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Sample records for river northeast brazil

  1. Fishes from the Itapecuru River basin, State of Maranhão, northeast Brazil

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    MC Barros

    Full Text Available The Itapecuru is a relatively large river in the northeastern Brazilian state of Maranhão. During several expeditions to this basin, we collected 69 fish species belonging to 65 genera, 29 families and 10 orders. Characiformes and Siluriformes were the orders with the largest number of species and Characidae, Loricariidae, Cichlidae, Auchenipteridae and Pimelodidae were the richest families. About 30% of the fish fauna of the Itapecuru basin is endemic or restricted to northeastern Brazil. Just over a fifth (22% of the species is also known to occur in the Amazon basin and only a few are more widely distributed in South American.

  2. New records of amphoroid diatoms (Bacillariophyceae from Cachoeira River, Northeast Brazil

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    KP Cavalcante

    Full Text Available Amphoroid taxa have been revised in recent decades. Many species formerly assigned to Amphora have been transferred to other recently proposed genera, as Seminavis (Naviculaceae and Halamphora (Catenulaceae. In Brazil, there are few studies focused on amphoroid taxonomy. This study presents a taxonomic investigation of five uncommon amphoroid taxa from Brazilian diatom flora: Seminavis pusilla, S. strigosa, Amphora ectorii, Halamphora ghanensis and Halamphora sp. Seminavis strigosa is identical in valve morphology and morphometrical data to Amphora twenteana, and its synonymy is proposed. Seminavis pusilla, poorly found in Brazilian waters, has expanded its distribution. Halamphora ghanensis is a new record to American continent while Amphora ectorii are new to Brazilian aquatic systems. Halamphora sp. has distinct ultrastructural features in relation to similar species and is probably new for science.

  3. Soil moisture behavior in an experimental basin in Northeast of brazil - the case of Guaraira river basin

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    Moura Ramos Filho, Geraldo; das Neves Almeida, Cristiano; da Silva Freitas, Emerson

    2017-04-01

    In 2003, a hydrological network of the semiarid region (REHISA in Portuguese) was created in Brazil. Since then, experimental watersheds in this region have been providing hydro meteorological data collected in automatic gauges. One of these basins is the Guaraíra river basin, which is operated and maintained by the Federal University of Paraíba. This experimental watershed is located in the coastal region of Paraíba state, where the average annual rainfall is 1.700 mm. According to Köppen its climate is tropical with dry summer, and the drainage area is 5,84 km2. At this experimental basin four rainfall and one climate gauges were installed in 2003. In all of these gauges the soil moisture is monitored hourly with a Time Domain Reflectometry probe representing the 30 cm layer. According to previous analysis the spatial distribution of rainfall in the experimental basin is very low and also soil texture, which is sandy. However, the land use is different and the behavior of the soil moisture is also different. Thus, this paper present part of a study that tries to understand the difference between two gauges, in terms of soil moisture. In order to do this, two years data base were used of different gauges, gauges 2 and 4. In the first part of the study, just the descendent part of the soil moisture curve were used. Different data periods were select from a peak to a stabilization point and then the soil moisture Drying Rate (DR) was calculated to show the speed that a peak reaches the stabilization point. The data analysis was carried out considering the whole data together, then the data were shared into dry and wet periods. The results show that for the gauge 2 the DR range from 0.0335 to 2.772x10-3 kg/kg.h, with an average of 0.632x10-3 kg/kg.h. On the other hand, the gauge 4 present values that range from 0.0139 to 3.617x10-3 kg/kg.h, with an average of 0.375x10-3 kg/kg.h. As can be seen, both gauges presented different DR. When the data set is share into

  4. Nutrition surveys in Burma and northeast Brazil.

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    Bunce, George E

    2005-05-01

    Participation of the author in the Interdepartmental Committee on Nutrition for National Defense sponsored nutrition surveys of Burma and northeast Brazil is described. These surveys not only collected important data on nutritional status but also guided the subsequent research interests of the author. The Brazil survey results contributed to the creation of legislation that mandated the addition of water-dispersible vitamin A to skimmed-milk powder products. This additive has greatly diminished the likelihood of vitamin A deficiency syndrome occurring in children after famine relief efforts.

  5. 33 CFR 117.829 - Northeast Cape Fear River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Cape Fear River. 117... BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.829 Northeast Cape... the Seaboard System Railroad Bridge across the Northeast Cape Fear River, mile 27.0, at Castle Hayne...

  6. Granite-types in Northeast Brazil: current knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sial, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    Several granitoids in Northeast Brazil, located within the Cachoeirinha-Salgueiro foldbelt (CSF), Pernambuco and Paraiba States, Brzil, were analysed, studying the geochemistry of rare earths and the behavior of oxygen isotopes. (M.C.K.) [pt

  7. A Subnational Perspective for Comparative Research: Education and Development in Northeast Brazil and Northeast Thailand.

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    Fry, Gerald; Kempner, Ken

    1996-01-01

    Case studies of northeast Brazil and northeast Thailand highlight the importance of a subnational approach to comparative research. Compares geographic and economic conditions, regional culture, ethnicity and gender issues, migration patterns, religion, literacy, and educational underdevelopment. Points out that neglect of a region and its people…

  8. Zooplankton abundance in the River Kars, Northeast Turkey: Impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... Turkey: Impact of environmental variables. H. Özbay1* and ... in the river. Key words: River Kars, zooplankton, running water, environmental factors. ..... tergestina (Branchiopoda: Onychopoda) in Guanabara Bay, Brazil. Braz.

  9. Cultural significance of primary teeth for caregivers in Northeast Brazil.

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    Nations, Marilyn K; Calvasina, Paola Gondim; Martin, Michele N; Dias, Hilma Fontenele

    2008-04-01

    This anthropological study critically evaluates Brazilian caregivers' symbolic production and significance of their malnourished offspring's primary teeth, as well as their own, and describes popular dental practices. From January to June 2004, ethnographic interviews of 27 poor, low-literacy mothers were conducted at a public Malnutrition Treatment Center in Fortaleza, Ceará State. Participant observation of clinical pathways and home environments supplemented the data. Content analysis was performed. Results confirm that primary teeth are imbued with cultural significance in Northeast Brazil. Mothers examine mouths, perceive signs of decay, associate primary with permanent tooth healthiness, identify ethnodental illnesses, seek assistance, and perform rituals with exfoliated teeth. The mother's motivation to care for primary teeth is sparked by her memories of past toothache and attempts to avoid stigma and discrimination. Social determinants, not mothers' beliefs or behaviors, are the most critical obstacles to effective dental care. Legitimizing lay knowledge and empowering caregivers and children can improve oral health in Northeast Brazil.

  10. Serologic detection of coccidioidomycosis antibodies in northeast Brazil.

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    Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Fechine, Maria Auxiliadora Bezerra; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; da Costa, Ana Karoline Freire; Nagao, Maria Aparecida Tiemi Dias; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa

    2009-04-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is a systemic infection caused by Coccidioides spp. The disease is endemic in Brazil but its incidence is underreported as it is not a notifiable disease. This article presents the results of a serologic survey carried out with 229 volunteers in northeast Brazil by the immunodiffusion (ID) test with commercial Coccidioides spp. antigens. The commercial ID test detected 15 individuals without clinical diagnosis of the disease and two individuals in treatment for coccidioidomycosis. Regarding the epidemiological data, most of the positive individuals were male, between 18 and 65 years of age and were engaged in armadillo hunting. Three women who had never participated in armadillo hunts also displayed positive results for coccidioidal antibodies. Besides armadillo hunts, exposure to environmental dust in endemic areas may account for the serologic response detected in the study. The data from this study suggest the importance of performing epidemiological surveys for coccidioidomycosis in order to understand the prevalence of this disease in Brazil.

  11. Projected Changes in Evapotranspiration Rates over Northeast Brazil

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    Costa, Alexandre; Guimarães, Sullyandro; Vasconcelos, Francisco, Jr.; Sales, Domingo; da Silva, Emerson

    2015-04-01

    Climate simulations were performed using a regional model (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System, RAMS 6.0) driven by data from one of the CMIP5 models (Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model, version 2 - Earth System, HadGEM2-ES) over two CORDEX domains (South America and Central America) for the heavy-emission scenario (RCP8.5). Potential evapotranspiraion data from the RCM and from the CMIP5 global models were analyzed over Northeast Brazil, a semiarid region with a short rainy season (usually February to May in its northern portion due to the seasonal shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone) and over which droughts are frequent. Significant changes in the potential evapotranspiration were found, with most models showing a increasing trend along the 21st century, which are expected to alter the surface water budget, increasing the current water deficit (precipitation is currently much smaller than potential evapotranspiration). Based on the projections from the majority of the models, we expect important impacts over local agriculture and water resources over Northeast Brazil.

  12. Water quality assessment of the Sinos River, Southern Brazil.

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    Blume, K K; Macedo, J C; Meneguzzi, A; Silva, L B; Quevedo, D M; Rodrigues, M A S

    2010-12-01

    The Sinos River basin is located Northeast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (29º 20' to 30º 10' S and 50º 15' to 51º20'W), Southern Brazil, covering two geomorphologic provinces: the Southern plateau and central depression. It is part of the Guaíba basin and has an area of approximately 800 km², encompassing 32 municipalities. The objective of this study was to monitor water quality in the Sinos River, the largest river in this basin. Water samples were collected at four selected sites in the Sinos River, and the following parameters were analysed: pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD₅), turbidity, fecal coliforms, total dissolved solids, temperature, nitrate, nitrite, phosphorous, chromium, lead, aluminum, zinc, iron, and copper. The results were analysed based on Resolution No. 357/2005 of the Brazilian National Environmental Council (CONAMA) regarding regulatory limits for residues in water. A second analysis was performed based on a water quality index (WQI) used by the Sinos River Basin Management Committee (COMITESINOS). Poor water quality in the Sinos River presents a worrying scenario for the region, since this river is the main source of water supply for the urban core. Health conditions found in the Sinos River, mainly in its lower reaches, are worrying and a strong indicator of human activities on the basin.

  13. Water quality assessment of the Sinos River, Southern Brazil

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    KK. Blume

    Full Text Available The Sinos River basin is located Northeast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (29º 20' to 30º 10' S and 50º 15' to 51º20'W, Southern Brazil, covering two geomorphologic provinces: the Southern plateau and central depression. It is part of the Guaíba basin and has an area of approximately 800 km², encompassing 32 municipalities. The objective of this study was to monitor water quality in the Sinos River, the largest river in this basin. Water samples were collected at four selected sites in the Sinos River, and the following parameters were analysed: pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, turbidity, fecal coliforms, total dissolved solids, temperature, nitrate, nitrite, phosphorous, chromium, lead, aluminum, zinc, iron, and copper. The results were analysed based on Resolution No. 357/2005 of the Brazilian National Environmental Council (CONAMA regarding regulatory limits for residues in water. A second analysis was performed based on a water quality index (WQI used by the Sinos River Basin Management Committee (COMITESINOS. Poor water quality in the Sinos River presents a worrying scenario for the region, since this river is the main source of water supply for the urban core. Health conditions found in the Sinos River, mainly in its lower reaches, are worrying and a strong indicator of human activities on the basin.

  14. Equine infectious anemia prevalence in feral donkeys from Northeast Brazil.

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    Oliveira, Fernanda G; Cook, R Frank; Naves, João H F; Oliveira, Cairo H S; Diniz, Rejane S; Freitas, Francisco J C; Lima, Joseney M; Sakamoto, Sidnei M; Leite, Rômulo C; Issel, Charles J; Reis, Jenner K P

    2017-05-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Although the virus infects all members of the Equidae the vast majority of studies have been conducted in horses (Equus caballus) with comparatively little information available for other equid species. Brazil has one of the most abundant donkey (E. asinus) populations of any nation although the economic importance of these animals is declining as transportation becomes increasingly mechanized. As a result, considerable numbers of donkeys especially in the Northeast of the country have been released and allowed pursue an almost feral existence. Consequently, this large and growing population constitutes a significant risk as a reservoir for the maintenance and transmission of important equine infectious diseases such as glanders and equine arteritis virus in addition to EIAV. This study examines the prevalence of EIA in a semi-wild donkey population from Mossoró city, in Northeast Brazil, using AGID followed by cELISA, rgp90 ELISA and immunoblot (IB). Serum samples were collected from 367 donkeys without obvious EIA clinical signs. Subsequent testing revealed seropositive rates of 1.6% (6/367) in officially approved AGID tests, 3.3% (12/367) in cELISA and 14.4% (53/367) in the rgp90 ELISA. However, 88.7% (47/53) of the rgp90 ELISA positive samples were almost certainly false reactions because they failed to react with two or more antigens in IB. Consequently, the rpg90 ELISA has a similar sensitivity to AGID with donkey serum samples. Such high false positive rates have not been observed previously with serum samples from horses. Another highly significant finding is that 56.9% (33/58) of the donkey serum samples tested in IB had reactivity to EIAV p26 only. Although this could result from recent infection with the virus, it has been found that in some equids p26 only reactivity persists for extensive periods of time suggesting exposure to antigens

  15. Status of the globally threatened forest birds of northeast Brazil

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    Glauco Alves Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Forest of northeast Brazil hosts a unique biota which is among the most threatened in the Neotropics. Near-total conversion of forest habitat to sugar cane monocultures has left the region's endemic forest-dependent avifauna marooned in a few highly-fragmented and degraded forest remnants. Here we summarise the current status of 16 globally threatened species based on surveys conducted over the last 11 years. We found a bleak situation for most of these species and consider that three endemics: Glaucidium mooreorum (Pernambuco Pygmy-owl, Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti (Cryptic Treehunter and Philydor novaesi (Alagoas Foliage-gleaner are most likely globally extinct. Some positive news can, however, be reported for both Leptodon forbesi (White-collared Kite and Synallaxis infuscata (Pinto's Spinetail which may warrant re-evaluation of their respective red list statuses. We outline a road map to prioritise conservation interventions in the region directed at preventing the extinction of this suite of threatened bird species and their companion biota.

  16. Soil microbial biomass in an agroforestry system of Northeast Brazil

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    Rosane C. Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry systems (AFS are considered alternative land use options to help prevent soil degradation and improve soil microbial biomass and organic C status. However, it is unclear how different densities of babassu palm [Attalea speciosa (syn. Orbignya phalerata], which is an important tree in Northeast Brazil, affect the soil microbial biomass. We investigated the soil microbial biomass C and activity under AFS with different densities of babassu palm associated with Brachiaria brizantha grass. Soil microbial biomass C (MBC, soil microbial biomass N (MBN, MBC:total organic C ratio, fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis and dehydrogenase activity showed highest values in plots with high density of babassu palm. On the other hand, the respiratory quotient (qCO2 was significantly greater in plots without babassu palm. Brachiaria brizantha in monoculture may promote C losses from the soil, but AFS with high density of babassu palm may increase the potential of soils to accumulate C.Keywords: Enzyme activity, tropical soil, babassu palm, silvopastoral system, soil quality.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(341-48

  17. 33 CFR 165.530 - Safety Zone: Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear Rivers, NC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone: Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear Rivers, NC. 165.530 Section 165.530 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.530 Safety Zone: Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear Rivers, NC. (a) Location. The following area is...

  18. 33 CFR 110.70a - Northeast River, North East, Md.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast River, North East, Md. 110.70a Section 110.70a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.70a Northeast River, North East, Md. The water...

  19. New records of ribbon worms (Nemertea) from Ceará, Northeast Brazil.

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    Mendes, Cecili B; Matthews-Cascon, Helena; Norenburg, Jon L

    2016-01-05

    Of 45 species of nemerteans reported for the Brazilian coast, only two were recorded from Brazil's Northeast coast. Here we report seven new records for the state of Ceará, in Northeast Brazil: Tubulanus rhabdotus Côrrea, 1954, Carinomella cf. lactea Coe, 1905, Baseodiscus delineatus (Delle-Chiaje 1825), Cerebratulus cf. lineolatus Coe, 1905, Cerebratulus sp. 1, Cerebratulus sp. 2 and Lineidae sp. 1. Specimens were collected at the following beaches: Praia dos Dois Coqueiros, Praia do Pacheco, Pecém harbor, Praia da Pedra Rachada and Praia do Guajiru. T. rhabdotus is a new record for Northeast Brazil, Carinomella cf. lactea and Cerebratulus cf. lineolatus are new records for the South Atlantic Ocean and both genera are new records for Brazil.

  20. Parasites infecting the cultured oyster Crassostrea gasar (Adanson, 1757) in Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroga, Fernando Ramos; Vianna, Rogério Tubino; Vieira, Cairé Barreto; Farias, Natanael Dantas; Da Silva, Patricia Mirella

    2015-05-01

    The oyster Crassostrea gasar is a species widely used as food and a source of income for the local population of the estuaries of Northeast Brazil. Perkinsus marinus and Perkinsus olseni are deleterious parasites for oyster farming and were recently detected in Brazil. In this study, a histopathologic survey of the oyster C. gasar cultured in the estuary of the River Mamanguape (Paraíba State) was performed. Adult oysters were collected in December 2011 and March, May, August and October 2012 and processed for histology and Perkinsus sp. identification by molecular analyses. Histopathological analysis revealed the presence of parasitic organisms including viral gametocytic hypertrophy, prokaryote-like colonies, protozoans (Perkinsus sp. and Nematopsis sp.) and metazoans (Tylocephalum sp. and cestodes). Other commensal organisms were also detected (the protozoan Ancistrocoma sp. and the turbellarian Urastoma sp.). The protozoan parasite Perkinsus sp. had the highest overall prevalence among the symbiotic organisms studied (48.9%), followed by Nematopsis sp. (36.3%). The other organisms were only sporadically observed. Only the protozoan Perkinsus sp. caused alterations in the oysters' infected organs. Molecular analyses confirmed the presence of P. marinus, P. olseni and Perkinsus beihaiensis infecting the oyster C. gasar. This is the first report of P. beihaiensis in this oyster species.

  1. Physical properties of honeys produced in the Northeast of Brazil

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    Patricia Argemira Costa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the rheological, thermal and some other physical-chemical properties of selected honeys produced in the Northeast of Brazil. Two samples were produced by native “Jandaira” bees (Melipona subnitida and ten other samples by Africanized bees (Apis mellifera. The samples were analyzed for pH, water activity (aW, soluble solids and water content. Viscosity flow curves were obtained using a rheometer (25ºC, 0-100s-1. Thermal analyses were performed on a differential scanning calorimeter, with heating rate of 10ºC/min (-100 to 100ºC. The water content and the pH of the honey samples varied from 17.2 to 27.9% and from 3.2 to 4.2, respectively, and, the aW of the samples varied from 0.57 to 0.74. Two samples were out of specification with respect to water content, according to Brazilian laws. In relation to rheology, all honey samples showed Newtonian behaviour with no thixotropy or dilatancy. The viscosity varied as an exponential function of the water content. The highest viscosity was obtained for the sample with lower values of water content and aW. Thermograms showed a glass transition (Tg occurring between -52.4 and -42.6ºC, in the samples produced by Apis mellifera and -67.6 and -57.0ºC for the other samples. A linear relationship was obtained between Tg and water content. In conclusion, the honey viscosity depended on the water content of the product. The higher the water value and therefore the greater the aw, the lower viscosity and Tg of the samples.

  2. Understanding the predictability of seasonal precipitation over northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Vasubandhu

    2006-05-01

    Using multiple long-term simulations of the Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies (COLA) atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) forced with observed sea surface temperature (SST), it is shown that the model has high skill in simulating the February-March-April (FMA) rainy season over northeast Brazil (Nordeste). Separate sensitivity experiments conducted with the same model that entails suppression of all variability except for the climatological annual cycle in SST over the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans reveal that this skill over Nordeste is sensitive to SST anomalies in the tropical Atlantic Ocean. However, the spatial pattern of SST anomalies in the tropical Atlantic Ocean that correlate with FMA Nordeste rainfall are in fact a manifestation of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon in the Pacific Ocean. This study also analyzes the failure of the COLA AGCM in capturing the correct FMA precipitation anomalies over Nordeste in several years of the simulation. It is found that this failure occurs when the SST anomalies over the northern tropical Atlantic Ocean are large and not significantly correlated with contemporaneous SST anomalies over the eastern Pacific Ocean. In two of the relatively large ENSO years when the model failed to capture the correct signal of the interannual variability of precipitation over Nordeste, it was found that the meridional gradient of SST anomalies over the tropical Atlantic Ocean was inconsistent with the canonical development of ENSO. The analysis of the probabilistic skill of the model revealed that it has more skill in predicting flood years than drought. Furthermore, the model has no skill in predicting normal seasons. These model features are consistent with the model systematic errors.

  3. Imposex in endemic volutid from Northeast Brazil (Mollusca: Gastropoda

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    Ítalo Braga de Castro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Imposex is characterized by the development of masculine sexual organs in neogastropod females. Almost 120 mollusk species are known to present imposex when exposed to organic tin compounds as tributyltin (TBT and triphenyltin (TPT. These compounds are used as biocide agents in antifouling paints to prevent the incrustations on boats. Five gastropod species are known to present imposex in Brazil: Stramonita haemastoma, Stramonita rustica, Leucozonia nassa, Cymathium parthenopeum and Olivancillaria vesica. This paper reports the first record of imposex observed in the endemic gastropod Voluta ebraea from Pacheco Beach, Northeast Brazil. Animals presenting imposex had regular female reproductive organs (capsule gland, oviduct and sperm-ingesting gland and an abnormal penis. As imposex occurs in mollusks exposed to organotin compounds typically found at harbors, marinas, shipyards and areas with high shipping activities, probably contamination of Pacheco Beach is a consequence of a shipyard activity located in the nearest areas.O imposex caracteriza-se pelo surgimento de estruturas sexuais masculinas, em fêmeas de gastrópodes. Cerca de 120 espécies de moluscos que exibem o fenômeno quando expostas a contaminação por compostos orgânicos de estanho tais como o Tributilestanho (TBT e o Trifenilestanho (TPT. Esses compostos são utilizados, sobretudo em embarcações, no intuito de evitar a bioincrustração que danifica as embarcações e eleva os custos das viagens marítimas. No Brasil se conhecem 5 espécies de moluscos gastrópodes que manifestam imposex, são elas: Stramonita haemastoma, Stramonita rustica, Leucozonia nassa, Cymathium parthenopeum e Olivancillaria vesica. No Nordeste, monitoramentos da contaminação por organoestânicos foram realizados utilizando o imposex em gastrópodes como biomarcador. O presente estudo tem por objetivo notificar a primeira ocorrência de imposex na espécie endêmica do Nordeste brasileiro, Voluta

  4. Spatial distribution of fiddler crabs (Genus Uca in a tropical mangrove of northeast Brazil

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    Luis Ernesto Arruda Bezerra

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of abiotic factors on the spatial distribution of the fiddler crabs Uca leptodactyla, U. maracoani, U. rapax and U. thayeri was studied in a tropical mangrove of northeast Brazil. Eight transects were delimited in a mangrove area of the Pacoti River. On each transect, three 0.25 m2 squares were sampled during spring low tide periods from September 2003 to August 2004. The sediment of the squares at each transect was analysed for grain size, organic matter and humidity. Morphology of the second maxilliped was studied considering the number of spoon-tipped setae to help explain the ecological distribution of the species. U. leptodactyla and U. rapax were found living in medium sand, U. thayeri was collected in fine and very fine sand, while U. maracoani was found living in very fine sand. U. leptodactyla showed a negative correlation with organic matter and humidity while U. thayeri showed a positive correlations for both factors. U. maracoani and U. rapax were not correlated with organic matter or humidity. The analysis of the second maxilliped revealed that U. leptodactyla and U. rapax show a high quantity of spoon-tipped setae while U. maracoani and U. thayeri show a greater quantity of plumose setae.

  5. Change of "Habitus": The Young People and the Free Public University in Northeast of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeira de Melo, Patricia; Romani Campos, Luís Henrique; Zarias, Alexandre; Gonçalves Ferreira, Suzy Luna Nobre

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the results of the research "A interiorização recente das Instituições públicas e gratuitas de ensino superior no Nordeste: efeitos e mudanças" [The recent implementation of new federal universities in the Northeast of Brazil: effects and changes], performed by the Joaquim Nabuco Foundation. One of its main mottos is…

  6. Imported mineral coal: competitiveness for electric power generation in northeast of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codeceira Neto, A.; Ribeiro Filho, A.P.R.; Silva, S.P.R. da

    1993-01-01

    With the hydroelectric potential exhaustion of northeast and with the increase of costs to the use of hydroelectric uses available in Brazil, the thermoelectric generation will be able to become a competitive solution to attend the market of electric power. This work has as purpose describe the options of imported coal use to Brazilian northeast its technological aspects, the environmental question, and the preliminary studies of localization and the costs associated on implantation of coal thermoelectric power plants. 7 refs, 3 figs, 6 tabs

  7. Pythiosis in dogs in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil

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    Maria T.S. Frade

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: We describe the epidemiological, clinical and pathological features of five cases of pythiosis in dogs in northeast semiarid. The disease occurred in dogs with age between one and three years, females and males of different breeds. The dogs were created in urban areas, but were occasionally taken to the countryside and then had contact with wetlands. The main clinical signs were weight loss, vomiting, diarrhea and tenesmus. Macroscopically there were intestinal wall thickening with irregular firm masses with yellowish granular areas interspersed with a whitish tissue, involving the duodenum, colon and rectum, extending to the lymph nodes and pancreas, and the vagina and liver. In the skin there were areas of alopecia and irregular ulcerations, some containing small cavitations with serosanguineous secretion. Microscopically there were pyogranulomatous inflammation and in one case also there were eosinophilic necrosis associated with negative images tubuliformes by hematoxylin and eosin, strongly stained by GMS and weakly by PAS. Hyphae were strongly marked by immunohistochemistry with polyclonal anti-Pythium insidiosum. The disease occurs sporadically in dogs in the semiarid Northeast, however should be included in the differential diagnosis of chronic diseases and proliferative aspect of the gastrointestinal system, and front skin lesions of difficult treatment.

  8. Antioxidant Activity of a Geopropolis from Northeast Brazil: Chemical Characterization and Likely Botanical Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Joselena M.; Fernandes-Silva, Caroline C.; Salatino, Antonio; Message, Dejair; Negri, Giuseppina

    2017-01-01

    Geopropolis is a product containing wax, plant resin, and soil particles. It is elaborated by stingless bees of tribe Meliponini. Methanol extracts of sample of geopropolis produced by Scaptotrigona postica (“mandaguari”) in the state of Rio Grande do Norte (RN, northeast Brazil) were analyzed for the determination of standard parameters (total phenols, total flavonoids, and radical scavenging activity) and chemical characterization by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS analysis. The sample analyzed has high con...

  9. Ethnotaxonomical considerations and usage of ichthyofauna in a fishing community in Cear? State, Northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, M?rcia Freire; Mour?o, Jos? da Silva; Alves, R?mulo Romeu N?brega

    2013-01-01

    Background Artisanal fishery is one of the most important economic activities for human populations living in coastal areas. The traditional knowledge that fishermen have of fishes is of utmost importance for the establishment of conservation strategies for many species. This study aimed to analyse the knowledge of and utilization of fishes by the artisanal fishermen in a fishing community on the coast of Cear? State (Northeast Brazil). Methods In 2011, a number of semi-structured interviews ...

  10. Microbiological quality of drinking rainwater in the inland region of Pajeú, Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier, Rogério Pereira; Siqueira, Leonardo Pereira; Vital, Fernando Antonio Chaves; Rocha, Francisca Janaina Soares; Irmão, João Inácio; Calazans, Glícia Maria Torres

    2011-01-01

    Despite all efforts to store and reduce its consumption, water is becoming less inexhaustible and its quality is falling faster. Considering that water is essential to animal life, it is necessary to adopt measures to ensure its sanitary conditions in order to be fit for consumption. The aim of this study was to analyze the microbiological quality of drinking rainwater used by rural communities of Tuparetama, a small town located in Northeast Brazil. The study covered seven rural communities,...

  11. Interannual Rainfall Variability in North-East Brazil: Observation and Model Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harzallah, A.; Rocha de Aragão, J. O.; Sadourny, R.

    1996-08-01

    The relationship between interannual variability of rainfall in north-east Brazil and tropical sea-surface temperature is studied using observations and model simulations. The simulated precipitation is the average of seven independent realizations performed using the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique atmospheric general model forced by the 1970-1988 observed sea-surface temperature. The model reproduces very well the rainfall anomalies (correlation of 091 between observed and modelled anomalies). The study confirms that precipitation in north-east Brazil is highly correlated to the sea-surface temperature in the tropical Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Using the singular value decomposition method, we find that Nordeste rainfall is modulated by two independent oscillations, both governed by the Atlantic dipole, but one involving only the Pacific, the other one having a period of about 10 years. Correlations between precipitation in north-east Brazil during February-May and the sea-surface temperature 6 months earlier indicate that both modes are essential to estimate the quality of the rainy season.

  12. Perkinsus sp. infecting the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae from estuaries of the septentrional Northeast, Brazil

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    M. P. Dantas-Neto

    Full Text Available Abstract The mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae is an estuarine resource exploited by riverside communities in Northeast Brazil. Despite its socioeconomic importance, studies on the health status of this bivalve are scanty in this region. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the presence of the protozoan Perkinsus sp. in C. rhizophorae collected in August and September 2011 in three estuaries of the septentrional Northeast, Brazil: Jaguaribe (Ceará, Camurupim (Piauí and Carnaubeiras (Maranhão (n= 150 specimens/site. The samples were submitted to Ray’s fluid thioglycollate medium (RFTM, PCR and histology assays. The RFTM assay revealed spherical, blue or bluish-black hypnospores of the genus Perkinsus in 50 specimens (Jaguaribe= 17.3%, Camurupim= 5.3%, Carnaubeiras= 10.6%. The intensity of the infection ranged from very light (1-10 cells per slide to severe (more than 40 cells in each of 10 fields of the slide for Jaguaribe; very light for Camurupim and very light to moderate (at least 40 cells observed in each of 10 fields of the slide for Carnaubeiras. When submitted to confirmatory PCR analysis, 6 cases were confirmed (Jaguaribe=3, Camurupim=1, Carnaubeiras=2. The histology confirmed 21 cases of infection in specimens from the three estuaries. Although local collectors have reported no mortality in oyster populations that might be attributed to infection by Perkinsus, health surveillance of oyster populations in the septentrional region of Northeast Brazil is advisable.

  13. Forecasting Temporal Dynamics of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewnard, Joseph A.; Jirmanus, Lara; Júnior, Nivison Nery; Machado, Paulo R.; Glesby, Marshall J.; Ko, Albert I.; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Schriefer, Albert; Weinberger, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a vector-borne disease of increasing importance in northeastern Brazil. It is known that sandflies, which spread the causative parasites, have weather-dependent population dynamics. Routinely-gathered weather data may be useful for anticipating disease risk and planning interventions. Methodology/Principal Findings We fit time series models using meteorological covariates to predict CL cases in a rural region of Bahía, Brazil from 1994 to 2004. We used the models to forecast CL cases for the period 2005 to 2008. Models accounting for meteorological predictors reduced mean squared error in one, two, and three month-ahead forecasts by up to 16% relative to forecasts from a null model accounting only for temporal autocorrelation. Significance These outcomes suggest CL risk in northeastern Brazil might be partially dependent on weather. Responses to forecasted CL epidemics may include bolstering clinical capacity and disease surveillance in at-risk areas. Ecological mechanisms by which weather influences CL risk merit future research attention as public health intervention targets. PMID:25356734

  14. Hemoglobinopathies in newborns from Salvador, Bahia, Northeast Brazil

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    Adorno Elisângela Vitória

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobinopathies are hereditary disorders of the hemoglobin molecule with a high prevalence worldwide. Brazil has a prevalence of 0.1 to 0.3% of newborns with sickle cell anemia and 20.0 to 25.0% of heterozygous alpha2 thalassemia among African Brazilians. In the present study, we investigated the presence of variant hemoglobins and alpha2(3.7 Kb and alpha2(4.2 Kb thalassemia in newborns from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Samples of umbilical cord blood from a total of 590 newborns were analyzed, of which 57 (9.8% were FAS; 36 (6.5% FAC; one (0.2% SF; and five (0.9% FSC. One hundred fourteen (22.2% newborns had alpha2(3.7 Kb thalassemia, of whom 101 (19.7% were heterozygous and 13 (2.5% homozygous, showing statistical significance for hematological data between newborns with normal alpha genes and alpha2(3.7 Kb thalassemia carriers. The alpha2(4.2 Kb thalassemia was not found. Frequencies found in the present study confirm that hemoglobinopathies are a public health problem in Brazil, emphasizing the need for neonatal screening and genetic counseling programs.

  15. Food flora in 17th century Northeast region of Brazil in Historia Naturalis Brasiliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Maria Franco Trindade; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2014-06-25

    This article reports historical ethnobotany research conducted from a study of the work Historia Naturalis Brasiliae (Natural History of Brazil), authored by Piso and Marcgrave and published in 1648, with main focus on Caatinga of northeast region of Brazil. Focusing the content analysis on the section dedicated to plant species with multiple uses, Marcgrave's contribution to the aforementioned work, this research had the following objectives: the retrieval of 17th century knowledge about the food uses of the flora in the northeast region of Brazil, including the taxonomic classifications; the identification of plant parts, their modes of consumption and the ethnic group of consumers; and the verification of the use of these species over time. The use of 80 food species at the time of the publication of the work is indicated, some of which are endemic to the Caatinga, such as "umbu" (Spondias tuberosa Arruda), "mandacaru" (Cereus jamacaru DC.) and "carnauba" (Copernicia cerifera Mart.). It is noticeable that among the species listed by Marcgrave, some species still lack current studies indicating their real nutritional value. The present study is an unprecedented work because it introduces, in a systematic way, the food plants described in a study of 17th century Brazil. Finally, this study makes information about plants consumed in the past accessible, aiming to provide material for studies that could develop new food products today.

  16. Food flora in 17th century northeast region of Brazil in Historia Naturalis Brasiliae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background This article reports historical ethnobotany research conducted from a study of the work Historia Naturalis Brasiliae (Natural History of Brazil), authored by Piso and Marcgrave and published in 1648, with main focus on Caatinga of northeast region of Brazil. Methods Focusing the content analysis on the section dedicated to plant species with multiple uses, Marcgrave's contribution to the aforementioned work, this research had the following objectives: the retrieval of 17th century knowledge about the food uses of the flora in the northeast region of Brazil, including the taxonomic classifications; the identification of plant parts, their modes of consumption and the ethnic group of consumers; and the verification of the use of these species over time. Results The use of 80 food species at the time of the publication of the work is indicated, some of which are endemic to the Caatinga, such as “umbu” (Spondias tuberosa Arruda), “mandacaru” (Cereus jamacaru DC.) and “carnauba” (Copernicia cerifera Mart.). It is noticeable that among the species listed by Marcgrave, some species still lack current studies indicating their real nutritional value. The present study is an unprecedented work because it introduces, in a systematic way, the food plants described in a study of 17th century Brazil. Conclusions Finally, this study makes information about plants consumed in the past accessible, aiming to provide material for studies that could develop new food products today. PMID:24965737

  17. Deformations in structure of the scapolites from northeast, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouveia, A.H.C.; Villarroel, H.S.

    1979-01-01

    Scapolites are relatively common constituents of calcium-rich metamorphic rocks. They can be considered as members of the solid solution series marialite and meionite. Relationship between the optical properties, chemical composition and X-ray diffraction data shows that scapolites from northern Brazil are mizzonites and meionites. The structures of these minerals are compatible only with a primitive lattice. The d hkl peaks of natural scapolites are outside the range shown by the two pure end-members of the series, and the unit-cell dimensions increase with percentage of (K+SO 4 ). X-ray diffraction powder data for natural tetragonal and orthorhombic calcium-rich scapolites are detailed in five tables. (author) [pt

  18. Spatial evolution of phosphorus fractionation in the sediments of Rhumel River in the northeast Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Azzouz , Sarah; Chellat , Smaine; Boukhalfa , Chahrazed; Amrane , Abdeltif

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The objective of the present study is the characterization of the spatial evolution of phosphorus forms in sediments of Rhumel River located in northeast Algeria during winter conditions. Sediments samples were collected along the river in Constantine city during the year 2012. The samples were subjected to physicochemical characterization and metals analysis. Phosphorus was fractionated by sequential extractions procedure in exchangeable, oxyhydroxides bound; calcium ...

  19. [Access to medicines prescribed for acute health conditions in adults in South and Northeast Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniz, Vera Maria Vieira; Cechin, Isabel Carolina Coelho Flores; Fassa, Anaclaudia Gastal; Piccini, Roberto Xavier; Tomasi, Elaine; Thumé, Elaine; Silveira, Denise Silva da; Facchini, Luiz Augusto

    2016-01-01

    This was a cross-sectional study within Brazil's Project for the Expansion and Consolidation of Family Health, 2005, with the objective of universal and free access to the medication prescribed in the last medical appointment for acute health problems and to estimate the degree to which access may have improved with inclusion of the medicines in prevailing policies and programs. The sample included 4,060 adults living in the area of primary health care units in 41 municipalities in South and Northeast Brazil. Access was greater in the South (83.2%) than in the Northeast (71%), and free access was similar (37%), with a greater share by the Family Health Program (FHP) when compared to the traditional model, especially in the Northeast. Some 60% of prescribed medicines and 50% of those on the National List of Essential Medicines (RENAME) were paid for. No variation was observed in the proportion of medicines present on the prevailing RENAME list and access. However, 40% of the medicines that were paid for can currently be obtained through the Popular Pharmacy Program. The latter program appears to emerge as a new way to guarantee access to medicines prescribed in the health system.

  20. Assessment of water quality of Ogbese River in Ovia North-East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pollution of Ogbese River in Ovia North-East L.G.A. of Edo State, Nigeria was studied. Parameters like pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, colour, odour, chlorides, nitrates, phosphates and heavy metal ions such as lead, chromium, zinc etc, were analyzed. Also various techniques such as titrimetric methods, atomic ...

  1. An approach to the coastal water circulation in the Piratuba Lake Biological Reservation, Northeast of Amapa State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiyama, L. R.; Silveira, O. M.

    2007-05-01

    This study shows the pioneer results of the water quality characterization of a lake region, including the Piratuba lake (within the limits of the Piratuba Lake Biological Reservation) and the Sucuriju river, localized at the northeast portion of the Amapa State, Brazil, and left margin of the Amazon River mouth. Due to the influence of the Amazon river and another important river, the Araguari river, the northeast coast of Amapa State receive little impact of salty water from the Atlantic ocean. The highest salinity values detected on this coastal area is 20 psu. The Piratuba Lake region which can be described as an unique wetland system formed by recent geological processes (Quaternary), it constitutes a very fragile environment and possesses a number of shallow water lakes distributed into a mixed mangrove and "varzea" type of vegetation and it is considered very important looking at the biological point of view. The borderline between this lake system with the coastal waters is a narrow portion of mangrove containing species of Rizhophora and Avicennia parallel to the coast line. A preliminary water circulation could be accessed through the detection of variation in water quality parameters throughout three field studies conducted on March, 2004, June 2005 and November 2005. Surface water sampling points spatially distributed on the study area with distances less than 2 km were set, covering almost 800 square kilometers. Among the parameters studied (pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity, concentration of suspended solids, depth, temperature, chloride, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, nitrite and phosphate) the turbidity, electrical conductivity and pH were the most important for identifying the entering of coastal waters into the lake region. Mainly, three points of direct contact were identified; one of them is a manmade illegal entrance to the Biological Reservation. The seasonal variation was also very important factor and as expected, during the dry season

  2. Circulation and teleconnection mechanisms of Northeast Brazil droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastenrath, Stefan

    2006-08-01

    The Northern Nordeste of Brazil has its short rainy season narrowly concentrated around March-April, when the interhemispheric southward gradient of sea surface temperature (SST) is weakest and the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), which is the main rainbearing system for the Nordeste, reaches its southernmost position in the course of the year. The recurrent Secas (droughts) have a severe socio-economic impact in this semi-arid region. In drought years, the pre-season (October-January) rainfall is scarce, the interhemispheric SST gradient weakened and the basin-wide southerly (northerly) wind component enhanced (reduced), all manifestations of an anomalously far northward ITCZ position. Apart from this ensemble of Atlantic indicators, the Secas also tend to be preceded by anomalously warm equatorial Pacific waters in January. During El Niño years, an upper-tropospheric wave train extends from the equatorial eastern Pacific to the northern tropical Atlantic, affecting the patterns of upper-tropospheric topography and divergence, and hence of vertical motion over the Atlantic. The altered vertical motion leads to a weaker meridional pressure gradient on the equatorward flank of the North Atlantic subtropical high, and thus weaker North Atlantic tradewinds. The concomitant reduction of evaporation and wind stirring allows for warmer surface waters in the tropical North Atlantic and thus steeper interhemispheric meridional thermal gradient. Consequently, the ITCZ stays anomalously far North and the Nordeste rainy season becomes deficient.

  3. Floristic and phytosociology of weeds in pastures in Maranhão State, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaílson Penha Costa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Knowledge of weed floristic composition and phytosociology are key factors for improving weed management in pastures. Information on weed species that occur in pastures in Northeast Brazil, particularly in Maranhão State is very limited. It is, therefore, important, to search for information to help farmers to control weeds in livestock farming. This paper describes the weed flora diversity and community structure parameters, including density, frequency, abundance and importance value for each weed species found in five pastures of same age and management in Maranhão State, Northeast Brazil. The weed survey was carried out using a wooden frame (80 cm x 30 cm placed randomly on the soil surface 30 times in each pasture (n = 150. Weeds were pulled out, separated by species and counted. The weed flora was represented by 996 individuals, from nine families, 15 genera and 19 species. Weed density within pastures was of 44.3 plants m-2. The weed flora was dominated by species of the Cyperaceae and Poaceae families. The most important weed species based on Importance Value were Eragrostis ciliaris (IV = 32.97, Cyperus rotundus (IV = 31,95, Cyperus luzulae (IV = 27,50, Cyperus sphacelatus (IV = 27,42, Pycreus lanceolatus (IV = 27,33 Cyperus haspan (IV = 25,72 and Eleusine indica (IV = 23,49. Weed diversity, based on Shannon Diversity Index was very high (H' = 4.37 nats ind-1. Our results could lead to improved weed management in pastures in Maranhão State, Northeast Brazil.

  4. A new species of Nassarius (Gastropoda, Nassariidae from Canopus Bank, off Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Abbate

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nassarius levis sp. nov. is described from Canopus Bank, off Ceará, Northeast Brazil, based on shell morphology. It differs from other Brazilian species of the genus in having a more elongate shell, with a weakly developed parietal shield and a notably smooth surface. This last trait has not yet been described among the Western Atlantic Nassarius, but it is common to other congeners from the Eastern Atlantic, such as Nassarius elatus (Gould, 1845 and the Indo-Pacific, such as Nassarius excellens (Kuroda & Habe, 1961.

  5. Synopsis of the plants known as medicinal and poisonous in Northeast of Brazil

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    Maria de Fátima Agra

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is a survey of the species of plants and their alleged therapeutic uses which are utilized in Northeast region of Brazil. The area of this study is well known for its rich diversity of species of plants and habitats, which range from rainforest, atlantic forest, coastal dunes systems and mangroves, to dry forests and savannas. A total of 483 species belonging to 79 families along with their ethnomedicinal information have been recorded. This study aims at emphasizing the greatest importance of investigating those species of plants which have not been the subject of any pharmacological study, although their popular uses have been reported.

  6. ["Prisms of Perception": multiple readings of mass media health messages in Northeast Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diógenes, Kátia Castelo Branco Machado; Nations, Marilyn

    2011-12-01

    This anthropological study from February 2009 to November 2010 revealed the comprehension and cultural critique of three mass media health campaigns in Northeast Brazil. Twenty-four ethnographic interviews were conducted, exploring the iconographic and semantic content of the campaigns in the Dendê community in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil. The authors used Content Analysis; Systems of Signs, Significance, and Actions; and Contextualized Semantic Interpretation. There is a gap between the elaboration and reception of messages. Multiple interpretations occur (proximal reading, kaleidoscope of comprehension, and distant reading), depending on the reader's cognitive proximity to (or detachment from) the message. This "perceptual plasticity" arises from the creativity of popular imagination. Health professionals who hear rather than dismiss the "recipient's" subjective voice, which re-signifies authoritative messages, can penetrate the perception of the recipient's "visual world". In the context of poverty, this re-framing is essential for people to comprehend and proactively defend their own health.

  7. Characterization of biomasses from the north and northeast regions of Brazil for processes in biorefineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magale Karine Diel RAMBO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn search for renewable energy sources, the Brazilian residual biomasses stand out due to their favorable physical and chemical properties, low cost, and their being less pollutant. Therefore, they are likely to be used in biorefineries in the production of chemical inputs to substitute fossil fuels. This substitution is possible due to the high contents of carbohydrates (>40%, low contents of extractives (<20%, ashes (<8% and moisture (<8% found in these residual biomasses. High calorific values of all residues also offer them the chance to be used in combustion. A principal components analysis (PCA was performed for better understanding of the samples and their hysic-chemical properties. Thus, this study aimed to characterize biomasses from the north (babassu residues, such as mesocarp and endocarp; pequi and Brazil nut and northeast (agave and coconut regions of Brazil, in order to contribute to the preservation of the environment and strengthen the economy of the region.

  8. Twelve years of coccidioidomycosis in Ceará State, Northeast Brazil: epidemiologic and diagnostic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Bandeira, Silviane Praciano; Fechine, Maria Auxiliadora Bezerra; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa

    2010-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is an endemic infection in the Americas caused by the dimorphic fungi Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii. Although the disease occurs in Brazil in sporadic form, little information about these cases is available. In this study, we summarize the most important clinical, epidemiologic, and diagnostic features of coccidioidomycosis in Ceará State (Northeast Brazil) during the past 12 years. In this period, 19 cases of coccidioidomycosis were diagnosed. All the patients were young males and came from semiarid areas of the state. The majority of cases were associated to armadillo hunting, and pulmonary disease was the most common clinical presentation. In our laboratory, coccidioidomycosis was confirmed by culture, serology, and polymerase chain reaction tests, which together were very suitable for the diagnosis of this disease. Based on our local experience, we believe many cases of this disease are misdiagnosed or not diagnosed in our region. Therefore, some strategies for improvement of diagnosis should be encouraged by local authorities.

  9. Phylogeographic implications for release of critically endangered manatee calves rescued in Northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Fábia O.; Bonde, Robert K.; Attademo, Fernanda L.N.; Saunders, Jonathan W.; Meigs-Friend, Gaia; Passavante, José Zanon O.; Hunter, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    1. The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus), a subspecies of the West Indian manatee, is a large-bodied marine mammal found in fresh, brackish, and marine habitats throughout the Caribbean Islands and Central and South America. Antillean manatees in Brazil are classified as critically endangered, with a census size of approximately 500 individuals. The population in the Northeast region of Brazil is suspected to have approximately 300 manatees and is threatened by habitat alteration and incidental entanglement in fishing gear. 2. A high incidence of dependent calf strandings have been identified near areas of altered critical manatee habitat. The majority of the calves are neonates, discovered alive, with no potential mothers nearby. These calves typically require human intervention to survive.

  10. [Personal experiences with induced abortions in private clinics in Northeast Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Paloma; McCallum, Cecilia; Menezes, Greice

    2016-02-01

    Based on a qualitative study conducted in 2012, the article analyzes middle-class individuals' experiences with induced abortions performed in private clinics. Thirty-four stories of induced abortions were narrated by 19 women and five men living in two state capitals in Northeast Brazil. Thematic analysis revealed differences in types of clinics and care provided by the physicians. The article shows that abortion in private clinics fails to guarantee safe or humane care. The narratives furnish descriptions of diverse situations and practices, ranging from flaws such as lack of information on medicines to others involving severe abuses like procedures performed without anesthesia. The article concludes that criminalization of abortion in Brazil allows clinics to operate with no state regulation; it does not prevent women from having abortions, but exposes them to total vulnerability and violation of human rights.

  11. Soil bacterial diversity in degraded and restored lands of Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Ademir Sérgio Ferreira; Borges, Clovis Daniel; Tsai, Siu Mui; Cesarz, Simone; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2014-11-01

    Land degradation deteriorates biological productivity and affects environmental, social, and economic sustainability, particularly so in the semi-arid region of Northeast Brazil. Although some studies exist reporting gross measures of soil microbial parameters and processes, limited information is available on how land degradation and restoration strategies influence the diversity and composition of soil microbial communities. In this study we compare the structure and diversity of bacterial communities in degraded and restored lands in Northeast Brazil and determine the soil biological and chemical properties influencing bacterial communities. We found that land degradation decreased the diversity of soil bacteria as indicated by both reduced operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness and Shannon index. Soils under native vegetation and restoration had significantly higher bacterial richness and diversity than degraded soils. Redundancy analysis revealed that low soil bacterial diversity correlated with a high respiratory quotient, indicating stressed microbial communities. By contrast, soil bacterial communities in restored land positively correlated with high soil P levels. Importantly, however, we found significant differences in the soil bacterial community composition under native vegetation and in restored land, which may indicate differences in their functioning despite equal levels of bacterial diversity.

  12. Determination of thermotolerant coliforms present in coconut water produced and bottled in the Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandbergue Santos Pereira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Coconut water is considered to be a natural isotonic drink and its marketing is gradually increasing. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of the coconut water produced and bottled in the Northeast of Brazil. Products form ten industries from different states in the Northeast of Brazil were analyzed. The most probable number (MPN method was used to quantify the coliforms. Samples showing positive for coliforms were seeded on ChromAgar Orient plates and the bacteria identified from isolated colonies using the automated system Vitek 2 (BioMérieux, according to the manufacturer's instructions for the preparation of the inoculum, incubation, reading and interpretation. The samples showed thermotolerant coliform counts between 6.0×102 and 2.6×104 MPN/100 mL. The presence of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Morganella morganii and Providencia alcalifaciens was observed. The implementation of preventive methods and monitoring of the water quality by the industries is required.

  13. In vitro activities of caspofungin, amphotericin B and azoles against Coccidioides posadasii strains from Northeast, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, R A; Brilhante, R S N; Rocha, M F G; Fechine, M A B; Costa, A K F; Camargo, Z P; Sidrim, J J C

    2006-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is a systemic infection caused by the soil-dwelling dimorphic fungi Coccidioides spp. The disease is endemic in semiarid Northeast Brazil, where it is caused by C. posadasii. The aim of this study was to perform antifungal susceptibility tests of clinical and environmental strains of C. posadasii from Northeast Brazil. The in vitro activities of caspofungin, amphotericin B and azoles against clinical and environment isolates of C. posadasii were determined in accordance with the NCLLS M-38P macrodilution method. The antifungal susceptibility analysis showed that all the strains of C. posadasii (n = 10) were sensitive to caspofungin (16 microg/ml < or = MIC < or = 32 microg/ml), amphotericin B (0.0625 mug/ml < or = MIC < or = 0.125 microg/ml), ketoconazole (0.039 microg/ml < or = MIC < or = 0.156 microg/ml), itraconazole (0.125 microg/ml < or = MIC < or = 0.5 microg/ml), fluconazole (3.125 microg/ml < or = MIC < or = 6.25 microg/ml), and voriconazole (0.125 microg/ml). This study is the first description of in vitro antifungal susceptibility pattern of Brazilian strains of C. posadasii.

  14. Flood of May 23, 2004, in the Turkey and Maquoketa River basins, northeast Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eash, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Severe flooding occurred on May 23, 2004, in the Turkey River Basin in Clayton County and in the Maquoketa River Basin in Delaware County following intense thunderstorms over northeast Iowa. Rain gages at Postville and Waucoma, Iowa, recorded 72-hour rainfall of 6.32 and 6.55 inches, respectively, on May 23. Unofficial rainfall totals of 8 to 10 inches were reported in the Turkey River Basin. The peak discharge on May 23 at the Turkey River at Garber streamflow-gaging station was 66,700 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval greater than 500 years) and is the largest flood on record in the Turkey River Basin. The timing of flood crests on the Turkey and Volga Rivers, and local tributaries, coincided to produce a record flood on the lower part of the Turkey River. Three large floods have occurred at the Turkey River at Garber gaging station in a 13-year period. Peak discharges of the floods of June 1991 and May 1999 were 49,900 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 150 years) and 53,900 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 220 years), respectively. The peak discharge on May 23 at the Maquoketa River at Manchester gaging station was 26,000 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 100 years) and is the largest known flood in the upper part of the Maquoketa River Basin.

  15. Y Chromosome analysis of prehistoric human populations in the West Liao River Valley, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yinqiu; Li, Hongjie; Ning, Chao; Zhang, Ye; Chen, Lu; Zhao, Xin; Hagelberg, Erika; Zhou, Hui

    2013-09-30

    The West Liao River valley in Northeast China is an ecologically diverse region, populated in prehistory by human populations with a wide range of cultures and modes of subsistence. To help understand the human evolutionary history of this region, we performed Y chromosome analyses on ancient human remains from archaeological sites ranging in age from 6500 to 2700 BP. 47 of the 70 individuals provided reproducible results. They were assigned into five different Y sub-haplogroups using diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphisms, namely N1 (xN1a, N1c), N1c, C/C3e, O3a (O3a3) and O3a3c. We also used 17 Y short tandem repeat loci in the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome. There appears to be significant genetic differences between populations of the West Liao River valley and adjacent cultural complexes in the prehistoric period, and these prehistoric populations were shown to carry similar haplotypes as present-day Northeast Asians, but at markedly different frequencies. Our results suggest that the prehistoric cultural transitions were associated with immigration from the Yellow River valley and the northern steppe into the West Liao River valley. They reveal the temporal continuity of Y chromosome lineages in populations of the West Liao River valley over 5000 years, with a concurrent increase in lineage diversity caused by an influx of immigrants from other populations.

  16. Water budget of a dam in the semi-arid northeast of Brazil based on oxygen-18 and chlorine contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolf, R.; Salati, E.; Menezes Leal, J. de; Fritz, P.

    1979-01-01

    The water balance of an artificial reservoir in the northeast of Brazil is derived by using the variations of oxygen isotopes and chlorine contents. With these two methods, the water losses through subsurface outflow are estimated at 20-40%. A more accurate evaluation would require an investigation of the variability of the relative humidity of the atmosphere. (author)

  17. Magnetotelluric and aeromagnetic investigations for assessment of groundwater resources in Parnaiba basin in Piaui State of North-East Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, E.; Fontes, Sergio L.; Flexor, Jean M.; Rajaram, Mita; Anand, S. P.

    2009-06-01

    In an attempt to locate the presence of possible groundwater resource regions in the semi-arid North-East Brazil, an integrated survey including aeromagnetic and magnetotelluric (MT) studies have been undertaken in the Guaribas region and only MT survey in the Caracol region. In the Guaribas region the aeromagnetic data, its analytic signal and Euler solutions reveal several subsurface small-scale faults and intrusives that are conducive to be potential groundwater resource regions. A total of about 22 broad-band magnetotelluric (MT) soundings in the period range of 0.006-300 s along two profiles on the marginal arcs of the intra-cratonic sedimentary Parnaíba basin in North-East Brazil have been made across the regional geological strike, the Senador Pompeu Lineament (SPL). SPL trends N40°E and marks a basement high reflecting an irregularity in the original basin geometry. While one of the MT profiles traverses across the SPL, the other lies only in the aeromagnetically surveyed sedimentary region. Two-dimensional inversion of MT data of both profiles shows that the sedimentary basin is conductive (100-150 Ω m) and shows as a thin graben with an average thickness of about 2-3 km beneath both profiles. The basin is located to be at shallow depths (from surface to about 500 m). Based on the facts that the study region falls on sedimentary region having low-to-very low permeability and also in accordance with the subsurface lithology around the study region, the mapped sedimentary basin largely manifests the zone of potential sedimentary aquifer having moderate resistivity of 50-250 Ω m and is located at relatively shallow depths. The identified aquifer zone is believed to have links with the Parnaiba River flowing at a distance of about 300 km NW from the study region. We discuss interpretation of our results of MT and aeromagnetic data sets in the light of hydrological features of the study region.

  18. Ecotoxicological water assessment of an estuarine river from the Brazilian Northeast, potentially affected by industrial wastewater discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo Gurgel, Piatã; Navoni, Julio Alejandro; de Morais Ferreira, Douglisnilson; do Amaral, Viviane Souza

    2016-12-01

    Water pollution generated by industrial effluents discharge is a threat to the maintenance of aquatic ecosystems and human development. The Jundiai River estuarine, located in Northeast Brazil, receives an industrial pretreated effluent load from the city of Macaíba/RN/Brazil. The present study aimed to assess the water quality of this water reservoir through i) physicochemical characterization, ii) quantification of metal concentration and iii) by an ecotoxicological assessment carried out using Mysidopsis juniae and Pomacea lineata. The study was performed throughout the period comprising May to September 2014. Physicochemical variables such as chloride, total solids and electrical conductivity presented values in the waste discharge point, significantly different with those located out of the waste releasing point. Apart from that, metal concentration showed variable behavior throughout the monitored period. Levels of Al, Fe, Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Ag were over the considered guidelines. Both natural and anthropogenic sources seem to be involved in the resulting environmental scenario. A reduction in the fecundity rate (using Mysidopsis juniae) along with an increase in mortality rate (in both species) was observed ratifying the presence of toxic substances in this water reservoir. Moreover, a correlation analysis stated an association of the aforementioned toxicological effects with the delivery of industrial waste products. The ecotoxicological assessment performed highlighted the presence of toxic substance/s in water from the Jundiai River. Especially as a consequence of industrial activity, a fact that might threaten the bioma and, therefore, the human health of the population settled in the studied region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Floods of July 23-26, 2010, in the Little Maquoketa River and Maquoketa River Basins, Northeast Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eash, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Minor flooding occurred July 23, 2010, in the Little Maquoketa River Basin and major flooding occurred July 23–26, 2010, in the Maquoketa River Basin in northeast Iowa following severe thunderstorm activity over the region during July 22–24. A breach of the Lake Delhi Dam on July 24 aggravated flooding on the Maquoketa River. Rain gages at Manchester and Strawberry Point, Iowa, recorded 72-hour-rainfall amounts of 7.33 and 12.23 inches, respectively, on July 24. The majority of the rainfall occurred during a 48-hour period. Within the Little Maquoketa River Basin, a peak-discharge estimate of 19,000 cubic feet per second (annual flood-probability estimate of 4 to 10 percent) at the discontinued 05414500 Little Maquoketa River near Durango, Iowa streamgage on July 23 is the sixth largest flood on record. Within the Maquoketa River Basin, peak discharges of 26,600 cubic feet per second (annual flood-probability estimate of 0.2 to 1 percent) at the 05416900 Maquoketa River at Manchester, Iowa streamgage on July 24, and of 25,000 cubic feet per second (annual flood-probability estimate of 1 to 2 percent) at the 05418400 North Fork Maquoketa River near Fulton, Iowa streamgage on July 24 are the largest floods on record for these sites. A peak discharge affected by the Lake Delhi Dam breach on July 24 at the 05418500 Maquoketa River near Maquoketa, Iowa streamgage, located downstream of Lake Delhi, of 46,000 cubic feet per second on July 26 is the third highest on record. High-water marks were measured at five locations along the Little Maquoketa and North Fork Little Maquoketa Rivers between U.S. Highway 52 near Dubuque and County Road Y21 near Rickardsville, a distance of 19 river miles. Highwater marks were measured at 28 locations along the Maquoketa River between U.S. Highway 52 near Green Island and State Highway 187 near Arlington, a distance of 142 river miles. High-water marks were measured at 13 locations along the North Fork Maquoketa River between

  20. Characterization and genesis of waterfalls of the Presidente Figueiredo region, Northeast State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    AFONSO C. R. NOGUEIRA

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The waterfalls of the Presidente Figueiredo municipality represent a fascinating natural scenery of northeast state of Amazonas, northern Brazil. The falls, generally less than 10m high, are developed on siliciclastic rocks of the Nhamundá (Lower Silurian, and Manacapuru (Upper Silurian - Lower Devonian formations. Morphological and structural analyses of these features indicate that most of them originated through Quaternary neotectonics and are installed in NE-trending normal fault escarpments. Waterfalls also developed within pseudokarstic features, but are less frequent. The origin of the Presidente Figueiredo waterfalls probably goes back to the Neogene, when the region was submitted to laterization processes associated with a humid climate and a dense rainforest. These conditions favored the development of caves in quartzarenites of the Nhamundá Formation. During the Quaternary, the region was subjected to NE-trending normal faulting which displaced laterite layers, rivers and streams giving rise to waterfalls. These climatic and tectonic phenomena promoted intense relief dissection, as indicated by fault escarpment retreat and cave dismantlement, responsible for the present-day morphologic configuration.As cachoeiras da região de Presidente Figueiredo constituem um dos mais fascinantes cenários naturais do nordeste do Estado do Amazonas, norte do Brasil. As quedas, geralmente com menos de 10m de altura, são desenvolvidas em rochas siliciclásticas das formações Nhamundá (Siluriano inferior e Manacapuru (Siluriano superior-Devoniano inferior. Os estudos morfológico e estrutural dessas feições indicam que a maioria dessas quedas de água originaram-se por neotectônica quaternária e encontram-se instaladas em escarpas de falhas normais NE-SW. Ocorrem, ainda, com menor freqüência, cachoeiras evoluídas a partir de feições pseudocársticas. A origem das cachoeiras de Presidente Figueiredo provavelmente remonta ao Ne

  1. Antimicrobial activity of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. from Northeast Brazil against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus

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    Itácio Q. M. Padilha

    Full Text Available Mimosa tenuiflora is a native plant of Northeast Brazil where it is popularly known as ''jurema-preta'' and it is widely used in folk medicine. In this work the anti-Staphylococcus aureus activity of ethanol extract of M tenuiflora was evaluated by determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of clinical isolates by the agar dilution method, and by time-kill assay using a reference strain. MIC values against 30 isolates were 0,18 mg/mL (16/30 or 0,36 mg/mL (14/30, and also the reference strain. In the reference strains, at concentrations up to 4x MIC, only bacteriostatic effect was observed, but at 8x MIC a fast bactericidal effect was observed.

  2. Large-scale circulation departures related to wet episodes in north-east Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikdar, Dhirendra N.; Elsner, James B.

    1987-01-01

    Large scale circulation features are presented as related to wet spells over northeast Brazil (Nordeste) during the rainy season (March and April) of 1979. The rainy season is divided into dry and wet periods; the FGGE and geostationary satellite data was averaged; and mean and departure fields of basic variables and cloudiness were studied. Analysis of seasonal mean circulation features show: lowest sea level easterlies beneath upper level westerlies; weak meridional winds; high relative humidity over the Amazon basin and relatively dry conditions over the South Atlantic Ocean. A fluctuation was found in the large scale circulation features on time scales of a few weeks or so over Nordeste and the South Atlantic sector. Even the subtropical High SLPs have large departures during wet episodes, implying a short period oscillation in the Southern Hemisphere Hadley circulation.

  3. Large-scale circulation departures related to wet episodes in northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikdar, D. N.; Elsner, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    Large scale circulation features are presented as related to wet spells over northeast Brazil (Nordeste) during the rainy season (March and April) of 1979. The rainy season season is devided into dry and wet periods, the FGGE and geostationary satellite data was averaged and mean and departure fields of basic variables and cloudiness were studied. Analysis of seasonal mean circulation features show: lowest sea level easterlies beneath upper level westerlies; weak meridional winds; high relative humidity over the Amazon basin and relatively dry conditions over the South Atlantic Ocean. A fluctuation was found in the large scale circulation features on time scales of a few weeks or so over Nordeste and the South Atlantic sector. Even the subtropical High SLP's have large departures during wet episodes, implying a short period oscillation in the Southern Hemisphere Hadley circulation.

  4. Large-scale hydrological modelling in the semi-arid north-east of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guentner, A

    2002-09-01

    Semi-arid areas are characterized by small water resources. An increasing water demand due to population growth and economic development as well as a possible decreasing water availability in the course of climate change may aggravate water scarcity in future in these areas. The quantitative assessment of the water resources is a prerequisite for the development of sustainable measures of water management. For this task, hydrological models within a dynamic integrated framework are indispensable tools. The main objective of this study is to develop a hydrological model for the quantification of water availability over a large geographic domain of semi-arid environments. The study area is the Federal State of Ceara in the semi-arid north-east of Brazil. Surface water from reservoirs provides the largest part of water supply. The area has recurrently been affected by droughts which caused serious economic losses and social impacts like migration from the rural regions. (orig.)

  5. Agaricomycetes in low land and montane Atlantic Rain Forest in Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Gibertoni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Rain Forest represents a group of extra-amazonic forests, among which the coastal and montane (“brejos de altitude” are the most common in Northeast Brazil. Between 2011 and 2013, 110 field trips were performed in nine reserves in the domain of the Atlantic Rain Forest. Two thousand two hundred sixty three Agaricomycetes were collected and represented 271 species, among which several new species to science, new occurrences to the continent, country, region, biome and States were found. Besides recently collected material, 309 exsiccates of Agaricomycetes deposited in the Herbarium URM were revised and represented 38 species, among which several new occurrences to the region and States. The results indicate the importance of the constant inventories and also of revisions of material deposited in herbaria as tools to improve the knowledge about the Brazilian micota.

  6. The influence of oceanic basins on drought and ecosystem dynamics in Northeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Marcos Paulo Santos; Justino, Flavio; Malhado, Ana Claudia Mendes; Barbosa, Humberto; Marengo, José

    2014-01-01

    The 2012 drought in Northeast Brazil was the harshest in decades, with potentially significant impacts on the vegetation of the unique semi-arid caatinga biome and on local livelihoods. Here, we use a coupled climate–vegetation model (CCM3-IBIS) to: (1) investigate the role of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans in the 2012 drought, and; (2) evaluate the response of the caatinga vegetation to the 2012 climate extreme. Our results indicate that anomalous sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Atlantic Ocean were the primary factor forcing the 2012 drought, with Pacific Ocean SST having a larger role in sustaining typical climatic conditions in the region. The drought strongly influenced net primary production in the caatinga, causing a reduction in annual net ecosystem exchange indicating a reduction in amount of CO 2 released to the atmosphere. (letter)

  7. Microbiological quality of drinking rainwater in the inland region of Pajeú, Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Rogério Pereira; Siqueira, Leonardo Pereira; Vital, Fernando Antonio Chaves; Rocha, Francisca Janaina Soares; Irmão, João Inácio; Calazans, Glícia Maria Torres

    2011-01-01

    Despite all efforts to store and reduce its consumption, water is becoming less inexhaustible and its quality is falling faster. Considering that water is essential to animal life, it is necessary to adopt measures to ensure its sanitary conditions in order to be fit for consumption. The aim of this study was to analyze the microbiological quality of drinking rainwater used by rural communities of Tuparetama, a small town located in Northeast Brazil. The study covered seven rural communities, totaling 66 households. In each household two samples were collected, one from a tank and the other from a clay pot located inside the home, resulting in 132 samples (tank plus clay pot). Approximately 90% of samples were below the standard recommended by the current legislation, being considered unfit for human consumption. Part of this high microbiological contamination of drinking rainwater could be related to the lack of sanitary education and of an adequate sewerage sanitation system.

  8. Zygomycetes from herbivore dung in the ecological reserve of Dois Irmãos, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Cabral Monteiro de Azevedo Santiago

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-eight taxa of Zygomycetes distributed in 15 genera were recorded from tapir (Tapirus terrestris, camel (Camelus bactrianus, horse (Equus caballus, deer (Cervus elaphus, agouti (Dasyprocta aguti, donkey (Equus asinus, llama (Llama glama and waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus dung collected at the Reserva Ecológica de Dois Irmãos located in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. The samples were collected on a monthly basis from June 2005 to May 2006, taken to the laboratory and incubated in moist chambers. Higher number of taxa was observed in the excrements of tapir, followed by deer and donkey. The highest number of species was detected for Mucor, followed by Pilobolus. Statistical analyses showed significant differences in richness of Zygomycetes taxa between the herbivore dung types. Differences of species composition, however, were weak. Seasonality influenced the Zygomycetes species composition but not its richness. Variations in taxa composition between ruminants and non-ruminants dung were non significant.

  9. Zygomycetes From Herbivore Dung in the Ecological Reserve of Dois IrmÃOs, Northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo Santiago, André Luiz Cabral Monteiro; Botelho Trufem, Sandra Farto; Malosso, Elaine; dos Santos, Paulo Jorge Parreira; de Queiroz Cavalcanti, Maria Auxiliadora

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-eight taxa of Zygomycetes distributed in 15 genera were recorded from tapir (Tapirus terrestris), camel (Camelus bactrianus), horse (Equus caballus), deer (Cervus elaphus), agouti (Dasyprocta aguti), donkey (Equus asinus), llama (Llama glama) and waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus) dung collected at the Reserva Ecológica de Dois Irmãos located in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. The samples were collected on a monthly basis from June 2005 to May 2006, taken to the laboratory and incubated in moist chambers. Higher number of taxa was observed in the excrements of tapir, followed by deer and donkey. The highest number of species was detected for Mucor, followed by Pilobolus. Statistical analyses showed significant differences in richness of Zygomycetes taxa between the herbivore dung types. Differences of species composition, however, were weak. Seasonality influenced the Zygomycetes species composition but not its richness. Variations in taxa composition between ruminants and non-ruminants dung were non significant. PMID:24031609

  10. Survey of medicinal plants used in the region Northeast of Brazil

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    Maria de Fátima Agra

    Full Text Available This work has the objective a survey of the species of plants and their uses as medicinal, which are utilized for therapeutic purposes in Northeast region of Brazil. The area of study is recognized by a rich diversity of species of plants and habitats that ranges from Rainforest, Atlantic Forest, coastal dunes systems and mangroves, to dry forests and savannas. As results, a total of 650 species belonging to 407 genera and 111 families were recorded and also their ethnomedicinal information. The floristic diversity is dominated by higher plants and only five species belonging to the families Aspleniaceae, Cyatheaceae, Equisetaceae, Polypodiaceae and Selaginellaceae were reported belonging to the Ferns group, which correspond to less than 1 % of the total of the registered species. This study aims at emphasizing the greatest importance of investigation of those species that have not been subject of pharmacological study, although their popular uses have already been reported.

  11. Vascular flora of an inselberg in the state of Paraíba, in Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Emília Augusta Dantas Tölke

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study characterized the floristic composition of an inselberg in the Puxinanã municipality, of Paraíba, in Northeast Brazil. Ninety-seven species were recorded that belong to 35 families: Asteraceae (12 spp., Euphorbiaceae and Fabaceae (nine spp. each, Rubiaceae and Convolvulaceae (eight spp. each were the richest families, comprising 47.42% of the total species registered. The herbaceous habit was predominant, occurring in 39% of the species, followed by species of shrubs (22%, vines (20%, rupicolous plants (6%, subshrubs (5%, trees (4% and epiphytes (1%. Passiflora luetzelburgii Harms (Passifloraceae is a new record for the flora of the state. The data from this study provides information that could be used in the conservation and rational use of the study area, and contributes to what is known about the flora and vegetation of the Caatinga.

