, there will be an example with a brief theoretical explanation, a conceptual justification of the solution adopted, and recommendations for construction details which become critical for the success of the projects implemented. (author)

  18. Pacific seamount volcanism in space and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, J. K.

    2007-02-01

    Seamounts constitute some of the most direct evidence about intraplate volcanism. As such, when seamounts formed and into which tectonic setting they erupted (i.e. on-ridge or off-ridge) are a useful reflection of how the properties of the lithosphere interact with magma generation in the fluid mantle beneath. Proportionately few seamounts are radiometrically dated however, and these tend to be recently active. In order to more representatively sample and better understand Pacific seamount volcanism this paper estimates the eruption ages (tvolc) of 2706 volcanoes via automated estimates of lithospheric strength. Lithospheric strength (GTRrel) is deduced from the ratio of gravity to topography above the summits of volcanoes, and is shown to correlate with seafloor age at the time of volcanic loading (Δt) at 61 sites where radiometric constraints upon Δt exist. A trend of fits data for these 61, and with seafloor age (tsf) known, can date the 2706 volcanoes; tvolc = tsf - Δt. Widespread recurrences of volcanism proximal to older features (e.g. the Cook-Austral alignment in French Polynesia) suggest that the lithosphere exerts a significant element of control upon the location of volcanism, and that magmatic throughput leaves the lithosphere more susceptible to the passage of future melts. Observations also prompt speculation that: the Tavara seamounts share morphological characteristics and isostatic compensation state with the Musicians, and probably formed similarly; the Easter Island chain may be a modern analogy to the Cross-Lines; a Musicians - South Hawaiian seamounts alignment may be deflecting the Hawaiian hotspot trace.

  19. Cooling Rates of Lunar Volcanic Glass Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Hejiu; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Zhang, Youxue; Peslier, Anne; Lange, Rebecca; Dingwell, Donald; Neal, Clive

    2016-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the Apollo 15 green and Apollo 17 orange glass beads are of volcanic origin. The diffusion profiles of volatiles in these glass beads are believed to be due to degassing during eruption (Saal et al., 2008). The degree of degassing depends on the initial temperature and cooling rate. Therefore, the estimations of volatiles in parental magmas of lunar pyroclastic deposits depend on melt cooling rates. Furthermore, lunar glass beads may have cooled in volcanic environments on the moon. Therefore, the cooling rates may be used to assess the atmospheric condition in an early moon, when volcanic activities were common. The cooling rates of glasses can be inferred from direct heat capacity measurements on the glasses themselves (Wilding et al., 1995, 1996a,b). This method does not require knowledge of glass cooling environments and has been applied to calculate the cooling rates of natural silicate glasses formed in different terrestrial environments. We have carried out heat capacity measurements on hand-picked lunar glass beads using a Netzsch DSC 404C Pegasus differential scanning calorimeter at University of Munich. Our preliminary results suggest that the cooling rate of Apollo 17 orange glass beads may be 12 K/min, based on the correlation between temperature of the heat capacity curve peak in the glass transition range and glass cooling rate. The results imply that the parental magmas of lunar pyroclastic deposits may have contained more water initially than the early estimations (Saal et al., 2008), which used higher cooling rates, 60-180 K/min in the modeling. Furthermore, lunar volcanic glass beads could have been cooled in a hot gaseous medium released from volcanic eruptions, not during free flight. Therefore, our results may shed light on atmospheric condition in an early moon.

  20. Explosive volcanism on Mercury: Analysis of vent and deposit morphology and modes of eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozwiak, Lauren M.; Head, James W.; Wilson, Lionel

    2018-03-01

    The MESSENGER mission revealed, for the first time, conclusive evidence of explosive volcanism on Mercury. Several previous works have cataloged the appearance and location of explosive volcanism on the planet using a variety of identifying characteristics, including vent presence and deposit color as seen in multispectral image mosaics. We present here a comprehensive catalog of vents of likely volcanic origin; our classification scheme emphasizes vent morphology. We have analyzed the morphologies of all vents in our catalog, and recognize three main morphologies: "simple vent", "pit vent", and "vent-with-mound". The majority of vents we identify are located within impact craters. The spatial distribution of vents does not correlate with the locations of volcanic smooth plains deposits, in contrast to the Moon, nor do vents correlate with the locations of large impact basins (except for the Caloris and Tolstoj basins). Using the degradation state of the vent host crater as a proxy for maximum age, we suggest that vent formation has been active through the Mansurian and into the Kuiperian periods, although the majority of vents were likely formed much earlier in mercurian history. The morphologies and locations of vents are used to investigate a set of plausible formation geometries. We find that the most likely and most prevalent formation geometry is that of a dike, stalled at depth, which then explosively vents to the surface. We compare the vent and deposit size of mercurian pyroclastic deposits with localized and regional lunar pyroclastic deposits, and find a range of possible eruption energies and corresponding variations in eruption style. Localized lunar pyroclastic deposits and the majority of mercurian pyroclastic deposits show evidence for eruption that is consistent with the magmatic foam at the top of a dike reaching a critical gas volume fraction. A subset of mercurian vents, including the prominent Copland-Rachmaninoff vent to the northeast of the

