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Sample records for river hydroelectric system

  1. A Computed River Flow-Based Turbine Controller on a Programmable Logic Controller for Run-Off River Hydroelectric Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razali Jidin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The main feature of a run-off river hydroelectric system is a small size intake pond that overspills when river flow is more than turbines’ intake. As river flow fluctuates, a large proportion of the potential energy is wasted due to the spillages which can occur when turbines are operated manually. Manual operation is often adopted due to unreliability of water level-based controllers at many remote and unmanned run-off river hydropower plants. In order to overcome these issues, this paper proposes a novel method by developing a controller that derives turbine output set points from computed mass flow rate of rivers that feed the hydroelectric system. The computed flow is derived by summation of pond volume difference with numerical integration of both turbine discharge flows and spillages. This approach of estimating river flow allows the use of existing sensors rather than requiring the installation of new ones. All computations, including the numerical integration, have been realized as ladder logics on a programmable logic controller. The implemented controller manages the dynamic changes in the flow rate of the river better than the old point-level based controller, with the aid of a newly installed water level sensor. The computed mass flow rate of the river also allows the controller to straightforwardly determine the number of turbines to be in service with considerations of turbine efficiencies and auxiliary power conservation.

  2. Impacts of the Columbia River hydroelectric system on main-stem habitats of fall chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauble, D.D.; Hanrahan, T.P.; Geist, D.R.; Parsley, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Salmonid habitats in main-stem reaches of the Columbia and Snake rivers have changed dramatically during the past 60 years because of hydroelectric development and operation. Only about 13% and 58% of riverine habitats in the Columbia and Snake rivers, respectively, remain. Most riverine habitat is found in the upper Snake River; however, it is upstream of Hells Canyon Dam and not accessible to anadromous salmonids. We determined that approximately 661 and 805 km of the Columbia and Snake rivers, respectively, were once used by fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha for spawning. Fall chinook salmon currently use only about 85 km of the main-stem Columbia River and 163 km of the main-stem Snake River for spawning. We used a geomorphic model to identify three river reaches downstream of present migration barriers with high potential for restoration of riverine processes: the Columbia River upstream of John Day Dam, the Columbia-Snake-Yakima River confluence, and the lower Snake River upstream of Little Goose Dam. Our analysis substantiated the assertion that historic spawning areas for fall chinook salmon occurred primarily within wide alluvial floodplains, which were once common in the mainstem Columbia and Snake rivers. These areas possessed more unconsolidated sediment and more bars and islands and had lower water surface slopes than did less extensively used areas. Because flows in the main stem are now highly regulated, the predevelopment alluvial river ecosystem is not expected to be restored simply by operational modification of one or more dams. Establishing more normative flow regimes - specifically, sustained peak flows for scouring - is essential to restoring the functional characteristics of existing, altered habitats. Restoring production of fall chinook salmon to any of these reaches also requires that population genetics and viability of potential seed populations (i.e., from tributaries, tailrace spawning areas, and hatcheries) be considered.

  3. Hydroelectric project impacts on Stikine River ecosystems: An overview

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The report provides an overview on the hydroelectric project impacts on Stikine river ecosystems. The objective of this study was to develop a report which would aid...

  4. Feasibility study for Boardman River hydroelectric power. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-02-22

    The feasibility of generating additional hydroelectric power from five consecutive existing dams located on the Boardman River in Grand Traverse County and Traverse City, Michigan, was investigated. The potential hydropower production capabilities, in terms of base load power and peak load power, the legal-institutional-environmental constraints, and the economic feasibility, including capital investment, operating costs and maintenance costs, were evaluated for each of the five dam sites individually and as a series of co-dependent facilities. The impact of installing fish passages at each site was analyzed separately. The feasibility assessment utilized the present worth analytical method, considering revenue based on thirty mills/kWh for power, 0.4% general economy escalation rate, and a 6% net income to the municipal utility. The sensitivity of fuel costs increasing at a different rate than the general price-escalation was tested by allowing the increase in fuel costs to vary from 3 to 8% per year. Assuming fuel costs increase at the same rate as the general economy, it is feasible to update, retrofit, renovate, and install hydroelectric generating capacity at Sabin, Boardman and Brown Bridge. Rehabilitation of Union Street and Keystone is also feasible but somewhat less attractive. Operating the dams as a co-dependent system has environmental advantages and can provide additional revenue through peak load power rates. A development plan to implement the above is outlined utilizing an ownership arrangement whereby Grand Traverse County provides easements for Sabin and Boardman Dams. The plan calls for operation of the system by Traverse City.

  5. [Impacts of hydroelectric cascade exploitation on river ecosystem and landscape: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Deng, Xi; Li, Xue-Ling; Wen, Ping

    2011-05-01

    Hydroelectric cascade exploitation, one of the major ways for exploiting water resources and developing hydropower, not only satisfies the needs of various national economic sectors, but also promotes the socio-economic sustainable development of river basin. unavoidable anthropogenic impacts on the entire basin ecosystem. Based on the process of hydroelectric cascade exploitation and the ecological characteristics of river basins, this paper reviewed the major impacts of hydroelectric cascade exploitation on dam-area ecosystems, river reservoirs micro-climate, riparian ecosystems, river aquatic ecosystems, wetlands, and river landscapes. Some prospects for future research were offered, e.g., strengthening the research of chain reactions and cumulative effects of ecological factors affected by hydroelectric cascade exploitation, intensifying the study of positive and negative ecological effects under the dam networks and their joint operations, and improving the research of successional development and stability of basin ecosystems at different temporal and spatial scales.

  6. What is the real price of hydroelectric production on the Senegal River?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raso, Luciano; Bader, Jean-Claude; Malaterre, Pierre-Olivier

    2014-05-01

    Manantali is an annual reservoir on the Senegal River, located in Mali and serving Senegal and Mauritania. The reservoir is used to regulate the flow for hydroelectric production, in the face of the extremely variable seasonal climate of the region. Manantali has been operative for about 10 years now, exceeding the planned production capacity. The economic benefit comes at a price. Before the dam's construction, the annual flood was the basis of flood recession agriculture, traditionally practiced by the local population. Hydroelectric production requires a more regular flow; therefore flow peaks that used to create the flood are now dumped in the reservoir. Floods are reduced because the current reservoir management privileges hydroelectric production to flood recession agriculture. Moreover, the local water authority is evaluating the construction of 6 more reservoirs, which will enhance even further the controllability of the river flow. This study assesses the externalities of energy production for the agricultural production, quantifying the reduction of flooded surface when energy production is maximized, or alternatively, the loss energy production to maintain a minimum sustainable flood. In addition, we examine the system reliability against extreme events, and how a better use of hydrological information can improve the present reservoir management, in order to find a win-win solution. In this study we employ Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming (SDDP) methodology. SDDP is a leaner version of Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP). SDDP does not suffer of the "curse of dimensionality", and therefore it can be applied to larger systems. In this application we include in the model: i) A semi-distributed hydrological model, ii) the reservoir, iii) the hydraulic routing process within the catchment and from the reservoir to the floodplain.

  7. Sediment management of run-of-river hydroelectric power project in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neena Isaac

    management. This paper presents the drawdown flushing studies of the reservoir of a Himalayan River. Hydroelectric Project called Kotlibhel in Uttarakhand, India. For the ... The model studies show that the sedimentation problem of the reservoir can be ..... [6] Yoon Y N 1992 The state and the perspective of the direct.

  8. Status Review of Wildlife Mitigation, Columbia Basin Hydroelectric Projects, Columbia River Mainstem Facilities, 1984 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howerton, Jack; Hwang, Diana

    1984-11-01

    This report reviews the status of past, present, and proposed future wildlife planning and mitigation programs at existing hydroelectric projects in the Columbia River Basin. The project evaluations will form the basis for determining any needed remedial measures or additional project analysis. Each hydropower facility report is abstracted separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  9. Integration of the hydroelectric power plants of Baixo Xingu, Tapajos and Medio Tocantins rivers to the interconnected Brazilian system; Integracao das UHE`s do Baixo Xingu, Tapajos e Medio Tocantins ao sistema interligado brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, J.A.M.; Abdo, J.M.M.; Vieira Filho, O.; Quijano, J.C.M.; Avila, F.T.; Steiner, A.C. [ELETRONORTE, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    1990-12-31

    Very big hydroelectric resources are placed in the north region of Brazil. Studies accomplished by ELETRONORTE, the utility responsible for the electric power generation and transmission within this region, have shown that the estimated average power available only in some big rivers like Xingu, Tapajos, and Tocantins is 29,500 MW. Even with the perspective of large industries planned to be implemented in the mentioned region, a big part of this available energy would not be absorbed. However, considering the lack of comparative energy sources in the other regions like southeast and northeast, the possibility of exporting electrical energy to these regions should be investigated. This paper deals with the technical and economical feasibility of integrating the north generations to the other electrical systems. The main results shown are the associated transmission evaluation, including the final costs of the energy to be delivered. Many other aspects as environmental impacts along the preionized routes, and undertakings to be held within the evolved regions, are also presented. (author). 4 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs

  10. Some environmental aspects of proposed hydro-electric schemes on the Zambezi River, Zimbabwe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Toit, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    Additional hydro-electric schemes on the Zambezi River, Zimbabwe, have been proposed to help meet that country's growing electricity demand. Preliminary environmental impact studies have shown that one of these schemes, at Mupata Gorge, poses a serious threat to the wilderness character and wildlife resources of the middle-Zambezi valley, while an alternative scheme, at Batoka gorge, would entail much less environmental cost. Likely impacts of these schemes on mammals, birds, fish, terrestrial and aquatic vegetation, human health and other environmental aspects are discussed. It is recommended that further environmental research on Zambezi hydro-electric schemes be carried out on an international basis.

  11. Environmental Impact Assessment: Uri hydroelectric power project on River Jhelum in Kashmir, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, L.

    1995-09-01

    This report is an Initial Aquatic Environmental Impact Assessment of the Uri Hydroelectric Power Project on River Jhelum in Kashmir, India. It includes the Terms of Reference of the assessment, a discussion on biodiversity and threats to it, the environmental indicators used to monitor and predict the impacts, a description of the physical, chemical and biological prerequisites of the River Jhelum ecosystem, a description of the survey sites chosen, and an overview of the present fish and bottom fauna. Finally, there are sections on the potential impacts on biota of the Uri Project and a list of proposals for how mitigating and enhancing measures could be enforced

  12. An Adaptive Multivariable Control System for Hydroelectric Generating Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunne J. Hegglid

    1983-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an adaptive multivariable control system for hydroelectric generating units. The system is based on a detailed mathematical model of the synchronous generator, the water turbine, the exiter system and turbine control servo. The models of the water penstock and the connected power system are static. These assumptions are not considered crucial. The system uses a Kalman filter for optimal estimation of the state variables and the parameters of the electric grid equivalent. The multivariable control law is computed from a Riccatti equation and is made adaptive to the generators running condition by means of a least square technique.

  13. Energy harvesting from hydroelectric systems for remote sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Azevedo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydroelectric systems are well-known for large scale power generation. However, there are virtually no studies on energy harvesting with these systems to produce tens or hundreds of milliwatts. The goal of this work was to study which design parameters from large-scale systems can be applied to small-scale systems. Two types of hydro turbines were evaluated. The first one was a Pelton turbine which is suitable for high heads and low flow rates. The second one was a propeller turbine used for low heads and high flow rates. Several turbine geometries and nozzle diameters were tested for the Pelton system. For the propeller, a three-bladed turbine was tested for different heads and draft tubes. The mechanical power provided by these turbines was measured to evaluate the range of efficiencies of these systems. A small three-phase generator was developed for coupling with the turbines in order to evaluate the generated electric power. Selected turbines were used to test battery charging with hydroelectric systems and a comparison between several efficiencies of the systems was made.

  14. Hydrologic Simulations Driven by Satellite Rainfall to Study the Hydroelectric Development Impacts on River Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan B. Le

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the impact of hydroelectric dams on the discharge and total suspended solids (TSS concentration in the Huong River basin in Vietnam. The analysis is based on hydrologic and sediment transport simulations by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model driven by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM 3B42V6 rainfall data, from January 2003 through December 2010. An upstream sub-basin not affected by the hydroelectric dams was used for model calibration. The calibration results indicate good agreement between simulated and observed daily data (0.67 Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, 0.82 Pearson correlation coefficient. The calibrated model for discharge and TSS simulation is then applied on another major sub-basin and then the whole Huong River basin. The simulation results indicate that dam operation in 2010 decreased downstream discharge during the rainy season by about 35% and augmented it during the dry season by about 226%. The downstream TSS concentration has decreased due to the dam operation but the total sediment loading increased during the dry season and decreased during the rainy season. On average, the dam construction and operation affected the pattern of discharge more than that of the sediment loading. Results indicate that SWAT, driven by remotely sensed inputs, can reasonably simulate discharge and water quality in ungauged or poorly gauged river basins and can be very useful for water resources assessment and climate change impact studies in such basins.

  15. Case study analysis of legal and institutional obstacles and incentives to the development of the hydroelectric potential at Goose River, Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The case study is an analysis of the legal, institutional, and financial incentives and obstacles to the development of the hydroelectric potential on the Goose River in Maine. The Goose River project concerns development by a private developer, Maine Hydro-Electric Development Corporation. The project is comprised of a five-dam system, with the first dam located at Swan Lake and the fifth dam about one mile from the sea. It will utilize the 7500 acre-feet of storage capacity of Swan Lake to run the four downstream power stations. The system is designed to generate 430 kWs of total capacity which would be sold to Central Maine Power, the local investor-owned public utility.

  16. Physicochemical Characteristics of River Water Downstream of a Large Tropical Hydroelectric Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teck-Yee Ling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water quality in the downstream river of a hydroelectric dam may be affected by the structural design and operation. To date, little is known about the water quality downstream of the largest dam in Malaysia, the Bakun hydroelectric dam. Therefore, the objective of the study was to determine the water quality downstream of the dam when the spillway was closed and when it was opened. Results of the study indicate that the dam plays a significant role in regulating the water quality downstream of it. When the spillway was closed, pH and oxygen were lower in the river where DO was below 5 mg/L. When the spillway was opened, the water quality improved in terms of oxygen content (>8.0 mg/L, total sulphide (TS, and chemical oxygen demand (COD but deteriorated in terms of five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, total ammonia nitrogen (TAN, and total phosphorus (TP. Additionally, the intensity of the impacts, particularly BOD5, COD, and TAN, shows a declining trend as distance from the dam increases. This study shows that impacts on the water quality extend to a distance of 32 km from the dam particularly turbidity and DO and opening the spillway changes the water quality significantly.

  17. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment Summary at Federal Hydroelectric Facilities; Willamette River Basin, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, J.H.

    1986-02-01

    Habitat based assessments were conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' hydroelectric projects in the Willamette River Basin, Oregon, to determine losses or gains to wildlife and/or wildlife habitat resulting from the development and operation of the hydroelectric-related components of the facilities. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types at the project sites were mapped based on aerial photographs. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected areas and acreages of each type at each period were determined. Wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the projects. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each project for each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the projects. The Willamette projects extensively altered or affected 33,407 acres of land and river in the McKenzie, Middle Fork Willamette, and Santiam river drainages. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 5184 acres of old-growth conifer forest, and 2850 acres of riparian hardwood and shrub cover types. Impacts resulting from the Willamette projects included the loss of critical winter range for black-tailed deer and Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for deer, upland game birds, furbearers, spotted owls, pileated woodpeckers, and many other wildlife species. Bald eagles and ospreys were benefited by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected areas to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Willamette projects. Losses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the lives of the projects. Cumulative or system-wide impacts of the Willamette projects were not quantitatively assessed.

  18. The effects of run-of-river hydroelectric power schemes on invertebrate community composition in temperate streams and rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilotta, Gary S; Burnside, Niall G; Turley, Matthew D; Gray, Jeremy C; Orr, Harriet G

    2017-01-01

    Run-of-river (ROR) hydroelectric power (HEP) schemes are often presumed to be less ecologically damaging than large-scale storage HEP schemes. However, there is currently limited scientific evidence on their ecological impact. The aim of this article is to investigate the effects of ROR HEP schemes on communities of invertebrates in temperate streams and rivers, using a multi-site Before-After, Control-Impact (BACI) study design. The study makes use of routine environmental surveillance data collected as part of long-term national and international monitoring programmes at 22 systematically-selected ROR HEP schemes and 22 systematically-selected paired control sites. Five widely-used family-level invertebrate metrics (richness, evenness, LIFE, E-PSI, WHPT) were analysed using a linear mixed effects model. The analyses showed that there was a statistically significant effect (pstudy design for future invertebrate community impact studies.

  19. Culinary and pressure irrigation water system hydroelectric generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, Cory [Water Works Engineers, Pleasant Grove City, UT (United States)

    2016-01-29

    Pleasant Grove City owns and operates a drinking water system that included pressure reducing stations (PRVs) in various locations and flow conditions. Several of these station are suitable for power generation. The City evaluated their system to identify opportunities for power generation that can be implemented based on the analysis of costs and prediction of power generation and associated revenue. The evaluation led to the selection of the Battle Creek site for development of a hydro-electric power generating system. The Battle Creek site includes a pipeline that carries spring water to storage tanks. The system utilizes a PRV to reduce pressure before the water is introduced into the tanks. The evaluation recommended that the PRV at this location be replaced with a turbine for the generation of electricity. The system will be connected to the utility power grid for use in the community. A pelton turbine was selected for the site, and a turbine building and piping system were constructed to complete a fully functional power generation system. It is anticipated that the system will generate approximately 440,000 kW-hr per year resulting in $40,000 of annual revenue.

  20. Feasibility determination of low head hydroelectric power development at existing sites: Mousam River Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of low head hydroelectric power development at existing sites along the Mousam River in southeastern Maine was studied. The following areas were investigated: determination of available energy; development of restoration concepts; environmental studies; historical and archeological studies; assessment of civil construction requirements; geotechnical and geologic assessment of existing dams; assessment of turbine alternatives; assessment of generator and utility interface alternatives; economic analysis; and restoration concept evaluation and selection. The results of the hydropower evaluation showed that: of the seven sites evaluated, only four can be considered economically feasible for refurbishment at this time; the use of used and/or rebuilt equipment is more economically attractive than new equipment; the cost of equipment at each site was of the same order as the cost of the dam reconstruction; and the cost of fuel prices will be the determining feature of whether the sites should be reconstructed.

  1. Integration of Lithium-Ion Battery Storage Systems in Hydroelectric Plants for Supplying Primary Control Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Bignucolo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ever-growing diffusion of renewables as electrical generation sources is forcing the electrical power system to face new and challenging regulation problems to preserve grid stability. Among these, the primary control reserve is reckoned to be one of the most important issues, since the introduction of generators based on renewable energies and interconnected through static converters, if relieved from the primary reserve contribution, reduces both the system inertia and the available power reserve in case of network events involving frequency perturbations. In this scenario, renewable plants such as hydroelectric run-of-river generators could be required to provide the primary control reserve ancillary service. In this paper, the integration between a multi-unit run-of-river power plant and a lithium-ion based battery storage system is investigated, suitably accounting for the ancillary service characteristics as required by present grid codes. The storage system is studied in terms of maximum economic profitability, taking into account its operating constraints. Dynamic simulations are carried out within the DIgSILENT PowerFactory 2016 software environment in order to analyse the plant response in case of network frequency contingencies, comparing the pure hydroelectric plant with the hybrid one, in which the primary reserve is partially or completely supplied by the storage system. Results confirm that the battery storage system response to frequency perturbations is clearly faster and more accurate during the transient phase compared to a traditional plant, since time delays due to hydraulic and mechanical regulations are overpassed. A case study, based on data from an existing hydropower plant and referring to the Italian context in terms of operational constraints and ancillary service remuneration, is presented.

  2. A system for environmental monitoring of hydroelectric reservoirs in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arley Souza

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental monitoring of aquatic systems is an important tool to support policy makers and environmental managers’ decisions. Long-term, continuous collection of environmental data is fundamental to the understanding of an aquatic system. This paper aims to present the integrated system for environmental monitoring (SIMA, a long-term temporal series system with a web-based archive for limnological and meteorological data. The following environmental parameters are measured by SIMA: chlorophyll-a ( , water surface temperature (ºC, water column temperature by a thermistor string (ºC, turbidity (NTU, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration (mg L-1, electric conductivity (µS cm-1, wind speed (ms-1 and direction (º, relative humidity (%, shortwave radiation (Wm-2 and barometric pressure (hPa. The data were collected in a preprogrammed time interval (1 hour and were transmitted by satellite in quasi-real time for any user within 2500 km of the acquisition point. So far, 11 hydroelectric reservoirs are being monitored with the SIMA buoy. Basic statistics (mean and standard deviation and an example of the temporal series of some parameters were displayed at a database with web access. However, sensor and satellite problems occurred due to the high data acquisition frequency. Sensors problems occurred due to the environmental characteristics of each aquatic system. Water quality sensors rapidly degrade in acidic waters, rendering the collected data invalid. Data is also rendered invalid when sensors become infested with periphyton. Problems occur with the satellites’ reception of system data when satellites pass over the buoy antenna. However, the data transfer at some inland locations was not completed due to the satellite constellation position. Nevertheless, the integrated system of water quality and meteorological parameters is an important tool in understanding the aquatic system dynamic. It can also be used to create hydrodynamics models of

  3. Feasibility of determination of low-head hydroelectric power development at existing sites. Big Blue River Co-dependent Hydroelectric Development: feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wacker, H. Steve; Feuerberg, Stan; Lawrence, John D.; Pal, Parimal C.; Trick, Dr., William T.

    1979-03-01

    The technical, economic, environmental, safety, and financial aspects of redeveloping 7 dam sites in Nebraska for hydroelectric power generation were studied. The Big Blue River Co-dependent Hydroelectric Development was found to be a technically feasible concept, for both redevelopment and in some cases rehabilitation of seven existing sites. The proposed redevelopment project will include seven installations with a recommended nominally rated redeveloped capacity of 3920 kW ranging from 120 kW at the northernmost site in Seward County to 1500 kW at Barneston. The average annual gross generation expected from the seven redeveloped sites totals 11,555,000 kWh. It is estimated that the total cost of redevelopment of these seven sites will be $14,090,000 at 1979 price levels, providing power at an average levelized cost of about 5.3 cents per kWh based on 7% cost of money, a mid-1983 commissioning date, and allowing for funds during construction and cost escalation over a 30-year period. Rehabilitation of original installations at Crete, Dewitt, Blue Springs and Barneston is technically feasible for a total installed capacity of 1415 kW with annual average gross generation of 6,675,000 kWh. The total cost of this rehabilitation is estimated as $3,372,000 at 1979 price levels, or about 2.4 cents per kWh, levelized on a similar basis. Rehabilitation of the Barneston site alone for an installed capacity of 760 kW and annual generation of 3,581,000 kWh is both technically and economically feasible. The total estimated cost of this alternative is $668,000, providing power at a cost of about 1.9 cents per kWh at 1979 price levels. The benefit-cost ratio for Barneston rehabilitation is estimated as 1.23.

  4. The Effects of Run-of-River Hydroelectric Power Schemes on Fish Community Composition in Temperate Streams and Rivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary S Bilotta

    Full Text Available The potential environmental impacts of large-scale storage hydroelectric power (HEP schemes have been well-documented in the literature. In Europe, awareness of these potential impacts and limited opportunities for politically-acceptable medium- to large-scale schemes, have caused attention to focus on smaller-scale HEP schemes, particularly run-of-river (ROR schemes, to contribute to meeting renewable energy targets. Run-of-river HEP schemes are often presumed to be less environmentally damaging than large-scale storage HEP schemes. However, there is currently a lack of peer-reviewed studies on their physical and ecological impact. The aim of this article was to investigate the effects of ROR HEP schemes on communities of fish in temperate streams and rivers, using a Before-After, Control-Impact (BACI study design. The study makes use of routine environmental surveillance data collected as part of long-term national and international monitoring programmes at 23 systematically-selected ROR HEP schemes and 23 systematically-selected paired control sites. Six area-normalised metrics of fish community composition were analysed using a linear mixed effects model (number of species, number of fish, number of Atlantic salmon-Salmo salar, number of >1 year old Atlantic salmon, number of brown trout-Salmo trutta, and number of >1 year old brown trout. The analyses showed that there was a statistically significant effect (p<0.05 of ROR HEP construction and operation on the number of species. However, no statistically significant effects were detected on the other five metrics of community composition. The implications of these findings are discussed in this article and recommendations are made for best-practice study design for future fish community impact studies.

  5. Urban green areas as the starting point for planning hydroelectric and urban developments: The case of the Sava River in the City of Ljubljana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Mlakar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the landscape and urbanistic layout of the Sava River space and North part of the Bežigrad stretch of Ljubljana. Focus is on methodological and content starting points for the layout preparation and development of urban green areas of the wider Sava River space, which as a connecting link and simultaneously independent spatial and functional entity represents the starting point for planning hydro-energetic and urban arrangements. The necessity of recognising and resolving real spatial planning issues, formulation of clear goals and concepts, confrontation of different spatial systems and interests, as well as the sensibility of devising alternative development scenarios are emphasised. One of the most important starting points of the proposed layout is comprehensive design of public open spaces and green areas. The urbanistic solution relies on a programmatically strong, distinct and structured Dunajska Street, which should transform into the public space of a modern urban artery, with a clear ending that simultaneously gradually adapts to the morphology akin to the surroundings and Sava River space. Because of its natural characteristics, preserved cultural landscape and good accessibility, this area has great potential for development of leisure activities. The proposed solution stems from the fact that the chain of hydro-electric plants shouldn't be seen as buildings with negative environmental effects, but also as development opportunities – the actual execution of a recreation area along the Sava River and a method for rehabilitating the degraded spaces. Comprehensive solutions along the river have been proposed as parts of the hydro-electric developments, with special attention focusing on active design of various riverbank types.

  6. Dynamic hydrologic economic modeling of tradeoffs in hydroelectric systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Jordan D.

    Hydropower producers face a future beset by unprecedented changes in the electric power industry, including the rapid growth of installed wind power capacity and a vastly increased supply of natural gas due to horizontal hydraulic fracturing (or "fracking"). There is also increased concern surrounding the potential for climate change to impact the magnitude and frequency of droughts. These developments may significantly alter the financial landscape for hydropower producers and have important ramifications for the environmental impacts of dams. Incorporating wind energy into electric power systems has the potential to affect price dynamics in electricity markets and, in so doing, alter the short-term financial signals on which dam operators rely to schedule reservoir releases. Chapter 1 of this doctoral dissertation develops an integrated reservoir-power system model for assessing the impact of large scale wind power integration of hydropower resources. Chapter 2 explores how efforts to reduce the carbon footprint of electric power systems by using wind energy to displace fossil fuel-based generation may inadvertently yield further impacts to river ecosystems by disrupting downstream flow patterns. Increased concern about the potential for climate change to alter the frequency and magnitude of droughts has led to growing interest in "index insurance" that compensates hydropower producers when values of an environmental variable (or index), such as reservoir inflows, crosses an agreed upon threshold (e.g., low flow conditions). Chapter 3 demonstrates the need for such index insurance contracts to also account for changes in natural gas prices in order to be cost-effective. Chapter 4 of this dissertation analyzes how recent low natural gas prices (partly attributable to fracking) have reduced the cost of implementing ramp rate restrictions at dams, which help restore sub-daily variability in river flows by limiting the flexibility of dam operators in scheduling

  7. Case study analysis of the legal and institutional obstacles and incentives to the development of the hydroelectric power of the Boardman River at Traverse City, Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    An analytic description of one decision-making process concerning whether or not to develop the hydroelectric potential of the Boardman River is presented. The focus of the analysis is on the factor that the developers considered, or should consider in making a responsible commitment to small-scale hydroelectric development. Development of the Boardman River would occur at the five dam sites. Two existing dams, owned by the county, previously generated hydroelectricity, as did a third before being washed out. One dam has never been utilized. It is owned by the city which also owns the washed-out area. The study concludes that hydroelectric power is feasible at each. Grand Traverse County and Traverse City would engage in a joint venture in developing the resource. Chapter I presents a detailed description of the developers, the river resource, and the contemplated development. Chapter II is an analysis of the factors affecting the decision making process. Chapter III summarizes the impact of the more significant barriers and incentives and presents recommendations that, if implemented, will favorably affect decisions to develop small-scale hydroelectric generation capability.

  8. The impacts of wind power integration on sub-daily variation in river flows downstream of hydroelectric dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Jordan D; Patino-Echeverri, Dalia; Characklis, Gregory W

    2014-08-19

    Due to their operational flexibility, hydroelectric dams are ideal candidates to compensate for the intermittency and unpredictability of wind energy production. However, more coordinated use of wind and hydropower resources may exacerbate the impacts dams have on downstream environmental flows, that is, the timing and magnitude of water flows needed to sustain river ecosystems. In this paper, we examine the effects of increased (i.e., 5%, 15%, and 25%) wind market penetration on prices for electricity and reserves, and assess the potential for altered price dynamics to disrupt reservoir release schedules at a hydroelectric dam and cause more variable and unpredictable hourly flow patterns (measured in terms of the Richards-Baker Flashiness (RBF) index). Results show that the greatest potential for wind energy to impact downstream flows occurs at high (∼25%) wind market penetration, when the dam sells more reserves in order to exploit spikes in real-time electricity prices caused by negative wind forecast errors. Nonetheless, compared to the initial impacts of dam construction (and the dam's subsequent operation as a peaking resource under baseline conditions) the marginal effects of any increased wind market penetration on downstream flows are found to be relatively minor.