  12. Spatial distribution of epibenthic molluscs on a sandstone reef in the Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AS. Martinez

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the distribution and abundance of epibenthic molluscs and their feeding habits associated to substrate features (coverage and rugosity in a sandstone reef system in the Northeast of Brazil. Rugosity, low coral cover and high coverage of zoanthids and fleshy alga were the variables that influenced a low richness and high abundance of a few molluscan species in the reef habitat. The most abundant species were generalist carnivores, probably associated to a lesser offer and variability of resources in this type of reef system, when compared to the coral reefs. The results found in this study could reflect a normal characteristic of the molluscan community distribution in sandstone reefs, with low coral cover, or could indicate a degradation state of this habitat if it is compared to coral reefs, once that the significantly high coverage of fleshy alga has been recognized as a negative indicator of reef ecosystems health.

  13. Spatial distribution of epibenthic molluscs on a sandstone reef in the Northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, A S; Mendes, L F; Leite, T S

    2012-05-01

    The present study investigated the distribution and abundance of epibenthic molluscs and their feeding habits associated to substrate features (coverage and rugosity) in a sandstone reef system in the Northeast of Brazil. Rugosity, low coral cover and high coverage of zoanthids and fleshy alga were the variables that influenced a low richness and high abundance of a few molluscan species in the reef habitat. The most abundant species were generalist carnivores, probably associated to a lesser offer and variability of resources in this type of reef system, when compared to the coral reefs. The results found in this study could reflect a normal characteristic of the molluscan community distribution in sandstone reefs, with low coral cover, or could indicate a degradation state of this habitat if it is compared to coral reefs, once that the significantly high coverage of fleshy alga has been recognized as a negative indicator of reef ecosystems health.

  14. Phenotypic characterization and ecological features of Coccidioides spp. from Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, R A; Brilhante, R S N; Rocha, M F G; Fechine, M A B; Camara, L M C; Camargo, Z P; Sidrim, J J C

    2006-11-01

    This study extends phenotypic and ecological knowledge of Coccidioides spp., by describing its recovery from soils of Ceará State (Northeast Brazil) and analyzing the in vitro features of the growth of its vegetative phase. Following a human coccidioidomycosis case, Coccidioides spp. strains were isolated from 3 of 14 soil samples collected in an armadillo's burrow. Mycological analysis showed colonies with glabrous, velvety or cottony texture and an increasing quantity of arthroconidia. The overall growth rates of the strains were slower in 8% NaCl medium, maximum growth rate was obtained at 30 degrees C, and their pH tolerance ranged from 4.0 to 11.0. Several carbohydrates and polyalcohol sources could be efficiently metabolized by Coccidioides spp. strains in the mycelial form. Total absence of growth was observed in media supplemented with either L-aspartic acid or L-histidine. Whereas intense growth was found when strains were incubated with any other aminoacid sources studied. Coccidioides spp. strains did not grow in the presence of Tween 60 and Tween 80, but exhibited intense growth in Tween 20. Nicotinic acid and the toxic compounds caffeic acid and phenol could not be metabolized by any strain. All of the strains were positive for urease production and displayed intense growth in media containing cycloheximide concentrations ranging from 0.01 and 0.05%, but did not grow at 0.1 and 0.2%. The present findings confirm the importance of armadillos burrows in the ecology of Coccidioides spp. in Northeast Brazil and indicate that the fungus is a very physiologically versatile organism.

  15. Lifecourse Adversity and Telomere Length in Older Women from Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Bruna Silva; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Quinlan, Jacklyn; Batistuzzo de Medeiros, Silvia Regina; Thomasini, Ronaldo Luis; Guerra, Ricardo Oliveira

    2017-06-19

    We examined associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and shorter telomere length (TL) in 83 older women, including 42 women with less than secondary education and 41 with secondary or more education in a city of Northeast Brazil, a region with substantial socioeconomic inequalities. The low education sample was selected from a representative survey at local neighborhood health centers, while the high education group consisted of a convenience sample recruited by advertising in community centers and centers affiliated with the local university. Relative leukocyte TL was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction from blood samples. ACEs were self-reported. Spline linear regression was fitted to assess the strength of the associations between ACEs and TL. Among women with low education, median TL was 1.02 compared with 0.64 in the high education group (p = 0.0001). Natural log-transformed T/S ratio as the dependent variable was used in analysis. Women with low education had been exposed to more ACEs, and among them those experiencing two or more ACEs had longer TL than women exposed to ≤1 ACEs (p = 0.03); among women with high education, this difference was not significant (p = 0.49). In analyses adjusted by age, education, and parental abuse of alcohol, the linear trend of higher TL with increasing ACEs was confirmed (p = 0.02), and the mean difference in TL between groups remained significant (p = 0.002). The unexpected positive relationship between low education and ACEs with TL suggests that older adults who have survived harsh conditions prevailing in Northeast Brazil have the longest TL of their birth cohort.

  16. Health work: portrait of community workers in the Northeast region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simas, Paloma Ribeiro Pires; Pinto, Isabela Cardoso de Matos

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the profile of community health workers in northeastern Brazil and aspects related to the management of their work. This is a cross-sectional study, which included 535 community agents who were distributed in 107 primary health units in northeastern Brazil. The data were extracted from eight blocks of questions related to the community agents' perceptions about social-demographic, economic and political factors; their contracts and remuneration; their evaluation as workers; their working conditions and their training. The results indicate that the majority of community agents in the northeast region were hired by direct administration. The main form of hiring community agents was by public exam, followed by public selection. Direct administration is the main form of hiring; however, new modalities, such as the public and private law foundations, social organizations, and inter-municipal consortiums are alternatives that have been adopted by managers which can produce a number of weaknesses due to flexible labor relations.

  17. In practice, the theory is different: a processual analysis of breastfeeding in northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavenius, Michael; van Hulsel, Lonneke; Meijer, Julia; Wendte, Hans; Gurgel, Ricardo

    2007-02-01

    'Na prática, a teoria è outra' (in practice, the theory is different) is an old Brazilian saying. This phrase summarizes well the general practice of breastfeeding in Brazil: 'Breast is best' is central in the pregnant women's future oriented 'theory' of how their infant should be fed. In the subsequent weeks after delivery, however, in the daily practicalities of feeding their infant, this theory is, to a large extent, abandoned. The present study is based on a sample of 300 mothers in the city of Aracaju in the Northeast of Brazil. Through interviews, the differences and similarities between knowledge and practice with respect to infant feeding were established. An explanation of these differences is developed on the basis of a processual analysis of the qualitative and quantitative results of the interview data. Nearly all mothers were knowledgeable of the need to breastfeed, and nearly all mothers had initiated breastfeeding. However, only a minority was exclusively breastfeeding at the time of the interview. A distinction is made between a breastfeeding process and a de-breastfeeding process. The data suggest that mothers, in general, start the de-breastfeeding process with the positive intention of ameliorating the infant's situation without realizing the negative processual consequences that most likely ends in a cessation of breastfeeding. The study supports the view that health policy should underline the processual character of both breastfeeding and de-breastfeeding when promoting the importance of exclusive breastfeeding.

  18. [Influence of land use change on dissolved organic carbon export in Naoli River watershed. Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiao-min; Lyu, Xian-guo; Liu, Xing-tu; Xue, Zhen-shan

    2015-12-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the influence of land use change on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) export in Naoli River watershed, Northeast China. Seasonal variation of DOC concentrations of the river water and its relationship with land use in the whole watershed and 100 m riparian zone at the annual average scale were analyzed using the method of field sampling, laboratory analysis, GIS and statistics analysis. The results showed that the concentrations of DOC under base flow conditions in spring and summer were significantly higher than that in fall in the study watershed. The seasonal trend of DOC concentrations in wetland-watersheds was similar to that in all the sub-watersheds, while significantly different from that in non-wetland watersheds. On the annual average scale, percentage of wetland in the whole watershed and paddy field in the 100 m riparian zone had positive relationship with the DOC concentration in the river water, while percentage of forest in the whole watershed had negative relationship with it (P watershed played a significant role in the seasonal variation of DOC in river water of Naoli River watershed. Wetland in the watershed and paddy field in the 100 m riparian zone significantly promoted DOC export, while forest alleviated it. Land use change in the watershed in the past few decades dramatically changed the DOC balance of river water.

  19. Primary health care lessons from the northeast of Brazil: the Agentes de Saúde Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cufino Svitone, E; Garfield, R; Vasconcelos, M I; Araujo Craveiro, V

    2000-05-01

    Market-led economic reforms are usually viewed as being in conflict with government-stimulated socioeconomic development for disadvantaged groups. Nevertheless, Ceará, a poor state in the Northeast of Brazil, has since 1987 pursued both of those strategies simultaneously. One part of that approach has been a program of nurse-directed auxiliary health workers serving about 5 million people--almost all the persons outside the capital city and half of those in the capital. The system requires that the auxiliaries, called agentes de saúde, live in the local communities that they serve. The health agents visit each home once a month to carry out a small number of priority health activities. While health agent positions are in high demand, the minimum-wage salary that the agents receive makes up only a small portion of the state budget. A key aspect of the system is timely and comprehensive information, which is based on agent visits and is managed by trained nurses. Since the health agents system was launched, there has been a rapid decline in infant mortality, a rapid rise in immunization, identification of bottlenecks limiting the utilization of other medical resources, and timely interventions in times of crisis. The health agents system has combined administrative decentralization with financial centralization during a period of electoral democratization. The system has strengthened Ceará's commitment to primary care even as market-oriented changes have reduced the overall role of government. The Ceará program is being copied throughout the Northeast and other regions of Brazil. The key role that nurses play in the Ceará program in organizing and leading a system of basic primary care in poor neighborhoods and rural areas may provide useful lessons for other countries. In addition, Ceará does not have many of the favorable characteristics of other countries that have successfully invested in primary health care. Ceará thus represents a more achievable model

  20. Cryostratigraphy, sedimentology, and the late Quaternary evolution of the Zackenberg River delta, northeast Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, Graham L.; Cable, Stefanie; Thiel, Christine

    2017-01-01

    The Zackenberg River delta is located in northeast Greenland (74 degrees 30' N, 20 degrees 30' E) at the outlet of the Zackenberg fjord valley. The fjord-valley fill consists of a series of terraced deltaic deposits (ca. 2 km2) formed during relative sea-level (RSL) fall. We investigated the depo......The Zackenberg River delta is located in northeast Greenland (74 degrees 30' N, 20 degrees 30' E) at the outlet of the Zackenberg fjord valley. The fjord-valley fill consists of a series of terraced deltaic deposits (ca. 2 km2) formed during relative sea-level (RSL) fall. We investigated...... the deposits using sedimentological and cryostratigraphic techniques together with optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. We identify four facies associations in sections (4 to 22 m in height) exposed along the modern Zackenberg River and coast. Facies associations relate to (I) overriding glaciers......, (II) retreating glaciers and quiescent glaciomarine conditions, (III) delta progradation in a fjord valley, and (IV) fluvial activity and niveo-aeolian processes. Pore, layered, and suspended cryofacies are identified in two 20 m deep ice-bonded sediment cores. The cryofacies distribution, together...

  1. Zooplankton community of Parnaíba River, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmilla Cavalcanti Antunes Lucena

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim:The objective of the present work is to present a list of species of zooplankton (Rotifera, Cladocera and Copepoda from the Parnaíba River. Additionally, we provide comments on their distribution along the river, and between dry and wet seasons.MethodsZooplankton was collected with a plankton net (60 µm mesh and concentrated into a volume of 80 mL for further analysis, during the dry (October 2010 and wet (April 2011 seasons. Sampling was restricted to the marginal areas at depths between 80 and 150 cm.ResultsA total of 132 species was recorded among the three zooplankton groups studied. During the dry season a total of 82 species was registered and 102 species was registered for the wet season. Rotifera contributed with 66.7% of the species, followed by Cladocera (26.5% and Copepoda (6.8%.ConclusionsThe richness of species observed was high compared to other large rivers in Brazil. In the context of current policies for water management and river diversions in northeastern Brazil, the present study highlights the importance of this river system for biodiversity conservation.

  2. Microcephaly epidemic related to the Zika virus and living conditions in Recife, Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Wayner Vieira de; Albuquerque, Maria de Fátima Pessoa Militão de; Vazquez, Enrique; Bezerra, Luciana Caroline Albuquerque; Mendes, Antonio da Cruz Gouveia; Lyra, Tereza Maciel; Araujo, Thalia Velho Barreto de; Oliveira, André Luiz Sá de; Braga, Maria Cynthia; Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar; Miranda-Filho, Demócrito de Barros; Cabral Silva, Amanda Priscila de Santana; Rodrigues, Laura; Martelli, Celina Maria Turchi

    2018-01-12

    Starting in August 2015, there was an increase in the number of cases of neonatal microcephaly in Northeast Brazil. These findings were identified as being an epidemic of microcephaly related to Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. The present study aims to analyse the spatial distribution of microcephaly cases in Recife (2015-2016), which is in Northeast Brazil, and its association with the living conditions in this city. This was an ecological study that used data from reported cases of microcephaly from the State Health Department of Pernambuco (August 2015 to July 2016). The basic spatial unit of analysis was the 94 districts of Recife. The case definition of microcephaly was: neonates with a head circumference of less than the cut-off point of -2 standard deviations below the mean value from the established Fenton growth curve. As an indicator of the living conditions of the 94 districts, the percentage of heads of households with an income of less than twice the minimum wage was calculated. The districts were classified into four homogeneous strata using the K-means clustering algorithm. We plotted the locations of each microcephaly case over a layer of living conditions. During the study period, 347 microcephaly cases were reported, of which 142 (40.9%) fulfilled the definition of a microcephaly case. Stratification of the 94 districts resulted in the identification of four strata. The highest stratum in relation to the living conditions presented the lowest prevalence rate of microcephaly, and the overall difference between this rate and the rates of the other strata was statistically significant. The results of the Kruskal-Wallis test demonstrated that there was a strong association between a higher prevalence of microcephaly and poor living conditions. After the first 6 months of the study period, there were no microcephaly cases recorded within the population living in the richest socio-economic strata. This study showed that those residing in areas with

  3. Calculation of economic viability of alternative energy sources considering its environmental costs for small communities of Northeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stecher, Luiza Chourkalo

    2014-01-01

    There has been an increasing concern about current environmental issues caused by human activity, as the world searches for development. The production of electricity is an extremely relevant factor in this scenario since it is responsible for a large portion of the emissions that cause the greenhouse effect. Due to this fact, a sustainable development with alternative energy sources, which are attractive for such purpose, must be proposed, especially in places that are not supplied by the conventional electricity grid such as many communities in the Northeast Brazil. This work aims to calculate the environmental cost for the alternative sources of energy - solar, wind and biomass - during electricity generation, and to estimate the economic feasibility of those sources in small communities of Northeast Brazil, considering the avoided costs. The externalities must be properly identified and valued so the costs or benefits can be internalized and reflect accurately the economic feasibility or infeasibility of those sources. For this, the method of avoided costs was adopted for the calculation of externalities. This variable was included in the equation developed for all considered alternative energy sources. The calculations of economic feasibility were performed taking the new configurations in consideration, and the new equation was reprogrammed in the Programa de Calculo de Custos de Energias Alternativas, Solar, Eolica e Biomassa (PEASEB). The results demonstrated that the solar photovoltaic energy in isolated systems is the most feasible and broadly applicable source for small communities of Northeast Brazil. (author)

  4. Cryostratigraphy, sedimentology, and the late Quaternary evolution of the Zackenberg River delta, northeast Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Graham L.; Cable, Stefanie; Thiel, Christine; Christiansen, Hanne H.; Elberling, Bo

    2017-05-01

    The Zackenberg River delta is located in northeast Greenland (74°30' N, 20°30' E) at the outlet of the Zackenberg fjord valley. The fjord-valley fill consists of a series of terraced deltaic deposits (ca. 2 km2) formed during relative sea-level (RSL) fall. We investigated the deposits using sedimentological and cryostratigraphic techniques together with optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. We identify four facies associations in sections (4 to 22 m in height) exposed along the modern Zackenberg River and coast. Facies associations relate to (I) overriding glaciers, (II) retreating glaciers and quiescent glaciomarine conditions, (III) delta progradation in a fjord valley, and (IV) fluvial activity and niveo-aeolian processes. Pore, layered, and suspended cryofacies are identified in two 20 m deep ice-bonded sediment cores. The cryofacies distribution, together with low overall ground-ice content, indicates that permafrost is predominately epigenetic in these deposits. Fourteen OSL ages constrain the deposition of the cored deposits to between approximately 13 and 11 ka, immediately following deglaciation. The timing of permafrost aggradation was closely related to delta progradation and began following the subaerial exposure of the delta plain (ca. 11 ka). Our results reveal information concerning the interplay between deglaciation, RSL change, sedimentation, permafrost aggradation, and the timing of these events. These findings have implications for the timing and mode of permafrost aggradation in other fjord valleys in northeast Greenland.

  5. The role of game mammals as bushmeat In the Caatinga, northeast Brazil

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    Raynner Rilke D. Barboza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the use of wild mammals as a source of food has been better studied in tropical forest environments, their importance as a source of protein for human communities in semiarid environments is little known. In the latter, the availability of wild animal meat is limited in comparison to other environments. In the semiarid regions of northeastern Brazil, hunting wild mammals for their meat is traditional, playing a crucial role in the livelihoods and food security of various rural and urban communities, especially during the annual drought seasons. In this study, we investigated the role of wild mammals as bushmeat in 10 communities within the Caatinga biome in northeast Brazil. We used key-informant interviews, household surveys, and questionnaires to determine the species hunted and consumed. We found that about 30 species were used for bushmeat, with communities clustering into two main groups. We showed that in almost all municipalities visited, all mammals hunted were reported after interview days. A total of 46.9% of hunters consumed bushmeat at least once a week. However, preference for bushmeat over livestock was perceived to be more a matter of taste (61.50% of respondents than a real need for protein supplementation from the wild. The ease of entering environmental areas where wild mammals can be found has disadvantages for wildlife in terms of pressure and overexploitation, especially where it concerns endangered species. The key to understanding the socioeconomic, cultural, and ecological contexts in which there are traditional uses is to develop conservationist strategies suitable for the socioeconomic reality of human populations.

  6. Late Holocene evolution of the Northeast intertidal region of Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil

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    Anita Fernandes Souza Pinto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work is based on the study of the core T1 collected in the Guaratiba Mangrove, located on the northeastern margin of Sepetiba Bay. Few studies dealing with the application of benthic foraminifera to study sea level changes during the Holocene have been conducted in Sepetiba Bay, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In order to fill this gap, the core T1 was studied using textural, geochemical (carbonate, total organic carbon, total sulfur and stable isotopes evaluated in Ammonia tepida and microfaunal (benthic foraminifera data, unveiling paleoecological relationships of these organisms and the evolutionary scenario of Guaratiba Mangrove. Radiocarbon results indicate an estimated age of about 2400 yrs cal BP for the core base. Textural, geochemical and benthic foraminifera data suggest that the study area changed significantly during the last 2400 yrs cal BP. It experienced coastal waves action and shoreface processes in the period between ≈2.400-1.400 yrs cal BP; then, this phase gave place to a shallow marine environment similar to that found currently in internal and protected areas of Sepetiba Bay, between ≈1.400-350 yrs cal BP. Thenceforth, the study area evolved to the present mangrove environment. Factors related to climatic oscillations and the formation, evolution and events of rupture of Marambaia sand ridge influenced the late Holocene evolution of the northeast intertidal area of Sepetiba Bay.

  7. Natural radioactive anomalies: social impacts in a small city in the northeast of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casado, Lais C.; Silva, Arykerne N.C. da

    2017-01-01

    In 1972 the National Commission of Nuclear Energy in conjunction with the Committee on Mineral Resources Research, through geological studies, found a reserve of U_3O_8, initially estimated at 10,000 tons, in the region of Sao Jose de Espinharas, in the state of Paraiba, Northeast of Brazil. Other studies, in nearby regions, after the discovery of uranium, found soils rich in heavy rare earth elements, making the region the focus of research of several public and private companies. Currently, it is not occurring mineral exploration in the region, but the rumors about the presence of rocks and stones that cause cancer are always present in the everyday life of the population. Periodically, researchers are visiting Sao Jose de Espinharas to obtain samples of water, soil, and rock, and then new comments arise on the likely transference of the population due to uranium occurrence in urban and rural areas. Urban and the rural area inhabitants hamper or obstruct the work of collection due to ignorance about the phenomenon of natural radioactivity. The main objective of this work is to promote the necessary to highlight the need to develop knowledge about local environmental radioactivity and the benefits and problems due to the existence of uranium ore. There are still no results about public awareness on the subject in the region, but it is expected that in a few months can be assessed the implemented actions as multipliers of knowledge of the region to disseminate basic knowledge about natural radioactivity. (author)

  8. Natural radioactive anomalies: social impacts in a small city in the northeast of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casado, Lais C.; Silva, Arykerne N.C. da, E-mail: laiscamposcasado@gmail.com, E-mail: ary_casado@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    In 1972 the National Commission of Nuclear Energy in conjunction with the Committee on Mineral Resources Research, through geological studies, found a reserve of U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, initially estimated at 10,000 tons, in the region of Sao Jose de Espinharas, in the state of Paraiba, Northeast of Brazil. Other studies, in nearby regions, after the discovery of uranium, found soils rich in heavy rare earth elements, making the region the focus of research of several public and private companies. Currently, it is not occurring mineral exploration in the region, but the rumors about the presence of rocks and stones that cause cancer are always present in the everyday life of the population. Periodically, researchers are visiting Sao Jose de Espinharas to obtain samples of water, soil, and rock, and then new comments arise on the likely transference of the population due to uranium occurrence in urban and rural areas. Urban and the rural area inhabitants hamper or obstruct the work of collection due to ignorance about the phenomenon of natural radioactivity. The main objective of this work is to promote the necessary to highlight the need to develop knowledge about local environmental radioactivity and the benefits and problems due to the existence of uranium ore. There are still no results about public awareness on the subject in the region, but it is expected that in a few months can be assessed the implemented actions as multipliers of knowledge of the region to disseminate basic knowledge about natural radioactivity. (author)

  9. Impact of Telemedicine in the Screening for Congenital Heart Disease in a Center from Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Juliana Sousa Soares; Regis, Cláudio Teixeira; Gomes, Renata Grigório Silva; Mourato, Felipe Alves; Mattos, Sandra da Silva

    2016-12-01

    To describe the incidence of congenital heart disease before and after the establishment of a telemedicine screening program, in a reference center from Northeast Brazil. This is a descriptive, retrospective and comparative study based on the institutional data from a reference center in perinatology for a period of 16 years. Institutional data were collected from a 16-year period (2001-15). Data were divided into two periods: prior to (2001-11) and after (2012-15) the establishment of a telemedicine screening program. After the implementation of the screening process, almost all kinds of heart disease showed a significant increase in their incidence (p  <  0.05). With this, the incidence of major heart diseases approached those specified in developed regions. The implementation of a screening process model for congenital heart diseases can change the context of patients with congenital heart diseases in poor regions. © The Author [2016]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Antioxidant Activity of a Geopropolis from Northeast Brazil: Chemical Characterization and Likely Botanical Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Joselena M; Fernandes-Silva, Caroline C; Salatino, Antonio; Message, Dejair; Negri, Giuseppina

    2017-01-01

    Geopropolis is a product containing wax, plant resin, and soil particles. It is elaborated by stingless bees of tribe Meliponini. Methanol extracts of sample of geopropolis produced by Scaptotrigona postica ("mandaguari") in the state of Rio Grande do Norte (RN, northeast Brazil) were analyzed for the determination of standard parameters (total phenols, total flavonoids, and radical scavenging activity) and chemical characterization by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS analysis. The sample analyzed has high contents of total phenols and flavonoids, as well as high antioxidant activity. The constituents characterized were mainly flavonols, such as quercetin methyl ethers, and methoxychalcones. Such chemical profile is similar to the composition of a green propolis from the same area of RN, which is produced by Africanized Apis mellifera , using shoot apices of Mimosa tenuiflora , popularly known as "jurema-preta." This finding provides evidence that "mandaguari" geopropolis and honeybee propolis have the same botanical origin in RN. The sharing of a plant resin source by phylogenetically distant bees (Apinae and Meliponinae) suggests that bee genetic factors play little role in the choice of plants for resin collection and that the availability of potential botanical sources plays a decisive role.

  11. Resettlement of communities The case study of Jaguaribara: A resilient community (Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Amorim

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the displacement of the inhabitants of Jaguaribara (Northeast Brazil who were resettled due to the construction of the “Castanhao”. #e Government planned a new city to shelter the inhabitants from “Old Jaguaribara” that was $ooded due to the over$owing of the dam. #e case of Jaguaribara provides another perspective for analysing the consequences of the resettlement of the community, elucidating - besides the impoverishment risks - the protective factors that came up during the process of resistance against the construction of the dam, in the light of the concept of resilience. In order to capture the various dimensions of this process, qualitative primary data were used as the main source, together with documentation made by NGOs and professionals involved during the process of resistance against the construction of the dam, as well as semi-structured interviews. #e enhancement of resilience in Jaguaribara represented the possibility to transform isolated individuals into a powerful integrated group that could combine forces, catalyse collective gains as well as articulate and defend common interests.

  12. Water-contact patterns and schistosoma mansoni infection in a rural community in northeast Brazil

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    Eduardo Mota

    1987-02-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the influence of water-related human activities, contaminative behaviour, house location, education and socio-economic status on endemic Schistosoma mansoni infection. The study was conducted in a hilry non-irrigated area of rural northeast Brazil amongst a defined population of subsistence farmers, of whom 93% were infected by age 20. The area was mapped, water bodies were surveyed, and a detailed questionnaire was performed on each household. Infection was assessed by duplicate stool examinations using the sensitive Bell technique to quantify egg excretion. For each household, and index of intensity of infection was computed by grouping individual log-transformed egg counts as an age-sex adjusted Z score. Few households had a sanitary installation or a domestic water supply. However, neither water-contact nor contaminative behavior were indiscriminate. The people made considerable effort to defaecate far from a water source, to obtain household drinking water from the cleanest source, and to bathe only at certain sites where privacy is assured. Land ownership and literacy correlated poorly with the household index of intensity of infection. The key influence on infection status was the relative location of the house and snail-free or snail colonized water sources. In this area, a safe domestic water supply is the critical input needed to achieve definitive control of endemic Schistosomiasis.

  13. Antibiotic Resistance of Salmonella spp. Isolated from Shrimp Farming Freshwater Environment in Northeast Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima C. T. Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the presence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella spp. in a shrimp farming environment in Northeast Region of Brazil. Samples of water and sediments from two farms rearing freshwater-acclimated Litopenaeus vannamei were examined for the presence of Salmonella. Afterwards, Salmonella isolates were serotyped, the antimicrobial resistance was determined by a disk diffusion method, and the plasmid curing was performed for resistant isolates. A total of 30 (16.12% of the 186 isolates were confirmed to be Salmonella spp., belonging to five serovars: S. serovar Saintpaul, S. serovar Infantis, S. serovar Panama, S. serovar Madelia, and S. serovar Braenderup, along with 2 subspecies: S. enterica serovar houtenae and S. enterica serovar enterica. About twenty-three percent of the isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and twenty percent were resistant to at least two antibiotics. Three strains isolated from water samples (pond and inlet canal exhibited multiresistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and nitrofurantoin. One of them had a plasmid with genes conferring resistance to nitrofurantoin and ampicillin. The incidence of bacteria pathogenic to humans in a shrimp farming environment, as well as their drug-resistance pattern revealed in this study, emphasizes the need for a more rigorous attention to this area.

  14. ["Birth weakness": cultural meanings of maternal impressions for infant health in Northeast Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvasina, Paola Gondim; Nations, Marilyn K; Jorge, Maria Salete Bessa; Sampaio, Helena Alves de Carvalho

    2007-02-01

    Pregnancy encompasses socio-cultural, historical, and affective dimensions that process various meanings in women's bodies. Each society constructs popular concepts, practices, and explanatory models that differ from the biomedical model and aim to protect the mother and fetus and foster a healthy pregnancy. This qualitative study, based on interpretative anthropology, unveils the experiences of 27 poor women and their repercussions on the malnutrition of their infants, treated at a Childhood Malnutrition Treatment Center in Fortaleza, Northeast Brazil. From January to June 2004, ethnographic and narrative interviews were conducted on so-called "birth weakness", in addition to participant observation of outpatient, nursing, and home childcare. The mothers believed that their own physical and emotional suffering and precarious nutritional status were "imprinted" on the fetus, resulting in the child's malnutrition. While the ethno-etiology of "weakness" points to factors outside the body that involuntarily affect the pregnant mother, the medical view tended to incriminate the mother herself. It is necessary to understand the mothers' narratives, sympathize with their suffering, and spawn a closer approach between the popular and biomedical concepts.

  15. Coccidioides immitis isolated from armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) in the state of Piauí, northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eulálio, K D; de Macedo, R L; Cavalcanti, M A; Martins, L M; Lazéra, M S; Wanke, B

    2001-01-01

    Natural infection of armadillos with Coccidioides immitis was studied in the state of Piauí, northeast of Brazil, endemic for coccidioidomycosis. In 1998, 26 nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) were captured in 4 different counties. The animals were sacrificed under deep anesthesia with ether. At necropsy fragments of spleen, liver, lungs and heart were homogenized and seeded onto Sabouraud dextrose agar with and without cycloheximide (BBL, USA). Part of each organ was also processed for histological examination. Suspected colonies of filamentous fungi observed after the second week of incubation at room temperature, exhibiting barrel-shaped arthroconidia alternating with empty spaces, were inoculated intraperitoneally into mice. Three armadillos proved to be infected with C. immitis. Mice inoculated with suspected colonies obtained from homogenized spleen of three and liver of two armadillos developed disseminated coccidioidomycosis and immature and mature spherules of C. immitis were disclosed in several organs. For the first time armadillos (D. novemcinctus) were found naturally infected with C. immitis, adding new data on the ecology and on a possible role of these ancestral mammals in the evolutionary life cycle of this fungus.

  16. Analysis of rainfall in the municipality of Castelo do Piauí, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francílio de Amorim dos Santos

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to analyze rainfall in the municipality of Cas- telo do Piauí, located in the Northeast of Brazil, based on descriptive statistics and the Rainfall Anomaly Index (RAI. From an historical series of 39 years (1963 to 2001, a historical average of 1006.3 mm was identi ed for this municipality, whereas the years 1985 and 1983 were considered the most and least rainy, re- spectively. The rainy season is concentrated in the months of January to April, with March being the wettest and August being the least rainy. Rainfall variability values were higher than 40% for all months and asymmetric positive distribution. The RAI allowed to establish the following dry and rainy years: 1963, 1964 and 1989 (very rainy; 1974 and 1985 (extremely rainy; 1976, 1981, 1992, 1993, 1998 and 2001 (very dry; 1983 and 1990 (extremely dry. In summary, the present study found a predominance of dry to extremely dry years in the studied area, with 53.8%.

  17. [An assessment of the Family Health Program in municipalities of Northeast Brazil: old and new challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Paulo de Medeiros; Uchoa, Alice da Costa; Rocha, Nadja de Sá Pinto Dantas; Souza, Elizabethe Cristina Fagundes de; Rocha, Marconi de Lima; Pinheiro, Themis Xavier de Albuquerque

    2008-01-01

    This article presents part of the results from the Baseline Studies, an evaluative research conducted in 21 municipalities with more than 100,000 inhabitants each, in three States of Northeast Brazil. The overall objective was to assess experiences in the implementation of the Family Health Program (FHP), with a focus on inductions in the PROESF. An implementation analysis was performed, using the case study method. The analysis focused on these dimensions: political-institutional, health organization, and comprehensive care. Outstanding advances included: prioritize the FHP in high-risk areas; institutional learning, with qualification of managers and teams; definition of institutional levels for regulating the FHP; and health team-user bonds and positive perceptions concerning the program. Challenges included: strengthening of local policy and decision-making capacity; allocation of primary care resources; greater employment security for human resources; effective implementation of the health care network; strengthening of social participation; upgrading of monitoring and evaluation for decision-making; receptivity; waiting lines for tests, appointments, and hospital admissions; implementation of teamwork; health promotion and inter-sector activities.

  18. Pedigree analysis on the population of Gir cattle in Northeast Brazil

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    Aracele Prates de Oliveira

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the population genetic structure of the Gir breed in the Northeast of Brazil. The data used in this study were taken from pedigree information of 8,897 Gir animals between 1957 and 2007, obtained from the Brazilian Zebu Breeders Association (ABCZ. The program ENDOG was used to estimate the parameters based on the probability gene origin. From the amount of the studied animals, 67.22%, 18.41% and 3.15% had complete pedigree only on the first, second and third parentage, respectively. The number of ancestors that contributed for the reference population was 2,755, of which only 171 explain the 50% genetic variability of the population. The actual number of founder herds was 168 and the effective number of founder herds was 22.3. The number of sire supplier herds was 22.16, 8.66 and 5.36 for fathers, grandfathers and great-grandfathers, respectively. The average coefficient of relatedness was estimated at 0.22%; the highest individual coefficient was 1.49%. The little variability of the current population is a result of the small number of effective founders and ancestors indicating the population evolved from a narrow genetic base.

  19. Satisfaction of users of the Family Health Strategy in a capital city of Northeast Brazil

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    Luana Kelle Batista Moura

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the satisfaction of users of the Family Health Strategy in relation to the Reliability and Safety aspects. Method: This is a quantitative research carried out with 353 participants enrolled in an Integrated Health Center of the eastern region of a capital in the Northeast Brazil, through the SERVQUAL instrument. The data collection took place from January to May 2015, the research was approved by the Ethics and Research Committee of the UNINOVAFAPI University Center. Results: The results indicated that in the Reliability dimension, participants agreed that the healthcare professionals record the attendance, perform on the promised date and have an interest in solving the problems. In the Security dimension, the majority of the participants were indifferent as to the behavior of the professionals generating confidence. They demonstrated security in requesting the services because they were politely attended by the professionals. Moreover, in the two dimensions analyzed, it was noticed that there is a tendency to increase satisfaction as the participants' income decreases with significant statistical relations, with satisfaction on Reliability and Security inversely proportional to income. Conclusion: It is considered that users of the Family Health Strategy have demonstrated satisfaction with the services received, however, there is a need for more studies with different methodological approaches to better elucidate the intersubjective issues that shape the process of interaction between users, healthcare professionals and services. Keywords: Family health; patient satisfaction; security.

  20. The Importance of Wild Canids in the Epidemiology of Rabies in Northeast Brazil: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, R de A; Duarte, N F H; Rolim, B N; Soares Júnior, F A; Franco, I C F; Ferrer, L L; Almeida, C P; Duarte, B H; de Araújo, D B; Rocha, M F G; Brilhante, R S N; Favoretto, S R; Sidrim, J J C

    2016-09-01

    Rabies is an endemic disease in Brazil, where it is considered a serious public health problem. Although the number of human and dog-transmitted cases has declined in recent decades, rabies in wildlife has emerged considerably. Among the sylvatic animals, wild canids have been considered important hosts of the rabies virus. We performed a retrospective study of reported cases of rabies in wild canids and human victims in Ceará state (Northeast Brazil) during 2003 to 2013. Information was provided by governmental laboratories involved in rabies detection and by the Ministry of Health. From January 2003 to December 2013, a total of 11 931 animal samples were examined for rabies. Positivity were detected in 438 samples (3.67%), of which 229 (52.28%) were domestic animals, 105 (23.97%) wild canids and 104 (23.74%) other wild animals (bats, marmosets and raccoons). Approximately 33% of wild canids surveyed (n = 317) were positive for rabies. During the studied period, a total of 1923 attacks on humans by wild canids were registered. Males (n = 1405) were more affected than females (n = 520; 72.98% versus 27.01%), and the median age of all cases was 36.5 years. Injuries to individuals up to 19 years old corresponded to approximately 30% (n = 565) of all cases. Most of the victims lived in rural areas (72.46%; n = 1395), and the majority showed bites (81.13%; n = 1677) or scratches (12.23%; n = 253). Injuries were considered profound (52.1%; n = 1003), superficial (40.91; n = 788) or multiple with severe laceration (6.98%; n = 134). Only 1300 (67.53%) victims were enrolled for the complete rabies post-exposure prophylaxis scheme. Data from the present study confirm that wild canids are important hosts of rabies virus in northeastern Brazil and jeopardize rabies control in this area. Local authorities should focus their efforts in education of health professionals. In addition, strategies should be formulated to preserve wildlife. © 2016 Blackwell

  1. Characterization of heavy metal concentrations in the sediments of three freshwater rivers in Huludao City, Northeast China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Na; Wang Qichao; Liang Zhongzhu; Zheng Dongmei

    2008-01-01

    Wuli River, Cishan River, and Lianshan River are three freshwater rivers flowing through Huludao City, in a region of northeast China strongly affected by industrialization. Contamination assessment has never been conducted in a comprehensive way. For the first time, the contamination of three rivers impacted by different sources in the same city was compared. This work investigated the distribution and sources of Hg, Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu in the surface sediments of Wuli River, Cishan River, and Lianshan River, and assessed heavy metal toxicity risk with the application of two different sets of Sediment Quality Guideline (SQG) indices (effect range low/effect range median values, ERL/ERM; and threshold effect level/probable effect level, TEL/PEL). Furthermore, this study used a toxic unit approach to compare and gauge the individual and combined metal contamination for Hg, Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu. Results showed that Hg contamination in the sediments of Wuli River originated from previous sediment contamination of the chlor-alkali producing industry, and Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu contamination was mainly derived from atmospheric deposition and unknown small pollution sources. Heavy metal contamination to Cishan River sediments was mainly derived from Huludao Zinc Plant, while atmospheric deposition, sewage wastewater and unknown small pollution were the primary sources for Lianshan River. The potential acute toxicity in sediment of Wuli River may be primarily due to Hg contamination. Hg is the major toxicity contributor, accounting for 53.3-93.2%, 7.9-54.9% to total toxicity in Wuli River and Lianshan River, respectively, followed by Cd. In Cishan River, Cd is the major sediment toxicity contributor, however, accounting for 63.2-66.9% of total toxicity. - Sediment in Wuli River, Cishan River, and Lianshan River has been contaminated by heavy metals and adverse effects would be expected frequently in Wuli River and Cishan River

  2. Proteolytic and lipolytic microbiota of refrigerated raw milk from northeast and southern regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Ribeiro Junior

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The shelf life of milk and milk derivatives is directly related to the microbiological quality of refrigerated raw milk. Spoilage microorganisms with proteolytic and/or lipolytic properties are primarily responsible for the decrease in the quality of milk, which is reflected in the shelf life of pasteurized milk and all derivatives. The aim of this study was to determine the spoilage microbial load of refrigerated raw milk from the northeast and southern regions of Brazil, which have different climatic and technological conditions of production. We evaluated 46 samples of milk from the state of Paraná in the southern region, and 10 samples of milk from the state of Maranhão in the northeast region, totaling 56 samples collected from November 2013 to November 2014. The producers of Paraná were divided into large (20 or small (26 according to the average daily production. All producers of Maranhão were considered small (<500L/day. The proteolytic and lipolytic microorganism counts were conducted in milk agar and tributyrin agar, respectively. Milk from the large producers of Paraná had average counts of 1.4 × 104 CFU/mL for proteolytic microorganisms and 1.2 × 103 CFU/mL for lipolytics microorganisms, significantly (p <0.05 lower than the small producers in the same state, and the producers of Maranhão. Producers of Maranhao had counts of 1.1 × 105 CFU/mL for proteolytic microorganisms and 2 × 105 CFU/mL for lipolytic microorganisms, with the proteolytic count significantly lower than that of small Paraná producers. The amount of proteolytic and lipolytic spoilage microorganisms in milk is influenced by the adaptation of the microorganisms to cold, promoted by the cooling of milk, which is practiced less frequently in the country’s northeastern region. The amount of spoilage microorganisms is also affected by the implementation of milking hygiene practices, which reduce contamination. Such practices are more frequently and efficiently

  3. Local Economic Development and Hydropower Along the Brahmaputra River Basin in Northeast India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, A.

    2014-12-01

    Large dams have long been controversial. They offer benefits, such as reduced greenhouse gas emissions, energy security, and local development, yet produce negative social and ecological impact, such as wildlife habitat destruction, human displacement, and the disruption of downstream fishing or agricultural industries. In the past decade, the Indian government has signed Memoranda of Understanding with hydroelectric power companies for the building of over 130 large dams on the Brahmaputra River in the state of Arunachal Pradesh in Northeast India. These dams can generate 43% of India's assessed hydropower potential to sustain India's growing economy. In addition, the Indian government claims that these dams will bring local development with needed jobs. However, local Arunachali people have protested and temporarily halted hydropower projects because of the impact of dams on their existing livelihoods. Using the North Eastern Electric Power Corporation's (NEEPCO) Ranganadi Hydroelectric Project as a case study, our project examined whether dams in Northeast India provide jobs for local people, and whether distance from the dam or work colony to a worker's hometown affects the type of job the worker received. Survey data from residents at NEEPCO's work colony in Doimukh, Arunachal Pradesh, was analyzed using SPSS (n = 18). Our research found that 100% of workers at the dam originally resided in Northeast India, with 33% from Arunachal Pradesh, and 67% from the nearby states of Assam, and Tripura. Further, our analysis revealed no statistically significant relationship between the distance to a worker's hometown and job type (p = .609). Where workers come from did not affect the type of job they received. More research using a larger sample size and additional hydroelectric project case studies is needed to further explore the relationship between worker home location and their job types.

  4. Architecture of channel-belt deposits in an aggrading shallow sandbed braided river: the lower Niobrara River, northeast Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelly, Raymond L.; Bristow, Charlie S.; Ethridge, Frank G.

    2003-05-01

    Architecture of recent channel-belt deposits of the Niobrara River, northeast Nebraska, USA, records the response of a sandy braided river to rapid base-level rise. Up to 3 m of aggradation has occurred within the lower 14 km of the Niobrara River since the mid-1950s as a result of base-level rise at the confluence of the Niobrara and Missouri Rivers. Aerial photographs and channel surveys indicate that the lower Niobrara has evolved from a relatively deep, stable channel with large, bank-attached braid bars to a relatively shallow, aggrading channel with braid bars and smaller secondary channels. Architecture of channel-belt deposits associated with the recent aggradation has been defined using ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and vibracores. The channel-belt deposits exhibit a series of amalgamated channel fills and braid bar complexes (i.e., macroforms). Radar facies identified in the GPR data represent architectural elements of the braid bar complexes, large and small bedforms [two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) dunes], and channels. Individual braid bars appear to consist of basal high-flow and upper low-flow components. Preservation of the complete, high-flow bar geometry is generally incomplete due to frequent migration of smaller scale, secondary channels within the channel belt (i.e., braided channel network) at low discharges. The large-scale stratification of the braid bar deposits is dominated by cross-channel and upstream accretion. Elements of downstream accretion are also recognized. These accretion geometries have not been documented previously in similar sandy braided rivers. Braid bar deposits with low-flow modification (e.g., incision by secondary channels) are recognized in the deeper portions of the deposits imaged by GPR. Preservation of braid bars, with both high- and low-flow components, is a result of the rapid base-level rise and channel-bed aggradation experienced by the Niobrara River over the past 45 years. Recent avulsion

  5. Hydrologic cycle and dynamics of aquatic macrophytes in two intermittent rivers of the semi-arid region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pedro

    Full Text Available The dynamics of aquatic macrophytes in intermittent rivers is generally related to the characteristics of the resistance and resilience of plants to hydrologic disturbances of flood and drought. In the semi-arid region of Brazil, intermittent rivers and streams are affected by disturbances with variable intensity, frequency, and duration throughout their hydrologic cycles. The aim of the present study is to determine the occurrence and variation of biomass of aquatic macrophyte species in two intermittent rivers of distinct hydrologic regimes. Their dynamics were determined with respect to resistance and resilience responses of macrophytes to flood and drought events by estimating the variation of biomass and productivity throughout two hydrologic cycles. Twenty-one visits were undertaken in the rewetting, drying, and drought phases in a permanent puddle in the Avelós stream and two temporary puddles in the Taperoá river, state of Paraíba, Northeast Brazil. The sampling was carried out by using the square method. Floods of different magnitudes occurred during the present study in the river and in the stream. The results showed that floods and droughts are determining factors in the occurrence of macrophytes and in the structure of their aquatic communities. The species richness of the aquatic macrophyte communities was lower in the puddles of the river and stream subject to flood events, when compared to areas where the run-off water is retained. At the beginning of the recolonization process, the intensity of the floods was decisive in the productivity and biomass of the aquatic macrophytes in the Taperoá river and the Avelós stream. In intermediate levels of disturbance, the largest values of productivity and biomass and the shortest time for starting the recolonization process occurred.

  6. Optimal river monitoring network using optimal partition analysis: a case study of Hun River, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Chunyue; Rong, Luge; Wang, Xiaoxu; Sun, Lina; Luo, Qing; Wu, Hao

    2018-01-09

    River monitoring networks play an important role in water environmental management and assessment, and it is critical to develop an appropriate method to optimize the monitoring network. In this study, an effective method was proposed based on the attainment rate of National Grade III water quality, optimal partition analysis and Euclidean distance, and Hun River was taken as a method validation case. There were 7 sampling sites in the monitoring network of the Hun River, and 17 monitoring items were analyzed once a month during January 2009 to December 2010. The results showed that the main monitoring items in the surface water of Hun River were ammonia nitrogen (NH 4 + -N), chemical oxygen demand, and biochemical oxygen demand. After optimization, the required number of monitoring sites was reduced from seven to three, and 57% of the cost was saved. In addition, there were no significant differences between non-optimized and optimized monitoring networks, and the optimized monitoring networks could correctly represent the original monitoring network. The duplicate setting degree of monitoring sites decreased after optimization, and the rationality of the monitoring network was improved. Therefore, the optimal method was identified as feasible, efficient, and economic.

  7. River flood seasonality in the Northeast United States and trends in annual timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    The New England and Mid-Atlantic regions of the Northeast United States have experienced climate-associated increases in both the magnitude and frequency of floods. However, a detailed understanding of flood seasonality across these regions, and how flood seasonality may have changed over the instrumental record, has not been established. The annual timing of river floods reflects the flood-generating mechanisms operating in a basin and many aquatic and riparian organisms are adapted to flood seasonality, as are human uses of river channels and floodplains. Changes in flood seasonality may indicate changes in flood-generating mechanisms, and their interactions, with important implications for habitats, floodplain infrastructure, and human communities. For example, changes in spring or fall flood timing may negatively or positively affect a vulnerable life stage for a migratory fish (e.g., egg setting) depending on whether floods occur more frequently before or after the life history event. In this study I apply an objective, probabilistic method for identifying flood seasons at a monthly resolution for 90 climate-sensitive watersheds in New England and the Mid-Atlantic (Hydrologic Unit Codes 01 and 02). Historical trends in flood timing during the year are also investigated. The analyses are based on partial duration flood series that are an average of 85 years long. The seasonality of flooding in these regions, and any historical changes, are considered in the context of other ongoing or expected phenological changes in the Northeast U.S. environment that affect flood generation—e.g., the timing of leaf-off/leaf-out for deciduous plants. How these factors interact will affect whether and how flood magnitudes and frequencies change in the future and associated impacts.

  8. Cryostratigraphy, sedimentology, and the late Quaternary evolution of the Zackenberg River delta, northeast Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Gilbert

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Zackenberg River delta is located in northeast Greenland (74°30′ N, 20°30′ E at the outlet of the Zackenberg fjord valley. The fjord-valley fill consists of a series of terraced deltaic deposits (ca. 2 km2 formed during relative sea-level (RSL fall. We investigated the deposits using sedimentological and cryostratigraphic techniques together with optically stimulated luminescence (OSL dating. We identify four facies associations in sections (4 to 22 m in height exposed along the modern Zackenberg River and coast. Facies associations relate to (I overriding glaciers, (II retreating glaciers and quiescent glaciomarine conditions, (III delta progradation in a fjord valley, and (IV fluvial activity and niveo-aeolian processes. Pore, layered, and suspended cryofacies are identified in two 20 m deep ice-bonded sediment cores. The cryofacies distribution, together with low overall ground-ice content, indicates that permafrost is predominately epigenetic in these deposits. Fourteen OSL ages constrain the deposition of the cored deposits to between approximately 13 and 11 ka, immediately following deglaciation. The timing of permafrost aggradation was closely related to delta progradation and began following the subaerial exposure of the delta plain (ca. 11 ka. Our results reveal information concerning the interplay between deglaciation, RSL change, sedimentation, permafrost aggradation, and the timing of these events. These findings have implications for the timing and mode of permafrost aggradation in other fjord valleys in northeast Greenland.

  9. Radium equivalent in clays extracted in Northeast cities of Brazil and used in civil construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Eduardo E.N.; Junior, Jose Araujo S.; Amaral, Romilton S.; Santos, Josineide M.N.; Rojas, Lino A.V.; Fernandez, Zahily H.

    2017-01-01

    The Earth's crust may have different levels of natural radioactivity as a consequence of the different types of minerals that form its composition. Exploration activities of natural sources may have a high radiometric impact for the radionuclides of the natural series and contributes to radionuclides transitions to others areas. The distribution of natural radioactive elements 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 40 K in rock and soil is not uniform and as a consequence all building materials contain amounts of natural radioactive substances. This study aimed to establish the calculation of the Equivalent Radium Activity (Ra Eq ) in brickwork's clays in the adjacent area to the uranium deposits in Northeast Brazil cities in the states of Paraiba and Rio Grande do Norte. The analyses were performed using the non-destructive method HPGe-Be gamma spectrometry. Twenty-eight samples were collected from ten brickworks in the cities of Sao Jose do Sabugi and Santa Luzia, in Paraiba State and Santana do Serido and Parelhas, in Rio Grande do Norte State. The activities of RaEq ranged from 84.5 to 747.8 Bq/kg with an average of 334.0 Bq/kg. Approximately 29% of the analyzed samples had activities of RaEq above the limit defined by UNSCEAR (the limit is 370 Bq/kg), where the clays must have its sources of extraction monitored, respecting the radioecological protection rules. From the qualification of the samples, it has been certified that the radionuclides present in this study are exclusively of natural origin. (author)

  10. Radium equivalent in clays extracted in Northeast cities of Brazil and used in civil construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Eduardo E.N.; Junior, Jose Araujo S.; Amaral, Romilton S.; Santos, Josineide M.N.; Rojas, Lino A.V.; Fernandez, Zahily H., E-mail: eduardo.eudes@ufpe.br, E-mail: jaraujo@ufpe.br, E-mail: romilton@ufpe.br, E-mail: josineide.santos@ufpe.br, E-mail: lino.valcarcel@ufpe.br, E-mail: zahily1985@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear

    2017-11-01

    The Earth's crust may have different levels of natural radioactivity as a consequence of the different types of minerals that form its composition. Exploration activities of natural sources may have a high radiometric impact for the radionuclides of the natural series and contributes to radionuclides transitions to others areas. The distribution of natural radioactive elements {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 40}K in rock and soil is not uniform and as a consequence all building materials contain amounts of natural radioactive substances. This study aimed to establish the calculation of the Equivalent Radium Activity (Ra{sub Eq}) in brickwork's clays in the adjacent area to the uranium deposits in Northeast Brazil cities in the states of Paraiba and Rio Grande do Norte. The analyses were performed using the non-destructive method HPGe-Be gamma spectrometry. Twenty-eight samples were collected from ten brickworks in the cities of Sao Jose do Sabugi and Santa Luzia, in Paraiba State and Santana do Serido and Parelhas, in Rio Grande do Norte State. The activities of RaEq ranged from 84.5 to 747.8 Bq/kg with an average of 334.0 Bq/kg. Approximately 29% of the analyzed samples had activities of RaEq above the limit defined by UNSCEAR (the limit is 370 Bq/kg), where the clays must have its sources of extraction monitored, respecting the radioecological protection rules. From the qualification of the samples, it has been certified that the radionuclides present in this study are exclusively of natural origin. (author)

  11. Vertical Motion Changes Related to North-East Brazil Rainfall Variability: a GCM Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roucou, Pascal; Oribe Rocha de Aragão, José; Harzallah, Ali; Fontaine, Bernard; Janicot, Serge

    1996-08-01

    The atmospheric structure over north-east Brazil during anomalous rainfall years is studied in the 11 levels of the outputs of the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique atmospheric general circulation model (LMD AGCM). Seven 19-year simulations were performed using observed sea-surface temperature (SST) corresponding to the period 1970- 1988. The ensemble mean is calculated for each month of the period, leading to an ensemble-averaged simulation. The simulated March-April rainfall is in good agreement with observations. Correlations of simulated rainfall and three SST indices relative to the equatorial Pacific and northern and southern parts of the Atlantic Ocean exhibit stronger relationships in the simulation than in the observations. This is particularly true with the SST gradient in the Atlantic (Atlantic dipole). Analyses on 200 ;hPa velocity potential, vertical velocity, and vertical integral of the zonal component of mass flux are performed for years of abnormal rainfall and positive/negative SST anomalies in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans in March-April during the rainy season over the Nordeste region. The results at 200 hPa show a convergence anomaly over Nordeste and a divergence anomaly over the Pacific concomitant with dry seasons associated with warm SST anomalies in the Pacific and warm (cold) waters in the North (South) Atlantic. During drought years convection inside the ITCZ indicated by the vertical velocity exhibits a displacement of the convection zone corresponding to a northward migration of the ITCZ. The east-west circulation depicted by the zonal divergent mass flux shows subsiding motion over Nordeste and ascending motion over the Pacific in drought years, accompanied by warm waters in the eastern Pacific and warm/cold waters in northern/southern Atlantic. Rainfall variability of the Nordeste rainfall is linked mainly to vertical motion and SST variability through the migration of the ITCZ and the east-west circulation.

  12. Microcephaly in north-east Brazil: a retrospective study on neonates born between 2012 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares de Araújo, Juliana Sousa; Regis, Cláudio Teixeira; Gomes, Renata Grigório Silva; Tavares, Thiago Ribeiro; Rocha Dos Santos, Cícera; Assunção, Patrícia Melo; Nóbrega, Renata Valéria; Pinto, Diana de Fátima Alves; Bezerra, Bruno Vinícius Dantas; Mattos, Sandra da Silva

    2016-11-01

    To assess the number of children born with microcephaly in the State of Paraíba, north-east Brazil. We contacted 21 maternity centres belonging to a paediatric cardiology network, with access to information regarding more than 100 000 neonates born between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2015. For 10% of these neonates, nurses were requested to retrieve head circumference measurements data from delivery-room books. We used three separate criteria to classify whether a neonate had microcephaly: (i) the Brazilian Ministry of Health proposed criterion: term neonates (gestational age ≥ 37 weeks) with a head circumference of less than 32 cm; (ii) Fenton curves: neonates with a head circumference of less than -3 standard deviation for age and gender; or (iii) the proportionality criterion: neonates with a head circumference of less than ((height/2))+10) ± 2. Between 1 and 31 December 2015, nurses obtained data for 16 208 neonates. Depending on which criterion we used, the number of neonates with microcephaly varied from 678 to 1272 (4.2-8.2%). Two per cent (316) of the neonates fulfilled all three criteria. We observed temporal fluctuations of microcephaly prevalence from late 2012. The numbers of microcephaly reported here are much higher than the 6.4 per 10 000 live births reported by the Brazilian live birth information system. The results raise questions about the notification system, the appropriateness of the diagnostic criteria and future implications for the affected children and their families. More studies are needed to understand the epidemiology and the implications for the Brazilian health system.

  13. Privatization of electricity distribution in the Northeast of Brazil. The good, the bad, the ugly or the naive?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestre, Bruno; Hall, Jeremy; Matos, Stelvia [Faculty of Business Administration, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Figueira, Luiz Augusto [Centrais Eletricas Brasileiras - ELETROBRAS, Av. Presidente Vargas, 409, Centro, Rio de Janeiro, CEP: 20071-003 (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    This paper analyzes the evolution of five electricity distribution companies in the Northeast of Brazil using technical and financial indicators. Three privatized and two public firms were analyzed between 1997 and 2008. The financial indicators are used as proxies for the capacity of the business to generate value for shareholders, while the technical indicators are used as proxies for service quality provided to consumers. We observed that the privatized firms had their financial indicators improved after privatization, increasing the value of the firm for the shareholders. However, there is no evidence that privatization affected the quality of service provided to consumers. (author)

  14. Privatization of electricity distribution in the Northeast of Brazil: The good, the bad, the ugly or the naive?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestre, Bruno, E-mail: bruno_silvestre@sfu.c [Faculty of Business Administration, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby-BC, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Centrais Eletricas Brasileiras-ELETROBRAS, Av. Presidente Vargas, 409, Centro, Rio de Janeiro, CEP: 20071-003 (Brazil); Hall, Jeremy, E-mail: jkh5@sfu.c [Faculty of Business Administration, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby-BC, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Matos, Stelvia, E-mail: smatos@sfu.c [Faculty of Business Administration, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby-BC, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Figueira, Luiz Augusto, E-mail: augusto@eletrobras.com.b [Centrais Eletricas Brasileiras-ELETROBRAS, Av. Presidente Vargas, 409, Centro, Rio de Janeiro, CEP: 20071-003 (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    This paper analyzes the evolution of five electricity distribution companies in the Northeast of Brazil using technical and financial indicators. Three privatized and two public firms were analyzed between 1997 and 2008. The financial indicators are used as proxies for the capacity of the business to generate value for shareholders, while the technical indicators are used as proxies for service quality provided to consumers. We observed that the privatized firms had their financial indicators improved after privatization, increasing the value of the firm for the shareholders. However, there is no evidence that privatization affected the quality of service provided to consumers.

  15. Privatization of electricity distribution in the Northeast of Brazil: The good, the bad, the ugly or the naive?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestre, Bruno; Hall, Jeremy; Matos, Stelvia; Figueira, Luiz Augusto

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the evolution of five electricity distribution companies in the Northeast of Brazil using technical and financial indicators. Three privatized and two public firms were analyzed between 1997 and 2008. The financial indicators are used as proxies for the capacity of the business to generate value for shareholders, while the technical indicators are used as proxies for service quality provided to consumers. We observed that the privatized firms had their financial indicators improved after privatization, increasing the value of the firm for the shareholders. However, there is no evidence that privatization affected the quality of service provided to consumers.

  16. [Triatominae and Cactaceae: a risk for the transmission of the American trypanosomiasis in the peridomicilary space (Northeast Brazil)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emperaire, L; Romaña, C A

    2006-06-01

    Field observations carried in semi-arid Brazil Northeast point out the frequent association, in the peridomiciliary space, between a cactus, Cereus jamacaru, the occurrence of nests in its branches and the occurrence of two species of insects vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, pathogenic agent of Chagas disease: Rhodnius neglectus and Triatoma pseudomaculata. The analysis of the architectural variables of this Cactaceae shows that the presence of nests, and thus of insects, depends on the traditional practices of management of this cactus. This study underlines the relevance of an integrated approach of the ecology of Triatominae for the identification of factors of risk.

  17. Risk of 222 Rn ingestion by water consumption in the phosphate rich of the Northeast of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade Lima, Ricardo de

    1997-01-01

    Geological survey performed in the coastal region of the northeast of Brazil revealed the presence of uranium phosphate deposits in a land strip covering the Pernambuco-Bahia sedimentary basin. The water consumed by the local population crosses the phosphate area and presents higher tna normal concentration of uranium and its progeny. This work is aimed to determine the cancer risk, based on the rate ingestion of the 222 'Rn due to water consumption. The results of the analysis showed increments of 1.25% for cancer occurrences due to Rn-222 ingestion for the local population. (author). 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  18. Simulation of hydrological processes in the Zhalong wetland within a river basin, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Q. Feng

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Zhalong National Nature Preserve is a large wetland reserve on the Songnen Plain in Northeast China. Wetlands in the preserve play a key role in maintaining regional ecosystem function and integrity. Global climate change and intensified anthropogenic activities in the region have raised great concerns over the change of natural flow regime, wetland degradation and loss. In this study, two key hydrologic components in the preserve, water surface area and water volume, as well as their variations during the period 1985–2006, were investigated with a spatially-distributed hydrologic modeling system (SWAT. A wetland module was incorporated into the SWAT model to represent hydrological linkages between the wetland and adjacent upland areas. The modified modeling system was calibrated with streamflow measurements from 1987 to 1989 and was validated for the period 2005–2006. The calibration achieved a Nash efficiency coefficient (Ens of 0.86, and the validation yielded an Ens of 0.66. In the past 20 yr, water surface area in the Zhalong wetland fluctuated from approximately 200 km2 to 1145 km2 with a rapid decreasing trend through the early 2000s. Consequently, water volume decreased largely in the preserve, especially in the dry seasons. The situation changed following the implementation of a river diversion in 2001. Overall, the modeling yielded plausible estimates of hydrologic changes in this large wetland reserve, building a foundation for assessing ecological water requirements and developing strategies and plans for future water resources management within the river basin.

  19. Large thermo-erosional tunnel for a river in northeast Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, Catherine L.; Hannah, David M.; Riis, Tenna; Rosenhøj Leth, Simon; Milner, Alexander M.

    2017-12-01

    Thermo-erosional river bank undercutting is caused by the combined action of thermal and mechanical erosion of the permafrost by Arctic rivers whilst the overlying sediment withstands collapse temporarily. Here, we report the discovery of a large thermo-erosional tunnel that formed in the banks of a meltwater-fed stream in northeast Greenland in summer 2015. The tunnel was observed over eight days (14-22 July), during which period the tunnel remained open but bank-side slumping increased. Stream solute load increased immediately downstream and remained high 800 m from the tunnel. Whilst this field observation was opportunistic and information somewhat limited, our study provides a rare insight into an extreme event impacting permafrost, local geomorphology and stream habitat. With accelerated climate change in Arctic regions, increased permafrost degradation and warmer stream water temperature are predicted thereby enhancing potential for thermo-erosional niche development and associated stream bank slumping. This change could have significant implications for stream physicochemical habitat and, in turn, stream benthic communities, through changes in aquatic habitat conditions.

  20. Large-scale hydrological modelling in the semi-arid north-east of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güntner, Andreas

    2002-07-01

    Semi-arid areas are, due to their climatic setting, characterized by small water resources. An increasing water demand as a consequence of population growth and economic development as well as a decreasing water availability in the course of possible climate change may aggravate water scarcity in future, which often exists already for present-day conditions in these areas. Understanding the mechanisms and feedbacks of complex natural and human systems, together with the quantitative assessment of future changes in volume, timing and quality of water resources are a prerequisite for the development of sustainable measures of water management to enhance the adaptive capacity of these regions. For this task, dynamic integrated models, containing a hydrological model as one component, are indispensable tools. The main objective of this study is to develop a hydrological model for the quantification of water availability in view of environmental change over a large geographic domain of semi-arid environments. The study area is the Federal State of Ceará (150 000 km2) in the semi-arid north-east of Brazil. Mean annual precipitation in this area is 850 mm, falling in a rainy season with duration of about five months. Being mainly characterized by crystalline bedrock and shallow soils, surface water provides the largest part of the water supply. The area has recurrently been affected by droughts which caused serious economic losses and social impacts like migration from the rural regions. The hydrological model Wasa (Model of Water Availability in Semi-Arid Environments) developed in this study is a deterministic, spatially distributed model being composed of conceptual, process-based approaches. Water availability (river discharge, storage volumes in reservoirs, soil moisture) is determined with daily resolution. Sub-basins, grid cells or administrative units (municipalities) can be chosen as spatial target units. The administrative units enable the coupling of Wasa in

  1. Illuminance and global solar irradiation in Northeast Brazil; Iluminancia e irradiacao solar global na regiao Nordeste do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, Sergio da S.; Tiba, Chigueru [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear], Emails: tiba@ufpe.br, chigueru.tiba@pesquisador.cnpq.br

    2006-07-01

    In Brazil and particularly in the Northeast of Brazil, illuminance measures are not part of routine meteorological station measures, and therefore they are still rare than solar irradiation measures. In this context, two stations were installed in Pernambuco: one in Recife (maritime tropical climate) in April 2003 and the other in Pesqueira (tropical and semi-arid) in September 2004 for carrying out simultaneous measurements of hourly solar irradiation and illuminance which permit the modeling and the statistic validation of the relationship between these two parameters and with this, makes possible the estimation of illuminance where there existed only information on solar irradiation. The Alados et al. model with local coefficients showed a superior statistical performance, producing a mean bias deviation in the order of 3% and 1% and root mean quadratic deviation of 10% and 3% respectively for Recife and Pesqueira (author)

  2. Identification and molecular characterization of Van A-type vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis in Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinalda Anselmo Vilela

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE in Brazil has rapidly increased, following the world wide tendency. We report in the present study the first isolation of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE in the Northeast of Brazil. The four VRE isolates were characterized for antimicrobial susceptibility, genotypic typing by macro restriction of chromosomal DNA followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and for characterization of the Tn1546-like element and plasmid contents. The isolates showed resistance to multiple antibiotics and a single genotype profile, suggesting the dissemination of a single clone among the patients. Tn1546 associated to genetic elements as plasmids shows the importance of infection control measures to avoid the spreading of glycopetide resistance by conjugative transfer of VanA elements.

  3. Water transfer from São Francisco river to semiarid northeast of Brazil: technical data, environmental impacts, survey of opinion about the amount to be transferred Transposição do rio São Francisco para o nordeste semiárido do Brasil: dados técnicos, impactos ambientais e enquete sobre o volume transposto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubismar Stolf

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The transposition of the São Francisco River is considered one of the greatest engineering works in Brazil of all time since it will cross an extensive agricultural region of continental dimensions, involving environmental impacts, water, soil, irrigation, water payment and other multidisciplinary themes. Taking into account its importance, this subject was incorporated into a discipline of UFSCar (Federal University of São Carlos - Brazil named "Pollution and Environmental Impacts". It was noted strong reaction against the project, even before the presentation. To allow a critical analysis, the first objective was to compile the main technical data and environmental impacts. The second objective was to detect the three most important aspects that cause reaction, concluding for the following reasons: assumption that the volume of water to be transferred was much greater than it actually is proposed in the project; lack of knowledge about similar project already done in Brazil; the idea that the artificial canal to be built was much broader than that proposed by the project. The participants' opinion about "volume to be transferred" was raised quantitatively four times: 2-undergraduate students; 1-graduate; 1-outside community. The average resulted 14 times larger than that proposed in the project, significant according to t-test. It was concluded that the reaction to water transfer project is due in part to the ignorance combined with a preconceived idea that tend to overestimate the magnitude of environmental impacts.A transposição do Rio São Francisco, uma das maiores obras de engenharia do Brasil de todos os tempos, cortará uma extensa região agrícola de dimensões continentais, envolvendo temas de caráter multidisciplinar, como impactos ambientais, água, solo, irrigação, outorga de água e outros. Devido a sua importância, incorporou-se a partir de 2005 o tema a uma disciplina denominada Poluição e Impactos ambientais, UFSCar

  4. Maternal predictors related to quality of life in pregnant women in the Northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calou, Cinthia Gondim Pereira; de Oliveira, Mirna Fontenele; Carvalho, Francisco Herlânio Costa; Soares, Paula Renata Amorim Lessa; Bezerra, Raylla Araújo; de Lima, Sâmua Kelen Mendes; Antezana, Franz Janco; de Souza Aquino, Priscila; Castro, Régia Christina Moura Barbosa; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra

    2018-05-31

    Gestation is a period that can positively or negatively influence the life of a woman in the pregnancy-puerperal cycle. Thus, evaluating the quality of life of this population can redirect the implementation of innovative practices, with the goal of making them more effective and practical or the promotion of humanized care. The present study aimed to evaluate the predictors that influence the health-related quality of life of low-risk pregnant women, as well as to describe the main areas affected in the quality of life of pregnant women. A correlational, quantitative and cross-sectional study was carried out in two public units that provide prenatal care services and a private unit in the city of Fortaleza, a municipality in the Northeast of Brazil. The sample consisted of 261 pregnant women who were interviewed from September to November 2014. The collection instruments were a questionnaire covering sociodemographic, obstetric and quality of life variables, in addition to the Brazilian version of the Mother-Generated Index (MGI). The data were compiled and analyzed through the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software, version 20.0. A descriptive analysis was performed through the application of Pearson's chi-square test, Fisher's exact test and one-way ANOVA. Maternal predictors for the quality of life of pregnant woman were identified through a multivariate analysis/multiple regression. The response rate was 100%, corresponding to 261 respondents. Occupation, parity, partner support, marital status and persons with whom the women live were the predictors that positively interfered in the quality of life of pregnant women. In contrast, gestational age, type of housing, occupation, use of illicit drugs, non-receipt of partner support and maternal age were the predictors that negatively influenced quality of life. Our results indicate that happiness to become a mother and body image were areas with the greatest positive and negative influence on

  5. The Relationships between Tropical Pacific and Atlantic SST and Northeast Brazil Monthly Precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertacchi Uvo, Cintia; Repelli, Carlos A.; Zebiak, Stephen E.; Kushnir, Yochanan

    1998-04-01

    The monthly patterns of northeast Brazil (NEB) precipitation are analyzed in relation to sea surface temperature (SST) in the tropical Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, using singular value decomposition. It is found that the relationships between precipitation and SST in both basins vary considerably throughout the rainy season (February-May). In January, equatorial Pacific SST is weakly correlated with precipitation in small areas of southern NEB, but Atlantic SST shows no significant correlation with regional precipitation. In February, Pacific SST is not well related to precipitation, but south equatorial Atlantic SST is positively correlated with precipitation over the northern Nordeste, the latter most likely reflecting an anomalously early (or late) southward migration of the ITCZ precipitation zone. During March, equatorial Pacific SST is negatively correlated with Nordeste precipitation, but no consistent relationship between precipitation and Atlantic SST is found. Atlantic SST-precipitation correlations for April and May are the strongest found among all months or either ocean. Precipitation in the Nordeste is positively correlated with SST in the south tropical Atlantic and negatively correlated with SST in the north tropical Atlantic. These relationships are strong enough to determine the structure of the seasonal mean SST-precipitation correlations, even though the corresponding patterns for the earlier months of the season are quite different. Pacific SST-precipitation correlations for April and May are similar to those for March. Extreme wet (dry) years for the Nordeste occur when both Pacific and Atlantic SST patterns for April and May occur simultaneously. A separate analysis reinforces previous findings in showing that SST in the tropical Pacific and the northern tropical Atlantic are positively correlated and that tropical Pacific-south Atlantic correlations are negligible.Time-lagged analyses show the potential for forecasting either seasonal mean

  6. Biomarkers of Environmental Enteropathy, Inflammation, Stunting, and Impaired Growth in Children in Northeast Brazil.

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    Richard L Guerrant

    Full Text Available Critical to the design and assessment of interventions for enteropathy and its developmental consequences in children living in impoverished conditions are non-invasive biomarkers that can detect intestinal damage and predict its effects on growth and development. We therefore assessed fecal, urinary and systemic biomarkers of enteropathy and growth predictors in 375 6-26 month-old children with varying degrees of malnutrition (stunting or wasting in Northeast Brazil. 301 of these children returned for followup anthropometry after 2-6m. Biomarkers that correlated with stunting included plasma IgA anti-LPS and anti-FliC, zonulin (if >12m old, and intestinal FABP (I-FABP, suggesting prior barrier disruption; and with citrulline, tryptophan and with lower serum amyloid A (SAA (suggesting impaired defenses. In contrast, subsequent growth was predicted in those with higher fecal MPO or A1AT and also by higher L/M, plasma LPS, I-FABP and SAA (showing intestinal barrier disruption and inflammation. Better growth was predicted in girls with higher plasma citrulline and in boys with higher plasma tryptophan. Interactions were also seen with fecal MPO and neopterin in predicting subsequent growth impairment. Biomarkers clustered into markers of 1 functional intestinal barrier disruption and translocation, 2 structural intestinal barrier disruption and inflammation and 3 systemic inflammation. Principle components pathway analyses also showed that L/M with %L, I-FABP and MPO associate with impaired growth, while also (like MPO associating with a systemic inflammation cluster of kynurenine, LBP, sCD14, SAA and K/T. Systemic evidence of LPS translocation associated with stunting, while markers of barrier disruption or repair (A1AT and Reg1 with low zonulin associated with fecal MPO and neopterin. We conclude that key noninvasive biomarkers of intestinal barrier disruption, LPS translocation and of intestinal and systemic inflammation can help elucidate how

  7. Diagnosis of Food Insecurity and Nutritional Statusof users of the popular restaurants in the Northeast and South of Brazil.