  1. Assessment of River Habitat Quality in the Hai River Basin, Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuekui Ding

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We applied a river habitat quality (RHQ assessment method to the Hai River Basin (HRB; an important economic centre in China; to obtain baseline information for water quality improvement; river rehabilitation; and watershed management. The results of the assessment showed that the river habitat in the HRB is seriously degraded. Specifically; 42.41% of the sites; accounting for a river length of 3.31 × 104 km; were designated poor and bad. Habitat in the plain areas is seriously deteriorated; and nearly 50% of the sites; accounting for a river length of 1.65 × 104 km; had either poor or bad habitats. River habitat degradation was attributable to the limited width of the riparian zone (≤5 m; lower coverage of riparian vegetation (≤40%; artificial land use patterns (public and industrial land; frequent occurrence of farming on the river banks and high volumes of solid waste (nearly 10 m3; single flow channels; and rare aquatic plants (≤1 category. At the regional scale; intensive artificial land use types caused by urbanization had a significant impact on the RHQ in the HRB. RHQ was significantly and negatively correlated with farmland (r = 1.000; p < 0.01 and urban land (r = 0.998; p < 0.05; and was significantly and positively correlated with grassland and woodland (r = 1.000; p < 0.01. Intensive artificial land use; created through urbanization processes; has led to a loss of the riparian zone and its native vegetation; and has disrupted the lateral connectivity of the rivers. The degradation of the already essentially black rivers is exacerbated by poor longitudinal connectivity (index of connectivity is 2.08–16.56; caused by reservoirs and sluices. For river habitat rehabilitation to be successful; land use patterns need to be changed and reservoirs and sluices will have to be regulated.

  2. Late Holocene evolution of a coupled, mud-dominated delta plain–chenier plain system, coastal Louisiana, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Hijma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Major deltas and their adjacent coastal plains are commonly linked by means of coast-parallel fluxes of water, sediment, and nutrients. Observations of the evolution of these interlinked systems over centennial to millennial timescales are essential to understand the interaction between point sources of sediment discharge (i.e. deltaic distributaries and adjacent coastal plains across large spatial (i.e. hundreds of kilometres scales. This information is needed to constrain future generations of numerical models to predict coastal evolution in relation to climate change and other human activities. Here we examine the coastal plain (Chenier Plain, CP adjacent to the Mississippi River delta, one of the world's largest deltas. We use a refined chronology based on 22 new optically stimulated luminescence and 22 new radiocarbon ages to test the hypothesis that cyclic Mississippi subdelta shifting has influenced the evolution of the adjacent CP. We show that over the past 3 kyr, accumulation rates in the CP were generally 0–1 Mt yr−1. However, between 1.2 and 0.5 ka, when the Mississippi River shifted to a position more proximal to the CP, these rates increased to 2.9 ±1.1 Mt yr−1 or 0.5–1.5 % of the total sediment load of the Mississippi River. We conclude that CP evolution during the past 3 kyr was partly a direct consequence of shifting subdeltas, in addition to changing regional sediment sources and modest rates of relative sea-level (RSL rise. The RSL history of the CP during this time period was constrained by new limiting data points from the base of overwash deposits associated with the cheniers. These findings have implications for Mississippi River sediment diversions that are currently being planned to restore portions of this vulnerable coast. Only if such diversions are located in the western portion of the Mississippi Delta plain could they potentially contribute to sustaining the CP shoreline. Our findings

  3. The Online GVP/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report: Providing Timely Information About Worldwide Volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, G. C.; Guffanti, M. C.; Luhr, J. F.; Venzke, E. A.; Wunderman, R. L.