  9. South Fork Tolt River Hydroelectric Project : Adopted Portions of a 1987 Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s Final Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-07-01

    The South Fork Tolt River Hydroelectric Project that world produce 6.55 average megawatts of firm energy per year and would be sited in the Snohomish River Basin, Washington, was evaluated by the Federal Energy Regulatory commission (FERC) along with six other proposed projects for environmental effects and economic feasibility Based on its economic analysis and environmental evaluation of the project, the FERC staff found that the South Fork Tolt River Project would be economically feasible and would result in insignificant Impacts if sedimentation issues could be resolved. Upon review, the BPA is adopting portions of the 1987 FERC FEIS that concern the South Fork Tolt River Hydroelectric Project and updating specific sections in an Attachment.

  10. Potential effects of hydroelectric dam development in the Mekong River basin on the migration of Siamese mud carp (Henicorhynchus siamensis and H. lobatus elucidated by otolith microchemistry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michio Fukushima

    Full Text Available The migration of Siamese mud carp (Henicorhynchus siamensis and H. lobatus, two of the most economically important fish species in the Mekong River, was studied using an otolith microchemistry technique. Fish and river water samples were collected in seven regions throughout the whole basin in Thailand, Laos and Cambodia over a 4 year study period. There was coherence between the elements in the ambient water and on the surface of the otoliths, with strontium (Sr and barium (Ba showing the strongest correlation. The partition coefficients were 0.409-0.496 for Sr and 0.055 for Ba. Otolith Sr-Ba profiles indicated extensive synchronized migrations with similar natal origins among individuals within the same region. H. siamensis movement has been severely suppressed in a tributary system where a series of irrigation dams has blocked their migration. H. lobatus collected both below and above the Khone Falls in the mainstream Mekong exhibited statistically different otolith surface elemental signatures but similar core elemental signatures. This result suggests a population originating from a single natal origin but bypassing the waterfalls through a passable side channel where a major hydroelectric dam is planned. The potential effects of damming in the Mekong River are discussed.

  11. A Wildlife Habitat Protection, Mitigation and Enhancement Plan for Eight Federal Hydroelectric Facilities in the Willamette River Basin: Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, S.K.

    1987-05-01

    The development and operation of eight federal hydroelectric projects in the Willamette River Basin impacted 30,776 acres of prime wildlife habitat. This study proposes mitigative measures for the losses to wildlife and wildlife habitat resulting from these projects, under the direction of the Columbia River Basin (CRB) Fish and Wildlife Program. The CRB Fish and Wildlife Program was adopted in 1982 by the Northwest Power Planning Council, pursuant to the Northwest Power Planning Act of 1980. The proposed mitigation plan is based on the findings of loss assessments completed in 1985, that used a modified Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) to assess the extent of impact to wildlife and wildlife habitat, with 24 evaluation species. The vegetative structure of the impacted habitat was broken down into three components: big game winter range, riparian habitat and old-growth forest. The mitigation plan proposes implementation of the following, over a period of 20 years: (1) purchase of cut-over timber lands to mitigate, in the long-term, for big game winter range, and portions of the riparian habitat and old-growth forest (approx. 20,000 acres); (2) purchase approximately 4,400 acres of riparian habitat along the Willamette River Greenway; and (3) three options to mitigate for the outstanding old-growth forest losses. Monitoring would be required in the early stages of the 100-year plan. The timber lands would be actively managed for elk and timber revenue could provide O and M costs over the long-term.

  12. Effects of Hydroelectric Dam Operations on the Restoration Potential of Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Spawning Habitat Final Report, October 2005 - September 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Arntzen, Evan V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2007-11-13

    This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Fish and Wildlife Program directed by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council. The study evaluated the restoration potential of Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat within the impounded lower Snake River. The objective of the research was to determine if hydroelectric dam operations could be modified, within existing system constraints (e.g., minimum to normal pool levels; without partial removal of a dam structure), to increase the amount of available fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the lower Snake River. Empirical and modeled physical habitat data were used to compare potential fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Snake River, under current and modified dam operations, with the analogous physical characteristics of an existing fall Chinook salmon spawning area in the Columbia River. The two Snake River study areas included the Ice Harbor Dam tailrace downstream to the Highway 12 bridge and the Lower Granite Dam tailrace downstream approximately 12 river kilometers. These areas represent tailwater habitat (i.e., riverine segments extending from a dam downstream to the backwater influence from the next dam downstream). We used a reference site, indicative of current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in tailwater habitat, against which to compare the physical characteristics of each study site. The reference site for tailwater habitats was the section extending downstream from the Wanapum Dam tailrace on the Columbia River. Fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat use data, including water depth, velocity, substrate size and channelbed slope, from the Wanapum reference area were used to define spawning habitat suitability based on these variables. Fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat suitability of the Snake River study areas was estimated by applying the Wanapum reference reach habitat

  13. Open system architecture for condition based maintenance applied to a hydroelectric power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaya, E.J.; Alvares, A.J. [University of Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Mechanical and Mechatronic Dept.], Emails: eamaya@unb.br, alvares@AlvaresTech.com; Gudwin, R.R. [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Computer Engineering and Industrial Automation Dept.], E-mail: gudwin@dca.fee.unicamp.br

    2009-07-01

    The hydroelectric power plant of Balbina is implementing a condition based maintenance system applying an open, modular and scalable integrated architecture to provide comprehensive solutions and support to the end users like operational and maintenance team. The system called SIMPREBAL (Predictive Maintenance System of Balbina) is advocate of open standards, in particular through collaborative research programmers. In the developing is clearly understands the need for both, industry standards and a simple to use software development tool chain, supporting the development of complex condition based maintenance systems with multiple partners. The Open System Architecture for Condition Based Maintenance (OSA-CBM) is a standard that consider seven hierarchic layers that represent a logic transition or performed data flow from the data acquisition layer, through the intermediates layers as signal processing, condition monitor, health assessment, prognostics and decision support, to arrive to the presentation layer. SIMPREBAL is being implementing as an OSA-CBM software framework and tool set that allows the creation of truly integrated, comprehensive maintenance solutions through the internet. This paper identifies specific benefits of the application of the OSA-CBM in comprehensive solutions of condition based maintenance for a hydroelectric power plant. (author)

  14. Environmental impact analysis of the hydroelectric power development sheme in the River Grunnaai in Seljord municipality, Telemark; Konsekvensutredning av kraftutbyggingsprosjekt i Grunnaai i Seljord, Telemark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muniz, I.P.; Bendiksen, E.; Erikstad, L.; Reitan, O.

    1997-12-31

    This report discusses the possible environmental consequences of a planned hydroelectric power development of the river Grunnaai, Norway. The consequences are found to be small, provided the proper counter measures are taken. Without counter measures, there may be moderate consequences on fish populations and botanical conditions, directly dependent on the changed water flow. The greatest value of the area concerned lies in its unspoiled wilderness character. There are extensive lists of birds and mammals and plant species registered in the river valley. 51 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. A model for the data extrapolation of greenhouse gas emissions in the Brazilian hydroelectric system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinguelli Rosa, Luiz; Aurélio dos Santos, Marco; Gesteira, Claudio; Elias Xavier, Adilson

    2016-06-01

    Hydropower reservoirs are artificial water systems and comprise a small proportion of the Earth’s continental territory. However, they play an important role in the aquatic biogeochemistry and may affect the environment negatively. Since the 90s, as a result of research on organic matter decay in manmade flooded areas, some reports have associated greenhouse gas emissions with dam construction. Pioneering work carried out in the early period challenged the view that hydroelectric plants generate completely clean energy. Those estimates suggested that GHG emissions into the atmosphere from some hydroelectric dams may be significant when measured per unit of energy generated and should be compared to GHG emissions from fossil fuels used for power generation. The contribution to global warming of greenhouse gases emitted by hydropower reservoirs is currently the subject of various international discussions and debates. One of the most controversial issues is the extrapolation of data from different sites. In this study, the extrapolation from a site sample where measurements were made to the complete set of 251 reservoirs in Brazil, comprising a total flooded area of 32 485 square kilometers, was derived from the theory of self-organized criticality. We employed a power law for its statistical representation. The present article reviews the data generated at that time in order to demonstrate how, with the help of mathematical tools, we can extrapolate values from one reservoir to another without compromising the reliability of the results.

  16. Oregon Trust Agreement Planning Project : Potential Mitigations to the Impacts on Oregon Wildlife Resources Associated with Relevant Mainstem Columbia River and Willamette River Hydroelectric Projects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-10-01

    A coalition of the Oregon wildlife agencies and tribes (the Oregon Wildlife Mitigation Coalition) have forged a cooperative effort to promote wildlife mitigation from losses to Oregon wildlife resources associated with the four mainstream Columbia River and the eight Willamette River Basin hydroelectric projects. This coalition formed a Joint Advisory Committee, made up of technical representatives from all of the tribes and agencies, to develop this report. The goal was to create a list of potential mitigation opportunities by priority, and to attempt to determine the costs of mitigating the wildlife losses. The information and analysis was completed for all projects in Oregon, but was gathered separately for the Lower Columbia and Willamette Basin projects. The coalition developed a procedure to gather information on potential mitigation projects and opportunities. All tribes, agencies and interested parties were contacted in an attempt to evaluate all proposed or potential mitigation. A database was developed and minimum criteria were established for opportunities to be considered. These criteria included the location of the mitigation site within a defined area, as well as other criteria established by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Costs were established for general habitats within the mitigation area, based on estimates from certified appraisers. An analysis of the cost effectiveness of various types of mitigation projects was completed. Estimates of operation and maintenance costs were also developed. The report outlines strategies for gathering mitigation potentials, evaluating them, determining their costs, and attempting to move towards their implementation.

  17. Probabilistic streamflow forecasting for hydroelectricity production: A comparison of two non-parametric system identification algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Saket; Sharma, Ashish

    2014-05-01

    This study is motivated by the need to robustly specify, identify, and forecast runoff generation processes for hydroelectricity production. It atleast requires the identification of significant predictors of runoff generation and the influence of each such significant predictor on runoff response. To this end, we compare two non-parametric algorithms of predictor subset selection. One is based on information theory that assesses predictor significance (and hence selection) based on Partial Information (PI) rationale of Sharma and Mehrotra (2014). The other algorithm is based on a frequentist approach that uses bounds on probability of error concept of Pande (2005), assesses all possible predictor subsets on-the-go and converges to a predictor subset in an computationally efficient manner. Both the algorithms approximate the underlying system by locally constant functions and select predictor subsets corresponding to these functions. The performance of the two algorithms is compared on a set of synthetic case studies as well as a real world case study of inflow forecasting. References: Sharma, A., and R. Mehrotra (2014), An information theoretic alternative to model a natural system using observational information alone, Water Resources Research, 49, doi:10.1002/2013WR013845. Pande, S. (2005), Generalized local learning in water resource management, PhD dissertation, Utah State University, UT-USA, 148p.

  18. 75 FR 19989 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for Drought Management Planning at the Kerr Hydroelectric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... Hydroelectric Project (Project) is located at river mile 72.0 on the Flathead River, just downstream from... to, effects on hydroelectric power production, recreation, tourism, irrigation, flooding, treaty...

  19. Reliability of hydroelectric generation components, systems and units; Confiabilidad de componentes, sistemas y unidades de generacion hidroelectrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Sanchez, Ramon; Torres Toledano, Gerardo; Franco Nava, Jose Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This article presents a methodology for the calculation of the reliability of components, systems and hydroelectric generating units, as well as the scope of a computational system for the evaluation of such reliability. In the case of the reliability calculation of components and systems, the computer programs is not limited to hydro stations and can be used in other type of systems. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta una metodologia para calcular la confiabilidad de componentes, sistemas y unidades de generacion hidroelectrica, asi como el alcance de un sistema computacional para evaluar dicha confiabilidad. En el caso del calculo de confiabilidad de componentes y sistemas, el programa de computo no se limita a centrales hidroelectricas y puede utilizarse en otro tipo de sistemas.

  20. Review of Pacific Northwest Laboratory research on aquatic effects of hydroelectric generation and assessment of research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fickeisen, D.H.; Becker, C.D.; Neitzel, D.A.

    1981-05-01

    This report is an overview of Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) research on how hydroelectric generation affects aquatic biota and environments. The major accomplishments of this research are described, and additional work needed to permit optimal use of available data is identified. The research goals are to: (1) identify impacts of hydroelectric generation, (2) provide guidance in allocating scarce water resources, and (3) develop techniques to avoid or reduce the impacts on aquatic communities or to compensate for unavoidable impacts. Through laboratory and field experiments, an understanding is being developed of the generic impacts of hydrogeneration. Because PNL is located near the Columbia River, which is extensively developed for hydroelectric generation, it is used as a natural laboratory for studying a large-scale operating system. Although the impacts studied result from a particular system of dams and operating procedures and occur within a specific ecosystem, the results of these studies have application at hydroelectric generating facilities throughout the United States.

  1. Characterization of the Water Quality Status on a Stretch of River Lérez around a Small Hydroelectric Power Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Valero

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The renewable energy emerged as a solution to the environmental problems caused by the conventional sources of energy. Small hydropower (SHP is claimed to cause negligible effects on the ecosystem, although some environmental values are threatened and maintenance of an adequate water quality should be ensured. This work provides a characterization of the water quality status in a river stretch around a SHP plant on river Lérez, northwest Spain, for four years after its construction. The ecological and chemical status of the water as well as the ecological quality of the riparian habitat, were used as measures of quality. Data were compared with the water quality requirements. The variations in the quality parameters were analyzed over time and over the river sections with respect to the SHP plant elements. Two years after construction, the temperature and dissolved oxygen values achieved conditions for salmonid water and close to the reference condition, while pH values were low. The Iberian Biological Monitoring Working Party (IBMWP index showed a positive trend from two years after the construction and stabilized at “unpolluted or not considerably altered water”. Quality parameters did not present significant differences between sampling points. The SHP plant construction momentarily altered the quality characteristics of the water.

  2. Optimal control of hydroelectric facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guangzhi

    challenging problem of optimizing a sequence of two hydro dams sharing the same river system. The complexity of this problem is magnified and we just scratch its surface here. The thesis concludes with suggestions for future work in this fertile area. Keywords: dynamic programming, hydroelectric facility, optimization, optimal control, switching cost, turbine efficiency.

  3. Design criteria applied for the Lower Pressure Tunnel of the North Fork Stanislaus River Hydroelectric Project in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleiss, A.

    1988-07-01

    The application of various criteria and certain new approaches to design is illustrated by the example of the Lower Collierville Pressure Tunnel of the North Fork Stanislaus River Hydropower Project in California. With a maximum internal water pressure of 72 bar, Lower Collierville Tunnel will be, when commissioned in 1989, the highest stressed pressure tunnel in the world not situated in granitic rocks. The geological conditions and the results of the geotechnical investigations are described briefly. For the steel-lined portion of the tunnel, the approach for determining the bearing capacity of the rock mass and the load sharing between steel and rock is discussed. The required length of steel liner was determined on the basis of rock mechanical (hydraulic jacking) and rock hydraulic (seepage losses and extension of saturated zone due to seepage) criteria. The use of a new theory allows the effects of mechanical-hydraulic interaction to be taken into account. Finally the methods of estimating the expected water losses and the sealing effect of the consolidation grouting are described.

  4. Canton hydroelectric project: feasibility study. Final report, appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    These appendices contain legal, environmental, regulatory, technical and economic information used in evaluating the feasibility of redeveloping the hydroelectric power generating facilities at the Upper and Lower Dams of the Farmington River at Collinsville, CT. (LCL)

  5. Assessment of power step performances of variable speed pump-turbine unit by means of hydro-electrical system simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béguin, A.; Nicolet, C.; Hell, J.; Moreira, C.

    2017-04-01

    The paper explores the improvement in ancillary services that variable speed technologies can provide for the case of an existing pumped storage power plant of 2x210 MVA which conversion from fixed speed to variable speed is investigated with a focus on the power step performances of the units. First two motor-generator variable speed technologies are introduced, namely the Doubly Fed Induction Machine (DFIM) and the Full Scale Frequency Converter (FSFC). Then a detailed numerical simulation model of the investigated power plant used to simulate power steps response and comprising the waterways, the pump-turbine unit, the motor-generator, the grid connection and the control systems is presented. Hydroelectric system time domain simulations are performed in order to determine the shortest response time achievable, taking into account the constraints from the maximum penstock pressure and from the rotational speed limits. It is shown that the maximum instantaneous power step response up and down depends on the hydro-mechanical characteristics of the pump-turbine unit and of the motor-generator speed limits. As a results, for the investigated test case, the FSFC solution offer the best power step response performances.

  6. National Hydroelectric Power Resources Study: Regional Assessment: Volume XXII: Western Systems Coordinating Council, (WSCC). Volume 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    APPLEGATE CORPS of ENGINEERS • ORCNPP02S6 8 IOONPWQosq • UCHU CR£EK * ARIEL DAM (~AKE MERWINl • ARIZONA ’AlL.S • - AROCK * ARRAaTIU CREEK * ARROW...QRHNPPOl44 , HOOD RIVER * - ,OWER. i OR7NpPotl’ * COOS * • PRADO DAM _ CACSPL999S * RIVERSIDE * t PREACHER RApIDS * WA5NPS025’ * JEFFERSON...METRUPOlITIAN WATER oIST • 40. 950,0* a4Q.7. ISO * 853 • * NNNNNNNNN • • • WUAD LAKE MATHtWS 11 * * • • * * 11 • - * * * • • * • • CACSPLQQ98 • PRADO

  7. Small hydroelectric engineering practice

    CERN Document Server

    Leyland, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Small Hydroelectric Engineering Practice is a comprehensive reference book covering all aspects of identifying, building, and operating hydroelectric schemes between 500 kW and 50 MW. In this range of outputs there are many options for all aspects of the scheme and it is very important that the best options are chosen.As small hydroelectric schemes are usually built against a limited budget it is extremely important that the concept design is optimum and every component is designed to maximise the benefi t and minimise the cost. As operating costs are often a high proportion of the income it i

  8. A novel security information and event management system for enhancing cyber security in a hydroelectric dam.

    OpenAIRE

    Matteucci, Ilaria; Di Sarno, Cesario; Garofalo, Alessia; Vallini, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Security information and event management (SIEM) systems are increasingly used to cope with the security challenges involved in critical infrastructure protection. However, these systems have several limitations. This paper describes an enhanced security information and event management system that (i) resolves conflicts between security policies; (ii) discovers unauthorized network data paths and appropriately reconfigures network devices; and (iii) provides an intrusion- and fault-tolerant ...

  9. The hydroelectric dam impacts on the Kompienga river basin (Burkina Faso); Les impacts du barrage hydro-electrique sur le bassin versant de la komoienga (Burkina Faso)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dipama, J.M.

    1997-07-01

    This study takes stock on the physical and social environment negative impacts of the hydroelectric dam built in 1985 in the Burkina Faso. Th electric power of the country have been improved but the hydrocarbons consumption did not decrease. The vegetation decreased in the area of the dam from 15 km{sup 2} to 7,6 and soils are now more exposed to the erosion phenomena. Biological modifications of the ecosystem appeared as human diseases. (A.L.B.)

  10. Hydrodynamic optimization of trust ring pump and lubricating oil system for large hydroelectric units thrust bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, X.; Lu, Z.; Zhang, X.; Yang, S.

    2014-03-01

    Thrust-ring-pump is a kind of extreme-low specific speed centrifugal pump with special structure as numerous restrictions form thrust bearing and operation conditions of hydro turbine generator unit. Because the oil circulating and cooling system with thrust-ring- pump has a lot of advantages in maintenance and compactness in structure, it has widely been used in large and medium-sized hydro-generator units. Since the diameter and the speed of the thrust ring is limited by the generator set, the matching relationship between the flow passage inside the thrust ring (equivalent to impeller) and oil bath (equivalent to volute) has great influence on hydrodynamic performance of thrust-ring-pump, additionally, the head and discharge are varying with the operation conditions of hydro-generator unit and characteristic of the oil circulating and cooling system. As so far, the empirical calculation method is employed during the actual engineering design, in order to guarantee the operating performance of the oil circulating and cooling system with thrust-ring-pump at different conditions, a collaborative hydrodynamic design and optimization of both the oil circulating and cooling system and thrust-ring-pump is purposed in this paper. Firstly, the head and discharge required at different conditions are decided by 1D flow numerical simulation of the oil circulating and cooling system. Secondly, the flow passages of thrust-ring-pump are empirically designed under the restrictions of diameter and the speed of the thrust ring according to the head and discharge from the simulation. Thirdly, the flow passage geometry matching optimization between holes inside the thrust ring and oil bath is implemented by means of 3D flow simulation and performance prediction. Then, the pumps and the oil circulating and cooling system are collaborative hydrodynamic optimized with predicted head- discharge curve and the efficiency-discharge curve of thrust-ring-pump. The presented methodology has

  11. Long-term management of a hydroelectric multireservoir system under uncertainty using the progressive hedging algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, P.-L.; Gendreau, M.; Bastin, F.

    2013-05-01

    Among the numerous methods proposed over the past decades for solving reservoir management problems, only a few are applicable on high-dimensional reservoir systems (HDRSs). The progressive hedging algorithm (PHA) was rarely used for managing reservoir systems, but this method is a promising alternative to conventionally used methods for managing HDRSs (e.g., the stochastic dual dynamic programming). The PHA is especially well suited when a new stochastic optimization model must be built upon an existing deterministic optimization model (DOM). In such case, scenario subproblems can be resolved using an existing DOM with minor modifications. In previous studies, the PHA was rarely used and only tested on problems covering short-range planning horizons (2 months with six time periods) where a small number of nonanticipativity constraints (NACs) must be satisfied. Large reservoirs often need to be managed over a much longer planning horizon (1-5 years) containing many tens of time periods. In such case, convergence becomes much more difficult to achieve because of the larger number of NACs to be satisfied. Finding a nonanticipative solution becomes particularly difficult when the input scenarios differ drastically. In this study, we demonstrate the applicability of the PHA for managing HDRSs over long-term (more than a year) horizons in highly uncertain decision environments. We apply the PHA on Hydro-Québec's reservoir system over a 92 week (period) horizon. We analyze the performance of the PHA for different penalty parameter values. Deterministic solutions are compared to stochastic solutions.

  12. Mathematical Modeling in Systems for Operational Evaluation of the Stress-Strain State of the Arch-Gravity Dam at the Sayano-Shushenskaya Hydroelectric Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellendir, E. N.; Gordon, L. A., E-mail: lev-gordon@mail.ru; Khrapkov, A. A.; Skvortsova, A. E., E-mail: SkvortsovaAE@vniig.ru [B. E. Vedeneev All-Russia Research Institute of Hydraulic Engineering (VNIIG) (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    Current studies of the stress-strain state of the dam at the Sayano-Shushenskaya Hydroelectric Power Plant at VNIIG based on mathematical modeling including full scale and experimental data are described. Applications and programs intended for automatic operational evaluation of the stress-strain state of the dam for optimizing control of the upper race level in the course of the annual filling-drawdown cycle and during seismic events are examined. Improvements in systems for monitoring the stress-strain state of concrete dams are proposed.

  13. Colorado River Mile System, Tenths of Miles

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains points representing tenth of miles in the GCMRC river mile system. The points fall along the centerline of the Colorado River from Glen Canyon...

  14. Hiilangaay Hydroelectric Project – Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twitchell, Sara [HDR, Omaha, NE (United States); Stimac, Michael [HDR, Omaha, NE (United States); Lang, Lisa [Haida Corporation, Hydaburg, AK (United States); Witwer, Doreen [Haida Corporation, Hydaburg, AK (United States); Jameson, Vincent [Haida Corporation, Hydaburg, AK (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The Hiilangaay Hydroelectric Project (“Hiilangaay” or the “Project”) is a 5-megawatt hydroelectric resource currently under construction on Prince of Wales Island (POW), Alaska, approximately ten miles east of Hydaburg. The objective of the Project is to interconnect with the existing transmission grid on Prince of Wales Island, increasing the hydroelectric generation capability by 5 MW, eliminating the need for diesel generation, increasing the reliability of the electrical system, and allowing the interconnected portion of the island to have 100 percent renewable energy generation. Pre-construction activities including construction planning, permit coordination and compliance, and final design have made it possible to move forward with construction of the Hiilangaay Project. Despite repeated delays to the schedule, persistence and long-term planning will culminate in the construction of the Project, and make Prince of Wales Island independent of diesel-fueled energy

  15. Tuttle Creek Hydroelectric Project feasibility assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-03-01

    The results are presented of a feasibility assessment study to determine if hydroelectric generation could be developed economically at the Corps of Engineers' Tuttle Creek Dam, an existing flood control structure on the Big Blue River near Manhattan, Kansas. The studies and investigations included site reconnaissance, system load characteristics, site hydrology, conceptual project arrangements and layouts, power studies, estimates of construction costs, development of capital costs, economic feasibility, development of a design and construction schedule and preliminary environmental review of the proposed Project. The dependable capacity of the Project as delivered into the existing transmission and distribution network is 12,290 kW and the average annual energy is 56,690 MWh. For the scheduled on-line date of July 1984, the Project is estimated to have a Total Investment Cost of $19,662,000 (equal to $1333/kW installed at that time frame) with an estimated annual cost for the first year of operation of $2,696,000, assuming REA financing at 9.5% interest rate. The Project is considered technically feasible and without any major environmental issues. It shows economic feasibility providing satisfactory financing terms are available. (LCL)

  16. Model for energy planning of degraded river basins based on hydrological evaluation of hydroelectric reservoirs in operation; Modelo de planejamento energetico de bacias hidrograficas degradadas baseado na avaliacao hidrica de reservatorios hidreletricos em operacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Afonso Henriques Moreira [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil); Ferreira, Aloisio Caetano; Ottoni, Arthur Benedicto; Nogueira Neto, Claudio; Silva, Denis de Souza

    2008-07-01

    The human occupation of the hydrographic basin, made in the past without plans, generated alteration of the hydrology characteristics, presenting as direct consequence modifications of its hydric availabilities. Or either, the floods in the rainy periods and the droughts in the ones of dryness currently tend to be more frequent and with bigger intensity. These conditions have affected the operation as well as the planning of the hydroelectric reservoirs, that have generated energy in conditions of different hydric availabilities (worse) of those foreseeing at the time of the project. These situations result in uncertainties and energy losses for the investor as well as in the system. Under such premises, the present article analyzes the energy-economic influences of the deterioration of the hydric regimen of some on exploitations in operation to the system, located in basins degrades in the South, Southeastern and Northeast regions; enhancing the importance of the studies of hydric economy of these units of management (degraded basins) as subsidy of taking of decision for gradual recovery of its hydric availabilities; taking in account the energy optimization of the hydroelectric reservoirs in located operation as well as the minimization of inherent the financial losses to the uncertainties of its hydric resources. (author)

  17. Downstream effects of the Pelton-Round Butte hydroelectric project on bedload, transport, channel morphology, and channel-bed texture, lower Deschutes River, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidi Fassnacht; Ellen M. McClure; Gordon E. Grant; Peter C. Klingeman

    2003-01-01

    Field, laboratory, and historical data provide the basis for interpreting the effects of the Pelton-Round Butte dam complex on the surface water hydrology and geomorphology of the lower Deschutes River, Oregon, USA. The river's response to upstream impoundment and flow regulation is evaluated in terms of changes in predicted bedload transport rates, channel...

  18. 78 FR 69663 - Jonathan and Jayne Chase Troy Mills Hydroelectric Inc.; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ..., 2011,\\1\\ has been transferred to Troy Mills Hydroelectric Inc. The project is located on the Missisquoi River in Orleans County, Vermont. The transfer of an exemption does not require Commission approval. \\1... Energy Regulatory Commission Jonathan and Jayne Chase Troy Mills Hydroelectric Inc.; Notice of Transfer...

  19. 77 FR 12835 - American Land Company, LLC, Burnshire Hydroelectric, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... 22, 1982,\\1\\ has been transferred to Burnshire Hydroelectric, LLC. The project is located on the North Fork, Shenandoah River in Shenandoah County, Virginia. The transfer of an exemption does not... Energy Regulatory Commission American Land Company, LLC, Burnshire Hydroelectric, LLC; Notice of Transfer...

  20. Status Review of Wildlife Mitigation at Columbia Basin Hydroelectric Projects, Oregon Facilities, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedrossian, Karen L.

    1984-08-01

    The report presents a review and documentation of existing information on wildlife resources at Columbia River Basin hydroelectric facilities within Oregon. Effects of hydroelectric development and operation; existing agreements; and past, current and proposed wildlife mitigation, enhancement, and protection activities were considered. (ACR)

  1. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small-scale hydroelectric power in Rhode Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are discussed. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area, and the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is examined. In Rhode Island, any private rights in the flowing waters of a river or stream depend upon ownership of the abutting land. It appears Rhode Island follows the reasonable use theory of riparian law. The Department of Environmental Management is the most significant administrative agency with regard to dam construction, alteration, and operation in the state of Rhode Island.