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    Suwellen de Resende MORAES

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Food insecurity occurs when the unmet nutritional needs cause psychological and physiological problems. Thinking about this panorama, this cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the relationship between food insecurity and overweight in the Northeast and South. We used a form to identify the socioeconomic and demographic variables, was also made the calculation of BMI, and applied the Brazilian Scale of Food and Nutritional Insecurity in two regions of Brazil where 807 people were interviewed and 503 in the Northeast region and 304 in the South region. The most prevalent share of family income in both regions was that between ½ to 1 minimum wage. The Northeast region had a higher prevalence of users in food insecurity over the southern region, also presented more socioeconomic differences as lower education and income per capita, a higher proportion of unemployed and users in Food Insecurity in relation to the South. This fact is explained by population have a higher proportion of unemployed and a lower per capita income, leading to reduced power of access to food. Regarding nutritional status, in both regions there was overweight. This data may be indicative of the accelerated process of nutritional transition that lives the Brazilian population.

  8. Mycobacterium leprae in six-banded (Euphractus sexcinctus) and nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) in Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frota, Cristiane Cunha; Lima, Luana Nepomuceno Costa; Rocha, Adalgiza da Silva; Suffys, Philip Noel; Rolim, Benedito Neilson; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Barreto, Maurício Lima; Kendall, Carl; Kerr, Ligia Regina Sansigolo

    2012-12-01

    Human beings are the main reservoir of the causative agent of leprosy, Mycobacterium leprae. In the Americas, nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) also act as a reservoir for the bacillus. In the state of Ceará (CE), which is located in Northeast Brazil and is an endemic area of leprosy, there are several species of armadillos, including D. novemcinctus and Euphractus sexcinctus (six-banded armadillo). Contact between humans and armadillos occur mainly through hunting, cleaning, preparing, cooking and eating. This study identified M. leprae DNA in the two main species of armadillos found in Northeast Brazil. A total of 29 wild armadillos (27 D. novemcinctus and 2 E. sexcinctus) were captured in different environments of CE countryside. Samples from the ear, nose, liver and spleen from each of these animals were tested by a nested M. leprae-specific repetitive element polymerase chain reaction assay. The samples that tested positive were confirmed by DNA sequencing. M. leprae was detected in 21% (6/29) of the animals, including five D. novemcinctus and one E. sexcinctus. This is the first Brazilian study to identify the presence of a biomarker of M. leprae in wild armadillos (D. novemcinctus and E. sexcinctus) in a leprosy hyperendemic area where there is continuous contact between humans and armadillos.

  9. Mycobacterium leprae in six-banded (Euphractus sexcinctus and nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus in Northeast Brazil

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    Cristiane Cunha Frota

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Human beings are the main reservoir of the causative agent of leprosy, Mycobacterium leprae. In the Americas, nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus also act as a reservoir for the bacillus. In the state of Ceará (CE, which is located in Northeast Brazil and is an endemic area of leprosy, there are several species of armadillos, including D. novemcinctus and Euphractus sexcinctus (six-banded armadillo. Contact between humans and armadillos occur mainly through hunting, cleaning, preparing, cooking and eating. This study identified M. leprae DNA in the two main species of armadillos found in Northeast Brazil. A total of 29 wild armadillos (27 D. novemcinctus and 2 E. sexcinctus were captured in different environments of CE countryside. Samples from the ear, nose, liver and spleen from each of these animals were tested by a nested M. leprae-specific repetitive element polymerase chain reaction assay. The samples that tested positive were confirmed by DNA sequencing. M. leprae was detected in 21% (6/29 of the animals, including five D. novemcinctus and one E. sexcinctus. This is the first Brazilian study to identify the presence of a biomarker of M. leprae in wild armadillos (D. novemcinctus and E. sexcinctus in a leprosy hyperendemic area where there is continuous contact between humans and armadillos.

  10. Distribution of Chironomidae in a semiarid intermittent river of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, R L; Carvalho, L K; Medeiros, E S F

    2012-12-01

    The effects of the intermittency of water flow on habitat structure and substrate composition have been reported to create a patch dynamics for the aquatic fauna, mostly for that associated with the substrate. This study aims to describe the spatial distribution of Chironomidae in an intermittent river of semiarid Brazil and to associate assemblage composition with environmental variables. Benthic invertebrates were sampled during the wet and dry seasons using a D-shaped net (40 cm wide and 250 μm mesh), and the Chironomidae were identified to genus level. The most abundant genera were Tanytarsus, Polypedilum, and Saetheria with important contributions of the genera Procladius, Aedokritus, and Dicrotendipes. Richness and density were not significantly different between the study sites, and multiple regression showed that the variation in richness and density explained by the environmental variables was significant only for substrate composition. The composition of genera showed significant spatial segregation across the study sites. Canonical Correspondence Analysis showed significant correspondence between Chironomidae composition and the environmental variables, with submerged vegetation, elevation, and leaf litter being important predictors of the Chironomidae fauna. This study showed that Chironomidae presented important spatial variation along the river and that this variation was substantially explained by environmental variables associated with the habitat structure and river hierarchy. We suggest that the observed spatial segregation in the fauna results in the high diversity of this group of organisms in intermittent streams.

  11. Water quality assessment of the Sinos River – RS, Brazil

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    C. Steffens

    Full Text Available Worldwide environmental pollution is increasing at the same rate as social and economic development. This growth, however, is disorganized and leads to increased degradation of water resources. Water, which was once considered inexhaustible, has become the focus of environmental concerns because it is essential for life and for many production processes. This article describes monitoring of the water quality at three points along the Sinos River (RS, Brazil, one in each of the upper, middle and lower stretches. The points were sampled in 2013 and again in 2014. The water samples were analyzed to determine the following physical and chemical parameters plus genotoxicity to fish: metals (Cr, Fe, Al, chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, chlorides, conductivity, total suspended solids, total phosphorous, total and fecal coliforms, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, total Kjeldahl nitrogen nitrate and ammoniacal nitrogen. Genotoxicity was tested by exposing individuals of the species Astyanax jacuhiensis to water samples and then comparing them with a control group exposed to water from the public water supply. The results confirmed the presence of substances with genotoxic potential at the sample points located in the middle and lower stretches of the river. The results for samples from the upper stretch, at P1, did not exhibit differences in relation to the control group. The physical and chemical analyses did not detect reductions in water quality in the lower stretch, as had been expected in view of the large volumes of domestic and industrial effluents discharged into this part of the river.

  12. Maternal near miss among women using the public health system in the Amazon and Northeast regions of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecatti, José G; Souza, Renato T; Pacagnella, Rodolfo C; Leal, Maria C; Moura, Erly C; Santos, Leonor M P

    2015-05-01

    To assess the prevalence of pregnancy complications identified as maternal near miss (MNM) and associated factors among women using the public health care system in the Amazon and Northeast regions of Brazil. A secondary analysis of a population-based survey conducted in 2010 was performed focusing on women self-reporting maternal complications. The main outcome was MNM, pragmatically defined as intensive care unit admission, eclampsia, hysterectomy, or blood transfusion. In addition, the risk of MNM was estimated for certain sociodemographics and characteristics of care received. Poisson regression was performed, generating adjusted prevalence ratios (PRadj) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). A total of 13 044 women (77%) who had given birth during the prior year using the public health system were interviewed. At least one complication was reported by 37.5%, with hemorrhage (28.4%) and infection (8.3%) being the most frequent. The overall MNM ratio was 31.5 per 1 000 live births, higher for the Amazon region than for the Northeast. Factors with a higher risk for developing MNM were: indigenous ethnicity (PRadj 2.77; 95% CI: 1.50-5.14), more than one hour to reach the hospital (PRadj 1.55; 95%CI: 1.06-2.25), being refused by a full hospital and having to find another one (PRadj 1.49; 95%CI: 1.03-2.16), cesarean section (PRadj 2.56; 95%CI: 1.90-3.44), and public prenatal care (PRadj 1.95; 95%CI: 1.06-3.61). Users of public health system in the Amazon and Northeast regions of Brazil have high MNM rates. Some characteristics of the women and of the care they received represent inequalities associated with higher risk for MNM. Specific actions are required to improve maternal health programs in these expansive areas of the country.

  13. Rotifer assemblages (Rotifera: Eurotatoria of the floodplain lakes of Majuli River Island, the Brahmaputra river basin, northeast India

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    Bhushan Kumar Sharma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our plankton and semi-plankton collections from twelve floodplain lakes (beels of Majuli River Island, Upper Assam reveal 124 rotifer species (32 genera and 17 families; these merit biodiversity value as ~52.0% and ~30.0% of species, ~68.0 and ~45.0% of  genera and ~74.0 and ~65.0% of the families of the Phylum known from northeast India (NEI and India, respectively. Two species are new to India with Trichocerca uncinata as new record to the Oriental region.  Eleven species are new to the study area and we provide an updated list (144 species for following meta-analyses of Majuli Rotifera. Biogeographically important elements include one Australasian, four Oriental, four Palaeotropical and one cosmo (sub tropical species while several species are of regional distribution interest. The rotifer fauna is predominantly tropical and Lecanidae > Lepadellidae collectively include ~53.0% species but it records paucity of Brachionus species. Individual beels record total richness of 60-100 (77 ± 12 species, monthly richness between 24 ± 7-34 ± 7 species and maximum up to 54 species/sample. The results are characterized by high community similarities (59.7-90.4% vide Sørensen’s index, more rotifer homogeneity amongst beels, lack of any pattern of temporal richness variations and much limited influence of abiotic parameters.

  14. Evidence of Teleconnections between the Peruvian central Andes and Northeast Brazil during extreme rainfall events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulca, J. C.; Vuille, M. F.; Silva, F. Y.; Takahashi, K.

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge about changes in regional circulation and physical processes associated with extreme rainfall events in South America is limited. Here we investigate such events over the Mantaro basin (MB) located at (10°S-13°S; 73°W-76°W) in the central Peruvian Andes and Northeastern Brazil (NEB), located at (9°S-15°S; 39°W-46°W). Occasional dry and wet spells can be observed in both areas during the austral summer season. The main goal of this study is to investigate potential teleconnections between extreme rainfall events in MB and NEB during austral summer. We define wet (dry) spells as periods that last for at least 3 (5) consecutive days with rainfall above (below) the 70 (30) percentile. To identify the dates of ocurrence of these events, we used daily accumulated rainfall data from 14 climate stations located in the Mantaro basin for the period 1965 to 2002. In NEB we defined a rainfall index which is based on average daily gridded rainfall data within the region for the same period. Dry (wet spells) in the MB are associated with positive (negative) OLR anomalies which extend over much of the tropical Andes, indicating the large-scale nature of these events. At 200 hPa anomalous easterly (westerly) zonal winds aloft accompany wet (dry) spells. Composite anomalies of dry spells in MB reveal significant contemporaneous precipitation anomalies of the opposite sign over NEB, which suggest that intraseasonal precipitation variability over the two regions may be dynamically linked. Indeed upper-tropospheric circulation anomalies over the central Andes extend across South America and appear to be tied to an adjustment in the Bolivian High-Nordeste Low system. Dry (wet) spells in NEB are equally associated with a large-scale pattern of positive (negative) OLR anomalies; however, there are no related significant OLR anomalies over the MB during these events. Dry (wet) spells are associated with robust patterns of anomalous wind fields at both low and upper

  15. LBA-ECO CD-06 Physical, Political, and Hydrologic Maps, Ji-Parana River Basin, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains physical, hydrologic, political, demographic, and societal maps for the Ji-Parana River Basin, in the state of Rondonia, Brazil. These data...

  16. LBA-ECO CD-06 Physical, Political, and Hydrologic Maps, Ji-Parana River Basin, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains physical, hydrologic, political, demographic, and societal maps for the Ji-Parana River Basin, in the state of Rondonia, Brazil....

  17. Performance of the local health system and contingent influences in Northeast-Brazil: breaking vicious and virtuous circles

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    Regianne Leila Rolim Medeiros

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Organizational theory has long emphasized the importance of contingent, environmental influences on organizational performance. Similarly, research has demonstrated the importance of local political culture and informal management on the performance of the local health system, establishing vicious and virtuous circles of influence that contribute to increasing inequalities in performance among decentralized local health systems. A longitudinal ethnography studied the relationship between these elements in the same rural municipality in Northeast Brazil after a four-year interval. The second study found the local health system performance much improved. Two main factors appear to have interacted to bring this about: leadership vision and power to implement of one individual; professionalization of the local health system by hiring a significant number of senior health staff. The origins of these influences combine initiatives at local, state and federal levels.

  18. Detection of Rickettsia bellii and Rickettsia amblyommii in Amblyomma longirostre (Acari: Ixodidae) from Bahia state, Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Douglas; Bezerra, Rodrigo Alves; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Gaiotto, Fernanda Amato; Giné, Gastón Andrés Fernandez; Albuquerque, George Rego

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating rickettsial infections in ticks parasitizing wild animals in the Northeast region of Brazil have been confined to the detection of Rickettsia amblyommii in immature stages of Amblyomma longirostre collected from birds in the state of Bahia, and in immatures and females of Amblyomma auricularium collected from the striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus) and armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus) in the state of Pernambuco. The current study extends the distribution of R. amblyommii (strain Aranha), which was detected in A. longirostre collected from the thin-spined porcupine Chaetomys subspinosus and the hairy dwarf porcupine Coendou insidiosus. In addition, we report the first detection of Rickettsia bellii in adults of A. longirostre collected from C. insidiosus in the state of Bahia.

  19. On the dynamics of droughts in northeast Brazil - Observations, theory and numerical experiments with a general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, A. D.; Shukla, J.

    1981-01-01

    The establishment of a thermally direct local circulation which has its ascending branch at about 10 deg N and its descending branch over northeast Brazil and the adjoining oceanic region is proposed as a possible mechanism for the occurrence of severe droughts over this Brazilian region. The driving for this anomalous circulation is provided by enhanced moist convection due to the effect of warmer sea surface anomalies over the northern tropical Atlantic and cooling associated with colder sea surface temperature anomalies in the southern tropical Atlantic. A simple primitive equation model is used to calculate the frictionally-controlled and thermally-driven circulation due to a prescribed heating function in a resting atmosphere, and a series of numerical experiments are carried out to test the sensitivity of the Goddard Laboratory's model to prescribed sea surface temperature anomalies over the tropical Atlantic.

  20. Genotyping and drug resistance patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains observed in a tuberculosis high-burden municipality in Northeast, Brazil

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    Roberta dos Santos Silva Luiz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study has used a combination of clinical information, spoligotyping, and georeferencing system to elucidate the genetic diversity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates circulating in a TB-prevalent municipality of Northeast Brazil. METHODS: A total of 115 M. tuberculosis strains were isolated from pulmonary tuberculosis patients from January 2007 to March 2008 in Fortaleza. Drug susceptibility and spoligotyping assays were performed and place of residence of the patients were georeferenced. RESULTS: Of the M. tuberculosis strains studied, 51 (44.3% isolates were resistant to at least one drug (R-TB and 64 (55.7% were sensitive to all the drugs tested (S-TB. A high frequency of resistance was found in previously treated cases (84% and among new cases (16%; p < 0.001. a total of 74 (64% isolates were grouped into 22 spoligotyped lineages, while 41 (36% isolates were identified as new. among the predominant genotypes, 33% were latim american mediterranean (lam, 12% haarlem (h, and 5% u. there was no association of geographic distribution of rt-tb patients as compared to the controls and also the geographic location to the spoligotype patterns. the geospatial analysis revealed that 24 (23% patients (hot spot zones either shared the same residence or lived in a close neighborhood of a case. among these concentration zones, the patients lived in the same residence and shared a common genotype pattern and resistance pattern. DISCUSSION: it was observed that the spoligopatterns family distribution was similar to that reported for south america, prevailing the lam and h lineages. a high rate-case among the resistant TB group occurs as a result of transmitted and acquired resistance. A more effective surveillance program is needed in order to succeed in reducing tuberculosis in Northeast Brazil.

  1. Genotyping and drug resistance patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains observed in a tuberculosis high-burden municipality in Northeast, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta dos Santos Silva Luiz

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study has used a combination of clinical information, spoligotyping, and georeferencing system to elucidate the genetic diversity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates circulating in a TB-prevalent municipality of Northeast Brazil. METHODS: A total of 115 M. tuberculosis strains were isolated from pulmonary tuberculosis patients from January 2007 to March 2008 in Fortaleza. Drug susceptibility and spoligotyping assays were performed and place of residence of the patients were georeferenced. RESULTS: Of the M. tuberculosis strains studied, 51 (44.3% isolates were resistant to at least one drug (R-TB and 64 (55.7% were sensitive to all the drugs tested (S-TB. A high frequency of resistance was found in previously treated cases (84% and among new cases (16%; p < 0.001. a total of 74 (64% isolates were grouped into 22 spoligotyped lineages, while 41 (36% isolates were identified as new. among the predominant genotypes, 33% were latim american mediterranean (lam, 12% haarlem (h, and 5% u. there was no association of geographic distribution of rt-tb patients as compared to the controls and also the geographic location to the spoligotype patterns. the geospatial analysis revealed that 24 (23% patients (hot spot zones either shared the same residence or lived in a close neighborhood of a case. among these concentration zones, the patients lived in the same residence and shared a common genotype pattern and resistance pattern. DISCUSSION: it was observed that the spoligopatterns family distribution was similar to that reported for south america, prevailing the lam and h lineages. a high rate-case among the resistant TB group occurs as a result of transmitted and acquired resistance. A more effective surveillance program is needed in order to succeed in reducing tuberculosis in Northeast Brazil.

  2. [Implementation of a residency program in anesthesiology in the Northeast of Brazil: impact on work processes and professional motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Cláudia Regina; Sousa, Rafael Queiroz de; Arcanjo, Francisco Sávio Alves; Neto, Gerardo Cristino de Menezes; Gomes, Josenília Maria Alves; Giaxa, Renata Rocha Barreto

    2015-01-01

    Understand, through the theory of social representations, the influence exerted by the establishment a residency program in anesthesiology on anesthetic care and professional motivation in a tertiary teaching hospital in the Northeast of Brazil. Qualitative methodology. The theoretical framework comprised the phenomenology and the Social Representation Theory. Five multidisciplinary focus groups were formed with 17 health professionals (five surgeons, five anesthesiologists, two nurses, and five nursing technicians), who work in operating rooms and post-anesthesia care units, all with prior and posterior experience to the establishment of residency. From the response content analysis, the following empirical categories emerged: motivation to upgrade, recycling of anesthesiologists and improving anesthetic practice, resident as an interdisciplinary link in perioperative care, improvements in the quality of perioperative care, recognition of weaknesses in the perioperative process. It was evident upper gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to prolonged intubation that the creation of a residency in anesthesiology brings advancements that are reflected in the motivation of anesthesiologists; the resident worked as an interdisciplinary link between the multidisciplinary team; there was recognition of weaknesses in the system, which were identified and actions to overcome it were proposed. The implementation of a residency program in anesthesiology at a tertiary education hospital in the Northeast of Brazil promoted scientific updates, improved the quality of care and processes of interdisciplinary care, recognized the weaknesses of the service, developed action plans and suggested that this type of initiative may be useful in remote areas of developing countries. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Implementation of a residency program in anesthesiology in the Northeast of Brazil: impact on work processes and professional motivation

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    Cláudia Regina Fernandes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To understand, through the theory of social representations, the influence exerted by the establishment of a residency program in anesthesiology on anesthetic care and professional motivation in a tertiary teaching hospital in the Northeast of Brazil. METHOD: Qualitative methodology. The theoretical framework comprised the phenomenology and the social representation theory. Five multidisciplinary focus groups were formed with 17 health professionals (five surgeons, five anesthesiologists, two nurses, and five nursing technicians, who work in operating rooms and post-anesthesia care units, all with a prior and a posteriori experience to the establishment of residency. RESULTS: From the response content analysis, the following empirical categories emerged: motivation to upgrade, recycling of anesthesiologists and improving anesthetic practice, resident as an interdisciplinary link in perioperative care, improvements in the quality of perioperative care, and recognition of weaknesses in the perioperative process. It was evident from upper gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to prolonged intubation that the creation of a residency in anesthesiology brings advancements that are reflected in the motivation of anesthesiologists; the resident worked as an interdisciplinary link between the multidisciplinary team; there was recognition of weaknesses in the system, which were identified and actions to overcome it were proposed. CONCLUSION: The implementation of a residency program in anesthesiology at a tertiary education hospital in the Northeast of Brazil promoted scientific updates, improved the quality of care and processes of interdisciplinary care, recognized the weaknesses of the service, developed action plans and suggested that this type of initiative may be useful in remote areas of developing countries.

  4. Assessment of Concentrations of Heavy Metals and Phthalates in Two Urban Rivers of the Northeast of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Colón, Ana I; Piñero-Santiago, Luis E; Rivera, Nilsa M; Sosa, María A

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization adjacent to rivers has increased in recent years and is considered a source of environmental contamination. The resulting increase in number of urban rivers in highly populated areas, such as the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico, has led to the appearance of synthetic as well as naturally occurring chemicals not previously observed nor regularly monitored in freshwater habitats. Some of these chemicals, such as heavy metals and plasticizers, have been shown to affect endocrine, respiratory, and nervous system function in animals and humans, even at relatively low concentrations. The purpose of this study was to measure concentrations of such emergent contaminants on rivers of urbanized areas on the northeast of Puerto Rico, as one element in the assessment of the impact of urbanism on water quality in these communities. To accomplish this, we used Inductively Coupled Plasma and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry to measure amounts of heavy metals and phthalates, respectively, in superficial water of three rivers of Puerto Rico: Mameyes (non-urban), Río Piedras (urban river without a dam), and La Plata (urban river with a dam). The urban rivers had significantly higher concentrations of heavy metals arsenic, barium, cadmium, manganese, and antimony, when compared with the reference non-urban river. Manganese was the only metal found in concentrations higher than limits established by the EPA for drinking water. Of eight phthalates amenable to measurement with the chosen protocol and instrumentation, only dibutyl phthalate was detected, only in the La Plata river, and at concentrations ranging from 3 to 8 parts-per-billion. These findings suggest that urbanism close to rivers of Puerto Rico is likely having an impact on water quality and thus further study to identify the potential sources, as well as the inclusion of these emergent contaminants on the list of chemicals regularly monitored by government agencies is justified. PMID:27148470

  5. Geochemical geochronology and genesis of granite from Coronel Murta, Northeast of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, A.C.P.; Siga Junior, O.

    1987-01-01

    Geological, petrographic, geochemical (including rare-earth elements) and geochronological data of the Coronel Murta (Northeast Minas Gerais State) post-tectonic intrusive alkalic granites were summarized in order to discuss their genesis. This paper shows that Coronel Murta granites were generated by anatexis of dominantly metasedimentary rocks, in an ensialic environment, as the late results of an intraplate A-type subduction during the Brazilian Cycle. (author) [pt

  6. Pentastomid, Raillietiella mottae Almeida, Freire and Lopes, 2008, infecting lizards in an area of caatinga, northeast, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WO. Almeida

    Full Text Available Pentastomids can infect the respiratory tract of lizards, causing their death and as a result influencing the population size of hosts. Despite this, studies on rates of pulmonary infection of Brazilian lizards, including those living in Caatinga ecosystems of northeastern Brazil are scarce. Active collections of lizards were performed from October to December 2004 in an area of Caatinga of the Estação Experimental de São João do Cariri - EESJC (07º 25' S and 36º 30' W, located in the state of Paraíba, Northeast of Brazil. Forty-five lizards inhabiting granite outcrops in an area of Caatinga were captured, belonging to the following species: Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825 (18 individuals, T. semitaeniatus (Spix, 1825 (15 individuals, Phyllopezus periosus Rodrigues, 1986 (6 individuals, and P. pollicaris (Spix, 1825 (6 individuals. Laboratory examination revealed that all species had some degree of pulmonary infection caused by Raillietiella mottae. The highest rates of prevalence (66.7% and mean intensity of infection (5.25 ± 2.01, range of 2-11 were observed in P. periosus. The results obtained in this study show that lizards of the Brazilian semi-arid region are infected by a generalist species of pentastomid. The most likely cause for such pattern is the similarity in lizards' diets (ants and termites. It is particularly noteworthy that T. semitaeniatus, P. periosus, and P. pollicaris represent new host records for R. mottae.

  7. Economic viability of alternative sources of energy for a typical community of the region north and northeast of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanni, Silvia Regina; Sabundjian, Gaiane

    2008-01-01

    A study of viability of alternative energy sources for typical communities of the North or Northeast of Brazil, which do not have access to the electric energy is performed. Brazil presents a great economic and social disparity among its several regions. There are several poor communities, mainly in regions far from big cities, without electrical energy. The Brazilian government has a program known as 'Luz para Todos' (Light for All). The big challenge of this program is to bring electrical energy for everyone using new alternatives energy sources. In this work initially a literature review was made concerning the following alternative energy source: wind, solar and biomass. These energy sources can be used to supply the demand to bring electrical energy for poor communities. For this work it is intended to choose a community that has population between 1,000 and 10,000 and does not have access to electrical energy. For this community an economic viability study will be made to evaluate alternative energy sources. The best energy source resulted from the point of view of the economic viability study will be implemented in that community. A new study will be performed to evaluate cost and environmental impact. In this new study the future social development of the community caused by the installation of electrical energy will be considered. Also, this best energy source will be compared with the new generation of nuclear reactors, for instance , the IRIS reactor. (author)

  8. Economic viability of alternative sources of energy for a typical community of the Region North and Northeast of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanni, Silvia Regina; Sabundjian, Gaiane

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work is to perform a study of viability of alternative energy sources for typical communities of the North or Northeast of Brazil, which do not have access to the electric energy. Brazil presents a great economic and social disparity among its several regions. There are several poor communities, mainly in regions far from big cities, without electrical energy. The Brazilian government has a program known as 'Luz para Todos' (Light for All). The big challenge for this program is to bring electrical energy for everyone using new alternatives energy sources. In this work initially a literature review was made concerning the following alternative energy sources: wind, solar and biomass. These energy sources can be used to supply the demand to bring electrical energy for poor communities. For this work it is intended to choose a community that has population between 1,000 the 10,000 and does not have access to electrical energy. For this community an economic viability study will be made to evaluate alternative energy sources. The best energy source resulted from the point of view of the economic viability study will be implemented in that community. A new study will be performed to evaluate cost and environmental impact. In this new study the future social development of the community caused by the installation of electrical energy will be considered. Also, this best energy source will be compared with the new generation of nuclear reactors, for instance, the IRIS reactor. (author)

  9. A case-control study on the association of hepatitis B virus infection and hepatocellular carcinoma in Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cotrim Helma

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV serological markers were investigated in 40 incident cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and in two age and sex matched control groups, comprising 40 patients with other cancers and 80 healthy individuals, resident in Bahia, Brazil. Serologic tests were done by radioimmunoassay. The study observed high proportion of seropositivity to HBsAg (42.5% and of those presenting HBsAg or antiHBc (65.0% among HCC cases, higher in men than women and in those aged 17 to 30 years old. HBsAg seropositivity among HCC patients was greater than in the control group with other cancers (7.5% and in healthy controls (2.5%, corresponding to odds ratio estimates of 15.0 (95% CI 3.29, 68.30 and 33.0 (95% CI 9.13, 119.28, both statistically significant. HBeAg was not observed and antiHBe was present in 41.2% of cases, suggesting the absence of viral replication, possibly with viral DNA intergration into the hepatocyte genome. The presence of cirrhosis was associated with HBsAg seropositivity among HCC cases. A history of chronic alcoholism is shown to be more frequently related to those cases with cirrhosis. This study highlights the relevant association between HCC and HBV in Northeast Brazil, particularly for young individuals, and the high risk of development of HCC for HBsAg carriers.

  10. Efeitos do CPPU e GA3 no cultivo de uva-'Itália' na região do submédio São Francisco, nordeste do Brasil Effect of CPPU and GA3 in grapes 'Itália' in Submedium São Francisco River Valley region, northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS AUGUSTO MENEZES FEITOSA

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Na região do submédio do São Francisco, a uva-'Itália' destaca-se com 63,2% da área total plantada. Atualmente, é a principal variedade para exportação. O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito das doses do CPPU (forchlorfenuron e GA3, no aumento do tamanho da baga, que foram aplicadas por meio de pulverização dirigida sobre os cachos durante a fase de pegamento dos frutos, quando as bagas haviam atingido, aproximadamente, 8 mm de diâmetro. Este experimento foi conduzido na Fazenda Cooperyama, no município de Juazeiro-BA. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com oito tratamentos e três repetições, avaliando-se 15 cachos por tratamento com as seguintes doses: 1- Testemunha absoluta; 2- GA3 20 mg/l;3- GA3 20 mg/l+ CPPU 3 mg/l; 4- GA3 20 mg/l + CPPU 5 mg/l; 5- GA3 20 mg/l + CPPU 10 mg/l; 6- CPPU 3 mg/l; 7- CPPU 5 mg/l; 8- CPPU 10 mg/l.O melhor resultado obtido no crescimento da baga deu-se com a aplicação do CPPU 10 mg/l. Este tratamento diferiu significativamente da testemunha e da aplicação convencional com GA3 20 mg/l, aumentando 8% e 4,6% o comprimento da baga, 13,6% e 7,3% sua largura, e o peso de baga em 32% e 16,3%, respectivamente. Nos tratamentos com CPPU aplicado isoladamente e/ou associado com GA3, a colheita foi retardada em oito dias. Não se verificou diferença significativa para os teores de sólidos solúveis; no entanto, foi constatado que a acidez titulável obteve valores mais elevados na testemunha e no tratamento com GA3, aplicando 20 mg/l. Com relação ao peso do engaço, não foi verificada diferença estatística entre os tratamentos.The Itália grape cultivar participates with 63,2% of the total growing area in Submedium São Francisco River Valley it's the main variety for exportation. The main objective in this work was to evaluate the effect of CPPU (forchlorfenuron and GA3 doses on the berry size increase. The products were applied by spraying them on the

  11. [Spatiotemporal variation characteristics and related affecting factors of actual evapotranspiration in the Hun-Taizi River Basin, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xue; Cai, Yan-Cong; Guan, De-Xin; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wang, An-Zhi; Wu, Jia-Bing; Yuan, Feng-Hui

    2014-10-01

    Based on the meteorological and hydrological data from 1970 to 2006, the advection-aridity (AA) model with calibrated parameters was used to calculate evapotranspiration in the Hun-Taizi River Basin in Northeast China. The original parameter of the AA model was tuned according to the water balance method and then four subbasins were selected to validate. Spatiotemporal variation characteristics of evapotranspiration and related affecting factors were analyzed using the methods of linear trend analysis, moving average, kriging interpolation and sensitivity analysis. The results showed that the empirical parameter value of 0.75 of AA model was suitable for the Hun-Taizi River Basin with an error of 11.4%. In the Hun-Taizi River Basin, the average annual actual evapotranspiration was 347.4 mm, which had a slightly upward trend with a rate of 1.58 mm · (10 a(-1)), but did not change significantly. It also indicated that the annual actual evapotranspiration presented a single-peaked pattern and its peak value occurred in July; the evapotranspiration in summer was higher than in spring and autumn, and it was the smallest in winter. The annual average evapotranspiration showed a decreasing trend from the northwest to the southeast in the Hun-Taizi River Basin from 1970 to 2006 with minor differences. Net radiation was largely responsible for the change of actual evapotranspiration in the Hun-Taizi River Basin.

  12. In practice, the theory is different: a processual analysis of breastfeeding in northeast Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scavenius, Michael; van Hulsel, Lonneke; Meijer, Julia; Wendte, Hans; Gurgel, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    'Na prática, a teoria è outra' (in practice, the theory is different) is an old Brazilian saying. This phrase summarizes well the general practice of breastfeeding in Brazil: 'Breast is best' is central in the pregnant women's future oriented 'theory' of how their infant should be fed. In the

  13. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in the Legal Amazon and Northeast regions, Brazil, 2010

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    Alice Cristina Medeiros das Neves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in children aged less than six months from the Brazilian Legal Amazon and Northeast regions. METHODS: The study used data from a survey that assessed prenatal and infant (<1 year care in 2010. Sociodemographic, prenatal, delivery, and puerperium care factors with p<0.05 in multivariate analysis were associated with exclusive breastfeeding. RESULTS: For both regions, the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding decreased with age, which was the main variable associated with early weaning. In the Legal Amazon, exclusive breastfeeding prevailed among: mothers aged 35 years or more; mothers living in state capitals; and mothers who breastfed on the first hour of life. In the Northeast, the probability of exclusive breastfeeding was greater for mothers aged 35 years or more. CONCLUSION: The factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding were child's and mother's age in both regions; and residence location and breastfeeding in the first hour of life in the Legal Amazon, suggesting the need of differentiated strategies for the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding.

  14. Population and reproductive biology of the fiddler crab Uca thayeri Rathbun, 1900 (Crustacea: Ocypodidae) in a tropical mangrove from Northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda Bezerra, Luis Ernesto; Matthews-Cascon, Helena

    2007-05-01

    Population and reproductive biology of Uca thayeri Rathbun, 1900 were studied for the first time in a tropical mangrove. Absolute density, sex ratio, population structure, handedness, breeding season and fecundity were investigated. Seven transects were delimited in a mangrove area of the Pacoti River, Northeast of Brazil (3° 43' 02″ S/38° 32' 35″ W). On each transect, ten 0.25 m 2 squares were sampled on a monthly basis during low tide periods from September 2003 to August 2004. A total of 483 crabs were obtained, of which 250 were males, 219 non-ovigerous females, and 14 ovigerous females. The U. thayeri population presented bi-modal size frequency distribution, with males and non-ovigerous females not differing significantly size-wise. Ovigerous females were larger than males and non-ovigerous females. The overall sex ratio (1:1.07) did not differ significantly from the expected 1:1 proportion. The major cheliped was the right one in 50% of the males. The observed density was of 8.5 individuals/m 2, with the specimens being found mostly in shaded areas. Ovigerous females were found in 5 months of the year, coinciding with the rainy season, suggesting that the population of U. thayeri presents seasonal reproductive events. Juvenile crabs were more abundant during the dry period, while larger crabs were found mainly during the rainy period. The fecundity of the studied population was much smaller than that of subtropical populations of this species. The regression analysis shows that the number of eggs increases linearly with the increase of carapace width.

  15. Assessing the potential role of concentrated solar power (CSP) for the northeast power system of Brazil using a detailed power system model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichter, Tobias; Soria, Rafael; Szklo, Alexandre; Schaeffer, Roberto; Lucena, Andre F.P.

    2017-01-01

    One of the technologies that stand out as an alternative to provide additional flexibility to power systems with large penetration of variable renewable energy (VRE), especially for regions with high direct normal irradiation (DNI), is concentrated solar power (CSP) plants coupled to thermal energy storage (TES) and back-up (BUS) systems. Brazil can develop this technology domestically, especially in its Northeast region, where most of VRE capacity is being deployed and where lies most of the CSP potential of the country. This work applies the Capacity Expansion Model REMix-CEM, which allows considering dispatch constraints of thermal power plants in long-term capacity expansion optimization. REMix-CEM calculates the optimal CSP plant configuration and its dispatch strategy from a central planning perspective. Results showed that the hybridization of CSP plants with jurema-preta biomass (CSP-BIO) becomes a least-cost option for Brazil by 2040. CSP-BIO contributes to the Northeast power system by regularizing the energy imbalance that results from the large-scale VRE expansion along with conventional inflexible power plants. CSP-BIO plants are able to increase frequency response and operational reserve services and can provide the required additional flexibility that the Northeast power system of Brazil will require into the future. - Highlights: • Concentrating solar power (CSP) plants provide flexibility to power systems. • CSP configuration is optimized endogenously during capacity expansion optimization. • CSP hybridized with biomass supports grid-integration of variable renewable energy. • CSP become the least-cost option for the Northeast power system of Brazil by 2040.

  16. HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance and genetic diversity among patients from Piauí State, Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Maria Edileuza Soares; da Guarda Reis, Mônica Nogueira; Lima, Yanna Andressa Ramos; Eulálio, Kelsen Dantas; Cardoso, Ludimila Paula Vaz; Stefani, Mariane Martins Araújo

    2015-05-01

    HIV-1 transmitted-drug-resistance and genetic diversity are dynamic and may differ in distinct locations/risk groups. In Brazil, increased AIDS incidence and related mortality have been detected in the Northeast region, differently from the epicenter in the Southeast. This cross-sectional study describes transmitted-dru- resistance and HIV-1 subtypes in protease/PR and reverse transcriptase/RT regions among antiretroviral naïve patients from Piauí State, Northeast Brazil. Among 96 patients recruited 89 (92.7%) had HIV-1 PR/RT regions sequenced: 44 females and 45 males, 22 self-declared as men who have sex with men. Transmitted-drug-resistance was investigated by CPR tool (Stanford HIV-1 Drug Resistance/SDRM). HIV-1 subtypes were assigned by REGA and phylogenetic inference. Overall, transmitted-drug-resistance rate was 11.2% (10/89; CI 95%: 5.8-19.1%); 22.7% among men who have sex with men (5/22; CI 95%: 8.8-43.4%), 10% in heterosexual men (2/20; CI 95%: 1.7-29.3%) and 6.8% in women (3/44; CI 95%: 1.8-17.4%). Singleton mutations to protease-inhibitor/PI, nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor/NRTI or non-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor/NNRTI predominated (8/10): PI mutations (M46L, V82F, L90M); NRTI mutations (M41L, D67N) and NNRTI mutations (K103N/S). Dual class resistance mutations to NRTI and NNRTI were observed: T215L (NRTI), Y188L (NNRTI) and T215N (NRTI), F227L (NNRTI). Subtype B prevailed (86.6%; 77/89), followed by subtype F1 (1.1%, 1/89) and subtype C (1.1%, 1/89). B/F1 and B/C intersubtype recombinants represented 11.2% (10/89). In Piauí State extensive testing of incidence and transmitted-drug-resistance in all populations with risk behaviors may help control AIDS epidemic locally. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Late Holocene evolution of the Northeast intertidal region of Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Fernandes Souza Pinto; Maria Virgínia Alves Martins; Maria Antonieta da Conceição Rodrigues; Leandro Nogueira; Lazaro Luiz Mattos Laut; Egberto Pereira

    2016-01-01

    This work is based on the study of the core T1 collected in the Guaratiba Mangrove, located on the northeastern margin of Sepetiba Bay. Few studies dealing with the application of benthic foraminifera to study sea level changes during the Holocene have been conducted in Sepetiba Bay, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In order to fill this gap, the core T1 was studied using textural, geochemical (carbonate, total organic carbon, total sulfur and stable isotopes evaluated in Ammonia tepida) and ...

  18. MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF Liriomyza sp. IN THE NORTHEAST AND SOUTHEAST REGIONS OF BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELAINE CRISTINA BATISTA FERREIRA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, species of the genus Liriomyza are widely distributed and have economic importance as they cause damage to at least 14 plant families, especially Solanaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, and Fabaceae. Studies suggest existence of a species complex within this genus, based on the presence of morphological similarities among the species Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess, L. sativae Blanchard and L. huidobrensis (Blanchard. The present study aimed to use DNA barcoding to establish new distribution records of L. sativae in distinct regions in Brazil, determine intra- and inter-population genetic diversity, and reconstruct the phylogeny of Liriomyza species using the DNA barcode sequences. Identity values were between 97% and 99%, confirming that all the examined Brazilian populations belonged to the species L. sativae. Phylogenetic analyses indicated the presence of a single clade of L. sativae, composed of seven populations. Intra-population analysis on individuals of these populations indicated low levels of nucleotide and haplotype diversity. The haplotype network indicated presence of only 14 haplotypes distributed among the Brazilian populations. The genetic similarities shared by the Brazilian populations of L. sativae suggest that these populations are closely related. Genetic patterns observed among populations of L. sativae might be associated with bottleneck events or founder effect during establishment of this leafminer in Brazil.

  19. Northeast Guanabara Bay and coastal plain Holocene sedimentary evolution (Brazil: A contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Coutinho Abuchacra

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentological and radiocarbon investigations are part of an ongoing research on the Bay-head delta of northeast Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro State. Sediment accumulation indicates that the Holocene infill of the bay-head delta started around 8.2 kyr BP and was not in pace with the eustatic sea-level rise. Sediment accumulation was faster during the transgressive phase (0.56 cm.yr-1. However, during the regressive phase, progradation driven by base-level fall was predominant over vertical sediment accumulation (0.02 cm.yr-1. Based on coring, three sedimentary units were defined: fluvial sands (U1, estuarine deposits (U2 and fluvial mud (U3.

  20. Mortality in the first 24h of very low birth weight preterm infants in the Northeast of Brazil

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    Eveline Campos Monteiro de Castro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate factors associated with neonatal death within 24 hours after birth in very low birth weight preterm newborns. Methods: Prospective cohort of live births with gestational age of 230/7–316/7 weeks, birth weight of 500–1499g without malformations, in 19 public maternity hospitals in nine capitals in northeastern Brazil from July to December 2007. The 19 hospitals were assessed in relation to physical resources, equipment, human resources and aiming at quality in care initiatives. Hospital, maternal and neonatal characteristics, neonatal morbidity, neonatal procedures and interventions were compared between preterm newborns that died or survived up to 24 hours of life. The variables associated with death within 24 hours after birth were determined by logistic regression. Results: Of the 627 newborns enrolled in the study, 179 (29% died within 168 hours after birth, of which 59 (33% up to 24 hours and 97 (54% up to 48 hours after birth. The variables associated with death <24h were: weight <1000g (2.94; 1.32–6.53, 5th minute Apgar <7 (7.17; 3.46–14.88, male gender (2.99; 1.39–6.47. A better hospital structure was a protective factor for early neonatal death (odds ratio: 0.34; 95% confidence interval: 0.17–0.71. Conclusions: The high neonatal mortality on the first day of life in capital cities of Northeast Brazil is associated with biological variables such as weight and gender of the newborn, as well as low vitality at birth and a worse infrastructure of the hospital where the birth occurred.

  1. Width-weight relationship and condition factor of Ucides cordatus (Crustacea, Decapoda, Ucididae at tropical mangroves of Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina S.L.C. Araújo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution aims at evaluating the carapace width vs. humid weight relationship and the condition factor of Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus, 1763, in the mangrove forests of the Ariquindá and Mamucabas rivers, state of Pernambuco, Brazil. These two close areas present similar characteristics of vegetation and substrate, but exhibit different degrees of environmental conservation: the Ariquindá River is the preserved area, considered one of the last non-polluted of Pernambuco, while the Mamucabas River suffers impacts from damming, deforestation and deposition of waste. A total of 1,298 individuals of U. cordatus were collected. Males were larger and heavier than females, what is commonly observed in Brachyura. Ucides cordatus showed allometric negative growth (p < 0.05, which is probably related to the dilatation that this species develops in the lateral of the carapace, which stores six pairs of gills. The values of b were within the limit established for aquatic organisms. Despite of the condition factor being considered an important feature to confirm the reproductive period, since it varies with cyclic activities, in the present study it was not correlated to the abundance of ovigerous females. However, it was considered a good parameter to evaluate environmental impacts, being significantly lower at the impacted area.

  2. Sensitisation to aeroallergens among asthmatic and non-asthmatic adolescents living in a poor region in the Northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarinho, E C S; Mariano, J; Sarinho, S W; Medeiros, D; Rizzo, J A; Almerinda R, S; Solé, D

    2009-01-01

    To assess the kind and frequency of sensitisation to aeroallergens (skin prick test - SPT) of asthmatic and non-asthmatic adolescents (13-14 years old) living in the city of Caruaru, Northeast of Brazil, and to analyse their exposure to some environmental factors. A case-control study was conducted with asthmatic (50) and non-asthmatic (150) adolescents diagnosed by the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) written questionnaire. All were submitted to SPT with aeroallergens (house dust mites, cat and dog epithelium, cockroaches, moulds and grass) and completed a questionnaire to evaluate their environmental exposure. There were no significant differences between groups regarding gender, age, number of siblings and environmental exposure. Asthmatic subjects exhibited a higher frequency of positive SPTs than non-asthmatic subjects (54.0% vs 33.3%, p=0.009) mainly due to Periplaneta americana (34.0% vs 12.7%, p=0.0007 respectively) and Canis familiaris (20.0% vs 8.7%, p=0.029). Although sensitisation to aeroallergens was high among non-asthmatic adolescents, asthma was associated with parental history of atopic disease and sensitisation to P. americana and Canis familiaris but not to D. pteronyssinus showing that local studies are mandatory for the tailoring of appropriate management of allergic diseases.

  3. [Food insecurity in rural communities in Northeast Brazil: does belonging to a slave-descendent community make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Etna Kaliane Pereira da; Medeiros, Danielle Souto de; Martins, Poliana Cardoso; Sousa, Líllian de Almeida; Lima, Gislane Pereira; Rêgo, Maria Amanda Sousa; Silva, Tainan Oliveira da; Freire, Alessandra Silva; Silva, Fernanda Moitinho

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to measure the prevalence of food insecurity in a rural area of Northeast Brazil and investigate this outcome according to residence in quilombola communities (descendants of African slaves) versus non-quilombola communities. This was a cross-sectional study in 21 rural communities, 9 of which quilombolas, in 2014, using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale (EBIA). Prevalence rates and prevalence ratios were estimated for food insecurity, and Poisson multiple regression analysis with robust variance was performed. Food insecurity was found in 52.1% of the families: 64.9% in quilombola communities and 42% in the others. Food insecurity was associated with belonging to a quilombola community (PR = 1.25), lower economic status (PR = 1.89; 2.98, and 3.22 for status C2, D, and E, respectively), beneficiaries of Bolsa Família program (PR = 1.52), and four or more household members (PR = 1.20). Food insecurity prevalence was high in the entire population, but it was even higher in quilombola communities, even though they belonged to the same coverage area. The results emphasize this population's vulnerability.

  4. Thais (Stramonita rustica (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Thaididae, a potential bioindicator of contamination by organotin northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo Braga de Castro

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of antifouling paints containing the biocide compound tributyltin (TBT has been shown as an inductor of imposex in neogastropods mollusks. Imposex is characterized by the development of male features in females, mainly the appearance of a no functional vas deferens and penis. Samples of Thais rustica were collected in eight sites in the metropolitan area of Natal city, Rio Grande do Norte state, northeast Brazil, and examined for occurrence of imposex, which was found in many females. The higher imposex levels were presented by samples from sites near city harbor.A utilização de tintas antiincrustrantes contendo o composto biocida tributilestanho (TBT tem induzido moluscos neogastrópodes ao imposex. O imposex é caracterizado pelo surgimento de caracteres sexuais masculinos, sobretudo, pênis e vaso deferente não funcionais em fêmeas desses moluscos. Foram coletadas amostras de Thais rústica em oito estações ao longo da costa da cidade de Natal no Rio Grande do Norte. Esses animais foram analisados quanto a presença e o grau de imposex que apresentavam. Os níveis mais elevados de imposex foram observados na estação mais próxima ao porto.

  5. Antibiotic resistance and molecular analysis of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cow's milk and dairy products in northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira-Filho, Vladimir M; Luz, Isabelle S; Campos, Ana Paula F; Silva, Wellington M; Barros, Maria Paloma S; Medeiros, Elizabeth S; Freitas, Manuela F L; Mota, Rinaldo A; Sena, Maria J; Leal-Balbino, Tereza C

    2014-04-01

    This work aimed to assess the clonal distribution among 94 strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cow's milk, raw cheese, and a milking machine in 12 dairy farms in northeast Brazil, by analyzing different typing methods and detecting resistance and toxigenic profiles. For the first time, isolates of this region were assessed simultaneously by the polymorphism of the 3'-end coa gene and 16S-23S rDNA, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, antibiotic resistance phenotyping, and toxigenic arsenal. Although pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns showed a wider variation (discriminatory index 0.83) than the PCR-based methods, the internal transcribed spacer-PCR proved to be a useful and inexpensive procedure for conducting epidemiological surveys of S. aureus on a regional scale. Each dairy farm had its own resistance profile, and in two herds, 63% of the strains were multiresistant, probably due to the indiscriminate use of antibiotics in bovine mastitis treatment. No methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains were detected in this study; however, 93.6% of S. aureus strains harbored variable profiles of staphylococcal enterotoxin genes seg, seh, sei, and sej. Transcriptional analysis revealed that 53.3% of staphylococcal enterotoxin genes actually transcribed, pointing out the food poisoning risk of these dairy products to consumers in the region. Based on the detection of the most prevalent clones in a herd or region, appropriate antibiotic therapy and specific immunization can be used for the treatment and control of staphylococcal mastitis.

  6. Paleomagnetism of volcanic rocks from the Northeast of Brazil and the time of the opening of the South Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerreiro, S.D.C.

    1983-01-01

    In the first part of this paper palaeomagnetic and rock magnetism investigations were developed in volcanic samples from the Northeast of Brazil. The age of the samples spans the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. To accomplish this task four areas were studied and a total of 495 samples from 58 sites were analysed. A portable drilling machine with 2.5 em core diameter was used to collect the samples. The orientation of the samples were obtained by means of a magnetic compass, and a clinometer. The analysis of the magnetic minerals of these samples was done by thermomagnetic curves and by X-ray diffraction. In most cases the magnetic phase in the rocks is mainly titanomagnetite with poor titanium content. Maghemite and sometimes hematite, usually a product of weathering, did not obscure the initial thermoremanent magnetization of these rocks. The second part of this paper deals with the determination of the time of the opening of the South Atlantic ocean by means of palaeomagnetic data. In this paper, however, instead of using the polar wandering paths of the continents (the usual method) statistical tests were applied that give the probability that a certain configuration for the two continents be consistent or not with the palaeomagnetic data for a chosen period. (author)

  7. Injuries caused by venomous animals and folk medicine in farmers from Cuité, State of Paraiba, Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellyson Fidel Araújo de Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Injuries caused by venomous animals reported by the agricultural workers from the municipality of Cuité, Curimataú region of Paraiba State, Northeast of Brazil, and the practices of folk medicine which they use to treat these cases were studied in this work from June to August 2010. The farmers studied aged from 11 to 90 years. The number of people who reported cases of injury by these animals in their families was high (89.3%. Scorpions, wasps, bees and snakes were the most cited and the extremities of the body (hands, feet, legs and head were the most affected. The practice of folk medicine to treat these injuries includes various procedures ranging from ritualistic treatments, use of animals or parts of them, and some herbal preparations. The folk treatment was reported as effective by most of the workers injured (63.9%. Body parts of dead snakes are used in various zootherapic treatments. In the imaginary of the agricultural workers the venomous animals are considered hazardous (48.7% or disgusting (11.3%, and several parts of such animals as the rattle, bee sting or snake leather are used as amulet. Several legends have also been reported about snakes, scorpions and bees. The need for educational activities that aim to clarify these workers about the dangers of such practices is urgent.

  8. Factors influencing growth and intestinal parasitic infections in preschoolers attending philanthropic daycare centers in Salvador, Northeast Region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Rebecca L; Lander, Alastair G; Houghton, Lisa; Williams, Sheila M; Costa-Ribeiro, Hugo; Barreto, Daniel L; Mattos, Angela P; Gibson, Rosalind S

    2012-11-01

    Poor growth and intestinal parasitic infections are widespread in disadvantaged urban children. This cross-sectional study assessed factors influencing poor growth and intestinal parasites in 376 children aged three to six years in daycare centers in Salvador, in the Northeast Region of Brazil. Data was obtained from seven daycare centers on child weight, height, socio-economic status, health and intestinal parasites in stool samples. Prevalence of moderate underweight ( -2SD), wasting and stunting was 12%, 16% and 6% respectively. Socioeconomic status, birth order, and maternal weight were predictors of poor anthropometric status. Almost 30% of children were infected with more than one intestinal parasite. Helminths (17.8%), notably Trichuris trichiura (12%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (10.5%), and protozoan Giardia duodenalis (13%) were the most common types of parasites detected. One percent of children had hookworm and Cryptosporidium sp. and 25% had non-pathogenic protozoan cysts. Boys from families with very low socio-economic status had lower linear growth and presented a greater risk of helminth infection. Deworming is considered an alternative for reducing the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in this age group.

  9. Ethnotaxonomical considerations and usage of ichthyofauna in a fishing community in Ceará State, Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Márcia Freire; Mourão, José da Silva; Alves, Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega

    2013-03-08

    Artisanal fishery is one of the most important economic activities for human populations living in coastal areas. The traditional knowledge that fishermen have of fishes is of utmost importance for the establishment of conservation strategies for many species. This study aimed to analyse the knowledge of and utilization of fishes by the artisanal fishermen in a fishing community on the coast of Ceará State (Northeast Brazil). In 2011, a number of semi-structured interviews were performed with fishermen with more than 20 years of fishery experience. The interviews were about fisheries (collecting spots, artefacts, etc.) and fish use. The fishes cited by the fishermen were identified scientifically and ethnotaxonomically. Considered masters of fishery, they cited 162 vernacular names of fishes, which corresponded to 290 different species, also including other animals such as dolphins, porpoises, whales and manatees. The criteria for the classification of the fishes were well known and utilised by the fishermen, and they were based on morphology, behaviour, habitat and the importance of commercial and fishing activities. Four hierarchical categories were identified in their classification system: kingdom, life-form, generic and specific. The fish nomenclature created by the fishermen was mostly composed of generic and monotypic names. The main uses of fish were for food and commercial purposes. The results stress the richness and complexity of the knowledge of the artisanal fishermen of Redonda Beach, and they provide support for the possibility of future studies and for the development of management plans and the management of wildlife resources.

  10. Distribution and conservation of three important bird groups of the Atlantic Forest in north-east Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract The Pernambuco Endemism Center in north-east Brazil has the most fragmented forest cover and the largest number of threatened birds of the whole Atlantic Forest. We analyzed the distribution of three groups of bird species: forest-dependent, endemic and/or threatened using the interpolation method of Inverse Distance Weighting. We also checked the concentration of these birds in protected and unprotected areas, suggesting new sites that need to be protected. The richness concentration of forest-dependent, endemic and/or threatened birds in 123 sites were analysed. There was a greater concentration of the three groups in north Alagoas, south and north Pernambuco, and north and west Paraíba. The distribution of the three groups was almost regular in different vegetation types, although a lower concentration was found in the pioneer formation. There was a greater concentration of birds from all three groups between Pernambuco and Alagoas, and this must be due to the presence of more forest fragments with better structure and vegetation heterogeneity. The protected and unprotected areas hosted important records of endemic and/or threatened birds. We suggested some important places for implementation of new protected areas due to the larger concentrations of the target birds and because they are located within the boundaries of the Important Bird Areas.

  11. Surveillance of occupational accidents by sentinel workers' health centers in the municipality of Fortaleza, Northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Marcelo José Monteiro; Lima, Romênia Kelly Soares de; Silva, Ageo Mário Cândido da; Bezerra, José Gomes; Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona de Góes

    2017-10-01

    This article examines the factors associated with the notification of occupational accidents by sentinel workers' health centers in the municipality of Fortaleza in the northeast of Brazil. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted of five sentinel workers' health centers for serious and fatal occupational accidents. A total of 354 interviews were conducted with professionals responsible for notifying occupational accidents. Bivariate analysis was conducted using Pearson's chi-square test and/or Fisher's exact test using prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals, followed by stratified analysis and multivariate Poisson regression adopting the stepwise forward method. Variables that obtained a p-value of less than or equal to the chosen significance level (0.05) were maintained in the final model. Professionals who had a greater number of years of work experience, had undertaken three training courses, had knowledge of policy directives concerning occupational accidents, were familiar with the SINAN notification form, were aware that occupational accidents are reportable, and discussed the theme of occupational accidents in the workplace were statistically more likely to notify occupational accidents. Education and training helps raise awareness among health professionals.

  12. Nitrogen (15 N) fertilizer use in subsistence culture in the semi-arid soil of Northeast-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampaio, Everardo V.S.B.; Antonino, Antonio C.D.; Salcedo, Ignacio H.; Tiessen, Holm

    1997-01-01

    Productivity in the semi-arid area of Northeast Brazil is limited by nitrogen deficiency but fertilizers are not used due to the risk of this investment, usually calculated considering the year of application. Part of the fertilizer accumulates in the soil and can be used in subsequent crops. To provide information on accumulation, an experiment was established at Coxixola, city Pernambuco state consisting of combinations of single and intercropped corn and beans, with and without nitrogen fertilization (16 Kg.ha-1). Planting was done in holes, 1,1 x 1,0 m apart and 15N ammonium nitrate was applied in the there central holes of the plots. At harvest, plants in these hole were analysed separately and the soil was sampled at threre depths and five distances from the point of application of the fertilizer. Productivities were low, without differences between fertilized and non fertilized treatments for grain but with differences for straw. Single corn absorbed more (34%) and retained more of the N fertilizer in the soil (50%) than single beans (16 e 28%) and intercrop (corn 15% beans 11% soil 48%). Part of the unrecovered fertilizer may have migrated out of the sampled volume. This migration and the losses in beans indicate that only a small effect is expected for the accumulated N in the soil. (author). 31 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  13. Distribution and conservation of three important bird groups of the Atlantic Forest in north-east Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, G A; Araújo, H F P; Azevedo-Júnior, S M

    2016-01-01

    The Pernambuco Endemism Center in north-east Brazil has the most fragmented forest cover and the largest number of threatened birds of the whole Atlantic Forest. We analyzed the distribution of three groups of bird species: forest-dependent, endemic and/or threatened using the interpolation method of Inverse Distance Weighting. We also checked the concentration of these birds in protected and unprotected areas, suggesting new sites that need to be protected. The richness concentration of forest-dependent, endemic and/or threatened birds in 123 sites were analysed. There was a greater concentration of the three groups in north Alagoas, south and north Pernambuco, and north and west Paraíba. The distribution of the three groups was almost regular in different vegetation types, although a lower concentration was found in the pioneer formation. There was a greater concentration of birds from all three groups between Pernambuco and Alagoas, and this must be due to the presence of more forest fragments with better structure and vegetation heterogeneity. The protected and unprotected areas hosted important records of endemic and/or threatened birds. We suggested some important places for implementation of new protected areas due to the larger concentrations of the target birds and because they are located within the boundaries of the Important Bird Areas.

  14. Prevalence of antibody to hepatitis B virus in an urban population of northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lyra,L. G.; Damasceno,A. P.; Cotrim,P.; Mota,E.; Silva,L.

    1986-01-01

    A sample of 1,288 inhabitants of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, were submitted to the determination of anti-HBs using radioimmunoassay procedure, and analysed according to age, sex and income. Overall prevalence of anti-HBs was 11,8%. ranging from 6,7% among children aged less than three years old to 26,1% among those aged 30 years and older. Males presented prevalence of anti-HBs similar to female individuals, and those with a higher income showed frequencies of anti-HBs greater than those with a ...

  15. Consumption of fruits and vegetables associated with other risk behaviors among adolescents in Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fabiana Medeiros de Almeida; Smith-Menezes, Aldemir; Duarte, Maria de Fátima da Silva

    2016-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of consumption of fruits and vegetables and identify the association with low level of physical activity, exposure to sedentary behavior, consumption of soft drinks and overweight/obesity in adolescents. This is a cross-sectional school-based study with a representative sample of 3992 students aged 14-19 years from the state of Sergipe, Brazil. The outcome was low consumption of fruits and vegetables (de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Plastic ingestion by sea turtles in Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Poli; Daniel Oliveira Mesquita; Cinthia Saska; Rita Mascarenhas

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Currently, plastics are recognized as a major pollutant of the marine environment, representing a serious threat to ocean wildlife. Here, we examined the occurrence and effects of plastic ingestion by sea turtles found stranded along the coast of Paraíba State, Brazil from August 2009 to July 2010. Ninety-eight digestive tracts were examined, with plastic found in 20 (20.4%). Sixty five percent (n = 13) of turtles with plastic in the digestive tract were green turtles (Chelonia mydas...

  17. Babassu nut residues: potential for bioenergy use in the North and Northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula Protásio, Thiago; Fernando Trugilho, Paulo; da Silva César, Antônia Amanda; Napoli, Alfredo; Alves de Melo, Isabel Cristina Nogueira; Gomes da Silva, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    Babassu is considered the largest native oil resource worldwide and occurs naturally in Brazil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of babassu nut residues (epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp) for bioenergy use, especially for direct combustion and charcoal production. The material was collected in the rural area of the municipality of Sítio Novo do Tocantins, in the state of Tocantins, Brazil. Analyses were performed considering jointly the three layers that make up the babassu nut shell. The following chemical characterizations were performed: molecular (lignin, total extractives and holocellulose), elemental (C, H, N, S and O), immediate (fixed carbon, volatiles and ash), energy (higher heating value and lower heating value), physical (basic density and energy density) and thermal (thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis), besides the morphological characterization by scanning electron microscopy. Babassu nut residues showed a high bioenergy potential, mainly due to their high energy density. The use of this biomass as a bioenergy source can be highly feasible, given their chemical and thermal characteristics, combined with a low ash content. Babassu nut shell showed a high basic density and a suitable lignin content for the sustainable production of bioenergy and charcoal, capable of replacing coke in Brazilian steel plants.

  18. Case study of mesospheric front dissipation observed over the northeast of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoso Medeiros, Amauri; Paulino, Igo; Wrasse, Cristiano Max; Fechine, Joaquim; Takahashi, Hisao; Valentin Bageston, José; Paulino, Ana Roberta; Arlen Buriti, Ricardo

    2018-03-01

    On 3 October 2005 a mesospheric front was observed over São João do Cariri (7.4° S, 36.5° W). This front propagated to the northeast and appeared in the airglow images on the west side of the observatory. By about 1.5 h later, it dissipated completely when the front crossed the local zenith. Ahead of the front, several ripple structures appeared during the dissipative process of the front. Using coincident temperature profile from the TIMED/SABER satellite and wind profiles from a meteor radar at São João do Cariri, the background of the atmosphere was investigated in detail. On the one hand, it was noted that a strong vertical wind shear in the propagation direction of the front produced by a semidiunal thermal tide was mainly responsible for the formation of duct (Doppler duct), in which the front propagated up to the zenith of the images. On the other hand, the evolution of the Richardson number as well as the appearance of ripples ahead of the main front suggested that a presence of instability in the airglow layer that did not allow the propagation of the front to the other side of the local zenith.

  19. Northeast project/CNEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, R.N.; Ribeiro, G.F.; Lima, J.O.V.; Dornelles, G.H.; Laborne, J.J.; Sakamoto, L.H.; Lemos Junior, O.F.

    1987-10-01

    The subprojects from the Northeast/CNEN project, that aims to disseminate the benefits of nuclear energy are described. Those subprojects are the following: food conservation, energy, health, hydric resources, mineral and agriculture, all of them have as goal to improve the socio-economical conditions of the northeast population in Brazil. (E.G.) [pt

  20. Advantages and difficulties of transport by charter as an enabler of university education in Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Oliveira de Andrade

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reveals the travel characteristics; direct and indirect costs and travel times; users’ perceptions with respect to reliability, comfort and safety; and impact on the quality of academic performance for students in the Centro Acadêmico do Agreste of UFPE, located in Caruaru, Brazil, which has 3,000 students from 70 cities. Almost 50% of these students live in cities located within 100 km of Caruaru and commute for three hours on average (round-trip. These trips are mostly performed on non-regular intercity transport, chartered by users or municipalities. This kind of transport, apparently inadequate in operational terms, makes access to higher education possible for a significant proportion of students, keeping them residents of their hometowns.

  1. Geochemical characterization and miospore biochronostratigraphy of the Frasnian anoxic event in the Parnaiba basin, Northeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, R.; De Melo, J.H.G.; Alves, D.B.; Loboziak, S.

    1995-01-01

    Radioactive shales of Frasnian age in the Parnaiba Basin present high concentrations of organic matter. They correspond to a condensed section related to the Devonian maximum marine transgression. Combined geochemical, palynological and clay mineral data point out to a dominant algal contribution in the composition of the organic matter, as well as to anoxic depositional settings. This radioactive shale interval corresponds to the onset of a long-lasting, global anoxic event which was to be intensified in the Late Frasnian, and thus can be regarded as a marker for chronostratigraphic correlations. It includes the main source rocks of Devonian age in the Palaeozoic basins of north Brazil, and therefore represents a target of potential interest for hydrocarbon exploration. (authors). 16 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab., 17 photos

  2. Geochemical characterization and miospore biochronostratigraphy of the Frasnian anoxic event in the Parnaiba basin, Northeast Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, R.; De Melo, J.H.G.; Alves, D.B. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Loboziak, S. [Lille-1 Univ., 59 - Villeneuve-d`Ascq (France)

    1995-12-31

    Radioactive shales of Frasnian age in the Parnaiba Basin present high concentrations of organic matter. They correspond to a condensed section related to the Devonian maximum marine transgression. Combined geochemical, palynological and clay mineral data point out to a dominant algal contribution in the composition of the organic matter, as well as to anoxic depositional settings. This radioactive shale interval corresponds to the onset of a long-lasting, global anoxic event which was to be intensified in the Late Frasnian, and thus can be regarded as a marker for chronostratigraphic correlations. It includes the main source rocks of Devonian age in the Palaeozoic basins of north Brazil, and therefore represents a target of potential interest for hydrocarbon exploration. (authors). 16 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab., 17 photos.

  3. [A Street Clinic in a state capital in Northeast Brazil from the perspective of homeless people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Cíntia Priscila da Silva; Rozendo, Célia Alves; Melo, Givânya Bezerra de

    2016-08-08

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the Street Clinic strategy in Maceió, Alagoas State, Brazil, from the perspective of its users. This was a qualitative study in coverage areas of the Street Clinic in Maceió. Research subjects were 18 homeless individuals assisted by the clinic (10 men and 8 women), ranging from 20 to 40 years of age. Data were collected from September 2014 to February 2015 using a semi-structured interview. Content analysis was applied to the data and identified two categories: the first, the Street Clinic as such, revealed the strategy's critical points, challenges, and potentialities; the second showed the Street Clinic as social support, affect, and hope for change for the homeless. The strategy was rated positively by users, providing social support on health problems and other daily issues.

  4. Influence of granitic aggregates from Northeast Brazil on the alkali-aggregate reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes Neto, David de Paiva; Santana, Rodrigo Soares de; Barreto, Ledjane Silva, E-mail: pvgomes@uol.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias dos Materiais e Engenharia; Conceicao, Herbert; Lisboa, Vinicios Anselmo Carvalho [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia

    2014-08-15

    The alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR) in concrete structures is a problem that has concerned engineers and researchers for decades. This reaction occurs when silicates in the aggregates react with the alkalis, forming an expanded gel that can cause cracks in the concrete and reduce its lifespan. The aim of this study was to characterize three coarse granitic aggregates employed in concrete production in northeastern Brazil, correlating petrographic analysis with the kinetics of silica dissolution and the evolution of expansions in mortar bars, assisted by SEM/EDS, XRD, and EDX. The presence of grains showing recrystallization into individual microcrystalline quartz subgrains was associated with faster dissolution of silica and greater expansion in mortar bars. Aggregates showing substantial deformation, such as stretched grains of quartz with strong undulatory extinction, experienced slower dissolution, with reaction and expansion occurring over longer periods that could not be detected using accelerated tests with mortar bars. (author)

  5. Identification of alimentary components of Antillean manatee diet in the Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Garcia Anzolin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The manatees are considered to be opportunist herbivors, consuming a great amount of alimentary items. The aim of the present study was to identify the alimentary components of the diet of Antillean manatees in free life in the northeastern region of Brazil. Samples of stomach contents from six Antillean manatee carcasses were col¬lected, in addition to fecal samples from 11 native manatees and five that had been released. The material was identified at the genus and/or species level, based on its morpho-anatomic aspects, and 21 species of seaweeds, phanerogams and cnidarians were presented. Through these analyses it was possible to observe that Antillean manatees fed on a great variety of aquatic plants, with the predominance of red seaweeds.