    2001-12-01

    The awesome power and intricate inner workings of volcanoes have made them a popular subject with scientists and the general public alike. About 1500 known volcanoes have been active on Earth during the Holocene, approximately 50 of which erupt per year. With so much activity occurring around the world, often in remote locations, it can be difficult to find up-to-date information about current volcanism from a reliable source. To satisfy the desire for timely volcano-related information the Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey combined their strengths to create the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report. The Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program (GVP) has developed a network of correspondents while reporting worldwide volcanism for over 30 years in their monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network. The US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program studies and monitors volcanoes in the United States and responds (upon invitation) to selected volcanic crises in other countries. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is one of the most popular sites on both organization's websites. The core of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is the brief summaries of current volcanic activity around the world. In addition to discussing various types of volcanism, the summaries also describe precursory activity (e.g. volcanic seismicity, deformation, and gas emissions), secondary activity (e.g. debris flows, mass wasting, and rockfalls), volcanic ash hazards to aviation, and preventative measures. The summaries are supplemented by links to definitions of technical terms found in the USGS photoglossary of volcano terms, links to information sources, and background information about reported volcanoes. The site also includes maps that highlight the location of reported volcanoes, an archive of weekly reports sorted by volcano and date, and links to commonly used acronyms. Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report's inception in November 2000, activity has been reported at

  4. Hyperdensity liver tumor on plain CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirota, Shozo; Hanaguri, Katsuro [Kochi Municipal Central Hospital (Japan); Shimizu, Masahumi; Sako, Masao; Harada, Yasushi

    1984-12-01

    Most liver tumors on plain CT have been recognized as low density or iso-density masses. Sometimes calcified high density masses were shown on plain CT in case of cysts or metastatic liver tumors. However, hyperdensity mass of the liver on CT, of which the density was a little higher than surrounding tissues, was very rare. Recently 7 patients with hyperdensity liver masses on plain CT were experienced: 6 hepatocellular carcinomas and 1 hepatic cavernous hemangioma. A single hyperdensity mass was shown in 4 patients, a hyperdensity mass of multiple hepatic tumors was shown in 2 patients, and some hyperdensity masses of multiple hepatic tumors were shown in 1 patient. Lesions are classified in 3 types according to the appearance of hyperdensity masses: diffuse hyperdensity all over the mass, ring like hyperdensity, creascent like hyperdensity. Intravenous contrast enhancement was performed in 2 patients: one with a primary hepatocellular carcinoma, and another with a hepatic cavernous hemangioma. In the former case the tumor margin had changed unclear, in the latter case the tumor was markedly enhanced. Our results revealed that hyperdensity liver tumors were divided into 2 types: One type, shown in a cavernous hemangioma with fatty liver, demonstrated relative hyperdensity due to lower density of the surrounding tissue. Another type, shown in 6 hepatocellular carcinomas, showed hyperdensity since the density of the tumor was hyperdensity relative to the surrounding tissue of the liver. It was suggested that the tumor with the latter type had been strongly probable of malignant one, and been recommended to receive further examination. Cause of hyperdensity was thought to be due to hemorrhage, though microcalcification could not be denyed. In Japan, no hyperdensity liver tumor had been reported partly due to a wide window width with which CT photographs were taken.

  5. Precipitation Dynamical Downscaling Over the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Ming; Xue, Ming; McPherson, Renee A.; Martin, Elinor; Rosendahl, Derek H.; Qiao, Lei

    2018-02-01

    Detailed, regional climate projections, particularly for precipitation, are critical for many applications. Accurate precipitation downscaling in the United States Great Plains remains a great challenge for most Regional Climate Models, particularly for warm months. Most previous dynamic downscaling simulations significantly underestimate warm-season precipitation in the region. This study aims to achieve a better precipitation downscaling in the Great Plains with the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. To this end, WRF simulations with different physics schemes and nudging strategies are first conducted for a representative warm season. Results show that different cumulus schemes lead to more pronounced difference in simulated precipitation than other tested physics schemes. Simply choosing different physics schemes is not enough to alleviate the dry bias over the southern Great Plains, which is related to an anticyclonic circulation anomaly over the central and western parts of continental U.S. in the simulations. Spectral nudging emerges as an effective solution for alleviating the precipitation bias. Spectral nudging ensures that large and synoptic-scale circulations are faithfully reproduced while still allowing WRF to develop small-scale dynamics, thus effectively suppressing the large-scale circulation anomaly in the downscaling. As a result, a better precipitation downscaling is achieved. With the carefully validated configurations, WRF downscaling is conducted for 1980-2015. The downscaling captures well the spatial distribution of monthly climatology precipitation and the monthly/yearly variability, showing improvement over at least two previously published precipitation downscaling studies. With the improved precipitation downscaling, a better hydrological simulation over the trans-state Oologah watershed is also achieved.