  2. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric potential in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The introductory section examines the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of the hydroelectric development, and concludes with an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. The first obstacle which every developer in Illinois must confront is obtaining authority to utilize the river bed, banks, and flowing water at the proposed site. This involves determination of ownership of the stream banks and bed and the manner of obtaining either their title or use; and existing constraints with regard to the use of the water. Illinois follows the riparian theory of water law. Following the detailed discussion of the water law, direct and indirect regulations and financial considerations are discussed.

  3. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Connecticut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric power in Connecticut are discussed. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area and this dual system is examined from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. Connecticut follows the riparian theory of water law. Under this theory of the water law, private rights in rivers and streams are confined to the use of flowing water. A riparian proprietor does not own the water that flows by his estate. Licensing, permitting, and review procedures are discussed followed by discussion on public utilities regulation and indirect considerations.

  4. Feasibility of Documenting and Estimating Adult Fish Passage at Large Hydroelectric Facilities in the Snake River Using Video Technology; 1993 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatch, Douglas R.; Pederson, David R.; Fryer, Jeffrey

    1994-07-01

    Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River to evaluate the feasibility of using video technology to document and estimate fish ladder passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, sockeye salmon O. nerka, and steelhead O. mykiss. A video system was to produced video images during salmon passage periods. A technician identified and counted fish images from the video record. Fish ladder passage estimates of target species made from the video record were similar to estimates made by on-site counters during daytime periods, indicating that the two methods were relatively precise. We also found that a significant percentage (6.4% and 8.3%) of target salmonids migrated during nighttime periods when on-site counts were not typically made during the two years of study. Analysis of the video record permitted verification of individual sockeye salmon identified and counted by on-site count personnel, and provided data useful to managers of this ESA-listed stock. Analysis of the video record also permitted collection of additional data such as length measurements of individual specimens, which was used to regulate a fishery located upstream.

  5. Systems for the calculation of electrical parameters and energy efficiency for high-capacity hydroelectric generators; Sistemas para el calculo de parametros electricos y eficiencia energetica para generadores hidroelectricos de gran capacidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes Martinez, Oscar Alfonso; Pascacio de los Santos, Alberth; Perez Abad, Carlos Alberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Leon Rivera, Nicolas [CFE-LAPEM, Irapuato, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) has developed important hydroelectrical power projects in Mexico. Most of them are located in the Santiago River Hydrological System in Nayarit, Mexico. A total of 27 projects with a capacity of 4,300 MW are considered but only 32% of them have been carried out. One of the most ambitious projects that continue in process of construction is the Hydroelectrical Plant La Yesca. This project will conclude in late 2012 and consists of two electric generators of 375 MW, 17 kV. It will be second in power and the third in electrical generation at the system. According to national and international standards, a set of static and dynamic tests must be performed in these generators before commissioning, to ensure their proper operation. Winding stator high voltage endurance test, three phase sudden short circuit test and energy efficiency calculation are some of the most important tests to be performed in a new electrical generator. These tests are difficult to perform on-site due to the equipment capacity required, so very few companies in the world can conduct them. In Mexico no one has the necessary infrastructure for testing in high capacity hydroelectric generators such as those from La Yesca, so the Laboratorio de Pruebas a Equipos y Materiales (LAPEM) has invested in projects to improve this project in order to meet the needs of the Mexican electricity sector. This paper is a description of the systems developed for the calculation of electrical parameters and energy efficiency for this class of generators. [Spanish] En los ultimos anos, la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) ha desarrollado importantes proyectos hidroelectricos en Mexico. La mayor parte se ubican en el Sistema Hidrologico del Rio Santiago en Nayarit, Mexico. Se consideran un total de 27 proyectos con capacidad de 4300 MW, pero solo 32 % de ellos se han llevado a cabo. Uno de los proyectos mas ambiciosos que continua en proceso de

  6. River System Behaviour Effects on Flood Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweckendiek, T.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Van Mierlo, M.C.L.M.; Calle, E.O.F.; Courage, W.M.G.

    2008-01-01

    A risk-based safety approach is indispensable to support decision-making on flood protection strategies and measures. Hitherto the effects of river system behaviour on flood risk have usually been neglected. River system behaviour refers to the fact that the flood risk (or safety) of a particular

  7. Methodologies for Assessing the Cumulative Environmental Effects of Hydroelectric Development of Fish and Wildlife in the Columbia River Basin, Volume 1, Recommendations, 1987 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stull, Elizabeth Ann

    1987-07-01

    This volume is the first of a two-part set addressing methods for assessing the cumulative effects of hydropower development on fish and wildlife in the Columbia River Basin. Species and habitats potentially affected by cumulative impacts are identified for the basin, and the most significant effects of hydropower development are presented. Then, current methods for measuring and assessing single-project effects are reviewed, followed by a review of methodologies with potential for use in assessing the cumulative effects associated with multiple projects. Finally, two new approaches for cumulative effects assessment are discussed in detail. Overall, this report identifies and reviews the concepts, factors, and methods necessary for understanding and conducting a cumulative effects assessment in the Columbia River Basin. Volume 2 will present a detailed procedural handbook for performing a cumulative assessment using the integrated tabular methodology introduced in this volume. 308 refs., 18 figs., 10 tabs.

  8. Concession renewal of Kembs' hydroelectric head on the Rhine river; Renouvellement de la concession de la chute hydro-electrique de Kembs sur le Rhin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, P.; Defoug, H.; Petit, D

    2000-07-15

    In order to evaluate the different impacts of the concession renewal of Kembs' water head on the Rhine river, all aspects have been considered and are reported in this document: international aspects, influence of the dam on navigation and floods, hydrology of Alsace plain, ecological, energetic and economical aspects, leisure and safety aspects. Several questions have to be put forward which concern the transfrontier relations, the water rights, the problem of derivations, of Rhine river maintenance, the turbine and water depth warranty problems, the flow rate and the restoration of the Rhine island. All these questions must be tackled by the impact study. The implementation of a local procedure follow up made of a permanent technical working group and of a management committee is recommended. (J.S.)

  9. The Effect of Hydroelectric Power Plants (hpp) on Agro-Life at Rural Land Regulation in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onursal Denli, G.; Denli, H. H.; Seker, D. Z.; Bitik, E.; Cetin, S.

    2014-12-01

    Turkey is one of the self-sufficient in foodstuffs and globally ranks as 7th significant agricultural exporter in the world. Main trading partners are the European Union, the United States and the Middle East. As known, agricultural production is dependent on factors including efficient and effective use of all inputs ranging from those natural resources as in land and water to well-trained human resources as labour at the production. The socio-economic aspects of this sector take several forms ranging from the incomes of the primary producers. Rural land regulation is a necessity for rural areas and is regarded as a useful instrument for improving farmer's incomes and life standards. The irrigation system, established during the rural regulation/land consolidation period of large-scale farming, is insufficiently adjusted to the new land tenure structures. The government is especially in the process of water management with hydroelectric power plants. This process produces energy that is required but effects negatively the rivers and agricultural, environmental, climatic conditions. Rivers are vessels of the nature. Free flowing rivers give life to all nature. Most of the studies indicate that Hydroelectric Power Plants (HPP) affects the surface and ground-water management, natural life, agricultural productivity, socio-economic situation at agricultural regions and agro-life related with immigration. This study emphasizes the effect of Hydroelectric Power Plants which are used in transformation of water as a renewable natural resource into electricity power from the perspective of environmental policies and rural regulation.

  10. The Columbia River System Inside Story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-04-01

    The Columbia River is one of the greatest natural resources in the western United States. The river and its tributaries touch the lives of nearly every resident of the Pacific Northwest—from fostering world-famous Pacific salmon to supplying clean natural fuel for 50 to 65 percent of the region’s electrical generation. Since early in the 20th century, public and private agencies have labored to capture the benefits of this dynamic river. Today, dozens of major water resource projects throughout the region are fed by the waters of the Columbia Basin river system.

  11. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix F: Irrigation, Municipal and Industrial/Water Supply.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operations Review (U.S.); United States. Bonneville Power Administration; United States. Army. Corps of Engineers. North Pacific Division; United States. Bureau of Reclamation. Pacific Northwest Region.

    1995-11-01

    Since the 1930`s, the Columbia River has been harnessed for the benefit of the Northwest and the nation. Federal agencies have built 30 major dams on the river and its tributaries. Dozens of non-Federal projects have been developed as well. The dams provide flood control, irrigation, navigation, hydro-electric power generation, recreation, fish and wildlife, and streamflows for wildlife, anadromous fish, resident fish, and water quality. This is Appendix F of the Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System, focusing on irrigation issues and concerns arrising from the Irrigation and Mitigation of impacts (M&I) working Group of the SOR process. Major subheadings include the following: Scope and process of irrigation/M&I studies; Irrigation/M&I in the Columbia Basin Today including overview, irrigated acreage and water rights, Irrigation and M&I issues basin-wide and at specific locations; and the analysis of impacts and alternative for the Environmental Impact Statement.

  12. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric in West Virginia at the state level are described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The introductory section examines the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and concludes with an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by FERC. The development of small-scale hydroelectric energy depends on the selection of a site which will produce sufficient water power capacity to make the project economically attractive to a developer. In West Virginia, the right to use the flowing waters of a stream, creek, or river is appurtenant to the ownership of the lands bordering the watercourse. The lands are known as riparian lands. The water rights are known as riparian rights. Thus, the first obstacle a developer faces involves the acquisition of riparian lands and the subsequent right to the use of the water. The water law in West Virginia is discussed in detail followed by discussions on direct and indirect regulations; continuing obligations; financial considerations; and interstate organizations.

  13. Ecological aspects of the sandfly fauna (Diptera, Psychodidae in an American cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area under the influence of hydroelectric plants in Paranapanema river, State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza Fordellone Rosa Cruz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: An epidemiological study was undertaken to identify determinant factors in the occurrence of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in areas under the influence of hydroelectric plants in Paranapanema river, State of Paraná, Brazil. The ecological aspects of the phlebotomine fauna were investigated. METHODS: Sandflies were sampled with automatic light traps from February 2004 to June 2006 at 25 sites in the urban and rural areas of Itambaracá, and in Porto Almeida and São Joaquim do Pontal. RESULTS: A total of 3,187 sandflies of 15 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai predominated (34.4%, followed by Pintomyia pessoai (32.6%, Migonemyia migonei (11.6%, Nyssomyia whitmani (8.8%, and Pintomyia fischeri (2.7%, all implicated in the transmission of Leishmania. Males predominated for Ny. neivai, and females for the other vector species, with significant statistical differences (p < 0.001. Nyssomyia neivai, Pi. pessoai, Ny. whitmani, Brumptomyia brumpti, Mg. migonei, and Pi. fischeri presented the highest values for the Standardized Species Abundance Index (SSAI. The highest frequencies and diversities were found in the preserved forest in Porto Almeida, followed by forests with degradation in São Joaquim do Pontal and Vila Rural. CONCLUSIONS: Sandflies were captured in all localities, with the five vectors predominating. Ny. neivai had its highest frequencies in nearby peridomestic environments and Pi. pessoai in areas of preserved forests. The highest SSAI values of Ny. neivai and Pi. pessoai reflect their wider dispersion and higher frequencies compared with other species, which seems to indicate that these two species may be transmitting leishmaniasis in the area.

  14. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in New Hampshire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area and the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is examined. The first step any developer must take is that of acquiring the real estate parcel. The step involves acquisition in some manner of both river banks, the river bed, and where necessary the land needed for the upstream impoundment area. The developer must acquire the river banks to be considered a riparian owner. Classification as a riparian is important for only a use of water by a riparian owner is deemed a reasonable use and hence legal. Apart from acquisition by sale, lease, or gift, New Hampshire law permits a number of other methods. In part use of these methods will depend on whether the developer is the state, a municipality, a private corporation, or a public utility. Provided the developer avails himself of the five (5) megawatts exemption, his main regulatory agency will be the Water Resources Board. However, the state is not free from the problems of legal uncertainty inherent in determinations of reasonableness.

  15. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT SYSTEM PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CERTA PJ

    2008-07-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, the ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of the approximately 57 million gallons of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in September 2003. ORP has approved a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. The ORP has established contracts to implement this strategy to establish a basic capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategy for completion of the mission uses a number of interrelated activities. The ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) for treatment and disposal; (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) and about half of the low-activity waste (LAW) contained in the tank farms, and maximizing its capability and capacity; (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability or a second WTP LAW Facility that can safely treat about half of the LAW contained in the tank farms; (4) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for transuranic (TRU) tank waste for shipment to and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); (5) Deploying interim storage capacity for the immobilized HLW and shipping that waste to Yucca Mountain for disposal; (6) Operating the Integrated Disposal Facility for the disposal of immobilized LAW, along with the associated secondary waste, (7) Closing the SST and DST tank farms, ancillary facilities, and al1 waste

  16. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT SYSTEM PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CERTA PJ; KIRKBRIDE RA; HOHL TM; EMPEY PA; WELLS MN

    2009-09-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of approximately 57 million gallons 1 of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure2 of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in May 2008. ORP has made a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. ORP has contracts in place to implement the strategy for completion of the mission and establish the capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategl involves a number of interrelated activities. ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by the following: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) and delivering the waste to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) fraction contained in the tank farms. About one-third of the low-activity waste (LAW) fraction separated from the HLW fraction in the WTP will be immobilized in the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility. (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability assumed to be a second LAW vitrification facility that can safely treat about two-thirds of the LAW contained in the tank farms. (4) Developing and deploying supplemental pretreatment capability currently assumed to be an Aluminum Removal Facility (ARF) using a lithium hydrotalcite process to mitigate sodium management issues. (5) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) tank waste for possible shipment to and

  17. The Columbia River System : the Inside Story.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-09-01

    The Columbia Ricer is one of the greatest natural resources in the western United States. The river and its tributaries touch the lives of nearly every resident of the Northwest-from providing the world-famous Pacific salmon to supplying the clean natural fuel for over 75 percent of the region's electrical generation. Since early in the century, public and private agencies have labored to capture the benefits of this dynamic river. Today, dozens of major water resource projects throughout the region are fed by the waters of the Columbia Basin river system. And through cooperative efforts, the floods that periodically threaten developments near the river can be controlled. This publication presents a detailed explanation of the planning and operation of the multiple-use dams and reservoirs of the Columbia River system. It describes the river system, those who operate and use it, the agreements and policies that guide system operation, and annual planning for multiple-use operation.

  18. Flood Forecasting in River System Using ANFIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Nazrin; Choudhury, P.

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate applicability of artificial intelligence techniques such as ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System) in forecasting flood flow in a river system. The proposed technique combines the learning ability of neural network with the transparent linguistic representation of fuzzy system. The technique is applied to forecast discharge at a downstream station using flow information at various upstream stations. A total of three years data has been selected for the implementation of this model. ANFIS models with various input structures and membership functions are constructed, trained and tested to evaluate efficiency of the models. Statistical indices such as Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Correlation Coefficient (CORR) and Coefficient of Efficiency (CE) are used to evaluate performance of the ANFIS models in forecasting river flood. The values of the indices show that ANFIS model can accurately and reliably be used to forecast flood in a river system.

  19. State of the arch dam and foundation of the Inguri Hydroelectric Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronshtein, V.I.

    1994-08-01

    The Inguri hydroelectric station (HES) is a cascade of hydroelectric stations including, in addition to the dam - diversion installation of the Inguri HES proper, the near-dam installation of the Perepad HES-1 and three similar channel installations of the Perepad HESs-2, -3, and -4 located on the tailrace emptying into the Black Sea. The HESs of the cascade use the fall of two rivers, the Inguri and Eristskali, by diverting the waters of the Inguri into the Eristskali.

  20. Colorado River Sewer System Joint Venture to Upgrade Wastewater System

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAN FRANCISCO -Today, the Colorado River Sewer System Joint Venture, located in Parker, Ariz. entered into an agreement with the EPA to upgrade their wastewater treatment system to meet stringent water quality standards. The cost of the upgrade is ap

  1. 76 FR 61689 - Sutton Hydroelectric Company, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Sutton Hydroelectric Company, LLC Notice of Site Visit On February 6, 2008, Sutton Hydroelectric Company, LLC (Sutton Hydroelectric) filed a notice of intent and a...

  2. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are discussed. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area, and the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is examined. In Delaware, a watercourse is not to be confused with surface water. Each gives rise to certain riparian rights, but the law makes certain distinctions between the two. The presence of both surface waters and watercourses give rise to private and public rights related to the presence of the water. Some of these rights are vested in riparian owners. Recent Delaware case law has described the riparian owner as one who owns land on the bank of a river, or who is owner of land along, bordering upon, bounded by, fronting upon, abutting, or adjacent and contiguous to and in contact with a river. But, ownership of the bank does not give the riparian ownership of the water. Some law cases are cited to discuss the laws in Delaware.

  3. RiverHeath: Neighborhood Loop Geothermal Exchange System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geall, Mark [RiverHeath LLC, Appleton, WI (United States)

    2016-07-11

    The goal of the RiverHeath project is to develop a geothermal exchange system at lower capital infrastructure cost than current geothermal exchange systems. The RiverHeath system features an innovative design that incorporates use of the adjacent river through river-based heat exchange plates. The flowing water provides a tremendous amount of heat transfer. As a result, the installation cost of this geothermal exchange system is lower than more traditional vertical bore systems. Many urban areas are located along rivers and other waterways. RiverHeath will serve as a template for other projects adjacent to the water.

  4. Health evaluation indicator system for urban landscape rivers, case study of the Bailianjing River in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Wang, Yue; Yang, Haizhen; Lu, Zhibo; Xu, Xiaotian

    2010-11-01

    The River Bailianjing is an iconic landscape feature known to all residents in Pudong area and running through the Shanghai Expo 2010 Park. The river and its basin was a complex living ecosystem which supports a unique variety of flora and fauna several decades ago. However, as a result of unsuccessful pollution source control, sewage and first flow of the storm water is directly coming into the river in some catchment. The water quality of the river is seriously organically polluted now. The typical organic pollutants are COD, NH3-N, TN and TP, which cause the extinction of the water plants and aquatic. Furthermore, the artificial hard river banks isolate the river course and the land, which damaged the whole ecological system totally. The nature of the River Bailianjing and its history has resulted in many government departments and authorities and non government organizations having jurisdiction and/or an interest in the river's management. As a new tool to improve river management, the river health assessment has become the major focus of ecological and environmental science. Consequently, research on river health evaluation and its development on river management are of great theoretical and practical significance. In order to evaluate the healthy status of the River Bailianjing and prepare comprehensive scientific background data for the integrated river ecological rehabilitation planning, the health evaluation indicator system for River Bailianjing is brought forward. The indicator system has three levels: the first is target layer; the second is criteria layer, including five fields: water quality characteristics, hydrology characteristics, river morphology, biological characteristics and river scenic beauty; the third is an index layer, a total of 15 specific indicators included. Fuzzy AHP method is used to evaluate the target river's health status, and five grades are set up to describe it: healthy, sub health, marginal, unhealthy and pathological. The

  5. Analysis of environmental issues related to small-scale hydroelectric development. III. Water level fluctuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrand, S.G. (ed.)

    1980-10-01

    Potential environmental impacts in reservoirs and downstream river reaches below dams that may be caused by the water level fluctuation resulting from development and operation of small scale (under 25MW) hydroelectric projects are identified. The impacts discussed will be of potential concern at only those small-scale hydroelectric projects that are operated in a store and release (peaking) mode. Potential impacts on physical and chemical characteristics in reservoirs resulting from water level fluctuation include resuspension and redistribution of bank and bed sediment; leaching of soluble organic matter from sediment in the littoral zone; and changes in water quality resulting from changes in sediment and nutrient trap efficiency. Potential impacts on reservoir biota as a result of water level fluctuation include habitat destruction and the resulting partial or total loss of aquatic species; changes in habitat quality, which result in reduced standing crop and production of aquatic biota; and possible shifts in species diversity. The potential physical effects of water level fluctuation on downstream systems below dams are streambed and bank erosion and water quality problems related to resuspension and redistribution of these materials. Potential biological impacts of water level fluctuation on downstream systems below dams result from changes in current velocity, habitat reduction, and alteration in food supply. These alterations, either singly or in combination, can adversely affect aquatic populations below dams. The nature and potential significance of adverse impacts resulting from water level fluctuation are discussed. Recommendations for site-specific evaluation of water level fluctuation at small-scale hydroelectric projects are presented.

  6. Glof Study in Tawang River Basin, Arunachal Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Panda, R.; Padhee, S. K.; Dutta, S.

    2014-01-01

    Glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) is one of the major unexpected hazards in the high mountain regions susceptible to climate change. The Tawang river basin in Arunachal Pradesh is an unexplored region in the Eastern Himalayas, which is impending to produce several upcoming hydro-electric projects (HEP). The main source of the river system is the snow melt in the Eastern Himalayas, which is composed of several lakes located at the snout of the glacier dammed by the lateral or end mor...

  7. Status after 5 Years of Survival Compliance Testing in the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, John R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Ploskey, Gene R.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Colotelo, Alison H.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Woodley, Christa M.; Eppard, M. Brad; Hockersmith, Eric E.

    2016-06-27

    Survival studies of juvenile salmonids implanted with acoustic tags have been conducted at hydroelectric dams within the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) in the Columbia and Snake rivers between 2010 and 2014 to assess compliance with dam passage survival standards stipulated in the 2008 Biological Opinion (BiOp). For juvenile salmonids migrating downstream in the spring, dam passage survival defined as survival from the upstream dam face to the tailrace mixing zone must be ≥96% and for summer migrants, ≥93%, and estimated with a standard error ≤1.5% (i.e., 95% confidence interval of ±3%). A total of 29 compliance tests have been conducted at 6 of 8 FCRPS main-stem dams, using over 109,000 acoustic-tagged salmonid smolts. Of these 29 compliance studies, 23 met the survival standards and 26 met the precision requirements. Of the 6 dams evaluated to date, individual survival estimates range from 0.9597 to 0.9868 for yearling Chinook Salmon, 0.9534 to 0.9952 for steelhead, and 0.9076 to 0.9789 for subyearling Chinook Salmon. These investigations suggest the large capital investment over the last 20 years to improve juvenile salmon passage through the FCRPS dams has been beneficial.

  8. Establishing baseline biodiversity data prior to hydroelectric dam construction to monitoring impacts to bats in the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Bobrowiec, Paulo Estefano D.; Tavares, Val?ria da Cunha

    2017-01-01

    The modification of Amazonian rivers by the construction of megaprojects of hydroelectric dams has widely increased over the last decade. Robust monitoring programs have been rarely conducted prior to the establishment of dams to measure to what extent the fauna, and its associated habitats may be affected by upcoming impacts. Using bats as models, we performed analyses throughout the area under the influence of the Santo Ant?nio hydroelectric dam, Southwestern Brazilian Amazonia before its c...

  9. Hoopa Valley Small Scale Hydroelectric Feasibility Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis Miller

    2009-03-22

    This study considered assessing the feasibility of developing small scale hydro-electric power from seven major tributaries within the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation of Northern California (http://www.hoopa-nsn.gov/). This study pursued the assessment of seven major tributaries of the Reservation that flow into the Trinity River. The feasibility of hydropower on the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation has real potential for development and many alternative options for project locations, designs, operations and financing. In order to realize this opportunity further will require at least 2-3 years of intense data collection focusing on stream flow measurements at multiple locations in order to quantify real power potential. This also includes on the ground stream gradient surveys, road access planning and grid connectivity to PG&E for sale of electricity. Imperative to this effort is the need for negotiations between the Hoopa Tribal Council and PG&E to take place in order to finalize the power rate the Tribe will receive through any wholesale agreement that utilizes the alternative energy generated on the Reservation.

  10. River Protection Project information systems assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON, A.L.

    1999-07-28

    The Information Systems Assessment Report documents the results from assessing the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Hanford Data Integrator 2000 (HANDI 2000) system, Business Management System (BMS) and Work Management System phases (WMS), with respect to the System Engineering Capability Assessment Model (CAM). The assessment was performed in accordance with the expectations stated in the fiscal year (FY) 1999 Performance Agreement 7.1.1, item (2) which reads, ''Provide an assessment report on the selected Integrated Information System by July 31, 1999.'' This report assesses the BMS and WMS as implemented and planned for the River Protection Project (RPP). The systems implementation is being performed under the PHMC HANDI 2000 information system project. The project began in FY 1998 with the BMS, proceeded in FY 1999 with the Master Equipment List portion of the WMS, and will continue the WMS implementation as funding provides. This report constitutes an interim quality assessment providing information necessary for planning RPP's information systems activities. To avoid confusion, HANDI 2000 will be used when referring to the entire system, encompassing both the BMS and WMS. A graphical depiction of the system is shown in Figure 2-1 of this report.

  11. 76 FR 72196 - CRD Hydroelectric LLC; Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency; Notice of Application for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... for transfer of license for the Red Rock Hydroelectric Project, No. 12576, located on the Des Monies River in Marion County, Iowa. Applicants seek Commission approval to transfer the license for the Red... Application for Transfer of License, and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On October 14, 2011, CRD...

  12. 76 FR 12101 - Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Environmental Assessment In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal Energy Regulatory... located on the Jackson River in Alleghany County, Virginia, and has prepared an Environmental Assessment...

  13. Sedimentation and contamination patterns of dike systems along the Rhône River (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seignemartin, Gabrielle; Tena, Alvaro; Piégay, Hervé; Roux, Gwenaelle; Winiarski, Thierry

    2017-04-01

    Humans have historically modified the Rhône River, especially in the last centuries. In the 19th century, the river was systematically embanked for flood protection purposes, and works continued along the 20th century with dike system engineering work for navigation. The Rhône was canalised and its historical course by-passed by a series of hydroelectric dams. Besides, industrial activity polluted the river. For example, high levels of PCB's were attributed to the inputs of the heavily industrialized zone downstream from Lyon. During floods, these contaminants, associated with the suspended sediment, were trapped by the engineering works and the floodplain. Currently, a master plan to reactivate the river dynamics in the alluvial margins by removing the groyne-fields and dikes in the by-passed sections is being implemented. Within this context, this work aims to assess historical dynamics of sediment and associated contaminants in the floodplain (e.g. trace metal elements), notably in the dike system, in order to evaluate the contamination risk related to bank protection removal. With this objective, a transversal methodology has been applied coupling GIS diachronic analysis (old maps, bathymetric data, Orthophotos, LIDAR, etc.) to understand the historical floodplain evolution, sediment survey to obtain sediment thickness (metal rod and Ground Penetrating Radar), and sediment sampling (manual auger and core sampling) to obtain the metal element concentrations (X-Ray Fluorescence and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry). By this way, metal element patterns were defined and used as contamination tracing indicators to apprehend the contamination history but also as geochemical background indicators to define the sediment source influence. We found that sediment temporal patterns are directly related with the by-pass construction year. Spatially, fine sediment deposition predominates in the dike systems, being lower in the floodplain already disconnected in

  14. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level in New Jersey are described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is discussed. New Jersey follows the riparian theory of water law. Following an extensive discussion of the New Jersey water law, New Jersey regulatory law and financial considerations regarding hydroelectric power development are discussed.

  15. Proliferation of Hydroelectric Dams in the Andean Amazon and Implications for Andes-Amazon Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.

    2012-01-01

    Due to rising energy demands and abundant untapped potential, hydropower projects are rapidly increasing in the Neotropics. This is especially true in the wet and rugged Andean Amazon, where regional governments are prioritizing new hydroelectric dams as the centerpiece of long-term energy plans. However, the current planning for hydropower lacks adequate regional and basin-scale assessment of potential ecological impacts. This lack of strategic planning is particularly problematic given the intimate link between the Andes and Amazonian flood plain, together one of the most species rich zones on Earth. We examined the potential ecological impacts, in terms of river connectivity and forest loss, of the planned proliferation of hydroelectric dams across all Andean tributaries of the Amazon River. Considering data on the full portfolios of existing and planned dams, along with data on roads and transmission line systems, we developed a new conceptual framework to estimate the relative impacts of all planned dams. There are plans for 151 new dams greater than 2 MW over the next 20 years, more than a 300% increase. These dams would include five of the six major Andean tributaries of the Amazon. Our ecological impact analysis classified 47% of the potential new dams as high impact and just 19% as low impact. Sixty percent of the dams would cause the first major break in connectivity between protected Andean headwaters and the lowland Amazon. More than 80% would drive deforestation due to new roads, transmission lines, or inundation. We conclude with a discussion of three major policy implications of these findings. 1) There is a critical need for further strategic regional and basin scale evaluation of dams. 2) There is an urgent need for a strategic plan to maintain Andes-Amazon connectivity. 3) Reconsideration of hydropower as a low-impact energy source in the Neotropics. PMID:22529979

  16. Proliferation of hydroelectric dams in the Andean Amazon and implications for Andes-Amazon connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Finer

    Full Text Available Due to rising energy demands and abundant untapped potential, hydropower projects are rapidly increasing in the Neotropics. This is especially true in the wet and rugged Andean Amazon, where regional governments are prioritizing new hydroelectric dams as the centerpiece of long-term energy plans. However, the current planning for hydropower lacks adequate regional and basin-scale assessment of potential ecological impacts. This lack of strategic planning is particularly problematic given the intimate link between the Andes and Amazonian flood plain, together one of the most species rich zones on Earth. We examined the potential ecological impacts, in terms of river connectivity and forest loss, of the planned proliferation of hydroelectric dams across all Andean tributaries of the Amazon River. Considering data on the full portfolios of existing and planned dams, along with data on roads and transmission line systems, we developed a new conceptual framework to estimate the relative impacts of all planned dams. There are plans for 151 new dams greater than 2 MW over the next 20 years, more than a 300% increase. These dams would include five of the six major Andean tributaries of the Amazon. Our ecological impact analysis classified 47% of the potential new dams as high impact and just 19% as low impact. Sixty percent of the dams would cause the first major break in connectivity between protected Andean headwaters and the lowland Amazon. More than 80% would drive deforestation due to new roads, transmission lines, or inundation. We conclude with a discussion of three major policy implications of these findings. 1 There is a critical need for further strategic regional and basin scale evaluation of dams. 2 There is an urgent need for a strategic plan to maintain Andes-Amazon connectivity. 3 Reconsideration of hydropower as a low-impact energy source in the Neotropics.