  6. Using kernel density estimates to investigate lymphatic filariasis in northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Zulma; Bonfim, Cristine; Brandão, Eduardo; Netto, Maria José Evangelista; Vasconcellos, Lucia; Ribeiro, Liany; Portugal, José Luiz

    2012-01-01

    After more than 10 years of the Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) in Brazil, advances have been seen, but the endemic disease persists as a public health problem. The aim of this study was to describe the spatial distribution of lymphatic filariasis in the municipality of Jaboatão dos Guararapes, Pernambuco, Brazil. An epidemiological survey was conducted in the municipality, and positive filariasis cases identified in this survey were georeferenced in point form, using the GPS. A kernel intensity estimator was applied to identify clusters with greater intensity of cases. We examined 23 673 individuals and 323 individuals with microfilaremia were identified, representing a mean prevalence rate of 1.4%. Around 88% of the districts surveyed presented cases of filarial infection, with prevalences of 0–5.6%. The male population was more affected by the infection, with 63.8% of the cases (P<0.005). Positive cases were found in all age groups examined. The kernel intensity estimator identified the areas of greatest intensity and least intensity of filarial infection cases. The case distribution was heterogeneous across the municipality. The kernel estimator identified spatial clusters of cases, thus indicating locations with greater intensity of transmission. The main advantage of this type of analysis lies in its ability to rapidly and easily show areas with the highest concentration of cases, thereby contributing towards planning, monitoring, and surveillance of filariasis elimination actions. Incorporation of geoprocessing and spatial analysis techniques constitutes an important tool for use within the GPELF. PMID:22943547

  7. The archaeometry study of the chemical and mineral composition of pottery from Brazil's Northeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J.O.; Santos, J.O.; Munita, C.S.; Toyota, R.G.; Oliveira, P.M.S.; Vergne, C.; Silva, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    Chemical and mineralogical analysis was performed on ceramics and clay samples from Barracao archaeological site located in Baixo Sao Francisco River by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The data set was studied by means of cluster analysis (CA) and discriminant analysis (DA). The results showed that the raw material used in ceramics is not local. By using DSC it was possible to discover that the principal minerals in the samples are quartz, feldspars, mica and kaolinite. (author)

  8. Quality assessment of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine services at Northeast states, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Wellington Gomes de

    2012-01-01

    The radiopharmaceuticals are used in the field nuclear medicine services (NMS) as tracer in the diagnoses and treatment of many diseases. Radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine and usually have a minimum of pharmacological effect. The procedures for labelling Radiopharmaceuticals should be observed in order to minimize risks to patients, employees and individuals from the public, and to be administered in humans, must be sterile and free of pyrogens and possess elements all measures of quality controls required a conventional drug. The 'Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria (ANVISA)' in its 'Resolucao de Diretoria Colegiada' (RDC) No. 38 of June 4 th 2008, decided that the NMS must perform quality control in the generators eluate and radiopharmaceuticals according to recommendations of manufacturers and scientific evidence accepted by ANVISA. Thus, this study proposes to evaluate the quality of the generator 99M o- 99m Tc eluate and radiopharmaceuticals labeled with 99m Tc used in most NMS of some states in the Northeast, in relation to radionuclide, chemical, radiochemical purity and pH and promote the inclusion of procedure for quality control of radiopharmaceuticals in routine NMS. The results show that 90% radionuclidic purity, 98.2% purity chemical and radiochemical purity of 46% and 100% of the eluates are in agreement with international pharmacopoeias; already radiopharmaceuticals showed 82.6% purity and all radiochemical pH values are also in accordance with international pharmacopoeias. Even with so many positive results, staff the majority of MNS was not able to perform the quality control of the eluates and radiopharmaceuticals. Showing the importance of implementing of quality control programs of the eluates and radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine. (author)

  9. An assessment of electricity and income distributional trends following rural electrification in poor northeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obermaier, Martin; Szklo, Alexandre; La Rovere, Emilio Lèbre; Pinguelli Rosa, Luiz

    2012-01-01

    Rural electrification is considered to be a key strategy for poverty alleviation and sustainable development. It should therefore include (1) expanding electricity access and (2) enable new consumers to increase their electricity consumption. In this paper we ask how Brazil’s recent rural electrification efforts have managed to reach these objectives. A new method to measure energy and income equity is presented which uses estimations of non-parametric density curves for the analysis of energy and income distributional trends following electrification. By applying our method to a panel data set from two Brazilian states situated in the country’s poor northeast region we find that (1) rural consumers take up electricity consumption after electrification, and that (2) low consumption levels give way to higher electricity consumption levels after only a few years. This indicates immediate social benefits for households through consumption of electricity services. However, our analysis cannot verify a direct link between electricity use and rural income generation in the short term. The results emphasize the need for government and other actors to integrate rural electrification into broader rural development strategies in order to enable long-term welfare increases through electricity use. - Highlights: ► Comprehensive analysis of Brazil’s recent rural electrification efforts. ► New methodology to analyze energy and income equity trends ex post electrification. ► Analysis indicates immediate social benefits for electrified households. ► We cannot establish a direct link between electricity use and income in the short-run. ► Electrification thus should be integrated in long-term rural development strategies.

  10. Water Footprint of pigs slaughtered in the northeast region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Elisabete Schneider

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the water footprint of pigs slaughtered in the municipalities that participate in the Regional Council for the Development of Serra (Corede Serra, in Portuguese, located in the northeast region of Rio Grande do Sul State, in 2014. In order to determine the water footprint, we estimated the water consumed in the production of grains (corn and soybeans used for animal feed, the water used for livestock watering, the water used for cleaning creation areas and the water consumed by animals during the growing and finishing phases. The total water footprint of slaughtered pigs was 0.19825 km3, the largest component of which was water used for the cultivation of grains (99.6%. The municipality of Nova Prata had the largest water footprint of Corede Serra (0.02343 km3 year1, followed by the municipalities of Paraí (0.02187 km3 year-1 and Serafina Corrêa (0.01658 km3 year-1. The municipalities of São Marcos (0.000006 km3 year-1, Bento Gonçalves (0,00002 km3 year-1 and Boa Vista do Sul (0.0004 km3 year-1 had the lowest water footprints, due to low corn productivity associated with the low number of hogs slaughtered. From this assessment, it was found that the management of water resources associated with pig chain production should include water used in the production of feed grain as well as the water used directly in animal husbandry.

  11. Water-contact patterns and risk factors for Schistosoma mansoni infection in a rural village of Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVA Antônio Augusto Moura da

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis mansoni in the Serrano village, municipality of Cururupu, state of Maranhão, Brazil, is a widely spread disease. The PECE (Program for the Control of Schistosomiasis, undertaken since 1979 has reduced the prevalence of S. mansoni infection and the hepatosplenic form of the disease. Nevertheless piped water is available in 84% of the households, prevalence remains above 20%. In order to identify other risk factors responsible for the persistence of high prevalence levels, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in a systematic sample of 294 people of varying ages. Socioeconomic, environmental and demographic variables, and water contact patterns were investigated. Fecal samples were collected and analyzed by the Kato-Katz technique. Prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 24.1%, higher among males (35.5% and between 10-19 years of age (36.6%. The risk factors identified in the univariable analysis were water contacts for vegetable extraction (Risk Ratio - RR = 2.92, crossing streams (RR = 2.55, bathing (RR = 2.35, fishing (RR = 2.19, hunting (RR = 2.17, cattle breeding (RR = 2.04, manioc culture (RR = 1.90 and leisure (RR = 1.56. After controlling for confounding variables by proportional hazards model the risks remained higher for males, vegetable extraction, bathing in rivers and water contact in rivers or in periodically inundated parts of riverine woodland (swamplands

  12. Agrarian Social Movements and the Making of Agrodiesel Moral Territories in Northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzi, Maya

    In response to widespread concerns about the socio-ecological impacts of agrofuel production and development, particularly for food security, efforts have been made internationally to implement more sustainable forms of producing agrofuels. Brazil's National Program for the Production and Use of Agrodiesel (PNPB), launched in 2004, is one such attempt. Promoted as a socially and environmentally responsible program, the PNPB was made possible through unprecedented alliances between the 'postneoliberal' Brazilian state, the agribusiness sector, and social movements such as the Rural Trade Union's Movement (MSTTR) and the Landless Rural Workers' Movement (MST). In this research, I critically analyze the unexpected engagement of social movements in the making of agrodiesel territories in semi-arid Bahia, Northeastern Brazil by examining the territorial and moral processes and practices that underlie the production of castor bean (mamona) for agrodiesel. The methodology adopted comprised participant observation, informal and semi-structured interviews (n=74) with leaders and members of the MST and the MSTTR in the territories of the Chapada Diamantina and Irece, in central Bahia. Interviews were also conducted with representatives of family farming cooperatives, government institutions, and agrodiesel companies (Petrobras) in the two study areas and in Salvador, capital of Bahia. Research methods also included the collection and critical discourse analysis of archival and other secondary data sources from public and private institutions. Drawing mainly from cultural geography and political ecology literatures, I argue that social movement leaders enable the making of agrodiesel territories mainly through their role as 'agrodiesel gatekeepers'---as legal interveners, managers, and caregivers. Family farmers tend to enable agrodiesel territorial expansion and to disrupt agrodiesel territorial management by not complying with moral prescriptions of loyalty. I see farmers

  13. History of water quality parameters - a study on the Sinos River/Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konzen, G B; Figueiredo, J A S; Quevedo, D M

    2015-05-01

    Water is increasingly becoming a valuable resource, constituting one of the central themes of environmental, economic and social discussions. The Sinos River, located in southern Brazil, is the main river from the Sinos River Basin, representing a source of drinking water supply for a highly populated region. Considering its size and importance, it becomes necessary to conduct a study to follow up the water quality of this river, which is considered by some experts as one of the most polluted rivers in Brazil. As for this study, its great importance lies in the historical analysis of indicators. In this sense, we sought to develop aspects related to the management of water resources by performing a historical analysis of the Water Quality Index (WQI) of the Sinos River, using statistical methods. With regard to the methodological procedures, it should be pointed out that this study performs a time analysis of monitoring data on parameters related to a punctual measurement that is variable in time, using statistical tools. The data used refer to analyses of the water quality of the Sinos River (WQI) from the State Environmental Protection Agency Henrique Luiz Roessler (Fundação Estadual de Proteção Ambiental Henrique Luiz Roessler, FEPAM) covering the period between 2000 and 2008, as well as to a theoretical analysis focusing on the management of water resources. The study of WQI and its parameters by statistical analysis has shown to be effective, ensuring its effectiveness as a tool for the management of water resources. The descriptive analysis of the WQI and its parameters showed that the water quality of the Sinos River is concerning low, which reaffirms that it is one of the most polluted rivers in Brazil. It should be highlighted that there was an overall difficulty in obtaining data with the appropriate periodicity, as well as a long complete series, which limited the conduction of statistical studies such as the present one.

  14. Characterization and classification of two soils derived from basic rocks in Pernambuco State Coast, Northeast Brazil

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    Oliveira Lindomário Barros de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Geomorphic surfaces that present soils derived from basic rocks under warm and humid climate are unique scenarios for studying tropical soils. This paper aimed to characterize and classify two pedons derived from basalt at the Atlantic Forest Zone, Pernambuco State, Northeastern coast of Brazil. Two representative pedons (P1 and P2 were selected on a hillslope at the Cabo de Santo Agostinho municipality. Field macromorphological descriptions were carried out and soil horizon were sampled for physical, chemical, mineralogical and micromorphological characterization. The soils were classified, according to the Brazilian System of Soil Classification (and US Soil Taxonomy as: "Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distroférrico argissólico" (Typic Hapludox (P1 and "Nitossolo Vermelho distroférrico típico" (Rhodic Paleudult (P2. Pedon 1 differs from Pedon 2 in some aspects. For instance, P1 presents more yellowish colors, absence of clay illuviation, more friable consistence and the prismatic structure undergoes transformation to angular and subangular blocks. Pedon 2 presents ferri-argilans and leptocutans which indicate that vertical and lateral illuviation of clay is an active process in their formation. These chemically poor and mineralogically uniform soils are a result of the high temperature and rainfall of the studied area.

  15. [Dental caries incidence in adolescents in a city Northeast Brazil, 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noro, Luiz Roberto Augusto; Roncalli, Angelo Giuseppe; Mendes Júnior, Francisco Ivan Rodrigues; Lima, Kenio Costa

    2009-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence of tooth decay in adolescents, associated with socioeconomic status, access to services, and self-perceived oral health. This was a longitudinal study using an epidemiological survey of dental caries and a structured questionnaire with a sample of 688 adolescents residing in Sobral, Ceará State, Brazil. Incidence increased progressively with age, from 1.60 at 12 years of age to 2.28 at 15, with a mean incidence of 1.86 decayed teeth per adolescent. Among the study variables, tooth pain in the previous six months [RR = 1.46 (1.22-1.76)], school lunch [RR = 1.45 (1.21-1.74)], frequency of dental appointments [RR = 1.48 (1.33-1.79)], and access to the Health Service [RR = 1.21 (1.01-1.45)], adjusted by perceived need for treatment, were associated with high caries incidence. It is essential for health professionals and health system managers to formulate public policies that are not limited merely to clinical and preventive aspects, encouraging the population to struggle for better living conditions and allowing equitable access to services and developing collective management of health actions.

  16. Diversity of leaf endophytic fungi in mangrove plants of Northeast Brazil

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    Isabella P. M. Wanderley Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of increasing the knowledge about endophytic fungi, a group of microorganisms with high biotechnological potential and a valuable source of useful metabolites, a survey in leaves of mangrove plants (Avicennia schaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa, and Rhizophora mangle was performed at the Itamaracá Island, PE, Brazil. Leaves were collected, during two seasons, dry and rainy, superficially sterilized and fragments maintained in Petri dishes with Potato dextrose agar (PDA at 28º ± 2º C until isolation of the fungi. Fourty taxa were isolated: 25 species representing 19 genera and 15 morphotypes determined as Mycelia sterilia. Leaves of L. racemosa hosted the highest number of colony forming units (CFU and taxa. Guignardia sp. and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides were the most frequently isolated, while Glomerella cingulata was the only species found in association with the three host plants. The proportional importance of each fungus differed among hosts. The similarity of fungi species between the two seasons reached only 4.2%, and that between the hosts was also low, with the maximum (A. schaueriana x L. racemosa reaching 24.2%. Sphaerosporium, as well as Chloridium virescens var. virescens, Microsphaeropsis arundinis, Penicillium pinophilum, Periconia cambrensis, Phoma herbarum, P. diachenii, P. obscurans, Sordaria prolifica and Torula elisii are reported for the first time as endophytic in tropical regions.

  17. Breeding period in the mangrove crab Goniopsis cruentata (Decapoda: Grapsidae) in Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lira, José Jonathas Pereira Rodrigues; Calado, Tereza Cristina dos Santos; de Araújo, Marina de Sá Leitão Câmara

    2013-03-01

    The brachyuran crabs are iteroparous species which present a high diversification of reproduction patterns, which may have evolved as a species-specific response to environmental conditions. Tropical species commonly present a year-round reproduction due to stable environment conditions. Goniopsis cruentata is a crab species widely distributed along the Western Atlantic, inhabiting practically every microhabitat in the mangrove ecosystem. The aim of the present study is to determine the breeding period of the crab Goniopsis cruentata in Northeastern Brazil and also to evaluate the influence of water salinity, rainfall and air and water temperature on it. A total of 71 ovigerous females, captured from August-2007 to July-2008, were used to assess the breeding period of this species. It was analyzed by the monthly proportion of ovigerous females. A correlation was applied to verify the influence of the abiotic factors on the breeding period. The present population bred seasonal-continuously with peaks in the dry period, which was not associated with monthly variations of salinity, rainfall and air and water temperatures. Therefore, according to statistical analyses, our hypothesis was refuted. However, breeding was intensified in the dry period, when salinity and temperatures were higher and rainfall was lower. We conclude that, even though breeding is not related to monthly variation of environmental factors, it occurs in periods of higher salinity and temperatures and lower rainfall.

  18. Breeding period in the mangrove crab Goniopsis cruentata (Decapoda: Grapsidae in Northeast Brazil

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    José Jonathas Pereira Rodrigues de Lira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The brachyuran crabs are iteroparous species which present a high diversification of reproduction patterns, which may have evolved as a species-specific response to environmental conditions. Tropical species commonly present a year-round reproduction due to stable environment conditions. Goniopsis cruentata is a crab species widely distributed along the Western Atlantic, inhabiting practically every microhabitat in the mangrove ecosystem. The aim of the present study is to determine the breeding period of the crab Goniopsis cruentata in Northeastern Brazil and also to evaluate the influence of water salinity, rainfall and air and water temperature on it. A total of 71 ovigerous females, captured from August-2007 to July-2008, were used to assess the breeding period of this species. It was analyzed by the monthly proportion of ovigerous females. A correlation was applied to verify the influence of the abiotic factors on the breeding period. The present population bred seasonal-continuously with peaks in the dry period, which was not associated with monthly variations of salinity, rainfall and air and water temperatures. Therefore, according to statistical analyses, our hypothesis was refuted. However, breeding was intensified in the dry period, when salinity and temperatures were higher and rainfall was lower. We conclude that, even though breeding is not related to monthly variation of environmental factors, it occurs in periods of higher salinity and temperatures and lower rainfall.

  19. Morphological analysis of lymph nodes in Odontocetes from north and northeast coast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira e Silva, Fernanda Menezes; Guimarães, Juliana Plácido; Vergara-Parente, Jociery Einhardt; Carvalho, Vitor Luz; De Meirelles, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Marmontel, Miriam; Ferrão, Juliana Shimara Pires; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2014-05-01

    The morphology and location of lymph nodes from seven species of Odontocetes, of both sexes and different age groups, were described. All animals were derived from stranding events along the North and Northeastern coasts of Brazil. After the identification of lymph nodes in situ, tissue samples were analyzed for light and electron microscopy. Vascular volume density (VVD) and vascular length density (VLD) were evaluated in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Lymph nodes occurred as solitary nodules or in groups, varying in shape and size. In addition to using the nomenclature recommended by Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, new nomenclatures were suggested based on the lymph nodes topography. Lymph nodes were covered by a highly vascularized and innervated capsule of dense connective tissue, below which muscle fibers were observed, inconsistently, in all studied species. There was no difference in VLD among different age groups. However, VVD was higher in adults. Lymph nodes parenchyma was divided into an outer cortex, containing lymph nodules and germinal centers; a paracortical region, transition zone with dense lymphoid tissue; and an inner medulla, composed of small irregular cords of lymphatic tissue, blood vessels, and diffuse lymphoid tissue. Abundant collagen fibers were observed around arteries and arterioles. Germinal centers were more evident and developed in calves and young animals, being more discrete and sparse in adults. The morphology of lymph nodes in Odontocetes was typical of that observed in other terrestrial mammals. However, new groups of lymph nodes were described for seven species occurring in the Brazilian coast. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Hydric balance in subsistence culture in the semi-arid soil of Northeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonino, Antonio C.D.; Sampaio, Everardo V.S.B.; Dall'Olio, Attilio; Salcedo, Ignacio H.; Bernardo, Ana L.; Soares, Adriano A.M.

    1997-01-01

    In spite of being the limiting factor for agricultural production, little has been studied about water dynamics in the soil-plant-atmosphere system in the semi-arid northeastern Brazil. To fill this gap, an experiment was established at Coxixola, PB, with four treatments (corn and beans crops, bare soil and soil covered with mulch), plots 7.7 x 10 m and planting spacing between holes, of 1.1 x 1.0 m. Rainfall was monitored with a pluviometer, evaporation with a class A tank and soil water with a neutron probe with daily measurements each 10 cm until 100 cm depth. the crop cycle, from March to July, was divided into nine periods, 13-14 days each. Results confirm the water limitation, with 212 mm rainfall during the cycle, 81% concentrated in the four first periods. Variations in the water storage in the soil profile, for the four treatments, followed variations in rainfall. Bare soil and much had similar results. Average daily real evapotranspiration for beans was 1.8 mm and for corn 1.9 mm. Average daily real evaporation for bare soil and much was 0.78 e 0.85 mm, respectively. (author). 9 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Diversity of leaf endophytic fungi in mangrove plants of northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanderley Costa, Isabella P. M.; Maia, Leonor Costa; Cavalcanti, Maria Auxiliadora

    2012-01-01

    With the aim of increasing the knowledge about endophytic fungi, a group of microorganisms with high biotechnological potential and a valuable source of useful metabolites, a survey in leaves of mangrove plants (Avicennia schaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa, and Rhizophora mangle) was performed at the Itamaracá Island, PE, Brazil. Leaves were collected, during two seasons, dry and rainy, superficially sterilized and fragments maintained in Petri dishes with Potato dextrose agar (PDA) at 28o ± 2o C until isolation of the fungi. Fourty taxa were isolated: 25 species representing 19 genera and 15 morphotypes determined as Mycelia sterilia. Leaves of L. racemosa hosted the highest number of colony forming units (CFU) and taxa. Guignardia sp. and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides were the most frequently isolated, while Glomerella cingulata was the only species found in association with the three host plants. The proportional importance of each fungus differed among hosts. The similarity of fungi species between the two seasons reached only 4.2%, and that between the hosts was also low, with the maximum (A. schaueriana x L. racemosa) reaching 24.2%. Sphaerosporium, as well as Chloridium virescens var. virescens, Microsphaeropsis arundinis, Penicillium pinophilum, Periconia cambrensis, Phoma herbarum, P. diachenii, P. obscurans, Sordaria prolifica and Torula elisii are reported for the first time as endophytic in tropical regions. PMID:24031941

  2. Diversity of leaf endophytic fungi in mangrove plants of northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanderley Costa, Isabella P M; Maia, Leonor Costa; Cavalcanti, Maria Auxiliadora

    2012-07-01

    With the aim of increasing the knowledge about endophytic fungi, a group of microorganisms with high biotechnological potential and a valuable source of useful metabolites, a survey in leaves of mangrove plants (Avicennia schaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa, and Rhizophora mangle) was performed at the Itamaracá Island, PE, Brazil. Leaves were collected, during two seasons, dry and rainy, superficially sterilized and fragments maintained in Petri dishes with Potato dextrose agar (PDA) at 28(o) ± 2(o) C until isolation of the fungi. Fourty taxa were isolated: 25 species representing 19 genera and 15 morphotypes determined as Mycelia sterilia. Leaves of L. racemosa hosted the highest number of colony forming units (CFU) and taxa. Guignardia sp. and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides were the most frequently isolated, while Glomerella cingulata was the only species found in association with the three host plants. The proportional importance of each fungus differed among hosts. The similarity of fungi species between the two seasons reached only 4.2%, and that between the hosts was also low, with the maximum (A. schaueriana x L. racemosa) reaching 24.2%. Sphaerosporium, as well as Chloridium virescens var. virescens, Microsphaeropsis arundinis, Penicillium pinophilum, Periconia cambrensis, Phoma herbarum, P. diachenii, P. obscurans, Sordaria prolifica and Torula elisii are reported for the first time as endophytic in tropical regions.

  3. Low prevalence of H. pylori Infection in HIV-Positive Patients in the Northeast of Brazil

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    Silva Cícero IS

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study conducted in Northeastern Brazil, evaluated the prevalence of H. pylori infection and the presence of gastritis in HIV-infected patients. Methods There were included 113 HIV-positive and 141 age-matched HIV-negative patients, who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for dyspeptic symptoms. H. pylori status was evaluated by urease test and histology. Results The prevalence of H. pylori infection was significantly lower (p H. pylori status and gender, age, HIV viral load, antiretroviral therapy and the use of antibiotics. A lower prevalence of H. pylori was observed among patients with T CD4 cell count below 200/mm3; however, it was not significant. Chronic active antral gastritis was observed in 87.6% of the HIV-infected patients and in 780.4% of the control group (p = 0.11. H. pylori infection was significantly associated with chronic active gastritis in the antrum in both groups, but it was not associated with corpus chronic active gastritis in the HIV-infected patients. Conclusion We demonstrated that the prevalence of H. pylori was significantly lower in HIV-positive patients compared with HIV-negative ones. However, corpus gastritis was frequently observed in the HIV-positive patients, pointing to different mechanisms than H. pylori infection in the genesis of the lesion.

  4. Phytoplankton abundance, dominance and coexistence in an eutrophic reservoir in the state of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Giulliari A S T; Araújo, Elcida L; Bittencourt-Oliveira, Maria Do Carmo; Moura, Ariadne N

    2011-12-01

    The present study reports the phytoplankton abundance, dominance and co-existence relationships in the eutrophic Carpina reservoir, Pernambuco, Brazil. Sampling was carried out at six different depths bimonthly at a single reservoir spanning two climatic periods: dry season (January, September, and November 2006) and rainy season (March, May, and July 2006). Density, abundance, dominance, specific diversity and equitability of the community were determined, along with chlorophyll a, and physical and chemical variables of the environment. Eight species were considered abundant, and their densities corresponded to more than 90% of the total phytoplankton community quantified. Cyanobacteria represented more than 80% of this density. Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii was the only dominant taxon in the dry season, and was co-dominant in the rainy season. C. raciborskii, Planktothrix agardhii and Geitlerinema amphibium had the greatest densities and lowest vertical variation coefficients. The statistical analysis indicated relationships with vertical and seasonal variations in the phytoplankton community and the following variables: total dissolved solids, water temperature, electrical conductivity and pH. The changes in the environmental variables were discrete and regulated by the establishment of precipitation however, they were able to promote vertical and seasonal instability in the structure of the phytoplankton community.

  5. Simultaneous Health Risk Behaviors in Adolescents Associated with Higher Economic Class in the Northeast of Brazil

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    Arley Santos Leão

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Design. The social, cultural, and economic context can be an important variable in the perception and adoption of risk behaviors in adolescents. Objective. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of simultaneous health risk behaviors and associated socioeconomic factors in adolescents living in the metropolitan region of Aracaju, State of Sergipe, Brazil. Methods. The sample consisted of 2,207 high school students aged 13–18 years. The risk behaviors measured were “low levels of physical activity,” “excessive daily TV time,” “high consumption of alcoholic beverages on a single occasion,” “involvement in fights,” “smoking cigarettes,” “carrying firearms,” and “marijuana consumption.” Information was obtained through self-administered questionnaire. Results. Considering the results, it was observed that female adolescents and those aged up to 16 years were less likely to have two or more health risk behaviors compared to males and those aged 17 years or more, respectively. It was also found that both high- and middle-income level adolescents had higher prevalence of having two or more health risk behaviors. Conclusions. It was concluded that male adolescents older than 16 years with better socioeconomic level were more exposed to the simultaneous presence of several health risk behaviors.

  6. Biological aspects of sharks caught off the Coast of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil

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    AF. Fischer

    Full Text Available One hundred seventeen specimens of sharks were caught along the coast of Pernambuco State, Northern Brazil, between May 2004 and May 2007, among which 86 were blacknose sharks, Carcharhinus acronotus, enabling a more detailed study of the species. Blacknose sharks were caught in the 2 study areas along the Boa Viagem/Piedade and Paiva beaches, accounting for the highest relative abundance among the species caught (73.5% of total. Potentially dangerous sharks, tiger and bull sharks, were also caught in the same areas, whereas hammerhead and blacktip sharks were only captured off Boa Viagem/Piedade. Concerning the blacknose shark, the total length (TL ranged from 39.0 to 180.0 cm. Among the 38 females analysed, 32 were juveniles, 11 were maturing, 2 were pre-ovulatory and 21 were pregnant. Sexing was possible for 75 of the 83 embryos, 38 of which were males and 37 were females, with a sex proportion of 1:0.9 and total length ranging between 6.4 and 63.5 cm. Ovarian fecundity ranged from 5 to 10 and uterine fecundity from 1 to 3, with an estimated gestational period of 9 months. Among the 48 males, 6 were juveniles and 42 were adults. Both males and females seem to reach sexual maturity at about 105.0 cm TL. Among the 86 stomachs analysed, only 22.1% had contents, with teleosts as the most frequent item.

  7. Plastic ingestion by sea turtles in Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil

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    Camila Poli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Currently, plastics are recognized as a major pollutant of the marine environment, representing a serious threat to ocean wildlife. Here, we examined the occurrence and effects of plastic ingestion by sea turtles found stranded along the coast of Paraíba State, Brazil from August 2009 to July 2010. Ninety-eight digestive tracts were examined, with plastic found in 20 (20.4%. Sixty five percent (n = 13 of turtles with plastic in the digestive tract were green turtles (Chelonia mydas, 25% (n = 5 were hawksbills (Eretmochelys imbricata, and 10% (n = 2 were olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea. More plastic was found in the intestine (85% than in other parts of the gastrointestinal tract. We observed complete blockage of the gastrointestinal tract due to the presence of plastic in 13 of the 20 turtles that had ingested plastic. No correlation was found between the curved carapace length (CCL and the number or mass of the plastic ingested items. Significant differences were found between the intake of hard and soft plastic and the ingestion of white/transparent and colored plastic, with soft and white/transparent plastics being more commonly ingested. This study reveals the serious problem of plastic pollution to sea turtles at the area.

  8. Factors Associated with Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infections among Young Population in Northeast Brazil

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    Juliana Vasconcelos Lyra da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Intestinal parasitic infections constitute a major public health problem that is frequently associated with poverty, inadequate sanitation, and the nutritional status of the population. Objective. The aim of the present study is to investigate the possible association of parasitic infections, sanitary conditions, hygiene practices, and the nutritional and socioeconomic status of a poor youth population. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 367 children and adolescents inhabiting a substandard settlement in the urban area of Maceió (Alagoas State, Brazil. Data collection included socioeconomic status, anthropometric measurements, fecal sample examinations, and laboratory blood analysis. The identification of factors associated with gastrointestinal parasitic infections was undertaken through bi- and multivariate analyses. Results. Stool sample analysis obtained from 300 individuals revealed that 204 (68% were infected with at least one parasite species and of these 130 (63.7% were polyparasitized. No significant associations were identified between low height for age (stunted, parasitic infections, and polyparasitism. There was also no association between family income and parasitosis. However, low socioeconomic status proved to be a potential risk factor for parasitic infections. Conclusion. Actions must be taken to improve sanitation, housing, and environmental conditions in order to eliminate the risk factors for parasitic infections, and thereby guarantee a better quality of life for this population.

  9. Concentrations of heavy metals in Sotalia fluviatilis (Cetacea: Delphinidae) off the coast of Ceara, northeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro-Neto, C.; Itavo, R.V.; Souza de Moraes, Luiz Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    As a top predator, Sotalia fluviatilis may be at risk from pollutants from outfalls. - Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) concentrations on liver and kidney of Sotalia fluviatilis (Cetacea: Delphinidae) stranded in the coast of Ceara, Brazil, were studied from 1996 to 1999. Pb levels were usually lower than the detection limit (0.1 μg/g). Concentrations of Cd were significantly higher in kidney than liver, averaging 0.8 μg/g. Mercury accumulation took place mainly in liver with an average concentration of 4.6 μg/g. Both metals were significantly higher in larger mature individuals, but differences between sexes were not significant. The detection of Cd, Hg and Pb in tissue samples of S. fluviatilis off the coast of Ceara indicated that heavy metals are locally available in the water, and bioaccumulation may be occurring through the food web. Contamination levels were not considered critical, but could be related to Ceara's growing industrial development. The associated risks of pollution outfalls may pose a threat to marine organisms in a near future, especially for top predators such as S. fluviatilis

  10. Knowledge of common pediatric cancers among medical students in northeast Brazil

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    Cynthia de Araújo Barros

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In recent decades, early diagnosis of childhood cancer has taken an important place on the international agenda. The authors of this study evaluated a group of medical students in Recife, Brazil, regarding knowledge and practices related to early diagnosis of common childhood cancers. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with a sample of 82 medical students, from a total of 86 eligible subjects. Data were collected using self-completed questionnaires. Subgroups were defined according to knowledge of the theme and students' perceptions of their own skills and interest in learning. RESULTS: 74.4% of the sample demonstrated a minimum level of knowledge. The group without minimum knowledge or self-perceived competence to identify suspected cases (23.3% was in the worst position to perform early diagnosis. All subjects expressed interest in learning more about this topic. CONCLUSIONS: Despite acceptable levels of knowledge among these medical students, the definition of central aspects of the teaching and learning processes would be useful for training physicians with the skills for diagnosing and treating pediatric cancers

  11. Heavy metal contamination status and source apportionment in sediments of Songhua River Harbin region, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Tian, Yu; Zhang, Jun; Zuo, Wei; Zhan, Wei; Zhang, Jian

    2017-02-01

    The Songhua River represents one of the seven major river systems in China. It flows through Harbin city with 66 km long, locating in the northern China with a longer winter time. This paper aimed to study concentration distributions, stability, risk assessment, and source apportionment of heavy metals including chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and nickel (Ni) in 11 selected sections of the Songhua River Harbin region. Results showed that Cr, Cd, Pb, Hg, and As exceeded their respective geochemical background values in sediments of most monitoring sections. Compared with other important rivers and lakes in China, Cr, Hg, Cd, and As pollutions in surface sediments were above medium level. Further analysis of chemical speciation indicated that Cr and As in surface sediments were relatively stable while Pb and Cd were easily bioavailable. Correlation analysis revealed sources of these metals except As might be identical. Pollution levels and ecological risks of heavy metals in surface sediments presented higher in the mainstream region (45° 47.0' N ~ 45° 53.3' N, 126° 37.0' E ~ 126° 42.1' E). Source apportionment found Hejiagou and Ashi River were the main contributors to metal pollution of this region. Thus, anthropogenic activities along the Hejiagou and Ashi River should be restricted in order to protect the Songhua River Harbin region from metal contamination.

  12. Mental health and public policies implemented in the Northeast of Brazil: A systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januário, Sonilde Saraiva; das Neves Peixoto, Florido Sampaio; Lima, Nádia Nara Rolim; do Nascimento, Vânia Barbosa; de Sousa, Danilo Ferreira; Pereira Luz, Dayse Christina Rodrigues; da Silva, Claúdio Gleidiston Lima; Rolim Neto, Modesto Leite

    2017-02-01

    Studies about mental disorders are very rare in the Northeast of Brazil, especially when psychopathologies in children and adolescents are considered. The consequence is a small availability of data and an absence of a real epidemiological profile. This is a systematic review with meta-analysis, following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) protocol, in the period from 2003 to 2015, using the databases LILACS, SciELO and BVS. The analysis comprised the keywords 'models of primary and secondary healthcare in mental health', 'psychiatric reform' and 'policies and services in mental health', using the Boolean operator '# AND'. Original texts based on secondary data from the Hospital Information System of the Brazilian Unified Health System were also included via the Citizen Electronic Record System, Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, and Ministry of Health. Grey literature was used by means of hand searching. A combined analysis of the strategies mentioned in the analyzed articles shows a combined odds ratio of 1.291 (confidence interval (CI) = 1.054-1.582), thus it demonstrates the efficacy of using such strategies in the elaboration of institutional apparatus in mental health. The p-value of the chi-square distribution resulted in .9753, which does not reject the hypothesis of association between strategies in mental health and possible development of institutional apparatus in mental health. A combined analysis of all strategies mentioned in the analyzed studies shows efficacy of using strategies to elaborate institutional apparatus in mental health.

  13. Biosurfactant-and-bioemulsifier produced by a promising Cunninghamella echinulata isolated from Caatinga soil in the northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade Silva, Nadielly R; Luna, Marcos A C; Santiago, André L C M A; Franco, Luciana O; Silva, Grayce K B; de Souza, Patrícia M; Okada, Kaoru; Albuquerque, Clarissa D C; da Silva, Carlos A Alves; Campos-Takaki, Galba M

    2014-09-01

    A Mucoralean fungus was isolated from Caatinga soil of Pernambuco, Northeast of Brazil, and was identified as Cunninghamella echinulata by morphological, physiological, and biochemical tests. This strain was evaluated for biosurfactant/bioemulsifier production using soybean oil waste (SOW) and corn steep liquor (CSL) as substrates, added to basic saline solution, by measuring surface tension and emulsifier index and activity. The best results showed the surface water tension was reduced from 72 to 36 mN/m, and an emulsification index (E₂₄) of 80% was obtained using engine oil and burnt engine oil, respectively. A new molecule of biosurfactant showed an anionic charge and a polymeric chemical composition consisting of lipids (40.0% w/w), carbohydrates (35.2% w/w) and protein (20.3% w/w). In addition, the biosurfactant solution (1%) demonstrated its ability for an oil displacement area (ODA) of 37.36 cm², which is quite similar to that for Triton X-100 (38.46 cm²). The stability of the reduction in the surface water tension as well as of the emulsifier index proved to be stable over a wide range of temperatures, in pH, and in salt concentration (4%-6% w/v). The biosurfactant showed an ability to reduce and increase the viscosity of hydrophobic substrates and their molecules, suggesting that it is a suitable candidate for mediated enhanced oil recovery. At the same time, these studies indicate that renewable, relatively inexpensive and easily available resources can be used for important biotechnological processes.

  14. Resistance to antimicrobials and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus spp. isolated from bovine mastitis in the Northeast of Brazil.

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    da Costa Krewer, Carina; Santos Amanso, Evandro; Veneroni Gouveia, Gisele; de Lima Souza, Renata; da Costa, Mateus Matiuzzi; Aparecido Mota, Rinaldo

    2015-03-01

    Mastitis is the principal disease affecting dairy herds worldwide. The aim of the present study was to characterize phenotypic and genotypic features associated with resistance to antimicrobials in Staphylococcus spp. isolated from 2064 milk samples of 525 lactating cows in the Northeast of Brazil. Of the 218 isolates analyzed, 57.8% were characterized as Staphylococcus aureus, 28% as coagulase-positive staphylococci other than S. aureus (oCPS), and 14.2% as coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). The test for susceptibility to antimicrobials showed amoxicillin (32.6%) to be the less effective drug in vitro, and the multi-drug resistance (MDR) rate for beta-lactams varied from 0 to 0.75. The genotypic characterization showed that 93.1% of the samples were tested positive for the blaZ gene, while none amplified mecA. The antibiotic efflux mechanism was observed in 0.9% of isolates. The biofilm formation was found in 3.7 and 96.3% of samples, respectively, on Congo red agar and on the microplate adhesion test, while the icaD gene was present in 92.2% of Staphylococcus spp. The high frequency of blaZ gene observed in this study was associated with the resistance of most Staphylococcus spp. to one or more of the beta-lactams tested, which are routinely used in Brazilian herds for mastitis treatment. The biofilm formation was also detected in the isolates analyzed being an important characteristic for pathogenicity and antimicrobial resistance of bacteria.

  15. Plant species as a therapeutic resource in areas of the savanna in the state of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Manuele Eufrasio; Ulisses, Ana Vartan Ribeiro de Alencar; Ribeiro, Daiany Alves; de Oliveira, Liana Geraldo Souza; de Macêdo, Delmácia Gonçalves; de Sousa, Francisca de Fátima Silva; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar; Sampaio, Everardo Valadares de Sá Barretto; Souza, Marta Maria de Almeida

    2015-08-02

    Ethnobotanical studies have contributed significantly in research of plants with therapeutic potential. The aim of the present study was to learn about the use of native medicinal plants cited by the traditional population in "cerradão" (savanna woodland) areas in Northeast Brazil, providing data on therapeutic indications of the species used and their versatility. Semi-structured interviews were conducted on the basis of a standardized questionnaire designed for key informants selected using the "snowball" technique. The selection of plants species with therapeutic potential was performed on the basis of the relative importance (RI) and informant consensus fator (ICF). A total of 78 species were indicated for 87 therapeutic purposes. Of these, 11 species presented great versatility of use (RI>1), as e.g.including Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., Hybanthus calceolaria (Mart.) Plumel., Heliotropium cf. indicum L., Croton zehntneri, Croton heliotropiifolius, Myracrodruon urundeuva, Stryphnodendro rotundifolium. Medicinal uses could be generalized Pax & K. Hoffm and Hymenaea courbaril L. The therapeutic indications were grouped into 14 use 15 categories with 594 species-category combinations. The largest number of medicinal species was indicated for illnesses or undefined pain, followed by diseases associated with respiratory, digestive and genitourinaryof body systems. The factor informant consensus highlighted the agreement in the use of plants and showed that the, of which Diseases of the Nervous System and, Diseases of the Circulatory System had the greatest agreement 1.0 and 0.87 repectively, Disorders of the Visual Sensory System - Eyes and Respiratory System Disorder showed the highest agreement of use. Most of the species cited by the key informants are well known scientifically, but it is interesting that some have been studied little or not all with regard to confirming their purported medicinal properties and can contribute substantially to pharmacological

  16. Refinement of the daily precipitation simulated by the CMIP5 models over the north of the Northeast of Brazil

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    Gyrlene Aparecida Mendes da Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability of the Artificial Neural Network (ANN and the Multiple Linear Regression (MLR in reproducing the area-average observed daily precipitation during the rainy season (Feb-Mar-Apr over the north of the Northeast of Brazil (NEB is examined. For the present climate of Dec-Jan-Feb from 1963 to 2003 period these statistical models are developed and validated using the observed daily precipitation and simulated from the historical outputs of 4 models of the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5. The simulations from all the models during DJF and FMA seasons show an anomalous intensification of the ITCZ and southward displacement in comparison with the climatology. Correlations of 0.54, 0.66 and 0.66 are found between the simulated daily precipitation of the CCSM4, GFDL_ESM2M and MIROC_ESM models during DJF season and the observed values during FMA season. Only the CCSM4 model displays a slightly reasonable agreement with the observations. A comparison between the statistical downscaling using the nonlinear (ANN and linear model (MLR to identify the one most suitable for the analysis of daily precipitation was made. The ANN technique provides more ability to predict the present climate when compared to MLR technique. Based on this result, we examined the accuracy of the ANN model in project the changes for the future climate period from 2055 to 2095 over the same study region. For instance, a comparison between the daily precipitation changes projected indirectly from the ANN during Feb-Mar-Apr with those projected directly from the CMIP5 models forced by RCP 8.5 scenario is made. The results suggest that ANN model weights the CMIP5 projections according to the each model ability in simulating the present climate (and its variability. In others, the ANN model is a potentially promising approach to use as a complementary tool to improvement of the seasonal numerical simulations.

  17. Factors associated with syphilis seroreactivity among polydrug users in Northeast Brazil: A cross-sectional study using Respondent Driven Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Cremildo João; Dourado, Ines; Brignol, Sandra; Andrade, Tarcísio de Matos; Bastos, Francisco Inácio

    2017-01-01

    The burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as syphilis, is higher in low-income countries, with serious consequences and profound impact on sexual and reproductive health and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) spread. Syphilis prevalence tend to be higher among people who misuse drugs than in the general population. To assess syphilis and associated factors among polydrug users (PDU) in the city of Salvador, Northeast Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 Brazilian cities between September and November 2009 using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS). Participants answered an Audio Computer-Assisted Self Interview (ACASI) and were rapid tested for HIV and syphilis. We performed multivariable regression models for correlates of syphilis on Stata 10.0. Estimates were weighted by the inverse size of the individual social network size and homophily. Mean age was 29.3 years (range: 18-62), 74.0% were males, and 89.8% were non-white. Syphilis prevalence was 16.6%. Females (adjwOR:2.14; 95%CI:1.09-4.20), individuals over 29 years old (adjwOR:4.44; 95%CI:2.41-8.19), those who exchanged sex for money or drugs (adjwOR:3.51; 95%CI:1.84-6.71), "No/low" self-perceived risk of HIV infection (adjwOR:5.13; 95%CI:1.36-19.37), and having nine or less years of education (adjwOR:2.92; 95%CI:1.08-7.88) were associated with syphilis. One of the most pressing needs for syphilis prevention/control is the availability of rapid point-of-care diagnostic tests and treatment. Interventions should be tailored to PDU needs and their multiple burdens as shown in the present study, that may contribute to future studies aiming to better understand the relationships between drug use and syphilis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Determinants of infant mortality in the Jequitinhonha Valley and in the North and Northeast regions of Brazil

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    Maria do Carmo Leal

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE This study aims to identify the social and demographic determinants, in addition to the determinants of reproductive health and use of health services, associated with infant mortality in small and medium-sized cities of the North, Northeast and Southeast regions of Brazil. METHODS This is a case-control study with 803 cases of death of children under one year and 1,969 live births (controls, whose mothers lived in the selected cities in 2008. The lists of the names of cases and controls were extracted from the Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade (SIM – Mortality Information System and the Sistema de Informação sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC – Live Birth Information System and supplemented by data obtained by the research of “active search of death and birth”. Data was collected in the household using a semi-structured questionnaire, and the analysis was carried out using multiple logistic regression. RESULTS The final model indicates that the following items are positively and significantly associated with infant mortality: family working in agriculture, mother having a history of fetal and infant losses, no prenatal or inadequate prenatal, and not being associated to the maternity hospital during the prenatal period. We have observed significant interactions to explain the occurrence of infant mortality between race and socioeconomic score and between high-risk pregnancy and pilgrimage for childbirth. CONCLUSIONS The excessive number of home deliveries and pilgrimage for childbirth indicates flaws in the line of maternity care and a lack of collaboration between the levels of outpatient and hospital care. The study reinforces the need for an integrated management of the health care networks, leveraging the capabilities of cities in meeting the needs of pregnancy, delivery and birth with quality.

  19. Food identity/food quality: insights from the "coalho" cheese in the Northeast of Brazil

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    Jose Muchnik

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article, nous analysons deux questions centrales pour les systèmes agroalimentaires: comment les exigences identitaires interagissent avec les exigences sanitaires et nutritionnelles des produits alimentaires et comment les producteurs, en particulier les agricultures familiales, tiennent compte de ces évolutions dans leur stratégies. Nous développons tout d'abord une approche conceptuelle dans laquelle nous mettons en évidence les évolutions, synergies et antagonismes dans la perception de l'identité et de la qualité des aliments. Nous analysons ensuite le rôle de ces deux facteurs dans la construction d'une démarche de qualification de fromages au Brésil. Enfin, nous étudions plus généralement les conséquences économiques de ces phénomènes sociaux sur l'organisation de la production agroalimentaire.In this paper, we address two central issues for agri-food systems: how demands for food identity interact with hygiene and nutritional requirements, and how the producers, in particular family farmers, are taking these changes into account in their strategies. First we develop a conceptual approach within which we stress the changes, synergies and antagonisms that have taken place in the perception of food identity and quality. We then analyze the roles these two factors play in the development of a qualification process for cheeses in Brazil. Finally, we make a general study of the economic consequences of these social phenomena on the organization of food production and we discuss the conditions under which family agriculture can benefit from the synergies between identity and quality through the commercialization of specific productions.

  20. Changes in seed rain across Atlantic Forest fragments in Northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Cíntia Gomes; Dambros, Cristian; Camargo, José Luís Campana

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize the distribution of seeds in remnant fragments of the Atlantic Coastal Forest and to determine whether the species diversity, seed weight, and species composition of plant communities are altered by forest fragmentation. A transect of 100 m was established in the core of each of nine fragments of Atlantic Coastal Forest in a private sugarcane plantation in the state of Alagoas, NE Brazil, and ten seed-traps were distributed at intervals of 10 m each along the transects. For 12 consecutive months seeds were collected, dried, counted, weighed, and identified to species. Seeds were assigned to categories according to their size, dispersal mode, and shade tolerance. Multiple regression models and Mantel correlation tests were used to detect the effects of fragment size, percent forest cover nearby, distance from the source area, and distance from the nearest fragment on species diversity, mean seed weight, and species similarity. Analyses were carried out for all species and for subsets corresponding to each seed category. A total of 21,985 diaspores of 190 species were collected. Most seeds were small, shade-intolerant, and zoochoric, which corroborates other studies of fragmented forest landscapes and reflects the high disturbance levels in isolated forest remnants. Our data indicate that fragmentation processes such as habitat loss can alter species diversity and species composition by reducing habitat availability and increasing fragment isolation. We also found that large-seeded species are more affected by fragment isolation, possibly because their seed dispersers rarely cross non-forested areas between fragments, while zoochoric species are more strongly affected by fragment size and apparently more strongly associated with local edaphic conditions than with distance from seed sources.

  1. [Seasonal changes of optical absorption properties of river and lake in East Liaohe River basin, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan Yan; Su, Dong Hui; Shao, Tian Tian

    2017-06-18

    The absorption characteristics of optically active constituents (OACs) in water column are important optical properties and basic parameters of establishing the inverse analysis model. Comparative analyses about seasonal variability of the optical absorption characteristics (phytoplankton, non-algal particles and chromophoric dissolved organic matter absorption characteristics) and water quality status of East Liaohe River basin were conducted based on the water samples in Erlong-hu Reservoir collected in June, September and October of 2011 and samples in East Liaohe River in October of 2012. The results demonstrated that the eutrophication status of Erlonghu Reservoir was lower in June, eutrophic in September and moderately eutrophic in October. Some of the sampling points of the East Liaohe River belonged to the middle trophic level and the other part belonged to the eutrophic level. The absorption coefficient of each component of water increased with increasing nutrient level. Besides, the absorption spectra of total suspended particulate of Erlonghu Reservoir in June and October were similar to that of non-algal particles, and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) contributed most to the total absorption of water. The absorption spectra of total suspended particulate matter in September were similar to that of phytoplankton and phytoplankton was the dominant contributor to the total absorption. For samples of Erlonghu Reservoir in June and September, a ph (440) and total phosphorus (TP) were correlated closely with each other. Significant correlation between a ph (440) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of Erlonghu Reservoir in June was observed, while a d (440) was only correlated with Chla. There were positive correlations between a ph (675) and Chla, Carlson index (TLI) in Erlonghu Reservoir (September) and East Liaohe River. Obvious differences of water optical properties were found between river and lake located in the East Liaohe River basin as

  2. Synopsis of Boraginaceae sensu lato in the Caatingas of the São Francisco River, Northeastern Brazil

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    Miranda de Melo, José Iranildo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a commented synopsis of Boraginaceae sensu lato in the basin of the lower-middle and lower stretches of the São Francisco River in Northeast Brazil (states of Pernambuco and Bahia. Five genera and 21 species were recorded: Euploca, with six species; Cordia, with five; Varronia, with four; and Heliotropium and Myriopus, represented by three species each. A new combination in the genus Myriopus is here proposed. Keys for the separation of genera and species as well as distributional and geographical data are provided.Este trabajo presenta una sinopsis comentada de la familia Boraginaceae sensu lato en la cuenca media y baja del río São Francisco, nordeste del Brasil (estados de Pernambuco y Bahía. Se reconocen cinco géneros y 21 especies: Euploca, con seis especies; Cordia, con cinco; Varronia, con cuatro y Heliotropium y Myriopus, representados por tres especies cada. Se propone una combinación nueva en el género Myriopus. Así mismo, se aportan claves para la separación de los géneros y especies y datos sobre la distribución geográfica y la ecología de las especies.

  3. Abundance and stratification of soil macroarthropods in a Caatinga Forest in Northeast Brazil

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    VFP Araújo

    Full Text Available In arid and semiarid environments, seasonality usually exerts a strong influence on the composition and dynamics of the soil community. The soil macroarthropods were studied in a Caatinga forest located in the Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural (RPPN Fazenda Almas, São José dos Cordeiros, Paraíba, Brazil. Samples were collected during the dry and rainy seasons following the method proposed by the Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility Program (TSBF, with minor modifications. At each station, 15 soil blocks (20 × 20 × 30 cm: 12 L were extracted and divided into three layers: A (0-10 cm, B (10-20 cm, and C (20-30 cm. In the rainy and dry seasons 1,306 ± 543(se and 458 ± 212 ind.m-2 macroarthropods were found, respectively, with 35 and 18 respective taxa recorded. The abundance of individuals and taxa were significantly higher in the rainy season. Isoptera (57.8% was the most abundant taxon, followed by Hymenoptera: Formicidae (17.2%, Coleoptera larvae (7.3%, and Araneae (3.5%. In the rainy season, abundance in layer A (576 ± 138 ind.m-2 was significantly higher than that of layer C (117 ± 64 ind.m-2, but was not different from layer B (613 ± 480 ind.m-2. There was also no difference between the layer B and C abundances. In the dry season, abundance in layer B (232 ± 120 ind.m-2 was not significantly different compared to layer A (182 ± 129 ind.m-2, but was significantly higher than abundance in layer C (44 ± 35 ind.m-2. During the rainy season, layer A (34 taxa was significantly richer in taxa than layers B (19 taxa and C (11 taxa. On the other hand, during the dry season the richness of layers A (12 taxa and B (12 taxa was equal, but significantly higher than that of layer C (6 taxa. Richness of taxa and abundance were positively correlated with soil organic matter and negatively correlated with soil temperature. The community of soil macroarthropods in the area of Caatinga studied has taxonomic and functional structures that are

  4. Abundance and stratification of soil macroarthropods in a Caatinga Forest in Northeast Brazil.

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    Araújo, V F P; Bandeira, A G; Vasconcellos, A

    2010-10-01

    In arid and semiarid environments, seasonality usually exerts a strong influence on the composition and dynamics of the soil community. The soil macroarthropods were studied in a Caatinga forest located in the Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural (RPPN) Fazenda Almas, São José dos Cordeiros, Paraíba, Brazil. Samples were collected during the dry and rainy seasons following the method proposed by the Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility Program (TSBF), with minor modifications. At each station, 15 soil blocks (20 × 20 × 30 cm: 12 L) were extracted and divided into three layers: A (0-10 cm), B (10-20 cm), and C (20-30 cm). In the rainy and dry seasons 1,306 ± 543(se) and 458 ± 212 ind.m-2 macroarthropods were found, respectively, with 35 and 18 respective taxa recorded. The abundance of individuals and taxa were significantly higher in the rainy season. Isoptera (57.8%) was the most abundant taxon, followed by Hymenoptera: Formicidae (17.2%), Coleoptera larvae (7.3%), and Araneae (3.5%). In the rainy season, abundance in layer A (576 ± 138 ind.m-2) was significantly higher than that of layer C (117 ± 64 ind.m-2), but was not different from layer B (613 ± 480 ind.m-2). There was also no difference between the layer B and C abundances. In the dry season, abundance in layer B (232 ± 120 ind.m-2) was not significantly different compared to layer A (182 ± 129 ind.m-2), but was significantly higher than abundance in layer C (44 ± 35 ind.m-2). During the rainy season, layer A (34 taxa) was significantly richer in taxa than layers B (19 taxa) and C (11 taxa). On the other hand, during the dry season the richness of layers A (12 taxa) and B (12 taxa) was equal, but significantly higher than that of layer C (6 taxa). Richness of taxa and abundance were positively correlated with soil organic matter and negatively correlated with soil temperature. The community of soil macroarthropods in the area of Caatinga studied has taxonomic and functional structures that

  5. Radionuclide concentrations in oil extraction and production processes in Northeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazineu, Maria Helena Paranhos

    2005-06-01

    Since the beginning of the twentieth century the presence of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) was detected in the water and oil extracted from wells both onshore and offshore. The oil is extracted together with water and sediments which contain radionuclides of the uranium and thorium series. Among the radionuclides present, especial attention should be given to 226 Ra and 228 Ra, due to its long half-life and importance, from the radiological point of view. The objective of this work was to identify the natural radionuclides in the oil industry, to determine their activity concentration, and from these results, to evaluate the risks the employees of the oil industry are exposed to. Samples of sludge, scale and produced water extracted with the oil were collected from three oil processing stations in the state of Sergipe, Brazil. The activity concentrations of the radionuclides were determined in the solid samples before and after the extraction of the oil. The chemical and mineralogical composition of the samples without oil was evaluated. Water samples, on the other hand, were analyzed for their contents of radionuclides and barium concentration. It was observed that the activity concentrations of the analyzed radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th and 210 Pb) in sludge and scales were very high when compared with the literature, particularly much higher than the values for 226 Ra and 228 Ra obtained for sludge and scales from the oil platforms near the city of Campos, state of Rio de Janeiro. The maximum concentration values for 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th and 210 Pb (3,500, 2,195, 2,248.6 and 201 kBq kg -1 , respectively) were obtained for the scales after the extraction of the oil. The analysis of the samples showed that barium sulphate (barite) and strontium sulphate (celestite) are the main constituents of the scales, while carbonates and silicates, together with other compounds are the components of sludge. A correlation between barium, 226 Ra and

  6. Hydrology and phytoplankton community structure at Itamaracá-Pernambuco (Northeast Brazil

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    Maria Luise Koening

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Quali-quantitative studies and hydrologic parameters were carried out in the profiles 6 (Orange and 7 (Catuama during the Victor Hensen cruise, in accordance with the bilateral scientific cooperation agreement Brazil/Germany. Hydrologically a zone of thermic and saline stability characterizes the superficial layer. The nutrient concentrations were generally low on the surface and higher at levels surpassing 100m in depth. 102 taxa were identified including diatoms (49, dinoflagellates (49, bluegreen algae (3, and euglenophyceae (1. The diversity and evenness were high, surpassing the environmental equilibrium. The clustering of samples showed evidence of 2 main groups, one encompassing the stations 32 and 38, characterized predominantly by Oscillatoria erythraeum, and another encompassing the remaining stations, characterized by dinoflagellates and diatoms. The clustering of species involved 4 groups, the biggest being oceanic marine species (49 species and coastal and eurihaline marine species (31 species. The phytoplankton density varied from 50,000 cell.l-1 to 590,000 cell.l-1, characterizing an oligotrophic environment.Estudos hidrológicos e fitoplanctônicos foram realizados em dois perfis perpendiculares à costa, em frente à Ilha de Itamaracá-PE (perfis Orange e Catuama, durante a Expedição do Navio de Pesquisas Victor Hensen, dentro do acordo de cooperação bilateral celebrado entre o Departamento de Oceanografia da UFPE e o Centro de Ecologia Marinha Tropical (ZMT-Bremen-Alemanha. A camada superficial está caracterizada por uma zona de estabilidade térmica e salina. As concentrações de nutrientes foram geralmente mais baixas na superfície e mais elevadas em profundidades acima de 100m. Foram identificados 102 táxons, incluindo 49 diatomáceas, 49 dinoflagelados, 3 cianofíceas e 1 euglenofícea. A diversidade específica e equitabilidade foram elevadas, indicando um equilíbrio ambiental. A associação das amostras

  7. Identification of Plasmodium spp. in Neotropical primates of Maranhense Amazon in Northeast Brazil.

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    Mayra Araguaia Pereira Figueiredo

    Full Text Available In the Brazilian Amazon region, malaria caused by Plasmodium malariae is considered to be a zoonosis because of cross-transfer of the parasite between humans and Neotropical primates. To contribute information on this issue, we investigated occurrences of natural infection with Plasmodium sp. among Neotropical primates in the Maranhense Amazon (Amazon region of the state of Maranhão, in the northeastern region of Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 161 Neotropical primates of six species that were caught in an environmental reserve (Sítio Aguahy and from captive primates (CETAS-Wildlife Screening Center, municipality of São Luís, in Maranhão. Plasmodium sp. was diagnosed based on light microscopy, PCR, qPCR and LAMP for amplification of the 18S rRNA gene. Serum samples were also assayed by means of indirect immunofluorescence for IgG antibodies against P. malariae/P. brasilianum, P. falciparum and P. berghei. Parasites were detected through light microscopy on five slides from captive primates (four Sapajus spp. and one Callithrix jacchus. In the molecular tests, 34.16% (55/161 and 29.81% (48/161 of the animals sampled were positive in the qPCR and PCR assays, respectively. In the PCR, 47/48 animals were positive for P. malariae/P. brasilianum; of these, eight were free-living primates and 39 from CETAS, São Luís. One sample showed a band in the genus-specific reaction, but not in the second PCR reaction. Anti-P. malariae/P. brasilianum IgG antibodies were detected in four serum samples from Sapajus spp. in captivity. In this study, circulation of P. malariae/P. brasilianum in Neotropical primates was confirmed, with low levels of parasitemia and low levels of antibodies. The importance of these animals as reservoirs of human malaria in the region studied is still unknown. This scenario has an impact on control and elimination of malaria in this region.

  8. QUALITY OF IRRIGATED APPLES IN THE SEMIARID REGION OF THE NORTHEAST OF BRAZIL

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    CÍNTIA PATRÍCIA MARTINS DE OLIVEIRA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The great solar radiation in the Brazilian semiarid region, combined with an adequate irrigation management, favors fruit production and quality of crops that were adapted to this region. The objective of this work was to evaluate the fruit quality of two apple cultivars grown in the Sub-Mid São Francisco River Valley under different irrigation water depths. A complete randomized block experimental design in a split -plot arrangement with five replications was used. The plots consisted of four irrigation water depths (ID (60, 80, 100 and 120% of the reference evapotranspiration - ETo, the subplots consisted of two apple cultivars (C (Julieta and Princesa and the sub-subplots consisted of fruit positions in the tree canopies (FP (east and west sides. The soluble solids content (SS, titratable acidity (TA, SS/TA ratio, pulp firmness (PF and fresh weight (FW of the fruits were evaluated. The factors evaluated showed no triple interaction between the evaluated factors, however, the SS and TA were significantly affected by them; the interaction between ID and C significantly affected the PF; the interaction between ID and FP significantly affected the PF, SS/TA ratio and FW; and the interaction between C and FP significantly affected the SS/TA ratio. The increase in water depth increased the fruit size of both cultivars, without compromising the post-harvest quality. The cultivar Princesa presented the best results regarding SS, TA, PF and FW, however, both cultivars had organoleptic characteristics within the recommended standards for commercialization. The fruits harvested on the west side presented better post-harvest quality.

  9. The fish fauna in tropical rivers: The case of the Sorocaba river basin, SP, Brazil

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    Welber Senteio Smith

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey was carried out on the fish species in the Sorocaba River basin, the main tributary of the left margin of the Tietê River, located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The species were collected with gill nets. After identification of the specimens, their relative abundance, weight and standard length were determined. Up to the present moment there are not any studies that focus this subject in this hydrographic basin. Fifty-three species, distributed in eighteen families and six orders were collected. Characiformes were represented by twenty-eight species, Siluriformes by seventeen species, the Gymnotiformes by three species, Perciformes and Cyprinodontiformes by two species, and the Synbranchiformes by one species. Among the collected species there were two exotic. The most abundant species were Astyanax fasciatus and Hypostomus ancistroides. In relation to total weight the most representative species were Hoplias malabaricus and Hypostomus ancistroides. Cyprinus carpio, Prochilodus lineatus, Schizodon nasutus and Hoplias malabaricus were the most representative species in relation to average weight. Largest standard length were recorded for Sternopygus macrurus, Steindachnerina insculpta, Eigenmannia aff. virescens and Cyprinus carpioSe realizó un análisis de las especies de peces de la cuenca del Río Sorocaba, el principal tributario de la margen izquierda del Río Tietê, localizado en el estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil. Las especies fueron recolectadas con redes agalleras. Luego de la identificación de los especímenes, fue determinada su abundancia relativa, peso, y longitud estandar. Hasta el presente, no hay ningún otro estudio que analice estos aspectos en dicha cuenca hidrográfica. Fueron recolectados 55 especies, distribuidas en 18 familias y 6 ordenes. Los Characiformes estuvieron representados por 28 especies, Siluriformes por 17 especies, Gymnotiformes por 3 especies, Perciformes y Cyprinodontiformes por 2 especies, y

  10. Extreme Effects of Season on the Foraging Activities and Colony Productivity of a Stingless Bee (Melipona asilvai Moure, 1971 in Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lima do Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the influence of season on foraging activities and internal colonial parameters of Melipona asilvai in an Atlantic forest area of northeast Brazil. We used video cameras connected to a PC to monitor all departures and returns of foragers and the types of materials they carried. Foraging activities decreased almost 90% from dry to rainy seasons, but temperature and humidity were not the main factors influencing departures. Observed honey storage and an extreme cutback in activities during the rainy period suggest a seasonal diapause in this species.

  11. Breeding period in the mangrove crab Goniopsis cruentata (Decapoda: Grapsidae in Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jonathas Pereira Rodrigues de Lira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The brachyuran crabs are iteroparous species which present a high diversification of reproduction patterns, which may have evolved as a species-specific response to environmental conditions. Tropical species commonly present a year-round reproduction due to stable environment conditions. Goniopsis cruentata is a crab species widely distributed along the Western Atlantic, inhabiting practically every microhabitat in the mangrove ecosystem. The aim of the present study is to determine the breeding period of the crab Goniopsis cruentata in Northeastern Brazil and also to evaluate the influence of water salinity, rainfall and air and water temperature on it. A total of 71 ovigerous females, captured from August-2007 to July-2008, were used to assess the breeding period of this species. It was analyzed by the monthly proportion of ovigerous females. A correlation was applied to verify the influence of the abiotic factors on the breeding period. The present population bred seasonal-continuously with peaks in the dry period, which was not associated with monthly variations of salinity, rainfall and air and water temperatures. Therefore, according to statistical analyses, our hypothesis was refuted. However, breeding was intensified in the dry period, when salinity and temperatures were higher and rainfall was lower. We conclude that, even though breeding is not related to monthly variation of environmental factors, it occurs in periods of higher salinity and temperatures and lower rainfall.Los cangrejos Brachyura son especies iteróparas, que presentan alta diversificación en los patrones de reproducción, que pueden haber evolucionado como una respuesta específica de la especie a las condiciones ambientales. Las especies tropicales frecuentemente presentan una reproducción en todo el año debido a las condiciones estables del medio. El cangrejo Goniopsis cruentata es una especie ampliamente distribuida en largo del Atlántico occidental, y que

  12. Phytoplankton abundance, dominance and coexistence in an eutrophic reservoir in the state of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulliari A. S. T. Lira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the phytoplankton abundance, dominance and co-existence relationships in the eutrophic Carpina reservoir, Pernambuco, Brazil. Sampling was carried out at six different depths bimonthly at a single reservoir spanning two climatic periods: dry season (January, September, and November 2006 and rainy season (March, May, and July 2006. Density, abundance, dominance, specific diversity and equitability of the community were determined, along with chlorophyll a, and physical and chemical variables of the environment. Eight species were considered abundant, and their densities corresponded to more than 90% of the total phytoplankton community quantified. Cyanobacteria represented more than 80% of this density. Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii was the only dominant taxon in the dry season, and was co-dominant in the rainy season. C. raciborskii, Planktothrix agardhii and Geitlerinema amphibium had the greatest densities and lowest vertical variation coefficients. The statistical analysis indicated relationships with vertical and seasonal variations in the phytoplankton community and the following variables: total dissolved solids, water temperature, electrical conductivity and pH. The changes in the environmental variables were discrete and regulated by the establishment of precipitation however, they were able to promote vertical and seasonal instability in the structure of the phytoplankton community.O presente estudo remete às relações de abundância, dominância e co-existência fitoplanctônica no reservatório eutrófico de Carpina, Pernambuco, Brasil. Foram realizadas amostragens bimensalmente, em seis profundidades, em um único ponto do reservatório, contemplando dois períodos sazonais: seco (janeiro, setembro e novembro/2006 e chuvoso (março, maio e julho/2006. A densidade, abundância, dominância, diversidade específica e equitabilidade foram determinadas, além da clorofila a e algumas variáveis físicas e qu

  13. Primary investigation on contamination pattern of legacy and emerging halogenated organic pollutions in freshwater fish from Liaohe River, Northeast China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren Guofa, E-mail: rgf2008@shu.edu.cn [Institute of Environmental Pollution and Health, School of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, Baoshan Disrict, Shanghai 200072 (China); Zhao, Wang [Institute of Environmental Pollution and Health, School of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, Baoshan Disrict, Shanghai 200072 (China); Zhiqiang, Yu [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environment Protection and Resource Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Yang, Wang [Institute of Environmental Pollution and Health, School of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, Baoshan Disrict, Shanghai 200072 (China); Shengtao, Ma [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environment Protection and Resource Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Minghong, Wu [Institute of Environmental Pollution and Health, School of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, Baoshan Disrict, Shanghai 200072 (China); Guoying, Sheng [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environment Protection and Resource Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Jiamo, Fu [Institute of Environmental Pollution and Health, School of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, Baoshan Disrict, Shanghai 200072 (China); State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environment Protection and Resource Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Legacy halogenated compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and emerging organo-halogen pollutants such as Dechlorane Plus (DP), were detected in fish from an old industrial region in Northeast China. PCBs and PBDEs were detected in all of the samples, with concentrations ranging from 38.15 to 170.51 ng/g lipid weight, and 9.40-39.69 ng/g lipid weight, respectively. DP was detected in more than 90% of the samples with concentrations ranging from not detected (ND) to 470 pg g/g lipid weight. Compared with similar data in other areas of the world, PCBs, PBDEs and DP in fish from Liaohe River were at medium or low level. An unusually high percentage of PCB-209 was first reported in the fish samples collected from China. Other halogenated pollutions, such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, octachlorostyrene, chlorinated anisole, chlorinated thioanisole, triclosan-methyl, and other pesticides, have also been identified in the fish samples. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DP was reported in fish samples from river close to an old industrial base in China. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The first report on the unusually high fraction of PCB-209 in samples from China. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GC Multiplication-Sign GC-TOFMS was used to identify non-targeted halogenated pollutants. - An unusually high percentage of PCB-209 was first reported in the fish samples collected from China, which might indicate that there were distinct sources of pure PCB-209 in the region of Liaohe River.

  14. Primary investigation on contamination pattern of legacy and emerging halogenated organic pollutions in freshwater fish from Liaohe River, Northeast China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Guofa; Wang Zhao; Yu Zhiqiang; Wang Yang; Ma Shengtao; Wu Minghong; Sheng Guoying; Fu Jiamo

    2013-01-01

    Legacy halogenated compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and emerging organo-halogen pollutants such as Dechlorane Plus (DP), were detected in fish from an old industrial region in Northeast China. PCBs and PBDEs were detected in all of the samples, with concentrations ranging from 38.15 to 170.51 ng/g lipid weight, and 9.40–39.69 ng/g lipid weight, respectively. DP was detected in more than 90% of the samples with concentrations ranging from not detected (ND) to 470 pg g/g lipid weight. Compared with similar data in other areas of the world, PCBs, PBDEs and DP in fish from Liaohe River were at medium or low level. An unusually high percentage of PCB-209 was first reported in the fish samples collected from China. Other halogenated pollutions, such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, octachlorostyrene, chlorinated anisole, chlorinated thioanisole, triclosan-methyl, and other pesticides, have also been identified in the fish samples. - Highlights: ► DP was reported in fish samples from river close to an old industrial base in China. ► The first report on the unusually high fraction of PCB-209 in samples from China. ► GC × GC–TOFMS was used to identify non-targeted halogenated pollutants. - An unusually high percentage of PCB-209 was first reported in the fish samples collected from China, which might indicate that there were distinct sources of pure PCB-209 in the region of Liaohe River.