  6. Soil gas composition from the 2001-2002 fissure in the Lakki Plain (Nisyros Island, Greece): evidences for shallow hydrothermal fluid circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturi, Stefania; Tassi, Franco; Kanellopoulos, Christos; Vaselli, Orlando; Caponi, Chiara; Ricci, Andrea; Raspanti, Alessio; Gallorini, Andrea; Cabassi, Jacopo; Vougioukalakis, Georges

    2016-04-01

    Nisyros volcano (Aegean Sea, Greece) is currently classified in the "Very High Threat" category (Kinvig et al., 2010). Although the last volcanic activity, consisting of phreatic eruptions, occurred in the 19th century, Nisyros experienced an intense seismic activity during 1996-1998 accompanied by ground deformation and changes in the chemistry of fumarolic gases (Chiodini et al., 2002), pointing to a renewed unrest. Between November 2001 and December 2002, a NNE-oriented 600 m long fissure opened in the vegetated central part of the Lakki Plain. The fissure, 1-5 m wide and up to 15-20 m deep, showed neither vertical displacements nor gas release. No changes in the seismic and volcanic activity were observed during or after this event, which was interpreted as related to collapse of the upper caldera floor fine sediment cover (permeable sediment cover in the Lakki Plain conceals the underneath hydrothermal gas flow, preventing the typical surface manifestations (high temperature and CO2 flux), the chemistry of the interstitial gases reveals that deep-sourced fluids circulate within the deep permeable layers beneath the Lakki Plain enhancing alteration processes and formation of shallow collapsing structures. Chiodini G., Brombach T., Caliro S., Cardellini C., 2002. Geophys Res Lett, 29(16), 1759. Kinvig H.S., Winson A., Gottsmann J., 2010. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci, 10. Vougioukalakis G.E., Fytikas M., 2005. In Fytikas M., Vougioukalakis G.E. (Eds.), The South Aegean Active Volcanic Arc, Present Knowledge and Future Perspectives, Developments in Volcanology, Elsevier, Amsterdam The Netherlands, 2005, pp. 161-163.

  7. Plain film diagnosis of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.V. Jr.; Torres, W.E.; Clements, J.L. Jr.; Gedgaudas-McClees, R.K.

    1985-01-01

    One of the first examinations obtained routinely in abdominal radiography is the plain radiograph of the abdomen. The liver occupies anywhere from 15 to 30 percent of the area on such examinations. Thus, it is important to pay particular attention to the region of the liver and obtain as much information as possible from these films. The purpose of this chapter is to review the normal radiographic anatomy and pathology. Also, pathologic calcifications, gas collections, unusual collections of fat, and the systemic manifestations of hepatic disease are discussed within this chapter

  8. Multi-tracer investigation of river and groundwater interactions: a case study in Nalenggele River basin, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Su, Xiaosi; Dai, Zhenxue; Yang, Fengtian; Zhu, Pucheng; Huang, Yong

    2017-11-01

    Environmental tracers (such as major ions, stable and radiogenic isotopes, and heat) monitored in natural waters provide valuable information for understanding the processes of river-groundwater interactions in arid areas. An integrated framework is presented for interpreting multi-tracer data (major ions, stable isotopes (2H, 18O), the radioactive isotope 222Rn, and heat) for delineating the river-groundwater interactions in Nalenggele River basin, northwest China. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were undertaken to estimate the bidirectional water exchange associated with small-scale interactions between groundwater and surface water. Along the river stretch, groundwater and river water exchange readily. From the high mountain zone to the alluvial fan, groundwater discharge to the river is detected by tracer methods and end-member mixing models, but the river has also been identified as a losing river using discharge measurements, i.e. discharge is bidirectional. On the delta-front of the alluvial fan and in the alluvial plain, in the downstream area, the characteristics of total dissolved solids values, 222Rn concentrations and δ18O values in the surface water, and patterns derived from a heat-tracing method, indicate that groundwater discharges into the river. With the environmental tracers, the processes of river-groundwater interaction have been identified in detail for better understanding of overall hydrogeological processes and of the impacts on water allocation policies.

  9. Is Kasei Valles (Mars) the largest volcanic channel in the solar system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverington, David W.

    2018-02-01

    With a length of more than 2000 km and widths of up to several hundred kilometers, Kasei Valles is the largest outflow system on Mars. Superficially, the scabland-like character of Kasei Valles is evocative of terrestrial systems carved by catastrophic aqueous floods, and the system is widely interpreted as a product of outbursts from aquifers. However, as at other Martian outflow channels, clear examples of fluvial sedimentary deposits have proven difficult to identify here. Though Kasei Valles lacks several key properties expected of aqueous systems, its basic morphological and contextual properties are aligned with those of ancient volcanic channels on Venus, the Moon, Mercury, and Earth. There is abundant evidence that voluminous effusions of low-viscosity magmas occurred at the head of Kasei Valles, the channel system acted as a conduit for associated flows, and mare-style volcanic plains developed within its terminal basin. Combined mechanical and thermal incision rates of at least several meters per day are estimated to have been readily achieved at Kasei Valles by 20-m-deep magmas flowing with viscosities of 1 Pa s across low topographic slopes underlain by bedrock. If Kasei Valles formed through incision by magma, it would be the largest known volcanic channel in the solar system. The total volume of magma erupted at Kasei Valles is estimated here to have possibly reached or exceeded ∼5 × 106 km3, a volume comparable in magnitude to those that characterize individual Large Igneous Provinces on Earth. Development of other large outflow systems on Mars is expected to have similarly involved eruption of up to millions of cubic kilometers of magma.