  17. Technological characterization of basaltic rocks of Canoas I Hydroelectric Power Plant, Paranapanema river, Sao Paulo - Parana states, Brazil; Caracterizacao tecnologica das rochas basalticas da Usina Hidroeletrica Canoas I, Rio Paranapanema, SP/PR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrano, Antonio

    1997-07-01

    Basaltic litotypes from the rock mass foundation of Canoas I Hydroelectric Power Plant were submitted to technological characterization tests, in order to verify their suitability as construction material. Physical and mechanical properties (density, porosity, water absorption, ultrasonic velocity, compressive and splitting tensile strength, among others) were determined, besides petrographic analyses. Weather ability tests were also performed, not only through wetting-drying cycles and by immersion in ethylene glycol but by outdoor exposure as well, using crushed and core drilled specimens. Detailed procedures for the weather ability test using core specimens from rotary drilling are given. It is analyzed the influence of a geological feature (fault zone, about 10 meters thick and 20 degrees dip), that occurs in the rock mass foundation, on the technological properties of these rocks. Basaltic litotypes selected as construction material are then pointed out. (author)

  18. River Water Quality Zoning: A Case Study of Karoon and Dez River System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Karamouz, N Mahjouri, R Kerachian

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Karoon-Dez River basin, with an area of 67000 square kilometers, is located in southern part of Iran. This river system supplies the water demands of 16 cities, several villages, thousands hectares of agricultural lands, and several hydropower plants. The increasing water demands at the project development stage including agricultural networks, fish hatchery projects, and inter-basin water transfers, have caused a gloomy future for water quality of the Karoon and Dez Rivers. A good part of used agricultural water, which is about 8040 million cubic meters, is returned to the rivers through agricultural drainage systems or as non-point, return flows. River water quality zoning could provide essential information for developing river water quality management policies. In this paper, a methodology is presented for this purpose using methods of -mean crisp classification and a fuzzy clustering scheme. The efficiency of these clustering methods was evaluated using water quality data gathered from the monitoring sampling points along Karoon and Dez Rivers. The results show that the proposed methodology can provide valuable information to support decision-making and to help river water quality management in the region.

  19. Hydroelectricity and ecological considerations. Falsification of the environmental reality by the opponents of hydropower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Giziński

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Opponents of hydroelectricity claim falsely that hydrotechnical development of the Lower Vistula River constitutes implementation of Edward Gierek’s concept of bringing only environmental damage1. Statements on the negative environmental impact of constructing small hydroelectric power stations (SHPS are equally groundless. Permanent protests against the construction of dams and river damming, regardless of the motivations and will of protesters, increase energy dependence on Russia, and preserves the poor, post-Bierut hydrological situation2. The main fallacy made by hydropower opponents is the alternative treatment of power and environmental purposes. Environmental errors consist in continuous omission of even the most obvious positive ecological effects of constructing river dams and – what is especially reprehensible – inventing non-existent threats, e.g. lethal concentration of toxic heavy metals in deposits of the Włocławek Reservoir or the detrimental impact of warming up water in stage of falls on the fish population below the dam.

  20. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are examined. The introductory section examines the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and concludes with an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. Additional sections cover acquisition; liability; Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection; energy utilities; local regulations; incidental impacts; financial considerations; and sources of information. In Kentucky, many of the impacts have not been implemented with regard to small-scale hydroelectric energy, since in Kentucky most electricity is coal-generated and any hydroelectric power that does exist, is derived from TVA or the Army Corp of Engineer projects.

  1. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Open River 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  2. The geomechanical characterization of the rocky mass foundation of the Tijuco Alto hydroelectric power plant, Ribeira River, Sao Paulo/Parana States, Brazil; Caracterizacao geomecanica do Macico de Fundacao da UHE Tijuco Alto (Rio Ribeira - SP/PR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Amarilis Lucia Casteli de

    1996-07-01

    This work has as its main objective the geomechanical characterization on the future rocky mass foundation of the Tijuco Alto dam, sited at the Ribeira river, in the cities of Ribeirao, Sao Paulo state and Adrianopolis, Parana state, Brazil, owned by the Companhia Brasileira de Aluminio (Brazilian company of Aluminium). To reach that target, field studies were made to qualify the geotechnical parameters of the rocky mass, in the axis area open galleries. It was also used in situ deformability and stress test results performed in those galleries, that were reinterpreted for a better adaptation of the mass values. The knowledge of the mass inherent characteristics together with the laboratories test results, allowed for the geomechanical classification applications in several different gallery sectors. The geomechanical data obtained allowed through mathematical expressions, to reach the rocky mass values correlations of interest to the work (deformability and strength), that could be compared to the in situ test results. That analysis permitted, besides the classification critical system evaluation, the geomechanical characterization of the rocky mass, focusing its ability to the dam arch construction. (author)

  3. Summary of the New England conference on legal and institutional incentives to small-scale hydroelectric development (Boston Massachusetts, January 30-31, 1979)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    The New England Conference on Legal and Institutional Incentives to Small Scale Hydroelectric Development examined the legal and institutional problems confronting small-scale hydroelectric potential of the northeast. Representatives from DOE, FERC, state legislatures, state public service commissions, private developers, and environmental groups attempted to evaluate the state of hydroelectric development in New England. The meeting began with an introductory panel followed by workshops addressing four topics: Federal regulatory systems, state regulatory systems, the economics of small-scale hydroelectric development, and systems dynamics and the systems dynamics model. Comments by the Honorable Georgiana H. Sheldon, FERC, are presented.

  4. Wildlife Impact Assessment and Summary of Previous Mitigation Related to Hydroelectric Projects in Montana, Phase 1, Volume Two (B), Clark Fork River Projects, Cabinet Gorge and Noxon Rapids Dams, Operator, Washington Water Power Company.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Marilyn

    1984-06-01

    This report documents best available information concerning the wildlife species impacted and the degree of the impact. A target species list was developed to focus the impact assessment and to direct mitigation efforts. Many non-target species also incurred impacts but are not discussed in this report. All wildlife habitats inundated by the two reservoirs are represented by the target species. It was assumed the numerous non-target species also affected will be benefited by the mitigation measures adopted for the target species. Impacts addressed are limited to those directly attributable to the loss of habitat and displacement of wildlife populations due to the construction and operation of the two hydroelectric projects. Secondary impacts, such as the relocation of railroads and highways, and the increase of the human population, were not considered. In some cases, both positive and negative impacts were assessed; and the overall net effect was reported. The loss/gain estimates reported represent impacts considered to have occurred during one point in time except where otherwise noted. When possible, quantitative estimates were developed based on historical information from the area or on data from similar areas. Qualitative loss estimates of low, moderate, or high with supporting rationale were assessed for each species or species group.

  5. Diazotrophy in alluvial meadows of subarctic river systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, Thomas H; Zackrisson, Olle; Bergman, Ingela; Díez, Beatriz; Bergman, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    There is currently limited understanding of the contribution of biological N2 fixation (diazotrophy) to the N budget of large river systems. This natural source of N in boreal river systems may partially explain the sustained productivity of river floodplains in Northern Europe where winter fodder was harvested for centuries without fertilizer amendments. In much of the world, anthropogenic pollution and river regulation have nearly eliminated opportunities to study natural processes that shaped early nutrient dynamics of large river systems; however, pristine conditions in northern Fennoscandia allow for the retrospective evaluation of key biochemical processes of historical significance. We investigated biological N2 fixation (diazotrophy) as a potential source of nitrogen fertility at 71 independent floodplain sites along 10 rivers and conducted seasonal and intensive analyses at a subset of these sites. Biological N2 fixation occurred in all floodplains, averaged 24.5 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) and was down regulated from over 60 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) to 0 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) by river N pollution. A diversity of N2-fixing cyanobacteria was found to colonize surface detritus in the floodplains. The data provide evidence for N2 fixation to be a fundamental source of new N that may have sustained fertility at alluvial sites along subarctic rivers. Such data may have implications for the interpretation of ancient agricultural development and the design of contemporary low-input agroecosystems.

  6. Diazotrophy in alluvial meadows of subarctic river systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H DeLuca

    Full Text Available There is currently limited understanding of the contribution of biological N2 fixation (diazotrophy to the N budget of large river systems. This natural source of N in boreal river systems may partially explain the sustained productivity of river floodplains in Northern Europe where winter fodder was harvested for centuries without fertilizer amendments. In much of the world, anthropogenic pollution and river regulation have nearly eliminated opportunities to study natural processes that shaped early nutrient dynamics of large river systems; however, pristine conditions in northern Fennoscandia allow for the retrospective evaluation of key biochemical processes of historical significance. We investigated biological N2 fixation (diazotrophy as a potential source of nitrogen fertility at 71 independent floodplain sites along 10 rivers and conducted seasonal and intensive analyses at a subset of these sites. Biological N2 fixation occurred in all floodplains, averaged 24.5 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1 and was down regulated from over 60 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1 to 0 kg N ha(-1 yr(-1 by river N pollution. A diversity of N2-fixing cyanobacteria was found to colonize surface detritus in the floodplains. The data provide evidence for N2 fixation to be a fundamental source of new N that may have sustained fertility at alluvial sites along subarctic rivers. Such data may have implications for the interpretation of ancient agricultural development and the design of contemporary low-input agroecosystems.

  7. Accounting System for Water Use by Vegetation in the Lower Colorado River Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.

    1992-01-01

    The Colorado River is the principal source of water in the valley of the Colorado River between Hoover Dam and the international boundary with Mexico (fig. 1). Agricultural, domestic, municipal, industrial, hydroelectric-power genera-tion, and recreation are the primary uses of river water in the valley. Most of the consumptive use of water from the river occurs downstream from Davis Dam, where water is diverted to irrigate crops along the river or is exported to interior regions of California and Arizona. Most of the agricultural areas are on the alluvium of the flood plain; in a few areas, land on the alluvial terraces has been cultivated. River water is consumed mainly by vegetation (crops and phreatophytes) on the flood plain. Crops were grown on 70.3 percent of the vegetated area classified by using 1984 digital image satellite data. Phreatophytes, natural vege-tation that obtain water from the alluvial aquifer, covered the remaining vegetated areas on the uncultivated flood plain. Most of the water used for irrigation is diverted or pumped from the river. In some areas, water is pumped from wells completed in the alluvial aquifer, which is hydraulically connected to the river.

  8. Status Review of Wildlife Mitigation, Columbia Basin Hydroelectric Projects, Washington Facilities (Intrastate) Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howerton, Jack

    1984-11-01

    This report was prepared for BPA in fulfillment of section 1004 (b)(1) of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980, to review the status of past, present, and proposed future wildlife planning and mitigation program at existing hydroelectric projects in the Columbia River Basin. The project evaluations will form the basis for determining any needed remedial measures or additional project analysis. Projects addressed are: Merwin Dam; Swift Project; Yale Project; Cowlitz River; Boundary Dam; Box Canyon Dam; Lake Chelan; Condit Project; Enloe Project; Spokane River; Tumwater and Dryden Dam; Yakima; and Naches Project.

  9. Migration of radionuclides through a river system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunaga, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-03-01

    Migration behavior of several atmospherically-derived radionuclides in a river watershed was studied. A main interest was in their relocation from the ground soil of the watershed to a downstream region through a river. Studied radionuclides are: {sup 137}Cs generated by weapon tests in the atmosphere; {sup 210}Pb and {sup 7}Be of naturally occurring radionuclides; {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am released by the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Dominance of the form in suspended solid in river water (particulate form) was qualified for the radionuclides in the Kuji river watershed. An importance of discharge in flooding was also confirmed. A historical budget analysis for weapon test derived {sup 137}Cs was presented for the Hi-i river watershed and its accompanied lake sediment (Lake Shinji). The work afforded a scheme of a fate of {sup 137}Cs after falling on the ground soil and on the lake surface. Several controlling factors, which can influence on the chemical form of radionuclides discharged to a river, were also investigated in the vicinity of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. A special attention was paid on the association of the radionuclides with dissolved species in water. Preferential association of Pu and Am isotopes to a large molecular size of dissolved matrices, probably of humic substances, was suggested. (author)

  10. Decision support system for optimally managing water resources to meet multiple objectives in the Savannah River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehl, Edwin A.; Conrads, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Managers of large river basins face conflicting demands for water resources such as wildlife habitat, water supply, wastewater assimilative capacity, flood control, hydroelectricity, and recreation. The Savannah River Basin, for example, has experienced three major droughts since 2000 that resulted in record low water levels in its reservoirs, impacting dependent economies for years. The Savannah River estuary contains two municipal water intakes and the ecologically sensitive freshwater tidal marshes of the Savannah National Wildlife Refuge. The Port of Savannah is the fourth busiest in the United States, and modifications to the harbor to expand ship traffic since the 1970s have caused saltwater to migrate upstream, reducing the freshwater marsh’s acreage more than 50 percent. A planned deepening of the harbor includes flow-alteration features to minimize further migration of salinity, whose effectiveness will only be known after all construction is completed.One of the challenges of large basin management is the optimization of water use through ongoing regional economic development, droughts, and climate change. This paper describes a model of the Savannah River Basin designed to continuously optimize regulated flow to meet prioritized objectives set by resource managers and stakeholders. The model was developed from historical data using machine learning, making it more accurate and adaptable to changing conditions than traditional models. The model is coupled to an optimization routine that computes the daily flow needed to most efficiently meet the water-resource management objectives. The model and optimization routine are packaged in a decision support system that makes it easy for managers and stakeholders to use. Simulation results show that flow can be regulated to substantially reduce salinity intrusions in the Savannah National Wildlife Refuge, while conserving more water in the reservoirs. A method for using the model to assess the effectiveness of

  11. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 14

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  12. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 4

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  13. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 21

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  14. Stream catalog of the Wood River Lake System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Information on the red salmon runs to all the major spawning tributaries in the Wood River lake system, Bristol Bay, Alaska from 1946 to 1962 is cataloged in this...

  15. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 20

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  16. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 18

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  17. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 13

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  18. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 7

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  19. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  20. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 25

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  1. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  2. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  3. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  4. IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM, TRACKING AND SUPPORT FOR VESSELS ON RIVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMOILESCU Gheorghe

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the program COMPRIS (Consortium Operational Management Platform River Information Services, AIS (Automatic Identification System, RIS (River Information Services have compiled a reference model based on the perspective of navigation on the river with related information services. This paper presents a tracking and monitoring surveillance system necessary for assistance of each ship sailing in an area of interest. It shows the operating principle of the composition and role of each equipment. Transferring data to traffic monitoring authority is part of this work.

  5. Aquatic biology and hydroelectric power development in New Zealand

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henriques, P. R

    1987-01-01

    .... The first section summarizes the country's hydroelectric resources and their utilization. The legal and planning framework associated with hydroelectric power development and the environment is covered in the second section...

  6. improvement of hydroelectric power generation using pumped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    conservation of energy where kinetic energy that resulted from the movement of the mass of water from the river is translated into electricity, the .... build–up of the models and solution contained therein are based. System dynamics (SD) is a ..... Reclamation Power Resources Office, July 2005, demand for electrical power ...

  7. Kyiv Small Rivers in Metropolis Water Objects System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krelshteyn, P.; Dubnytska, M.

    2017-12-01

    The article answers the question, what really are the small underground rivers with artificial watercourses: water bodies or city engineering infrastructure objects? The place of such rivers in metropolis water objects system is identified. The ecological state and the degree of urbanization of small rivers, as well as the dynamics of change in these indicators are analysed on the Kiev city example with the help of water objects cadastre. It was found that the registration of small rivers in Kyiv city is not conducted, and the summary information on such water objects is absent and is not taken into account when making managerial decisions at the urban level. To solve this problem, we propose to create some water bodies accounting system (water cadastre).

  8. ANALYSIS OF SEDIMENT MOVEMENT IN A RIVER DIVERSION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Safari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sediment-related disaster especially debris flow occurs frequently in various places in Indonesia. It has been well known in general that debris flow contents big size of materials which huge power to destroy the river and surrounding area. Comprehensive measures and rising awareness to prevent the toll of human lives against sediment disaster is considered necessary. Diversion system to proximate river aimed to lessen sediment load by considering its capacities and sediment prevention facilities becomes an alternative counter measure of sediment flood disaster. Information of river diversion capability and associated phenomena due to sediment gravity flow is a fundamental desire for establishing reasonable sediment control plans. Physical model compared to simple mathematical model are conducted to know river diversion capacity to convey sediment. The experiment used a channel made of masonry with 80 cm wide in average and 400 cm length, and 10 % gradient. The proposed sediment control facilities comprises two types, there are open type dam with 33 cm wide, 16cm high (at +1.245m elevation of crest and four slits in main stream river and close type dam 41 cm wide, 15 cm high (at +1.255m elevation of spillway for river diversion. The distance of these facilities is 110 cm. The result of this study is expected to be able to explain the sediment gravity flow behavior in the field. It shows that the performance of river diversion and open type dam control volume depend on quantity and mechanism of sediment flow from upstream, and also elevation of crest of the open type dam. The largest amount of sediment gravity flow entering diversion channel is about 7 % of sediment inflow for +1245 m open dam crest elevation and +1255 m river diversion spillway elevation. Keywords: Natural disaster, sediment, river diversion system.

  9. Status Review of Wildlife Mitigation at 14 of 27 Major Hydroelectric Projects in Idaho, 1983-1984 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Robert C.; Mehrhoff, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act and wildlife and their habitats in the Columbia River Basin and to compliance with the Program, the wildlife mitigation status reports coordination with resource agencies and Indian Tribes. developed the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program development, operation, and maintenance of hydroelectric projects on existing agreements; and past, current, and proposed wildlife factual review and documentation of existing information on wildlife meet the requirements of Measure 1004(b)(l) of the Program. The mitigation, enhancement, and protection activities were considered. In mitigate for the losses to those resources resulting from the purpose of these wildlife mitigation status reports is to provide a resources at some of the Columbia River Basin hydroelectric projects the river and its tributaries. To accomplish this goal, the Council were written with the cooperation of project operators, and in within Idaho.

  10. Daily storage management of hydroelectric facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chappin, E.J.L.; Ferrero, M.; Lazzeroni, P.; Lukszo, Z.; Olivero, M.; Repetto, M.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a management procedure for hydroelectric facilities with daily storage. The water storage gives an additional degree of freedom allowing to shift in time power production when it is more convenient and to work at the maximum efficiency of hydraulic turbine. The management is

  11. Improvement of hydroelectric power generation using pumped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Understanding the dynamics of these variables, and the correlation b etween them are core to proper planning and management of a hydroelectric power station. In this Study, simple mathematical methods that include linear programming and statistical analysis based on simulation techniques were used to evaluate vital ...

  12. Evaluation of HIV Surveillance System in Rivers State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rivers State has been reported to have the highest HIV prevalence of all the thirty-six states in Nigeria. HIV surveillance system generates information for timely and appropriate public health action. Evaluation of the surveillance system is vital in ensuring that the purpose of the surveillance system is being met.

  13. The fish fauna of Tibagi river basin and the construction project of Mauá hydroelectric plant, Paraná, Brazil A ictiofauna da bacia do rio Tibagi e o projeto de construção da UHE Mauá, Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirlei Terezinha Bennemann

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The middle stretch of Tibagi river basin in the State of Paraná, where the hydroelectric plant of Mauá is planned to be constructed, was considered by the Ministério do Meio Ambiente (MMA as an area of priority for conservation. The environmental impacts studies for the species of fish were considered incomplete, inconsistent and not valid by researchers from the Universidade Estadual de Londrina. Thus, with the purpose of verifying which species of fish occur in stretches of Tibagi river and an affluent threatened by the project, Barra Grande river, a list of species that appear on the reports (EIA/RIMA with species collected in this study and in literature, were compared. In the EIA/RIMA reports 125 fish species were registered. This study added 26 species than those recorded in the EIA, totaling 151 species, for the Tibagi river basin. Among those who did not appear in the EIA, five were collected in stretches of Tibagi river and two in Barra Grande river. The others are from current studies carried out in the middle and upper regions of Tibagi river. These results confirmed the errors presented in the EIA, emphasizing that several species can be new for science. Therefore, the studies presented in the by the CNEC S.A., and approved by Instituto Ambiental do Paraná (IAP, do not support propositions drawn to weaken the effects of the Mauá dam over the fish species that could be attained. A construção da hidrelétrica Mauá foi projetada no médio rio Tibagi, Paraná, local identificado pelo Ministério do Meio Ambiente (MMA como área prioritária para a conservação. Os estudos de impactos ambientais, para as espécies de peixes, foram considerados incompletos, inconsistentes e inválidos pelos pesquisadores da Universidade Estadual de Londrina. Assim, com o objetivo de verificar quais espécies de peixes ocorrem em trechos do rio Tibagi e em um afluente ameaçado pelo projeto, o rio Barra Grande, comparou-se a lista de espécies que

  14. Tazimina Hydroelectric Project, Iliamna, Alaska Final Technical and Construction Cost Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HDR Alaska, Inc.

    1998-11-01

    The Iliamna-Newhalen-Nondalton Electric Cooperative (INNEC) provides electrical power to three communities of the same names. These communities are located near the north shore of Iliamna Lake in south-central Alaska approximately 175 miles southwest of Anchorage. These communities have a combined population of approximately 600 residents. There is no direct road connection from these villages to larger population centers. Electric power has been generated by INNEC since 1983 using diesel generators located in the community of Newhalen. Fuel for these generators was transported up the Kvichak River, an important salmon river, and across Iliamna Lake. In dry years the river is low and fuel is flown into Iliamna and then trucked five miles into Newhalen. The cost, difficult logistics and potential spill hazard of this fuel was a primary reason for development of hydroelectric power in this area. A hydroelectric project was constructed for these communities, starting in the spring of 1996 and ending in the spring of 1998. The project site is at Tazimina Falls about 9 miles upstream of the confluence of the Tazimina River and the Newhalen River. The project has an installed capacity of 824 kilowatts (kW) and is expandable to 1.5 megawatts (MW). The project is run-of-the-river (no storage) and uses the approximately 100 feet of natural head provided by the falls. The project features include a channel control sill, intake structure, penstock, underground powerhouse, tailrace, surface control building, buried transmission line and communication cable, and access road.

  15. General classification handbook for floodplain vegetation in large river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieck, Jennifer J.; Ruhser, Janis; Hoy, Erin E.; Robinson, Larry R.

    2015-01-01

    This handbook describes the General Wetland Vegetation Classification System developed as part of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ Upper Mississippi River Restoration (UMRR) Program, Long Term Resource Monitoring (LTRM) element. The UMRR is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the states of Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, and Wisconsin. The classification system consists of 31 general map classes and has been used to create systemic vegetation data layers throughout the diverse Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS), which includes the commercially navigable reaches of the Mississippi River from Minneapolis, Minnesota, in the north to Cairo, Illinois, in the south, the Illinois River, and navigable portions of the Kaskaskia, Black, St. Croix, and Minnesota Rivers. In addition, this handbook describes the evolution of the General Wetland Vegetation Classification System, discusses the process of creating a vegetation data layer, and describes each of the 31 map classes in detail. The handbook also acts as a pictorial guide to each of the map classes as they may appear in the field, as well as on color-infrared imagery. This version is an update to the original handbook published in 2004.

  16. Depth-integrated suspended sediment and geochemical fluxes in large rivers: the Amazon River system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchez, J.; Lupker, M.; Gaillardet, J.; Metivier, F.; France-Lanord, C.; Maurice, L.

    2010-12-01

    Erosion and weathering produce a wide range of residual solid products, in terms of size, density, mineralogy and chemical composition. These solid products are then transported by rivers from the continents to the oceans as suspended particulate matter (SPM) and bedload. Large rivers account for an important part of this transfer of sediments at the global scale. In those rivers, deep channels allow for vertical differentiation, or sorting, of suspended sediment, following their size and density. This hydrodynamic sorting results in vertically heterogeneous depth-profiles in terms of SPM concentration and size distribution (e.g. Garcia, 2008), which in turn likely result in an heterogeneous chemical composition of SPM throughout channel depth (e.g. Galy, 2007), which has to be evaluated. We sampled river water of the main tributaries of the Amazon River system (in the lowland basin), at two distinct water-stages, at various depths following depth-profiles, using a point depth-sampler. After filtration, and SPM recovery, SPM concentration, grain size distribution and chemical composition were determined. River discharge and water velocity throughout the sampled cross-sections were recorded using Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP). The large increase in SPM concentration with depth observed at most of the sampled depth-profiles is well accounted for by the Rouse model (e.g. Rouse, 1950). This analysis allows us to reliably infer the SPM concentration and grain size distribution throughout the sampled river cross-section, and thus to estimate the spatially-integrated instantaneous SPM flux using ADCP data (Bouchez et al., 2010). The study also emphasizes the potential role of particle aggregation, within the river system, as a complicating factor regarding the prediction of these depth-integrated SPM fluxes from easily measurable hydrodynamic parameters (surface SPM concentration and grain size, and water velocity). Then, using the previous analysis, combined

  17. Quantifying habitat benefits of channel reconfigurations on a highly regulated river system, Lower Missouri River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Susannah O.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Elliott, Caroline M.

    2017-01-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of habitat availability in a highly regulated lowland river, comparing a restored reach with two reference reaches: an un-restored, channelized reach, and a least-altered reach. We evaluate the effects of channel modifications in terms of distributions of depth and velocity as well as distributions and availability of habitats thought to be supportive of an endangered fish, the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). It has been hypothesized that hydraulic conditions that support food production and foraging may limit growth and survival of juvenile pallid sturgeon. To evaluate conditions that support these habitats, we constructed two-dimensional hydrodynamic models for the three study reaches, two located in the Lower Missouri River (channelized and restored reaches) and one in the Yellowstone River (least-altered reach). Comparability among the reaches was improved by scaling by bankfull discharge and bankfull channel area. The analysis shows that construction of side-channel chutes and increased floodplain connectivity increase the availability of foraging habitat, resulting in a system that is more similar to the reference reach on the Yellowstone River. The availability of food-producing habitat is low in all reaches at flows less than bankfull, but the two reaches in the Lower Missouri River – channelized and restored – display a threshold-like response as flows overtop channel banks, reflecting the persistent effects of channelization on hydraulics in the main channel. These high lateral gradients result in punctuated ecological events corresponding to flows in excess of bankfull discharge. This threshold effect in the restored reach remains distinct from that of the least-altered reference reach, where hydraulic changes are less abrupt and overbank flows more gradually inundate the adjacent floodplain. The habitat curves observed in the reference reach on the Yellowstone River may not be attainable within the

  18. Quality of water in the White River and Lake Tapps, Pierce County, Washington, May-December 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embrey, S.S.; Wagner, R.J.; Huffman, R.L.; Vanderpool-Kimura, A. M.; Foreman, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    The White River and Lake Tapps are part of a hydropower system completed in 1911–12. The system begins with a diversion dam on the White River that routes a portion of White River water into the southeastern end of Lake Tapps, which functioned as a storage reservoir for power generation. The stored water passed through the hydroelectric facilities at the northwestern end of the lake and returned to the White River through the powerhouse tailrace. Power generation ceased in January 2004, which altered the hydrology of the system by reducing volumes of water diverted out of the river, stored, and released through the powerhouse. This study conducted from May to December 2010 created a set of baseline data collected under a new flow regime for selected reaches of the White River, the White River Canal (Inflow), Lake Tapps Diversion (Tailrace) at the powerhouse, and Lake Tapps.

  19. Analysis of legal obstacles and incentives to the development of low-head hydroelectric power in Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level in Maine is discussed. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The dual regulatory system is examined. The first step any developer of small-scale hydropower must take is to acquire right, title, or interest in the real property. In Maine, that step requires acquisition in some form of both river banks, the river bed, and where necessary, the land needed for the upstream impoundment area. The developer must acquire the river banks to be considered a riparian owner. Classification as a riparian is important, for only a use of water by a riparian owner is deemed a reasonable use and hence a legal use. A non-riparian could not draw water from a stream to increase the water level of an impoundment area on another stream. Apart from the usual methods of land acquisition involving sale, lease, or perhaps gift, Maine has two somewhat unique methods a developer may use for property acquisition. These methods, authorized by statute, are use of the abandoned dams law and use of the Mill Dam Act for flowage of upstream impoundment areas.

  20. Project of the new measurement system for energy invoicing - Itaipu Hydroelectric Central; Proyecto del nuevo sistema de medicion de energia para facturacion de la Central Hidroelectrica de Itaipu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montania E, Julio Cesar [Usina Hidroelectrica de Itaipu Binacional, Assuncion (Paraguay)

    2001-07-01

    Itaipu Binacional has taken a decision of executing a technological updating for the energy measurement system through the substitution of the current system by other one equipped with digital devices. The main reasons for that were the following: a) The equipment in operation were of an outdated generation b) The accuracy class of the existing equipment was of 0.5%, but the tendency for invoicing measurements was to install meters with accuracy class of 0.2% in the enterprises c) The requirements of ONS/MAE, in Brazil, which establishes the minimum requisites to be attended by invoicing measurement systems.