  15. Holocene evolution of the Liaohe Delta, a tide-dominated delta formed by multiple rivers in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lei; Xue, Chunting; Ye, Siyuan; Laws, Edward Allen; Yuan, Hongming; Yang, Shixiong; Du, Xiaolei

    2018-02-01

    The Liaohe Delta in Northeast China is one of the ecologically important estuarine deltas in China. It has been formed via the accumulation of sediment discharged by four rivers in the Liaohe Plain that enter Liaodong Bay. Twenty-seven 30-40 m long cores recovered from the Liaohe Plain and Liaodong Bay were analyzed for sedimentary characteristics, grain size, foraminifera species, and ages determined by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C to document the stratigraphical sequence and the spatio-temporal evolution of the Liaohe Delta. Our results revealed that the sedimentary environments have evolved from fluvial, tidal flat/estuarine, to neritic and finally to a deltaic environment since the Late Pleistocene. The Holocene transgression arrived at the present coastline at ∼8500 cal a BP and flooded the maximum area of land at ∼7000 cal a BP. A deltaic environment prevailed in this area after 7000 cal a BP. Bounded by the modern Liaohe River mouth, the present deltaic sedimentary system can be divided into the eastern and western components. The rate of seaward progradation of the eastern paleocoastline was estimated to be ∼8.6 m/a since 7000 cal a BP; the eastern cores in the present coastline began receiving the deltaic sediments at ∼5000 cal a BP. The rate of seaward progradation of the western paleocoastline was estimated to be only ∼2.8 m/a since 7000 cal a BP. The coastline on the western side began accumulating deltaic sediments about 2000 years later than the eastern coastline. Depocenter shifting was hypothesized to be the reason for the spatial differences in the sedimentary processes. However, the change of sediment fluxes of the western rivers due to climate changes and ancient human impacts might be the reason for the differences of the temporal evolution of the eastern and western sedimentary systems in the Liaohe Delta.

  16. Floristic composition of the riparian forest in the lower Gramame river, Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes de Oliveira Machado Filho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Riparian forest has a key ecological and economic significance to productive chains associated with it. This study aimed to conduct a floristic survey of riparian forest stretches in the Gramame river, state of Paraíba, Brazilian Northeast region, and analyze the floristic similarity with Brazilian riparian vegetation fragments. We found 136 species belonging to 106 genera and 43 families. The most representative families were: Fabaceae (19 spp., Cyperaceae (16 spp., and Rubiaceae (11 spp.. The predominant habit was herbaceous and the best represented biological spectrum was camephyte. Regarding the geographic distribution, there was a predominance of widely distributed species associated with the Neotropical province. The distribution patterns have shown a low similarity between areas, and largely distributed species stand out. Similarity analysis pointed out that the area was floristically related to other two coastal areas in the Brazilian Northeast and Southeast regions. Only species typically related to estuarine environments might explain the floristic connections detected.

  17. Streamflow distribution maps for the Cannon River drainage basin, southeast Minnesota, and the St. Louis River drainage basin, northeast Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erik A.; Sanocki, Chris A.; Lorenz, David L.; Jacobsen, Katrin E.

    2017-12-27

    Streamflow distribution maps for the Cannon River and St. Louis River drainage basins were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Legislative-Citizen Commission on Minnesota Resources, to illustrate relative and cumulative streamflow distributions. The Cannon River was selected to provide baseline data to assess the effects of potential surficial sand mining, and the St. Louis River was selected to determine the effects of ongoing Mesabi Iron Range mining. Each drainage basin (Cannon, St. Louis) was subdivided into nested drainage basins: the Cannon River was subdivided into 152 nested drainage basins, and the St. Louis River was subdivided into 353 nested drainage basins. For each smaller drainage basin, the estimated volumes of groundwater discharge (as base flow) and surface runoff flowing into all surface-water features were displayed under the following conditions: (1) extreme low-flow conditions, comparable to an exceedance-probability quantile of 0.95; (2) low-flow conditions, comparable to an exceedance-probability quantile of 0.90; (3) a median condition, comparable to an exceedance-probability quantile of 0.50; and (4) a high-flow condition, comparable to an exceedance-probability quantile of 0.02.Streamflow distribution maps were developed using flow-duration curve exceedance-probability quantiles in conjunction with Soil-Water-Balance model outputs; both the flow-duration curve and Soil-Water-Balance models were built upon previously published U.S. Geological Survey reports. The selected streamflow distribution maps provide a proactive water management tool for State cooperators by illustrating flow rates during a range of hydraulic conditions. Furthermore, after the nested drainage basins are highlighted in terms of surface-water flows, the streamflows can be evaluated in the context of meeting specific ecological flows under different flow regimes and potentially assist with decisions regarding groundwater and surface

  18. Transfer and transformation of soil iron and implications for hydrogeomorpholocial changes in Naoli River catchment, sanjiang plain, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, J.; Xianguo, L.; Hongqing, W.; Yuanchun, Z.; Haitao, W.

    2011-01-01

    Wetland soils are characterized by alternating redox process due to the fluctuation of waterlogged conditions. Iron is an important redox substance, and its transfer and transformation in the wetland ecosystem could be an effective indicator for the environment changes. In this paper, we selected the Naoli River catchment in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China as the study area to analyze the dynamics of transfer and transformation of soil iron, and the relationship between iron content change and environmental factors. The results show that the total and crystalline iron contents reach the peak in the depth of 60 cm in soil profile, while the amorphous iron content is higher in the topsoil. In the upper reaches, from the low to high landscape positions, the total and crystalline iron contents decrease from 62.98 g/kg to 41.61 g/kg, 22.82 g/kg to 10.53 g/kg respectively, while the amorphous iron content increases from 2.42 g/kg to 8.88 g/kg. Amorphous iron content has positive correlation with organic matter and soil water contents, while negative correlation with pH. Moreover, both the crystalline and amorphous iron contents present no correlation with total iron content, indicating that environmental factors play a more important role in the transfer and transformation of iron other than the content of the total iron. Different redoximorphic features were found along the soil profile due to the transfer and transformation of iron. E and B horizons of wetland soil in the study area have a matrix Chroma 2 or less, and all the soil types can meet the criteria of American hydric soil indicators except albic soil. ?? Science Press, Science Press, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  19. Geomorphological and morphometric analysis of the river basin of Salsa, south coast of the state of Paraiba / Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, M.E.; Nascimento, J.; Furrier, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to extend the knowledge on the geomorphology of the river basin of Salsa , located in the municipality of Conde, State of Paraíba / Brazil . The research was to develop guiding object thematic maps related to morphometric aspects of the basin such as fluvial hierarchy , hypsometric and slope . After obtaining the morphometric data can assess the likely tectonic influences on the morphology of this basin. Literature searches , acquisition and analysis of cartographic data (satellite imagery , topographic and thematic maps), where with the help of software SPRING 5:03 , were made the thematic maps of the basin : For this research, the following milestones have been met. In addition, there have been two topographic profiles of the area through which it was possible to further analyze the geomorphological aspects and clinográficos watershed. Already in possession of the first results of this research it was observed with the analysis of charts and topographic profiles the high level of dissection Barriers Training and dissection of this discrepancy between the left and right margins . Barriers in Education, was observed indicative of tectonics from setbacks headwater quite different slots and obsequente towards the River Salsa (SN), which is discordant from the direction of the main waterways and Training Barriers own inclination is that WE . These findings are important because the geomorphological analysis of litoestatigráfica unit is of paramount importance for the understanding of the mechanisms governing the morphology of the northeast coast, mainly in relation to the mechanisms that govern the morphology of watersheds coast of Paraiba

  20. Recovery of thermophilic Campylobacter by three sampling methods from classified river sites in Northeast Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is not clear how best to sample streams for the detection of Campylobacter which may be introduced from agricultural or community land use. Fifteen sites in the watershed of the South Fork of the Broad River (SFBR) in Northeastern Georgia, USA, were sampled in three seasons. Seven sites were cl...

  1. Arsenic in terrestrial invertebrates from riparian areas of the Piracicaba River Basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca, E.J.; Magalhaes, M.R.L.; Santos, M.L.O.; Nadai Fernandes, E.A. de; Fonseca, F.Y.

    2017-01-01

    There is no information on arsenic distribution in terrestrial invertebrates from riparian forests of urban and rural areas in Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the As levels in invertebrates from riverine forests of the Piracicaba River Basin, Sao Paulo, Brazil, using the instrumental neutron activation analysis, k 0 -comparator method. After correction of mass fractions, values higher than 0.10 mg kg -1 were quantified in invertebrates from both urban and agricultural areas. An unexpected As mass fraction of 13 mg kg -1 obtained in the Coleopteran pest Macrodactylus pumilio indicated resistance to As-containing-pesticides. (author)

  2. An integrated geological and geophysical study of the Parnaíba cratonic basin, North-East Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozer, B.; Watts, A. B.; Daly, M.

    2015-12-01

    Cratonic basins are characterized by their sub-circular shape, long-lived (>100 Myr) subsidence, shallow marine/terrestrial sediments that young towards the center of the basin and exhibit little internal deformation, and thick seismic lithosphere. Despite the recognition of >30 world-wide, the paucity of geological and geophysical data over these basins means their origin remains enigmatic. In order to address this problem, we have used a recently acquired 1400 km long seismic reflection profile recorded to 20 s TWTT, field observations and well logs, gravity and magnetic data acquired at 1 km intervals, and five wide-angle refection/refraction receiver gathers recorded at offsets up to 100 km, to constrain the origin of the Parnaíba basin, North-East Brazil. We find a depth to pre-Paleozoic basement and Moho of ~ 3.5 and ~ 40 - 42 km respectively beneath the basin center. A prominent mid-crustal reflection (MCR) can be tracked laterally for ~ 300 km at depths between 17 - 25 km and a low-fold wide-angle receiver gather stack shows that the crust below the MCR is characterized by a ~ 4 s TWTT package of anastomosing reflections. Gravity modelling suggests that the MCR represents the upper surface of a high density (+0.14 kg m-3) lower crustal body, which is probably of magmatic origin. Backstripping of biostratigraphic data from wells in the center of the basin show an exponentially decreasing subsidence. We show that although cooling of a thick (180 km) lithosphere following prolonged rifting (~ 65 Myr) can provide a good fit to the tectonic subsidence curves, process-oriented gravity and flexure modelling suggest that other processes must be important, as rifting does not account for the observed gravity anomaly and predicts too thin a crust (~ 34 km). The thicker than expected crust suggests warping due, for example, to far-field stresses or basal tractions. Another possibility, which is compatible with existing geophysical data, is a dense magmatic intrusion

  3. Soil gamma ray spectrometry of the Buquira river basin, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, Alice

    2002-12-01

    Natural radioactivity found in rocks and its evaluation been frequently used for studies of environmental geochemistry, particularly those of detection and control of pollutants and the consequent changes in environment after antropic interferences. In this work natural radioactivity in forty nine soil samples in the basin of Buquira river, at the Northeast region of Sao Paulo State, has been analysed and measured with a Ge-HP gamma ray spectrometer. A table with the most relevant results found in rocks is shown and discussed. (author)

  4. Mapping ecosystem service dynamic in Wuyuer River watershed, Northeast China from 1954 to 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fang; Wang, Ping; Li, Yanqing

    2007-06-01

    Wuyuer River watershed is one of concentrative and extensive distribution area of inland wetlands in China. Wetland ecosystem plays an important role in maintain the ecological functions in the region. Integrating topographic maps in 1954, Landsat MSS, TM/ETM imagery in 2000 and GIS, spatial-temporal pattern in land-use and ecosystem services in middle and lower Wuyuer River were analyzed in this paper. Results showed that area of marsh decreased from 56.04 ×10 4 ha to 32.04×10 4 ha, while the area of cropland increase 24.94×10 4 ha from 1954 to 2000. The annual loss rate of marsh was -1.48% (from 1954 to 1976) and -0.76% (from 1976 to 2000) respectively. Marsh land were turned into dry grassland and degraded to saline-alkalined land. The grassland decreased 40.26×104 ha dramatically for having been opened up to cropland and degraded into hardly-used land. Due to the negative effect of the decline in wetlands and grassland, total values of Middle and Lower Wuyur River's ecosystem services lost 66.10×10 8 RMB ¥ with an extent of 14.67% between 1954 and 2000. The highest ecosystem service value centralized in the middle area, and decreased gradually to surrounding regions.

  5. Large-Scale Land Concessions, Migration, and Land Use: The Paradox of Industrial Estates in the Red River Delta of Vietnam and Rubber Plantations of Northeast Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Fox

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the implications of large-scale land concessions in the Red River Delta, Vietnam, and Northeast Cambodia with regard to urban and agricultural frontiers, agrarian transitions, migration, and places from which the migrant workers originated. Field interviews conducted near large-scale land concessions for industrial estates in the Red River Delta and rubber plantations in Northeast Cambodia suggest that these radically different concessions are paradoxically leading to similar reconfigurations of livelihoods, labor patterns, and landscapes despite basic differences in these forms of land use. Both the Red River Delta and Northeast Cambodia are frontier environments undergoing extensive agrarian change with migration to work in the large-scale land concessions leading to a shortage of farm labor that anticipates changes in farming practices and farm livelihoods. These population movements will lead to further land-use changes as governments invest in the infrastructure and services needed to support increased population density in the receiving areas. In addition, labor migrations associated with these investments affect land-use practices both at the site of the concession and the places from where the migrants originate.

  6. Environmental risk assessment in five rivers of Parana River basin, Southern Brazil, through biomarkers in Astyanax spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Ivaldete Tijolin; Ceccon, Juliana Parolin; Glinski, Andressa; Liebel, Samuel; Grötzner, Sonia Regina; Randi, Marco Antonio Ferreira; Benedito, Evanilde; Ortolani-Machado, Claudia Feijó; Filipak Neto, Francisco; de Oliveira Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto

    2017-07-01

    In the current study, water quality of five river sites in Parana River basin (Brazil), utilized for public water supply, was assessed through a set of biomarkers in fish Astyanax spp. Population growth and inadequate use of land are challenges to the preservation of biodiversity and resources such as water. Some physicochemical parameters as well as somatic indexes, gills and liver histopathology, genotoxicity, and biochemical biomarkers were evaluated. The highest gonadosomatic index (GSI) and antioxidant parameters (catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities, non-protein thiols), as well as the lowest damage to biomolecules (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, DNA damage) were observed in site 0 (Piava River), which is located at an environmental protected area. Site 1, located in the same river, but downstream site 0 and outside the protection area, presents some level of impact. Fish from site 2 (Antas River), which lack of riparian forest and suffer from silting, presented the highest micronucleus incidence and no melanomacrophages. Differently, individuals from site 3 (Xambrê River) and site 4 (Pinhalzinho River) which receive surface runoff from Umuarama city, urban and industrial sewage, have the highest incidences of liver and gill histopathological alterations, including neoplasia, which indicated the worst health conditions of all sites. In particular, site 4 had high levels of total nitrogen and ammonia, high turbidity, and very low oxygen levels, which indicate important chemical impact. Comparison of the biomarkers in fish allowed classification of the five sites in terms of environmental impact and revealed that sites 3 and 4 had particular poor water quality.

  7. Changes in atmospheric rivers and moisture transport over the Northeast Pacific and western North America in response to ENSO diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Mi; Zhou, Yang; Alexander, Michael A.

    2017-03-01

    The year-to-year changes in atmospheric rivers (ARs) and moisture transport over the northeast Pacific and western North America are investigated during December to February (DJF) from 1979/80 to 2015/16. Changes in AR frequency, intensity, and landfall characteristics are compared between three ENSO phases: central Pacific El Niño (CPEN), eastern Pacific El Niño (EPEN), and La Niña (NINA). During EPEN events, the subtropical jet extends to the south and east with an anomalous cyclonic flow around a deeper Aleutian Low. More moisture is transported towards North America and AR frequency is increased over western North America. In CPEN events, the Aleutian low shifts further southward relative to its position in EPEN, resulting in an increase in the frequency and intensity of landfalling ARs over the southwestern US. In NINA events, the landfalling AR frequency is reduced associated with anomalous anticyclonic circulation over the eastern North Pacific. We diagnose the contribution of multiple factors to the seasonal mean moisture transport using moisture budgets. During the three ENSO phases, the change in low-frequency circulation (dynamical process) is the leading contributor to the seasonal mean moisture flux divergence, while the contributions of the synoptic anomalies and the change in moisture anomaly (thermodynamic process) are not significant along the west coast of North America.

  8. Bird community structure in riparian environments in Cai River, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Jaqueline Brummelhaus; Marcia Suelí Bohn; Maria Virginia Petry

    2012-01-01

    Urbanization produces changes in riparian environments, causing effects in the structure of bird communities, which present different responses to the impacts. We compare species richness, abundance, and composition of birds in riparian environments with different characteristics in Cai River, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. We carried out observations in woodland, grassland, and urban environments, between September 2007 and August 2008. We listed 130 bird species, 29 species unique to woodland e...

  9. The ichthyofauna of drifting macrophyte mats in the Ivinhema River, upper Paraná River basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, C. K.; Gomes, Luiz Carlos; Miranda, Leandro E.; Agostinho, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the fish assemblages associated with drifting macrophyte mats and consider their possible role as dispersal vectors in the Ivinhema River, a major tributary of the upper Paraná River, Brazil. Fish associated with drifting mats were sampled in the main river channel during January and March 2005, when the wind and/or the increased water level were sufficient to transport macrophyte stands. Fish in the drifting mats were sampled with a floating sieve (4 m long x 2 m wide x 0.6 m high, and 2 mm mesh size). In the laboratory, larvae, juvenile, and adult fish were counted and identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level. In four drifting macrophyte mats we captured 218 individuals belonging to at least 28 species, 17 families, and 6 orders. Aphyocharax dentatus, Serrasalmus spp., and Trachelyopterus galeatus were the most abundant taxa associated with the mats, but species richness ranged from 6 to 24 species per mat. In addition, 85% of the total number of individuals caught was larvae and juveniles. Although preliminary and based on limited samples, this study of drifting macrophyte mats was the first one in the last unregulated stretch of the Paraná River remaining inside Brazilian territory, and alerts us to the potential role of macrophytes mats as dispersers of fish species in the region.

  10. Range extension of Moenkhausia oligolepis (Günther,1864 to the Pindaré river drainage, of Mearim river basin, and Itapecuru river basin of northeastern Brazil (Characiformes: Characidae

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    Erick Cristofore Guimarães

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports range extansion of Moenkhausia oligolepis to the Pindaré river drainage, of the Mearim river basin, and Itapecuru river basin, Maranhão state, northeastern Brazil. This species was previously known only from Venezuela, Guianas, and the Amazon River basins. In addition, we present some meristic and morphometric data of the specimens herein examined and discuss on its diagnostic characters.

  11. Fish, Corumbataí and Jacaré-Pepira river basins, São Paulo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gomiero, Leandro; Braga, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    Fish were studied in two river basins (Corumbataí and Jacaré-Pepira) subjected to strong human pressure, in the interior of the State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. In the Corumbataí basin, four sites were sampled: Cabeça river, Lapa stream, Passa-Cinco river, and Corumbataí river; in the Jacaré-Pepira basin, three sites were sampled: Tamanduá stream, Jacaré-Pepira river, and Água Branca stream. A total of 4,050 specimens belonging to 48 species and 13 families were caught and analyzed....

  12. Fish, Corumbataí and Jacaré-Pepira river basins, São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Braga, F. M. S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish were studied in two river basins (Corumbataí and Jacaré-Pepira subjected to strong human pressure, in the interior of the State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. In the Corumbataí basin, four sites were sampled: Cabeça river, Lapa stream, Passa-Cinco river, and Corumbataí river; in the Jacaré-Pepira basin, three sites were sampled: Tamanduá stream, Jacaré-Pepira river, and Água Branca stream. A total of 4,050 specimens belonging to 48 species and 13 families were caught and analyzed.

  13. The effectiveness of community-based interventions to improve maternal and infant health in the Northeast of Brazil

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    Emond Alan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based intervention project aimed at reducing maternal and infant mortality in a poor urban district in the city of Natal, in the Northeast of Brazil. Methods. The intervention, called the ProNatal project, introduced a program of integrated community health care to a geographically defined population. The interventions included the establishment of antenatal clinics at the district's health centers, the opening of the maternity facilities at the polyclinic for low-risk deliveries, the introduction of a family planning clinic and a breast-feeding clinic, support from pediatricians for under-5 (well-baby clinics, children's outpatient services and children's emergency care, and the introduction of health agents recruited from the local community. Representative surveys of the population were taken at the project's inception (July 1995 and then 30 months later (December 1997, using a general health questionnaire adapted to the local conditions. Mortality data were collected from local registration systems as well as from an autopsy survey of perinatal and infant deaths. Results. During 1995 there were 4 maternal deaths from 1 195 pregnancies (maternal mortality of 335/100 000; three of the deaths were related to hypertension and one to uterine perforation after an illegal abortion. During 1998 (post-intervention, there were no maternal deaths in pregnancy or childbirth. In 1993 no deliveries took place at the polyclinic, but in 1998 there were 946 deliveries at the clinic without any serious complications. The method of delivery, the incidence of prematurity, and the incidence of low birthweight did not change significantly over the study period. In the post-intervention survey, 75% of women reported receiving contraceptive advice from a doctor in the preceding year, compared to 50% in the first sample. A mortality survey carried out in 1993-1995 estimated the infant mortality rate to be 60

  14. Abundance and instantaneous transport of Petrolisthes armatus (Gibbes, 1850 planktonic larvae in the Catuama inlet, Northeast Brazil

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    Mauro de Melo Júnior

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of tidal and diel changes on the exchange of Petrolisthes armatus planktonic larvae was studied at the Catuama inlet, which represents an intermediate system of marine and estuarine environments in the Northeast Brazil. To characterize the larval abundance and vertical distribution, samplings were carried out in August 2001 at neap tide and 3 stations, with 3 hours interval over 24 hours. Samples were taken at three or two depths at each station, with a plankton pump coupled to a 300 µm mesh size net. Petrolisthes armatus zoea I and II showed a mean of 26.3 ± 83.6 and 12 ± 38.8 ind m-3, respectively. During flood tides, the larvae were more concentrated in the midwater and surface, which avoided the transport to internal regions. In contrast, during ebb tides when the larvae were distributed in the three layers, the higher concentrations were found in the bottom, which avoided a major exportation. The diel dynamic of the larval fluxes was characterized by vertical migration behavior associated to the tidal regime, which suggested that the development of this decapod apparently occurs in the inner shelf (instead of the outer shelf off this peculiar ecosystem.A influência dos ciclos de maré e fotoperíodo sobre o fluxo de larvas planctônicas de Petrolisthes armatus foi estudada na barra de Catuama, que representa um ambiente intermediário entre os sistemas marinho e estuarino no nordeste do Brasil. Para caracterizar a abundância e a distribuição vertical das larvas, foram feitas coletas em agosto de 2001, durante a maré de quadratura, em 3 estações fixas e com intervalos de 3 horas, ao longo de um ciclo de 24 horas. Em cada estação, amostras foram coletadas em três ou duas profundidades, com o auxílio de uma bomba de sucção acoplada a uma rede de plâncton com 300 µm de abertura de malha. Os zoés I e II de Petrolisthes armatus apresentaram médias de 26,3 ± 83,6 e 12 ± 38,8 ind m-3, respectivamente. Durante as

  15. Spawning of migratory fish species between two reservoirs of the upper Uruguay River, Brazil

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    David A. Reynalte-Tataje

    Full Text Available This study investigated the migratory fish spawning within the reservoirs of the Machadinho and Itá dams (upper Uruguay River, Brazil and its relationship to environmental variables. Sampling was conducted in the lotic region of the river in two sites between the dams' reservoirs: Uruguay (main river and Ligeiro (tributary. Sampling included nine consecutive reproductive periods (RP spanning the period from 2001 to 2010 and was conducted at night on the water surface using cylindrical-conical plankton nets (0.5 mm mesh; environmental variables were also recorded. The spawning of the migratory species Salminus brasiliensis, Prochilodus lineatus, and Steindachneridion scriptum was registered: S. brasiliensis and P. lineatus spawned in the tributary river at the end of spring/beginning of summer, during flooding and during periods of high water temperature. Steindachneridion scriptum spawned in the main river at the beginning of spring. The study showed that S. brasiliensis, P. lineatus, and S. scriptum are able to spawn in small lotic river stretches within two reservoirs, but only under very specific and not common environmental conditions.

  16. Summary of Surface-Water Quality Data from the Illinois River Basin in Northeast Oklahoma, 1970-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, William J.; Becker, Mark F.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Tortorelli, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of streams in the Illinois River Basin of northeastern Oklahoma is potentially threatened by increased quantities of wastes discharged from increasing human populations, grazing of about 160,000 cattle, and confined animal feeding operations raising about 20 million chickens. Increasing numbers of humans and livestock in the basin contribute nutrients and bacteria to surface water and groundwater, causing greater than the typical concentrations of those constituents for this region. Consequences of increasing contributions of these substances can include increased algal growth (eutrophication) in streams and lakes; impairment of habitat for native aquatic animals, including desirable game fish species; impairment of drinking-water quality by sediments, turbidity, taste-and-odor causing chemicals, toxic algal compounds, and bacteria; and reduction in the aesthetic quality of the streams. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Scenic Rivers Commission, prepared this report to summarize the surface-water-quality data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey at five long-term surface-water-quality monitoring sites. The data summarized include major ions, nutrients, sediment, and fecal-indicator bacteria from the Illinois River Basin in Oklahoma for 1970 through 2007. General water chemistry, concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds, chlorophyll-a (an indicator of algal biomass), fecal-indicator bacteria counts, and sediment concentrations were similar among the five long-term monitoring sites in the Illinois River Basin in northeast Oklahoma. Most water samples were phosphorus-limited, meaning that they contained a smaller proportion of phosphorus, relative to nitrogen, than typically occurs in algal tissues. Greater degrees of nitrogen limitation occurred at three of the five sites which were sampled back to the 1970s, probably due to use of detergents containing greater concentrations of phosphorus than in subsequent

  17. "Stuck in the muck": an eco-idiom of distress from childhood respiratory diseases in an urban mangrove in Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nations, Marilyn; Gondim, Ana Paula Soares

    2013-02-01

    Situated in neo-democratic globalizing Northeast Brazil, this anthropological study probes the role of ecological context in framing, experiencing, and expressing human distress. Ethnographic interviews, narratives, and "contextualized semantic analysis" reveal the lived experience of childhood respiratory diseases among 22 urban mangrove dwellers. Informants speak an "eco-idiom of respiratory distress" based on a popular "eco-logic", reflecting the harsh reality of "living in dampness". "Higher-up" residents legitimize their feelings of superiority by stigmatizing "lowlanders" as taboo, diseased (with porcine cysticercosis, swine flu) "filthy pigs, stuck in the muck" (atolados na lama). Animalizing inhabitants' identities demotes them to nonpersons. Besides infections, children suffer social stigma, ostracism, and barriers for accessing care. Promoting a "favorable environment" requires reducing ecological risk, challenging class-based prejudice, and restoring human dignity.

  18. Nest spacing and architecture, and swarming of males of Dinoponera quadriceps (Hymenoptera, Formicidae in a remnant of the Atlantic Forest in Northeast Brazil

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    A. Vasconcellos

    Full Text Available Dinoponera quadriceps is a queenless neotropical ponerinae ant. Nest spacing and abundance were investigated in a remnant of the Atlantic forest in Northeast Brazil. Males were captured with a light trap between August 1994 and July 1996. Nest density varied from 15 to 40 ha-1. An overdispersion of nests suggests that the intraspecific competition may be an important factor regulating their spatial arrangement. Territory size was correlated with worker population size of the colonies. The nests had up to 16 chambers, with variations in their architecture closely related to habitat diversification. Populations varied from 12 to 97 adult workers per nest, with a mean density of 1,618 workers ha-1 and a live biomass of 461 g ha-1 (n = 13 nests. Males swarm continually throughout almost all months of the year, suggesting that production and swarming are more influenced by mechanisms that regulate the sexual activity of workers than by climatic factors.

  19. The impact of the Bolsa Família Program on food consumption: a comparative study of the southeast and northeast regions of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperandio, Naiara; Rodrigues, Cristiana Tristão; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the Bolsa Família Program (PBF) on food consumption in the northeast and southeast regions of Brazil. The database was obtained from the individual food consumption module of the Household Budget Survey conducted in 2008-09. Consumption was assessed through two food records. The food was categorized into four groups: fresh or minimally processed food; culinary ingredients; processed food; and ultra-processed food. To analyze the impact, the propensity score matching method was used, which compares the individual recipients and non-recipients of the PBF in relation to a group of socioeconomic characteristics. After the propensity score was calculated, the impact of the PBF was estimated through the nearest-neighbor matching algorithm. In both regions, more than 60% of the daily total calories consumed by PBF recipients came from foods that had not undergone industrial processing. The recipients of PBF had a low level of consumption of processed and ultra-processed food in both regions, and an increased level of consumption of fresh or minimally processed food in the northeast. The results indicate the importance of adopting intersectoral policies in parallel to the PBF in order to strengthen healthy eating practices.

  20. Profile of fishers in foz of Araguaia river, Brazil

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    Carlos Eduardo Zacarkim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the profile of the fishermen of the mouth of the river Araguaia. 562 fishermen belonging to six colonies were interviewed, being these of the colonies of Araguatins (Z-1, Aragominas (Z-24, Araguanã (Z-3 located in the state of Tocantins and Xambioá (Z-33; Piçarra (Z-55 and São Geraldo do Araguaia (Z-88 in the state of Pará. It is observed that artisanal fishermen are constitute mainly by sexy male, with low education, with an average of five members in the family, for the most part have house and vessel own. The fishermen are in great part associated with the a colonies of fishermen and receives an average of three minimum salaries. It was also observed that most works in activity over six hours per day and its main fishing tool is the gillnet. In the general context, it is understood that small-scale fisheries is a way of life of these people which assign a unique identity, which should be preserved.

  1. The Araguaia River as an Important Biogeographical Divide for Didelphid Marsupials in Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Rita Gomes; Ferreira, Eduardo; Loss, Ana Carolina; Heller, Rasmus; Fonseca, Carlos; Costa, Leonora Pires

    2015-01-01

    The riverine barrier model suggests that rivers play a significant role in separating widespread organisms into isolated populations. In this study, we used a comparative approach to investigate the phylogeography of 6 didelphid marsupial species in central Brazil. Specifically, we evaluate the role of the mid-Araguaia River in differentiating populations and estimate divergence time among lineages to assess the timing of differentiation of these species, using mitochondrial DNA sequence data. The 6 didelphid marsupials revealed different intraspecific genetic patterns and structure. The 3 larger and more generalist species, Didelphis albiventris, Didelphis marsupialis, and Philander opossum, showed connectivity across the Araguaia River. In contrast the genetic structure of the 3 smaller and specialist species, Gracilinanus agilis, Marmosa (Marmosa) murina, and Marmosa (Micoureus) demerarae was shaped by the mid-Araguaia. Moreover, the split of eastern and western bank populations of the 2 latter species is consistent with the age of Araguaia River sediments formation. We hypothesize that the role of the Araguaia as a riverine barrier is linked to the level of ecological specialization among the 6 didelphid species and differences in their ability to cross rivers or disperse through the associated habitat types. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Effects of land-use patterns on in-stream nitrogen in a highly-polluted river basin in Northeast China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bu, Hongmei; Zhang, Yuan; Meng, Wei; Song, Xianfang

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of land-use patterns on nitrogen pollution in the Haicheng River basin in Northeast China during 2010 by conducting statistical and spatial analyses and by analyzing the isotopic composition of nitrate. Correlation and stepwise regressions indicated that land-use types and landscape metrics were correlated well with most river nitrogen variables and significantly predicted them during different sampling seasons. Built-up land use and shape metrics dominated in predicting nitrogen variables over seasons. According to the isotopic compositions of river nitrate in different zones, the nitrogen sources of the river principally originated from synthetic fertilizer, domestic sewage/manure, soil organic matter, and atmospheric deposition. Isotope mixing models indicated that source contributions of river nitrogen significantly varied from forested headwaters to densely populated towns of the river basin. Domestic sewage/manure was a major contributor to river nitrogen with the proportions of 76.4 ± 6.0% and 62.8 ± 2.1% in residence and farmland-residence zones, respectively. This research suggested that regulating built-up land uses and reducing discharges of domestic sewage and industrial wastewater would be effective methods for river nitrogen control. - Highlights: • Land-use types were correlated well with most nitrogen variables over seasons. • Built-up land dominated in predicting nitrogen variables during different seasons. • Shape metrics predicted most nitrogen variables in different seasons. • Nitrogen sources and their contributions were estimated using nitrate isotopes. • Domestic sewage mainly contributed to river nitrogen pollution in residence zone.

  3. Effects of land-use patterns on in-stream nitrogen in a highly-polluted river basin in Northeast China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu, Hongmei, E-mail: buhm2004@163.com [Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Zhang, Yuan; Meng, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Song, Xianfang [Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2016-05-15

    This study investigated the effects of land-use patterns on nitrogen pollution in the Haicheng River basin in Northeast China during 2010 by conducting statistical and spatial analyses and by analyzing the isotopic composition of nitrate. Correlation and stepwise regressions indicated that land-use types and landscape metrics were correlated well with most river nitrogen variables and significantly predicted them during different sampling seasons. Built-up land use and shape metrics dominated in predicting nitrogen variables over seasons. According to the isotopic compositions of river nitrate in different zones, the nitrogen sources of the river principally originated from synthetic fertilizer, domestic sewage/manure, soil organic matter, and atmospheric deposition. Isotope mixing models indicated that source contributions of river nitrogen significantly varied from forested headwaters to densely populated towns of the river basin. Domestic sewage/manure was a major contributor to river nitrogen with the proportions of 76.4 ± 6.0% and 62.8 ± 2.1% in residence and farmland-residence zones, respectively. This research suggested that regulating built-up land uses and reducing discharges of domestic sewage and industrial wastewater would be effective methods for river nitrogen control. - Highlights: • Land-use types were correlated well with most nitrogen variables over seasons. • Built-up land dominated in predicting nitrogen variables during different seasons. • Shape metrics predicted most nitrogen variables in different seasons. • Nitrogen sources and their contributions were estimated using nitrate isotopes. • Domestic sewage mainly contributed to river nitrogen pollution in residence zone.

  4. Floristic composition of the riparian forest in the lower Gramame river, Paraíba, Brazil

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    Thiago da Silva Farias

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n3p23 Riparian forest has a key ecological and economic significance to productive chains associated with it. This study aimed to conduct a floristic survey of riparian forest stretches in the Gramame river, state of Paraíba, Brazilian Northeast region, and analyze the floristic similarity with Brazilian riparian vegetation fragments. We found 136 species belonging to 106 genera and 43 families. The most representative families were: Fabaceae (19 spp., Cyperaceae (16 spp., and Rubiaceae (11 spp.. The predominant habit was herbaceous and the best represented biological spectrum was camephyte. Regarding the geographic distribution, there was a predominance of widely distributed species associated with the Neotropical province. The distribution patterns have shown a low similarity between areas, and largely distributed species stand out. Similarity analysis pointed out that the area was floristically related to other two coastal areas in the Brazilian Northeast and Southeast regions. Only species typically related to estuarine environments might explain the floristic connections detected.

  5. Parasitism by Monogenoidea in Piaractus mesopotamicus (Characiformes, Characidae cultivated in Paraná River (Brazil

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    M. S. L. Leão

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the occurrence, prevalence, mean abundance and mean intensity of monogenoidean parasites in Piaractus mesopotamicus farmed in cages in the reservoir of the Itaipu Hydroelectric Power Station, Paraná River, Brazil. The parasite distribution pattern and the correlation of prevalence and abundance with the total length of hosts were also investigated. Four monogenoidean species were collected: Anacanthorus penilabiatus, A. toledoensis, Mymarothecium ianwhitingtoni and M. viatorum. All the parasites collected in P. mesopotamicus showed the typical aggregated distribution pattern, and the abundance and the prevalence did not shown any correlation with the total length of hosts.

  6. Metal concentrations in surface sediments of Paraiba do Sul River (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, M.O.; Calza, C.; Lopes, R.T.; Anjos, M.J.; UERJ, Rio de Janeiro; Araujo, F.G.

    2006-01-01

    The Paraiba do Sul River is located in a strategic region between the most important urban and industrial centers of Brazil. In the last years, an increase in the water pollution has been reported, caused by the untreated domestic sewerage of the inhabitants, effluents discharged by various industries, mining activities and sand extraction from the riverbed. This work used total reflection X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF) to determine metals in the bioavailable and residual fractions from the surface sediments. The metals identified were Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb. (author)

  7. Metazoan endoparasites of Pygocentrus nattereri (Characiformes: Serrasalminae in the Negro River, Pantanal, Brazil

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    Wagner Vicentin

    Full Text Available In the period of October 2007 to August 2008, 152 specimens ofPygocentrus nattereri were caught in the Negro River in the Nhecolândia region, central Pantanal wetland, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The specimens were necropsied and a total of 4,212 metazoan endoparasites were recovered, belonging to 10 taxons:Procamallanus (Spirocamallanusinopinatus, Philometridae gen. sp.,Eustrongylides sp., Brevimulticaecum sp.,Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda, Echinorhynchus paranensis (Acanthocephala, Leiperia gracile,Sebekia oxycephala, Subtriquetra sp. 1 andSubtriquetra sp. 2 (Pentastomida. This is the first record of two parasite species from P. nattereri: E. paranensis and L. gracile.

  8. Determinants of infant mortality in the Jequitinhonha Valley and in the North and Northeast regions of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Maria do Carmo; Bittencourt, Sonia Duarte de Azevedo; Torres, Raquel Maria Cardoso; Niquini, Roberta Pereira; Souza, Paulo Roberto Borges de

    2017-03-02

    This study aims to identify the social and demographic determinants, in addition to the determinants of reproductive health and use of health services, associated with infant mortality in small and medium-sized cities of the North, Northeast and Southeast regions of Brazil. This is a case-control study with 803 cases of death of children under one year and 1,969 live births (controls), whose mothers lived in the selected cities in 2008. The lists of the names of cases and controls were extracted from the Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade (SIM - Mortality Information System) and the Sistema de Informação sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC - Live Birth Information System) and supplemented by data obtained by the research of "active search of death and birth". Data was collected in the household using a semi-structured questionnaire, and the analysis was carried out using multiple logistic regression. The final model indicates that the following items are positively and significantly associated with infant mortality: family working in agriculture, mother having a history of fetal and infant losses, no prenatal or inadequate prenatal, and not being associated to the maternity hospital during the prenatal period. We have observed significant interactions to explain the occurrence of infant mortality between race and socioeconomic score and between high-risk pregnancy and pilgrimage for childbirth. The excessive number of home deliveries and pilgrimage for childbirth indicates flaws in the line of maternity care and a lack of collaboration between the levels of outpatient and hospital care. The study reinforces the need for an integrated management of the health care networks, leveraging the capabilities of cities in meeting the needs of pregnancy, delivery and birth with quality. Identificar os determinantes sociais, demográficos, da saúde reprodutiva e de utilização dos serviços de saúde associados ao óbito infantil em municípios de pequeno e médio porte

  9. Influence of habitat heterogeneity on anuran diversity in Restinga landscapes of the Parnaíba River delta, northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Kássio C; Guzzi, Anderson; Ávila, Robson W

    2018-01-01

    Anurans have close associations with environmental conditions and therefore represent an interesting vertebrate group for examining how resource availability and environmental variables influence species diversity. Associations between habitat heterogeneity and anuran species diversity were tested in the Restinga landscapes of the Parnaíba River delta in northeastern Brazil. Twenty-one anuran species were sampled in the rainy season during monthly excursions (December 2015 to June 2016) into areas of Restinga on two islands in the Parnaíba River delta. The fourth highest anuran diversity was found in this type of environment in Brazil and is the third in northeastern Brazil. Microenvironments, characterized by a combination of vernal pools with different vegetational and physical structures, better explained anuran species composition in the Parnaíba River delta.

  10. Geochemical signature of columbite-tantalite and environmental impact of radioactive pegmatite mining in the Parelhas region, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Jorge Costa de; Cruz, Paulo R.; Pereira, Valmir, E-mail: jcmoura@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: pcruz@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: vpereira@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ludka, Isabel P.; Mendes, Julio C., E-mail: ludka@geologia.ufrj.br, E-mail: julio@geologia.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal de Rio do Janeiro (CCMN/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Matematicas e da Natureza. Dept. de Geologia

    2013-07-01

    This article comprises geochemical, structural and radiometric investigations on radioactive pegmatites of the Borborema Pegmatitic Province in Northeast Brazil. The studied area is located in the surroundings of the city of Parelhas, in the geotectonic Province of Borborema. It is well known for its thousands of pegmatitic bodies exploited in primitive mines called garimpos. The main goal was to find an efficient, cheap and routine inspection procedure to identify the origin of commercialized radioactive columbite-tantalite (coltan) ore. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Agency (CNEN) controls uranium commerce and nuclear activity in Brazil. Without an effective method to characterize coltan ores from different localities it is impossible to control the trade. The here presented new method was developed by correlating structural features of these pegmatites with the geochemical behavior of their coltan samples. It was found that the variation of U/Th vs. Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} provides geochemical signatures (analytical fingerprints) for the source location of such ore. The new method was tested with coltan samples of commercial batches from the Brazilian states of Amapa and Rondonia and also generated distinct geochemical signatures. A radiometric survey (CPS) to study the environmental impact of gamma radiation was also carried out in several mines and pegmatites. It included in situ measurements of pegmatite walls, enclosing rocks, soil, and accumulated water and revealed that gamma emitters are hardly solubilized and therefore environmental gamma radiation generally is not enhanced to a dangerous level. (author)

  11. Factors associated with Specific Hypertensive Gestation Syndrome (SHGS in postpartum adolescent and young adult mothers in the Northeast of Brazil: a multiple analysis of hierarchical models

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    Eloisa Barreto Bacelar

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: to analyze possible associations between Specific Hypertensive Gestation Syndrome (SHGS and sociodemographic, prenatal, and delivery characteristics of young adult and teenage mothers. Methods: a hospital-based cross-sectional study and regional level, gathered from 54 municipalities in the Northeast region of Brazil from 2011-2012, using records from the National Survey, "Born in Brazil". A theoretical conceptual model with three-level hierarchy was established, with SHGS being the outcome variable. A multivariate analysis was performed from the bivariate analysis and p-value, with a significance of < 0.2 by the Wald test. Results: of the 2,960 adolescents and young adults included in the study, 135 (4.6% developed HSP. The mothers without a partner had 50% (OR=1.53 greater chance of presenting this pathology; while those without adequate schooling for age presented 90% higher chance (OR = 1.86 and those with a prior clinical risk factor, the chance of presenting the outcome was 21 times the chance of those without this antecedent (OR = 21.72. Conclusions: significant associations were identified between SHGS and postpartum adolescents and young adults without a partner, with low schooling and prior clinical risk, signaling the importance of investments in the quality of prenatal care and labor of the most vulnerable groups.

  12. Geochemical signature of columbite-tantalite and environmental impact of radioactive pegmatite mining in the Parelhas region, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Jorge Costa de; Cruz, Paulo R.; Pereira, Valmir; Ludka, Isabel P.; Mendes, Julio C.

    2013-01-01

    This article comprises geochemical, structural and radiometric investigations on radioactive pegmatites of the Borborema Pegmatitic Province in Northeast Brazil. The studied area is located in the surroundings of the city of Parelhas, in the geotectonic Province of Borborema. It is well known for its thousands of pegmatitic bodies exploited in primitive mines called garimpos. The main goal was to find an efficient, cheap and routine inspection procedure to identify the origin of commercialized radioactive columbite-tantalite (coltan) ore. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Agency (CNEN) controls uranium commerce and nuclear activity in Brazil. Without an effective method to characterize coltan ores from different localities it is impossible to control the trade. The here presented new method was developed by correlating structural features of these pegmatites with the geochemical behavior of their coltan samples. It was found that the variation of U/Th vs. Nb 2 O 5 /Ta 2 O 5 provides geochemical signatures (analytical fingerprints) for the source location of such ore. The new method was tested with coltan samples of commercial batches from the Brazilian states of Amapa and Rondonia and also generated distinct geochemical signatures. A radiometric survey (CPS) to study the environmental impact of gamma radiation was also carried out in several mines and pegmatites. It included in situ measurements of pegmatite walls, enclosing rocks, soil, and accumulated water and revealed that gamma emitters are hardly solubilized and therefore environmental gamma radiation generally is not enhanced to a dangerous level. (author)

  13. Heavy Rainfall Episodes in the Eastern Northeast Brazil Linked to Large-Scale Ocean-Atmosphere Conditions in the Tropical Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves K. Kouadio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Relationships between simultaneous occurrences of distinctive atmospheric easterly wave (EW signatures that cross the south-equatorial Atlantic, intense mesoscale convective systems (lifespan > 2 hour that propagate westward over the western south-equatorial Atlantic, and subsequent strong rainfall episodes (anomaly > 10 mm·day−1 that occur in eastern Northeast Brazil (ENEB are investigated. Using a simple diagnostic analysis, twelve cases with EW lifespan ranging between 3 and 8 days and a mean velocity of 8 m·s−1 were selected and documented during each rainy season of 2004, 2005, and 2006. These cases, which represent 50% of the total number of strong rainfall episodes and 60% of the rainfall amount over the ENEB, were concomitant with an acceleration of the trade winds over the south-equatorial Atlantic, an excess of moisture transported westward from Africa to America, and a strengthening of the convective activity in the oceanic region close to Brazil. Most of these episodes occurred during positive sea surface temperature anomaly patterns over the entire south-equatorial Atlantic and low-frequency warm conditions within the oceanic mixing layer. A real-time monitoring and the simulation of this ocean-atmosphere relationship could help in forecasting such dramatic rainfall events.

  14. Amazon river basin evapotranspiration and its influence on the rainfall in southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folegatti, M. V.; Wolff, W.

    2017-12-01

    Amazon river basin (ARB) presents a positive water balance, i.e. the precipitation is higher than evapotranspiration. Regarding the regional circulation, ARB evapotranspiration represents an important source of humidity for the South of Brazil. Thus, the aim of this work is to answer the question: how much is the correlation between ARB evapotranspiration and rainfall in South of Brazil? The shapefiles data of ARB and countries/states boundary were obtained through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE), respectively. According to rasters data, the precipitation was obtained from study of Numerical Terradynamic Simulation Group (NTSG) for images of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), under code MOD16A2, whereas rasters data for evapotranspiration were obtained from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) by Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), under code 3B43_V7. The products MOD16A2 and 3B43_V7 have a respective spatial resolution of 0.5º and 0.25º, and a monthly temporal resolution from January/2000 to December/2014. For ARB and South region of Brazil was calculated the mean evapotranspiration and mean precipitation through the pixels within of the respective polygons. To answer the question of this work was performed the cross-correlation analysis between these time series. We observed the highest value for the lag that corresponds the begin of spring (October), being 0.3 approximately. As a result, the mean precipitation on South region of Brazil during spring and summer was in the order of 15% to 30 %, explained by ARB evapotranspiration. For this reason, the maintenance of ARB is extremely important for water resource grant in South of Brazil.

  15. Diversity of non-biting midge larvae assemblages in the Jacuí River basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floss, Elzira Cecília Serafini; Kotzian, Carla Bender; Spies, Márcia Regina; Secretti, Elisangela

    2012-01-01

    The richness and composition of a mountain-river chironomid larvae assemblage in the Jacuí River basin, Brazil were studied, and compared with other riverine non-biting midge larvae assemblages previously studied in the country. Additionally, the influence of some regional-scale environmental characteristics on the spatial distribution of these assemblages was tested. The specimens were collected at 12 sites in the middle course of the Jacuí River basin (in the state of Rio Grande do Sul) between April 2000 and May 2002. Around 100 taxa were recorded. The dominant taxa belonged to the genera Rheotanytarsus, Cricotopus, Polypedilum, and Pseudochironomus. Twenty-two rare taxa were found, representing 22% of the total of taxa inventoried. Fourteen genera (Aedokritus, Axarus, Endotribelos, Kiefferulus, Manoa, Oukuriella, Phaenopsectra, Stenochironomus, Xenochironomus, Xestochironomus, Cardiocladius, Metriocnemus, Paracladius, and Rheocricotopus) represent new occurrences in Rio Grande do Sul. The similarity analysis of the chironomid larvae assemblages inventoried in 32 regions of Brazil indicated five groups with similarity higher than 50%. The groups, when the effects of spatial autocorrelation were removed, displayed a weak positive correlation between the assemblage composition and the aquatic system or hydraulic conditions and the hydrographic basin, and a weak negative correlation in relation to the biome. The altitude showed no correlation with the composition of the assemblage. The relatively high richness of the region surveyed in relation to other Brazilian regions corroborates some tendencies already noted in other parts of the world, such as: i) lotic systems may constitute an exception to the rule that diversity is greater in tropical regions, ii) regions of transitional relief may contain the greatest richness of Chironomidae, and iii) in rivers, the group might have its spatial distribution influenced to a greater extent by local environmental

  16. Habitat preferences of common native fishes in a tropical river in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Rodrigues da Costa

    Full Text Available We determined in this study the habitat preferences of seven native fish species in a regulated river in Southeastern Brazil. We tested the hypothesis that fishes differ in habitat preference and that they use stretches of the river differing in hydraulic characteristics and substrate type. We surveyed fishes in four 1-km long river stretches encompassing different habitat traits, where we also measured water depth, velocity, and substrate type. We investigated preference patterns of four Siluriformes (Loricariichthys castaneus, Hoplosternum littorale, Pimelodus maculatus, and Trachelyopterus striatulus and three Characiformes (Astyanax aff. bimaculatus, Oligosarcus hepsetus, and Hoplias malabaricus, representing approximately 70% of the total number of fishes and 64% of the total biomass. We classified fishes into four habitat guilds: (1 a slow-flowing water guild that occupied mud-sand substrate, composed of two Siluriformes in either shallow ( 8 m, L. castaneus waters; (2 a run-dwelling guild that occurs in deep backwaters with clay-mud substrate, composed of the Characiformes A. aff. bimaculatus and O. hepsetus; (3 a run-dwelling guild that occurs in sandy and shallow substrate, composed of T. striatulus; and (4 a fast-flowing guild that occurs primarily along shorelines with shallow mud bottoms, composed of H. malabaricus and P. maculatus. Our hypothesis was confirmed, as different habitat preferences by fishes appear to occur in this regulated river.

  17. Historical accumulation of Trace elements in sediment cores from Tiete river, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damatto, S.; Rocha, F.; Baumgardt, D.; Martins, L.; Silva, P.; Favaro, D. [IPEN-CNEN (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Tiete River, with 1100 km of extension, is one of the most economically important river of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil and throughout its length can be found reservoirs formed by damming its waters. This river is considered one of the most polluted rivers in the world, especially when it passes through the city of Sao Paulo. As a result of pollution observed since the 1950's, a project was established with the aim of evaluating the historic concentration of the trace elements As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn (mg.kg{sup -1}), in sediment cores dated by {sup 210}Pb method, sampled is several points of the river, since its source in Salesopolis up the mouth, on the Parana River. This work presents the results obtained by the trace elements above determined in two sediment cores collected in reservoirs in the city of Salesopolis and Pirapora do Bom Jesus. The analytical techniques used for the analysis were instrumental neutron activation analysis and gross beta measurement, respectively. The results obtained for the elements Br, Ce, Cr, Cs, Eu, Nd, Sb, Sm, Th and U are higher than the values of Upper Continental Crust and the sedimentation rate obtained for the reservoir in Salesopolis, 1.53 cm.y{sup -1}, suggest silting processes. The enrichment factor and the geo-accumulation index were used to assess the presence of anthropogenic sources of pollution. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  18. Trace element fluxes in sediments of an environmentally impacted river from a coastal zone of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Yuri Jacques Agra Bezerra; Cantalice, José Ramon Barros; Singh, Vijay P; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo; Piscoya, Victor Casimiro; Guerra, Sérgio M S

    2015-10-01

    Data regarding trace element concentrations and fluxes in suspended sediments and bedload are scarce. To fill this gap and meet the international need to include polluted rivers in future world estimation of trace element fluxes, this study aimed to determine the trace element fluxes in suspended sediment and bedload of an environmentally impacted river in Brazil. Water, suspended sediment, and bedload from both the upstream and the downstream cross sections were collected. To collect both the suspended sediment and water samples, we used the US DH-48. Bedload measurements were carried out using the US BLH 84 sampler. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined by inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES). As and Hg were determined by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AA-FIAS). The suspended sediments contributed more than 99 % of the trace element flux. By far Pb and to a less extent Zn at the downstream site represents major concerns. The yields of Pb and Zn in suspended sediments were 4.20 and 2.93 kg km(2) year(-1), respectively. These yields were higher than the values reported for Pb and Zn for Tuul River (highly impacted by mining activities), 1.60 and 1.30 kg km(2) year(-1), respectively, as well as the Pb yield (suspended + dissolved) to the sea of some Mediterranean rivers equal to 3.4 kg km(2) year(-1). Therefore, the highest flux and yield of Pb and Zn in Ipojuca River highlighted the importance to include medium and small rivers-often overlooked in global and regional studies-in the future estimation of world trace element fluxes in order to protect estuaries and coastal zones.

  19. Study of weathering velocity of rocks with uranium as a natural tracer. Application to two drainage basins of the north-east of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Pinto Moreira Nordemann, L.M. da.

    1977-01-01

    Study on rock weathering rate, i.e. rock-soil interface formation, by measuring the elements dissolved in river waters. These elements are used as natural tracers. This work has been carried out in the drainage basin of Preto and Salgado Rivers, in Brazil. Conventional elements, sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium have been utilized first and all dissolved salts have been used as natural tracers to allow comparison with other scientific works. Then, uranium has been used because it is not found in rain waters so that corrections are not necessary and because its abundance can be measured by α and γ spectrometry, and the 234 U/ 238 U ratio obtained, 234 U being more rapidly dissolved during weathering. Another reason is that no interaction occurs between uranium and the biomass. It is then possible to find a geochemical balance for this area [fr

  20. Evaluation of water quality at the source of streams of the Sinos River Basin, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Benvenuti

    Full Text Available The Sinos River Basin (SRB is located in the northeastern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (29º20' to 30º10'S and 50º15' to 51º20'W, southern Brazil, and covers two geomorphologic provinces: the southern plateau and the central depression. It is part of the Guaíba basin, has an area of approximately 800 km2 and contains 32 counties. The basin provides drinking water for 1.6 million inhabitants in one of the most important industrial centres in Brazil. This study describes different water quality indices (WQI used for the sub-basins of three important streams in the SRB: Pampa, Estância Velha/Portão and Schmidt streams. Physical, chemical and microbiological parameters assessed bimonthly using samples collected at each stream source were used to calculate the Horton Index (HI, the Dinius Index (DI and the water quality index adopted by the US National Sanitation Foundation (NSF WQI in the additive and multiplicative forms. These indices describe mean water quality levels at the streams sources. The results obtained for these 3 indexes showed a worrying scenario in which water quality has already been negatively affected at the sites where three important sub-basins in the Sinos River Basin begin to form.

  1. Multilevel analysis of hepatitis A infection in children and adolescents: a household survey in the Northeast and Central-west regions of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alencar Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes; Martelli, Celina Maria Turchi; Merchán-Hamann, Edgar; Montarroyos, Ulisses Ramos; Braga, Maria Cynthia; de Lima, Maria Luíza Carvalho; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves; Turchi, Marília Dalva; Costa, Marcelo Abrahão; de Alencar, Luiz Cláudio Arraes; Moreira, Regina Célia; Figueiredo, Gerusa Maria; Pereira, Leila Maria Moreira Beltrão

    2008-01-01

    Background The objectives were to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis A among children and adolescents from the Northeast and Midwest regions and the Federal District of Brazil and to identify individual-, household- and area-levels factors associated with hepatitis A infection. Methods This population-based survey was conducted in 2004–2005 and covered individuals aged between 5 and 19 years. A stratified multistage cluster sampling technique with probability proportional to size was used to select 1937 individuals aged between 5 and 19 years living in the Federal capital and in the State capitals of 12 states in the study regions. The sample was stratified according to age (5–9 and 10- to 19-years-old) and capital within each region. Individual- and household-level data were collected by interview at the home of the individual. Variables related to the area were retrieved from census tract data. The outcome was total antibodies to hepatitis A virus detected using commercial EIA. The age distribution of the susceptible population was estimated using a simple catalytic model. The associations between HAV infection and independent variables were assessed using the odds ratio and corrected for the random design effect and sampling weight. Multilevel analysis was performed by GLLAMM using Stata 9.2. Results The prevalence of hepatitis A infection in the 5–9 and 10–19 age-group was 41.5 and 57.4%, respectively for the Northeast, 32.3 and 56.0%, respectively for the Midwest and 33.8 and 65.1% for the Federal District. A trend for the prevalence of HAV infection to increase according to age was detected in all sites. By the age of 5, 31.5% of the children had already been infected with HAV in the Northeast region compared with 20.0% in the other sites. By the age of 19 years, seropositivity was ∼70% in all areas. The curves of susceptible populations differed from one area to another. Multilevel modeling showed that variables relating to different levels of

  2. Soil gamma ray spectrometry of the Buquira river basin, SP, Brazil; Gamametria de solos da bacia do rio Buquira, SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, Alice

    2002-12-01

    Natural radioactivity found in rocks and its evaluation been frequently used for studies of environmental geochemistry, particularly those of detection and control of pollutants and the consequent changes in environment after antropic interferences. In this work natural radioactivity in forty nine soil samples in the basin of Buquira river, at the Northeast region of Sao Paulo State, has been analysed and measured with a Ge-HP gamma ray spectrometer. A table with the most relevant results found in rocks is shown and discussed. (author)

  3. An assessment of dispersing pollutants from the pre-harvest burning of sugarcane in rural areas in the northeast of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Maria Gabriela L.; Henríquez, Jorge R.; Costa, José A. P.; de Lira Junior, José C.

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, the Brazilian government has been applying several restrictions with regard to preventing environmental pollution. Although Brazilian legislation is becoming stricter as to the pre-harvest burning of sugarcane, this practice is frequently used in order to assist manual harvesting. In the northeast region of Brazil, sugarcane is an important crop, which accounts for about 15% of the national production in a total area of 1,060,660 ha, the average production being 51,119 kg per hectare. The pre-harvest burning of sugarcane generates smoke, which has a high concentration of atmospheric pollutants such as carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (P.M. 2.5 and 10), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOX). This article estimates the volume of CO, P.M. 2.5 and NOX generated and how they are dispersed in the atmosphere when this arises from the burning of sugarcane biomass in rural areas of Northeast Brazil, and does so by using AERMOD VIEW® simulation software. Using the characteristics of the emissions and environmental (meteorological and topographical) data, quality air profiles based on pollutant dispersion were obtained. Three studies were taken into account in order to determine the relationship between pollutant dispersion and some parameters of the burning process, such as those for the spatial distribution of resources, the duration of pre-harvest burning and the influence of undertaking burning in different months. As to spatial distribution, to divide an area into small lots contributes to decreasing the maximum concentration of pollutants by 53% compared to burning a single area of equivalent size. The study of the burning duration indicated that doing so gradually (using a lengthier procedure) could decrease the maximum concentration of the pollutants by an inverse relation. The harvesting period in this region is between November and April. The pollutants

  4. 3rd Singularity Theory Meeting of Northeast region & the Brazil-Mexico 2nd Meeting on Singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Neto, Aurélio; Mond, David; Saia, Marcelo; Snoussi, Jawad; BMMS 2/NBMS 3; ENSINO; Singularities and foliations geometry, topology and applications

    2018-01-01

    This proceedings book brings selected works from two conferences, the 2nd Brazil-Mexico Meeting on Singularity and the 3rd Northeastern Brazilian Meeting on Singularities, that were hold in Salvador, in July 2015. All contributions were carefully peer-reviewed and revised, and cover topics like Equisingularity, Topology and Geometry of Singularities, Topological Classification of Singularities of Mappings, and more. They were written by mathematicians from several countries, including Brazil, Spain, Mexico, Japan and the USA, on relevant topics on Theory of Singularity, such as studies on deformations, Milnor fibration, foliations, Catastrophe theory, and myriad applications. Open problems are also introduced, making this volume a must-read both for graduate students and active researchers in this field.

  5. K-Ar geology, geochemistry and geochronology from the Maria River region dikes, Parana State southeastern part, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Junior, Renato Oliveira da; Dall'Agnol, Roberto; Oliveira, Elson Paiva de

    1996-01-01

    The paper synthesizes the geological, petrographical, geochemical and geochronological data from the Maria River region dikes, situated at the southeastern part of the Para State, Brazil. It identifies five groups of dikes and determines the age of these dikes, through the Potassium-Argon (K-Ar) methodology

  6. SRTXRF analysis in sediments from the Paraiba do Sul river (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareira, Marcelo O.; Calza, Cristiane; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Anjos, Marcelino Jose dos; Araujo, Francisco Gerson

    2005-01-01

    The Paraiba do Sul is a medium-sized river located in a region between the two most important urban and industrial centers of Brazil (Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo), with 1145 km in length and a drainage basin of 55400 km 2 . Formed by the junction of the Paraibuna and Paraitinga rivers, it arises in Serra da Bocaina (Sao Paulo state) and flows to the Atlantic Ocean until its mouth in Atafona (Rio de Janeiro State). In the last years, has been reported an increase in the water pollution, caused by the untreated domestic sewerage of the inhabitants, effluents discharged by various industries, mining activities and sand extraction of the riverbed. Consequently, a decline in the diversity and abundance of the fish species has been observed. This work used the Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence with Synchrotron Radiation (SRTXRF) technique to determine the heavy metals levels in the bioavailable and residual fractions from the surface sediment, in sampling points along the Paraiba do Sul River Basin. The samples were collected from November 2002 to April 2003. The analysis was performed at XRF beamline D09B of the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), using a white beam for the excitation and a Si(Li) semiconductor detector with resolution of 165 eV. All samples were excited for 100 s. The elements found in the sediment samples were: Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb. (author)

  7. OSL dating of sediments from Negro and Solimões rivers – Amazon, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiore, M.; Soares, E.A.A.; Mittani, J.C.R.; Yee, M.; Tatumi, S.H.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the OSL dating results of Quaternary fluvial deposits from the confluence of Negro and Solimões rivers were studied. The equivalent doses (D e ) of sediments were obtained using a Single Aliquot Regeneration (SAR) protocol. Statistic studies were made using frequency histogram, weighted histogram and Radial plot in order to analyze the D e fluctuations. Ages from 74.5 to 205 thousand of years (Pleistocene) were recorded. The gamma-ray spectroscopy was used to evaluate the natural radioisotopes concentrations of the samples and low concentrations were found with values between 0.64 and 3.71 ppm for 235 U and 238 U; 2.01–9.77 ppm for 232 Th; already, for 40 K, the concentration was negligible. The OSL dating of sediments has contributed to a better understanding of the evolution of Negro and Solimões rivers, in Amazon, Brazil. - Highlights: ► OSL dating of fluvial terraces from Amazon. ► SAR protocols applied to Amazon sediments dating. ► OSL dating of Solimão and Negro rivers sediments

  8. Fishes of the Taquari-Antas river basin (Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FG. Becker

    Full Text Available The aquatic habitats of the Taquari-Antas river basin (in the Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil are under marked environmental transformation because of river damming for hydropower production. In order to provide an information baseline on the fish fauna of the Taquari-Antas basin, we provide a comprehensive survey of fish species based on primary and secondary data. We found 5,299 valid records of fish species in the basin, representing 119 species and 519 sampling sites. There are 13 non-native species, six of which are native to other Neotropical river basins. About 24% of the total native species are still lacking a taxonomic description at the species level. Three native long-distance migratory species were recorded (Leporinus obtusidens, Prochilodus lineatus, Salminus brasiliensis, as well as two potential mid-distance migrators (Parapimelodus nigribarbis and Pimelodus pintado. Although there is only one officially endangered species in the basin (S. brasiliensis, restricted range species (21.7% of total species should be considered in conservation efforts.

  9. Calculation of economic viability of alternative energy sources considering its environmental costs for small communities of Northeast Brazil; Calculo de viabilidade economica de fontes alternativas de energia considerando seus custos ambientais para pequenas comuidades da regiao nordeste brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stecher, Luiza Chourkalo

    2014-09-01

    There has been an increasing concern about current environmental issues caused by human activity, as the world searches for development. The production of electricity is an extremely relevant factor in this scenario since it is responsible for a large portion of the emissions that cause the greenhouse effect. Due to this fact, a sustainable development with alternative energy sources, which are attractive for such purpose, must be proposed, especially in places that are not supplied by the conventional electricity grid such as many communities in the Northeast Brazil. This work aims to calculate the environmental cost for the alternative sources of energy - solar, wind and biomass - during electricity generation, and to estimate the economic feasibility of those sources in small communities of Northeast Brazil, considering the avoided costs. The externalities must be properly identified and valued so the costs or benefits can be internalized and reflect accurately the economic feasibility or infeasibility of those sources. For this, the method of avoided costs was adopted for the calculation of externalities. This variable was included in the equation developed for all considered alternative energy sources. The calculations of economic feasibility were performed taking the new configurations in consideration, and the new equation was reprogrammed in the Programa de Calculo de Custos de Energias Alternativas, Solar, Eolica e Biomassa (PEASEB). The results demonstrated that the solar photovoltaic energy in isolated systems is the most feasible and broadly applicable source for small communities of Northeast Brazil. (author)

  10. Dissolved black carbon along the land to ocean continuum of Paraiba do Sul River, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques da Silva Junior, Jomar; Dittmar, Thorsten; Niggemann, Jutta; Gomes de Almeida, Marcelo; de Rezende, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Rivers annually carry 25-28 Tg of pyrogenic dissolved organic matter (or dissolved black carbon, DBC) into the ocean, which is equivalent to about 10% of the entire land-ocean flux of dissolved organic carbon (Jaffé et al., Science 340, 345-347). Objective of this study was to identify the main processes behind the release and turnover of DBC on a riverine catchment scale. As model system we chose the land to ocean continuum of Paraíba do Sul River (Brazil), the only river system for which long-term DBC flux data exist (Dittmar, Rezende et al., Nature Geoscience 5, 618-622). The catchment was originally covered by Atlantic rain forest (mainly C3 plants) which was almost completely destroyed over the past centuries by slash-and-burn. As a result, large amounts of wood-derived charcoal reside in the soils. Today, fire-managed pasture and sugar cane (both dominated by C4 plants) cover most of the catchment. Water samples were collected at 24 sites along the main channel of the river, at 14 sites of the main tributaries and at 21 sites along the salinity gradient in the estuary and up to 35 km offshore. Sampling was performed in the wet seasons of 2013 and 2014, and the dry season of 2013. DBC was determined on a molecular level as benzenepolycarboxylic acids after nitric acid oxidation (Dittmar, Limnology and Oceanography: Methods 6, 230-235). Stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) were determined in solid phase extractable dissolved organic carbon (SPE-DOC) to distinguish C4 and C3 sources. Our results clearly show a relationship between hydrology and DBC concentrations in the river, with highest DBC concentrations in the wet season and lowest in the dry season. This relationship indicates that DBC is mainly mobilized from the upper soil horizons during heavy rainfalls. A significant correlation between DBC concentrations and δ13C-SPE-DOC indicated that most of DBC in the river system originates from C3 plants, i.e. from the historic burning event of the Atlantic rain

  11. Sexually transmitted infections, bacterial vaginosis, and candidiasis in women of reproductive age in rural Northeast Brazil: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Araújo Oliveira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Population-based data on sexually transmitted infections (STI, bacterial vaginosis (BV, and candidiasis reflect the epidemiological situation more accurately than studies performed in specific populations, but such data are scarce. To determine the prevalence of STI, BV, and candidiasis among women of reproductive age from a resource-poor community in Northeast Brazil, a population-based cross sectional study was undertaken. All women from seven hamlets and the centre of Pacoti municipality in the state of Ceará, aged 12 to 49 years, were invited to participate. The women were asked about socio-demographic characteristics and genital symptoms, and thereafter examined gynaecologically. Laboratory testing included polymerase chain reaction (PCR for human papillomavirus (HPV, ligase chain reaction (LCR for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, ELISA for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL and fluorescent treponema antibody absorption test (FTA-ABS for syphilis, and analysis of wet mounts, gram stains and Pap smears for trichomoniasis, candidiasis, and BV. Only women who had initiated sexual life were included in the analysis (n = 592. The prevalences of STI were: HPV 11.7% (95% confidence interval: 9.3-14.7, chlamydia 4.5% (3.0-6.6, trichomoniasis 4.1% (2.7-6.1, gonorrhoea 1.2% (0.5-2.6, syphilis 0.2% (0.0-1.1, and HIV 0%. The prevalence of BV and candidiasis was 20% (16.9-23.6 and 12.5% (10.0-15.5, respectively. The most common gynaecological complaint was lower abdominal pain. STI are common in women in rural Brazil and represent an important health threat in view of the HIV pandemic.

  12. Anatomy and genetic diversity of two populations of Schinus terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae) from the Tibagi River basin in Paraná, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruas, E A; Ruas, C F; Medri, P S; Medri, C; Medri, M E; Bianchini, E; Pimenta, J A; Rodrigues, L A; Ruas, P M

    2011-03-29

    Knowledge of the effects of flooding on plant survival is relevant for the efficiency of management and conservation programs. Schinus terebinthifolius is a tree of economic and ecological importance that is common in northeast Brazil. Flooding tolerance and genetic variation were investigated in two riparian populations of S. terebinthifolius distributed along two different ecological regions of the Tibagi River basin. Flooding tolerance was evaluated through the investigation of young plants, submitted to different flooding intensities to examine the morphological and anatomical responses to this stress. The growth rate of S. terebinthifolius was not affected by flooding, but total submersion proved to be lethal for 100% of the plants. Morphological alterations such as hypertrophied lenticels were observed in both populations and lenticel openings were significantly higher in plants from one population. Genetic analysis using DNA samples obtained from both populations showed a moderate degree of genetic variation between populations (13.7%); most of the variation was found within populations (86.3%). These results show that for conservation purposes and management of degraded areas, both populations should be preserved and could be used in programs that intend to recompose riparian forests.