  10. Evolution of the Lian River coastal basin in response to Quaternary marine transgressions in Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yongjie; Zheng, Zhuo; Chen, Cong; Wang, Mengyuan; Chen, Bishan

    2018-04-01

    The coastal basin deposit in the Lian River plain is among the thickest Quaternary sequences along the southeastern coast of China. The clastic sediment accumulated in a variety of environmental settings including fluvial, channel, estuary/coastal and marine conditions. Detailed investigation of lithofacies, grain-size distributions, magnetic susceptibility, microfossils and chronology of marine core CN01, compared with regional cores, and combined with offshore seismic reflection profiles, has allowed us to correlate the spatial stratigraphy in the inner and outer plain and the seismic units. Grain size distribution analysis of core CN-01 through compositional data analysis and multivariate statistics were applied to clastic sedimentary facies and sedimentary cycles. Results show that these methods are able to derive a robust proxy information for the depositional environment of the Lian River plain. We have also been able to reconstruct deltaic evolution in response to marine transgressions. On the basis of dating results and chronostratigraphy, the estimated age of the onset of deposition in the Lian River coastal plain was more than 260 kyr BP. Three transgressive sedimentary cycles revealed in many regional cores support this age model. Detailed lithological and microfossil studies confirm that three marine (M3, M2 and M1) and three terrestrial (T3, T2 and T1) units can be distinguished. Spatial correlation between the inner plain, outer plain (typical cores characterized by marine transgression cycles) and offshore seismic reflectors reveals coherent sedimentary sequences. Two major boundaries (unconformity and erosion surfaces) can be recognized in the seismic profiles, and these correspond to weathered reddish and/or variegated clay in the study core, suggesting that Quaternary sediment changes on the Lian River plain were largely controlled by sea-level variations and coastline shift during glacial/interglacial cycles.

  11. The Ngorongoro Volcanic Highland and its relationships to volcanic deposits at Olduvai Gorge and East African Rift volcanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollel, Godwin F; Swisher, Carl C

    2012-08-01

    The Ngorongoro Volcanic Highland (NVH), situated adjacent and to the east of Olduvai Gorge in northern Tanzania, is the source of the immense quantities of lava, ignimbrite, air fall ash, and volcaniclastic debris that occur interbedded in the Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary deposits in the Laetoli and Olduvai areas. These volcanics have proven crucial to unraveling stratigraphic correlations, the age of these successions, the archaeological and paleontological remains, as well as the source materials from which the bulk of the stone tools were manufactured. The NVH towers some 2,000 m above the Olduvai and Laetoli landscapes, affecting local climate, run-off, and providing varying elevation - climate controlled ecosystem, habitats, and riparian corridors extending into the Olduvai and Laetoli lowlands. The NVH also plays a crucial role in addressing the genesis and history of East African Rift (EAR) magmatism in northern Tanzania. In this contribution, we provide age and petrochemical compositions of the major NVH centers: Lemagurut, basalt to benmorite, 2.4-2.2 Ma; Satiman, tephrite to phonolite, 4.6-3.5 Ma; Oldeani, basalt to trachyandesite, 1.6-1.5 Ma; Ngorongoro, basalt to rhyolite, 2.3-2.0 Ma; Olmoti, basalt to trachyte, 2.0-1.8 Ma; Embagai, nephelinite to phonolite, 1.2-0.6 Ma; and Engelosin, phonolite, 3-2.7 Ma. We then discuss how these correlate in time and composition with volcanics preserved at Olduvai Gorge. Finally, we place this into context with our current understanding as to the eruptive history of the NVH and relationship to East African Rift volcanism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Conceptual model of volcanism and volcanic hazards of the region of Ararat valley, Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliksetian, Khachatur; Connor, Charles; Savov, Ivan; Connor, Laura; Navasardyan, Gevorg; Manucharyan, Davit; Ghukasyan, Yura; Gevorgyan, Hripsime