  1. Deposition and simulation of sediment transport in the Lower Susquehanna River reservoir system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainly, R.A.; Reed, L.A.; Flippo, H.N.; Barton, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Susquehanna River drains 27,510 square miles in New York, Pennsylvania, and Maryland and is the largest tributary to the Chesapeake Bay. Three large hydroelectric dams are located on the river, Safe Harbor (Lake Clarke) and Holtwood (Lake Aldred) in southern Pennsylvania, and Conowingo (Conowingo Reservoir) in northern Maryland. About 259 million tons of sediment have been deposited in the three reservoirs. Lake Clarke contains about 90.7 million tons of sediment, Lake Aldred contains about 13.6 million tons, and Conowingo Reservoir contains about 155 million tons. An estimated 64.8 million tons of sand, 19.7 million tons of coal, 112 million tons of silt, and 63.3 million tons of clay are deposited in the three reservoirs. Deposition in the reservoirs is variable and ranges from 0 to 30 feet. Chemical analyses of sediment core samples indicate that the three reservoirs combined contain about 814,000 tons of organic nitrogen, 98,900 tons of ammonia as nitrogen, 226,000 tons of phosphorus, 5,610,000 1tons of iron, 2,250,000 tons of aluminum, and about 409,000 tons of manganese. Historical data indicate that Lake Clarke and Lake Aldred have reached equilibrium, and that they no longer store sediment. A comparison of cross-sectional data from Lake Clarke and Lake Aldred with data from Conowingo Reservoir indicates that Conowingo Reservoir will reach equilibrium within the next 20 to 30 years. As the Conowingo Reservoir fills with sediment and approaches equilibrium, the amount of sediment transported to the Chesapeake Bay will increase. The most notable increases will take place when very high flows scour the deposited sediment. Sediment transport through the reservoir system was simulated with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' HEC-6 computer model. The model was calibrated with monthly sediment loads for calendar year 1987. Calibration runs with options set for maximum trap efficiency and a "natural" particle-size distribution resulted in an overall computed trap

  2. System of performance indicators for management of a hydroelectric power plant; Rede de indicadores de desempenho para gestao de uma usina hidreletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandeira, Anselmo Alves

    1997-07-01

    This thesis addresses the development of a management system for manufacturing, based upon a performance measurement system, applied to a case study of the strategy of an electric energy-producing company. By defining performance parameters, determining the critical success factors and applying a gaps analysis, it is possible to identify the areas where the company ought to channel its efforts to improve its productive performance. The thesis selects indicators associated with the following parameters of efficacy, efficiency, productivity, quality, innovation and profitability, in order to evaluate the performance of its different levels of operation. A practical application of a performance measurement system, which was undertaken during the period of observation, is presented at the end of this thesis. It is believed that the theoretical content of this thesis can be easily adapted to the situation of other companies. (author)

  3. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric projects in Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are discussed. The discussion is designed to aid the developer in the determination of which permits, licenses, and laws of the state must be secured or complied with for the development of a project. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The introductory section examines the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and concludes with an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. Specific sections that follow are: Massachusetts Water Law; Licensing, Permitting, and Review Procedures; Indirect Considerations (by departments); Department of Public Utilities Regulation of Privately Owned Electric Utilities; Massachusetts Municipal Wholesale Electric Company; Miscellaneous Legal Issues Relating to Low-Head Hydroelectric Power; and Financial Considerations.

  4. Hydroelectricity - An Answer To Energy Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois-Xausa, Maryse; Havard, David; Czerwinski, Francois; Teller, Olivier

    2010-09-15

    The energy challenges of the next 30 years appear daunting and, in certain cases, in conflict with one another. Their complexity is such that one solution alone cannot provide a full answer. It is nevertheless equally clear that hydro-electricity, being renewable, proven, highly efficient, storable and with still very significant resource potential, possesses a unique combination of attributes which will aid decision-makers to plan and execute energy development with confidence.

  5. Flood forecasting and alert system for Arda River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artinyan, Eram; Vincendon, Beatrice; Kroumova, Kamelia; Nedkov, Nikolai; Tsarev, Petko; Balabanova, Snezhanka; Koshinchanov, Georgy

    2016-10-01

    The paper presents the set-up and functioning of a flood alert system based on SURFEX-TOPODYN platform for the cross-border Arda River basin. The system was built within a Bulgarian-Greek project funded by the European Territorial Cooperation (ETC) Programme and is in operational use since April 2014. The basin is strongly influenced by Mediterranean cyclones during the autumn-winter period and experiences dangerous rapid floods, mainly after intensive rain, often combined with snow melt events. The steep mountainous terrain leads to floods with short concentration time and high river speed causing damage to settlements and infrastructure. The main challenge was to correctly simulate the riverflow in near-real time and to timely forecast peak floods for small drainage basins below 100 km2 but also for larger ones of about 1900 km2 using the same technology. To better account for that variability, a modification of the original hydrological model parameterisation is proposed. Here we present the first results of a new model variant which uses dynamically adjusted TOPODYN river velocity as function of the computed partial streamflow discharge. Based on historical flooding data, river sections along endangered settlements were included in the river flow forecasting. A continuous hydrological forecast for 5 days ahead was developed for 18 settlements in Bulgaria and for the border with Greece, thus giving enough reaction time in case of high floods. The paper discusses the practical implementation of models for the Arda basin, the method used to calibrate the models' parameters, the results of the calibration-validation procedure and the way the information system is organised. A real case of forecasted rapid floods that occurred after the system's finalisation is analysed. One of the important achievements of the project is the on-line presentation of the forecasts that takes into account their temporal variability and uncertainty. The web presentation includes a

  6. River Debris Management System using Off-Grid Photovoltaic Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadon Intan Mastura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, Malacca River has long been the tourism attraction in Malacca. However, due to negligence, the river has been polluted by the litters thrown by tourists and even local residents, thus reflects a negative perception on Malacca. Therefore, this paper discusses about a fully automated river debris management system development using a stand-alone photovoltaic system. The concept design is to be stand alone in the river and automatically pull debris towards it for disposal. An off-grid stand-alone photovoltaic solar panel is used as renewable energy source connected to water pump and Arduino Uno microcontroller. The water pump rotates a water wheel and at the same time moves a conveyor belt; which is connected to the water wheel by a gear for debris collection. The solar system sizing suitable for the whole system is shown in this paper. The dumpster barge is equipped with an infrared sensor to monitor maximum height for debris, and instruct Arduino Uno to turn off the water pump. This system is able to power up using solar energy on sunny days and using battery otherwise.

  7. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are discussed. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area, and the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is examined. In Pennsylvania, there are 3 methods by which rights in water may be acquired: riparian ownership, prescription, and condemnation. These are discussed.

  8. Reactive power predispatch in the economical dispatch of multimodal hydroelectric systems; Predespacho de potencia reactiva en el despacho economico de sistemas hidrotermicos multinodales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dona, Victor M.; Hoese, Alejandro; Vargas, Alberto [Universidad Nacional de San Juan (Argentina). Instituto de Energia Electrica]. E-mail: vdona@iee.unsj.edu.ar

    2001-07-01

    The reactive power dispatch in generators and compensation equipment is necessary to the effects of maintaining an appropriate voltage level in the entire electric system. The lack of an appropriate dispatch programming for reactive power, can implies in a forced and not programmed operation of generator units. This contemplates in an unfavorable way in the operation costs when an entire optimization period is analyzed. This paper presents an associated predispatch proposal of generator units to the voltage-reactive power control needs, which is accomplished within the economical dispatch calculation during the operation programming process of an electric system. Finally, it is shown the main methodological aspects and results related to a real network.

  9. Analysis of the impact of connecting a larger number of small hydroelectric power plants to the short-circuit currents values and relay protection system of distribution network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sučević Nikola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the influence of a large number of small hydro power plants on the short-circuit currents is analysed, as well as the operation of the relay protection system within the real distribution network in Serbia. The necessary modification of the existing protection functions, as well as the implementation of the new proposed protection functions, are presented and discussed. Network modeling and analysis are performed using the program tool DIgSILENT PowerFactory.

  10. Water quality in the lotic area of the Antas river before and after the construction of the Monte Claro hydroelectric plant, south Brazil Qualidade da água nos trechos lóticos do rio das Antas antes e após a construção da usina hidrelétrica Monte Claro, sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane Marques Pimenta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study characterized the water quality of the lotic areas of the Rio das Antas (Antas Riverinfluenced by the construction of the Monte Claro hydroelectric plant (South Brazil, a run-of-the-river reservoir. METHODS: To assess the water quality, we selected four sampling points based on the results obtained in the water-quality monitoring program performed by CERAN (the Rio das Antas Energetic Company in the pre-filling (2002-2004 and post-filling (2005-2008 periods. The river flow was monitored during both of the periods. Seasonal samplings were conducted, and alkalinity, chlorophyll a, total and fecal coliforms, conductivity, color, BOD, COD, total phosphorus, nitrate, nitrite, ammoniacal nitrogen, dissolved oxygen, pH, total dissolved solids, suspended solids, sulfates, temperature and turbidity were evaluated. The results were interpreted according to the Brazilian Environmental Council's Water Quality Index, Trophic State Index and CONAMA Resolution 357/05. To verify the occurrence of alterations before and after the plant operation, t-tests were performed. RESULTS: Significant changes in water quality were not observed after the impoundment. The permanence of the characteristics of the natural hydrography was important for maintaining the water quality. The decline of the water quality in a stretch with reduced flow was caused by Burati stream, a tributary containing high concentrations of nutrients and fecal coliforms. CONCLUSIONS:The Monte Claro hydroelectric plant did not alter the water quality of the Antas River. The small reservoir resulting from the plant project favors the maintenance of the water quality of the river and does not favor eutrophication. Attention should be given to Burati stream, a tributary of the Antas River, regarding its high nutrient and coliform content.OBJETIVOS: Este estudo caracterizou a qualidade da água nos trechos lóticos do rio das Antas influenciados pela construção da usina hidrel

  11. Understanding Socio-Hydrology System in the Kissimmee River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Wang, D.; Tian, F.; Sivapalan, M.

    2014-12-01

    This study is to develop a conceptual socio-hydrology model for the Kissimmee River Basin. The Kissimmee River located in Florida was channelized in mid-20 century for flood protection. However, the environmental issues caused by channelization led Floridians to conduct a restoration project recently, focusing on wetland recovery. As a complex coupled human-water system, Kissimmee River Basin shows the typical socio-hydrology interactions. Hypothetically, the major reason to drive the system from channelization to restoration is that the community sensitivity towards the environment has changed from controlling to restoring. The model developed in this study includes 5 components: water balance, flood risk, wetland area, crop land area, and community sensitivity. Furthermore, urban population and rural population in the basin have different community sensitivities towards the hydrologic system. The urban population, who live further away from the river are more sensitive to wetland restoration; while the rural population, who live closer to the river are more sensitive to flood protection. The power dynamics between the two groups and its impact on management decision making is described in the model. The model is calibrated based on the observed watershed outflow, wetland area and crop land area. The results show that the overall focus of community sensitivity has changed from flood protection to wetland restoration in the past 60 years in Kissimmee River Basin, which confirms the study hypothesis. There are two main reasons for the community sensitivity change. Firstly, people's flood memory is fading because of the effective flood protection, while the continuously shrinking wetland and the decreasing bird and fish population draw more and more attention. Secondly, in the last 60 years, the urban population in Florida drastically increased compared with a much slower increase of rural population. As a result, the community sensitivity of urban population towards

  12. Downstream flow top width prediction in a river system | Choudhury ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANFIS, ARIMA and Hybrid Multiple Inflows Muskingum models (HMIM) were applied to simulate and forecast downstream discharge and flow top widths in a river system. The ANFIS model works on a set of linguistic rules while the ARIMA model uses a set of past values to predict the next value in a time series. The HMIM ...

  13. Watershed Disturbance and its Potential Effects on River Systems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Atewa Range Forest Reserve in the Eastern Region of Ghana is a very important watershed which serves three important river systems - the Densu, Ayensu and Birim, all in southern Ghana. Widespread degradation of the forest reserve as a result of rampant anthropogenic activities threatens the long-term ...

  14. Evaluation of HIV Surveillance System in Rivers State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sony Computer (Iby)

    3Department of Neuropsychiatry/Mental Health, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital,. Alakahia, PMB ... Conclusion: The HIV surveillance system in Rivers State is a useful tool for planning public health activities. ... individuals, households and nations, reducing by more than half the Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

  15. Climate-hydrology-ecology interactions in glacierized river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, David; Brown, Lee; Milner, Alexander

    2010-05-01

    High climatic sensitivity and low anthropogenic influence make glacierized river basins important environments for examining hydrological and ecological response to global change. This presentation is based on previous and ongoing research in glacierized river basins (located in the French Pyrenees, New Zealand and Swedish Lapland), which adopts an interdisciplinary approach to investigate the climate-hydrology-ecology cascade. Data are used to advance hypotheses concerning impacts of climate change/ variability on glacier river system hydrology and ecology. Aquatic ecosystems in high latitude and altitude environments are influenced strongly by cryospheric and hydrological processes due to links between atmospheric forcing, snowpack/ glacier mass-balance, river runoff, physico-chemistry and biota. In the current phase of global warming, many glaciers are retreating. Shrinking snow and ice-masses may alter spatial and temporal dynamics in bulk basin runoff with significant changes in the relative contributions of snowmelt, glacier-melt and groundwater to stream flow. The timing of peak snow- and ice-melt may shift; and proportion of stream flow sourced from rainfall-runoff and groundwater may increase. In this presentation, the influence of changing water source contributions on physico-chemical habitat and, in turn, benthic communities is assessed using an alternative alpine stream classification. In the future, this model predicts more rapid downstream change in benthic communities as meltwater contributions decline; and, at the basin-scale, biodiversity may be reduced due to less spatio-temporal heterogeneity in water sources contributions and, thus, physico-chemical habitat. Integrated, long-term research into the climate-hydrology-ecology cascade in other glacierized river basins is vital because interdisciplinary science is fundamental: to predicting stream hydrology and ecology under scenarios of future climate/ variability, to assessing the utility of

  16. Climate scenarios for the Truckee-Carson River system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettinger, Michael; Sterle, Kelley; Simpson, Karen; Singletary, Loretta; Fitzgerald, Kelsey; McCarthy, Maureen

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the scenarios ultimately take the form of gridded, daily (maximum and minimum) temperatures and precipitation totals spanning the entire Truckee-Carson River System, from which meteorological inputs to various hydrologic, water-balance and watermanagement models can be extracted by other parts of the Water for the Seasons project and by other studies and stakeholders. Climate scenarios are constructed using: 1) survey data from interviews with 66 Truckee-Carson River System water-management and water-interest organizations to identify plausible drought and high-flow events that could stress the system irreparably; 2) input from the Stakeholder Affiliate Group and other modelers on the Water for the Seasons team to gain additional key stakeholder input with regard to organizational survey results and to identify the most pressing water-management issues being faced in the system; and 3) historical climate datasets used to simulate possible future conditions.

  17. RECOVERY OF AN OXISOL DEGRADED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF A HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseane Carina Borges de Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The removal of thick layers of soil under native scrubland (Cerrado on the right bank of the Paraná River in Selvíria (State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil for construction of the Ilha Solteira Hydroelectric Power Plant caused environmental damage, affecting the revegetation process of the stripped soil. Over the years, various kinds of land use and management systems have been tried, and the aim of this study was to assess the effects of these attempts to restore the structural quality of the soil. The experiment was conducted considering five treatments and thirty replications. The following treatments were applied: stripped soil without anthropic intervention and total absence of plant cover; stripped soil treated with sewage sludge and planted to eucalyptus and grass a year ago; stripped soil developing natural secondary vegetation (capoeira since 1969; pastureland since 1978, replacing the native vegetation; and soil under native vegetation (Cerrado. In the 0.00-0.20 m layer, the soil was chemically characterized for each experimental treatment. A 30-point sampling grid was used to assess soil porosity and bulk density, and to assess aggregate stability in terms of mean weight diameter (MWD and geometric mean diameter (GMD. Aggregate stability was also determined using simulated rainfall. The results show that using sewage sludge incorporated with a rotary hoe improved the chemical fertility of the soil and produced more uniform soil pore size distribution. Leaving the land to develop secondary vegetation or turning it over to pastureland produced an intermediate level of structural soil quality, and these two treatments produced similar results. Stripped soil without anthropic intervention was of the lowest quality, with the lowest values for cation exchange capacity (CEC and macroporosity, as well as the highest values of soil bulk density and percentage of aggregates with diameter size <0.50 mm, corroborated by its lower

  18. Analysis of synchronous and induction generators used at hydroelectric power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniş, C. M.; Popa, G. N.; lagăr, A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper is presented an analysis of the operating electric generators (synchronous and induction) within a small capacity hydroelectric power plant. Such is treated the problem of monitoring and control hydropower plant using SCADA systems. Have been carried an experimental measurements in small hydropower plant for different levels of water in the lake and various settings of the operating parameters.

  19. Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) Water Temperature Models Developed for the Missouri River Recovery Management Plan and Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-18

    ER D C/ EL T R- 17 -1 8 Missouri River Recovery Program (MRRP) Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) Water... Engineering Center-River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) Water Temperature Models Developed for the Missouri River Recovery Management Plan and Environmental...Impact Statement” ERDC/EL TR-17-18 ii Abstract This report describes the Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) water

  20. Combined assessment and regulation on ecological land use and water demand of the river system: a case study in Luanhe River, North China

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, D. H.; Wang, G.; H. Wang; T. L. Qin

    2011-01-01

    With economic and social development, ecological water and land use of the river system were seriously misappropriated, which resulted in overall degradation of the river systems. In this study, theoretical and technical frameworks of regionalisation on the eco-environmental function of the river systems were preliminarily formulated. According to the river eco-environmental functions, Luanhe River was regionalised into four types of first-class functional areas, i.e., ecological preservation...

  1. Synergetic Development Assessment of Urban River System Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingya Qiao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Synergetic Development Assessment (SDA as a methodology to evaluate the environmental, economic, and social performance of an urban river system landscape from the perspective of sustainability. SDA is based on synergetics and its “order parameters” theory, proposed as a science to study the self-organization of complex systems. A case study of river system landscapes in China was carried out by, first, simplifying the composite system into three subsystems: environmental, economic, and social; then, going on to construct a hierarchical structure to explore the order parameters as the evaluation index. The Analytic Hierarchy Process was used to get the weight of the evaluation index to complete the assessment index system. At the same time, a Sequential Synergy Degree Model was built to accomplish the SDA. We find that from 2005 to 2015, the order degree of the environmental subsystem developed slowly, with fluctuations, and that river pattern is the key factor. Meanwhile, the order degree of the economic subsystem fluctuated widely, which significantly depended on the changing value of water resources, and the order degree of social subsystem improved continuously, with social culture lagging far behind. As a whole, the synergy degree of the composite system developed orderly at a corresponding low level, which was in low synergy from 2005 to 2009 and then in general synergy up to 2015.

  2. XXI Century Climatology of Snow Cover for the Western River Basins of the Indus River System

    CERN Document Server

    Hasson, Shabeh ul; Lucarini, Valerio

    2012-01-01

    Under changing climate, freshwater resources of Hindu Kush-Karakoram-Himalaya (HKH) region can be affected by changes in temperature and in amount, type and distribution of precipitation. This can have serious implications for the water supply and in turn threaten the food security and economic wellbeing of Indus basin. Using MODIS daily snow products (Terra & Aqua), this study focuses on the assessment of the 2000-2010 snow cover dynamics on seasonal/annual basis against geophysical parameters (aspect, elevation and slope) for the so called western river basins of Indus River System (IRS), namely Indus, Kabul, Jhelum, Astore, Gilgit, Hunza, Swat, Shigar and Shyok basins. Results show that inputs from MODIS instrument provide unprecedented better opportunity to study by using GIS techniques the snow cover dynamics in the remote areas like HKH region at such hyper-temporal and finer planar resolution. Adapted non-spectral cloud filtering techniques have significantly reduced cloud coverage and improved sno...

  3. A Decisional Collaborative System in Hydroelectric Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva BALINT

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For the branch is a necessity to implement aBusiness Intelligence solutions. This solution should providemanagement with information in real time. Information aredecision-making for all levels in the management. We propose acomplete Business Intelligence (BI solution for hydorelectricdomain, by identifying and implementing of some pre-existingBI solutions followed by some own solutions developing in orderto satisfy the energy field specific needs, analyze and reports.Our approach use the concept of intelligent business from thelarger perspective of Corporate Performance Management(CPM. The implementation use SharePoint Server and OLAP.

  4. Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleeson, L.

    1991-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Field Office, Idaho, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program was initiated in conjunction with the restoration of three power generating plants in Idaho Falls, Idaho, following damage caused by the Teton Dam failure on June 5, 1976. There were many parties interested in this project, including the state and environmental groups, with different concerns. This report was prepared by the developer and describes the design alternatives the applicant provided in an attempt to secure the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission license. Also included are correspondence between the related parties concerning the project, major design alternatives/project plan diagrams, the license, and energy and project economics.

  5. What tools do we have to study the morphological effects of hydroelectric plants in developing countries? The Chilean case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcayaga, Hernan; Caamaño, Diego; Palma, Sebastian; Contreras, Karla

    2017-04-01

    Countries growing rates are directly related to energy production. Therefore, developed and developing nations are focused on hydropower and dam construction; on the contrary dam removal practices are significantly different among nations, demonstrating the former group a lesser interest on removing structures. Chiles hydropower generation corresponds to 50% of the current grid, having a potential capacity to double the current situation. Thus: ¿What tools can we apply to assess the potential impacts on our rivers? The goal of this project is to study two different reaches located in two separates streams in Central Chile. The Aconcagua River represents a mountain stream (i.e. steep, narrow, and confined) subject to the operation of a hydroelectric system composed by five diversion hydropower plants built during the 90`s. The Rapel River reach corresponds to the last 10km upstream to the outlet; it is a mild and wide stream that includes the gravel-sand transition. The Rapel dam operates about 25km upstream this second reach that is characterized by an 112m wall built in 1968. The Aconcagua hydropower system was characterized within a GIS environment and a morphological response conceptual model applied. The model uses two indexes to evaluate changes in i) channel forming discharge and ii) sediment supply. The provided response shows the trends and magnitudes of the changes, based in eighth possible directions for ten morphological responsible variables. The Rapel river system was evaluated differently and sampling of sediments characteristics (D50 and armour index), discharge index for both before and after the dam operation, Morphological Quality Index (IQM) and an analysis of aerial photography time series were performed. Results showed that the hydrology indicator impacts for the Aconcagua system were more severe than the impacts on sediments transport (typically the case for diversion type hydropower). A fine armour layer was found within the Rapel river site

  6. Interactive Forecasting with the National Weather Service River Forecast System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, George F.; Page, Donna

    1993-01-01

    The National Weather Service River Forecast System (NWSRFS) consists of several major hydrometeorologic subcomponents to model the physics of the flow of water through the hydrologic cycle. The entire NWSRFS currently runs in both mainframe and minicomputer environments, using command oriented text input to control the system computations. As computationally powerful and graphically sophisticated scientific workstations became available, the National Weather Service (NWS) recognized that a graphically based, interactive environment would enhance the accuracy and timeliness of NWS river and flood forecasts. Consequently, the operational forecasting portion of the NWSRFS has been ported to run under a UNIX operating system, with X windows as the display environment on a system of networked scientific workstations. In addition, the NWSRFS Interactive Forecast Program was developed to provide a graphical user interface to allow the forecaster to control NWSRFS program flow and to make adjustments to forecasts as necessary. The potential market for water resources forecasting is immense and largely untapped. Any private company able to market the river forecasting technologies currently developed by the NWS Office of Hydrology could provide benefits to many information users and profit from providing these services.

  7. An intelligent agent for optimal river-reservoir system management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieker, Jeffrey D.; Labadie, John W.

    2012-09-01

    A generalized software package is presented for developing an intelligent agent for stochastic optimization of complex river-reservoir system management and operations. Reinforcement learning is an approach to artificial intelligence for developing a decision-making agent that learns the best operational policies without the need for explicit probabilistic models of hydrologic system behavior. The agent learns these strategies experientially in a Markov decision process through observational interaction with the environment and simulation of the river-reservoir system using well-calibrated models. The graphical user interface for the reinforcement learning process controller includes numerous learning method options and dynamic displays for visualizing the adaptive behavior of the agent. As a case study, the generalized reinforcement learning software is applied to developing an intelligent agent for optimal management of water stored in the Truckee river-reservoir system of California and Nevada for the purpose of streamflow augmentation for water quality enhancement. The intelligent agent successfully learns long-term reservoir operational policies that specifically focus on mitigating water temperature extremes during persistent drought periods that jeopardize the survival of threatened and endangered fish species.

  8. Evolution of biomolecular loadings along a major river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freymond, Chantal V.; Kündig, Nicole; Stark, Courcelle; Peterse, Francien; Buggle, Björn; Lupker, Maarten; Plötze, Michael; Blattmann, Thomas M.; Filip, Florin; Giosan, Liviu; Eglinton, Timothy I.

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the transport history and fate of organic carbon (OC) within river systems is crucial in order to constrain the dynamics and significance of land-ocean interactions as a component of the global carbon cycle. Fluvial export and burial of terrestrial OC in marine sediments influences atmospheric CO2 over a range of timescales, while river-dominated sedimentary sequences can provide valuable archives of paleoenvironmental information. While there is abundant evidence that the association of organic matter (OM) with minerals exerts an important influence on its stability as well as hydrodynamic behavior in aquatic systems, there is a paucity of information on where such associations form and how they evolve during fluvial transport. Here, we track total organic carbon (TOC) and terrestrial biomarker concentrations (plant wax-derived long-chain fatty acids (FA), branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) and lignin-derived phenols) in sediments collected along the entire course of the Danube River system in the context of sedimentological parameters. Mineral-specific surface area-normalized biomarker and TOC concentrations show a systematic decrease from the upper to the lower Danube basin. Changes in OM loading of the available mineral phase correspond to a net decrease of 70-80% of different biomolecular components. Ranges for biomarker loadings on Danube River sediments, corresponding to 0.4-1.5 μgFA/m2 for long-chain (n-C24-32) fatty acids and 17-71 ngbrGDGT/m2 for brGDGTs, are proposed as a benchmark for comparison with other systems. We propose that normalizing TOC as well as biomarker concentrations to mineral surface area provides valuable quantitative constraints on OM dynamics and organo-mineral interactions during fluvial transport from terrigenous source to oceanic sink.

  9. Global analysis of river systems: from Earth system controls to Anthropocene syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meybeck, Michel

    2003-01-01

    Continental aquatic systems from rivers to the coastal zone are considered within two perspectives: (i) as a major link between the atmosphere, pedosphere, biosphere and oceans within the Earth system with its Holocene dynamics, and (ii) as water and aquatic biota resources progressively used and transformed by humans. Human pressures have now reached a state where the continental aquatic systems can no longer be considered as being controlled by only Earth system processes, thus defining a new era, the Anthropocene. Riverine changes, now observed at the global scale, are described through a first set of syndromes (flood regulation, fragmentation, sediment imbalance, neo-arheism, salinization, chemical contamination, acidification, eutrophication and microbial contamination) with their related causes and symptoms. These syndromes have direct influences on water uses, either positive or negative. They also modify some Earth system key functions such as sediment, water, nutrient and carbon balances, greenhouse gas emissions and aquatic biodiversity. Evolution of river syndromes over the past 2000 years is complex: it depends upon the stages of regional human development and on natural conditions, as illustrated here for the chemical contamination syndrome. River damming, eutrophication and generalized decrease of river flow due to irrigation are some of the other global features of river changes. Future management of river systems should also consider these long-term impacts on the Earth system. PMID:14728790

  10. Life History Attributes of Asian Carps in the Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garvey, James E; DeGrandchamp, Kelly L; Williamson, Christopher J

    2007-01-01

    The Upper Mississippi River (UMR) system starts at the confluence of the Ohio River at Cairo, Illinois, and serves as a conduit for many aquatic invasive species to enter the waterways of the central and northern interior...

  11. Studies on calcium, magnesium and sulphate in the Mandovi and Zuari river system (Goa)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.; Naik, S.

    Distribution of calcium, magnesium and sulphate have been examined in the tide-dominated Mandovi and Zuari river systems. Calcium and magnesium appear to take some part in the bio-geochemical cycles of the rivers and behave as semi...

  12. Impacts of Urbanization on River Systems in the Taihu Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Deng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available River systems are valuable to human beings; meanwhile, they are intensively influenced by human activities, especially urbanization. In this study, based on the data derived from topographic maps and remote sensing images, the temporal and spatial change of river system geomorphology in the Taihu Region over the past 50 years was investigated in conjunction with urbanization. Results demonstrated that the number of river systems decreased drastically, that the morphology of river channels changed into wider and straighter and that the structure of river network tended to simplify in the Taihu Region in recent 50 years. Meanwhile, the changes in river density, the water surface ratio, the river development coefficient, the main river area length ratio and the box dimension in the rapid urbanization period were much greater than those in the slow urbanization period, but the decrease of river sinuosity in the slow urbanization period was more intense. Moreover, the spatial differences of the changes in the river development coefficient were the largest, and the changes in the river indicators in the low-urbanized regions were the most intense. In addition, the changes in the water surface ratio had the closest correlation with urbanization, and the relational degrees between population urbanization and the changes in river systems were the largest. The results can provide a reliable basis to determine reasonable management and conservation strategies of river systems in the Taihu Region.