  13. Metal concentrations in surface water and sediments from Pardo River, Brazil: human health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Renato I S; Sampaio, Carolina F; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L; Segura-Muñoz, Susana I

    2014-08-01

    Pardo River (Brazil) is suffering from an important anthropogenic impact due to the pressure of highly populated areas and the influence of sugarcane cultivation. The objective of the present study was to determine the levels of 13 trace elements (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, Tl, Sn, V and Zn) in samples of surface water and sediments from the Pardo River. Furthermore, the human health risks associated with exposure to those metals through oral intake and dermal absorption were also evaluated. Spatial and seasonal trends of the data were closely analyzed from a probabilistic approach. Manganese showed the highest mean concentrations in both water and sediments, remarking the incidence of the agricultural activity and the geological characteristics within the basin. Thallium and arsenic were identified as two priority pollutants, being the most important contributors to the Hazard Index (HI). Since non-carcinogenic risks due to thallium exposure slightly exceeded international guidelines (HI>1), a special effort should be made on this trace element. However, the current concentrations of arsenic, a carcinogenic element, were in accordance to acceptable lifetime risks. Nowadays, there is a clear increasing growth in human population and economic activities in the Pardo River, whose waters have become a serious strategic alternative for the potential supply of drinking water. Therefore, environmental monitoring studies are required not only to assure that the current state of pollution of Pardo River does not mean a risk for the riverside population, but also to assess the potential trends in the environmental levels of those elements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of grape pomace (Vitis vinifera L., Benitaka variety, grown in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldina Castro Sousa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Grape pomace (Vitis vinifera L., Benitaka variety, grown in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil was evaluated in relation to chemical composition, and content of minerals and functional properties. Its microbiological quality and toxic potential, using Artemia salina sp, were also investigated. The results showed that the flour obtained from these residues had below neutral pH (3.82, moisture (3.33g/100g, acidity of (0.64g of citric acid/100g, and ash (4.65 g/100g. The amount of total dietary fiber (46.17g/100g stood out quantitatively compared to the content of carbohydrate (29.2g/100 g, protein (8.49g/100g, and lipids (8.16g/100g. The total energy was 224Kcal/100g. With regard to the compounds with functional properties, higher values of insoluble fiber 79% (36.4 g/100 g; vitamin C (26.25 mg of acid ascorbic/100g, and anthocyanins (131mg/100g were found. The minerals iron, potassium, zinc, manganese, and calcium were present in higher concentrations. There were no significant copper values. The results showed that the grape residues are an important source of nutrients and compounds with functional properties suggesting that they can be incorporated as an ingredient in the diet and/or used as a dietary supplement aiming at health benefits. The residues did not show microbiological contamination and were considered nontoxic.

  15. Survival of Betta splendens fish (Regan, 1910) in domestic water containers and its effectiveness in controlling Aedes aegypti larvae (Linnaeus, 1762) in Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Lima, José Wellington; de Góes Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona; Pontes, Ricardo José Soares; Heukelbach, Jörg

    2010-12-01

    In Northeast Brazil, large domestic containers used to store water are important breeding sites of Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue fever. The objective of this study was to estimate the survival of Betta splendens (Perciformes: Osphronemidae) fish in domestic containers in Fortaleza (Ceará State), as well as its effectiveness in the control of premature A. aegypti stages. The use of B. splendens was compared to Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) in domestic containers. In a first home visit, B. splendens or Bti were applied to water containers. Two follow-up visits were conducted after 3-4 and 5-6 months to assess the presence of viable fish in the containers and infestation by larvae. Betta splendens fish were still present in 97.6% of containers 45-60 days after application. When the fish was present, the infestation rate was significantly higher (P containers, but that appropriate measures should be taken to assure prolonged survival and the presence of fish in the containers. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Acute kidney injury in visceral leishmaniasis: a cohort of 10 patients admitted to a specialized intensive care unit in northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth F. Daher

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe co-infections, clinical manifestations, comorbidities and outcome of patients with visceral leishmaniasis and AKI. Methods: This is a case study with ten patients with confirmed diagnosis of VL admitted to the reference ICU of Northeast of Brazil during 6 years, with renal injury. Clinical and laboratory parameters were evaluated in admission, period of hospitalization and outcome. Results: This study found 10 patients with VL in a group of 253 patients admitted to the ICU with AKI. The main signs and symptoms presented at admission were weight loss, fever, splenomegaly, jaundice, anorexia, asthenia, bleeding and vomits. The main co-infections were: AIDS, tuberculosis and leprosy. Patients were classified in RIFLE criteria. RIFLE-F patients were younger and had a longer time between onset of symptoms and hospital admission. Death was observed in 60% of cases. The causes of death were septic shock, respiratory insufficiency and multiple organ dysfunction. Conclusions: AKI is an important complication in VL. The progression of the disease and their complications can achieve high level of severity, even in the absence of comorbidities or co-infections. The high mortality in this group alerts to the importance of adequate management of these patients.

  17. Morphometric sexual maturity and allometric growth of the crab Sesarma rectum Randall, 1840 (Crustacea: Sesarmidae in an impacted tropical mangrove in northeast Brazil

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    Felipe Bezerra Ribeiro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The size at sexual maturity and the allometric growth of the semi-terrestrial crab Sesarma rectum were studied in an impacted tropical mangrove in northeast Brazil. Crabs were monthly collected during spring low-tide periods, from October 2009 through September 2010. A catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE technique was used to sample the crab population, with two-hour sampling periods, by two people. A total of 492 crabs were obtained, being 262 males and 230 females. The specimens were measured at carapace width (CW, the left and right propodus length and height (RPL, RPH, LPL and LPH, and the gonopod length of males (GL, and abdomen width (AW of females. In males, the inflection point was at 27.14 mm CW in the relationship between CW and the length of right propodus (LRP, considering the morphological size at the onset of maturity. Based on the relationship between CW and AW, the size at sexual maturity in females was 22.97 mm. In spite of living in an impacted area, this population attained the maturity onset at a bigger size than other localities.

  18. AIDS-associated diarrhea and wasting in northeast Brazil is associated with subtherapeutic plasma levels of antiretroviral medications and with both bovine and human subtypes of Cryptosporidium parvum

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    Richard K. Brantley

    Full Text Available Advanced HIV infection is frequently complicated by diarrhea, disruption of bowel structure and function, and malnutrition. Resulting malabsorption of or pharmacokinetic changes in antiretroviral agents might lead to subtherapeutic drug dosing and treatment failure in individual patients, and could require dose adjustment and/or dietary supplements during periods of diarrheal illness. We determined the plasma levels of antiretroviral medications in patients that had already been started on medication by their physicians in an urban infectious diseases hospital in northeast Brazil. We also obtained blood samples from patients hospitalized for diarrhea or AIDS-associated wasting, and we found reduced stavudine and didanosine levels in comparison with outpatients without diarrhea or wasting who had been treated at the same hospital clinic. There was a predominance of the protozoal pathogens Cryptosporidium and Isospora belli, typical opportunistic pathogens of AIDS-infected humans, in the stool samples of inpatients with diarrhea. We conclude that severe diarrhea and wasting in this population is associated with both protozoal pathogens and subtherapeutic levels of antiretroviral medications.

  19. Population structure and fruit availability of the babassu palm ( Attalea speciosa Mart. ex Spreng in human-dominated landscapes of the Northeast Region of Brazil

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    Juliana Loureiro Almeida Campos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We studied the population structure and fruit availability of the babassu palm, Attalea speciosa, in three human-dominated landscapes located near a rural community in the region of Araripe, in the Northeast Region of Brazil, that were under intense fruit harvest. Fifty 10 x 10 m plots were randomly established in each of the three landscapes, and all individuals of A. speciosa within the plots were classified as seedlings, juveniles or adults, with the height of all adult individuals being measured. An additional 20 individuals were marked in each landscape, and the number of total bunches, fruits per bunch and bunches per palm tree were recorded. The populations of A. speciosa in the three landscapes exhibited an inverted J-shape plot, but pasture and shifting cultivation possessed a significantly higher number of individuals, seedlings and adults than the seasonal semideciduous forest, plus they possessed a greater seedling/adult ratio. Shifting cultivation was found to be favorable for fructification. The present study found that shifting cultivation and pastures are landscape practices that can contribute to the rapid expansion and establishment of A. speciosa, which can become a dominant species in the region of Araripe.

  20. Habitat’s of innovation in the knowledge economy: a comparative analysis of technology parks located in the Northeast region of Brazil

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    Ana Maria Magalhães Correia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Technological advance has been the main driving force behind the developing regions, accounting for much of the increase in productivity, income, job creation and international competitiveness. In that sense, the Habitat's innovation, but specifically, the technological parks, undertakings promoters of the culture innovation, competitiveness, increase and business qualification, substantiated in the transference of knowledge and technology, with the objective of increase the output of wealth of a region. Thus, the objective this paper is to identify the potential to economic development and innovative place technology parks that are in operation in northeast Brazil. The results are derived from a qualitative research study, based on descriptive and exploratory research, which through a five case studies it was possible to obtain information about the topic. The finding indicates that the technology parks presents potentials that identify them, as inductors of the economic development and local inovativon. Also, it presents limits that in spite of it they do not lessen the potential the localities of excellence for the transfer of technology based in technological base companies. It presents itself as difficulties that should be minimized or depending on the situation, solved through actions of the actors involved in behalf of the economic development and local inovativon.

  1. Pentastomid, Raillietiella mottae Almeida, Freire and Lopes, 2008, infecting lizards in an area of caatinga, northeast, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, WO.; Santana, GG.; Vieira, WLS.; Wanderley, IC.; Freire, EMX.; Vasconcellos, A.

    2008-01-01

    Pentastomids can infect the respiratory tract of lizards, causing their death and as a result influencing the population size of hosts. Despite this, studies on rates of pulmonary infection of Brazilian lizards, including those living in Caatinga ecosystems of northeastern Brazil are scarce. Active collections of lizards were performed from October to December 2004 in an area of Caatinga of the Estação Experimental de São João do Cariri - EESJC (07º 25' S and 36º 30' W), located in the state ...

  2. ISO 9000: The challenge of Camacari petrochemical complex, Bahia State - Northeast Brazil; ISO 9000: o desafio do polo petroquimico de Camacari, BA, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Marcos Antonio Lima de; Carvalho Neto, Jose

    1993-12-31

    The petrochemical complex of Camacari, BA, Brazil, involves 40 companies, responsible for 55% of brazilian production. The companies were installed using the most modern techniques related to quality available at that time, strongly centered in quality control. The new industrial policy towards reducing import taxes and allowing the entrance of foreign products at competitive prices, besides the quality exigencies of international market, induced the companies to develop new techniques for quality management based in the ISO 9000 standards. The paper shows the stage of implementation of these standards in 30 companies, corresponding to 90% of global sales of all the complex. (author)

  3. ISO 9000: The challenge of Camacari petrochemical complex, Bahia State - Northeast Brazil; ISO 9000: o desafio do polo petroquimico de Camacari, BA, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Marcos Antonio Lima de; Carvalho Neto, Jose

    1992-12-31

    The petrochemical complex of Camacari, BA, Brazil, involves 40 companies, responsible for 55% of brazilian production. The companies were installed using the most modern techniques related to quality available at that time, strongly centered in quality control. The new industrial policy towards reducing import taxes and allowing the entrance of foreign products at competitive prices, besides the quality exigencies of international market, induced the companies to develop new techniques for quality management based in the ISO 9000 standards. The paper shows the stage of implementation of these standards in 30 companies, corresponding to 90% of global sales of all the complex. (author)

  4. Cyclopidae (Crustacea, Copepoda) from the upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansac-Tôha, F A; Velho, L F M; Higuti, J; Takahashi, E M

    2002-02-01

    Cyclopid copepods from samples of fauna associated with aquatic macrophytes and plancton obtained in lotic and lentic environments were obtained from the upper Paraná River floodplain (in the states of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil). Macrophytes were collected in homogeneous stands and washed. Plankton samples, taken from the water column surface and bottom, were obtained using a motor pump, with a 70 microns mesh plankton net for filtration. Twelve taxa of Cyclopidae were identified. Among them, Macrocyclops albidus albidus, Paracyclops chiltoni, Ectocyclops rubescens, Homocyclops ater, Eucyclops solitarius, Mesocyclops longisetus curvatus, Mesocyclops ogunnus, and Microcyclops finitimus were new finds for this floodplain. Eight species were recorded exclusively in aquatic macrophyte samples. Among these species, M. albidus albidus and M. finitimus presented greatest abundances. Only four species were recorded in plankton samples, and Thermocyclops minutus and Thermocyclops decipiens are limited to this type of habitat. Among these four species, T. minutus is the most abundant, especially in lentic habitats.

  5. Medicinal animals: knowledge and use among riverine populations from the Negro River, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Andréa Leme da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article documents the use of animals in the home medicine among riverine populations from the Negro River, State of Amazonas, Brazil. Data were collected through interviews and observations concerning to the knowledge and everyday practices of the use of medicinal animals. About 60 animal species are known with medicinal purposes. The knowledge is well distributed between sexes (men and women and localities (urban and rural. The use of medicinal animals is embedded in etiological concepts and involves a complex cosmological vision of the cure process. The rural exodus and the facilitated access to the western medicine may be promoting the loss of the traditional knowledge, which can be mitigated through the valorization and transmission of this knowledge to the future generations.

  6. Risk Assessment and Prediction of Heavy Metal Pollution in Groundwater and River Sediment: A Case Study of a Typical Agricultural Irrigation Area in Northeast China

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    Shuang Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The areas with typical municipal sewage discharge river and irrigation water function were selected as study sites in northeast China. The samples from groundwater and river sediment in this area were collected for the concentrations and forms of heavy metals (Cr(VI, Cd, As, and Pb analysis. The risk assessment of heavy metal pollution was conducted based on single-factor pollution index (I and Nemerow pollution index (NI. The results showed that only one groundwater sampling site reached a polluted level of heavy metals. There was a high potential ecological risk of Cd on the N21-2 sampling site in river sediment. The morphological analysis results of heavy metals in sediment showed that the release of heavy metals can be inferred as one of the main pollution sources of groundwater. In addition, the changes in the concentration and migration scope of As were predicted by using the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS. The predicted results showed that As will migrate downstream in the next decade, and the changing trend of As polluted areas was changed with As content districts because of some pump wells downstream to form groundwater depression cone, which made the solute transfer upstream.

  7. Risk Assessment and Prediction of Heavy Metal Pollution in Groundwater and River Sediment: A Case Study of a Typical Agricultural Irrigation Area in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shuang; Geng, Hui; Zhang, Fengjun; Liu, Zhaoying; Wang, Tianye; Song, Boyu

    2015-01-01

    The areas with typical municipal sewage discharge river and irrigation water function were selected as study sites in northeast China. The samples from groundwater and river sediment in this area were collected for the concentrations and forms of heavy metals (Cr(VI), Cd, As, and Pb) analysis. The risk assessment of heavy metal pollution was conducted based on single-factor pollution index (I) and Nemerow pollution index (NI). The results showed that only one groundwater sampling site reached a polluted level of heavy metals. There was a high potential ecological risk of Cd on the N21-2 sampling site in river sediment. The morphological analysis results of heavy metals in sediment showed that the release of heavy metals can be inferred as one of the main pollution sources of groundwater. In addition, the changes in the concentration and migration scope of As were predicted by using the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). The predicted results showed that As will migrate downstream in the next decade, and the changing trend of As polluted areas was changed with As content districts because of some pump wells downstream to form groundwater depression cone, which made the solute transfer upstream. PMID:26366176

  8. What field school teachers say about the teaching of mathematics: A study in the Northeast of Brazil

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    Carlos Monteiro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of research in mathematics education in Brazil focuses on aspects related to urban schools. Although there has been a discussion for decades about the need for a curriculum in schools located in rural areas that considers the importance of the local culture and the concept of context-based knowledge, there is still precarious teaching of mathematics in these schools. This paper discusses research data that addresses the teaching of mathematics in rural schools located in Pernambuco, Brazil. The method used is a qualitative research method based on interviews and discourse analysis. We focus on the discourse of teachers who participated in the empirical study by analyzing their views on rural education, the conceptualization of resources, and on their performance in mathematics teaching. Although most teachers positively evaluate their performance when they teach mathematics, they do not identify differences between teaching in the city and in rural areas. Generally, the teachers were unaware of the field schools' specificities. The results lead us to reflect on the possibilities of teaching mathematics to empower rural communities.

  9. Impact of oil shale mining and mine closures on hydrological conditions of North-East Estonian rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raetsep, A.; Liblik, V.

    2004-01-01

    The attention is focused on the formation of hydrological and hydrogeological interconnections between the catchment areas of Purtse, Rannapungerja, Puhajoe and Vasavere rivers after closing (in 1997-2002) and flooding the Ahtme, Tammiku, Sompa and Kohtla oil shale underground mines. The multivariate relationship between the changes in mine water amounts directed into the rivers, annual runoff due to mine water inlets, groundwater underground flow, outflow module and other factors (as variables) were studied. A complex of linear regression formulas was derived to calculate the amounts of mine water outputs into the rivers and water distribution in order to regulate the hydrological regime of investigated rivers. (author)

  10. Growth, mortality and susceptibility of oyster Crassostrea spp. to Perkinsus spp. infection during on growing in northeast Brazil

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    Marcos Paiva Scardua

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Crassostrea rhizophorae and C. gasar oysters are cultivated in the northeast region. Perkinsus parasites infect bivalves, and their effects on oysters from tropical regions are poorly understood. This study evaluated the impact of Perkinsus infection on the productive traits of native oysters. Oysters were sampled bimonthly during 7 months, from July 2010 to February 2011, to evaluate growth rate, mortality and shell color patterns (white and dark-gray (n = 500, and to determine the prevalence and intensity of Perkinsus (n = 152. Perkinsus and Crassostrea species were determined using molecular tools. Results showed that most dark-gray (90%, n = 20 and white (67%, n = 18 oysters were C. gasar and C. rhizophorae, respectively. Oysters showed a high growth rate and moderate cumulative mortality (44%. C. gasar oysters grew better and showed lower mortality and lower incidence of Perkinsus compared to C. rhizophorae. The mean prevalence of Perkinsus was moderate (48%, but the infection intensity was light (2.2. Perkinsosis affected very small oysters (19.4 mm. In conclusion, native oysters, especially C. gasar, have a great potential for culture, mortality is not associated with perkinsosis, and the shell color of oysters can be used to improve selection for spats with better performance.

  11. Uranium and main oxides in soil in the Northeast part of Parana basil; Uranio e principais oxidos em solo na porcao nordeste da bacia do Parana, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagundes, I.C.; Bonotto, D.M.; Jimenez-Rueda, J.R., E-mail: fagundes.isabella@gmail.com, E-mail: dbonotto@rc.unesp.br, E-mail: jairorjr@rc.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Uranium is a litophile element that migrates to crust together with other light silicates. This work evaluated the relationships among the concentrations of uranium, major oxides (SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}O, K{sub 2}O, CaO, MgO, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MnO, TiO{sub 2}, P{sub 2}O{sub 5}) and organic matter in different horizons of a soil profile located over siltstone from Tatui Formation, Piracicaba River sub-basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Different techniques were utilized for data acquisition, for instance, alpha spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and smectrophotometry. The major U concentrations were found in horizons enriched in Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, indicating its tending to be retained in iron oxides. (author)

  12. The giant African snail Achatina fulica as natural intermediate host of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Pernambuco, northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiengo, S C; Maldonado, A; Mota, E M; Torres, E J L; Caldeira, R; Carvalho, O S; Oliveira, A P M; Simões, R O; Fernandez, M A; Lanfredi, R M

    2010-09-01

    The human cases of eosinophilic meningitis recently reported from Brazil have focused the attention of the public health agencies on the role the introduced snail Achatina fulica plays as hosts of the metastrongylid nematodes. Determining the potential of this snail to host and develop infective larval stages of metastrongylids in the wild and identify the species harbored by them is crucial for designing effective control measures. Here we assess if A. fulica may act as intermediate host of A. cantonensis at the peridomiciliary areas of a patient's house from state of Pernambuco (PE), who was diagnosed with eosinophilic meningitis and a history of ingesting raw molluscs. Larvae obtained from naturally infected A. fulica were orally administered to Rattus norvegicus. The worms were collected from the pulmonary artery and brain, and were morphologically characterized and compared to the Japan isolate of A. cantonensis. Adult worms and infective L(3) larvae (PE isolate) recovered from A. fulica specimens were also analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism of ITS2 region from rDNA and compared to A. cantonensis (ES isolate), A. vasorum (MG isolate) and A. costaricensis (RS isolate). The large size of the spicules (greater than those observed in other species of Angiostrongylus) and the pattern of the bursal rays agree with the original species description by Chen (1935). Furthermore, the morphology of the PE isolate was similar to that of Japan isolate. The PCR-RFLP profiles obtained were distinctive among species and no variation in patterns was detected among adult individuals from A. cantonensis isolates from PE and ES. The importance of A. fulica as an intermediate host of eosinophilic menigoencepahlitis in Brazil is emphasized. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Epidemiological profile of patients co-infected with visceral leishmaniasis and HIV/AIDS in Northeast, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Graça Maria de Castro; Silva, Marcos Antonio Custódio Neto da; Garcia, João Victor de Sousa; Guimarães, Helaine Dias; Arcos, Gelson Farias; Santos, Augusto Viana Arouche; Paixão, Pedro Viana da; Nascimento, Maria do Desterro Soares Brandão; Galvão, Carolina de Souza

    2017-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) co-infection has been a research topic of interest worldwide. In Brazil, it has been observed that there is a relative underreporting and failure in the understanding and management of this important association. The aim of this study was to analyze epidemiological and clinical aspects of patients with VL with and without HIV/AIDS. We conducted an observational and analytical study of patients with VL followed in a Reference Service in the State of Maranhão, Brazil from 2007-2013. In total 126 patients were enrolled, of which 61 (48.4%) were co-infected with HIV/AIDS. There were more males among those with HIV/AIDS (85.2%, P>0.05) or with VL only (81.5%, P>0.05). These findings significantly differed based on age group (PHIV/AIDS co-infection, respectively. The incidence of diarrhea and splenomegaly significantly differed between the two groups (P=0.0014 and P=0.019, respectively). The myelogram parasitic examination was used most frequently among those with HIV/AIDS (91.8%), followed by those with VL only (69.2%). VL recurrences and mortality were significantly higher in the HIV/AIDS co-infected patients (PHIV/AIDS co-infection were mostly adult men. Diarrhea was more frequent in HIV/AIDS co-infected patients, whereas splenomegaly was more common in patients with VL only. In the group of HIV/AIDS co-infected patients, there was a higher rate of VL recurrence and mortality.

  14. Temporal evaluation of soil use conflicts in the Formoso river basin, state of Tocantins, Brazil

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    Kaio Cesar Cardoso de Lima Fonseca Alves

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of permanent preservation areas (PPA is mainly associated to their environmental role to maintain, preserve, and conserve water resources and ecosystems within a basin. The objective of this study was to delimitate and quantify the areas of PPA along watercourses as well as anthropized areas within PPAs boundaries, in the Formoso river basin, state of Tocantins, Brazil. PPAs area was delimited considering boundaries according to the Brazilian Forest Law. We sampled areas within the watercourses classified up to hierarchical Level 4. Watercourses handling draw, automatic delimitation of PPA, and visual classification of the soil use conflicts based on LANDSAT 5 TM of 1985, 1998 and 2011 were carried out on Geographical Information System ArcGIS. PPA of the watercourses sampled in this study represent 1.14% (24,491.35 ha of the drainage area of the Formoso river basin. For 1985, an area of about 3,616.48 ha was quantified, which is characterized by conflicts related to soil use. However, these conflict areas were reduced to 3,341.25 ha and 3,345.37 ha, respectively, for 1998 and 2011. Due to the intense agricultural land expansion observed in the basin in the last decades, the mentioned reductions in soil use conflicts between 1985 and 1998 and subsequent maintenance can be linked to changes on Brazilian environmental legislation.

  15. Assessment of Mercury Concentration in Turtles (Podocnemis unifilis in the Xingu River Basin, Brazil

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    Marina Teófilo Pignati

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Many studies on mercury contamination in aquatic biota deal with the effect of consuming metal-contaminated organisms on human health. In this study, we examined the factors that cause mercury contamination in Podocnemis unifilis in the Xingu River Basin of Mato Grosso and Pará States, Brazil. We quantified by atomic absorption spectroscopy with cold vapor the total mercury (THg content in the liver and muscle samples of 50 Podocnemis unifilis specimens collected from the basin. The liver and muscle samples contained 134.20 ± 119.30 ng g−1 THg and 24.86 ± 26.36 ng g−1 THg, respectively. Each chelonian or meal has, on average, 5.34× more Hg than the highest level established as acceptable. From the results it can be inferred that, given the weekly consumption of chelonians, the riverine and indigenous communities in the Xingu River Basin are at risk of chronic consumption of Hg in amounts beyond the acceptable limit. The potential high risk to the health of this population is evident; however, the risk classification needs to be further studied.

  16. FLUVIAL PROCESSES IN ATTACHMENT BARS IN THE UPPER PARANÁ RIVER, BRAZIL

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    Vanessa Cristina Dos Santos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Bars are semi-submerged fluvial forms associated with the availability of sediments and a temporal dynamic, whose dimensions are controlled by the flow and depth of the channel.  Attachment bars are very common in large anabranching river systems and play an important role in island formation and ecology. The Upper Paraná River exhibits an anabranching pattern characterized by channels of different sizes, separated by islands and bars. The objective of this work is to present the processes involved in the formation and development of attachment bars in Santa Rosa Island, situated in Porto Rico, State of Parana, Southern Brazil. Acquisition campaigns were performed to obtain data on channel hydraulics (ADCP equipment, morphometry (Echo-sound profiles and textural parameters (grain-size analyses at high and medium water levels. Santa Rosa Island divides the flow into two channels of distinct hydraulic and sedimentary dynamics. Flow diversion produces a decrease in flow velocity and consequent sediment deposition near the upstream end of Santa Rosa Island. The formation and maintenance of attachment bars in Santa Rosa Island is related to flow competence reduction and the occurrence of divergent currents. Vegetation cover and flow regime control its permanence. 

  17. Technical knowledge and water resources management: A comparative study of river basin councils, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Maria Carmen; Bell, Andrew R.; Engle, Nathan L.; Formiga-Johnsson, Rosa Maria; Nelson, Donald R.

    2010-06-01

    Better understanding of the factors that shape the use of technical knowledge in water management is important both to increase its relevance to decision-making and sustainable governance and to inform knowledge producers where needs lie. This is particularly critical in the context of the many stressors threatening water resources around the world. Recent scholarship focusing on innovative water management institutions emphasizes knowledge use as critical to water systems' adaptive capacity to respond to these stressors. For the past 15 years, water resources management in Brazil has undergone an encompassing reform that has created a set of participatory councils at the river basin level. Using data from a survey of 626 members of these councils across 18 river basins, this article examines the use of technical knowledge (e.g., climate and weather forecasts, reservoir streamflow models, environmental impact assessments, among others) within these councils. It finds that use of knowledge positively aligns with access, a more diverse and broader discussion agenda, and a higher sense of effectiveness. Yet, use of technical knowledge is also associated with skewed levels of power within the councils.

  18. Water quality monitoring of the Pirapó River watershed, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Bortoletto

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the water quality of the Pirapó River watershed in Paraná, Brazil, and identify the critical pollution sites throughout the drainage basin. The water quality was monitored during the period from January 2011 to December 2012. Nine points distributed throughout the main channel of the Pirapó River were sampled for a total of 17 samplings. The water quality was evaluated based on the determination of 14 physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. Analysis of the variables monitored in the Pirapó River watershed using factor analysis/principal components analysis (FA/PCA indicated the formation of three distinct groups of parameters: water temperature (Twater, dissolved oxygen (DO and a group composed of total suspended solids (TSS, turbidity and nitrite (NO2–. The parameters Twater and DO exhibited a relationship with the seasonality, and the TSS, turbidity, and NO2– levels were correlated with surface runoff caused by rainfall events. Principal component analysis (PCA of the sampling points enabled the selection of the 10 most important variables from among the 14 evaluated parameters. The results showed that the nitrate (NO3–, NO2–, TSS, turbidity and total phosphorous (TP levels were related to the soil type, and the parameters DO, electrical conductivity (EC, ammoniacal nitrogen (N-NH3 and thermotolerant coliforms (TC were related to organic matter pollution, with the P5 sampling site being the most critical site. The ordination diagram of the sampling points as a function of the PCA indicated a reduction from 9 to 5 sampling points, indicating the potential for decreasing the costs associated with monitoring.

  19. The ichthyofauna of drifting macrophyte mats in the Ivinhema River, upper Paraná River basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Karen Bulla

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe the fish assemblages associated with drifting macrophyte mats and consider their possible role as dispersal vectors in the Ivinhema River, a major tributary of the upper Paraná River, Brazil. Fish associated with drifting mats were sampled in the main river channel during January and March 2005, when the wind and/or the increased water level were sufficient to transport macrophyte stands. Fish in the drifting mats were sampled with a floating sieve (4 m long x 2 m wide x 0.6 m high, and 2 mm mesh size. In the laboratory, larvae, juvenile, and adult fish were counted and identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level. In four drifting macrophyte mats we captured 218 individuals belonging to at least 28 species, 17 families, and 6 orders. Aphyocharax dentatus, Serrasalmus spp., and Trachelyopterus galeatus were the most abundant taxa associated with the mats, but species richness ranged from 6 to 24 species per mat. In addition, 85% of the total number of individuals caught was larvae and juveniles. Although preliminary and based on limited samples, this study of drifting macrophyte mats was the first one in the last unregulated stretch of the Paraná River remaining inside Brazilian territory, and alerts us to the potential role of macrophytes mats as dispersers of fish species in the region.Nesse trabalho as assembleias de peixes associadas a bancos de macrófitas flutuantes à deriva foram descritas. Além disso, foi considerado o possível papel desses bancos como vetores de dispersão no rio Ivinhema, importante tributário do alto rio Paraná, Brasil. Os peixes associados aos bancos à deriva foram amostrados no canal principal desse rio, entre os meses de Janeiro a Março de 2005, quando o vento e/ou o aumento no nível da água foram suficientes para transportar os bancos de macrófitas. Os peixes foram amostrados com uma rede flutuante (4 m de comprimento x 2 m de largura x 0,6 m de altura e 2 mm de tamanho de malha. No

  20. Mass balance in the monitoring of pollutants in tidal rivers of the Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, Raquel Pinhão; Rodrigues, Ana Paula de Castro; Santelli, Ricardo Erthal; Cordeiro, Renato Campello; Bidone, Edison Dausacker

    2011-10-01

    This study addressed the identification and monitoring of pollution sources of terrestrial origin in rivers (domestic sewage and industrial effluents) and critical fluvial segments in highly polluted environments under tidal influence (mixing marine and continental sources) from Guanabara Bay Basin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The mass balance of contaminants was determined in conditions of continuous flow (low tide) during dry season (lower dilution capability). The results allowed the evaluation of the potential of contaminant mass generation by the different river segments and the estimation of their natural and anthropogenic components. The water quality of Iguaçú and Sarapuí Rivers were evaluated for metals and biochemical oxygen demand. The method gave an excellent response, including the possibility of sources identification and contaminated river segments ranking. The approach also offers fast execution and data interpretation, being highly efficient.

  1. Salinity-induced mixed and barrier layers in the southwestern tropical Atlantic Ocean off the northeast of Brazil

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    M. Araujo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution hydrographic observations of temperature and salinity are used to analyze the formation and distribution of isothermal depth (ZT, mixed depth (ZM and barrier layer thickness (BLT in a section of the southwestern Atlantic (0°30´ N–14°00´ S; 31°24´–41°48´ W, adjacent to the northeastern Brazilian coast. Analyzed data consists of 279 CTD casts acquired during two cruises under the Brazilian REVIZEE Program. One occurred in late austral winter (August–October 1995 and another in austral summer (January–April 1997. Oceanic observations are compared to numerical modeling results obtained from the French Mercator-Coriolis Program. Results indicate that the intrusion of subtropical Salinity Maximum Waters (SMW is the major process contributing to the seasonal barrier layer formation. These waters are brought by the South Equatorial Current (SEC, from the subtropical region, into the western tropical Atlantic boundary. During late austral winter southeastern trade winds are more intense and ITCZ precipitations induce lower surface salinity values near the equator. During this period a 5–90 m thick BLT (median = 15 m is observed and BLT > 30 m is restricted to latitudes higher than 8° S, where the intrusion of salty waters between 8°–12.3° S creates shallow mixed layers over deep (ZT ≥ 90 m isothermal layers. During austral summer, shallow isothermal and mixed layers prevail, when northeasterly winds are predominant and evaporation overcomes precipitation, causing saltier waters at the surface/subsurface layers. During that period observed BLT varies from 5 to 70 m and presents thicker median value of 35 m, when comparing to the winter. Furthermore, BLT ≥ 30 m is observed not only in the southernmost part of the study area, as verified during late winter, but in the latitude range 2°–14° S, where near-surface salty waters are transported westward by the

  2. Analysis of the Variability of Therapeutic Indications of Medicinal Species in the Northeast of Brazil: Comparative Study

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    Julimery Gonçalves Ferreira Macedo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethnopharmacological Relevance. This study aims to evaluate the versatility of these species and their agreement of use and/or the informants’ knowledge and verify the variability of the information on the indicated medicinal species in comparison to other species from northeastern Brazilian areas. Materials and Methods. Ethnobotanical information was acquired through interviews with 23 residents of the Quincuncá community, northeastern Brazil. From the obtained data, a comparative analysis of the therapeutic indications with other 40 areas in different biomes was conducted. For that, the relative importance index and informant consensus factor were calculated and compared to other indices evaluated in the literature. Results. A total of 39 medicinal species were cited and twenty-six species showed similarities among their therapeutic indications; however, species as Geoffroea spinosa, Lantana camara, and others can be highlighted, present in community disease indications that were not verified for other areas. Myracrodruon urundeuva, Mimosa tenuiflora, Stryphnodendron rotundifolium, and Amburana cearensis had the greatest versatility. In the Quincuncá community, medicinal species were indicated for 49 diseases, which were grouped into 15 categories of body systems. Conclusion. This study shows the presented divergence in relation to their therapeutic use; in this point, these divergences reinforce the importance of pharmacological research.

  3. [Mortality in the first 24h of very low birth weight preterm infants in the Northeast of Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Eveline Campos Monteiro de; Leite, Álvaro Jorge Madeiro; Guinsburg, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate factors associated with neonatal death within 24 hours after birth in very low birth weight preterm newborns. Prospective cohort of live births with gestational age of 23(0/7)-31(6/7) weeks, birth weight of 500-1499g without malformations, in 19 public maternity hospitals in nine capitals in northeastern Brazil from July to December 2007. The 19 hospitals were assessed in relation to physical resources, equipment, human resources and aiming at quality in care initiatives. Hospital, maternal and neonatal characteristics, neonatal morbidity, neonatal procedures and interventions were compared between preterm newborns that died or survived up to 24 hours of life. The variables associated with death within 24 hours after birth were determined by logistic regression. Of the 627 newborns enrolled in the study, 179 (29%) died within 168 hours after birth, of which 59 (33%) up to 24 hours and 97 (54%) up to 48 hours after birth. The variables associated with death vitality at birth and a worse infrastructure of the hospital where the birth occurred. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. WATER REQUIREMENT ESTIMATE FOR THE REPRODUCTIVE PERIOD OF MANGO ORCHADS IN THE NORTHEAST OF THE STATE OF PARÁ, BRAZIL

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    PAULO JORGE DE OLIVEIRA PONTE DE SOUZA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to estimate the water consumption in mango orchard during its phenological stages in the northeastern of the State of Pará, Brazil. For this purpose, it was installed and instrumented a micrometeorological tower in a mango orchard, cv. Tommy Atkins, of 22 years old, with data collected during the crops of 2010/2011 and of 2011/2012. The actual crop evapotranspiration was estimated from the energy balance using the Bowen ratio technique. The crops were subjected to different weather conditions, consequently, some differences in the Bowen ration values were observed. The evapotranspiration suffered influences of meteorological conditions during the period. The actual crop evapotranspiration during its reproductive period ranged between 402.9 and 420 mm with a mean daily water consumption of 3.8 mm at flowering, of 4.25 mm at fruit fall, of 3.56 mm at fruit formation, of 3.0 mm at fruit maturation and of 3.73 mm for the whole period.

  5. Distribution, feeding behavior and control strategies of the exotic land snail Achatina fulica (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) in the northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, F S; Peso-Aguiar, M C; Assunção-Albuquerque, M J T

    2008-11-01

    The goal of this study was to document the distribution and establishment A. fulica such as their feeding preference and behavior in situ. The study was carried out at the city of Lauro de Freitas, Bahia state, Brazil, between November 2001 and November 2002. We used catch per unit effort methods to determine abundance, distribution, habitat choice and food preferences. The abundance and distribution of A. fulica was most representative in urban area, mainly near to the coastline. Lots and house gardens were the most preferred sites during active hours. The results indicated that A. fulica started their activity at the end of the evening and stopped in mid-morning. Their preferred food were vascular plants such as Hibiscus syriacus, Ricinus communis, Carica papaya, Galinsonga coccinea, Lippia alba, Ixora coccinea, Musa parasidisiaca, Mentha spicata and Cymbopogon citrates. Our results indicate that A. fulica are well adapted and established in this city and modified environments facilitate their establishment and dispersion. However, human perturbation, such as clearance of lots could be limiting for the persistence of A. fulica populations.

  6. Occurrence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and parasite DNA in backyard chicken breeding in Northeast, Brazil

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    Marcela Fernanda Torres Samico Fernandes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and parasite DNA in backyard chickens bred in the metropolitan area of Recife, Brazil. In total, 212 serum samples were collected from 16 properties, and 12 backyard chickens were collected in the six sanitary districts of Recife. An indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA was used to investigate the occurrence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to detect T. gondii DNA in brain, heart, liver and lung specimens. Of the samples analyzed by serology, 86/212 (40.56% were positive; of the samples analyzed by PCR, 2/12 (16.7% were positive, with both samples positive by both tests (serological and molecular. The presence of antibody anti-T. gondii and parasite DNA in tissues of these animals are worrying aspects for public health because there is a risk of transmission of the parasite to humans through eating undercooked or raw meat. Based on the results, the adoption of preventive measures to prevent the cats access to the chickens creations should be encouraged, since these animals were identified in most of the studied properties.

  7. An entomoepidemiological investigation of Chagas disease in the state of Ceará, Northeast Region of Brazil

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    Carolina Fausto de Souza Coutinho

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The seroprevalence of Chagas disease in humans and the presence of triatomines were investigated in a rural locality in the State of Ceará, Brazil, an historically endemic region. Approximately 80% of the surveyed residents agreed to undergo serological tests. Intradomestic and peridomestic environments were searched for triatomines in both the dry and rainy seasons. The prevalence rate of Chagas disease was 1.2% and the majority of individuals confirmed with the disease over 50 years of age. A total of 761 specimens of triatomines were captured, most of which were from colonies composed of nymphs and adult bugs, and the majority of specimens were obtained in the dry season. Triatoma brasiliensis was the predominant species. Analysis using light microscopy revealed that 28.6% of the insects were Trypanosoma cruzi positive. Results suggest that peridomestic man-made structures, such as animal shelters, improper storage of timber and uninhabited dwellings contribute to the high rate of triatomine infestation in the area.

  8. Biometric values, C-reactive protein, and proteinogram of healthy blonde capuchin (Sapajus flavius) kept in northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Stéphanie Machado; Ferreira, Adriano Fernandes; Azevedo, Jair; Nery, Thiago Lopes; Zermiani, Fabiana; Queiroga, Felisbina Luisa

    2016-12-01

    Sapajus flavius is a species of capuchin monkey classified as critically endangered. Studies related to their biometric values are scarce with incomplete external measurement reports available from only four specimens. Moreover, information regarding proteinogram is limited with no reference to C-reactive protein (CRP) and globulin fractions for this species. Biometric values, CRP, and proteinogram were determined for 12 clinically healthy S. flavius, kept in captivity in João Pessoa, Brazil. The measured values in biometric parameters present a tendency to be higher in males. The CRP mean values from 12 S. flavius were 1.2±0.2 mg/dL. For albumin, alpha, beta, and gamma globulin fraction parameters, the reference interval was calculated. Authors believe that with certain limitations, results obtained can be helpful for the populations in the wild, which could be of great aid in detecting unhealthy individuals and therefore contributing to the conservation of this species. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Leprosy and gender in Brazil: trends in an endemic area of the Northeast region, 2001-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Eliana Amorim de; Ferreira, Anderson Fuentes; Boigny, Reagan Nzundu; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Heukelbach, Jorg; Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Barbosa, Jaqueline Caracas; Ramos, Alberto Novaes

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze, stratifield by gender, trends of the new case leprosy detection rates in the general population and in children; of grade 2 disability, and of proportion of multibacillary cases, in the state of Bahia, Brazil from 2001 to 2014. METHODS A time series study based on leprosy data from the National Information System for Notifiable Diseases. The time trend analysis included Poisson regression models by infection points (Joinpoint) stratified by gender. RESULTS There was a total of 40,054 new leprosy cases with a downward trend of the overall detection rate (Average Annual Percent Change [AAPC = -0.4, 95%CI -2.8-1.9] and a non-significant increase in children under 15 years (AAPC = 0.2, 95%CI -3.9-4.5). The proportion of grade 2 disability among new cases increased significantly (AAPC = 4.0, 95%CI 1.3-6.8), as well as the proportion of multibacillary cases (AAPC = 2.2, 95%CI 0.1-4.3). Stratification by gender showed a downward trend of detection rates in females and no significant change in males; in females, there was a more pronounced upward trend of the proportion of multibacillary and grade 2 disability cases. CONCLUSIONS Leprosy is still highly endemic in the state of Bahia, with active transmission, late diagnosis, and a probable hidden endemic. There are different gender patterns, indicating the importance of early diagnosis and prompt treatment, specifically in males without neglecting the situation among females.

  10. Parasitological and serological studies on Amoebiasis and other intestinal parasitic infections in Recife and its suburban area, northeast Brazil

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    Mitsu Okazaki

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available Parasitological examinations were carried out during April to August, 1987, with 187 out-patients of the IMIP hospital, located in the center of Recife City, and 464 inhabitants of several villages around Cabo City, 50 Km southeast of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Approximately 71% of the IMIP patients and 92% of the Cabo inhabitants were infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. There was minimum difference in the prevalence rate of Trichuris trichiura between two areas, whereas the prevalence rates of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms, Strongyloides stercoralis, Schistosoma mansoni and Entamoeba histolytica were higher in the inhabitants of the Cabo City area. Only Giardia lamblia was more prevalent in the out-patients of IMIP hospital. Test tube cultivation revealed that the prevalence rate of Necator americanus in both areas was much higher than that of Ancylostoma duodenale , and also that the prevalence rate of S. stercoralis of the IMIP patients and Cabo inhabitants were 4.5% and 9.6%, respectively. Six hundred and fifteen sera were serologically examined for amoebiasis by the gel diffusion precipitation test (GDP and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using the antigen prepared from axenically cultured trophozoite of E. histolytica (strain HM-ITMSS. No positive reaction was observed in all of the sera as examined by GDP, while 32 out of 615 sera were positive on ELISA.

  11. Potencial eólico na direção predominante do vento no Nordeste brasileiro Wind energy potential for the prevailing direction in Northeast Brazil

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    Bernardo B. da Silva

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foram utilizados dados horários de velocidade e direção do vento, provenientes de registros de anemógrafo Universal Fuess, a 10 m de altura, de 77 estações climatológicas pertencentes ao Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (INMET, no período de janeiro de 1977 a dezembro de 1981. O objetivo da pesquisa foi a determinação da potência eólica média horária da direção predominante do vento em todas as estações selecionadas. Para tanto, identificou-se a direção predominante do vento de cada localidade e se estimaram os parâmetros da distribuição de Weibull, através dos quais se calculou a potência eólica média horária. Em função dos resultados apresentados neste trabalho, constatou-se que a direção predominante do vento no Nordeste do Brasil é de Leste, com flutuações para Sudeste e Nordeste. O ajuste do Método dos Momentos evidenciou-se melhor que o dos Mínimos Quadrados. Os Estados do Maranhão e Rio Grande do Norte apresentaram, respectivamente, o menor e maior potencial eólico. As estações de Alto Parnaíba, MA, e Acaraú, CE, apresentaram, mensalmente, a menor (0,022 W m-2 e a maior (138,302 W m-2 potência eólica, respectivamente.Hourly mean data of wind speed and direction, measured with a Fuess anemograph at 10 m height, were used in this study. These data were collected from January 1977 to December 1981 at 77 weather stations located in the Northeast of Brazil. The main objective of the study was to determine the wind energy potential for the predominant wind direction of selected stations; therefore, the identification of the relative frequency related to the hourly mean wind speed of the predominant direction was carried out. Then, the parameters, of a Weibull distribution related to the hourly mean wind speed of the predominant direction at each station were estimated by Moments and Graphical methods. The results show that the predominant wind direction in Northeast as a whole is

  12. The cycling of transuranic radionuclides in the Columbia River, its estuary and the northeast Pacific Ocean: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beasley, T.M.

    1987-01-01

    This review summarizes work during 1985 to 1986 on the radioecology of plutonium, americium and cesium in the Columbia River sediments; radionuclide kinetics of technetium in fish, and radioactivity in the Pacific Ocean

  13. Prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade nas regiões Nordeste e Sudeste do Brasil Overweight and obesity prevalence in Northeast and Southeast Regions of Brazil

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    Marcelo Militão Abrantes

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade em crianças, adolescentes, adultos e idosos brasileiros das regiões Nordeste e Sudeste; MÉTODOS: Avaliação antropométrica de 17.184 pessoas, estudadas na Pesquisa sobre Padrões de Vida (PPV realizada pelo IBGE em 1996/97, através do índice de massa corporal sendo usados como limite para sobrepeso e obesidade os valores propostos por Cole et al. por permitirem uma continuidade de critério de sobrepeso e obesidade na infância, adolescência e idade adulta. RESULTADOS: Predomínio do sexo feminino, 53,1%, na população estudada. A média de idade foi de 29 anos e 5 meses (desvio padrão de ± 20 anos, a mediana foi de 25 anos e 6 meses. A prevalência de sobrepeso foi de 10,8% entre crianças, 9,9% nos adolescentes e 28,3% entre adultos e a de obesidade foi 7,3%, 1,8% e 9,7%, respectivamente. Observado um aumento gradativo da prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade desde a infância até a idade adulta, com declínio entre os idosos. CONCLUSÕES: Prevalência conjunta de sobrepeso e obesidade na população brasileira é maior no sexo feminino sendo que mais da metade das mulheres das regiões Nordeste e Sudeste do Brasil, com idade entre 50 e 69 anos, têm sobrepeso e/ou obesidade. A comparação de estudos de prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade na infância e adolescência é dificultada pela escassez de estudos populacionais nacionais e diversidade de critérios utilizados na avaliação nutricional.OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children, adolescents, adults and elderlies from Northeast and Southeast regions of Brazil. METHODS: anthropometric evaluation of 17.184 people, studied in Life Pattern Research conducted by Brazilian Institute of Geographic and Statistics in 1996/97, by body mass index. Overweight and obesity definitions according to body mass index values proposed by Cole et al. which are related to adult definition. RESULTS: It

  14. Cultural significance of primary teeth for caregivers in Northeast Brazil O significado cultural dos dentes decíduos para cuidadoras no Nordeste do Brasil

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    Marilyn K Nations

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This anthropological study critically evaluates Brazilian caregivers' symbolic production and significance of their malnourished offspring's primary teeth, as well as their own, and describes popular dental practices. From January to June 2004, ethnographic interviews of 27 poor, low-literacy mothers were conducted at a public Malnutrition Treatment Center in Fortaleza, Ceará State. Participant observation of clinical pathways and home environments supplemented the data. Content analysis was performed. Results confirm that primary teeth are imbued with cultural significance in Northeast Brazil. Mothers examine mouths, perceive signs of decay, associate primary with permanent tooth healthiness, identify ethnodental illnesses, seek assistance, and perform rituals with exfoliated teeth. The mother's motivation to care for primary teeth is sparked by her memories of past toothache and attempts to avoid stigma and discrimination. Social determinants, not mothers' beliefs or behaviors, are the most critical obstacles to effective dental care. Legitimizing lay knowledge and empowering caregivers and children can improve oral health in Northeast Brazil.Este estudo antropológico analisa a produção simbólica de cuidadoras brasileiras sobre a sua dentição e a de seus filhos desnutridos, descrevendo práticas populares de cuidados em saúde bucal. De janeiro a junho de 2004, foram conduzidas entrevistas etnográficas com 27 cuidadoras, numa instituição pública, no tratamento de desnutrição em Fortaleza, Ceará. A observação participante da dinâmica de atendimento e do ambiente domiciliar suplementaram os dados. Foi utilizada a análise temática. Os resultados confirmam que os dentes decíduos são imbuídos de significados culturais no nordeste brasileiro. As mães examinam as bocas dos filhos, percebem sinais de cárie, associam dentes decíduos saudáveis com permanentes hígidos, identificam enfermidades etnodentárias, procuram assist

  15. [Helminth parasites of pirarucu, Arapaima gigas (Schinz, 1822) (Osteoglossiformes: Arapaimidae) from Araguaia River, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Sonia M C; Ceccarelli, Paulo S; Luque, José L

    2008-01-01

    Sixty-five specimens of pirarucu collected in August 2004 from Araguaia River, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, were examined to study their helminth parasites. Five species were recorded parasitic Arapaima gigas: Dawestrema cycloancistrium (Monogenea) in gills, Nilonema senticosum and Goezia spinulosa (Nematoda) in the swimbladder and stomach, respectively; Caballerotrema brasiliense (Digenea) and Polyacanthorhynchus rhopalorhynchus (Acanthocephala) in the intestine. Highest prevalence values were detected for D. cycloancistrium (100%) and P. rhopalorhynchus (96.9%). Highest values of mean intensity and mean abundance were detected for C. brasiliense and N. senticosum (61 and 46.9, respectively). All these species are recorded by the first time in the Araguaia River basin.

  16. The Grain-size Patchiness of Braided Gravel-Bed Streams - example of the Urumqi River (northeast Tian Shan, China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerit, L.; Barrier, L.; Narteau, C.; Métivier, F.; Liu, Y.; Lajeunesse, E.; Gayer, E.; Meunier, P.; Malverti, L.; Ye, B.

    2014-02-01

    In gravel-bed rivers, sediments are often sorted into patches of different grain-sizes, but in braided streams, the link between this sorting and the channel morpho-sedimentary elements is still unclear. In this study, the size of the bed sediment in the shallow braided gravel-bed Urumqi River is characterized by surface-count and volumetric sampling methods. Three morpho-sedimentary elements are identified in the active threads of the river: chutes at flow constrictions, which pass downstream to anabranches and bars at flow expansions. The surface and surface-layer grain-size distributions of these three elements show that they correspond to only two kinds of grain-size patches: (1) coarse-grained chutes, coarser than the bulk river bed, and (2) finer-grained anabranches and bars, consistent with the bulk river bed. In cross-section, the chute patches are composed of one coarse-grained top layer, which can be interpreted as a local armour layer overlying finer deposits. In contrast, the grain size of the bar-anabranch patches is finer and much more homogeneous in depth than the chute patches. Those patches, which are features of lateral and vertical sorting associated to the transport dynamics that build braided patterns, may be typical of active threads in shallow gravel-bed rivers and should be considered in future works on sorting processes and their geomorphologic and stratigraphic results.

  17. Waist-to-height ratio is the best anthropometric predictor of hypertension: A population-based study with women from a state of northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminha, Tainá C S; Ferreira, Haroldo S; Costa, Narithania S; Nakano, Ricardo P; Carvalho, Renata Elyonara S; Xavier, Antônio F S; Assunção, Monica L

    2017-01-01

    The WHO recommends the use of some anthropometric parameters as a screening resource for individuals under cardiometabolic risk. However, in the validation of these indicators, Brazilian women were not included. These women have different anthropometric profile compared to women who integrated the samples of the validation studies. We aimed to verify the accuracy of anthropometric indicators as a resource for the screening of women with hypertension. A cross-sectional study, with a probability sample of 3143 women (20-49 years) from the state of Alagoas (northeast of Brazil), was carried out. Hypertension was identified by systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg and/or regular use of antihypertensive drugs. The anthropometric indicators analyzed were BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), body fat percentage, and conicity index. The accuracy definition of the indicators and the identification of best cut-off points were carried out on the basis of ROC curve analysis and Youden index, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension was 21.8%. All indicators used in hypertension identification had area under the ROC curve (AUC) >0.5. The WHtR with cut-off point of 0.54 was the best performance indicator (AUC = 0.72; P hypertension. In the absence of specific studies and considering the largest ethnic proximity and environmental/epidemiological similarity, the findings now obtained can be extended to women of other Brazilian states, especially those in the Northeastern region.

  18. A note on the occurrence of praniza larvae of Gnathiidae (Crustacea, Isopoda on fishes from Northeast of Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G. Diniz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The infection of the estuarine teleost fishes Mugil gaimardianus Desmarest, 1831 (Mugilidae, Arius phrygiatus Valenciennes, 1839 (Ariidae, Conodon nobilis Linnaeus, 1759 (Haemulidae, Cetengraulis edentulus Cuvier, 1829 (Engraulidae, and Anableps anableps Linnaeus, 1758 (Anablepidae by praniza larvae of Gnathiidae (Crustacea, Isopoda was studied in specimens fished off the Atlantic Ocean in Northeast of Pará State, near Bragança, Brazil. The highest infection prevalence value was found in Anableps anableps (42.3% and the lowest in Conodon nobilis (9.1%. The mean intensity varied from 1 parasitein Conodon nobilis to 19.5 in Arius phrygiatus. A description of the larvae is provided. The morphology of the mouthparts is related to the blood sucking activity, and is compared with the characteristics of other gnathiidae species.Foi estudada a parasitose dos peixes estuarinos Mugil gaimardianus Desmarest, 1831 (Mugilidae, Arius phrygiatus Valenciennes, 1839 (Ariidae, Conodon nobilis Linnaeus, 1759 (Haemulidae, Cetengraulis edentulus Cuvier, 1829 (Engraulidae, e Anableps anableps Linnaeus, 1758 (Anablepidae por larvas praniza de Gnathiidae (Crustacea, Isopoda em exemplares pescados no Oceano Atlântico, no Nordeste do Pará, próximo a Bragança, Brasil. O valor mais elevado da prevalência da infecção foi observado em A. anableps (42,3% e o menor em C. nobilis (9,1%. A intensidade média da parasitose variou entre 1 parasita em C. nobilis até 19,5 em A. phrygiatus. Efetua-se a descrição da larva, verificando-se que a morfologia da armadura bucal está relacionada com a atividade sugadora de sangue, e faz-se a comparação com as características de outras espécies.

  19. Leprosy and gender in Brazil: trends in an endemic area of the Northeast region, 2001–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Eliana Amorim; Ferreira, Anderson Fuentes; Boigny, Reagan Nzundu; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Heukelbach, Jorg; Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Barbosa, Jaqueline Caracas; Ramos, Alberto Novaes

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze, stratifield by gender, trends of the new case leprosy detection rates in the general population and in children; of grade 2 disability, and of proportion of multibacillary cases, in the state of Bahia, Brazil from 2001 to 2014. METHODS A time series study based on leprosy data from the National Information System for Notifiable Diseases. The time trend analysis included Poisson regression models by infection points (Joinpoint) stratified by gender. RESULTS There was a total of 40,054 new leprosy cases with a downward trend of the overall detection rate (Average Annual Percent Change [AAPC = -0.4, 95%CI -2.8–1.9] and a non-significant increase in children under 15 years (AAPC = 0.2, 95%CI -3.9–4.5). The proportion of grade 2 disability among new cases increased significantly (AAPC = 4.0, 95%CI 1.3–6.8), as well as the proportion of multibacillary cases (AAPC = 2.2, 95%CI 0.1–4.3). Stratification by gender showed a downward trend of detection rates in females and no significant change in males; in females, there was a more pronounced upward trend of the proportion of multibacillary and grade 2 disability cases. CONCLUSIONS Leprosy is still highly endemic in the state of Bahia, with active transmission, late diagnosis, and a probable hidden endemic. There are different gender patterns, indicating the importance of early diagnosis and prompt treatment, specifically in males without neglecting the situation among females. PMID:29489990

  20. Factors associated with the quality of life of adults subjected to hemodialysis in a city in northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Milady Cutrim Vieira; Lamy, Zeni Carvalho; Lamy Filho, Fernando; França, Ana Karina Teixeira da Cunha; dos Santos, Alcione Miranda; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; da Silva, Antonio Augusto Moura; Salgado Filho, Natalino

    2013-01-01

    There is a known association between low scores for quality of life (QOL) and higher rates of hospitalization, mortality in hemodialysis vascular access catheter, older age, lack of regular occupation, presence of comorbidities and hypoalbuminemia. There is still no agreement about the influence of sex, educational level, socioeconomic status and treatment time on the worst levels of QOL. Identify socioeconomic, demographic, clinical, nutritional and laboratory factors associated with worse QOL in adults undergoing hemodialysis in Sao Luís, Maranhão, Brazil. A cross-sectional study which evaluated the QOL of patients with chronic renal disease, aged 20-59 years, undergoing hemodialysis. Two instruments were used: the Kidney Disease Quality of Life -Short Form 1.3 (KDQOL-SF™ 1.3) and a questionnaire on socioeconomic, demographic, clinical, nutritional and laboratory data. The reliability of KDQOL-SF™ 1.3 was assessed by Cronbach's alpha. For the multivariable analysis a Poisson regression model with robust adjustment of the standard error was used. The reliability assessment of KDQOL-SF™ 1.3 showed a Cronbach's alpha test greater than 0.8 in all areas. The areas with the worst levels of QOL were "work situation", "burden of kidney disease", "patient satisfaction", "physical function" and "general health". Having less than 8 years of schooling, coming from the countryside and having cardiovascular disease were associated to the areas with the worst levels of QOL. KDQOL-SF™ 1.3 is a reliable instrument to measure quality of life of hemodialysis patients. Demographic and clinical conditions can negatively influence QOL in chronic renal failure patients.

  1. Patterns and inferred processes associated with sea turtle strandings in Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil

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    C. Poli

    Full Text Available This study analysed sea turtle strandings on the coast of Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil, from August 2009 to July 2010. A total of 124 strandings were recorded in this period: green turtle Chelonia mydas (n = 106, hawksbill Eretmochelys imbricata (n = 15, olive ridley Lepidochelys olivacea (n = 2 and loggerhead Caretta caretta (n = 1. Of all turtles for which the Curved Carapace Length (CCL was measured (n = 122, only 12 individuals (9.7% were adults. Twenty individuals had synthetic anthropogenic debris in the gastrointestinal tract. Other traces of human interactions were observed in 43 individuals, such as injuries caused by entanglement in fishing lines or nets, collisions with vessels, direct contact with oil spills and lesions caused by sharp or spiked objects. Moreover, in 28.5% of the stranded turtles, the presence of external tumors was noticed, suggestive of fibropapillomatosis and in 9.7%, shark bite marks were observed. Of the 107 individuals that were sexed, 76 were females and 31 were males. Most turtles (72.6% became stranded during the spring/summer (between October and March. We found evidence of human interactions (injuries in half of the strandings, but in most cases it was not possible to determine if such interactions were the cause of death. A logistic regression found a significant relationship between CCL, ingestion of debris and lesions caused by sharks or spiked objects. Systematic data collection from stranded sea turtles can provide useful biological information, such as seasonal and spatial patterns in their occurrence and mortality, age structure, sex ratio and diet, as well as possible mortality causes.

  2. Impact of MELD allocation policy on survival outcomes after liver transplantation: a single-center study in northeast Brazil

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    Thales Paulo Batista

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the impact of model for end-stage liver disease (MELD allocation policy on survival outcomes after liver transplantation (LT. INTRODUCTION: Considering that an ideal system of grafts allocation should also ensure improved survival after transplantation, changes in allocation policies need to be evaluated in different contexts as an evolutionary process. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was carried out among patients who underwent LT at the University of Pernambuco. Two groups of patients transplanted before and after the MELD allocation policy implementation were identified and compared using early postoperative mortality and post-LT survival as end-points. RESULTS: Overall, early postoperative mortality did not significantly differ between cohorts (16.43% vs. 8.14%; p = 0.112. Although at 6 and 36-months the difference between pre-vs. post-MELD survival was only marginally significant (p = 0.066 and p = 0.063; respectively, better short, medium and long-term post-LT survival were observed in the post-MELD period. Subgroups analysis showed special benefits to patients categorized as nonhepatocellular carcinoma (non-HCC and moderate risk, as determined by MELD score (15-20. DISCUSSION: This study ensured a more robust estimate of how the MELD policy affected post-LT survival outcomes in Brazil and was the first to show significantly better survival after this new policy was implemented. Additionally, we explored some potential reasons for our divergent survival outcomes. CONCLUSION: Better survival outcomes were observed in this study after implementation of the MELD criterion, particularly amongst patients categorized as non-HCC and moderate risk by MELD scoring. Governmental involvement in organ transplantation was possibly the main reason for improved survival.

  3. Flower morphology, nectar features, and hummingbird visitation to Palicourea crocea (Rubiaceae) in the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça, Luciana B.; Anjos, Luiz dos

    2006-01-01

    We investigated flower morphology, nectar features, and hummingbird visitation to Palicourea crocea (Rubiaceae), a common ornithophilous shrub found in the riparian forest understory in the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil. Flowers are distylous and the style-stamen dimorphism is accompanied by other intermorph dimorphisms in corolla length, anther length, and stigma lobe length and form. We did not observe strict reciprocity in the positioning of stigma and anthers between floral morphs...

  4. Urban Floods in Lowlands—Levee Systems, Unplanned Urban Growth and River Restoration Alternative: A Case Study in Brazil

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    Marcelo Gomes Miguez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of cities has always had a very close relation with water. However, cities directly impact land use patterns and greatly change natural landscapes, aggravating floods. Considering this situation, this paper intends to discuss lowland occupation and city sustainability in what regards urban stormwater management, fluvial space, and river restoration, aiming at minimizing flood risks and improving natural and built environment conditions. River plains tend to be attractive places for a city to grow. From ancient times, levees have been used to protect lowland areas along major watercourses to allow their occupation. However, urban rivers demand space for temporary flood storage. From a systemic point of view, levees along extensive river reaches act as canalization works, limiting river connectivity with flood plains, rising water levels, increasing overtopping risks and transferring floods downstream. Departing from this discussion, four case studies in the Iguaçu-Sarapuí River Basin, a lowland area of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, are used to compose a perspective in which the central point refers to the need of respecting watershed limits and giving space to rivers. Different aspects of low-lying city planning are discussed and analyzed concerning the integration of the built and natural environments.

  5. Influence of environmental factors on absorption characteristics of suspended particulate matter and CDOM in Liaohe River watershed, northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Tiantian; Zheng, Hui; Song, Kaishan; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Bai

    2017-08-01

    Absorption characteristics of optically active substances, including non-algal particles, phytoplankton, and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), were measured in conjunction with environmental factors in five rivers within the Liaohe River watershed. Spectral absorption of non-algal particles [a NAP (λ)] was similar to that of total particles for most samples, suggesting that the absorption of the total particles [a p (λ)] was dominated by a NAP (λ). The CDOM absorption spectra [a CDOM (λ)] of West Liaohe and Taizihe rivers were easily distinguished from those of Hunhe, Liaohe, and East Liaohe rivers. Redundancy analysis indicated that absorption by optically active substances and anthropogenic nutrient disturbances probably resulted in the diversity of water quality parameters. The environmental variables including dissolved organic carbon, total alkalinity (TAlk), and total nitrogen (TN) had a significant correlation with CDOM absorption at 440 nm [a CDOM (440)]. There was almost no correlation between a p (λ) and chlorophyll a, TN, total phosphorus, and TAlk. Moreover, total copper ion concentration and mercury ion concentration had a strong correlation with a p (440), a p (675), a NAP (440), and a NAP (675). The concentration of total aluminum ions exhibited a positive correlation with a p (675) and a NAP (675) (p CDOM (440). Furthermore, the interaction between metal ions and optically active substances provided an insight into particulates and CDOM properties linked to water quality characteristics for rivers in semiarid areas.

  6. Isotope geochemistry of brasiliano age, coarsely porphyritic, K-calc-alkalic granitoids and associated K-diorites, northeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sial, A.N.; Mariano, G.; Ferreira, V.P.

    1989-01-01

    Several porphyritic, K-calc-alkalic were syntectonically intruded in NE Brazil during the Brasiliano orogeny. They show bi-(qz) diorite and coarsely porphyritic granodiorite to qz monzonite ('Itaporanga-type') in commingling zones on a scale of cm to m irrespective of whether plutons are at the margins of the NE-trending Cachoeirinha-Salgueiro Fold Belt (CSF) or intruded metasediments of the Serido Fold Belt (SFB). The bi(qz) diorites are found in magmatic or stromatic structures and narrow dikes wich intruded the felsic facies. SiO 2 in the porphyritic facies ranges from 61 to 72% with K 2 O usually > Na 2 O. K-diorities exhibit SiO 2 from 50 to 58%, MgO from 2 to 10% and K 2 O from 2 to 5%. Both facies are usually Ba and Sr-enriched, with similar, highly fractionated REE patterns, lacking free of Eu anomaly. Quartz 180 values are considered homogeneous on the scale of these intrusions in the CSF, (8 to 10 per milSMOW). Bi-(qz) diorites exhibit slightly higher 180 (9.5 to 10.5 per milSMOW). In the SFB both facies are lower than 180. The oxygen isotope data for the porphyritic facies are compatible with I-type source with some metasedimentary component of variable proportion. As bi(qz) diorites were formed pre- to post-porphyritic facies intrusion, their high LREE, K and 180 reflect their source rather than the interaction with the potassic felsic magma. Preliminarly sulfur isotope values suggest that porphyritic facies of granitoids in the SBF are lower in 34S than those in the CSF. Rb and Sr isotopes reflect source heterogeneity, complicated by mixing relations. Ages span from 510 to 630 Ma suggesting that the Itaporanga-type association was formed during uplift and cooling of the Pan-African I and onset of the Pan-African II orogenies, recognized in West Africa. (author) [pt

  7. The Human Threat to River Ecosystems at the Watershed Scale: An Ecological Security Assessment of the Songhua River Basin, Northeast China

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    Yuan Shen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Human disturbances impact river basins by reducing the quality of, and services provided by, aquatic ecosystems. Conducting quantitative assessments of ecological security at the watershed scale is important for enhancing the water quality of river basins and promoting environmental management. In this study, China’s Songhua River Basin was divided into 204 assessment units by combining watershed and administrative boundaries. Ten human threat factors were identified based on their significant influence on the river ecosystem. A modified ecological threat index was used to synthetically evaluate the ecological security, where frequency was weighted by flow length from the grids to the main rivers, while severity was weighted by the potential hazard of the factors on variables of river ecosystem integrity. The results showed that individual factors related to urbanization, agricultural development and facility construction presented different spatial distribution characteristics. At the center of the plain area, the provincial capital cities posed the highest level of threat, as did the municipal districts of prefecture-level cities. The spatial relationships between hot spot locations of the ecological threat index and water quality, as well as the distribution areas of critically endangered species, were analyzed. The sensitivity analysis illustrated that alteration of agricultural development largely changed the ecological security level of the basin. By offering a reference for assessing ecological security, this study can enhance water environmental planning and management.

  8. Sediment record of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Liaohe River Delta wetland, Northeast China: Implications for regional population migration and economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chuanliang; Lin, Tian; Ye, Siyuan; Ding, Xigui; Li, Yuanyuan; Guo, Zhigang

    2017-03-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of a 210 Pb-dated sediment core extracted from the Liaohe River Delta wetland were measured to reconstruct the sediment record of PAHs and its response to human activity for the past 300 years in Northeast China. The concentrations of the 16 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency priority PAHs (∑16PAHs) ranged from 46 to 1167 ng g -1 in this sediment core. The concentrations of the 16 PAHs (especially 4- and 5+6-ring PAHs) after the 1980s (surface sediments 0-6 cm) were one or two orders of magnitudes higher than those of the down-core samples. The exponential growth of 4-ring and 5+6-ring PAH concentrations after the 1980s responded well to the increased energy consumption and number of civil vehicles resulting from the rapid economic development in China. Prior to 1950, relatively low levels of the 16 PAHs and a high proportion of 2+3-ring PAHs was indicative of biomass burning as the main source of the PAHs. A significant increase in the 2 + 3 ring PAH concentration from the 1860s-1920s was observed and could be attributed to a constant influx of population migration into Northeast China. It was suggested that the link between historical trend of PAHs and population or energy use involves two different economic stages. Typically, in an agricultural economy, the greater the population size, the greater the emission of PAHs from biomass burning, while in an industrial economy, the increase in sedimentary PAH concentrations is closely related to increasing energy consumption of fossil fuels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Regional variation in the chemical composition of winter snow pack and terricolous lichens in relation to sources of acid emissions in the Usa river basin, northeast European Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, T.R.; Crittenden, P.D.; Young, S.D.

    2003-01-01

    The chemistry of winter snow pack and terricolous lichens indicate pollution distribution in Arctic Russia. - The chemical composition of snow and terricolous lichens was determined along transects through the Subarctic towns of Vorkuta (130 km west-east), Inta (240 km south-north) and Usinsk (140 km, southwest-northeast) in the Usa river basin, northeast European Russia. Evidence of pollution gradients was found on two spatial scales. First, on the Inta transect, northward decreases in concentrations of N in the lichen Cladonia stellaris (from 0.57 mmol N g -1 at 90 km south to 0.43 mmol N g -1 at 130 km north of Inta) and winter deposition of non-sea salt sulphate (from 29.3 to 12.8 mol ha -1 at 90 km south and 110 km north of Inta, respectively) were attributed to long range transport of N and S from lower latitudes. Second, increased ionic content (SO 4 2- , Ca 2+ , K + ) and pH of snow, and modified N concentration and the concentration ratios K + :Mg 2+ and K + : (Mg 2+ +Ca 2+ ) in lichens (Cladonia arbuscula and Flavocetraria cucullata) within ca. 25-40 km of Vorkuta and Inta were largely attributed to local deposition of alkaline coal ash. Total sulphate concentrations in snow varied from ca. 5 μmol l -1 at remote sites to ca. 19 μmol l -1 near Vorkuta. Nitrate concentration in snow (typically ca. 9 μmol l -1 ) did not vary with proximity to perceived pollution sources

  10. Intra-regional transportation of a tugboat fouling community between the ports of recife and natal, northeast Brazil

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    Cristiane Maria Rocha Farrapeira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the incrusting and sedentary animals associated with the hull of a tugboat active in the ports of Pernambuco and later loaned to the port of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte. Thus, areas with dense biofouling were scraped and the species then classified in terms of their bioinvasive status for the Brazilian coast. Six were native to Brazil, two were cryptogenic and 16 nonindigenous; nine of the latter were classified as established (Musculus lateralis, Sphenia fragilis, Balanus trigonus, Biflustra savartii, Botrylloides nigrum, Didemnum psammatodes, Herdmania pallida, Microscosmus exasperatus, and Symplegma rubra and three as invasive (Mytilopsis leucophaeta, Amphibalanus reticulatus, and Striatobalanus amaryllis. The presence of M. leucophaeata, Amphibalanus eburneus and A. reticulatus on the boat's hull propitiated their introduction onto the Natal coast. The occurrence of a great number of tunicate species in Natal reflected the port area's benthic diversity and facilitated the inclusion of two bivalves - Musculus lateralis and Sphenia fragilis - found in their siphons and in the interstices between colonies or individuals, respectively. The results show the role of biofouling on boat hulls in the introduction of nonindigenous species and that the port of Recife acts as a source of some species.Este trabalho objetivou identificar os animais incrustantes e sedentários associados ao casco de um rebocador que atuava nos Portos de Pernambuco e foi cedido para o Porto de Natal, Rio Grande do Norte. Áreas com densa bioincrustação foram raspadas e as espécies foram posteriormente classificadas em relação ao status de bioinvasão no litoral brasileiro. Dentre as espécies identificadas, seis eram nativas do Brasil, duas criptogênicas e 16 exóticas. Destas, oito foram classificadas como estabelecidas (Musculus lateralis, Sphenia fragilis, Balanus trigonus, Biflustra savartii, Botrylloides nigrum, Didemnum psammatodes

  11. Downstream passage of fish larvae and eggs through a small-sized reservoir, Mucuri river, Brazil

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    Paulo S. Pompeu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In South America, one important symptom of the failure of fish passages to sustain fish migratory recruitment is the inability of eggs and larvae to reach the nurseries. This is especially so when the breeding areas are located upstream of a reservoir, and the floodplain is downstream of the dam. Therefore, the transport of fish larvae and eggs across reservoir barriers is a key factor in the development of effective conservation strategies. In this paper, we evaluate the potential for migratory fish larvae and egg transportation across a small size reservoir in eastern Brazil. We sampled fish daily between 15th October 2002 and 15th February 2003 (spawning period in the Mucuri River, immediately upstream of the reservoir and downstream of the Santa Clara Power Plant dam. Our study was the first to indicate the possibility of successful larval passage through the reservoir of a hydroelectric reservoir and dam in South America, and showed that the passage of migratory fish larvae was associated significantly with residence time of water in the reservoir. The relatively short water residence time and elevated turbidity of the Santa Clara's reservoir waters during the rainy season certainly contributed to the successful passage, and can be considered as key factors for a priori evaluations of the feasibility of a downstream larval passage.