    2015-04-01

    Armenia and the adjacent volcanically active regions in Iran, Turkey and Georgia are located in the collision zone between the Arabian and Eurasian lithospheric plates. The majority of studies of regional collision related volcanism use the model proposed by Keskin, (2003) where volcanism is driven by Neo-Tethyan slab break-off. In Armenia, >500 Quaternary-Holocene volcanoes from the Gegham, Vardenis and Syunik volcanic fields are hosted within pull-apart structures formed by active faults and their segments (Karakhanyan et al., 2002), while tectonic position of the large in volume basalt-dacite Aragats volcano and periphery volcanic plateaus is different and its position away from major fault lines necessitates more complex volcano-tectonic setup. Our detailed volcanological, petrological and geochemical studies provide insight into the nature of such volcanic activity in the region of Ararat Valley. Most magmas, such as those erupted in Armenia are volatile-poor and erupt fairly hot. Here we report newly discovered tephra sequences in Ararat valley, that were erupted from historically active Ararat stratovolcano and provide evidence for explosive eruption of young, mid K2O calc-alkaline and volatile-rich (>4.6 wt% H2O; amph-bearing) magmas. Such young eruptions, in addition to the ignimbrite and lava flow hazards from Gegham and Aragats, present a threat to the >1.4 million people (~ ½ of the population of Armenia). We will report numerical simulations of potential volcanic hazards for the region of Ararat valley near Yerevan that will include including tephra fallout, lava flows and opening of new vents. Connor et al. (2012) J. Applied Volcanology 1:3, 1-19; Karakhanian et al. (2002), JVGR, 113, 319-344; Keskin, M. (2003) Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 24, 8046.

  13. Volcanic Gases and Hot Spring Water to Evaluate the Volcanic Activity of the Mt. Baekdusan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, S. H.; Lee, S.; Chang, C.

    2017-12-01

    This study performed the analysis on the volcanic gases and hot spring waters from the Julong hot spring at Mt. Baekdu, also known as Changbaishan on the North Korea(DPRK)-China border, during the period from July 2015 to August 2016. Also, we confirmed the errors that HCO3- concentrations of hot spring waters in the previous study (Lee et al. 2014) and tried to improve the problem. Dissolved CO2 in hot spring waters was analyzed using gas chromatograph in Lee et al.(2014). Improving this, from 2015, we used TOC-IC to analysis dissolved CO2. Also, we analyzed the Na2CO3 standard solutions of different concentrations using GC, and confirmed the correlation between the analytical concentrations and the real concentrations. However, because the analytical results of the Julong hot spring water were in discord with the estimated values based on this correlation, we can't estimate the HCO3-concentrations of 2014 samples. During the period of study, CO2/CH4 ratios in volcanic gases are gradually decreased, and this can be interpreted in two different ways. The first interpretation is that the conditions inside the volcanic edifice are changing into more reduction condition, and carbon in volcanic gases become more favorable to distribute into CH4 or CO than CO2. The second interpretation is that the interaction between volcanic gases and water becomes greater than past, and the concentrations of CO2which have much higher solubility in water decreased, relatively. In general, the effect of scrubbing of volcanic gas is strengthened during the quiet periods of volcanic activity rather than active periods. Meanwhile, the analysis of hot spring waters was done on the anion of acidic gases species, the major cations, and some trace elements (As, Cd, Re).This work was funded by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under Grant KMIPA 2015-3060.

  14. [Effects of volcanic eruptions on human health in Iceland. Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Larsen, Guðrun

    2016-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions are common in Iceland and have caused health problems ever since the settlement of Iceland. Here we describe volcanic activity and the effects of volcanic gases and ash on human health in Iceland. Volcanic gases expelled during eruptions can be highly toxic for humans if their concentrations are high, irritating the mucus membranes of the eyes and upper respiratory tract at lower concentrations. They can also be very irritating to the skin. Volcanic ash is also irritating for the mucus membranes of the eyes and upper respiratory tract. The smalles particles of volcanic ash can reach the alveoli of the lungs. Described are four examples of volcanic eruptions that have affected the health of Icelanders. The eruption of Laki volcanic fissure in 1783-1784 is the volcanic eruption that has caused the highest mortality and had the greatest effects on the well-being of Icelanders. Despite multiple volcanic eruptions during the last decades in Iceland mortality has been low and effects on human health have been limited, although studies on longterm effects are lacking. Studies on the effects of the Eyjafjallajökul eruption in 2010 on human health showed increased physical and mental symptoms, especially in those having respiratory disorders. The Directorate of Health in Iceland and other services have responded promptly to recurrent volcanic eruptions over the last few years and given detailed instructions on how to minimize the effects on the public health. Key words: volcanic eruptions, Iceland, volcanic ash, volcanic gases, health effects, mortality. Correspondence: Gunnar Guðmundsson, ggudmund@landspitali.is.