  13. Vermont Marble Company, Proctor, Vermont: Otter Creek hydroelectric feasibility report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-02-01

    Vermont Marble Company (VMCO) owns and operates four hydroelectric projects in a 50-mile reach of Otter Creek in west central Vermont. This study concerns three of the installations - Center Rutland, Beldens, and Huntington Falls. The fourth site is known as Proctor and will be studied separately. All four plants operate as run-of-river stations, and the limited reservoir storage capacity places severe limitations on any other type of operation. The plants are presently operating at much lower outputs than can be obtained, because they do not use the available discharge and head. The results show that, under the assumptions made in this study, Beldens and Huntington Falls can be economically improved. The rehabilitation of the Center Rutland plant did not look economically attractive. However, the improvement of Center Rutland should not be eliminated from further consideration, because it could become economically attractive if the cost of energy starts escalating at a rate of around 10% per year. The study included a brief appraisal of the existing generating facilities and condition of existing concrete structures, a geological reconnaissance of the sites, analysis of the power potential, flood studies, technical and economic investigations and comparative evaluations of the alternatives for developing the streamflow for power generation, selection of the most suitable alternative, financial analysis, preparation of drawings, and preparation of detailed quantity and cost estimates.

  14. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric potential in Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level is described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The first obstacle which any developer must confront in Michigan is obtaining the authority to utilize the river bed, banks, and flowing water at a proposed dam site. This involves a determination of ownership of the stream banks and bed, and the manner of obtaining either their title or use; and existing constraints with regard to the use of the water. Michigan follows the riparian theory of water law. The direct regulation; indirect regulation; public utilities regulation; financing; and taxation are discussed.

  15. Summary of the Snake River plain Regional Aquifer-System Analysis in Idaho and eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    -feet, and storage decreased from 1952 to 1964 and from 1976 to 1980 because of below-normal precipitation and increased withdrawals of ground water for irrigation. Annual ground-water discharge increased to about 7.1 million acre-feet in 1980, or about 80 percent since the start of irrigation. About 10 percent of the 1980 total discharge was ground-water pumpage. About 3.1 million acres, or almost one-third of the plain, was irrigated during 1980: 2.0 million acres with surface water, 1.0 million acres with ground water, and 0.1 million acres with combined surface and ground water. About 8.9 million acre-feet of Snake River water was diverted for irrigation during 1980 and 2.3 million acre-feet of ground water was pumped from 5,300 wells. Most irrigation wells on the eastern plain are open to basalt. About two-thirds of them yield more than 1,500 gallons per minute with a reported maximum of 7,240 gallons per minute; drawdown is less than 20 feet in two-thirds of the wells. Most irrigation wells on the western plain are open to sedimentary rocks. About one-third of them yield more than 1,00 gallons per minute with a reported maximum of 3,850 gallons per minute; drawndown is less than 20 feet in about one-fifth of the wells. The major instream use of water on the Snake River Plain is hydroelectric power generation. Fifty-two million acre-feet of water generated 2.6 million megawatthours of electricity during 1980. Digital computer ground-water flows models of the eastern and western plain reasonably simulated regional changes in water levels and ground-water discharges from 1880 (preirrigation) to 1980. Model results support the concept of three-dimensional flow and the hypotheses of no underflow between the eastern and western plain. Simulation of the regional aquifer system in the eastern plain indicates that is 1980 hydrologic conditions, including pumpage, were to remain the same for another 30 years, moderate declines in ground-water levels and decreases in spring

  16. Optimum Water Quality Monitoring Network Design for Bidirectional River Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaohui; Yue, Yong; Wong, Prudence W H; Zhang, Yixin; Tan, Jianhong

    2018-01-24

    Affected by regular tides, bidirectional water flows play a crucial role in surface river systems. Using optimization theory to design a water quality monitoring network can reduce the redundant monitoring nodes as well as save the costs for building and running a monitoring network. A novel algorithm is proposed to design an optimum water quality monitoring network for tidal rivers with bidirectional water flows. Two optimization objectives of minimum pollution detection time and maximum pollution detection probability are used in our optimization algorithm. We modify the Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO) algorithm and develop new fitness functions to calculate pollution detection time and pollution detection probability in a discrete manner. In addition, the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is used to simulate hydraulic characteristics and pollution events based on a hypothetical river system studied in the literature. Experimental results show that our algorithm can obtain a better Pareto frontier. The influence of bidirectional water flows to the network design is also identified, which has not been studied in the literature. Besides that, we also find that the probability of bidirectional water flows has no effect on the optimum monitoring network design but slightly changes the mean pollution detection time.

  17. Optimum Water Quality Monitoring Network Design for Bidirectional River Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Affected by regular tides, bidirectional water flows play a crucial role in surface river systems. Using optimization theory to design a water quality monitoring network can reduce the redundant monitoring nodes as well as save the costs for building and running a monitoring network. A novel algorithm is proposed to design an optimum water quality monitoring network for tidal rivers with bidirectional water flows. Two optimization objectives of minimum pollution detection time and maximum pollution detection probability are used in our optimization algorithm. We modify the Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO algorithm and develop new fitness functions to calculate pollution detection time and pollution detection probability in a discrete manner. In addition, the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM is used to simulate hydraulic characteristics and pollution events based on a hypothetical river system studied in the literature. Experimental results show that our algorithm can obtain a better Pareto frontier. The influence of bidirectional water flows to the network design is also identified, which has not been studied in the literature. Besides that, we also find that the probability of bidirectional water flows has no effect on the optimum monitoring network design but slightly changes the mean pollution detection time.

  18. Climate change impact on operation of dams and hydroelectricity generation in the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, N.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Fekete, B. M.

    2016-12-01

    We are using a large-scale, high-resolution, fully integrated hydrological/reservoir/hydroelectricity model to investigate the impact of climate change on the operation of 11037 dams and generation of electricity from 375 hydroelectric power plants in the Northeastern United States. Moreover, we estimate the hydropower potential of the region by energizing the existing non-powered dams and then studying the impact of climate change on the hydropower potential. We show that climate change increases the impact of dams on the hydrology of the region. Warmer temperatures produce shorter frozen periods, earlier snowmelt and elevated evapotranspiration rates, which when combined with changes in precipitation, are projected to increase water availability in winter but reduce it during summer. As a result, the water that is stored by dams will be more than ever a necessary part of the routine water systems operations to compensate for these seasonal imbalances. The function of dams as emergency water storage for creating drought resiliency will mostly diminish in the future. Building more dams to cope with the local impacts of climate change on water resources and to offset the increased drought vulnerability may thus be inevitable. Annual hydroelectricity generation in the region is 41 Twh. Our estimate of the annual hydropower potential of non-powered dams adds up to 350 Twh. Climate change may reduce hydropower potential from non-powered dams by up to 13% and reduce current hydroelectricity generation by up to 8% annually. Hydroelectricity generation and hydropower potential may increase in winter months and decline in months of summer and fall. These changes call for recalibration of dam operations and may raise conflict of interests in multipurpose dams.

  19. Sinks and sources: Assessing microplastic abundance in river sediment and deposit feeders in an Austral temperate urban river system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Holly A; Dalu, Tatenda; Wasserman, Ryan J

    2018-01-15

    Microplastics are important novel pollutants in freshwaters but their behaviour in river sediments is poorly understood due to the large amounts of coloured dissolved organic matter that impede sample processing. The present study aimed to 1.) estimate the microplastic pollution dynamics in an urban river system experiencing temporal differences in river flow, and 2.) investigate the potential use of chironomids as indicators of microplastic pollution levels in degraded freshwater environments. Microplastic levels were estimated from sediment and Chironomus spp. larvae collected from various sites along the Bloukrans River system, in the Eastern Cape South Africa during the summer and winter season. River flow, water depth, channel width, substrate embeddedness and sediment organic matter were simultaneously collected from each site. The winter season was characterised by elevated microplastic abundances, likely as a result of lower energy and increased sediment deposition associated with reduced river flow. In addition, results showed that particle distribution may be governed by various other external factors, such as substrate type and sediment organic matter. The study further highlighted that deposit feeders associated with the benthic river habitats, namely Chironomus spp. ingest microplastics and that the seasonal differences in sediment microplastic dynamics were reflected in chironomid microplastic abundance. There was a positive, though weakly significant relationship between deposit feeders and sediment suggesting that deposit feeders such as Chironomus spp. larvae could serve as an important indicator of microplastic loads within freshwater ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Anthropic contribution on pollution in hydroelectric reservoirs: the case of Sao Simao's hydroelectric power plant - GO/MG, Brazil; Contribuicao antropica na poluicao de reservatorios hidreletricos: o caso da Usina Hidreletrica de Sao Simao - GO/MG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Gizele Araujo Borba da

    2010-02-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of anthropogenic pollution in hydroelectric reservoirs through a case study of the Sao Simao Hydropower. The literature relates the problem of eutrophication with the addition of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) in excess, resulting in water pollution. Through data for both tributary rivers and the reservoir, it was found that the Sao Simao dam presents a framework for eutrophication. We made an analysis to see which tributary rivers were the main sources of nutrients released into the waters of the reservoir and a survey of possible human activities that are contributing to the intake of nutrients in these tributaries. (author)

  1. An integrated multiscale river basin observing system in the Heihe River Basin, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Liu, S.; Xiao, Q.; Ma, M.; Jin, R.; Che, T.

    2015-12-01

    Using the watershed as the unit to establish an integrated watershed observing system has been an important trend in integrated eco-hydrologic studies in the past ten years. Thus far, a relatively comprehensive watershed observing system has been established in the Heihe River Basin, northwest China. In addition, two comprehensive remote sensing hydrology experiments have been conducted sequentially in the Heihe River Basin, including the Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (WATER) (2007-2010) and the Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER) (2012-2015). Among these two experiments, an important result of WATER has been the generation of some multi-scale, high-quality comprehensive datasets, which have greatly supported the development, improvement and validation of a series of ecological, hydrological and quantitative remote-sensing models. The goal of a breakthrough for solving the "data bottleneck" problem has been achieved. HiWATER was initiated in 2012. This project has established a world-class hydrological and meteorological observation network, a flux measurement matrix and an eco-hydrological wireless sensor network. A set of super high-resolution airborne remote-sensing data has also been obtained. In addition, there has been important progress with regard to the scaling research. Furthermore, the automatic acquisition, transmission, quality control and remote control of the observational data has been realized through the use of wireless sensor network technology. The observation and information systems have been highly integrated, which will provide a solid foundation for establishing a research platform that integrates observation, data management, model simulation, scenario analysis and decision-making support to foster 21st-century watershed science in China.

  2. FORESIGHT - ECOSUSTAINABLE DETERMINANTS OF STRATEGIC MODERNIZATION OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dovgan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the foresight methodology as an ecosustainable determinants of strategic modernization of hydroelectric power plants in the conditions of the external challenges and threats is revealed. The strategic concepts of modernization and a mechanism of strategic modernization of hydroelectric power plants on the principles of public-private partnerships is allocated. Recommendations on the implementation of the results of the strategic foresight to the modernization of hydroelectric power plants in the interaction of public and private agents are formulated.

  3. Glacier shrinkage drives changes in river system hydrology and ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, D. M.; Khamis, K.; Blaen, P. J.; Hainie, S.; Mellor, C.; Brown, L. E.; Milner, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    High climatic sensitivity and low anthropogenic influence make glacierized river basins important environments for examining hydrological and ecological response to global change. This paper synthesises findings from previous and ongoing research in glacierized Alpine and Arctic river basins (located in the French Pyrenees, New Zealand, Swedish Lapland and Svalbard), which adopts an interdisciplinary approach to investigate the climate-cryosphere-hydrology-ecology cascade. Data are used to advance hypotheses concerning the consequences of climate change/ variability on glacier river system hydrology and ecology. Aquatic ecosystems in high latitude and altitude environments are influenced strongly by cryospheric and hydrological processes due to links between atmospheric forcing, snowpack/ glacier mass-balance, river runoff, physico-chemistry and biota. In the current phase of global warming, many glaciers are retreating. Using downscaled regional climate projections as inputs to a distributed hydrological model for a study basin in the French Pyrenees (i.e. an environment at the contemporary limit of valley glaciation), we show how shrinking snow and ice-masses may alter space-time dynamics in basin runoff. Notably, the timing of peak snow- and ice-melt may shift; and the proportion of stream flow sourced from rainfall-runoff (cf. meltwater) may increase. Across our range of Alpine and Arctic study basins, we quantify observed links between relative water source contributions (% meltwater : % groundwater), physico-chemical habitat (e.g. water temperature, electrical conductivity, suspended sediment and channel stability) and benthic communities. At the site scale, results point towards increased community diversity (taxonomic and functional) as meltwater contributions decline and physico-chemical habitat becomes less harsh. However, basin-scale biodiversity may be reduced due to less spatio-temporal heterogeneity in water source contributions and habitats, and the

  4. Diatom community structure along physicochemical gradients in upland river segments of Tamiraparani river system, South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshisundaram Amutha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the diversity and distributional patterns of benthic diatom assemblages in the upland streams of Tamiraparani River system, southern part of Western Ghats of Peninsular India. A total of 168 benthic diatoms representing 16 orders, 32 families, and 47 genera were enumerated. Structuring of diatom community was dependent on the environmental conditions of the respective habitats. Canonical correspondence analysis described both physical habitat quality and water parameter gradient and factors that correlated significantly were substrate type, water temperature, dissolved oxygen and nitrate content. Gomphonema gandhii, Cocconeis placentula and Navicula cuspidate were strongly associated with sites with embedded substrates and clear water. Diatoms could be effective in assessing physical habitat alterations in streams.

  5. Monitoring marginal erosion in hydroelectric reservoirs with terrestrial mobile laser scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. G. Tommaselli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Marginal erosions in reservoirs of hydroelectric plants have caused economic and environmental problems concerning hydroelectric power generation, reduction of productive areas and devaluing land parcels. The real extension and dynamics of these erosion processes are not well known for Brazilian reservoirs. To objectively assess these problems Unesp (Univ Estadual Paulista and Duke Energy are developing a joint project which aims at the monitoring the progression of some erosive processes and understanding the causes and the dynamics of this phenomenon. Mobile LASER scanning was considered the most suitable alternative for the challenges established in the project requirements. A MDL DynaScan Mobile LASER M150 scanner was selected which uses RTK for real time positioning integrated to an IMU, enabling instantaneous generation of georeferenced point clouds. Two different reservoirs were choose for monitoring: Chavantes (storage plant and Rosana (run-of-river plant, both in the Paranapanema River, border of São Paulo and Paraná States, Brazil. The monitoring areas are scanned quarterly and analysed with base on the point cloud, meshes, contours and cross sections. Cross sections are used to visualize and compute the rate and the dynamics of erosion. Some examples and quantitative results are presented along with an analysis of the proposed technique. Some recommendations to improve the field work and latter data processing are also introduced.

  6. Modelling and application of modern control techniques to governor and voltage regulator systems of synchronous machines of small hydroelectric power plants; Modelagem e aplicacao de tecnicas de controle moderno a sistemas reguladores de velocidade e tensao de maquinas sincronas de pequenas centrais hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Claudio Homero Ferreira da

    2002-07-01

    In small hydroelectric plants the control system is quite simplified. It is sometimes mounted in a primitive and archaic way although it is functional. Performance of this system determines the final quality of the energy, stability and physical integrity of the apparatus as well as the whole electric system. Based on the present situation of the electric system, it is noticed a tendency in building and modernizing early small hydroelectric plants in order to increase energy supply very fast with low cost and satisfying environmental constraints. The development of mathematical tools and digital computer facilities have made possible the use of advanced automatic control structures that take into account the process stability even in presence of noise measurement and plant/model mismatch. Physical modifications in the plant are proposed in order to provide significant improvement in closed loop behaviour of the turbine speed and terminal voltage control. The decision ability and flexibility of the computer package to be developed are the major aspects that support this research. It will be intended to incorporate this control computer package into programmable logical controller. Experimental data from CEMIG's Martins Hydro Plant (4 x 2750 KVA), located in Uberlandia, Brazil, were used to identify and validate the system model. Pole placement, optimal control and model predictive control techniques were used to controller design. Perfect modeling and plant/model mismatch were considered in both presence and absence of state observers (full order and reduced order) in order to become accessible unmeasured states. Simulation results show developed controllers are promising for the system regulating. The proposed approaches offer a larger control flexibility taking into account plant/model mismatch and stability questions. These results contribute to a quality energy improvement associated to a cost reduction in energy generation process. (author)

  7. Andean contributions to the biogeochemistry of the amazon river system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    Atlántico. Un nuevo programa colaborativo de investigación se inició en 1994 con el propósito de caracterizar de una manera más completa la biogeoquímica de los ríos andinos. Contributions from Andean rivers may play a significant role in determining the basin-wide biogeochemistry integrated into the mainstem Amazon River of Brazil. Concentration data for organic C, NO3-, and PO43- in Andean rivers are highly variable and reveal no clear spatial or altitudinal patterns. Concentrations measured in Andean rivers are similar to those reported in the mainstem Amazon river and its major tributaries. Explanations of processes which alter Andean-derived particulates and solutes as they exit the Cordillera are only speculative at this time, but their net effect is to diminish Andean signals through decomposition and dilution by lowland inputs. The 13C of particulate and dissolved organic matter in the mainstem Amazon provides evidence that some fraction of Andean derived material persists within the river system, ultimately to be discharged to the Atlantic Ocean. In 1994 a new collaborative research program was launched to further characterize the biogeochemistry of Andean rivers.

  8. Environmental state of aquatic systems in the Selenga River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkareva, Galina; Lychagin, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    The transboundary river system of Selenga is the biggest tributary of Lake Baikal (about 50 % of the total inflow) which is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. It originates in the mountainous part of Mongolia and then drains into Russia. There are numerous industries and agricultural activities within the Selenga drainage basin that affect the environmental state of the river aquatic system. The main source of industrial waste in the Republic of Buryatia (Russia) is mining and in Mongolia it is mainly gold mining. Our study aimed to determine the present pollutant levels and main features of their spatial distribution in water, suspended matter, bottom sediments and water plants in the Selenga basin. The results are based on materials of the 2011 (July-August) field campaign carried out both in Russian and Mongolian part of the basin. The study revealed rather high levels of dissolved Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Cu and Mo in the Selenga River water which often are higher than maximum permissible concentrations for water fishery in Russia. In Russian part of the basin most contrast distribution is found for W and Mo, which is caused by mineral deposits in this area. The study showed that Mo and Zn migrate mainly in dissolved form, since more than 70% of Fe, Al, and Mn are bound to the suspended solids. Suspended sediments in general are enriched by As, Cd and Pb in relation to the lithosphere averages. Compared to the background values rather high contents of Mo, Cd, and Mn were found in suspended matter of Selenga lower Ulan-Ude town. Transboundary transport of heavy metals from Mongolia is going both in dissolved and suspended forms. From Mongolia in diluted form Selenga brings a significant amount of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Mo. Suspended solids are slightly enriched with Pb, Cu, and Mn, in higher concentration - Mo. The study of the Selenga River delta allowed determining biogeochemical specialization of the region: aquatic plants accumulate Mn, Fe, Cu, Cd, and to

  9. The further environmental development of Polyphyto Hydroelectric Project reservoir in Kozani prefecture and its contribution to the life quality improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saounatsou, Chara; Georgi, Julia

    2014-08-01

    The Polyphyto Hydroelectric Project was constructed in 1974 and it has been operating since on the Aliakmonas River, Kozani prefecture, by the Greek Public Power Corporation. The construction of the Ilarion Hydroelectric Project, upstream from the Polyphyto Reservoir, has been recently completed and will start operating in the near future. Apart from hydroelectric power production, the Polyphyto reservoir provides flood control to the areas below the Polyphyto dam. It is also used to manage water provision to the city of Thessaloniki and adjacent agricultural plain, providing at the same time cooling water to the Thermo Electric Projects in Ptolemaida. The Polyphyto reservoir has potential for further development as an economic fulcrum to the region in which is located. The Kozani and Servia-Velvendos Municipalities have proceeded to the construction of several touristic, nautical - athletic and fishing projects. In order to promote such developments, while preserving the artificial wetland, flora and fauna of the Polyphyto Reservoir, it is important to reduce the fluctuation of the reservoir elevation which according to its technical characteristics is 21m. The aim of this paper is to propose the combined operation of the two Hydroelectric Project reservoirs to satisfy all the present Polyphyto Hydroelectric Project functions and to reduce the annual fluctuation of the Polyphyto Reservoir. The HEC-5, Version 8 / 1998 computer model was used in our calculations, as developed by the Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC) of the US Army Corps of Engineers for reservoir operation simulation. Five possible operation scenarios are tested in this paper to show that the present fluctuation of the Polyphyto Reservoir can be reduced, with some limitations, except during dry weather periods.

  10. Fluvial River Regime in Disturbed River Systems: A Case Study of Evolution of the Middle Yangtze River in Post-TGD (Three Gorges Dam), China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, G.; Lu, J; Visser, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    The fluvial river is a kind of open system that can interact with its outside environments and give response to disturbance from outside on the earth. It can adjust itself to the disturbances outside the system and reflects new characteristics in the process of reaching a new equilibrium. The TGD

  11. Systematic Sustainability Assessment (SSA) Tool for Hydroelectric Project in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Faiz Mohd; Johan, Kartina

    2017-08-01

    Sustainably developed and managed hydropower has enormous potential to contribute to global sustainability goals. It is known that hydroelectricity contributing small amounts to greenhouse gas emissions and other atmospheric pollutants. However, developing the remaining hydroelectric potential offers many challenges, and public pressure and expectations on the environmental and social performance of hydroelectric tend to increase over time. This paper aims to develop Systematic Sustainability Assessment (SSA) Tool that promotes and guides more sustainable hydroelectric projects in the context of Malaysia. The proposed SSA tool which not only provide a quality and quantitative report of sustainability performance but also act as Self-Assessment Report (SAR) to provide roadmap to achieve greater level of sustainability in project management for continuous improvement. It is expected to provide a common language that allow government, civil society, financial institutions and the hydroelectric sector to talk about and evaluate sustainability issues. The advantage of SSA tool is it can be used at any stage of hydroelectric development, from the earliest planning stages right through to operation.

  12. Fair Water Allocation in Complex International River Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, L.; Bernauer, T.

    2011-12-01

    Conflicts over water allocation in international freshwater systems are recurring phenomena, and climatic changes are likely to make existing problems worse in many parts of the world. Science-based proposals for water allocation frequently focus on allocating water to the economically most efficient purposes. In reality, allocation outcomes are often shaped by political and economic power, rather than considerations of economic efficiency. This paper develops a new approach to fair international water allocation in complex international freshwater systems. This approach covers both needs-based criteria - if acute water scarcity is present - and criteria for fair water allocation pertaining to relative gains in water-abundant situations. The usefulness of the approach is illustrated with a case study on the Zambezi River Basin (ZRB). Based on a hydrological model, and scenarios for water availability and demand in the ZRB until 2050, the paper shows how the waters of the ZRB could be allocated in a way that fairly distributes costs and benefits.

  13. Assessment of river quality in a subtropical Austral river system: a combined approach using benthic diatoms and macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhiwatiwa, Tamuka; Dalu, Tatenda; Sithole, Tatenda

    2017-12-01

    River systems constitute areas of high human population densities owing to their favourable conditions for agriculture, water supply and transportation network. Despite human dependence on river systems, anthropogenic activities severely degrade water quality. The main aim of this study was to assess the river health of Ngamo River using diatom and macroinvertebrate community structure based on multivariate analyses and community metrics. Ammonia, pH, salinity, total phosphorus and temperature were found to be significantly different among the study seasons. The diatom and macroinvertebrate taxa richness increased downstream suggesting an improvement in water as we moved away from the pollution point sources. Canonical correspondence analyses identified nutrients (total nitrogen and reactive phosphorus) as important variables structuring diatom and macroinvertebrate community. The community metrics and diversity indices for both bioindicators highlighted that the water quality of the river system was very poor. These findings indicate that both methods can be used for water quality assessments, e.g. sewage and agricultural pollution, and they show high potential for use during water quality monitoring programmes in other regions.

  14. Assessment of river quality in a subtropical Austral river system: a combined approach using benthic diatoms and macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhiwatiwa, Tamuka; Dalu, Tatenda; Sithole, Tatenda

    2017-07-01

    River systems constitute areas of high human population densities owing to their favourable conditions for agriculture, water supply and transportation network. Despite human dependence on river systems, anthropogenic activities severely degrade water quality. The main aim of this study was to assess the river health of Ngamo River using diatom and macroinvertebrate community structure based on multivariate analyses and community metrics. Ammonia, pH, salinity, total phosphorus and temperature were found to be significantly different among the study seasons. The diatom and macroinvertebrate taxa richness increased downstream suggesting an improvement in water as we moved away from the pollution point sources. Canonical correspondence analyses identified nutrients (total nitrogen and reactive phosphorus) as important variables structuring diatom and macroinvertebrate community. The community metrics and diversity indices for both bioindicators highlighted that the water quality of the river system was very poor. These findings indicate that both methods can be used for water quality assessments, e.g. sewage and agricultural pollution, and they show high potential for use during water quality monitoring programmes in other regions.

  15. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric potential in Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are discussed. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory in the area, and the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is examined. The initial obstacle that all developers confront in Wisconsin is obtaining the authority to utilize the bed, banks, and flowing water at a proposed dam site. This involves a determination of ownership of the stream banks and bed and the manner of obtaining either their title or use; and existing constraints with regard to the use of the water. Wisconsin follows the riparian theory of water law.

  16. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level is described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The introductory section examines the regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and concludes with an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. A developer must obtain title or interest to a streambed from the proper riparian owners. Ohio provides assistance to an electric company in this undertaking by providing it with the power of eminent domain in the event it is unable to reach a purchase agreement with the riparian proprietors. The Ohio Water Law is discussed in detail, followed by discussions: Licensing, Permitting, and Review Procedures; Indirect Considerations; Ohio Public Utilities Commission; Ohio Department of Energy; Incidental Provision; and Financial Considerations.

  17. Tazimina hydroelectric project, Iliamna, Alaska. Final technical and construction cost report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Iliamna-Newhalen-Nondalton Electric Cooperative (INNEC) provides electrical power to three communities of the same names. These communities are located near the north shore of Iliamna Lake in south-central Alaska approximately 175 miles southwest of Anchorage. A hydroelectric project was constructed for these communities, starting in the spring of 1996 and ending in the spring of 1998. The project site is on the Tazimina River about 12 miles northeast of Iliamna Lake. The taximina River flows west from the Aleutian Range. The project site is at Tazimina Falls about 9 miles upstream of the confluence of the Tazimina River and the Newhalen River. The project has an installed capacity of 824 kilowatts (kW) and is expandable to 1.5 megawatts (MW). The project is run-of-the-river (no storage) and uses the approximately 100 feet of natural head provided by the falls. The project features include a channel control sill, intake structure, penstock, underground powerhouse, tailrace, surface control building, buried transmission line and communication cable, and access road.

  18. Impacts of hydroelectric dams on alluvial riparian plant communities in eastern Brazilian Amazonian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEANDRO VALLE FERREIRA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The major rivers of the Amazon River basin and their biota are threatened by the planned construction of large hydroelectric dams that are expected to have strong impacts on floodplain plant communities. The present study presents forest inventories from three floodplain sites colonized by alluvial riparian vegetation in the Tapajós, Xingu and Tocantins River basins in eastern Amazonian. Results indicate that tree species of the highly specialized alluvial riparian vegetation are clearly distinct among the three river basins, although they are not very distinct from each other and environmental constraints are very similar. With only 6 of 74 species occurring in all three inventories, most tree and shrub species are restricted to only one of the rivers, indicating a high degree of local distribution. Different species occupy similar environmental niches, making these fragile riparian formations highly valuable. Conservation plans must consider species complementarily when decisions are made on where to place floodplain forest conservation units to avoid the irreversible loss of unique alluvial riparian vegetation biodiversity.