  12. Radionuclides release to three rivers by ore treatment unit at Caldas, Minas Gerais - Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, W.S.; Carmo, R.F. do; Py Junior, D.A., E-mail: pereiraws@gmail.com [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio. Grupo Multidisciplinar de Radioprotecao; Kelecom, A., E-mail: akelecom@id.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARARA-PLS/GETA/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos. Grupo de Estudos em Temas Ambientais; Pereira, J.R.S., E-mail: pereirarsj@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The Ore Treatment Unit (OTU) is a uranium mining and milling plant, situated at Caldas city, Minas Gerais, Brazil that was disabled in the mid 90's. This unit releases controlled effluents to three rivers: Ribeirao das Antas (at point 014, influenced by the waste pile), Ribeirao Soberbo (point 025, influenced by the waste pond) and Corrego da Consulta (at point 076, influenced by the open pit mine). Water samples collected at these points were analyzed for U{sub nat}, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 232}Th and {sup 228}Ra content in the particulate and soluble fractions, and the behavior of radionuclide releases and their fractions was investigated. U{sub nat} and {sup 228}Ra showed identical behaviors at these three points. U{sub nat} at point 014 (waste pile) behaved different from described in recent literature data. The isotopes of Ra should exhibit the same behavior at each point, but this was not observed at point 025 (waste pond). {sup 232}Th release showed equal activity concentration near the waste pile (point 014) and near the waste pond (point 025), whilst near the open pit mine (point 076) the soluble fraction showed a concentration of activity greater than the particulate fraction. Finally, {sup 210}Pb showed a different behavior at each point. Due to the great differences in behaviors of each radionuclide, it was not possible to establish a temporal pattern of release which requires assessment over a longer period of time. (author)

  13. [Work-related accidents in traditional fishermen from the Medium Araguaia River region, Tocantins, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrone Neto, Domingos; Cordeiro, Ricardo Carlos; Haddad, Vidal

    2005-01-01

    This is a cross-sectional study of work-related accidents among traditional fishermen in the Medium Araguaia River region of Tocantins, Brazil. From June to August 2002, fishermen from the Municipality of Araguacema were interviewed about the organization of their work activities and work-related accidents during the previous six months. Of the 92 participating fishermen, 56 reported having suffered a work-related accident (annual incidence was 82.6%). Some 95.7% of those interviewed did not regularly pay social security insurance as self-employed workers and were not aware of their social rights and duties. For fishermen reporting accidents, this proportion was 98.2%. Approximately 23.0% had another work activity, mainly as construction workers (47.6%) or sport-fishing guides (23.9%). Injuries inflicted by aquatic animals were the main form of accidents (about 86.0%). From these results, it is apparent that accidents from aquatic animals are an important health hazard, in some cases causing temporary work incapacity.

  14. MECHANISMS CONTROLLING SURFACE WATER QUALITY IN THE COBRAS RIVER SUB-BASIN, NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

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    ALEXANDRE DE OLIVEIRA LIMA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stream water quality is dependent on many factors, including the source and quantity of the streamflow and the types of geology and soil along the path of the stream. This study aims to evaluate the origin and the mechanisms controlling the input of ions that effect surface water quality in the sub-basin of the Rio das Cobras, Rio Grande do Norte state, Northeastern Brazil. Thirteen ponds were identified for study: three in the main river and ten in the tributaries between, thus covering the whole area and lithology of the sub-basin. The samples were collected at two different times (late dry and rainy periods in the hydrological years 2009 and 2010, equating to total of four collection times. We analyzed the spatial and seasonal behavior of water quality in the sub-basin, using Piper diagrams, and analyzed the source of the ions using Guibbs diagram and molar ratios. With respect to ions, we found that water predominate in 82% sodium and 76% bicarbonate water (cations and anions, respectively. The main salinity control mechanism was related to the interaction of the colloidal particles (minerals and organic sediment with the ions dissolved in water. Based on the analysis of nitrates and nitrites there was no evidence of contamination from anthropogenic sources.

  15. Cyclopidae (Crustacea, Copepoda from the upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil

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    F. A. LANSAC-TÔHA

    Full Text Available Cyclopid copepods from samples of fauna associated with aquatic macrophytes and plancton obtained in lotic and lentic environments were obtained from the upper Paraná River floodplain (in the states of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Macrophytes were collected in homogeneous stands and washed. Plankton samples, taken from the water column surface and bottom, were obtained using a motor pump, with a 70 mum mesh plankton net for filtration. Twelve taxa of Cyclopidae were identified. Among them, Macrocyclops albidus albidus, Paracyclops chiltoni, Ectocyclops rubescens, Homocyclops ater, Eucyclops solitarius, Mesocyclops longisetus curvatus, Mesocyclops ogunnus, and Microcyclops finitimus were new finds for this floodplain. Eight species were recorded exclusively in aquatic macrophyte samples. Among these species, M. albidus albidus and M. finitimus presented greatest abundances. Only four species were recorded in plankton samples, and Thermocyclops minutus and Thermocyclops decipiens are limited to this type of habitat. Among these four species, T. minutus is the most abundant, especially in lentic habitats.

  16. Cyclopidae (Crustacea, Copepoda from the upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LANSAC-TÔHA F. A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclopid copepods from samples of fauna associated with aquatic macrophytes and plancton obtained in lotic and lentic environments were obtained from the upper Paraná River floodplain (in the states of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Macrophytes were collected in homogeneous stands and washed. Plankton samples, taken from the water column surface and bottom, were obtained using a motor pump, with a 70 mum mesh plankton net for filtration. Twelve taxa of Cyclopidae were identified. Among them, Macrocyclops albidus albidus, Paracyclops chiltoni, Ectocyclops rubescens, Homocyclops ater, Eucyclops solitarius, Mesocyclops longisetus curvatus, Mesocyclops ogunnus, and Microcyclops finitimus were new finds for this floodplain. Eight species were recorded exclusively in aquatic macrophyte samples. Among these species, M. albidus albidus and M. finitimus presented greatest abundances. Only four species were recorded in plankton samples, and Thermocyclops minutus and Thermocyclops decipiens are limited to this type of habitat. Among these four species, T. minutus is the most abundant, especially in lentic habitats.

  17. Radionuclides release to three rivers by ore treatment unit at Caldas, Minas Gerais - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, W.S.; Carmo, R.F. do; Py Junior, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    The Ore Treatment Unit (OTU) is a uranium mining and milling plant, situated at Caldas city, Minas Gerais, Brazil that was disabled in the mid 90's. This unit releases controlled effluents to three rivers: Ribeirao das Antas (at point 014, influenced by the waste pile), Ribeirao Soberbo (point 025, influenced by the waste pond) and Corrego da Consulta (at point 076, influenced by the open pit mine). Water samples collected at these points were analyzed for U nat , 226 Ra, 210 Pb, 232 Th and 228 Ra content in the particulate and soluble fractions, and the behavior of radionuclide releases and their fractions was investigated. U nat and 228 Ra showed identical behaviors at these three points. U nat at point 014 (waste pile) behaved different from described in recent literature data. The isotopes of Ra should exhibit the same behavior at each point, but this was not observed at point 025 (waste pond). 232 Th release showed equal activity concentration near the waste pile (point 014) and near the waste pond (point 025), whilst near the open pit mine (point 076) the soluble fraction showed a concentration of activity greater than the particulate fraction. Finally, 210 Pb showed a different behavior at each point. Due to the great differences in behaviors of each radionuclide, it was not possible to establish a temporal pattern of release which requires assessment over a longer period of time. (author)

  18. Bird community structure in riparian environments in Cai River, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Brummelhaus

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization produces changes in riparian environments, causing effects in the structure of bird communities, which present different responses to the impacts. We compare species richness, abundance, and composition of birds in riparian environments with different characteristics in Cai River, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. We carried out observations in woodland, grassland, and urban environments, between September 2007 and August 2008. We listed 130 bird species, 29 species unique to woodland environment, and an endangeredspecies: Triclaria malachitacea. Bird abundance differed from woodland (n = 426 individuals to urban environments (n = 939 individuals (F2,6 = 7.315; P = 0.025. Species composition and feeding guilds differed significantly in the bird community structures among these three riparian environments. In the grassland and urban environments there were more generalist insectivorous species, while in the woodland environments we find more leaf and trunk insectivorous species and frugivorous species, sensitive to human impacts. Bird species can be biological quality indicators and they contribute to ecosystems performing relevant functions. With the knowledge on bird community structure and their needs, it is possible to implement management practices for restoration of degraded riparian environments.

  19. Environmental Investigation of Psychiatric Pharmaceuticals: Guandu River, Rio De Janeiro State, Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceuticals are considered to be important environmental contaminants. The aim of this study was to evaluate their presence in water intended for public supply to Municipally of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The regional environmental assessment was done from the analysis of surface water and distribution for the presence of psychiatric drugs. The study reveals the presence of benzodiazepine derivatives in all samples of surface water samples of the Guandu River, with the amounts of 42 ng L-1, 198 ng L-1 and 335 ng L-1 for bromazepam, clonazepam, and diazepam, respectively. The population served by Companhia Estadual de Águas e Esgotos (CEDAE is the order of ten million. Psychiatric pharmaceuticals, in particular, are thought to impose significant ecological risks. A better understanding of the real impact of these pollutants implies a comprehensive evaluation of their persistence and fate in environmental matrices. The studies presented in this article are intended to contribute to improve the knowledge about the occurrence of some psychiatric drugs in the water supply.

  20. Mass balance of arsenic fluxes in rivers impacted by gold mining activities in Paracatu (Minas Gerais State, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidone, Edison; Cesar, Ricardo; Santos, Maria Carla; Sierpe, Ricardo; Silva-Filho, Emmanuel Vieira; Kutter, Vinicius; Dias da Silva, Lílian I; Castilhos, Zuleica

    2018-03-01

    Arsenic (As) is a dangerous and carcinogenic element and drinking water is its main pathway of human exposure. Gold mines are widely recognized as important sources of As pollution. This work proposes the assessment of As distribution along watersheds surrounding "Morro do Ouro" gold mine (Paracatu, southeastern Brazil). A balance approach between filtered As fluxes (As river segments was applied. Ultrafiltration procedure was used to categorize As into the following classes: particulate > 0.1 μm, colloidal  10 kDa, dissolved  1 kDa, and truly dissolved river segment that suggests As accumulation in sediments along the rivers in both urban and rural areas, mainly due to SPM sedimentation and sorption by Fe oxyhydroxides. Ultrafiltration shattering showed concentrations of decreasing As with particle size; the SPM load (> 0.1 μm) was almost one order higher to dissolved load (< 1 kDa).

  1. Description of karyotype in Hypostomus regani (Ihering, 1905 (Teleostei, Loricariidae from the Piumhi river in Brazil with comments on karyotype variation found in Hypostomus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernani de Oliveira Mendes-Neto

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents a comparative cytogenetic analysis of three populations of Hypostomus regani in Brazil. Two populations belong to the Upper Paraná River Basin and the third one, the karyotype of which is described for the first time, was probably introduced into the São Francisco River Basin through transposition from the Piumhi River. Karyotype features of populations of H. regani from the Piracicaba and Tietê River Basins are also discussed. The occurrence of H. regani in the São Francisco River Basin is reported for the first time here. The study also revealed distinct differences in the location of the Ag-NORs between the analyzed populations that enable individuals from the Piumhi River, Mogi-Guaçu River and Tietê River to be distinguished from one another. Thus, the data obtained indicate the possibility of geographic variation fixing different karyotypes even in the same basin of origin.

  2. Gamma-rays and heat-treatment conversions of point defects in massive rose quartz from the Borborema Pegmatite Province, Northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzo, Pedro L.; Barreto, Sandra B.; Miranda, Milena R.; Gonzaga, Raysa S. G.; Casals, Sandra A.

    2017-11-01

    An extensive characterization of trace elements and point defects in rose quartz from the Borborema Pegmatite Province (BPP) in the northeast of Brazil was carried out by complementary spectroscopic methods. The aim here was to document the change in the configuration of point defects into the quartz lattice induced by heat-treatment and ionizing radiation. The samples were extracted from the core of two granitic rare element (REL) pegmatites, Taboa (Carnaúba dos Dantas, RN) and Alto do Feio (Pedra Lavrada, PB). The contents of Al, P, Ti, Ni, Fe, Ge, Li, Be, B and K were measured by laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Polished plates were heat-treated at 500 and 1000 °C and then irradiated with 50 kGy of γ rays. Point defects were characterized by optical (UV-Vis), infrared (IR), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies. In the as-received condition, [AlO4/H]0 centers, Li- and B-dependent OH defects were observed. Point defects related to Al and Li species were significantly affected by heat-treatment at 1000 °C and/or γ radiation. Paramagnetic centers such as [AlO4]0, [GeO4/Li]0, [TiO4/Li]0 and [O2 3-/Li]0 were created by the diffusion of Li+ ions from their original diamagnetic centers related to substitutional Al3+ and OH-species. The smoky color developed after irradiation and the signal intensities of the paramagnetic centers were independent from the original rose color grade. The samples from the Taboa (TB) pegmatite showed the highest concentration of Al, Ti, Fe and Li elements as well as the highest signal intensities for [AlO4]0, [AlO4/H]0, [GeO4/Li]0 and [TiO4/Li]0 centers. Although TB also showed the higher concentration of B element, the intensity of the 3597 cm-1 IR band related to [BO4/H]0 centers was higher for Alto do Feio (AF) samples. This result suggests that the uptake of B into the quartz core of each pegmatite took place through different mechanisms. It was concluded that the change in

  3. Evolution of Brasiliano-age granitoid types in a shear-zone environment, Umarizal-Caraubas region, Rio Grande do Norte, northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, A. C.; Dall'Agnol, R.; McReath, I.; Lafon, J. M.; Teixeira, N.

    1995-01-01

    A sequence of Brasiliano-age granitoid types is exposed in a small area near the cities of Umarizal and Caraúbas in Rio Grande do Norte State, Northeast Brazil. Porphyritic K-alkali-calcic monzogranite is an important facies of the oldest Caraúbas intrusion (RbSr whole rock isochron age of ca. 630 Ma), which suffered solid-state deformation due to movements on a major NE-trending shear zone. The intrusion of the Prado and part of the Quixaba bodies was probably controlled by the shear zone. These two bodies include mafic/intermediate rocks, some of which contain two pyroxenes, and have hybrid, partly alkaline and partly shoshonitic geochemical characteristics. Rock types and ages are similar to those of some Pan-African occurrences in southwestern Nigeria. The Tourão body, intruded at ca. 590 Ma, presents preferred mineral orientations which are probably largely magmatic, since little evidence is found for widespread solid-state deformation. On the other hand, its intrusion may have been facilitated by the presence of the shear-zone faults. The rocks form a monomodal felsic K-alkali-calcic suite. With the exception of the Quixaba body, all these earlier granitoids are magmatic epidote- and magnetite-bearing porphyritic monzogranites with trace element geochemical characteristics of modern syn-collisional granites. The latest intrusion at ca. 545 Ma is mainly represented by potassic quartz syenites and related rocks, some of which contain fayalite or ferrohypersthene. These rocks possess neither well developed mineral orientations of magmatic origin nor signs of solid-state deformation. They are mineralogically similar to, but younger than some of the "bauchites" of central Nigeria. Geochemical signatures are comparable with those of modern within-plate granites. All granitoids present high ( 87Sr/ 86Sr)i ratios which range from 0.708 to 0.712, and increase with decreasing age. Such ratios are compatible with important or dominant crustal contributions. On the

  4. Holocene Vegetation Succession and Response to Climate Change on the South Bank of the Heilongjiang-Amur River, Mohe County, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen samples from peat sediments on the south bank of the Heilongjiang River in northern Northeast China (NE China were analyzed to reconstruct the historical response of vegetation to climate change since 7800 cal yr BP. Vegetation was found to have experienced five successions from cold-temperate mixed coniferous and broadleaved forest to forest-steppe, steppe-woodland, steppe, and finally meadow-woodland. From 7800 to 7300 cal yr BP, the study area was warmer than present, and Betula, Larix, and Picea-dominated mixed coniferous and broadleaved forests thrived. Two cooling events at 7300 cal yr BP and 4500 cal yr BP led to a decrease in Betula and other broadleaved forests, whereas herbs of Poaceae expanded, leading to forest-steppe and then steppe-woodland environments. After 2500 cal yr BP, reduced temperatures and a decrease in evaporation rates are likely to have resulted in permafrost expansion and surface ponding, with meadow and isolated coniferous forests developing a resistance to the cold-wet environment. The Holocene warm period in NE China (7800–7300 cal yr BP could have resulted in a strengthening of precipitation in northernmost NE China and encouraged the development of broadleaved forests.

  5. Foraminiferal assemblages along the intertidal zone of Itapanhaú River, Bertioga (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Camila Cunha; Kukimodo, Isabela; Semensatto, Décio

    2017-11-01

    Foraminifera found in intertidal zones have been successfully used in studies examining relative sea level monitoring around the world. For this purpose, it is necessary to establish the typical foraminiferal assemblages of different salinity regimes and sediment sub aerial exposition. In the present work we collected 27 sediment samples from 5 transversal transects in the mangroves of the Itapanhaú River (Bertioga, SP, Brazil). Transects were distributed along salinity and altitudinal gradients in order to study the community structure of recent foraminifera in terms of diversity and species composition. We identified 35 species and described 5 groups of species in different environmental settings, from downstream to upstream and from margin to landward in the mangrove forest, associated with salinity regime and sediment proportional exposure time. These variables seem to primarily control species distribution and community structure in the intertidal zone, although dissolution of calcareous taxa cannot be ruled out. The first group is dominated by Ammonia spp. and Elphidium spp., colonizes the mouth of the river on an unvegetated tidal flat in the lowest portion of the intertidal zone, under a polyhaline regime. This group exhibits the smallest sub aerial exposition (19,3%) as well as comparatively high species diversity. The second group is formed by a sample dominated by Trochammina inflata and Arenoparrella mexicana, obtained in a polyhaline area on the margin of the mangrove. The third group is dominated by Miliammina fusca and Ammotium spp., and colonizes mesohaline mangrove forests, with proportional exposure time of between 50 and 75%, and high species diversity. The fourth group comprises communities dominated by M. fusca and T. inflata, and colonizes the intermediate level in the interior of the mangrove forest, exhibiting high species diversity. The fifth group comprises communities broadly dominated by M. fusca, colonizing oligohaline margins and the

  6. Water demand and offer in River Tibagi (BHRT- Londrina, Paraná, Brazil : basic sanitary or energy production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Domenes Zapparoli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to verify the demands for the use and reuse of water in the municipality of Londrina and energy production in the Tibagi River, Paraná, Brazil. The material and method are composed of bibliographic review, having as a conceptual and the principles governing the environmental public policy. As primary source analyzes the documents "term of reference for preparation of the submission of the plan of the Tibagi River ", project municipality of Londrina "farmer water guard" and the "program of conservation, rational use and reuse of water in the city of Londrina" and the delimitation of the study marched on the Tibagi River and the municipality of Londrina in the state of Paraná, Brazil. The results show that for preservation of the basin, the state and some municipalities have certain laws and water resources management projects, but not sufficient. For that to occur a conservation more efficient, effective in practice is required for some laws to ensure the water, multi-use and awareness of the population that also has the duty to protect and conserve this resource so essential to the human being. Unable to verify that the adoption of instruments on economic, social and marketing. The study leads to the conclusion that the interests comes if splitting between energy production and sanitation. This study has not exhausted the subject search continuity and suggests how other instruments of financial compensation for attendance to this environmental services market that uses water as a raw material.

  7. Hydrochemistry of the Parauari-Maues Acu river basin (Amazon region, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringel, S.R.B.

    1980-08-01

    The chemical composition of the Parauari-Maues Acu basin is studied through the determination of pH, calcium, magnesium, iron, chloride, sodium, potassium, zinc, copper and manganese. Four expeditions were made and samples were collected in 16 different points of the main course. Chemical analysis of the rivers waters shows seasonal flutuations of the concentrations of the elements in the main river as well as in the main afluents like Nambi river, Amana river and Urupadi river. (Author) [pt

  8. Mercury fractionation in dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii) of the Madeira River in Brazil using metalloproteomic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, C P; Bittarello, A C; Padilha, C C F; Leite, A L; Moraes, P M; Buzalaf, M A R; Zara, L F; Padilha, P M

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of mercury fractionation in muscle samples of dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii) from the JIRAU Hydroelectric Power Plant in the Madeira River Basin in the Amazon region of Brazil. The proteome of the dourada muscle was separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE). The mercury present in the protein spots was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) after acid mineralisation in an ultrasound bath. The protein spots in which the presence of mercury was detected were characterised by electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) after tryptic digestion. The GFAAS determinations indicated that 65% of the mercury was linked to the protein fraction with a molar mass (Mm) of less than 90 kDa. The mercury concentrations in the seven spots in which this protein fraction was present were in the range of 11.40-35.10 μg kg(-1). Based on the mercury concentrations, it was possible to estimate that the protein spots contained approximately 1-3 mercury atoms per protein molecule. The ESI-MS/MS analysis allowed characterisation of the seven protein spots as the following proteins: protein NLRC5 (molar mass=18.10, pI=6.30); 39S ribosomal protein L36 mitochondrial (molar mass=15.40, pI=8.23); N-alpha-acetyltransferase 20 (Mm=15.95, pI=8.80); Mth938 domain-containing protein (Mm=15.01, pI=9.60); ubiquitin-40S ribosomal protein S27a (Mm=9.80, pI=7.60); parvalbumin alpha (Mm=12.40, pI=3.80) and parvalbumin beta (Mm=13.10, pI=3.45). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Integrated Application of Multivariate Statistical Methods to Source Apportionment of Watercourses in the Liao River Basin, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiabo Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Source apportionment of river water pollution is critical in water resource management and aquatic conservation. Comprehensive application of various GIS-based multivariate statistical methods was performed to analyze datasets (2009–2011 on water quality in the Liao River system (China. Cluster analysis (CA classified the 12 months of the year into three groups (May–October, February–April and November–January and the 66 sampling sites into three groups (groups A, B and C based on similarities in water quality characteristics. Discriminant analysis (DA determined that temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO, pH, chemical oxygen demand (CODMn, 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, NH4+–N, total phosphorus (TP and volatile phenols were significant variables affecting temporal variations, with 81.2% correct assignments. Principal component analysis (PCA and positive matrix factorization (PMF identified eight potential pollution factors for each part of the data structure, explaining more than 61% of the total variance. Oxygen-consuming organics from cropland and woodland runoff were the main latent pollution factor for group A. For group B, the main pollutants were oxygen-consuming organics, oil, nutrients and fecal matter. For group C, the evaluated pollutants primarily included oxygen-consuming organics, oil and toxic organics.

  10. Calibration of the sodium base cation dominance index of weathering for the River Dee catchment in north-east Scotland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutter, M. [Aberdeen Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Plant and Soil Science; Smart, R.; Cresser, M. [York Univ. (United Kingdom). Environmental Dept.

    2002-07-01

    Previously the dominance of base cations by Na{sup +} in river water in upland catchments with low weathering rates and influenced by marine-derived aerosols has been suggested as a quantitative index of weathering rate upstream of the sampling point. Using data for 59 sites from a study of the River Dee catchment in NE Scotland, the index has been fully calibrated against catchment weathering rates and net alkalinity production, derived through input output budget methods, for both upland and agricultural catchments and over a wide range of parent materials. It is shown that the relationship between Na{sup +} dominance and weathering rate is logarithmic, rather than linear as initially suggested. The excellent correlations highlight the potential use of this Na{sup +} dominance index for the direct quantification of catchment susceptibility to acidification at fine spatial resolution, using a few simple and inexpensive measurements. Stronger correlations were observed between the % Na{sup +} dominance and net annual flux of alkalinity than between % Na{sup +} dominance and weathering rate derived from summation of base cation fluxes. This demonstrates the importance of mechanisms controlling the transport of base cations out of catchments, namely in association with organic matter and with anthropogenically derived SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. These processes are shown to reduce the residual alkalinity derived through weathering. The partial neutralization of organic acidity by internally generated alkalinity has implications in the context of using the mass balance approach for setting critical loads for catchments. (Author)

  11. Equilibrium and Disequilibrium of River Basins: Effects on Stream Captures in Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    DA Silva, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    Landscapes are mainly driven by river processes that control the dynamic reorganization of networks. Discovering and identifying whether river basins are in geometric equilibrium or disequilibrium requires an analysis of water divides, channels that shift laterally or expand upstream and river captures. Issues specifically discussed include the variation of drainage area change and erosion rates of the basins. In southeastern Brazil there are two main escarpments with extensive geomorphic surfaces: Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira Mountains. These landscapes are constituted of Neoproterozoic and early Paleozoic rocks, presenting steep escarpments with low-elevation coastal plains and higher elevation interior plateaus. To identify whether river basins and river profiles are in equilibrium or disequilibrium in Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira Mountains, we used the proxy (χ), evaluating the effect of drainage area change and erosion rates. We selected basins that drain both sides of these two main escarpments (oceanic and continental sides) and have denudation rates derived from pre-existing cosmogenic isotopes data (Rio de Janeiro, Paraná and Minas Gerais). Despite being an ancient and tectonically stable landscape, part of the coastal plain of Serra do Mar Mountain in Rio de Janeiro and Paraná is in geometric disequilibrium, with water divides moving in the direction of higher χ values. To achieve equilibrium, some basins located in the continental side are retracting and disappearing, losing area to the coastal basins. On the contrary, there are some adjacent sub-basins that are close to equilibrium, without strong contrasts in χ values. The same pattern was observed in Serra da Mantiqueira (Minas Gerais state), with stream captures and river network reorganization in its main rivers. The initial results suggest a strong contrast between erosion rates in the continental and the oceanic portions of the escarpments.

  12. Application of water quality biological indices using diatoms as bioindicators in the Gravataí river, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SE. Salomoni

    Full Text Available The Gravataí river situated in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre has an area of approximately 2.020 km² and provides public water supply to about 500,000 inhabitants in 5 municipalities (latitude 29° 45'-30° 12' S; longitude 50° 27'-51° 12' W. The river basin has two regions with distinctive characteristics of occupation: the upper course shows intensive farming and the lower course presents urban and industrial uses. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the water quality in the Gravataí River (RS, Brazil by using physical, chemical and microbiological variables, and the water quality biological indices (WQBI formulated for southern Brazilian rivers based on epilithic diatom communities as indicators. For comparison purposes, a local WQBI, called the Gravataí WQBI, was also used where species were given new saprobic values (s and indicative values (vi according to their occurrence and abundance in the river, using multivariate analytical techniques. The biological samples were taken every three months at six stations along the Gravataí River between September 2000 and August 2002. The results of the physical and chemical analyses of the water indicated a pollution gradient down the river, from the headwaters to the mouth, detected mainly by considering a significant decrease in the concentration of dissolved oxygen and turbidity, as well as a significant increase in BOD5, total nitrogen, ortho-phosphate and thermotolerant coliforms. Comparing the results obtained, differences were found regarding the predominant pollution levels as higher in the Gravataí WQBI, although both corroborated a tendency for the contamination gradient to increase from the headwaters to the mouth. Given the local anthropic changes, it is of great importance to continue the study of diatom species tolerance to organic pollution and eutrophication in different lotic systems of the region.

  13. Identification of fish nursery areas in a free tributary of an impoundment region, upper Uruguay River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Alves da Silva

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the importance of different environments of the Ligeiro River (upper Uruguay River, Brazil in fish reproduction. For this purpose, three environments (sampling sites were selected: rapids, a pool, and the mouth of the Ligeiro River. Ichthyoplankton, zooplankton, and benthos were sampled six times per month from September, 2006 to March, 2007. Zooplankton and ichthyoplankton samples were collected early in the evening with plankton nets (64 µm and 500 µm, respectively. Benthos samples were also collected early in the evening with a Van Veen dredge. Local abiotic variables (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, electrical conductivity, water speed, alkalinity, water hardness, and water transparency were measured simultaneously with the biotic data sampling and were complemented by regional variables (water flow and precipitation. A total of 43,475 eggs and 2,269 larvae were captured. Of these larvae, 80.1% were in the pre-flexion and larval yolk stages. Digestive tract content showed that the greatest degree of repletion among the larvae in more advanced phases occurred in the pool environment. Water speed was the main characteristic used to differentiate the river's rapids and mouth from the pool. The abundance of zooplankton and benthos was not related to the distribution of densities among the different components of the ichthyoplankton. A greater abundance of eggs and larvae with yolk was found in the rapids and river mouth. Ordination analyses showed a connection between the advanced stage larvae and the pool environment. In conclusion, the rapids and river mouth of the Ligeiro River's are important locations for fish reproduction, particularly in regard to spawning and drifting of the ichthyoplankton's initial stages, whereas the pool represents a nursery place for larval growth.

  14. Large-scale dam removal in the northeast United States: documenting ecological responses to the Penobscot River Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, M. J.; Aponte Clarke, G.; Baeder, C.; McCaw, D.; Royte, J.; Saunders, R.; Sheehan, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Penobscot River Restoration Project aims to improve aquatic connectivity in New England's second largest watershed ( 22,000 km2) by removing the two lowermost, mainstem dams and bypassing a third dam on a principal tributary upstream. Project objectives include: restoring unobstructed access to the entire historic riverine range for five lower river diadromous species including Atlantic and shortnose sturgeon; significantly improving access to upstream habitat for six upper river diadromous species including Atlantic salmon; reconnecting trophic linkages between headwater areas and the Gulf of Maine; restoring fluvial processes to the former impoundments; improving recreational and Penobscot Nation cultural opportunities; and maintaining basin-wide hydropower output. The project is expected to have landscape-scale benefits and the need for a significant investment in long-term monitoring and evaluation to formally quantify ecosystem response has been recognized. A diverse group of federal, state, tribal, NGO, and academic partners has developed a long-term monitoring and evaluation program composed of nine studies that began in 2009. Including American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funding that leveraged partner contributions, we have invested nearly $2M to date in pre- and post-removal investigations that evaluate geomorphology/bed sediment, water quality, wetlands, and fisheries. Given the number of affected diadromous species and the diversity of their life histories, we have initiated six distinct, but related, fisheries investigations to document these expected changes: Atlantic salmon upstream and downstream passage efficiency using passive integrated transponder (PIT) and acoustic telemetry; fish community structure via an index of biotic integrity (IBI); total diadromous fish biomass through hydroacoustics; shortnose sturgeon spawning and habitat use via active and passive acoustic telemetry; and freshwater-marine food web interactions by

  15. Diet, reproduction and population structure of the introduced Amazonian fish Cichla piquiti (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in the Cachoeira Dourada reservoir (Paranaíba River, central Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraz Luiz, Tatiane; Roquetti Velludo, Marcela; Carvalho Peret, Alberto; Rodrigues Filho, Jorge Luiz; Moldenhauer Peret, André

    2011-01-01

    The Blue Peacock Bass (Cichla piquiti), native to the Tocantins-Araguaia river basin of the Amazon system, was introduced into the basin of the Paranaíba River, Paraná River system. Cachoeira Dourada reservoir is one of a series of dams on the Paranaíba River in central Brazil, where this fish has become established. A study of its feeding spectrum, combined with information about its reproductive characteristics and population structure, would enable the current state of this species in the ...

  16. Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda: Onchocercidae in the riverine population of the Tefé River, State of Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Fernandes Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study assessed the prevalence of Mansonella ozzardi in riverine communities of the Tefé River, Amazonas, Brazil. Methods: The prevalence of M. ozzardi was estimated by microscopic examination of thick blood smears. Results: The M. ozzardi prevalence rate was 6.3% (19/300. Filarial infection was found in 8 of the 11 communities surveyed, with prevalence rates varying from 2.5% to 22.2%. Conclusions: Tefé is a region of oil and natural gas exploration, in which there is a high turnover of workers. Migration patterns may facilitate the dissemination of mansonelliasis to other regions.

  17. Evaluation of the Siltation of River Taquari, Pantanal, Brazil, through 210Pb Geochronology of Floodplain Lake Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godoy José M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the 210Pb geochronology of seven bottom sediment cores, collected in three floodplain lakes located in the area of the middle Taquari River, Pantanal, Brazil. In five of them, a significant increase in the sediment mass deposition rate was observed, reflecting an increase of the sediment input to the Pantanal. Additionally, in order to validate the 210Pb results, the mercury content was determined for two sediment cores, showing that despite a constant concentration, the flux of Hg has increased due to an increase in the mass sedimentation rate. This increase can be attributed to the expansion of agricultural activity in the upper Taquari River during the last 25 years.

  18. Nuclear fuel cycle and marine environment. Behavior of the Rhone river effluents in the mediterranean sea and of wastes dumped in the northeast atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charmasson, S.

    1998-01-01

    Man-made radionuclides released into the marine environment by the installations from the nuclear fuel cycle are used as tracers of various bio-geochemical processes. Several installations belonging to the whole nuclear fuel cycle, except the uranium mining, are set up on the Rhone River Banks. The sea disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste has never been authorized in the Mediterranean sea but several sites have been used in the North-East especially in abyssal waters. Radionuclides released by the Rhone river installations are used in order to study the dynamics of the Rhone inputs into the Mediterranean Sea. In the river, freshwater samples reflect quite accurately the discharge composition with a predominance of 106 Ru, a radionuclide mostly released by the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Marcoule. Conversely, at the Rhone mouth, in the sediment compartment 106 Ru yields to caesium isotopes ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) in importance. As these two isotopes demonstrate very different half-lives (30,2 and 2,1 years respectively), the temporal evolution of their ratio acts as a chronometer enabled to date sediment accumulation near the river mouth. Mean accumulation rates greater than 35 cm y -1 have been determined in the pro-deltaic zone near the Roustan buoys over the period 1983-1991. Accumulation rates decrease rapidly with distance from the mouth and therefore most of the 137 Cs inventory in this part of the Gulf of Lions is limited to the pro-deltaic area. A first study about the part the different 137 Cs sources in the Mediterranean Sea play in this inventory has been carried out. Direct (atmospheric) and indirect (fluviatile) inputs due to fallout from both past nuclear tests and the Chernobyl accident could contribute to this inventory at the highest to 40 % while the industrial releases could contribute at the lowest to 60 %. The last site used for the dumping of low and intermediate level radioactive waste in the North-East Atlantic

  19. Anthropogenic gadolinium anomalies and rare earth elements in the water of Atibaia River and Anhumas Creek, Southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Francisco Ferreira; Enzweiler, Jacinta

    2016-05-01

    The concentrations of rare earth elements (REE), measured in water samples from Atibaia River and its tributary Anhumas Creek, Brazil, present excess of dissolved gadolinium. Such anthropogenic anomalies of Gd in water, already described in other parts of the world, result from the use of stable and soluble Gd chelates as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging. Atibaia River constitutes the main water supply of Campinas Metropolitan area, and its basin receives wastewater effluents. The REE concentrations in water samples were determined in 0.22-μm pore size filtered samples, without and after preconcentration by solid-phase extraction with bis-(2-ethyl-hexyl)-phosphate. This preconcentration method was unable to retain the anthropogenic Gd quantitatively. The probable reason is that the Gd chelates dissociate slowly in acidic media to produce the free ion that is retained by the phosphate ester. Strong correlations between Gd and constituents or parameters associated with effluents confirmed the source of most Gd in water samples as anthropogenic. The shale-normalized REE patterns of Atibaia River and Anhumas Creek water samples showed light and heavy REE enrichment trends, respectively. Also, positive Ce anomalies in many Atibaia River samples, as well as the strong correlations of the REE (except Gd) with terrigenous elements, imply that inorganic colloidal particles contributed to the REE measured values.

  20. Sedimentary characteristics and controlling factors of shelf sand ridges in the Pearl River Mouth Basin, northeast of South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangtao Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Shelf sand ridge is a significant type of reservoir in the continental marginal basin, and it has drawn so much attention from sedimentologists and petroleum geologists. We were able to investigate the morphology, distribution, and sedimentary structures of shelf sand ridges systematically in this study based on the integration of high-resolution 3D seismic data, well logging, and cores. These shelf sand ridges are an asymmetrical mound-like structure in profiles, and they developed on an ancient uplift in the forced regression system tract and are onlapped by the overlying strata. In the plane, shelf sand ridges present as linear-shaped, which is different from the classical radial pattern; not to mention, they are separated into two parts by low amplitude tidal muddy channels. Corrugated bedding, tidal bedding, and scouring features are distinguished in cores of shelf sand ridges together with the coarsening up in lithology. All of these sedimentary characteristics indicate that shelf sand ridges deposited in the Pearl River Mouth Basin are reconstructed by the tidal and coastal current.

  1. Estudo da qualidade da carne ovina do nordeste brasileiro: propriedades físicas e sensoriais Study on lamb quality from Northeast Brazil: physical and sensory properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F.F. ZAPATA

    2000-08-01

    37.70 for L*, from 14.85 to 15.54 for a* and from 0.83 to 1.37 for b*. Sensory analysis of lamb showed a good acceptability with no differences between treatments. Regardless of crossbreed or feeding regime used in this study lamb from Northeast Brazil is acceptable as measured by subjective or objective means.

  2. Teoria para o trabalho de expansão aplicada às brisas do nordeste Brasileiro Theory for expansion work applied to breezes of Northeast of Brazil

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    Clênia R. Alcântara

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo investiga-se numericamente a interação entre brisas marítima-terrestre e de vale-montanha, que ocorrem no nordeste brasileiro devido à presença do Planalto da Borborema, aplicando o trabalho de expansão associado ao ramo inferior das circulações. Resultados da teoria da máquina térmica são comparados aos resultados 3D, obtidos com a versão brasileira do modelo RAMS. Os resultados indicaram que o efeito do contraste de temperatura no trabalho ligado às circulações (Wa, isoladamente, contribui para a formação de brisas marítimas mais intensas e de brisas terrestres menos intensas. Na realidade, o que se observa são brisas terrestres com intensidades iguais ou até maiores que das brisas marítimas. Assim, a contribuição da montanha para a intensidade das circulações de brisa no período noturno mostra-se extremamente não-linear. O trabalho de expansão que realmente está ligado às circulações, contribui em apenas 7% para o trabalho total. Dessa forma, a maior parte do trabalho total está associada ao trabalho de compressão que a atmosfera realiza para compensar a perda por resfriamento radiativo, e muito da energia disponibilizada para as circulações é gasta para vencer os processos dissipativos.The purpose of this work is to further understand the interactions between sea-land breeze and valley-mountain breeze that occur at the coast of Northeast Brazil due to the presence of the Borborema plateau, using the associated expansion work at the lower branch of these circulations. Results of the thermal machine theory are compared to the 3D results obtained from the Brazilian RAMS model version. The results indicate that the sole effect of temperature contrast on the work associated with circulations (Wa is more intense sea breezes and weaker land breezes. Actually, one can observe land breezes whose intensities are equal or even larger than sea breezes. Thus, the mountain contribution for the intensity of

  3. Analysis of ancient-river systems by 3D seismic time-slice technique: A case study in northeast Malay Basin, offshore Terengganu, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulaiman, Noorzamzarina; Hamzah, Umar; Samsudin, Abdul Rahim [Geology Programme, School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Fluvial sandstones constitute one of the major clastic petroleum reservoir types in many sedimentary basins around the world. This study is based on the analysis of high-resolution, shallow (seabed to 500 m depth) 3D seismic data which generated three-dimensional (3D) time slices that provide exceptional imaging of the geometry, dimension and temporal and spatial distribution of fluvial channels. The study area is in the northeast of Malay Basin about 280 km to the east of Terengganu offshore. The Malay Basin comprises a thick (> 8 km), rift to post-rift Oligo-Miocene to Pliocene basin-fill. The youngest (Miocene to Pliocene), post-rift succession is dominated by a thick (1–5 km), cyclic succession of coastal plain and coastal deposits, which accumulated in a humid-tropical climatic setting. This study focuses on the Pleistocene to Recent (500 m thick) succession, which comprises a range of seismic facies analysis of the two-dimensional (2D) seismic sections, mainly reflecting changes in fluvial channel style and river architecture. The succession has been divided into four seismic units (Unit S1-S4), bounded by basin-wide strata surfaces. Two types of boundaries have been identified: 1) a boundary that is defined by a regionally-extensive erosion surface at the base of a prominent incised valley (S3 and S4); 2) a sequence boundary that is defined by more weakly-incised, straight and low-sinuosity channels which is interpreted as low-stand alluvial bypass channel systems (S1 and S2). Each unit displays a predictable vertical change of the channel pattern and scale, with wide low-sinuosity channels at the base passing gradationally upwards into narrow high-sinuosity channels at the top. The wide variation in channel style and size is interpreted to be controlled mainly by the sea-level fluctuations on the widely flat Sunda land Platform.

  4. Analysis of ancient-river systems by 3D seismic time-slice technique: A case study in northeast Malay Basin, offshore Terengganu, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Noorzamzarina; Hamzah, Umar; Samsudin, Abdul Rahim

    2014-09-01

    Fluvial sandstones constitute one of the major clastic petroleum reservoir types in many sedimentary basins around the world. This study is based on the analysis of high-resolution, shallow (seabed to 500 m depth) 3D seismic data which generated three-dimensional (3D) time slices that provide exceptional imaging of the geometry, dimension and temporal and spatial distribution of fluvial channels. The study area is in the northeast of Malay Basin about 280 km to the east of Terengganu offshore. The Malay Basin comprises a thick (> 8 km), rift to post-rift Oligo-Miocene to Pliocene basin-fill. The youngest (Miocene to Pliocene), post-rift succession is dominated by a thick (1-5 km), cyclic succession of coastal plain and coastal deposits, which accumulated in a humid-tropical climatic setting. This study focuses on the Pleistocene to Recent (500 m thick) succession, which comprises a range of seismic facies analysis of the two-dimensional (2D) seismic sections, mainly reflecting changes in fluvial channel style and river architecture. The succession has been divided into four seismic units (Unit S1-S4), bounded by basin-wide strata surfaces. Two types of boundaries have been identified: 1) a boundary that is defined by a regionally-extensive erosion surface at the base of a prominent incised valley (S3 and S4); 2) a sequence boundary that is defined by more weakly-incised, straight and low-sinuosity channels which is interpreted as low-stand alluvial bypass channel systems (S1 and S2). Each unit displays a predictable vertical change of the channel pattern and scale, with wide low-sinuosity channels at the base passing gradationally upwards into narrow high-sinuosity channels at the top. The wide variation in channel style and size is interpreted to be controlled mainly by the sea-level fluctuations on the widely flat Sunda land Platform.

  5. Analysis of ancient-river systems by 3D seismic time-slice technique: A case study in northeast Malay Basin, offshore Terengganu, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulaiman, Noorzamzarina; Hamzah, Umar; Samsudin, Abdul Rahim

    2014-01-01

    Fluvial sandstones constitute one of the major clastic petroleum reservoir types in many sedimentary basins around the world. This study is based on the analysis of high-resolution, shallow (seabed to 500 m depth) 3D seismic data which generated three-dimensional (3D) time slices that provide exceptional imaging of the geometry, dimension and temporal and spatial distribution of fluvial channels. The study area is in the northeast of Malay Basin about 280 km to the east of Terengganu offshore. The Malay Basin comprises a thick (> 8 km), rift to post-rift Oligo-Miocene to Pliocene basin-fill. The youngest (Miocene to Pliocene), post-rift succession is dominated by a thick (1–5 km), cyclic succession of coastal plain and coastal deposits, which accumulated in a humid-tropical climatic setting. This study focuses on the Pleistocene to Recent (500 m thick) succession, which comprises a range of seismic facies analysis of the two-dimensional (2D) seismic sections, mainly reflecting changes in fluvial channel style and river architecture. The succession has been divided into four seismic units (Unit S1-S4), bounded by basin-wide strata surfaces. Two types of boundaries have been identified: 1) a boundary that is defined by a regionally-extensive erosion surface at the base of a prominent incised valley (S3 and S4); 2) a sequence boundary that is defined by more weakly-incised, straight and low-sinuosity channels which is interpreted as low-stand alluvial bypass channel systems (S1 and S2). Each unit displays a predictable vertical change of the channel pattern and scale, with wide low-sinuosity channels at the base passing gradationally upwards into narrow high-sinuosity channels at the top. The wide variation in channel style and size is interpreted to be controlled mainly by the sea-level fluctuations on the widely flat Sunda land Platform

  6. Gully Erosion Mapping and Monitoring at Multiple Scales Based on Multi-Source Remote Sensing Data of the Sancha River Catchment, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranghu Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This research is focused on gully erosion mapping and monitoring at multiple spatial scales using multi-source remote sensing data of the Sancha River catchment in Northeast China, where gullies extend over a vast area. A high resolution satellite image (Pleiades 1A, 0.7 m was used to obtain the spatial distribution of the gullies of the overall basin. Image visual interpretation with field verification was employed to map the geometric gully features and evaluate gully erosion as well as the topographic differentiation characteristics. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV remote sensing data and the 3D photo-reconstruction method were employed for detailed gully mapping at a site scale. The results showed that: (1 the sub-meter image showed a strong ability in the recognition of various gully types and obtained satisfactory results, and the topographic factors of elevation, slope and slope aspects exerted significant influence on the gully spatial distribution at the catchment scale; and (2 at a more detailed site scale, UAV imagery combined with 3D photo-reconstruction provided a Digital Surface Model (DSM and ortho-image at the centimeter level as well as a detailed 3D model. The resulting products revealed the area of agricultural utilization and its shaping by human agricultural activities and water erosion in detail, and also provided the gully volume. The present study indicates that using multi-source remote sensing data, including satellite and UAV imagery simultaneously, results in an effective assessment of gully erosion over multiple spatial scales. The combined approach should be continued to regularly monitor gully erosion to understand the erosion process and its relationship with the environment from a comprehensive perspective.

  7. Structural and hydrological controls on the development of a river cave in marble (Tapagem Cave - SE Brazil

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    William Sallun Filho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tapagem Cave (or Devil’s Cave is a river cave developed in the dolomite marble karst of the Serra do André Lopes (State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. Although this region is a plateau with significant variation in elevation and a humid subtropical climate, the cave is an anomalous feature in the André Lopes karst because there are few other caves. The marble, which is in a synclinal structure with subjacent phyllites, is a karst aquifer perched above the regional base level (Ribeira River and has little allogenic recharge. The cave developed on a secondary anticline on the northwest flank of the marble synform forming a blind valley, the Tapagem River sink, that is an underground tributary of Ostras River. Development of the cave is due to the entrenchment of the Ostras through-valley and the large allogenic catchment area of the sink. In plan view, the morphology of the cave can be divided into three different sectors. The first sector, known as the Tourist Sector, has extensive collapse rooms, fossil passages and a variety of speleothems of notable dimensions. The second and most extensive sector is the river passage, which is a sinuous gallery controlled by marble banding with NE-SW cleavage and NW-SE fractures. In cross-section, the passages are vadose canyons up to 70 m in height, controlled by the marble banding. Four NW-SE diabase dykes in this passage do not affect its direction in plan view. The third sector is an extensive network of passages and collapse rooms, which are interlaced in plan view and on different levels, forming a maze pattern. Initially, the Tapagem and Ostras Rivers developed on a gentle surface and flowed into the Ribeira River. With the entrenchment of the Ostras through-valley, the Tapagem River partially infiltrated via a paleosink into the upper passage of the “Erectus Room," remaining a half-blind valley. Following a series of collapses and obstructions, the River next infiltrated via the current

  8. Species richness and abundance of bats in fragments of the stational semidecidual forest, Upper Paraná River, southern Brazil

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    H. Ortêncio-Filho

    Full Text Available The Upper Paraná River floodplain is inserted in a region of the Mata Atlântica biome, which is a critical area to preserve. Due to the scarcity of researches about the chiropterofauna in this region, the present study investigated species richness and abundance of bats in remnants from the stational semidecidual forest of the Upper Paraná River, southern Brazil. Samplings were taken every month, from January to December 2006, using 32 mist nets with 8.0 x 2.5 m, resulting in 640 m²/h and totaling a capture effort of 87,040 m²/h. In order to estimate the species richness, the following estimators were employed Chao1 and Jack2. During the study, a total of 563 individuals belonging to 17 species (Artibeus planirostris, Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Sturnira lilium, Artibeus fimbriatus, Myotis nigricans, Desmodus rotundus, Artibeus obscurus, Noctilio albiventris, Phylostomus discolor, Phylostomus hastatus, Chrotopterus auritus, Lasiurus ega, Chiroderma villosum, Pygoderma bilabiatum and Lasiurus blossevillii were captured. The estimated richness curves tended to stabilize, indicating that most of the species were sampled. Captured species represented 10% of the taxa recorded in Brazil and 28% in Paraná State, revealing the importance of this area for the diversity of bats. These findings indicate the need to determine actions aiming to restrict human activities in these forest fragments, in order to minimize anthropogenic impacts on the chiropterofauna.

  9. Temporal and spatial distribution of young Brachyplatystoma spp. (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) along the rapids stretch of the Madeira River (Brazil) before the construction of two hydroelectric dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cella-Ribeiro, A; Assakawa, L F; Torrente-Vilara, G; Zuanon, J; Leite, R G; Doria, C; Duponchelle, F

    2015-04-01

    Monthly (April 2009 to May 2010) bottom-trawl sampling for Brachyplatystoma species along the rapids stretch of the Madeira River in Brazil revealed that Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii larvae and juveniles were present in low abundances in all areas and during all hydrological periods. The presence of larvae and juveniles throughout the hydrological cycle suggests asynchronous spawning in the headwaters of the Madeira River. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  10. Decision support for the management of water resources at Sub-middle of the São Francisco river basin in Brazil using integrated hydro-economic modeling and scenarios for land use changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, M. G. A.; Souza da Silva, G.

    2016-12-01

    Hydro-economic models can measure the economic effects of different operating rules, environmental restrictions, ecosystems services, technical constraints and institutional constraints. Furthermore, water allocation can be improved by considering economical criteria's. Likewise, climate and land use change can be analyzed to provide resilience. We developed and applied a hydro-economic optimization model to determine the optimal water allocation of main users in the Lower-middle São Francisco River Basin in Northeast (NE) Brazil. The model uses demand curves for the irrigation projects, small farmers and human supply, rather than fixed requirements for water resources. This study analyzed various constraints and operating alternatives for the installed hydropower dams in economic terms. A seven-year period (2000-2006) with water scarcity in the past has been selected to analyze the water availability and the associated optimal economic water allocation. The used constraints are technical, socioeconomic and environmental. The economically impacts of scenarios like prioritizing human consumption, impacts of the implementation of the São Francisco river transposition, human supply without high distribution losses, environmental hydrographs, forced reservoir level control, forced reduced reservoir capacity, alteration of lower flow restriction were analyzed. The results in this period show that scarcity costs related ecosystem service and environmental constraints are significant, and have major impacts (increase of scarcity cost) for consumptive users like irrigation projects. In addition, institutional constraints such as prioritizing human supply, minimum release limits downstream of the reservoirs and the implementation of the transposition project impact the costs and benefits of the two main economic sectors (irrigation and power generation) in the region of the Lower-middle of the São Francisco river basin. Scarcity costs for irrigation users generally

  11. REMOTE SENSORING AND GEOPROCESSMENT APPLIED TO THE GEOLOGICALGEOMORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE JAPARATUBA RIVER BASIN, SERGIPE – BRAZIL

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    Sanmy Silveira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to apply remote sensing and geoprocessing techniques to characterize the geologicalgeomorphological interrelationships of the Japaratuba River Basin (BHRJ, located in the northeast of the state of Sergipe. The methodology employed is the acquisition of SRTM data (Shuttle Radar Topographyc Mission to extract the drainage automatically, as well as the shaded relief that supported the automatic methods of extraction of geological lines and representation of linear tops. The methods enabled semi-quantitative analyzes in the mapping of the geological-geomorphological structures, where the rosette diagrams show that the three variables used in the drainage survey, the linear structures and the linear representation of tops are grouped preferably in the NW-SE direction And a subordinate trend in the NE-SW direction, due to the structural control exerted by the basement rocks. The study serves as a source of information on the relief forms present in the region, as well as presents the risks of erosion, and restrictions for the urban use and occupation of the Japaratuba River Basin.

  12. Social environment, behavior, and schistosomiasis in an urban population in the Northeast of Brazil Medio social, conducta y esquistosomiasis en una población urbana del Nordeste de Brasil

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    Ricardo Arraes de Alencar Ximenes

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to gain greater insight into the pattern of water contact in relation to schistosomiasis among residents of São Lourenço da Mata, a town in Pernambuco, a state in the Northeast of Brazil. We had two primary objectives: 1 to identify water contact activities that were more likely to produce infection and 2 to examine the socioeconomic factors behind water contact activities. Using a sample of persons 10-25 years old, we carried out a population-based case-control study to investigate the first objective, and a cross-sectional study for the second objective. We found that leisure water contact with flowing water (stream or river was significantly associated with schistosomiasis.Variables showing a statistically significant association with leisure water contact were economic sector, income, and level of education of the head of the household; type of housing; possessions inside the house; type of domestic water supply; and method of excreta collection. We introduced these variables into a multivariate model to select the ones that were most closely associated with leisure water contact. We used a stepdown procedure, and two variables were retained in the final model: type of domestic water supply and type of housing. We concluded that a decrease in leisure water contact was associated with better socioeconomic conditions. Our results suggest that with the subjects we studied in São Lourenço da Mata there was a socioeconomic determination for leisure water contact. Our data highlight the importance of a broad and integrated approach in studying water contact activities and in implementing behavioral interventions for schistosomiasis prevention and control.El objetivo de este estudio consistió en contribuir a una mejor comprensión de la relación entre el tipo de contacto con el agua y la esquistosomiasis en los residentes de São Lourenço da Mata, una ciudad del estado de Pernambuco, en el Nordeste de Brasil

  13. A química na região nordeste: o papel da SBQ Chemistry in northeast Brazil: the role of the Brazilian Chemical Society

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    Mozart Neves Ramos

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available In the opportunity of the 20th year of foundation of the Brazilian Chemical Society, the role of this organization in behalf of the development of Science, in particular of Chemistry, is analysed by the way it is observed by someone that has been working in the Northeast of this Country.

  14. Occurrence of Organic Wastewater Compounds in the Tinkers Creek Watershed and Two Other Tributaries to the Cuyahoga River, Northeast Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tertuliani, J.S.; Alvarez, D.A.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.T.; Zaugg, S.D.; Koltun, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey - in cooperation with the Ohio Water Development Authority; National Park Service; Cities of Aurora, Bedford, Bedford Heights, Solon, and Twinsburg; and Portage and Summit Counties - and in collaboration with the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency, did a study to determine the occurrence and distribution of organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) in the Tinkers Creek watershed in northeastern Ohio. In the context of this report, OWCs refer to a wide range of compounds such as antibiotics, prescription and nonprescription pharmaceuticals, personal-care products, household and industrial compounds (for example, antimicrobials, fragrances, surfactants, fire retardants, and so forth) and a variety of other chemicals. Canisters containing polar organic integrative sampler (POCIS) and semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) media were deployed instream for a 28-day period in Mayand June 2006 at locations upstream and downstream from seven wastewater-treatment-plant (WWTP) outfalls in the Tinkers Creek watershed, at a site on Tinkers Creek downstream from all WWTP discharges, and at one reference site each in two nearby watersheds (Yellow Creek and Furnace Run) that drain to the Cuyahoga River. Streambed-sediment samples also were collected at each site when the canisters were retrieved. POCIS and SPMDs are referred to as 'passive samplers' because they sample compounds that they are exposed to without use of mechanical or moving parts. OWCs detected in POCIS and SPMD extracts are referred to in this report as 'detections in water' because both POCIS and SPMDs provided time-weighted measures of concentration in the stream over the exposure period. Streambed sediments also reflect exposure to OWCs in the stream over a long period of time and provide another OWC exposure pathway for aquatic organisms. Four separate laboratory methods were used to analyze for 32 antibiotic, 20 pharmaceutical, 57 to 66 wastewater, and 33 hydrophobic compounds. POCIS and

  15. Diel and seasonal movements of grumatã Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes 1836 (Characiformes: Prochilodontidae in the Sinos River, Southern Brazil

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    NA. Pesoa

    Full Text Available Prochilodus lineatus is a reophilic migratory species of economical importance for local fisheries which is widely distributed in Brazil. The present study investigated diel and seasonal movement patterns, spawning migration and habitat use of P. lineatus in the Sinos River, Southern Brazil. Between August 2002 and March 2004, 19 grumatãs were tagged internally with digitally coded radio transmitters. Tracking was conducted weekly by boat or aircraft, and six fixed data loggers recorded movements of tagged fish. Results showed that the mean distance covered per fish and day was positively related with fish weight (p = 0.03; n = 19. Grumatã showed preference for river streches surrounded by wetlands (p < 0.001; n = 286. Their diel activity pattern displayed one peak at 7 hours, and a second at 15 hours. During the night, activity was significantly reduced (p = 0.01. The seasonal movements pattern showed increased activity in October 2002 - March 2003 and from October 2003 to January 2004. Multiple regression analysis did not show a significant relationship between distance covered and temperature or water level (p = 0.116; n = 19. No synchronized long distance spawning migrations were observed. The mean distance covered by the individuals/day showed a negative significant relationship with number of tracking days (p = 0.022; n = 19, indicating a higher probability of being captured for more mobile individuals. The preservation of the still existing wetlands and reduction of the fishing pressure are essential for the future conservation of the grumatã population of the Sinos River.

  16. Metal and metalloid distribution in different environmental compartments of the middle Xingu River in the Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Danielle Regina Gomes; Faccin, Henrique; Molin, Thaís Ramos Dal; de Carvalho, Leandro Machado; Amado, Lílian Lund

    2017-12-15

    Concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Hg, and Ni were analyzed during rainy and dry seasons in water, sediment, soil, and two fish species. The analysis took place at four points in the Xingu River, one point in the Fresco River, and two mining pits in the southeastern area of the Eastern Amazon, Brazil. In the water, the total concentration of As (>0.14μg/L) was higher than the local reference values at all sampling points and in both seasons. Ordination analysis (PCA) highlighted As and Cu elements in the water. PERMANOVA showed that the metals behaved differently in the water throughout the monitored season and between sampling points. The sites with mining activity were the regions that were the most contaminated by metals. Samples of sediment (Ni>18mg/kg and Cr>37.30mg/kg) and soil (Pb>72mg/kg, Cr>75mg/kg and Ni>30mg/Kg) showed concentrations above the recommended by local legislation. Metal values in the muscle of both fish species were relatively low at all sampling points and in both monitored seasons. Concentrations in water, sediment, and soil showed that some points of the Xingu River, Fresco River and mining pits are contaminated by trace elements, mainly As, Hg, Cr, Pb, and Ni. This was the first study about trace elements in the Middle Xingu River, which leads us to conclude that rainfall and cassiterite mining activities strongly influence the mobilization of metals, especially in abiotic compartments. However, the fish analyzed did not exhibit relevant levels of contamination. This indicates low risk for human consumption. Additionally, results highlight the need to establish local criteria to define contamination limits for different metals while taking into account local geochemistry particularities and biome diversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of the index WQI-CCME with data aggregation per monitoring campaign and per section of the river: case study-Joanes River, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Geane Silva; de Oliveira, Iara Brandão

    2018-03-07

    This work applied the Water Quality Index developed by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (WQI-CCME), to communicate the water quality per section of the Joanes River basin, State of Bahia, Brazil. WQI-CCME is a statistical procedure that originally requires the execution of at least four monitoring campaigns per monitoring location and the measurement of at least four parameters. This paper presents a new aggregation method to calculate the WQI-CCME because, to apply the original method in Joanes River, a huge loss of information would occur, by the fact that, the number of analyzed parameters varied between the monitoring campaigns developed by the Government Monitoring Program. This work modified the original aggregation method replacing it by a data aggregation for a single monitoring campaign, in a minimum of four monitoring locations per section of the river and a minimum of four parameters per monitoring location. Comparison between the calculation of WQI-CCME for river sections, with the index, WQI-CETESB, developed by the Brazilian Environmental Sanitation and Technology Company-CETESB, proved the applicability of the new aggregation method. The WQI-CETESB has it bases on the WQI from the National Sanitation Foundation and uses nine fixed parameters. As WQI-CCME uses the totality of the analyzed parameters without restrictions, it is more flexible, and the results seem more adequate to indicate the real river water quality. However, the WQI-CCME has a more stringent water quality scale in comparison with the WQI-CETESB, resulting in inferior water quality information. In conclusion, the WQI-CCME with a new aggregation method is adequate for communicating the water quality at a given time, per section of a river, respecting the minimum number of four analyses and four monitoring points. As a result, without a need to wait for other campaigns, it reduces the cost of a monitoring program and the period to communicate the water quality. The

  18. Crop water parameters of irrigated wine and table grapes to support water productivity analysis in the Sao Francisco river basin, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro Teixeira, de A.H.; Bastiaanssen, W.G.M.; Bassoi, L.H.

    2007-01-01

    Energy and water balance parameters were measured in two commercial vineyards in the semiarid region of the São Francisco river basin, Brazil. Actual evapotranspiration (ET) was acquired with the Bowen ratio surface energy balance method. The ratio of the latent heat flux to the available energy, or

  19. Induced cytochrome P450 1A activity in cichlid fishes from Guandu River and Jacarepagua Lake, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parente, Thiago E.M.; Oliveira, Ana C.A.X. de; Paumgartten, Francisco J.R.

    2008-01-01

    The induction of cytochrome P4501A-mediated activity (e.g. ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation, EROD) has been used as a biomarker for monitoring fish exposure to AhR-receptor ligands such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs). In this study we found that hepatic EROD is induced in fish ('Nile tilapia', Oreochromis niloticus and 'acara', Geophagus brasiliensis) from the Guandu River (7-17-fold) and Jacarepagua Lake (7-fold), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Since both cichlid fish are consumed by the local population and the Guandu River is the main source of the drinking water supply for the greater Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area, pollution by cytochrome P4501A-inducing chemicals is a cause for concern and should be further investigated in sediments, water and biota. We additionally showed that EROD activity in the fish liver post-mitochondrial supernatant-simpler, cheaper and less time consuming to prepare than the microsomal fraction-is sufficiently sensitive for monitoring purposes. - Increased EROD activity in the liver of cichlid fishes indicated that Guandu River, the source of drinking water supply for Rio de Janeiro is polluted by CYP1A-inducing chemicals

  20. Application of the hydrologic model AÇUMOD based on GIS for water resources management of Pirapama River, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richarde Marques da Silva

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the application of the distributed hydrological model based on GIS – AÇUMOD to estimate the water discharges and potentialities of Pirapama river sub-basins, to be used by the Pirapama River Basin Committee (COBH-Pirapama. The model application included several steps, such as: precipitation data selection, basin discretization into cells, and model parameter calibration using try-and-error technique. The model was calibrated and validated with monthly precipitation data for the period 1987–2001. It was noted that the following parameters were the most important ones during the calibration process: infiltration function, soil minimum water capacity to generate runoff, and soil mean water storage capacity, which directly affect the computed runoff volume. The difference between observed and computed runoff during the calibration and validation processes were respectively -12.65% and 18.87%. The results of the simulated discharges by AÇUMOD, compared to observed ones, showed that the model satisfactorily represents the water basin behavior and, therefore, it can be considered a promising tool for rain-runoff simulation, permanence curve estimation, and discharge regionalization or prediction for Pirapama river basin as well as to other basins in the northeastern Brazil costal area.

  1. Induced cytochrome P450 1A activity in cichlid fishes from Guandu River and Jacarepagua Lake, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parente, Thiago E.M.; Oliveira, Ana C.A.X. de [Laboratorio de Toxicologia Ambiental, Escola Nacional de Saude Publica - FIOCRUZ, Av Brasil 4036, Predio de Expansao do Campus, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21041-361 (Brazil); Paumgartten, Francisco J.R. [Laboratorio de Toxicologia Ambiental, Escola Nacional de Saude Publica - FIOCRUZ, Av Brasil 4036, Predio de Expansao do Campus, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21041-361 (Brazil)], E-mail: paum@ensp.fiocruz.br

    2008-03-15

    The induction of cytochrome P4501A-mediated activity (e.g. ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation, EROD) has been used as a biomarker for monitoring fish exposure to AhR-receptor ligands such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs). In this study we found that hepatic EROD is induced in fish ('Nile tilapia', Oreochromis niloticus and 'acara', Geophagus brasiliensis) from the Guandu River (7-17-fold) and Jacarepagua Lake (7-fold), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Since both cichlid fish are consumed by the local population and the Guandu River is the main source of the drinking water supply for the greater Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area, pollution by cytochrome P4501A-inducing chemicals is a cause for concern and should be further investigated in sediments, water and biota. We additionally showed that EROD activity in the fish liver post-mitochondrial supernatant-simpler, cheaper and less time consuming to prepare than the microsomal fraction-is sufficiently sensitive for monitoring purposes. - Increased EROD activity in the liver of cichlid fishes indicated that Guandu River, the source of drinking water supply for Rio de Janeiro is polluted by CYP1A-inducing chemicals.

  2. Pesticides residues in the Prochilodus costatus (Valenciennes, 1850) fish caught in the São Francisco River, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Fabiano A; Reis, Lilian P G; Soto-Blanco, Benito; Melo, Marília M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of pesticides in the fish Prochilodus costatus caught in São Francisco River, one of most important rivers in Brazil. Thirty-six fish were captured in three different areas, and samples of the dorsal muscle and pooled viscera were collected for toxicological analysis. We evaluated the presence of 150 different classes of insecticides, fungicides, herbicides and acaricides by multiresidue analysis technique using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), with the limit of detection of 5 ppb. In this study, organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides were detected at the highest levels in the caught fish. Among the 41 organophosphorus pesticides surveyed, nine types were detected (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dichlorvos, disulfoton, ethion, etrimfos, phosalone, phosmet and pyrazophos) in the muscle, viscera pool, or both in 22 (61.1%) fish. Sampled tissues of 20 (55.6%) fish exhibited at least one of the eight evaluated carbamate pesticides and their metabolites: aldicarb, aldicarb sulfoxide, carbaryl, carbofuran, carbosulfan, furathiocarb, methomyl and propoxur. Fungicides (carbendazim, benalaxyl, kresoxim-methyl, trifloxystrobin, pyraclostrobin and its metabolite BF 500 pyraclostrobin), herbicides (pyridate and fluasifop p-butyl), acaricide (propargite) and pyrethroid (flumethrin) were also detected. In conclusion, P. costatus fish caught in the São Francisco River contained residues of 17 different pesticides, in both muscles and the viscera pool, indicating heavy environmental contamination by pesticides in the study area.

  3. Abiotic features of a river from the Upper Tietê River Basin (SP, Brazil along an environmental gradient

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    Katharina Eichbaum Esteves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to assess the spatial and seasonal variation of the water quality and physical habitat characteristics along the upper-middle stretch of the Paraitinga River, a tributary of Tietê River, considering the potential influence of different riparian conditions along the stretch studied.MethodsSixteen sites with different riparian vegetation, including native forest, secondary forest, pasture, and eucalyptus were sampled during the dry and rainy seasons of 2004/2005, before the damming of the Paraitinga Reservoir. Several physicochemical and habitat parameters were determined and data analyzed in relation to spatial distribution and potential influence of riparian conditions.ResultsWater quality parameters were in general within the limits established by CONAMA for Class 2 waters, except for turbidity and total phosphorus. There were seasonal and spatial differences in the limnological parameters along the stretch studied and apparently they were related to point specific influences associated with land use and canopy cover. Habitat characteristics were markedly different between the upper and middle river stretches, especially in relation to depth, width, substrate and canopy cover.ConclusionsAlthough a direct influence on the observed variables could not be attributed solely to the riparian vegetation, vegetation cover seemed to affect particular stream characteristics. Open pasture and eucalyptus sites were subject to point specific effects that caused phosphorus inputs and higher turbidity and temperature, and showed different morphological features, suggesting that land use at the sub-watershed scale was an important factor affecting stream conditions.

  4. Storage and remobilization of suspended sediment in the lower amazon river of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, R.H.; Dunne, T.; Richey, J.E.; Santos, U.De. M.; Salati, E.

    1985-01-01

    In the lower Amazon River, suspended sediment is stored during rising stages of the river and resuspended during falling river stages. The storage and resuspension in the reach are related to the mean slope of the flood wave on the river surface; this slope is smaller during rising river stages than during falling stages. The pattern of storage and resuspension damps out the extreme values of high and low sediment discharge and tends to keep them near the mean value between 3.0 ?? 106 and 3.5 ?? 106 metric tons per day. Mean annual discharge of suspended sediment in the lower Amazon is between 1.1 ?? 109 and 1.3 ?? 109 metric tons per year.