  15. Creep of plain weave polymer matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Abhishek

    Polymer matrix composites are increasingly used in various industrial sectors to reduce structural weight and improve performance. Woven (also known as textile) composites are one class of polymer matrix composites with increasing market share mostly due to their lightweight, their flexibility to form into desired shape, their mechanical properties and toughness. Due to the viscoelasticity of the polymer matrix, time-dependent degradation in modulus (creep) and strength (creep rupture) are two of the major mechanical properties required by engineers to design a structure reliably when using these materials. Unfortunately, creep and creep rupture of woven composites have received little attention by the research community and thus, there is a dire need to generate additional knowledge and prediction models, given the increasing market share of woven composites in load bearing structural applications. Currently, available creep models are limited in scope and have not been validated for any loading orientation and time period beyond the experimental time window. In this thesis, an analytical creep model, namely the Modified Equivalent Laminate Model (MELM), was developed to predict tensile creep of plain weave composites for any orientation of the load with respect to the orientation of the fill and warp fibers, using creep of unidirectional composites. The ability of the model to predict creep for any orientation of the load is a "first" in this area. The model was validated using an extensive experimental involving the tensile creep of plain weave composites under varying loading orientation and service conditions. Plain weave epoxy (F263)/ carbon fiber (T300) composite, currently used in aerospace applications, was procured as fabrics from Hexcel Corporation. Creep tests were conducted under two loading conditions: on-axis loading (0°) and off-axis loading (45°). Constant load creep, in the temperature range of 80-240°C and stress range of 1-70% UTS of the

  16. Determinants of fish assemblage structure in Northwestern Great Plains streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, J.A.; Bramblett, R.G.; Guy, C.S.; Zale, A.V.; Roberts, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    Prairie streams are known for their harsh and stochastic physical conditions, and the fish assemblages therein have been shown to be temporally variable. We assessed the spatial and temporal variation in fish assemblage structure in five intermittent, adventitious northwestern Great Plains streams representing a gradient of watershed areas. Fish assemblages and abiotic conditions varied more spatially than temporally. The most important variables explaining fish assemblage structure were longitudinal position and the proportion of fine substrates. The proportion of fine substrates increased proceeding upstream, approaching 100% in all five streams, and species richness declined upstream with increasing fine substrates. High levels of fine substrate in the upper reaches appeared to limit the distribution of obligate lithophilic fish species to reaches further downstream. Species richness and substrates were similar among all five streams at the lowermost and uppermost sites. However, in the middle reaches, species richness increased, the amount of fine substrate decreased, and connectivity increased as watershed area increased. Season and some dimensions of habitat (including thalweg depth, absolute distance to the main-stem river, and watershed size) were not essential in explaining the variation in fish assemblages. Fish species richness varied more temporally than overall fish assemblage structure did because common species were consistently abundant across seasons, whereas rare species were sometimes absent or perhaps not detected by sampling. The similarity in our results among five streams varying in watershed size and those from other studies supports the generalization that spatial variation exceeds temporal variation in the fish assemblages of prairie and warmwater streams. Furthermore, given longitudinal position, substrate, and stream size, general predictions regarding fish assemblage structure and function in prairie streams are possible. ?? American

  17. Obsidian hydration dating of volcanic events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, I.; Obradovich, J.

    1981-01-01

    Obsidian hydration dating of volcanic events had been compared with ages of the same events determined by the 14C and KAr methods at several localities. The localities, ranging in age from 1200 to over 1 million yr, include Newberry Craters, Oregon; Coso Hot Springs, California; Salton Sea, California; Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming; and Mineral Range, Utah. In most cases the agreement is quite good. A number of factors including volcanic glass composition and exposuretemperature history must be known in order to relate hydration thickness to age. The effect of composition can be determined from chemical analysis or the refractive index of the glass. Exposure-temperature history requires a number of considerations enumerated in this paper. ?? 1981.

  18. Volcanic Origin of Alkali Halides on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, L.; Fegley, B., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The recent observation of NaCl (gas) on Io confirms our earlier prediction that NaCl is produced volcanically. Here we extend our calculations by modeling thermochemical equilibrium of O, S, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, F, Cl, Br, and I as a function of temperature and pressure in a Pele-like volcanic gas with O/S/Na/Cl/K = 1.518/1/0.05/0.04/0.005 and CI chondritic ratios of the other (as yet unobserved) alkalis and halogens. For reference, the nominal temperature and pressure for Pele is 1760 plus or minus 210 K and 0.01 bars based on Galileo data and modeling.