  19. A brief history and summary of the effects of river engineering and dams on the Mississippi River system and delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jason S.; Wilson, Richard C.; Green, W. Reed

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Forecast Mekong project is providing technical assistance and information to aid management decisions and build science capacity of institutions in the Mekong River Basin. A component of this effort is to produce a synthesis of the effects of dams and other engineering structures on large-river hydrology, sediment transport, geomorphology, ecology, water quality, and deltaic systems. The Mississippi River Basin (MRB) of the United States was used as the backdrop and context for this synthesis because it is a continental scale river system with a total annual water discharge proportional to the Mekong River, has been highly engineered over the past two centuries, and the effects of engineering have been widely studied and documented by scientists and engineers. The MRB is controlled and regulated by dams and river-engineering structures. These modifications have resulted in multiple benefits including navigation, flood control, hydropower, bank stabilization, and recreation. Dams and other river-engineering structures in the MRB have afforded the United States substantial socioeconomic benefits; however, these benefits also have transformed the hydrologic, sediment transport, geomorphic, water-quality, and ecologic characteristics of the river and its delta. Large dams on the middle Missouri River have substantially reduced the magnitude of peak floods, increased base discharges, and reduced the overall variability of intraannual discharges. The extensive system of levees and wing dikes throughout the MRB, although providing protection from intermediate magnitude floods, have reduced overall channel capacity and increased flood stage by up to 4 meters for higher magnitude floods. Prior to major river engineering, the estimated average annual sediment yield of the Mississippi River Basin was approximately 400 million metric tons. The construction of large main-channel reservoirs on the Missouri and Arkansas Rivers, sedimentation in dike

  20. 77 FR 52709 - Loup River Public Power District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Loup River Public Power District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing..., 2012. d. Applicant: Loup River Public Power District (Loup Power District). e. Name of Project: Loup River Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The existing project is located on the Loup River, Loup Canal...

  1. River Maintenance Management System Using Three-Dimensional UAV Data in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, S.; Kawai, Y.

    2016-10-01

    River administration facilities such as levees and river walls play a major role in preventing flooding due to heavy rain. The forms of such facilities must be constantly monitored for alteration due to rain and running water, and limited human resources and budgets make it necessary to efficiently maintain river administration facilities. During maintenance, inspection results are commonly recorded on paper documents. Continuous inspection and repair using information systems are an on-going challenge. This study proposes a maintenance management system for river facilities that uses three-dimensional data to solve these problems and make operation and maintenance more efficient. The system uses three-dimensional data to visualize river facility deformation and its process, and it has functions that visualize information about river management at any point in the three-dimensional data. The threedimensional data is generated by photogrammetry using a camera on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle.

  2. Analysis of the Level-Release Polynomial from a Hydroelectric Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieda Hidalgo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The mathematic representation of the tailrace elevation as function of the water release can be modified, for example, by the geomorphologic impact of large floods. The level-release polynomial from a hydroelectric plant is important information to computational models used for optimization and simulation of the power generation systems operation. They depend on data quality to provide reliable results. Therefore, this paper presents a method for adjusting of the tailrace polynomial based on operation data recorded by the plant’s owner or company. The proposed method uses a non-linear regression tool, such as Trendline in Excel. A case study has been applied to the data from a large Brazilian hydroelectric plant whose operation is under the coordination of the Electric System ational Operator. The benefits of the data correction are analyzed using a simulation model for the hydroelectric plants operation. This simulator is used to reproduce the past operation of the plant, first with official data and second with adjusted data. The results show significant improvements in terms of quality of the data, contributing to bring the real and simulated operation closer.

  3. Advancement of Global-scale River Hydrodynamics Modelling and Its Potential Applications to Earth System Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, D.

    2015-12-01

    Global river routine models have been developed for representing freshwater discharge from land to ocean in Earth System Models. At the beginning, global river models had simulated river discharge along a prescribed river network map by using a linear-reservoir assumption. Recently, in parallel with advancement of remote sensing and computational powers, many advanced global river models have started to represent floodplain inundation assuming sub-grid floodplain topography. Some of them further pursue physically-appropriate representation of river and floodplain dynamics, and succeeded to utilize "hydrodynamic flow equations" to realistically simulate channel/floodplain and upstream/downstream interactions. State-of-the-art global river hydrodynamic models can well reproduce flood stage (e.g. inundated areas and water levels) in addition to river discharge. Flood stage simulation by global river models can be potentially coupled with land surface processes in Earth System Models. For example, evaporation from inundated water area is not negligible for land-atmosphere interactions in arid areas (such as the Niger River). Surface water level and ground water level are correlated each other in flat topography, and this interaction could dominate wetting and drying of many small lakes in flatland and could also affect biogeochemical processes in these lakes. These land/surface water interactions had not been implemented in Earth System Models but they have potential impact on the global climate and carbon cycle. In the AGU presentation, recent advancements of global river hydrodynamic modelling, including super-high resolution river topography datasets, will be introduces. The potential applications of river and surface water modules within Earth System Models will be also discussed.

  4. Final Technical Report - Modernization of the Boulder Canyon Hydroelectric Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taddeucci, Joe [Dept. of Public Works, Boulder, CO (United States). Utilities Division

    2013-03-29

    double nozzle Pelton turbine with a 10-to-1 flow turndown and a maximum turbine/generator efficiency of 88%. This alone represents a 6% increase in overall efficiency. The old turbine operated at low efficiencies due to age and non-optimal sizing of the turbine for the water flow available to the unit. It was shut down whenever water flow dropped to less than 4-5 cfs, and at that flow, efficiency was 55 to 60%. The new turbine will operate in the range of 70 to 88% efficiency through a large portion of the existing flow range and would only have to be shut down at flow rates less than 3.7 cfs. Efficiency is expected to increase by 15-30%, depending on flow. In addition to the installation of new equipment, other goals for the project included: Increasing safety at Boulder Canyon Hydro Increasing protection of the Boulder Creek environment Modernizing and integrating control equipment into Boulder's municipal water supply system, and Preserving significant historical engineering information prior to power plant modernization. From January 1, 2010 through December 31, 2012, combined consultant and contractor personnel hours paid for by both the city and the federal government have totaled approximately 40,000. This equates roughly to seven people working full time on the project from January 2010 through December 2012. This project also involved considerable material expense (steel pipe, a variety of valves, electrical equipment, and the various components of the turbine and generator), which were not accounted for in terms of hours spent on the project. However, the material expense related to this project did help to create or preserve manufacturing/industrial jobs throughout the United States. As required by ARRA, the various components of the hydroelectric project were manufactured or substantially transformed in the U.S. BCH is eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places due in part to its unique engineering features and innovative

  5. Pike River Mine Disaster: Systems-Engineering and Organisational Contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk J. Pons

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Pike River mine (PRM, an underground coal mine in New Zealand (NZ, exploded in 2010. This paper analyses the causes of the disaster, with a particular focus on the systems engineering and organisational contributions. Poor systems-engineering contributed via poorly designed ventilation, use of power-electronics underground, and placement of the main ventilation fan underground. Management rushed prematurely into production even though the technology development in the mine was incomplete. Investment in non-productive infrastructure was deprioritised resulting in inadequate ventilation, and the lack of a viable second emergency egress. The risk assessments were deficient, incomplete, or not actioned. Warnings and feedback from staff were ignored. Risk arises as a consequence of the complex interactions between the components of the sociotechnical system. Organisations will need to strengthen the integrity of their risk management processes at engineering, management, and board levels. The systems engineering perspective shows the interacting causality between the engineering challenges (ventilation, mining method, electrical power, project deliverables, management priorities, organisational culture, and workers’ behaviour. Use of the barrier method provides a new way to examine the risk-management strategies of the mine. The breakdowns in organisational safety management systems are explicitly identified.

  6. Modelling eutrophication and microbial risks in peri-urban river systems using discriminant function analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, U; Maheshwari, B; Shrestha, S; Morris, C

    2012-12-01

    The methodology currently available to river managers for assessment of river conditions for eutrophication and microbial risks is often time consuming and costly. There is a need for efficient predictive tools based on easily measured variables for implementing appropriate management strategies and providing advice to local river users on river health and associated risks. Using the Hawkesbury-Nepean River system in New South Wales, Australia as case study, a stepwise discriminant function analysis was employed to develop two predictive models, one for river eutrophication risk and the other for microbial risk. The models are intended for a preliminary assessment of a river reach, particularly to assess the level of risk (high or low) for algal bloom and whether the river water is suitable for primary contact activities such as swimming. The input variables for both models included saturated dissolved oxygen and turbidity, while the eutrophication risk model included temperature as an additional variable. When validated with an independent data set, both models predicted the observed risk category accurately in two out of three instances. Since the models developed in this study use only two or three easy-to-measure variables, their application can help in rapid assessment of river conditions, result in potential cost saving in river monitoring programs and assist in providing timely advice to community and other users for a particular aspect of river use. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Columbia River Hatchery Reform System-Wide Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Dan [Hatchery Scientific Review Group

    2009-04-16

    for Puget Sound/Coastal Washington hatchery programs, followed by the development in 2005 of a suite of analytical tools to support application of the principles (all reports and tools are available at www.hatcheryreform.us). In 2005, Congress directed the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries) to replicate the Puget Sound and Coastal Washington Hatchery Reform Project in the Columbia River Basin. The HSRG was expanded to 14 members to include individuals with specific knowledge about the Columbia River salmon and steelhead populations. This second phase was initially envisioned as a one-year review, with emphasis on the Lower Columbia River hatchery programs. It became clear however, that the Columbia River Basin needed to be viewed as an inter-connected ecosystem in order for the review to be useful. The project scope was subsequently expanded to include the entire Basin, with funding for a second year provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the auspices of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's (NPCC) Fish and Wildlife Program. The objective of the HSRG's Columbia River Basin review was to change the focus of the Columbia River hatchery system. In the past, these hatchery programs have been aimed at supplying adequate numbers of fish for harvest as mitigation primarily for hydropower development in the Basin. A new, ecosystem-based approach is founded on the idea that harvest goals are sustainable only if they are compatible with conservation goals. The challenge before the HSRG was to determine whether or not conservation and harvest goals could be met by fishery managers and, if so, how. The HSRG determined that in order to address these twin goals, both hatchery and harvest reforms are necessary. The HSRG approach represents an important change of direction in managing hatcheries in the region. It provides a clear demonstration that current hatchery programs can indeed be redirected to

  8. 1989-91 Aquatic Habitats - Upper Mississippi River System - Open River 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has created high-resolution land cover/use data sets for the Upper Mississippi River...

  9. Spatial variation of sediment mineralization supports differential CO2 emissions from a tropical hydroelectric reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Jaqueline Cardoso

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Substantial amounts of organic matter (OM from terrestrial ecosystems are buried as sediments in inland waters. It is still unclear to what extent this OM constitutes a sink of carbon, and how much of it is returned to the atmosphere upon mineralization to carbon dioxide (CO2. The construction of reservoirs affects the carbon cycle by increasing OM sedimentation at the regional scale. In this study we determine the OM mineralization in the sediment of three zones (river, transition and dam of a tropical hydroelectric reservoir in Brazil as well as identify the composition of the carbon pool available for mineralization. We measured sediment OC mineralization rates and related them to the composition of the OM, bacterial abundance and pCO2 of the surface water of the reservoir. Terrestrial OM was an important substrate for the mineralization. In the river and transition zones most of the OM was allochthonous (56 % and 48 %, respectively while the dam zone had the lowest allochthonous contribution (7 %. The highest mineralization rates were found in the transition zone (154.80 ± 33.50 mg C m-2 d-1 and the lowest in the dam (51.60 ± 26.80 mg C m-2 d-1. Moreover, mineralization rates were significantly related to bacterial abundance (r2 = 0.50, p < 0.001 and pCO2 in the surface water of the reservoir (r2 = 0.73, p < 0.001. The results indicate that allochthonous OM has different contributions to sediment mineralization in the three zones of the reservoir. Further, the sediment mineralization, mediated by heterotrophic bacteria metabolism, significantly contributes to CO2 supersaturation in the water column, resulting in higher pCO2 in the river and transition zones in comparison with the dam zone, affecting greenhouse gas emission estimations from hydroelectric reservoirs.

  10. Spatial variation of sediment mineralization supports differential CO2 emissions from a tropical hydroelectric reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Simone J; Vidal, Luciana O; Mendonça, Raquel F; Tranvik, Lars J; Sobek, Sebastian; Fábio, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Substantial amounts of organic matter (OM) from terrestrial ecosystems are buried as sediments in inland waters. It is still unclear to what extent this OM constitutes a sink of carbon, and how much of it is returned to the atmosphere upon mineralization to carbon dioxide (CO2). The construction of reservoirs affects the carbon cycle by increasing OM sedimentation at the regional scale. In this study we determine the OM mineralization in the sediment of three zones (river, transition, and dam) of a tropical hydroelectric reservoir in Brazil as well as identify the composition of the carbon pool available for mineralization. We measured sediment organic carbon mineralization rates and related them to the composition of the OM, bacterial abundance and pCO2 of the surface water of the reservoir. Terrestrial OM was an important substrate for the mineralization. In the river and transition zones most of the OM was allochthonous (56 and 48%, respectively) while the dam zone had the lowest allochthonous contribution (7%). The highest mineralization rates were found in the transition zone (154.80 ± 33.50 mg C m(-) (2) d(-) (1)) and the lowest in the dam (51.60 ± 26.80 mg C m(-) (2) d(-) (1)). Moreover, mineralization rates were significantly related to bacterial abundance (r (2) = 0.50, p reservoir (r (2) = 0.73, p sediment mineralization in the three zones of the reservoir. Further, the sediment mineralization, mediated by heterotrophic bacteria metabolism, significantly contributes to CO2 supersaturation in the water column, resulting in higher pCO2 in the river and transition zones in comparison with the dam zone, affecting greenhouse gas emission estimations from hydroelectric reservoirs.

  11. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are discussed. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area, and the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is examined. The first step the small scale hydroelectric developer must take is that of acquiring title to the real property comprising the development site. The real estate parcel must include the requisite interest in the land adjacent to the watercourse, access to the underlying streambed and where needed, the land necessary for an upstream impoundment area. Land acquisition may be effectuated by purchase, lease, or grant by the state. In addition to these methods, New York permits the use of the eminent domain power of the state for public utilities under certain circumstances.

  12. River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morel Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The OECD report “Boosting Resilience through Innovative Risk Governance” examines the efforts of OECD countries to prevent or reduce future disaster impacts, and highlights several key areas where improvements can be made. International collaboration is insufficiently utilised to address shocks that have increasingly global consequences. Institutional design plays a significant role in facilitating or hampering the engagement and investments of governmental and non-governmental stakeholders in disaster risk prevention and mitigation. To inform the design of “better” institutions, the OECD proposes the application of a diagnostic framework that helps governments identify institutional shortcomings and take actions to improve them. The goal of the case study on the Rhone River is to conduct an analysis of the progress, achievements and existing challenges in designing and implementing disaster risk reduction strategies through the Rhone Plan from a comparative perspective across a set of selected countries of this study, like Austria and Switzerland, will inform how to improve institutional frameworks governing risk prevention and mitigation. The case study will be used to identify examples of successful practice taking into account their specific country contexts, and analyse their potential for policy transfer.

  13. The Water Quality of the River Enborne, UK: Observations from High-Frequency Monitoring in a Rural, Lowland River System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Halliday

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a 2-year study of water quality in the River Enborne, a rural river in lowland England. Concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus species and other chemical determinands were monitored both at high-frequency (hourly, using automated in situ instrumentation, and by manual weekly sampling and laboratory analysis. The catchment land use is largely agricultural, with a population density of 123 persons km−2. The river water is largely derived from calcareous groundwater, and there are high nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. Agricultural fertiliser is the dominant source of annual loads of both nitrogen and phosphorus. However, the data show that sewage effluent discharges have a disproportionate effect on the river nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics. At least 38% of the catchment population use septic tank systems, but the effects are hard to quantify as only 6% are officially registered, and the characteristics of the others are unknown. Only 4% of the phosphorus input and 9% of the nitrogen input is exported from the catchment by the river, highlighting the importance of catchment process understanding in predicting nutrient concentrations. High-frequency monitoring will be a key to developing this vital process understanding.

  14. A Hybrid Prediction Model for Monitoring of River Water Quality in the USN System

    OpenAIRE

    Hoontae Kim; Minsoo Kim

    2015-01-01

    River water quality is directly related to the wellness of its neighbors. Because the West Nakdong River has long suffered both from the infiltration of sea water and from the inflow of turbid wastewater, inconsiderate use of this water can cause disastrous result to nearby agricultural areas and neighbors. Busan city in Korea had deployed a pilot USN (ubiquitous sensor network) system that monitors this river and nearby tube wells to properly react to those situations. In this paper, we have...

  15. Flood Hazard Mapping by Using Geographic Information System and Hydraulic Model: Mert River, Samsun, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Vahdettin Demir; Ozgur Kisi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, flood hazard maps were prepared for the Mert River Basin, Samsun, Turkey, by using GIS and Hydrologic Engineering Centers River Analysis System (HEC-RAS). In this river basin, human life losses and a significant amount of property damages were experienced in 2012 flood. The preparation of flood risk maps employed in the study includes the following steps: (1) digitization of topographical data and preparation of digital elevation model using ArcGIS, (2) simulation of flood lows...

  16. Modeling Possible Cooling-Water Intake System Impacts on Ohio River Fish Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, Elgin; Seegert, Greg; Vondruska, Joe; Lohner, Timothy; Lewis, Randy

    2002-01-01

    To assess the possible impacts caused by cooling-water intake system entrainment and impingement losses, populations of six target fish species near power plants on the Ohio River were modeled. A Leslie matrix model was constructed to allow an evaluation of bluegill, freshwater drum, emerald shiner, gizzard shad, sauger, and white bass populations within five river pools. Site-specific information on fish abundance and length-frequency distribution was obtained from long-term Ohio River Ecolo...

  17. Managing water and riparian habitats on the Bill Williams River with scientific benefit for other desert river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Hickey,; Woodrow Fields,; Andrew Hautzinger,; Steven Sesnie,; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Dick Gilbert,

    2016-01-01

    This report details modeling to: 1) codify flow-ecology relationships for riparian species of the Bill Williams River as operational guidance for water managers, 2) test the guidance under different climate scenarios, and 3) revise the operational guidance as needed to address the effects of climate change. Model applications detailed herein include the River Analysis System  (HEC-RAS) and the Ecosystem Functions Model  (HEC-EFM), which was used to generate more than three million estimates of local seedling recruitment areas. Areas were aggregated and compared to determine which scenarios generated the most seedling area per unit volume of water. Scenarios that maximized seedling area were grouped into a family of curves that serve as guidance for water managers. This work has direct connections to water management decision-making and builds upon and adds to the rich history of science-based management for the Bill Williams River, Arizona, USA. 

  18. The impact of climate change on hydro-electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musy, A.; Music, B.; Roy, R. [Ouranos, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Hydroelectricity is a clean and renewable energy source for many countries, and is expected to play an important role in future energy supplies. However, the impact of climatic change on hydroelectricity resources is not yet understood. This study provided a critical review of current methods used to determine the potential impacts of climatic change on hydroelectric power production. General circulation models (GCMs) are used to predict future climate conditions under various greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenarios. Statistical techniques are then used to down-scale GCM outputs to the appropriate scales needed for hydrological models, which are then used to simulate the effects of climatic change at regional and local scales. Outputs from the models are then used to develop water management models for hydroelectric power production. Observed linear trends in annual precipitation during the twentieth century were provided. The theoretical advantages and disadvantages of various modelling techniques were reviewed. Risk assessment strategies for Hydro-Quebec were also outlined and results of the study will be used to guide research programs for the hydroelectric power industry. refs., tabs., figs.

  19. Climate Change Impacts on Stream Temperatures in the Columbia River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yearsley, J. R.; Crozier, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Columbia River system, a drainage basin of 668,000 sq. km that includes the Columbia and Snake River rivers, supports a large population of anadromous, cold-water fishes. 13 species of these fishes are listed under the Endangered Species Act and are vulnerable to impacts of climate change. Bioenergetics models for these species have been developed by the federal agencies that operate the Federal Columbia River Power System. These models simulate the impacts on anadromous fishes as they move through the power system both upstream as adults and downstream as juveniles. Water temperature simulations required for input to the bioenergetics models were made for two different segments of the Columbia River system; one being the portions from the Canadian border to Bonneville Dam and the Snake River from Brownlee Dam in Idaho to its confluence and the other, the Salmon River basin in Idaho. Simulations were performed for the period 1928-1998 with the semi-Lagrangian stream temperature model, RBM, for existing conditions and for a two 2040 climate scenarios, a cool, dry condition (ECHO_g model) and a warm, wet condition (MIROC_3.2 model). Natural flows were simulated with the variable infiltration capacity model, VIC, and modified for Columbia River project operations using HYDSIM, a hydro system regulation model that simulates month-to-month operation of the Pacific Northwest hydropower system.

  20. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix N: Wildlife.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River System is a vast and complex combination of Federal and non-Federal facilities used for many purposes including power production, irrigation, navigation, flood control, recreation, fish and wildlife habitat and municipal and industrial water supply. Each river use competes for the limited water resources in the Columbia River Basin. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The environmental impact statement (EIS) itself and some of the other appendices present analyses of the alternative approaches to the other three decisions considered as part of the SOR. This document is the product of the Wildlife Work Group, focusing on wildlife impacts but not including fishes. Topics covered include the following: scope and process; existing and affected environment, including specific discussion of 18 projects in the Columbia river basin. Analysis, evaluation, and alternatives are presented for all projects. System wide impacts to wildlife are also included.

  1. Hydroelectric power plant with variable flow on drinking water adduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaconu, S. I.; Babău, R.; Popa, G. N.; Gherman, P. L.

    2018-01-01

    The water feeding system of the urban and rural localities is mainly collected with feed pipes which can have different lengths and different levels. Before using, water must be treated. Since the treatment take place in the tanks, the pressure in the inlet of the station must be diminished. Many times the pressure must be reduced with 5-15 Barr and this is possible using valves, cavils, and so on. The flow capacity of the water consumption is highly fluctuating during one day, depending on the season, etc. This paper presents a method to use the hydroelectric potential of the feed pipes using a hydraulic turbine instead of the classical methods for decreasing the pressure. To avoid the dissipation of water and a good behavior of the power parameters it is used an asynchronous generator (AG) which is coupled at the electrical distribution network through a static frequency converter (SFC). The turbine has a simple structure without the classical devices (used to regulate the turbine blades). The speed of rotation is variable, depending on the necessary flow capacity in the outlet of the treatment station. The most important element of the automation is the static frequency converter (SFC) which allows speeds between 0 and 1.5 of the rated speed of rotation and the flow capacity varies accordingly with it.

  2. Small hydroelectric power plant St. Marienthal Monastery, Ostritz; Kleinwasserkraftanlage Kloster St. Marienthal, Ostritz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubens, C. [KUBENS Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Nuernberg (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The hydroelectric power plant St. Marienthal Monastery on the river Lausitzer Neisse, which forms part of the border between Poland and Germany, was rehabilitated and modernized in the period between October 1999 and September 2000. The scheme to reactivate this plant was implemented as an external EXPO 2000 project for renewable energy production and sustainable management. On 6 October 2000, the hydroelectric power plant was officially put back into operation by Steffen Flath, Minister for the Environment and Agriculture in the German state of Saxony. The paper describes the special planning factors involved and the execution of construction work. (orig.) [German] Die Erneuerung der Wasserkraftanlage Kloster St. Marienthal an der Lausitzer Neisse, dem Grenzgewaesser zwischen Polen und Deutschland erfolgte als externes EXPO 2000-Projekt fuer alternative Energiegewinnung und nachhaltiges Wirtschaften von Oktober 1999 bis September 2000. Am 6. Oktober 2000 konnte die Wasserkraftanlage vom Saechsischen Staatsminister fuer Umwelt und Landwirtschaft Steffen Flath nach kirchlicher Weihe in Betrieb genommen werden. Ueber die Besonderheiten der Planung sowie die Bauausfuehrung wird berichtet. (orig.)

  3. Propagation of a cadmium spill through an impounded river system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, G.T.; Joziasse, J.; Bakker, I.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of impoundments (sluices, weirs, etc.) and stream components (tributaries, river branches, associated canals) on the metal content in water and suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the Dutch part of the River Meuse is assessed using the decrease in the cadmium content

  4. Mitigation and recovery of methane emissions from tropical hydroelectric dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bambace, L.A.W.; Ramos, F.M.; Lima, I.B.T.; Rosa, R.R. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)

    2007-06-15

    Tropical hydroelectric reservoirs generally constitute an appreciable source of methane to the atmosphere. This paper proposes simple mitigation and recovery procedures to substantially reduce atmospheric methane emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs. We aim at transforming existing methane stocks of tropical reservoirs into a clean, renewable energy source. The recovered gas methane may be pumped to large consuming centers, stocked locally and burned in gas turbines to generate electricity during high demand periods, or even purified for transport applications. Our simulations show that the use of biogenic methane may increase considerably the energy supply in countries like Brazil. As a result, it would be possible to reduce the need of additional hydroelectric dams, protecting important pristine biomes, and avoiding the resettlement of villages and indigenous reserves. (author)

  5. Analysis of the ancient river system in Loulan period in Lop Nur region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianfeng; Jia, Peng; Nie, Yueping

    2010-09-01

    The Lop Nur region is located in the east of the Tarim Basin. It has served as the strategic passage and communication hub of the Silk Road since Han Dynasty. During Wei-Jin period, the river system there was well developed and the ancient city of Loulan was bred there. In this study, GIS is used to accomplish automatic extraction of the river course in the Lop Nur region at first using ArcGIS. Then the RCI index is constituted to extract ancient river course from Landsat ETM image with band 3 and band 4. It is concluded that the north river course of Peacock River conformed before the end of the 4th century AD according to the distribution of the entire river course of the Lop Nur region. Later, the Peacock River changed its way to south to Tarim River, and flowed into Lop Nur along the direction paralleling Altun Mountain from west to east. It was the change of the river system that mainly caused the decrease in water supply around ancient city of Loulan before the end of 4th century. The ancient city of Loulan has been gradually ruined in the sand because of the absence of water supply since then.

  6. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix O: Economic and Social Impact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included.

  7. Water quality dynamics in the Boro-Thamalakane-Boteti river system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water quality dynamics in the Boro-Thamalakane-Boteti river system, northern Botswana. ... settlements and associated developments on waterbodies, and lends strong support to management efforts to maintain river water quality to ensure the suitability of the water for various ecosystem uses. Keywords: human activities ...

  8. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix J: Recreation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix J of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on the recreational activities in the region. Major sections include the following: scope and processes; recreation in the Columbia River Basin today - by type, location, participation, user characteristics, factors which affect usage, and managing agencies; recreation analysis procedures and methodology; and alternatives and their impacts.

  9. 76 FR 22393 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Cancellation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy... and Wildlife Service for the proposed Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. This...

  10. [Hygienic characteristics of work conditions at large Hydroelectric Power Plants with mechanization and automatization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakimova, L D

    1997-01-01

    The article touches upon hygienic problems associated with mechanization and automation of major hydroelectric power stations. The authors present criteria to evaluate work conditions of the main occupations participating in the technologic process of hydroelectric power stations.

  11. Impact of High Wind Power Penetration on Hydroelectric Unit Operations in the WWSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, B.-M.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M.

    2011-07-01

    This report examines the impact of this large amount of wind penetration on hydroelectric unit operations. Changes in hydroelectric unit operating patterns are examined both for an aggregation of all hydro generators and for select individual plants.

  12. Impact of High Wind Power Penetration on Hydroelectric Unit Operations: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, B. M.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M.

    2011-10-01

    This paper examines the impact of this large amount of wind penetration on hydroelectric unit operations. Changes in hydroelectric unit operating unit patterns are examined for an aggregation of all hydro generators.

  13. Sr isotope tracing of multiple water sources in a complex river system, Noteć River, central Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zieliński, Mateusz, E-mail: mateusz.zielinski@amu.edu.pl [Institute of Geoecology and Geoinformation, Adam Mickiewicz University, Dzięgielowa 27, 61-680 Poznań (Poland); Dopieralska, Jolanta, E-mail: dopieralska@amu.edu.pl [Poznań Science and Technology Park, Adam Mickiewicz University Foundation, Rubież 46, 61-612 Poznań (Poland); Belka, Zdzislaw, E-mail: zbelka@amu.edu.pl [Isotope Laboratory, Adam Mickiewicz University, Dzięgielowa 27, 61-680 Poznań (Poland); Walczak, Aleksandra, E-mail: awalczak@amu.edu.pl [Isotope Laboratory, Adam Mickiewicz University, Dzięgielowa 27, 61-680 Poznań (Poland); Siepak, Marcin, E-mail: siep@amu.edu.pl [Institute of Geology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Maków Polnych 16, 61-606 Poznań (Poland); Jakubowicz, Michal, E-mail: mjakub@amu.edu.pl [Institute of Geoecology and Geoinformation, Adam Mickiewicz University, Dzięgielowa 27, 61-680 Poznań (Poland)

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic impact on surface waters and other elements in the environment was investigated in the Noteć River basin in central Poland. The approach was to trace changes in the Sr isotope composition ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr) and concentration in space and time. Systematic sampling of the river water shows a very wide range of {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios, from 0.7089 to 0.7127. This strong variation, however, is restricted to the upper course of the river, whereas the water in the lower course typically shows {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr values around 0.7104–0.7105. Variations in {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr are associated with a wide range of Sr concentrations, from 0.14 to 1.32 mg/L. We find that strong variations in {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr and Sr concentrations can be accounted for by mixing of two end-members: 1) atmospheric waters charged with Sr from the near-surface weathering and wash-out of Quaternary glaciogenic deposits, and 2) waters introduced into the river from an open pit lignite mine. The first reservoir is characterized by a low Sr content and high {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios, whereas mine waters display opposite characteristics. Anthropogenic pollution is also induced by extensive use of fertilizers which constitute the third source of Sr in the environment. The study has an important implication for future archeological studies in the region. It shows that the present-day Sr isotope signatures of river water, flora and fauna cannot be used unambiguously to determine the “baseline” for bioavailable {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr in the past. - Highlights: • Sr isotopes fingerprint water sources and their interactions in a complex river system. • Mine waters and fertilizers are critical anthropogenic additions in the river water. • Limited usage of environmental isotopic data in archeological studies. • Sr budget of the river is dynamic and temporary.