  5. Impacts of the Urbanization Process on Water Quality of Brazilian Savanna Rivers: The Case of Preto River in Formosa, Goiás State, Brazil

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    Nayara Luiz Pires

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The release of domestic sewage in water resources is a practical feature of the urbanization process, and this action causes changes that may impair the environmental balance and the water quality for several uses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of urbanization on the surface water quality of the Preto River throughout the town of Formosa, Goiás, Brazil. Samples were collected at five points along the river, spatially distributed from one side to the other of the town of Formosa, from May to October of 2012. Data were subjected to descriptive statistics, as well as variance and cluster analysis. Point P2, the first point after the city, showed the worst water quality indicators, mainly with respect to the total and fecal coliform parameters, as well as nitrate concentrations. These results may be related to the fact that this point is located on the outskirts of the town, an area under urbanization and with problems of sanitation, including absence of sewage collection and treatment. The data observed in this monitoring present a public health concern because the water body is used for bathing, mainly in parts of Feia Lagoon. The excess of nutrients is a strong indicator of water eutrophication and should alert decision-makers to the need for preservation policies.

  6. Bacterial Community Associated with Fish and Water from Congonhas River, Sertaneja, Paraná, Brazil

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    José Américo de Sousa

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A bacteriological study was conducted on fish and water from Congonhas River, Sertaneja (22º58’ S; 50º58’ W, Paraná State, Brazil. From 44% of the analysed fish, bacteria belonging to Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Enterobacteriaceae, Micrococcus, Bacillus and Lactobacillus were isolated. The group most frequently isolated from fish was Aeromonas. In the water, the bacterial groups detected were Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Enterobacteriaceae, Bacillus and Flavobacterium, from which Flavobacterium and Acinetobacter were the most abundant. The numbers of Colony Forming Units per millilitre of water varied from 3.1x10² to 1.0 x 10³. Although a clear pattern was not detected in the susceptibilities/resistances of the isolated strains to nine antimicrobial substances, Gram negative aerobic bacteria were more resistant than the other strains. A simultaneous resistance to furazolidone, oxolinic acid and norfloxacin, particularly in the bacteria isolated from fish, as well as in the aerobic strains isolated from water was observed. The antimicrobial substances to which less resistances were found were oxytetracycline in the strains isolated from water, and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, oxytetracycline and chloramphenicol in those isolated from fish.Foi realizado um estudo da comunidade bacteriana de peixes e da água do rio Congonhas, próximo à sua foz no rio Tibagi, município de Sertaneja, Paraná, Brasil. De 44% dos peixes analisados, foram isoladas estirpes de Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Enterobacteriaceae, Micrococcus, Bacillus e Lactobacillus. Destas, a mais abundante foi Aeromonas. Na água do rio Congonhas foram detectados os grupos Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Enterobacteriaceae, Bacillus e Flavobacterium, dos quais os predominantes foram Flavobacterium e Acinetobacter. Os números de unidades formadoras de colônias por mililitro de água variaram entre 3,1x10² e 1,0x10³. Embora não tenha

  7. Structural control over well productivity in the Jundiaí River Catchment, Southeastern Brazil

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    Mirna A. Neves

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The well productivity in crystalline terrains is extremely changeable and depends on external factors, in addition to the intrinsic properties of rocks. In the Jundiaí River Catchment, Southeastern Brazil, the main factor that influences well productivity is the existence of open discontinuities permeability in geologic environments that favor groundwater recharge. In that area, Pre-Cambrian shear and fault zones were reactivated throughout geologic time, controlling the morphostructural compartments and the Cenozoic sedimentary deposition. Superposition of productivity data and structural maps showed that more productive wells are concentrated mainly along the regional geologic structures. The structural control over well productivity is also noticeable in detailed scale. Using fine scale maps we show that the most productive wells are located in areas where brittle structures with NW-SE and E-W directions denote the action of neotectonic transtensional stress. The comprehension of evolutionary geologic history allied to fracturing analysis proved to be an efficient and a low cost technique, which is adequate for selecting areas for further developments using more expensive methods.A produtividade dos poços tubulares profundos em terrenos cristalinos é extremamente variável e depende, além das propriedades intrínsecas da rocha, de fatores externos a ela. Na bacia do rio Jundiaí, Região Sudeste do Brasil, a existência de descontinuidades abertas em situações geológicas favoráveis à recarga constitui o principal fator que influencia a produtividade dos poços. Nesta área, zonas de cisalhamento e zonas de falhas pré-cambrianas reativadas ao longo do tempo geológico controlam a compartimentação morfoestrutural e a deposição de sedimentos cenozóicos. O cruzamento do mapa estrutural com os dados dos poços que explotam o Sistema Aqüífero Cristalino mostrou que poços com produtividade elevada em relação aos demais concentram

  8. Access to and use of health services as factors associated with neonatal mortality in the North, Northeast, and Vale do Jequitinhonha regions, Brazil

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    Cristiane B. Batista

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the factors associated with neonatal mortality related to health services accessibility and use. Methods: Case–control study of live births in 2008 in small- and medium-sized municipalities in the North, Northeast, and Vale do Jequitinhonha regions, Brazil. A probabilistic sample stratified by region, population size, and information adequacy was generated for the choice of municipalities. Of these, all municipalities with 20,000 inhabitants or less were included in the study (36 municipalities, whereas the remainder were selected according to the probability method proportional to population size, totaling 20 cities with 20,001–50,000 inhabitants and 19 municipalities with 50,001–200,000 inhabitants. All deaths of live births in these cities were included. Controls were randomly sampled, considered as four times the number of cases. The sample size comprised 412 cases and 1772 controls. Hierarchical multiple logistic regression was used for data analysis. Results: The risk factors for neonatal death were socioeconomic class D and E (OR = 1.28, history of child death (OR = 1.74, high-risk pregnancy (OR = 4.03, peregrination in antepartum (OR = 1.46, lack of prenatal care (OR = 2.81, absence of professional for the monitoring of labor (OR = 3.34, excessive time waiting for delivery (OR = 1.97, borderline preterm birth (OR = 4.09 and malformation (OR = 13.66. Conclusion: These results suggest multiple causes of neonatal mortality, as well as the need to improve access to good quality maternal-child health care services in the assessed places of study. Resumo: Objetivo: Analisar fatores associados à mortalidade neonatal referentes ao acesso e à utilização dos serviços de saúde. Métodos: Estudo caso-controle de nascidos vivos em 2008 nos municípios de pequeno e médio porte nas regiões Norte, Nordeste e Vale do Jequitinhonha do Brasil. Uma amostra probabilística e estratificada por regi

  9. Conservação in vitro de mangabeira da região nordeste do Brasil In vitro conservation of mangaba tree in Northeast Brazil

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    Aline de Jesus Sá

    2011-01-01

    ção in vitro de microestacas de plântulas de mangabeira cultivadas em frascos vedados com papel alumínio. Não houve efeito significativo do tipo de explante.The mangaba tree (Hancornia speciosa Gomes is a species whose natural occurrence has suffered great human pressure, which is causing genetic erosion in many populations, especially in the Northeast Brazil. Due to the existence of few collections of mangaba tree preserved ex situ, it's important to develop a complementary and alternative method to germplasm conservation of this species. The use of techniques of plant tissue culture for conservation of plant genetic resources presents several advantages over germplasm conservation in the field, especially when focusing cost reduction for the maintenance of collections, sanitary risk and weather problems. The present research aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of regulators osmotic mannitol and the growth inhibitor abscisic acid on the in vitro conservation of mangaba microcutting under slow growth. The cultures were maintained in MS medium with 3% sucrose and 0.6% of agar. The experiments were conducted in a randomized blocks design in a growth room with temperature ranging from 26±2°C, average relative humidity around 70% and photoperiod of 12 hours of cold white light (52µmol m-2 s-1 irradiance. It was evaluated five concentrations of mannitol (0, 10, 15 and 20g L-1. Mannitol in the presence of the length of shoots showed values below the control, but after 90 days of in vitro culture was observed deleterious effect of mannitol in microcutting. It was tested five concentrations of abscisic acid (0; 0.5; 1; 2 and 4mg L-1 in interaction with two types of sealing bottles (plastic cover and threaded aluminum foil and two types of explants (apical and basal microcutting. Abscisic acid (0.5mg L-1 showed better results for in vitro conservation of seedling of mangaba microcutting grown in flasks sealed with aluminum foil. There was no significant effect of explant

  10. Population Genetic Analysis Reveals a High Genetic Diversity in the Brazilian Cryptococcus gattii VGII Population and Shifts the Global Origin from the Amazon Rainforest to the Semi-arid Desert in the Northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Ana C P; Bonfietti, Lucas X; Ferreira-Paim, Kennio; Trilles, Luciana; Martins, Marilena; Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Pham, Cau D; Martins, Liline; Dos Santos, Wallace; Chang, Marilene; Brito-Santos, Fabio; Santos, Dayane C S; Fortes, Silvana; Lockhart, Shawn R; Wanke, Bodo; Melhem, Márcia S C; Lazéra, Márcia S; Meyer, Wieland

    2016-08-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are responsible globally for almost one million cryptococcosis cases yearly, mostly in immunocompromised patients, such as those living with HIV. Infections due to C. gattii have mainly been described in tropical and subtropical regions, but its adaptation to temperate regions was crucial in the species evolution and highlighted the importance of this pathogenic yeast in the context of disease. Cryptococcus gattii molecular type VGII has come to the forefront in connection with an on-going emergence in the Pacific North West of North America. Taking into account that previous work pointed towards South America as an origin of this species, the present work aimed to assess the genetic diversity within the Brazilian C. gattii VGII population in order to gain new insights into its origin and global dispersal from the South American continent using the ISHAM consensus MLST typing scheme. Our results corroborate the finding that the Brazilian C. gattii VGII population is highly diverse. The diversity is likely due to recombination generated from sexual reproduction, as evidenced by the presence of both mating types in clinical and environmental samples. The data presented herein strongly supports the emergence of highly virulent strains from ancestors in the Northern regions of Brazil, Amazonia and the Northeast. Numerous genotypes represent a link between Brazil and other parts of the world reinforcing South America as the most likely origin of the C. gattii VGII subtypes and their subsequent global spread, including their dispersal into North America, where they caused a major emergence.

  11. Measures and modelling of PAR (photosynthetically-active radiation) for the Northeast of Brazil; Medidas e modelagem da radiacao PAR (photosynthetically-active radiation) para o nordeste do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiba, Chigueru; Leal, Sergio da S.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear], e-mail: tiba@rce.neoline.com.br

    2004-07-01

    Photosynthetically active solar radiation, known by its acronym in the English language as PAR, is the principal driving force of innumerable biological and physical processes related to biomass production, such as, the evolution of vegetal covering, agricultural productivity, and countless environment aspects, among others. Unfortunately in Brazil and particularly in the Northeast of Brazil, the PAR radiation measures are not a routine part of meteorological station measures, and therefore are still rarer than solar irradiation measures. In this context, a station was installed in Recife, Pernambuco in 2003, to carry out simultaneous measures of daily solar irradiation and PAR irradiation, which permits the modelling and valuation of the relationship between these two parameters and thus makes the estimation of PAR radiation possible, where there used to be only information on solar irradiation. Three others stations are being installed, one on Fernando de Noronha-PE, another in Pesqueira-PE, and the other in Xingo-SE, which complete a group of 4 between Latitudes 8 deg and 10 deg South and Longitudes 34 deg to 38 deg West, each having differentiated Equatorial Climates: island maritime, continental maritime, sylvan (Agreste) and semi-arid. (author)

  12. Occurrence of female sexual hormones in the Iguazu river basin, Curitiba, Paraná State, Brazil

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    Karina Scurupa Machado

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Female sexual hormones have attracted the attention of the scientific community due to the effects that they cause by interfering in the endocrine system. Many contemporary studies have sought to monitor some of the main female sexual hormones in surface waters in Brazil. Current article evaluates the presence of 17β-estradiol, 17α-ethinylestradiol, estrone and progesterone in the surface waters of Curitibaand the surrounding metropolitan area in the state of Paraná, Brazil, by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, performed at 7 different sites. The study revealed that a range of concentrations between 0.07 and 13.45 µg L-1 of female sexual hormones was extant; higher values than these were found in other regions ofBrazil and in other countries. Higher concentrations have been attributed to the region´s sanitation due to large sewage amounts. Sewage discharge has also been confirmed by results of limnological parameters.

  13. Environmental factors predicting fish community structure in two neotropical rivers in Brazil

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    Yzel Rondon Súarez

    Full Text Available In order to assess the organization patterns of the fish communities in the Jogui and Iguatemi rivers, we collected fish with gill nets tri-monthly from November 1999 to August 2000. Hypostomus ancistroides and Parauchenipterus galeatus were the most abundant species in the Jogui and Iguatemi rivers, respectively. Longitudinal variation was more important than seasonal in determining the species composition in both rivers, and the difference between seasons was not statistically significant. Altitude was the most important factor determining species distribution.

  14. Phytosociology of planted and natural mangrove forests in the estuary of the Ostras River, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

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    Elaine Bernini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The phytosociology of planted and natural mangrove forests were compared in the estuary of the Ostras River, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Vegetation sampling was performed by the plot method, and the diameter at breast height (DBH and height of individuals > 1 m tall were recorded. The results indicated that the planted forest had lower average DBH and basal area and higher density of trunks in relation to natural forest. The distribution of individuals by height class and the distribution of stems per diameter class showed that the planted forest was younger. Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle occurred in both forests, while Avicennia schaueriana was found only in the planted forest. Laguncularia racemosa showed greater dominance and relative density at all sites analyzed, probably because it is characteristic of sites with less marine influence and the fact that the estuary had been altered by human disturbance.

  15. Ectoparasites as numerical dominant species in parasite community of Trachelyopterus striatulus (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) from Guandu River, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, R L B; Azevedo, R K; Abdallah, V D; Luque, J L

    2011-08-01

    Sixty specimens of singing catfish Trachelyopterus striatulus (Steindachner, 1877) (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) collected from Guandu River (22º 48' 32" S and 43º 37' 35" W), in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil from October 2006 to March 2009, were necropsied to study their parasites. From the 60 specimens of T. striatulus examined 57 were parasitised by at least one parasite species. The majority of the parasite specimens collected were monogeneans followed by Nematoda, Digenea and Hirudinea. Cosmetocleithrum sp. was the numerically predominant species with highest prevalence and abundance. The parasites of T. striatulus showed the typical pattern of aggregated distribution. No parasite species showed significant correlation between the body total length of the host and their abundance. The mean parasite species richness was not correlated with the host's total body length and sex. Values of the Brillouin index of diversity had a mean of H = 0.083 ± 0.136.

  16. Spatial synchrony of a highly endemic fish Assemblage (Segredo Reservoir, Iguaçu River, Paraná State, Brazil

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    W. M. Domingues

    Full Text Available In this study, patterns of spatial synchrony in population fluctuations (cross-correlation of an endemic fish assemblage of a Neotropical reservoir (Segredo Reservoir, Iguaçu River, Paraná State, Brazil were reported. First, the level of population synchrony for 20 species was estimated. Second, population synchrony was correlated, using the Mantel test, with geographical distances among sites (n = 11 and also environmental synchrony (temperature. Nine species presented significant correlations between spatial synchrony and geographic distances (Astyanax sp. b, Astyanax sp. c, Pimelodus sp., Hoplias malabaricus, Crenicichla iguassuensis, Hypostomus derbyi, Hypostomus myersi, Rhamdia branneri, and R. voulezi. Considering the ecology of the species and the significant relationship between population and environmental synchronies, it seems that environmental stochasticity is the most plausible hypothesis in explaining the observed synchrony patterns.

  17. Morphological and hematological studies of Trypanosoma spp. infecting ornamental armored catfish from Guamá River-PA, Brazil

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    Rodrigo Y. Fujimoto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 281 specimens of freshwater armored ornamental fish species (Leporacanthicus galaxias, Lasiancistrus saetiger, Cochliodon sp., Hypostomus sp., Pseudacanthicus spinosus, Ancistrus sp. and Rineloricaria cf. lanceolata were captured at the hydrological basin of Guamá River, Pará, Brazil. The infection by Trypanosoma spp. was inspected. The morphological and morphometric characterization of the parasites and the hematological parameters were determined. Leporacanthicus galaxias and Pseudacanthicus spinosus presented 100% infection prevalence, and the other species showed a variable prevalence of infection. The parasites showed clearly different morphotypes and dimensions, and probably belong to different species. The hematological response to the infection varied with the host. Cochliodon sp. showed no differences between infected and not infected fish. In other species several modifications on some hematological parameters were found, but apparently without causing disease. It is emphasized the possibility of introduction of the parasites in new environments due to the artificial movements of these ornamental fish.

  18. Oligosarcus jacuiensis (Characiformes: Characidae, a new species from the Uruguay and Jacuí River basins, southern Brazil

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    Naércio Aquino Menezes

    Full Text Available The new species herein described, collected in the Jacuí and Uruguay River basins, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, can be distinguished from the already known species of the genus, but Oligosarcus jenynsii, O. perdido, O. acutirostris, O. solitarius and O. hepsetus, by the number of perforated lateral line scales. It shares with the first two species the absence of a premaxillary foramen, present in the last three species and differs from O. jenynsii by having a smaller orbital diameter and the tip of the pectoral fin failing to reach the pelvic-fin origin, and from O. perdido by the presence of more horizontal scale rows around the caudal peduncle.

  19. Dissolved Black Carbon in the Headwaters-To Continuum of PARAÍBA do Sul River, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Jomar S. J.; Dittmar, Thorsten; Niggemann, Jutta; Almeida, Marcelo G.; Gomez-Saez, Gonzalo V.; Rezende, Carlos E.

    2017-02-01

    Rivers annually carry 25-28 Tg carbon in the form of pyrogenic dissolved organic matter (dissolved black carbon, DBC) into the ocean, which is equivalent to about 10% of the entire riverine land-ocean flux of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The objective of this study was to identify the main processes behind the release and turnover of DBC on a riverine catchment scale. As a model system, we chose the headwater-to-ocean continuum of Paraíba do Sul River (Brazil), the only river system with long-term DBC flux data available. The catchment was originally covered by Atlantic rain forest (mainly C3 plants) which was almost completely destroyed over the past centuries by slash-and-burn. As a result, large amounts of wood-derived charcoal reside in the soils. Today, fire-managed pasture and sugar cane (both dominated by C4 plants) cover most of the catchment area. Water samples were collected along the river, at the main tributaries, and also along the salinity gradient in the estuary and up to 35 km offshore during three different seasons. DBC was determined on a molecular level as benzenepolycarboxylic acids (BPCAs). Stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) were determined in solid phase extractable DOC (SPE-DOC) to distinguish C4 and C3 sources. Our results clearly show a relationship between hydrology and DBC concentrations in the river, with highest DBC concentrations and fluxes in the wet season (flux of 770 moles .sec 1 in 2013 and 59 moles .sec 1 in 2014) and lowest in the dry season (flux of 27 moles .sec 1). This relationship indicates that DBC is mainly mobilized from the upper soil horizons during heavy rainfalls. The relationship between DBC concentrations and δ13C-SPE-DOC indicated that most of DBC in the river system originated from C3 plants, i.e. from the historic burning event of the Atlantic rain forest. A conservative mixing model could largely reproduce the observed DBC fluxes within the catchment and the land to ocean continuum. Comparably slight

  20. Application of INAA to provenance study of ceramics from Baixo Sao Francisco River, Sergipe, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J.O.; Munita, C.S.; Toyota, Rosimeiri G.; Vergne, C.

    2007-01-01

    The study of the physical and chemical characteristics of crafts, in association with historical and archaeological research, has allowed for the reconstruction of ancient community habits. Archaeological studies include several techniques to reconstruct ancient cultures. Since ceramics represent a sophisticated merging of previously separate domains of human knowledge and experience, these objects are studied by means of archaeometric methods. In recent years an interdisciplinary research program was started between Museu Arqueologico de Xingo (MAX) and Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) to study the ancient ceramist cultures from Xingo region, located in Sergipe, Brazilian Northeast. Recent studies conducted in the area have showed the existence of an independent ceramist group without relation to the ceramist group well established in the Brazilian Northeast, Tupiguarani and Aratu. Instrumental neutron activation analysis, INAA, is a suitable technique for provenance studies. In this work the chemical composition of 103 samples: 30 clays and 73 ceramics from Barracao archaeological site, from Baixo Sao Francisco, were analyzed. This analysis allowed for the definition of compositional groups of ceramics according to the chemical similarities of ceramic paste, which reveals the raw material composition used in the manufacturing process by prehistoric man. The outliers were identified by means robust Mahalanobis distance. The results were interpreted by means of cluster analysis, principal components analysis and discriminant analysis. The results obtained in this work, in association with archaeological information, allowed for the identification of the ceramic groups in relation to the ceramist occupations of the Xingo area. This work contributes for the reconstruction of the Baixo Sao Francisco region communities and for the reconstitution of the Brazilian Northeast ceramist population. (author)

  1. Geochemical behavior of radionuclides and heavy metals in soils from Corumbatai River basin (SP), Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceicao, Fabiano Tomazini da

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the geochemical behavior of radionuclides and heavy metals in soils of agricultural use at Corumbatai River basin (SP). The natural concentration and variability in sedimentary rocks at Corumbatai river basin follow the trend Ca > Mg > K > Na, with the concentration of heavy metals and radionuclides. The distribution of exposure rate in soils shows the occurrence of higher values towards south of the Corumbatai river basin, region where are applied phosphate fertilizers, amendments and 'vinhaca' in sugar cane crops. Heavy metals and radionuclides incorporated in phosphate fertilizers and amendments are annually added during the fertilization process in the sugar cane crops, but if they are utilized in accordance with the recommended rate, they do not rise the concentration levels in soils up to hazards levels. Thus, they are lower transferred from soils to sugar cane at Corumbatai river basin, not offering hazard to the ecosystem and animal or human health. (author)

  2. Relationships of vascular epiphytes with environmental factors along the Tibagi River forests, Paraná, Brazil

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    Annete Bonnet

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the relationships of vascular epiphyte richness with climatic, geomorphologic, pedologic and forest structural factors, that change along the Tibagi River. The floristic turnover of the 188 registered species was high, indicating the singularity and importance of the communities to the conservation of epiphytes in the river basin. The similarity was greater between geographically closer areas, which made possible the creation of three groups of epiphytic communities distributed along the river. The greatest richness of epiphytes was registered in the medium Tibagi, where the phytogeographic units are in liaison and the forests present the best conservation status. The increase of epiphytic richness is only significantly and positively related to the maximal diameter of trees, an important environmental factor of the enlargement of alpha diversity. The beta diversity results, probably, from environmental heterogeneity which is principally represented by distinctive geomorphologic patterns and climatic conditions between study areas and different environmental regions of the river.

  3. Effect of abiotic variables on fish eggs and larvae distribution in headwaters of Cuiabá River, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

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    Simoni Ramalho Ziober

    Full Text Available Researches on ichthyoplankton seems to be an important tool to identification of spawning areas and periods for freshwater fish. Ichthyoplankton was sampled monthly in the headwaters of the Cuiabá River, upper Paraguay River basin, (Mato Grosso State, Brazil, and in four of its tributaries, between November 2007 and March 2008, to evaluate the spatial and temporal distribution of fish eggs and larvae and the influence of regional and local variables on their distribution. In total, 22,067 eggs and 1,045 larvae were collected. A significant negative correlation was found between egg density and the variables of river level and flow volume. Larval density was not significantly correlated with any of the regional variables. The egg and larval densities were significantly higher at the sampling sites in the main river. The highest densities were found in environments with greater river widths, intermediate depths and lowest values of dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, and transparency. Anostomidae, Zungaro zungaro, Bryconamericus spp., Pimelodus spp., Pimelodidae, Auchenipteridae, and Siluriformes were the most abundant groups of larvae, and were observed at the sampling sites in the main river. The study site is an important spawning area for migratory and, non-migratory fish species, and highlight the importance of the main river to the reproductive event, by the influence of local variables transparency and river width, which in turn maybe temporally influenced by the river level.

  4. Genetic diversity of pacu and piapara broodstocks in restocking programs in the rivers Paraná and Paranapanema (Brazil

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    Nelson Mauricio Lopera-Barrero

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of Piaractus mesopotamicus (pacu and Leporinus elongatus (piapara broodstocks used in restocking programs in the rivers Paraná and Paranapanema is analyzed. One hundred and twenty specimens (two broodstocks of each species from fish ponds in Palotina PR Brazil and in Salto Grande SP Brazil were assessed. Ten primers produced 96 fragments, comprising 68 (70.83% and 94 (97.92% polymorphic fragments for P. mesopotamicus and L. elongatus broodstocks, respectively. Differences (p < 0.05 in the frequency of 15 and 27 fragments were detected for each species, without exclusive fragments. Shannon Index (0.347 - 0.572 and the percentage of polymorphic fragments (57.3% - 94.8% revealed high intra-population genetic variability for all broodstocks. Results of molecular variance analyses (AMOVA showed that most variations do not lie between the broodstocks but within each broodstock (89%. Genetic (0.088 and 0.142 and identity (0.916 and 0.868 distance rates demonstrated similarity between the broodstocks of each species, corroborated by Fst (0.1023 and 010.27 and Nm (4.18 and 4.33 rates, with a slight genetic difference due to genic flux. High intrapopulation genetic variability and similarity between the broodstocks of each species was also detected, proving a common ancestry.

  5. Four new species of Ligophorus (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) parasitic on Mugil liza (Actinopterygii: Mugilidae) from Guandu River, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Vanessa D; de Azevedo, Rodney K; Luque, José L

    2009-08-01

    Four species of Ligophorus (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae), i.e., L. tainhae n. sp., L. brasiliensis n. sp., L. guanduensis n. sp., and L. lizae n. sp., are described. The specimens were collected from the gills of Mugil liza (Mugilidae) from the Guandu River (22 degrees 48'32"S, 43 degrees 37'35"W), State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between January 2008 and March 2008. The male copulatory organ of L. tainhae n. sp. differs from the all known species of this genus in having the largest accessory piece, the length of accessory piece exceeding the length of the copulatory organ tube, and the distal tip of the lower lobe crossing the upper lobe. Ligophorus brasiliensis n. sp. and L. guanduensis n. sp. have a similar shape of the accessory piece, but in L. guanduensis n. sp. the lower lobe is larger than the upper lobe (as opposed to L. brasiliensis n. sp.), the ratio between length of upper lobe and the length of the proximal part of the accessory piece before the bifurcation is shorter and the distal tip of the lower lobe extends to the level of the upper lobe (in L. brasiliensis n. sp. the distal tip of lower lobe crossing the upper lobe). In L. lizae n. sp., the terminal bifurcations of the accessory piece are equal in length and unequal in the other 3 new species. Species of Ligophorus are recorded for the first time from Brazil.

  6. Considerations about Santa Catalina Formation northeast of Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keidel, J.

    1984-01-01

    A serial of land deposits placed in Santa Catharina south Brazil, and northeast of Uruguay. Most of them have been composed with a number of marine sediments, marshy region and swamp from upper paleozoic and low mesozoic.

  7. Evaluation of the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of water from the River Paraíba do Sul, in Brazil, with the Allium cepa L. test

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    A. Barbério

    Full Text Available This work investigated the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of water from the River Paraíba do Sul (Brazil using Allium cepa roots. An anatomo-morphological parameter (root length, mitotic indices, and frequency of micronuclei were analysed. Eight bulbs were chosen at random for treatment for 24 to 120 hours with the River water collected in the years of 2005 and 2006 from sites in the cities of Tremembé and Aparecida (São Paulo state, Brazil. Daily measurements of the length of the roots grown from each bulb were carried out throughout the experiment. Mitotic index (MI and frequency of micronuclei (MN were determined for 2000 cells per root, using 3-5 root tips from other bulbs (7-10. Only in the roots treated with samples of the River water collected in 2005 in Tremembé city was there a decrease in the root length growth compared to the respective control. However, a reduction in MI values was verified for both sites analysed for that year. Considering the data involving root length growth and especially MI values, a cytotoxic potential is suggested for the water of the River Paraíba do Sul at Tremembé and Aparecida, in the year of 2005. On the other hand, since in this year the MN frequency was not affected with the river water treatments, genotoxicity is not assumed for the river water sampled at the aforementioned places.

  8. Economic and financial evaluation of the wind power project in Northeast region, Brazil; Avaliacao economico-financeira de projeto de central eolica na regiao nordeste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Paulo Glicio da; Lima, Maria Angela de Queiroz; Melo Junior, Adalberto de Bastos [Companhia Hidro Eletrica do Sao Francisco (DFPL/CHESF), Recife, PE (Brazil). Div. de Planejamento Economico-Financeiro], Emails: paulogr@chesf.gov.br, angelq@chesf.gov.br, adalbert@chesf.gov.br; Bezerra, Pedro; Bittencourt, Rogerio [Companhia Hidro Eletrica do Sao Francisco (DEFA/CHESF), Recife, PE (Brazil). Div. de Projetos de Fontes Alternativas], E-mails: pbezerra@chesf.gov.br, rogeriob@chesf.gov.br

    2000-07-01

    This work deals with the analysis of economic and financial feasibility of using wind power in the Northeast region for electric power production, considering the new electricity sector model. The case study presented here refers to the design of a 50 MW Wind Farm in the region, based on preliminary data from wind collected in the period from 1993 to 1995. Some programs were used to evaluate this project: ALWIN, which estimates the potential for wind energy production; NEWAVE for determination operating marginal costs and generation plants values and ANAFIN, for economic and financial evaluation of the project, using scenarios, through the deterministic and probabilistic analysis.

  9. Concentrations of heavy metals in river sediments of the Canes River Basin, the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Meneses Silva, M.; Teixeira de Andrade, G.

    2010-01-01

    Research about chimism in the Bengalas river basin was performed as a part of the environmental study project developed in the area, encompassing several knowledge fields. Among these, Environmental Geochemistry played an important role. This work presents the results related to heavy metals in stream sediments, indicating its origins (natural or anthropic) and its availability for aquatic biota. The basin under study has 135.07 Km2, laying in the oriental portion of the Teresópolis country, 100 Km far from the of Rio de Janeiro city. The rivers forming the Bengalas basin cut Pre-Cambrian terrain, formed by Orthognaiss takes 70% of the area, post-tectonic granite(20%), migmatite gneiss (10%) and gabro dikes. The methodology used was the determination of the content of heavy metals through sequencial extraction technique, consisting in the selective remove of metals in the geochemical fractions found in the sediments, cation exchange (bioavailable), carbonaceous, reducible and organic (potentially bioavailable) and residual (non available).The analyze of the results showed that iron was present in all sequential phases and predominated in the residual phase The same behavior was verified for zinc and copper. Manganese had the best distribution through the fractions due to its redox character, allowing bigger solubility and transportation; it appeared in the exchange, residual, organic and carbonaceous phases. Cadmium was found only in the carbonaceous phase, confirming its geochemical tendency. Chrome, on the other hand, was present in the residual and organic phase, while lead was found in the residual and carbonaceous phase

  10. Genetic diversity of Prochilodus lineatus stocks using in the stocking program of Tietê River, Brazil

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    Ricardo Ribeiro

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Assess the genetic diversity in four brood stocks and one juvenile stock of curimba Prochilodus lineatus in a Hydropower plant in São Paulo - Brazil, using the Tietê River stocking program. Materials and methods. Five RAPD primers were used to amplify the extracted DNA from 150 fin-clip samples. Results. Fifty-nine fragments were polymorphic, 52 had frequencies with significant differences (p<0.05, 45 had low frequencies, 54 were excluded, and two were fixed fragments. High values for polymorphic fragments (71.19% to 91.53% and Shannon index (0.327 to 0.428 were observed. The genetic divergence values within each stock were greater than 50%. Most of the genetic variation was found within the groups through the AMOVA analysis, which was confirmed by the results of the identity and genetic distance. High ancestry levels (FST among the groups value indicated high and moderate genetic differentiation. The estimates of number of migrants by generation (Nm indicated low levels of gene flow. High and moderate genetic divergence between groups (0.58 to 0.83 was observed. Conclusions. The results indicate high variability within the stocks, and genetic differentiation among them. The fish stocks analyzed represent a large genetic base that will allow the fish technicians to release juveniles without genetic risks to wild populations present in the river. These genetic procedures may be used as models for other migratory species, including those threatened by extinction.

  11. Ethnobotany of therapeutic teas in the Urubueua de Fátima River community in Abaetetuba, Pará, Brazil

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    Patricia Homobono Brito de Moura

    2016-05-01

    Ethnobotanical studies in Brazil have shown that teas are the main form of therapeutic treatment in traditional communities. The aim of this research was to evaluate the knowledge of traditional practices in Urubueua de Fátima River community in Abaetetuba, Pará through identification of the plants used to prepare medicinal teas and the local methods of preparation. We also evaluated the importance of plants for therapy and treatment of the most frequent diseases, and investigated the quality of drinking water for the population, which is essential for the preparation of teas, and the relationship between water quality and riparian health. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 35 locals, and for each plant species used we calculated importance value, percent agreement on primary uses, percent agreement on corrected primary uses, and interviewee consensus factor. Microbiological analysis was conducted for water samples collected at three different points of Urubueua River. Eighty-two recipes of therapeutic teas were reported in total. Mentha sp. had the highest importance value, and Lippia alba (Mill NE Brown and Ficus maxima Mill were the plants most agreed upon concerning primary reasons for use. Residents aged between 60 and 69 years hold vast knowledge of tea plants and recipes, which are often employed in traditional medicines. Total and fecal coliforms present in samples from the population water supply indicate a risk for diarrheal disease, as mentioned in recurring clinical data.

  12. Qualitative and quantitative representation of the coal mining impact in the rivers of Santa Catarina state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amboni, M.M.; Campos, J.J.; Zanuz, M.; Baldoni Gomes, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    This study presented details of an information processing methodology for an environmental database that was designed within a geographic information system (GIS) in order to evaluate the impact of coal mining on 3 watersheds in the Santa Catarina coal basin. An environmental reclamation project covering an area of approximately 1,950 km 2 is currently being conducted in the region. Water resources in the area of study were identified using geographical and statistical maps and orthophotos. Monitoring point influence areas were established based on terrain numeric models of the watersheds combined with a near-monitoring point surface polluted area analysis. Features related to rivers and monitoring points were then related with each other using a commercial software tool. Acidity parameters and hydrography parameters were identified as important parameters for establishing pollution levels. Maps produced using the methodology have been integrated with an environmental parameters monitoring report that is provided to the federal courts of Brazil annually. To date, 6 percent of the total river length in the 3 watersheds has been monitored. Approximately 5 percent of the monitored area is polluted with acid mine drainage (AMD). 5 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  13. Assessing the spatial pattern of a river water quality in southern Brazil by multivariate analysis of biological and chemical indicators

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    M. B. B. Cassanego

    Full Text Available Abstract This study assessed the genotoxicity and chemical quality of the Rio dos Sinos, southern Brazil. During two years, bimonthly, cuttings of Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea with flower buds were exposed to river water samples from Caraá, Santo Antônio da Patrulha, Taquara and Campo Bom, which are municipalities located in the upper, middle and lower stretches of the Rio dos Sinos basin. Simultaneously, chemical parameters were analyzed, rainfall data were surveyed and negative (distilled water and positive (0.1% formaldehyde controls were made. Micronuclei (MCN frequencies were determined in tetrads of pollen grain mother cells. From the upper stretch toward the lower, there was an increase in the frequency of MCN and in concentrations of chemical parameters. Cadmium, lead, copper, total chromium and zinc were present at the four sites and a concentration gradient was not demonstrated along the river. The multivariate analysis revealed that two principal components exist, which accounted for 62.3% of the observed variances. Although genotoxicity was observed in Santo Antônio da Patrulha, the water presented higher mean values for most of the assessed parameters, in the lower stretch, where urbanization and industrialization are greater. The spatial and temporal pattern of water quality observed reinforces the importance of considering the environmental factors and their effects on organisms in an integrated way in watercourse monitoring programs.

  14. Fish trophic structure in a first order stream of the Iguatemi River basin, Upper Paraná River, Brazil

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    Evaneide Nogueira Lopes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We described the spatial distribution of fish trophic groups in the Água Boa Stream, MS, Brazil. Specimens were caught using electrofishing in the upper, intermediate and lower stretches of the stream, between March and November 2008. We analyzed 415 stomach contents of 24 species. Detritus/sediment and aquatic invertebrates were the main exploited resources. Ordination analysis categorized the species in six trophic groups. Aquatic invertivores showed the highest richness (10 species, followed by detritivores (08 species, omnivores (03 species, terrestrial invertivores (03 species, algivores (02 species and herbivore (01 species. Three trophic groups occurred in the upper stretch, six in the intermediate and five in the lower. Detritivores, omnivores and algivores showed the highest density, while detritivores and aquatic invertivores presented the highest biomass. Autochthonous resources were particularly important to the studied fish fauna, especially aquatic invertebrates, so, conservation actions reducing the simplification of the habitat by silting and recovering the riparian forest are essential to maintain the ichthyofauna of the Água Boa Stream.

  15. Dissolved nitrogen in rivers: comparing pristine and impacted regions of Brazil

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    LA Martinelli

    Full Text Available Riverine nitrogen distribution is increasingly controlled by anthropogenic activities in their watersheds, regardless of spatial scale, climate, and geographical zone. Consequently, modelling efforts to predict the export of nitrogen from rivers worldwide have used attributes such as population density, land use, urbanization and sanitation. These models have greatly enhanced our understanding of the sources and fate of nitrogen added to terrestrial systems and transported to rivers and streams, especially for developed countries of the North temperate zone. However, much of the world's population lives in developing countries of the tropics, where the effects of human activities on riverine N exports are still poorly understood. In an effort to close this gap, we compare riverine nitrogen data from 32 Brazilian rivers draining two contrasting regions in this tropical country in terms of economic development - the State of São Paulo and the Amazon. Our data include nitrogen in different dissolved forms, such as Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen (DIN and Dissolved Organic Nitrogen (DON. The results show that nitrogen concentrations decreased as river runoff increased in both study areas, and that concentrations were significantly higher in rivers draining the most economically developed region. The relationships between nitrogen concentrations and fluxes with demographic parameters such as population density were also determined and compared to those in temperate systems. In contrast to temperate watersheds, we found that nitrogen fluxes increased only after population densities were higher than 10 individuals per km².

  16. Chemical composition of black-watered rivers in the Amazons Region (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbe, Adriana M.C.; Santos, Ana G. da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Most investigations addressing Amazonian water chemistry are focused on the Solimoes, Amazonas and Negro rivers. Knowledge of the chemical composition of their smaller tributaries is restricted to some few, punctual data. The smaller rivers, that only present inputs from their catchments, are very important to understand the overall mechanisms controlling the chemistry of larger rivers of the region. With this objective the chemical composition of the principal Solimoes river black-watered tributaries in the western Brazilian Amazon during the low water period were determined. The data reveal the black water chemical composition to be highly variable and strongly influenced by the local geological environment: the Badajos basin being chemically more diluted; the Coari basin presenting higher SiO 2 contents, as well as smaller lakes having higher pH, conductivity, Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ and Sr, yet not as much as those found in the Solimoes river. The chemical composition of these waters is compatible with the low physical erosion and the region's highly leached tropical environment from which most soluble elements were quickly removed. (author)

  17. Fish larvae assemblages in two floodplain lakes with different degrees of connection to the Paraná River, Brazil

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    Vanessa Salete Daga

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the abundance, attributes of assemblages, and spatial and temporal distributions of fish larvae and their relationships with some abiotic variables in two floodplain lakes with different degrees of connection to the Paraná River in Ilha Grande National Park, PR, Brazil. Four sampling sites were chosen, two in each floodplain lake. Night samples were taken with plankton nets during three spawning seasons (monthly, from October to March from 2001 to 2005. The highest diversity and abundance were recorded at Saraiva Lake, with 25 taxa being identified. In Xambrê Lake, only sedentary species were captured, and the most abundant species were Plagioscion squamosissimus and Hypophthalmus edentatus. The greatest abundance of larvae was found in the second spawning season. In the Saraiva Lake, the most abundant species were Moenkhausia aff. intermedia, Hyphessobrycon sp., and Bryconamericus stramineus, but larvae of known migratory species were also documented. In this lake, the greatest abundance of larvae was found in the third spawning. Larvae abundance was influenced by water temperature and conductivity. The high diversity and abundance recorded in Saraiva Lake may be a result of its connectivity with the Paraná River, and the low diversity and abundance observed at Xambrê Lake are likely due to its isolation from the river. This work shows the importance of these lagoons for fish development, for both sedentary and migratory species. Both lagoons may be considered to have extreme ecological importance and they are also extremely susceptible to impacts, so any careless disturbance may cause irreversible damage.

  18. Carboniferous geology and uranium potential of the northeast flank of the Parana Basin and southwest flank of the Parnaiba Basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, S.M. de; Camarco, P.E.N.

    1984-01-01

    The Carboniferous sequences of the northeast flank of the Parana Basin and those of the southwest flank of the Parnaiba Basin have been the subject of discussion and polemics for quite a long time, especially in terms of their stratigraphic relations and depositional environments. Thus, we reinforce our main objective, which is to furnish data for the definition of the uranium potential in these Carboniferous sediments, by adding recently acquired information that should aid in the clarification of the existing controversies. The Carboniferous along the northeast flank of the Parana Basin is represented by the Aquidauana Formation which has been informally divided into three members: lower, middle and upper members. The middle member, of marine origin, constitutes a prospective target for uranium and phosphate associations, in which sandstones interbedded with shales constitute the host rocks. On the other hand, the Carboniferous of the southwest margin of the Parnaiba Basin, which encompasses the Longa, Poti and Piaui Formations has shown very remote possibilities of uranium occurrences. The regional structural framework, as reflected by the Carboniferous rocks along both basin flanks, is characterized by homoclines cut by gravity faults. The faults along these weakness zones were occasionally intruded by basic rocks of Cretaceous age. Superimposed on the regional structure, open folds appear in the form of anticlines and domes. These folds are discontinuous structures resulting from uplift due to vertical stresses or result from differential subsidence along the limbs of the folds. (Author) [pt

  19. Measurements and modelling of evapotransiration to assess agricultural water productivity in basins with changing land use patterns : a case study in the São Francisco River basin, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro Teixeira, de A.H.

    2008-01-01

    Key words: Vineyards, mango, energy balance, evapotranspiration, water productivity, Bowen ratio, eddy correlation, water balance, natural vegetation, latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, biomass, water productivity, remote sensing, water management. . The São Francisco River basin in Brazil is

  20. 210Pb and compositional data of sediments from Rondonian lakes, Madeira River basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, Daniel Marcos; Vergotti, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Gold exploration has been intensive in Brazilian Amazon over the last 40 years, where the use of mercury as an amalgam has caused abnormal Hg concentrations in water bodies. Special attention has been directed to Madeira River due to fact it is a major tributary of Amazon River and that since 1986, gold exploration has been officially permitted along a 350 km sector of the river. The 210 Pb method has been used to date sediments taken from nine lakes situated in Madeira River basin, Rondônia State, and to verify where anthropogenic Hg might exist due to gold exploitation in Madeira River. Activity profiles of excess 210 Pb determined in the sediment cores provided a means to evaluate the sedimentation rates using a Constant Flux: Constant Sedimentation (CF:CS) and Constant Rate of Supply (CRS) of unsupported/excess 210 Pb models. A significant relationship was found between the CF:CS sedimentation rates and the mean values of the CRS sedimentation rates (Pearson correlation coefficient r=0.59). Chemical data were also determined in the sediments for identifying possible relationships with Hg occurring in the area. Significant values were found in statistical correlation tests realized among the Hg, major oxides and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content in the sediments. The TOC increased in the sediment cores accompanied by a loss on ignition (LOI) increment, whereas silica decreased following a specific surface area raising associated to the TOC increase. The CRS model always provided ages within the permitted range of the 210 Pb-method in the studied lakes, whereas the CF:CS model predicted two values above 140 years. - Highlights: • Gold mining activities. • Madeira River basin at Amazon area. • Pb-210 chronological method. • Models for evaluating sedimentation rates

  1. Ruralidade e mulheres responsáveis por domicílios no Norte e no Nordeste Ruralness and Women Responsible for Households in the North and Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Parry Scott

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A comparação de mulheres como responsáveis de domicílios no Norte e no Nordeste revela efeitos de diferenciação de gênero e de histórias divergentes de migração. Como em todo o Brasil, essas mulheres têm mais instrução e menos renda que os homens responsáveis por domicílios. Fazem uso extensivo de ingressos da seguridade social, especialmente nas áreas rurais. Elas assumem mais a chefia ou quando são adolescentes, ou, muito mais, quando passam da idade de 45 anos. Recorrem mais intensivamente que homens às suas redes de relações ampliadas para inclusão de outros nas suas casas. No Norte, comparado com o Brasil e o Nordeste, com maior presença de imigração masculina, há menos mulheres chefes, em geral, e especialmente no campo. Relativamente, têm instrução superior à dos homens responsáveis. Nas suas casas há mais pessoas que nas de mulheres responsáveis em outras regiões. Só ocasionalmente moram sozinhas. No Nordeste, com uma história de emigração, as mulheres responsáveis são muito mais numerosas, em geral, com particular força no campo. A sua instrução não é tão superior à dos homens quanto à das mulheres no Norte. Elas residem sozinhas com mais freqüência e há pouca diferença no número de pessoas entre casas nas áreas urbanas e rurais.A comparison of women household heads in North and Northeast Brazil reveals effects of gender differentiation and divergent histories of migration. As in Brazil in general, women heads have more education and less income than male heads. They make extensive use of social security income, especially as a source of maintenance in rural areas. They take on headship either when adolescents, or, much more often, when over the age of 45. They include persons from their wider social networks much more than male heads do. Compared to Brazil in general and to the Northeast, the North, with a history of male immigration, has fewer women household heads in general, and

  2. [Stingrays in rivers in southeastern Brazil: occurrence localities and impact on the population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrone Neto, Domingos; Haddad Junior, Vidal

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, our aim was to describe the process of colonization of the upper Paraná basin, southeastern Brazil, by stingrays, showing the current situation, likely trend and impact caused and discussing some management actions and mitigation measures. Interviews were held with riverbank people and health professionals, to gather information on occurrences of stingrays and accidents associated with these animals, along with underwater observations and collection of specimens, between 2004 and 2009 in localities in the States of São Paulo, Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, in the southeastern, southern and part of the central-western regions of Brazil. Three species of stingrays were identified in the study area, thus demonstrating that they were using the paths opened by the Tietê-Paraná Waterway to disperse. Sixteen victims of accidents involving these animals were found, mainly bathers and fishermen. Attention was drawn to the fact that these cases had not been reported, yet they presented high morbidity with notable temporary incapacity for work. This is the first report on biological invasion involving species of elasmobranchs in the literature and, because stingrays are colonizing densely populated areas and are expanding their range of distribution each year, it can be expected that their negative interactions with humans will intensify, with important changes in the epidemiological profile of accidents due to venomous animals occurring in southeastern Brazil.

  3. Suspended matter and nutrient gradients of a small-scale river plume in Sepetiba Bay, SE-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Paiva Rodrigues

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Coastal river plumes represent one of the final stages of material transport across the land-sea interface. Most studies, however have focused on the behavior of medium to large sized river plumes of coastal-shelf waters, whereas small sized river plumes acting within estuaries have been neglected. This study addressed the behavior of suspended particulate matter (SPM, dissolved inorganic nutrients (DIN, DIP and DSi and Chlorophyll a (Chl. a of a small sized river plume derived from the closely lain São Francisco and Guandú river channels, set in the Sepetiba Bay estuary, SE-Brazil. Two surface water sampling campaigns were conducted, one in January 2003 (humid summer conditions and the other in June 2003 (dry winter conditions. On both occasions, the plumes dispersed in a SE direction towards the inner portion of the bay. The "wet" event plume was more turbid, nutrient rich and dispersed beyond nearshore waters, whereas the "dry" event plume proliferated as a narrow, less turbid and more nutrient poor film alongshore. Both exhibited a marked degree of patchiness, induced by the differential input of materials from the river sources and resuspension processes from the shallow nearshore bottom. The São Francisco river channel was the main source of freshwater, SPM and nutrients, except for ammonia (NH4+-N derived from domestic effluents of the Guandú river. The mesohaline portion of the estuarine mixing zone of the plumes behaved as a slight source for SPM, DSi and DIP, due to bottom resuspension processes. N:P molar ratios ranged between 80:1 and 20:1 along the estuarine gradient, being higher in the summer than in the winter event, indicating that DIP was the potential nutrient limiting primary production. Chl. a concentrations increased at the outer premises of the plume, suggesting that the short residence times and turbidity of the plume waters, hampered primary production nearshore, particularly during the summer occasion. The small

  4. Avaliação de macro e microminerais em frutas tropicais cultivadas no nordeste brasileiro Evaluation of macro and micro-mineral content in tropical fruits cultivated in the northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mozarina Beserra Almeida

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil tem grande importância no mercado de frutas; porém há escassez de dados acerca da composição das frutas tropicais brasileiras, principalmente daquelas produzidas no nordeste. No presente estudo, determinaram-se macro e microminerais de 11 frutas tropicais cultivadas no nordeste brasileiro: abacaxi, ata, graviola, jaca, mamão, mangaba, murici, sapoti, seriguela, tamarindo e umbu. As amostras foram desidratadas e mineralizadas em HNO3/HClO4 (3:1. Os minerais Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Fe, Co, Se e Ni foram analisados por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica, Na e K por fotometria de chama e P por método colorimétrico. Os resultados indicaram que o tamarindo pode ser considerado excelente fonte de Mg, Cu e K; além de boa fonte em Ca, P, Fe e Se. Dentre os minerais avaliados nas frutas estudadas, K apresentou o maior conteúdo, seguido pelo Ca e Mg. Ata, graviola, sapoti e murici são boas fontes de dois ou mais minerais. Correlações elevadas foram obtidas entre K e os minerais P, Co e Fe; e entre Co e Fe. Portanto, sugere-se o consumo dos frutos tropicais estudados, como auxiliares na reposição de nutrientes minerais.Brazil has great importance in the fruits market; however, data on the composition of Brazilian tropical fruits, mainly of those produced in the Northeast region, is scarce. In the present study, it was determined the macro- and micro-minerals of 11 tropical fruits cultivated in the Northeast of Brazil: pineapple, sweetsop, soursop, jackfruit, papaya, mangaba, murici, sapodilla, ciruela, tamarind, and umbu. The samples were dehydrated and mineralized in HNO3/HClO4 (3:1 solution. The minerals Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Fe, Co, Se and Ni were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry; Na and K by flame photometry; and P by the colorimetric method. The results indicated that tamarind is a rich source of all minerals available, especially of Mg, Cu and K, in addition to being a good source of Ca, P, Fe, and Se. Among the

  5. Wide reproductive period of a long-distance migratory fish in a subtropical river, Brazil

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    Evoy Zaniboni-Filho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Salminus brasiliensis is a potamodromous fish species that occurs in southern South American rivers. In spite of its ecological and economic relevance, information regarding the reproductive biology of S. brasiliensis is still scarce. This study used data from 18 years of continuous sampling in the Upper Uruguay River Basin, analyzing 718 adult fish (307 males, 243 females, 168 undefined captured at different months of the year. The results showed that the reproductive timing for S. brasiliensis is wide in the Upper Uruguay River, with the occurrence of mature fish between the month of August and March and spawned individuals between July and May of the next year. These results were sustained by the increase of gonadal somatic relationship (GSR from August. The reproductive timing of S. brasiliensis in the Upper Uruguay River may start between the middle winter and early spring (from late July to late September, and may extend until the late summer and middle fall (from the middle February to early May. These findings contribute to information on the general biology of S. brasiliensis and provide valuable knowledge to management programs and to conservation efforts of this fisheries resource.

  6. Ecological impact from large constructions of hydroelectric power plants in Parana River, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonetto, Argentino A.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis over environmental impacts on Parana River as a result of the hydroelectric power plants construction is presented. Hydroelectric dams, also including the planned ones, are showing during the explanation, and biologic aspects are discussed. 30 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Ecotoxicological assessment of sediments from Tiete river between Salesopolis and Suzano, SP (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alegre, Gabriel Fonseca

    2009-01-01

    Once introduced into the aquatic environment, many substances can bind or be adsorbed by organic particles in suspension. Depending on the river morphology and hydrological conditions, these particles in suspension containing the contaminants can be deposited along its course, becoming part of the bottom sediments, making them actual sinks and often a source of contamination for the water column and benthic organisms. In the assessment of water, sediment has been one of the most important indicators of the contamination levels in aquatic ecosystems, representing the deposition of contaminants in the environment that occurred over the years and even decades. The Tiete River cross the Sao Paulo state, however, in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, the river shows the most severe degradation. In the region of Salesopolis, the waters of the Tiete River are used for public supply, but across the city of Mogi das Cruzes the water quality decreases significantly. Considering the importance of the Tiete river and the sediment for the aquatic biota, this study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of the sediment at five points along the Tiete river, between the cities of Salesopolis and Suzano, Sao Paulo. Four sampling were carried out: two in the summer (rainy season) and two in winter (dry season). The whole sediment was assessed by acute and chronic toxicity tests with Hyalella azteca and Ceriodaphnia dubia, respectively, the elutriate was assessed by chronic toxicity test using C. dubia, while the porewater was evaluated by acute toxicity test with Vibrio fischeri. Samples of river water were also evaluated for chronic toxicity tests with C. dubia. The quantification of metals and hydrocarbons in sediment samples was also carried out in order to correlate the biological effects with the chemical contamination. The obtained results with the whole sediment test indicate Mogi das Cruzes and Suzano cities as the most toxic sites and also as the sites with the highest

  8. A new species of Endecous Saussure, 1878 (Orthoptera, Gryllidae) from northeast Brazil with the first X1X20 chromosomal sex system in Gryllidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zefa, Edison; Redü, Darlan Rutz; Da Costa, Maria Kátia Matiotti; Fontanetti, Carmem S; Gottschalk, Marco Silva; Padilha, Giovanna Boff; Fernandes e Silva, Anelise; Martins, Luciano De P

    2014-08-06

    In this paper we describe a new species of Luzarinae cricket collected from the cave "Gruta de Ubajara, municipality of Ubajara, State of Ceará, Brazil, highlighting phallic sclerites morphology and chromosome complement as diagnostic characters. We presented meiotic and mitotic characterization in order to define the karyotype with 2n = 12 + X1X2♂/12 + X1X1X2X2♀. This represents the first record of X1X20 chromosomal sex system in Gryllidae.

  9. (210)Pb and compositional data of sediments from Rondonian lakes, Madeira River basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonotto, Daniel Marcos; Vergotti, Marcelo

    2015-05-01

    Gold exploration has been intensive in Brazilian Amazon over the last 40 years, where the use of mercury as an amalgam has caused abnormal Hg concentrations in water bodies. Special attention has been directed to Madeira River due to fact it is a major tributary of Amazon River and that since 1986, gold exploration has been officially permitted along a 350km sector of the river. The (21)(0)Pb method has been used to date sediments taken from nine lakes situated in Madeira River basin, Rondônia State, and to verify where anthropogenic Hg might exist due to gold exploitation in Madeira River. Activity profiles of excess (21)(0)Pb determined in the sediment cores provided a means to evaluate the sedimentation rates using a Constant Flux: Constant Sedimentation (CF:CS) and Constant Rate of Supply (CRS) of unsupported/excess (21)(0)Pb models. A significant relationship was found between the CF:CS sedimentation rates and the mean values of the CRS sedimentation rates (Pearson correlation coefficient r=0.59). Chemical data were also determined in the sediments for identifying possible relationships with Hg occurring in the area. Significant values were found in statistical correlation tests realized among the Hg, major oxides and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content in the sediments. The TOC increased in the sediment cores accompanied by a loss on ignition (LOI) increment, whereas silica decreased following a specific surface area raising associated to the TOC increase. The CRS model always provided ages within the permitted range of the (21)(0)Pb-method in the studied lakes, whereas the CF:CS model predicted two values above 140 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ecotoxicological assessment of water and sediment of the Corumbataí River, SP, Brazil

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    GM. Jardim

    Full Text Available The Corumbataí River drains an economically important area which is mainly represented by the municipalities of Piracicaba and Rio Claro. In view of the impacts caused by the discharge of industrial waste and domestic sewage into the Piracicaba River, the Corumbataí has become increasingly significant as a source of water for the municipality of Piracicaba. However, chemical, physical, and microbiological analyses carried out prior to the present study had already indicated a decline in the quality of the Corumbataí waters. This study aimed to assess, through water and sediment samples, both acute and chronic toxicity to Daphnia magna and Daphnia similis, and to analyze acid-volatile sulfide (AVS and simultaneously extracted metal (SEM in the sediment. Resulting data were intended to be a contribution to future projects for the management and recuperation of this system. To that aim, water and sediment were collected at seven Corumbataí sampling stations in November 2003 and March 2004. Acute toxicity to D. similis was detected in water and sediment samples from the Piracicaba station, located at the mouth of the Corumbataí River. Chronic toxicity was identified in the water or sediment samples of all stations, with the exception of Analândia Montante (upstream, at the head of the river. This was found to affect survival, growth, and fecundity of the test-organisms. The AVS and SEM analyses showed the bioavailability of the metals, thus explaining toxicity found in bioassaying samples of water and sediment. The use of two test-organism species made it possible to obtain a better assessment of the condition of both water and sediment samples of the Corumbataí River.

  11. Determination of metals by total reflection X-ray fluorescence and evaluation of toxicity of a river impacted by coal mining in the south of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattuada, R M; Menezes, C T B; Pavei, P T; Peralba, M C R; Dos Santos, J H Z

    2009-04-30

    Metal (Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cd, and Pb) concentrations in the region of Criciuma (Brazil), a region impacted by coal mining, were determined in water and sediments using total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectroscopy. Samples were collected from the Mãe Luzia River (south Brazil) at five different stations, from the source down to the river mouth (Ararangua estuary). Water and sediment toxicity were also evaluated using bioassays with Daphnia magna as the bioindicator. The metal present in the highest concentrations both in water (1.3-11 mg L(-1)) and in sediments (34-142 mg L(-1)) was iron. Results suggest an influence of coal mining on the aquatic receptors, showing a clear relationship between metal content (mostly Fe) and ecotoxicity.

  12. Benthic Bacillariophyta of the Paripe River estuary in Pernambuco state, Brazil

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    AN. Moura

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the benthic diatom composition from the estuary sediment in the Pernambuco State, based on 32 samples. Samples were collected monthly from September through December 1999 (dry period and from April through July 2000 (rainy period during four pre established sampling stations. Results indicated 19 families and 31 specific and infraspecific taxa. Eight new records were founded for Pernambuco State: Auliscus coelatus, Fallacia nummularia, Navicula algida, Plagiograma pulchellum, Terpsinoe americana, Triceratium antideluvianna and Tryblionella coarctata and one, Auliscus punctatus Bailey, in northeastern Brazil.

  13. A new species of Scinax Wagler, 1830 (Anura: Hylidae from the middle Amazon river basin, Brazil

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    Marcelo José Sturaro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the hylid genus Scinax is described and illustrated. The new taxon was found in the Amazonian rainforest of northern Brazil, municipalities of Maués and Careiro da Várzea, state of Amazonas. The new species is characterized by its moderate size (male mean snout-vent length 36.3mm; body robust; large, orange, black-bordered axillary and inguinal spots; and bilobate vocal sac. This new species was found in primary and secondary forest on branches of shrubs or trees in, or next to, permanent ponds and flooded areas.

  14. Sanguinicola platyrhynchi n. sp. (Digenea: Sanguinicolidae parasite of visceral cavity of Hemisorubim platyrhynchos (Valenciennes, 1840 (Pisces: Pimelodidae from the floodplain of the upper Paraná River, Brazil

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    GUIDELLI G. M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species is of the genus Sanguinicola Plehn, 1905 described, Sanguinicola platyrhynchi n. sp., digenetic parasite of visceral cavity of Hemisorubim platyrhynchos (Valenciennes, 1840 from the floodplain of the upper Paraná River, Brazil. The species has been thus included because of the presence of separate dorsal genital pores, while differing from other species of the same genus mainly in digestive apparatus features, genital pore position, and infection site. Emendation of generic diagnosis is included.

  15. Bacteria of fecal origin in mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) in the Cocó River estuary, Ceará State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Ana I.M.; Vieira,Regine H.S.F.; Menezes,Francisca G.R.; Fonteles-Filho,Antonio A.; Torres,Regina C.O.; Sant'Anna,Ernani S.

    2004-01-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the microbiological quality of mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae), collected at a natural oyster bed in the estuary of Cocó river (Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil). MPN values were used for estimating the total (TC) and fecal (FC) coliforms and Enterococcus spp. TC and FC MPN values in the whole muscle and intervalve liquid ranged from 1,600/g and from

  16. Fish, lower Ivinhema River basin streams, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

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    Súarez, Y. R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ivinhema River basin is one of the main tributaries of the western portion of Paraná River. However,few data are available on the fish communities of its streams. Monthly samples were made in seven streams of the lowerportion of the basin, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, using a rectangular sieve 1.2 x 0.8 m, with 2 mm mesh size.Forty-six fish species were found in these streams. The richness estimated according to the bootstrap procedure was 50species. At least two of the captured species were not previously recorded for the upper Paraná basin, indicating theneed of new sampling effort in this region.

  17. DIVERSITY AND SPATIO-TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE ICHTHYOPLANKTON IN THE LOWER AMAZON RIVER, BRAZIL

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    Diego Maia Zacardi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated (i the taxonomic composition of the larval fish fauna of the lower Amazon River, (ii the structure of the larval assemblage, and (iii the relationship between the abundance of the ichthyoplankton and environmental variables, in order to evaluate the importance of this river sector as spawning and nursery grounds for the region’s fish species. Data were collected monthly between January and December 2013 during the day and at night sampling cycles. A total of 2,295 fish eggs and 46,298 larvae were collected, quantified and classified larvae in 63 taxa. These larvae belonged to species with a variety of reproductive strategies. Individuals at a very early stage of development made up 92% of the specimens collected. High densities of larvae were recorded between January and March, corresponding to the breeding season of most of the species exploited by local fisheries. This peak in density was associated with the period in which rainfall, river water levels, and dissolved oxygen concentrations all peaked, while pH and electrical conductivity reached their lowest levels. The results of the present study confirmed that a number of different fish species use the margins of the lower Amazon river as spawning grounds and nurseries, as well as dispersal routes. This emphasizes the importance of these areas for the reproduction of local fish species and the maintenance of their populations, and highlights the need for the preservation of these areas and the more effective regulation of the closed season. Keywords: Amazon; distribution; fish eggs and larvae; environmental variables; conservation.

  18. Integrated modeling of water quantity and quality in the Araguari River basin, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Salla, Marcio Ricardo; Paredes-Arquiola, Javier; Solera, Abel; Álvarez, Joaquín Andreu; Pereira, Carlos Eugênio; Alamy Filho, José Eduardo; De Oliveira, André Luiz

    2014-01-01

    The Araguari River basin has a huge water resource potential. However, population and industrial growth have generated numerous private and collective conflicts of interest in the multiple uses of water, resulting in the need for integrated management of water quantity and quality at the basin scale. This study used the AQUATOOL Decision Support System. The water balance performed by the SIMGES module for the period of October 2006 to September 2011 provided a good representation of the reali...

  19. Soil organic matter and soil acidity in Mangrove areas in the river Paraiba Estuary, Cabedelo, Paraiba, Brazil

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    Renata Wilma Vasconcelos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove ecosystems are of great environmental significance, because of their fragility and role in feeding and breeding various animal species. In northeastern Brazil, the disorderly occupation of estuarine areas and the urban sprawl have led to a considerable loss of the original area occupied by mangroves. In the municipality of Cabedelo, State of Paraíba, there are about 4,900 ha of remnant mangrove areas in the estuarine complex of the Paraíba River. However, information about the attributes of mangrove soils at this location is quite scarce. The aim of this study was to quantify the soil organic matter and soil acidity in mangroves located in the estuary of the Paraíba River, State of Paraíba, Brazil, in order to increase the database of soil attributes in this region. The study area is in local influence of the Restinga de Cabedelo National Forest (Flona, an environmental conservation unit of the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation. For the choice of sampling points, we considered an area that receives direct influence of the eviction of domestic and industrial effluents. The soil of the study area is an “Organossolo Háplico” in Brazilian Soil Classification (Histosol, and was sampled at four point sites: one upstream of the effluent discharge (P1, one in the watercourse receiving effluent water (P2, one downstream of the effluent discharge (P3 and another near Flona (P4, at 0-20 and 20-40 cm, in four replications in time (28/08/2012 in the morning and afternoon, and 21/01/2013 in the morning and afternoon. Potential acidity, pH and soil organic matter (SOM were determined. No significant differences were detected in the potential acidity of the four collection sites, which ranged from 0.38 to 0.45 cmolc dm-3. Soil pH was greatest at point P4 (7.0 and lowest at point P1 (5.8. The SOM was highest at point P1 (86.4 % and lowest at P2 (77.9 %. The attributes related to soil acidity were not sensitive to indicate

  20. Late quaternary dynamics in the Madeira river basin, southern Amazonia (Brazil, as revealed by paleomorphological analysis

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    Ericson H. Hayakawa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ancient drainage systems are being increasingly documented in the Amazon basin and their characterization is crucial for reconstructing fluvial evolution in this area. Fluvial morphologies, including elongate belts, are well preserved along the Madeira River. Digital Elevation Model from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission favored the detection of these features even where they are covered by dense rainforest. These paleomorphologies are attributed to the shifting position of past tributaries of the Madeira River through avulsions. These radial paleodrainage networks produced fan-shaped morphologies that resemble distributary megafans. Distinguishing avulsive tributary systems from distributary megafans in the sedimentary record is challenging. Madeira´s paleodrainage reveals the superposition of tributary channels formed by multiple avulsions within a given time period, rather than downstream bifurcation of coexisting channels. Channel avulsion in this Amazonian area during the late Quaternary is related to tectonics due to features as: (i straight lineaments coincident with fault directions; (ii northeastward tilting of the terrain with Quaternary strata; and (iii several drainage anomalies, including frequent orthogonal drainage inflections. These characteristics altogether lead to propose that the radial paleodrainage present at the Madeira River margin results from successive avulsions of tributary channels over time due to tectonics.

  1. Bioavailability of pollutants sets risk of exposure to biota and human population in reservoirs from Iguaçu River (Southern Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, F Y; Pereira, M V M; Lottermann, E; Santos, G S; Stremel, T R O; Doria, H B; Gusso-Choueri, P; Campos, S X; Ortolani-Machado, C F; Cestari, M M; Neto, F Filipak; Azevedo, J C R; Ribeiro, C A Oliveira

    2016-09-01

    The Iguaçu River, located at the Southern part of Brazil, has a great socioeconomic and environmental importance due to its high endemic fish fauna and its potential to generate hydroelectric power. However, Iguaçu River suffers intense discharge of pollutants in the origin of the river. In a previous report, the local environmental agency described water quality to improve along the river course. However, no study with integrated evaluation of chemical analysis and biological responses has been reported so far for the Iguaçu River. In the current study, three different Brazilian fish species (Astyanax bifasciatus, Chrenicicla iguassuensis, and Geophagus brasiliensis) were captured in the five cascading reservoirs of Iguaçu River for a multi-biomarker study. Chemical analysis in water, sediment, and muscle indicated high levels of bioavailable metals in all reservoirs. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in the bile of the three fish species. Integration of the data through a FA/PCA analysis demonstrated the poorest environmental quality of the reservoir farthest from river's source, which is the opposite of what has been reported by the environmental agency. The presence of hazardous chemicals in the five reservoirs of Iguaçu River, their bioaccumulation in the muscle of fish, and the biological responses showed the impacts of human activities to this area and did not confirm a gradient of pollution between the five reservoirs, from the source toward Iguaçu River's mouth. Therefore, diffuse source of pollutants present along the river course are increasing the risk of exposure to biota and human populations.

  2. Temporal Trends and Hydrological Controls of Fisheries Production in the Madeira River (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, D. A.; Lima, M. A.; Doria, C.

    2016-12-01

    Amazonian river systems are characterized by a strongly seasonal flood pulse and important hydrologic effects have been observed in the dynamics of fish stocks and fishing yields. Changes in the Amazon's freshwater ecosystems from hydropower development will have a cascade of physical, ecological, and social effects and impacts on fish and fisheries are expected to be potentially irreversible. In this work we investigate shared trends and causal factors driving fish catch in the Madeira River (a major tributary of the Amazon) before dam construction to derive relationships between catch and natural hydrologic dynamics. We applied Dynamic Factor Analysis to investigate dynamics in fish catch across ten commercially important fish species in the Madeira River using daily fish landings data including species and total weight and daily hydrological data obtained from the Brazilian Geological Service. Total annual catch averaged over the 18-yr period (1990-2007) was 849 tons yr-1. Species with the highest catch included curimatã, dourada/filhote and pacu, highlighting the importance of medium and long-distance migratory species for fisheries production. We found a four-trend dynamic factor model (DFM) to best fit the observed data, assessed using the Akaike Information Criteria. Model goodness of fit was fair (R2=0.51) but highly variable across species (0.16 ≤ R2 ≤ 0.95). Fitted trends exhibited strong and regular year-to-year variation representative of the seasonal hydrologic pulsing observed on the Madeira River. Next, we considered 11 candidate explanatory time series and found the best DFM used four explanatory variables and only one common trend. While the model fit with explanatory variables was lower (R2=0.31) it removed much reliance on unknown common trends. The most important explanatory variable in this model was maximum water level followed by days flooded, river flow of the previous year and increment. We found unique responses to hydrological

  3. Diet of Astyanax species (Teleostei, Characidae in an Atlantic Forest River in Southern Brazil

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    Fábio Silveira Vilella

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of six species of Astyanax from river Maquiné are described. Fishes were sampled bi-monthly from November/95 to September/96 in two zones of the river. Items were identified, counted and had their abundance estimated according to a semi-quantitative scale. Frequency of occurrence, alimentary importance index (IFI values and a similarity analysis of diets for each species-river zone sample were examined. All the species were considered typically omnivorous, with insects and vegetal matter being the most important items in their diet. These species could act as seed dispersers, particularly for macrophytes. Intra-specific spatial differences were not observed in comparisons of samples from two diferent regions of the river, except for A. fasciatus. The presence of Podostemaceae macrophytes in the mid-course of the river seemed to be important both as an autochthonous food resource and as habitat for several organisms preyed by the Astyanax species.Seis espécies do gênero Astyanax, presentes no rio Maquiné, RS, foram estudadas quanto aos seus hábitos alimentares. Os exemplares foram amostrados bimensalmente de novembro de 1995 a setembro de 1996 nas