  19. Volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas M.; Stewart, Carol; Sword-Daniels, Victoria; Leonard, Graham S.; Johnston, David M.; Cole, Jim W.; Wardman, Johnny; Wilson, Grant; Barnard, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions can produce a wide range of hazards. Although phenomena such as pyroclastic flows and surges, sector collapses, lahars and ballistic blocks are the most destructive and dangerous, volcanic ash is by far the most widely distributed eruption product. Although ash falls rarely endanger human life directly, threats to public health and disruption to critical infrastructure services, aviation and primary production can lead to significant societal impacts. Even relatively small eruptions can cause widespread disruption, damage and economic loss. Volcanic eruptions are, in general, infrequent and somewhat exotic occurrences, and consequently in many parts of the world, the management of critical infrastructure during volcanic crises can be improved with greater knowledge of the likely impacts. This article presents an overview of volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure, other than aviation and fuel supply, illustrated by findings from impact assessment reconnaissance trips carried out to a wide range of locations worldwide by our international research group and local collaborators. ‘Critical infrastructure’ includes those assets, frequently taken for granted, which are essential for the functioning of a society and economy. Electricity networks are very vulnerable to disruption from volcanic ash falls. This is particularly the case when fine ash is erupted because it has a greater tendency to adhere to line and substation insulators, where it can cause flashover (unintended electrical discharge) which can in turn cause widespread and disruptive outages. Weather conditions are a major determinant of flashover risk. Dry ash is not conductive, and heavy rain will wash ash from insulators, but light rain/mist will mobilise readily-soluble salts on the surface of the ash grains and lower the ash layer’s resistivity. Wet ash is also heavier than dry ash, increasing the risk of line breakage or tower/pole collapse. Particular issues for water

  20. Magnetic properties of frictional volcanic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Jackie E.; Lavallée, Yan; Biggin, Andrew; Ferk, Annika; Leonhardt, Roman

    2015-04-01

    During dome-building volcanic eruptions, highly viscous magma extends through the upper conduit in a solid-like state. The outer margins of the magma column accommodate the majority of the strain, while the bulk of the magma is able to extrude, largely undeformed, to produce magma spines. Spine extrusion is often characterised by the emission of repetitive seismicity, produced in the upper <1 km by magma failure and slip at the conduit margins. The rheology of the magma controls the depth at which fracture can occur, while the frictional properties of the magma are important in controlling subsequent marginal slip processes. Upon extrusion, spines are coated by a carapace of volcanic fault rocks which provide insights into the deeper conduit processes. Frictional samples from magma spines at Mount St. Helens (USA), Soufriere Hills (Montserrat) and Mount Unzen (Japan) have been examined using structural, thermal and magnetic analyses to reveal a history of comminution, frictional heating, melting and cooling to form volcanic pseudotachylyte. Pseudotachylyte has rarely been noted in volcanic materials, and the recent observation of its syn-eruptive formation in dome-building volcanoes was unprecedented. The uniquely high thermal conditions of volcanic environments means that frictional melt remains at elevated temperatures for longer than usual, causing slow crystallisation, preventing the development of some signature "quench" characteristics. As such, rock-magnetic tests have proven to be some of the most useful tools in distinguishing pseudotachylytes from their andesite/ dacite hosts. In volcanic pseudotachylyte the mass normalised natural remanent magnetisation (NRM) when further normalised with the concentration dependent saturation remanence (Mrs) was found to be higher than the host rock. Remanence carriers are defined as low coercive materials across all samples, and while the remanence of the host rock displays similarities to an anhysteretic remanent

  1. The scaling of experiments on volcanic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier eMERLE

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the basic principles of the scaling procedure are first reviewed by a presentation of scale factors. Then, taking an idealized example of a brittle volcanic cone intruded by a viscous magma, the way to choose appropriate analogue materials for both the brittle and ductile parts of the cone is explained by the use of model ratios. Lines of similarity are described to show that an experiment simulates a range of physical processes instead of a unique natural case. The pi theorem is presented as an alternative scaling procedure and discussed through the same idealized example to make the comparison with the model ratio procedure. The appropriateness of the use of gelatin as analogue material for simulating dyke formation is investigated. Finally, the scaling of some particular experiments such as pyroclastic flows or volcanic explosions is briefly presented to show the diversity of scaling procedures in volcanology.

  2. Volcanic emission of radionuclides and magma dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, G.; Le Cloarec, M.F.; Ardouin, B.; Le Roulley, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    210 Pb, 210 Bi and 210 Po, the last decay products of the 238 U series, are highly enriched in volcanic plumes, relative to the magma composition. Moreover this enrichment varies over time and from volcano to volcano. A model is proposed to describe 8 years of measurement