  14. Feasibility determination for hydroelectric development at Thermalito Afterbay with STRAFLO turbine-generators. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, B.L.

    1979-06-01

    This study addresses the development of the Thermalito Afterbay, in California. Presently, the outlet of the afterbay dissipates the afterbay's useful energy through five radial gates into the Feather River complex. The feasibility of constructing a hydroelectric facility to recover this wasted energy through the use of STRAFLO hydro turbines is appraised, and data relevant to the future economic benefits of such a facility as compared to alternate energy alternatives are presented. In addition, the regulatory, ecological, and socio-institutional impacts which form additional considerations to a future thermalito afterbay site development are summarized. The study shows an annual generation potential of 48.82 GWh. The cost of developing the site is estimated to be $23.5 million. Social and environmental effects would be minimal. The final feasibility of development is contingent on power contracts which the state of California will be negotiating in 1983. (LCL)

  15. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae on wild animals from the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo B Labruna

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available From June 2000 to June 2001, a total of 741 ticks were collected from 51 free-living wild animals captured at the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, located alongside an approximately 180 km course of the Paraná river, between the states of São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, comprising 9 species of 3 genera: Ambly-omma (7 species, Boophilus (1 and Anocentor (1. A total of 421 immature Amblyomma ticks were reared in laboratory until the adult stage, allowing identification of the species. A. cajennense was the most frequent tick species (mostly immature stages collected on 9 host species: Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla,Cerdocyon thous, Puma concolor,Tayassu tajacu, Mazama gouazoubira,Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris,Alouatta caraya, Cebus apella. Other tick species were less common, generally restricted to certain host taxa.

  16. 77 FR 73636 - Rock River Beach, Inc.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ...] Rock River Beach, Inc.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and Soliciting... No.: P-14345-001. c. Date filed: November 23, 2012. d. Applicant: Rock River Beach, Inc. e. Name of Project: Rock River Beach Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On the Rock River, in the Town of Onota...

  17. 78 FR 53754 - Loup River Public Power District; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service List for a Programmatic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Loup River Public Power District; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service List... license for the Loup River Hydroelectric Project No. 1256. The programmatic agreement, when executed by... any Order issuing a license. Loup River Public Power District, as applicant for the Loup River...

  18. Effect of thermal pollution on the hydrological parameters of River Jhelum (J & K)

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, T.A.

    2008-01-01

    The Buniyar hydroelectric project and the lower Jhelum Barrier at Gantamulla constructed across river Jhelum are in operation from several years. The two power stations have changed the hydrological features of the area where dam is situated. Therefore, the impact of hydroelectric projects on fishery resources of river Jhelum is a matter of great concern. The treated water from the power house is released through turbines, having cooling effect on them. The change in the hydrological paramete...

  19. Using place-based curricula to teach about restoring river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalles, D. R.; Collins, B. D.; Updegrave, C.; Montgomery, D. R.; Colonnese, T. G.; Sheikh, A. J.; Haynie, K.; Johnson, V.; Data Sets; Inquiry in Environmental Restoration Studies (Nsf Geo Project 0808076)

    2010-12-01

    Zalles, Daniel R. (Center for Technology in Learning, SRI International) Collins, Brian D., Updegrave, Cynthia, Montgomery, David R., Colonnese, Thomas G., Sheikh, Amir J., (University of Washington) Haynie, Kathleen., Johnson, Vonda. (Haynie Research and Evaluation) A collaborative team from the University of Washington and SRI International is developing place based curricula about complex river systems. This NSF-funded project, known as Data Sets and Inquiry in Environmental Restoration Studies (DIGERS), is producing and piloting curricula on river systems of the Puget Sound over a two-year period at the University of Washington and at a public high school on an Indian reservation. At the high school, DIGERS is developing for a population of Native American students a geoscience curriculum that is embedded in their culture and bio-physical environment. At the UW, the goal is to teach about rivers as integrated physical, biological, and human systems that are products of their unique geological and human histories. The curriculum addresses the challenge of teaching general principles about rivers in a way that develops students’ capability to develop a more sophisticated understanding of the interplay of attributes that characterize a particular river at a point in time. Undergraduate students also learn about the challenges of trying to "restore" local river environments to some past condition, including the pitfall of over-generalizing the efficacy of human interventions from one river system to another. For the high school curriculum, a web site is being produced that integrates modules of general information about the focal scientific phenomena (e.g., rivers and floodplains; how human activities influence rivers; salmon habitat) and data and inquiry-related skills (e.g., how to reconstruct historical change) with place based historical and contemporary information about a specific river environment: the Snohomish River watershed. This information consists

  20. The Integrated System of Phytodepuration of Sile River Natural Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroselli, Andrea; Giannotti, Maurizio; Arcangeletti, Ettore; Palomba, Francesca; Marras, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    The water conservation topic is likely to become increasingly important and alternative water resources employment should be considered as one possible response to the challenges of fresh water demand and environmental protection; among alternative water sources, municipal wastewaters represent one of the most profitable source but in order to reuse them they need adequate and advanced depuration techniques, such as the use of Integrated System of Phytodepuration (ISP). Across a 3-year sampling period, the performances of an ISP within the Natural Park of the Sile River in the Northern Italy were evaluated, analyzing raw wastewater and final effluent characteristics according to the recommendations of European and Italian legislation. The investigated ISP represents one of the first attempts designed in Italy to improve the efficiency of an existing wastewater treatment plant, able to serve 8000 equivalent inhabitants. The results obtained during the 3 years of analysis show that the designed ISP is characterized by a general efficiency value higher than 87% for TSS removal, 79% for TN, 91% for BOD5 and 86% for COD; moreover the ISP final effluent is characterized by a quality not only suited for release into surface waters but also for irrigation.

  1. Low-Temperature Microbial Activity in River Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, K

    2001-01-01

    This technical note examines dissolved oxygen (DO) levels and changes in river microbiology during winter, low temperatures, and periods of ice cover with the objective of providing guidance for winter water quality modeling...

  2. Downstream flow top width prediction in a river system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-01-29

    Jan 29, 2013 ... Reliable forecasts of future river flow conditions and early warning is necessary ..... ANFIS is an artificial intelligence technique that has been suc- cessfully used for ..... to 1 and the ACF has a linearly decreasing trend. Thus, to.

  3. 1989 Aquatic Areas - Upper Mississippi River System - Pool 04

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has created high-resolution land cover/use data sets for the Upper Mississippi River...

  4. Microbiological studies in the Mandovi-Zuari river system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Row, A.

    Total heterotrophic and coliform bacteria were surveyed during October 1977 to September 1978 from 9 stations each along the rivers Mandovi and Zuari and 3 along the coast of Goa. Total heterotrophic population showed wide temporal and spatial...

  5. 75 FR 71102 - White Mountain Hydroelectric Corp.; Notice of Application for Amendment of License, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission White Mountain Hydroelectric Corp.; Notice of Application for....: 11313-019. c. Date Filed: March 31, 2010. d. Applicant: White Mountain Hydroelectric Corp. e. Name of... Contact: Peter Govoni, White Mountain Hydroelectric Corp., P.O. Box 715, Lincoln, New Hampshire 03251...

  6. Description and assessment of the Raft River Lotic system in the vicinity of the Raft River Geothermal Area. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The Raft River is the only perennial lotic system within this area and one concern has been the impact a spill of geothermal water would have on the biota of the stream. Identification of the structure of these communities is the baseline information which was the objective of this study. The results of the inventory in terms of potential recovery of downstream communities from the impact of geothermal water induced perturbations are discussed.

  7. Contextual Essays on the Monongahela River Navigation System. Locks and Dams 2, 3 and 4 Monongahela River Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    diversification and a healthier economic situation for the western territories. The greatest need in the United States of the early 1800s involved the area...of these early coal reserves, together with diversification of manufacturing, the establishment of small towns, better and more roads, and...clerks; ship’s carpenters; potters; founders; plus others whose livelihoods were tied to the rivers and indirectly to the navigation system and to the

  8. micro hydroelectric power plant development in the west region of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    Introduction about hydroelectric powers plants (small scale). May 2000,. Yaoundé, Cameroun. 51pp. Lejeune A. et Toplicéanu I., 2004. Energie. Renouvelables et Cogénération pour le. Développement Durable en Afrique. Colloque. International, ENSP Université de Yaoundé I. 246pp. Linsley R. K. and Franzini J.B., 1972.

  9. Micro hydroelectric power plant development in the west region of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present work is to characterise the state of ten Micro Hydroelectric Power Plants (MHPPs) installed in the west region of Cameroon, in preparation for their modernization. The work was carried out between January 2006 and December 2008. Each site was visited at least once a month. During these ...

  10. An Integrated Risk Approach for Assessing the Use of Ensemble Streamflow Forecasts in Hydroelectric Reservoir Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, T. S.; Wigmosta, M.; Barco, J.; Voisin, N.; Bier, A.; Coleman, A.; Skaggs, R.

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents an integrated risk approach using ensemble streamflow forecasts for optimizing hydro-electric power generation. Uncertainty in the streamflow forecasts are translated into integrated risk by calculating the deviation of an optimized release schedule that simultaneously maximizes power generation and environmental performance from release schedules that maximize the two objectives individually. The deviations from each target are multiplied by the probability of occurrence and then summed across all probabilities to get the integrated risk. The integrated risk is used to determine which operational scheme exposes the operator to the least amount of risk or conversely, what are the consequences of basing future operations on a particular prediction. Decisions can be made with regards to the tradeoff between power generation, environmental performance, and exposure to risk. The Hydropower Seasonal Concurrent Optimization for Power and Environment (HydroSCOPE) model developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is used to model the flow, temperature, and power generation and is coupled with the DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) optimization package to identify the maximum potential power generation, the maximum environmental performance, and the optimal operational scheme that maximizes both for each instance of the ensemble forecasts. The ensemble forecasts were developed in a collaborative effort between the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the University of Washington to develop an Enhanced Hydrologic Forecasting System (EHFS) that incorporates advanced ensemble forecasting approaches and algorithms, spatiotemporal datasets, and automated data acquisition and processing. Both the HydroSCOPE model and the EHFS forecast tool are being developed as part of a larger, multi-laboratory water-use optimization project funded through the US Department of Energy. The simulations were based on the

  11. 2000 Aerial Photo Mosaics - Upper Mississippi River System -- Pool 5a

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) collects aerial photography of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) floodplain...

  12. A Summary of Fish Data in Six Reaches of The Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutreuter, Steve

    1997-01-01

    The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) completed 1,994 collections of fishes from stratified random and permanently fixed sampling locations in six study reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System during 1993...

  13. Estimated Thickness of Quaternary Sediment in the Wood River Valley aquifer system, South-Central Idaho

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is the estimated thickness of Quaternary sediment of the Wood River Valley aquifer system. This isopach map was constructed by subtracting the estimated...

  14. Aquifer Boundary of the Wood River Valley Aquifer System, South-Central Idaho

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains the boundary of the Wood River Valley aquifer system as modified and expanded from that defined by Skinner and others (2007): It has been...

  15. Population Aspects of Fishes in Geba and Sor Rivers, White Nile System in Ethiopia, East Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simagegnew Melaku; Abebe Getahun; Mulugeta Wakjira

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess the diversity, condition factor, length-weight relationship, and sex ratio of fishes in Geba and Sor Rivers located in Baro-Akobo Basin, White Nile system within Ethiopia...

  16. Game theory and risk-based leveed river system planning with noncooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Rui; Lund, Jay R.; Madani, Kaveh

    2016-01-01

    Optimal risk-based levee designs are usually developed for economic efficiency. However, in river systems with multiple levees, the planning and maintenance of different levees are controlled by different agencies or groups. For example, along many rivers, levees on opposite riverbanks constitute a simple leveed river system with each levee designed and controlled separately. Collaborative planning of the two levees can be economically optimal for the whole system. Independent and self-interested landholders on opposite riversides often are willing to separately determine their individual optimal levee plans, resulting in a less efficient leveed river system from an overall society-wide perspective (the tragedy of commons). We apply game theory to simple leveed river system planning where landholders on each riverside independently determine their optimal risk-based levee plans. Outcomes from noncooperative games are analyzed and compared with the overall economically optimal outcome, which minimizes net flood cost system-wide. The system-wide economically optimal solution generally transfers residual flood risk to the lower-valued side of the river, but is often impractical without compensating for flood risk transfer to improve outcomes for all individuals involved. Such compensation can be determined and implemented with landholders' agreements on collaboration to develop an economically optimal plan. By examining iterative multiple-shot noncooperative games with reversible and irreversible decisions, the costs of myopia for the future in making levee planning decisions show the significance of considering the externalities and evolution path of dynamic water resource problems to improve decision-making.

  17. Design of river height and speed monitoring system by using Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, T. H.; Siagian, E. C.; Tanjung, K.; Soeharwinto

    2018-02-01

    River is one part of the hydrologic cycle. Water in rivers is generally collected from precipitation, such as rain, dew, springs, underground runoff, and in certain countries also comes from melt ice/snow. The height and speed of water in a river is always changing. Changes in altitude and speed of water can affect the surrounding environment. In this paper, we will design a system to measure the altitude and speed of the river. In this work we use Arduino Uno, ultrasonic sensors and flow rate sensors. Ultrasonic sensor HC-SR04 is used as a river height meter. Based on the test results, this sensor has an accuracy of 96.6%.

  18. Survival of migrating salmon smolts in large rivers with and without dams.

    OpenAIRE

    David W Welch; Rechisky, Erin L.; Michael C. Melnychuk; Porter, Aswea D; Walters, Carl J; Shaun Clements; Clemens, Benjamin J; R Scott McKinley; Carl Schreck

    2008-01-01

    The mortality of salmon smolts during their migration out of freshwater and into the ocean has been difficult to measure. In the Columbia River, which has an extensive network of hydroelectric dams, the decline in abundance of adult salmon returning from the ocean since the late 1970s has been ascribed in large measure to the presence of the dams, although the completion of the hydropower system occurred at the same time as large-scale shifts in ocean climate, as measured by climate indices s...

  19. Financial evaluation of the integration of satellite technology for snow cover measurements at a hydroelectric plant. (Utilization of Radarsat I in the La Grande river basin, Quebec); Evaluation financiere de l'integration de technologies satellitaires, pour le suivi du couvert nival, au sein d'une entreprise hydroelectrique. (Le cas de l'utilisation du satellite Radarsat I dans le bassin de la riviere La Grande, Quebec)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D.; Bernier, M.; Sasseville, J.L. [INRS-Eau, Sainte-Foy, Quebec (Canada) ; Charbonneau, R. [Hydro-Quebec, St. Hilaire, Quebec (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    The emergence, on the markets, of new technologies evokes, for the potential users, a lot of questions concerning the implementation and operation costs associated with these technologies. Nevertheless, for a lot of users, costs should be considered with the benefits these technologies are able to generate. The benefit-cost analysis is a useful tool for a financial evaluation of the transferability of the technology. This method has been selected to evaluate the eventual implementation of remote sensing technologies for snow cover measurements in the La Grande river basin (Quebec, Canada). Indeed, a better assessment of the snow water equivalent leads to a better forecasting of the water inputs due to the snowmelt. Thus, the improvement of the snow cover monitoring has direct impact on hydroelectric reservoir management. The benefit-cost analysis was used to compare three acquisition modes of the satellite Radarsat 1 (ScanSAR, Wide and Standard). The costs considered for this project are: R and D costs and operations costs (the purchase of images and costs of ground truth measurements). We evaluated the raw benefits on the basis of reducing the standard deviation of predicted inflows. The results show that the ScanSAR mode is the primary remote sensing tool for the monitoring of the snow cover, on an operational basis. With this acquisition mode, the benefit-cost ratios range between 2.3:1 and 3.9:1, using a conservative 4% reduction of the standard deviation. Even if the reduction is only 3%, ScanSAR remains profitable. Due to the large number of images needed to cover all the territory, the Standard and Wide modes are penalized by the purchase and the processing costs of the data and with delays associated to the processing. Nevertheless, with these two modes, it could be possible to work with a partial coverage of the watershed, 75% being covered in 4 days in Wide mod. The estimated B/C ratios (1.5:1 and 2:1) confirm the advantages of this alternative

  20. Carbon fate in a large temperate human-impacted river system: Focus on benthic dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilmin, Lauriane; Flipo, Nicolas; Escoffier, Nicolas; Rocher, Vincent; Groleau, Alexis

    2016-07-01

    Fluvial networks play an important role in regional and global carbon (C) budgets. The Seine River, from the Paris urban area to the entrance of its estuary (220 km), is studied here as an example of a large human-impacted river system subject to temperate climatic conditions. We assess organic C (OC) budgets upstream and downstream from one of the world's largest wastewater treatment plants and for different hydrological conditions using a hydrobiogeochemical model. The fine representation of sediment accumulation on the river bed allows for the quantification of pelagic and benthic effects on OC export toward the estuary and on river metabolism (i.e., net CO2 production). OC export is significantly affected by benthic dynamics during the driest periods, when 25% of the inputs to the system is transformed or stored in the sediment layer. Benthic processes also substantially affect river metabolism under any hydrological condition. On average, benthic respiration accounts for one third of the total river respiration along the studied stretch (0.27 out of 0.86 g C m-2 d-1). Even though the importance of benthic processes was already acknowledged by the scientific community for headwater streams, these results stress the major influence of benthic dynamics, and thus of physical processes such as sedimentation and resuspension, on C cycling in downstream river systems. It opens the door to new developments in the quantification of C emissions by global models, whereby biogeochemical processing and benthic dynamics should be taken into account.

  1. Development of a 1 D hydrodynamic habitat model for the Hippopotamus amphibious as basis for sustainable exploitation of hydroelectric power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manful, D. Y.; Kaule, G.; Wieprecht, S.; Rees, J.; Hu, W.

    2009-12-01

    Hydroelectric Power (HEP) is proving to be a good alternative to carbon based energy. In the past hydropower especially large scale hydro attracted significant criticism as a result of its impact on the environment. A new breed of hydroelectric dam is in the offing. The aim is to have as little a footprint as possible on the environment in both pre and post construction phases and thus minimize impact on biodiversity whilst producing clean renewable energy. The Bui dam is 400 MW scheme currently under development on the Black Volta River in the Bui national park in Ghana. The reservoir created by the Bui barrage is expected to impact (through inundation) the habitat of two species of hippos know to exist in the park, the Hippopotamus amphibius and the Choeropsis liberiensis. Computer-based models present a unique opportunity to assess quantitatively the impact of the new reservoir on the habitat of the target species in this case the H. amphibious. Until this undertaking, there were very few studies documenting the habitat of the H. amphibious let alone model it. The work and subsequent presentation will show the development of a habitat model for the Hippopotamus amphibius. The Habitat Information retrieval Program based on Streamflow Analysis, in short HIPStrA, is a one dimensional (1D) in-stream, spatially explicit hybrid construct that combines physico-chemical evidence and expert knowledge to forecast river habitat suitability (Hs) for the Hippopotamus amphibius. The version of the model presented is specifically developed to assess the impact of a reservoir created by a hydroelectric dam on potential dwelling areas in the Bui gorge for hippos. Accordingly, this version of HIPStrA simulates a special reservoir suitability index (Rsi), a metric that captures the”hippo friendliness” of any lake or reservoir. The impact of measured and simulated flood events as well as low flows, representing extreme events is also assessed. Recommendations are made for the

  2. A meteo-hydrological modelling system for the reconstruction of river runoff: the case of the Ofanto river catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verri, Giorgia; Pinardi, Nadia; Gochis, David; Tribbia, Joseph; Navarra, Antonio; Coppini, Giovanni; Vukicevic, Tomislava

    2017-10-01

    A meteo-hydrological modelling system has been designed for the reconstruction of long time series of rainfall and river runoff events. The modelling chain consists of the mesoscale meteorological model of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF), the land surface model NOAH-MP and the hydrology-hydraulics model WRF-Hydro. Two 3-month periods are reconstructed for winter 2011 and autumn 2013, containing heavy rainfall and river flooding events. Several sensitivity tests were performed along with an assessment of which tunable parameters, numerical choices and forcing data most impacted on the modelling performance.The calibration of the experiments highlighted that the infiltration and aquifer coefficients should be considered as seasonally dependent.The WRF precipitation was validated by a comparison with rain gauges in the Ofanto basin. The WRF model was demonstrated to be sensitive to the initialization time and a spin-up of about 1.5 days was needed before the start of the major rainfall events in order to improve the accuracy of the reconstruction. However, this was not sufficient and an optimal interpolation method was developed to correct the precipitation simulation. It is based on an objective analysis (OA) and a least square (LS) melding scheme, collectively named OA+LS. We demonstrated that the OA+LS method is a powerful tool to reduce the precipitation uncertainties and produce a lower error precipitation reconstruction that itself generates a better river discharge time series. The validation of the river streamflow showed promising statistical indices.The final set-up of our meteo-hydrological modelling system was able to realistically reconstruct the local rainfall and the Ofanto hydrograph.

  3. Study on measuring social cost of water pollution: concentrated on Han River water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Im; Min, Dong Gee; Chung, Hoe Seong; Lim, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Mee Sook [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    Following the economic development and the progress of urbanization, the damage on water pollution has been more serious but a social cost caused by water pollution cannot be measured. Although the need of water quality preservation is emphasized, a base material for public investment on enhancing water quality preservation is not equipped yet due to the absence of economic values of water resource. Therefore it measured a cost generated by leaving pollution not treated water quality in this study. To measure the usable value of water resource or the cost of water pollution all over the country should include a national water system, but this study is limited on the mainstream of Han River water system from North Han River through Paldang to Chamsil sluice gates. Further study on Nakdong River and Keum River water systems should be done. 74 refs., 4 figs., 51 tabs.

  4. Pechora River basin integrated system management PRISM; biodiversity assessment for the Pechora River basin; Cluster B: biodiversity, land use & forestry modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der T.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the biodiversity for the Pechora River basin Integrated System Management (PRISM). The Pechora River Basin, situated just west of the Ural Mountains, Russia, consists of vast boreal forests and tundra landscapes, partly pristine and undisturbed. The concept of biodiversity is

  5. Tracking Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) after an incident along a river system - Case study Elbe River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleisinger, Carmen; Dietrich, Stephan; Kehl, Nora; Claus, Evelyn; Schubert, Birgit

    2017-04-01

    In spring 2015, extremely high concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) well above the long-term average were detected in suspended particulate matter (SPM) within the River Elbe. They were released due to abrasive blasting of the old coating from a bridge in the upper part of the River, approximately 50 km upstream of the first measurement site. PCBs are persistent organic pollutants, preferentially bound to fine-grained fractions of the SPM. Results from monitoring of contaminants in SPM along the Elbe indicate the further dispersal of the PCB-contaminated sediments. These measurements include yearly investigations on PCB concentrations in sediments in the inner reaches of the Elbe, an additional longitudinal survey in 2015 and monthly monitoring of PCBs in SPM at stations along the river including the Elbe estuary (Germany). The Elbe estuary is of major economic importance since Hamburg harbour, one of the largest harbours in Europe, is located there. Maintaining the harbour includes dredging and, i.a., relocating large amounts of the dredged material within the water body. High PCB concentrations in sediments could lead to restrictions on the relocation of these sediments. This study aims at tracking the fate of PCB contaminated material released from the point source of the incident site along the whole river stretch and at estimating its impact on the quality of sediments and consequently on dredging activities in the estuary. The ratio of high (PCB 138, 152 and 180) versus low (PCB 28, 52, 101) chlorinated PCB congeners proved to be a suitable tracer to distinguish the PCB load released by the incident from the long-term background signals. As Delor 106/Clophen A60, which contains approx. 90% hexa- to decachloric congeners, was an additive in the coating of the bridge, the pattern of PCBs released by the incident is dominated by the highly chlorinated PCB-congeners PCB 138, 153 and 180. At the tidal weir Geesthacht, the entrance to the estuary, an

  6. 77 FR 24949 - Red River Lock & Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Project; BOST4 Hydroelectric LLC; Notice of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... Department Dr. Linda Langley, Coushatta of Culture, Recreation & Tourism, P.O. Tribe of Louisiana, P.O. Box... Tomlinson or Louisiana Department of Culture, Representative, U.S. Army Recreation & Tourism, P.O. Box 44247...

  7. Ecologically justified regulatory provisions for riverine hydroelectric power plants and minimum instream flow requirements in diverted streams; Oekologisch begruendete, dynamische Mindestwasserregelungen bei Ausleitungskraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorde, K.

    1997-12-31

    The study was intended to develop a model versatile enough to permit quantification of various water demand scenarios in connection with operation of riverine hydroelectric power plants. Specific emphasis was to be placed on defining the minimum instream flow to be maintained in river segments because of the elementary significance to flowing water biocinoses. Based on fictitious minimum water requirements, various scenarious were simulated for flow regimes depending on power plant operation, so as to establish a system for comparative analysis and evaluation of resulting economic effects on power plant efficiency on the one hand, and the ecologic effects on the aquatic habitat. The information derived was to serve as a basis for decision-making for regulatory purposes. For this study, the temporal and spatial variability of the flow regime at the river bed in a river segment was examined for the first time. Based on this information, complemented by information obtained from habitat simulations, a method was derived for determination of ecologic requirements and their incorporation into regulatory water management provisions. The field measurements were carried out with the FST hemisphere as a proven and most efficient and reliable method of assessing flow regimes at river beds. Evaluation of the measured instream flow data characterising three morphologically different segments of diverted rivers was done with the CASIMIR computer code. The ASS models derived were used for comparative assessment of existing regulatory provisions and recommended amendments determining required minimum instream flow in diverted rivers. The requirements were defined taking as a basis data obtained for three different years. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Ziel der Arbeit war die Entwicklung eines Modellverfahrens, das flexibel die Quantifizierung unterschiedlicher Nutzansprueche an Laufwasserkraftanlagen ermoeglicht. Insbesondere der Erhalt einer gewissen Dynamik, die fuer

  8. The influence of land-use patterns in the Ruvu river watershed on water quality in the river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoye, Elizabeth; Machiwa, John F.

    This work assessed the impacts of land-use patterns in the Ruvu river basin on water quality in the river system. Seasonal changes in water quality parameters were also investigated. Ten river water-sampling stations were selected and samples were collected and analysed according to standard analytical procedures. The results showed that physico-chemical parameters of river water ranged as follows: pH, from 6.95 ± 0.09 to 8.07 ± 0.23; temperature, from 14.0 ± 0.06 to 31.1 ± 0.4 °C; EC, from 39.8 ± 0.8 to 48,734 306 μs/cm; TDS, from 19.9 ± 0.4 to 24,367 ± 152.9 mg/l; turbidity, from 3.0 ± 0.6 to 840 ± 69.3 NTU and DO, from 6.8 ± 0.02 to 16.78 mg/l. The ranges for nutrient concentrations were NO 3-N, from 0.006 ± 0.0003 to 0.62 ± 0.3 mg/l; NH 4-N, from 0.34 ± 0.17 to 16.2 ± 0.5 mg/l; PO 4-P, from 0.009 ± 0.001 to 1.75 ± 0.2 mg/l and TP, from 0.02 ± 0.003 to 3.56 ± 0.38 mg/l. Generally, water samples from stations with forested catchments had high levels of DO and low levels of NH 4-N and NO 3-N compared to those from farmland, industrial, residential and market places. There were clear seasonal variations showing an increase in the concentrations of nutrients during rainy season. The results show impairment of the water quality of the river by anthropogenic activities in the catchment. Water pollution prevention strategies to ensure prevention of pollution and protection of water resources in the Ruvu river watershed are recommended.

  9. The Geomorphology, Hydrology and Evolution of a Chain of Ponds River System: A Poorly Recognised and Unique River Planform Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R.; Fryirs, K.

    2016-12-01

    Chain-of-ponds river types are alluvial, discontinuous watercourses that contain irregularly spaced, deep, steep-sided ponds separated by an ephemeral flow path. Despite being widespread, chains of ponds are now rare in Australia, having experienced extensive channelisation since European settlement and landuse intensification. The Mulwaree system is one of the largest remaining chain of ponds systems in the country. Little is known about its geomorphic structure, Quaternary evolution or hydrological function. The valley fill of the Mulwaree River contains layers of gravel and cobble clast-supported sediments at a depth of 20 m. Atop, silt and fine sand sediments are 1-3 m deep. The ponds, which sit in this valley-fill, are large (1000-4000 m2 and up to 8 m deep), and are relic form from a much larger and more energetic gravel-bed river that occurred in this valley in the past. Optically-stimulated luminescence ages date the change from high-energy gravel bed to the very low energy system seen today at approximately 20-25 ka. The oldest dates for the gravel bed system at 5-7 m deep are 60-90 ka. The coarser substrate beneath the fine-grained floodplain is mostly saturated, forming a near-surface aquifer in the valley fill/floodplain. The water levels in the floodplain are similar to the level of the adjacent ponds (within 0.2 m) and this water level adjusts readily (within 0.5-2 days) to rain/flow. There is significant hydrological connectivity between the ponds and adjacent floodplain. During high flow conditions, stable isotope (δ18O and δ2H) results from the ponds show no deviation through the profile as the water column is being mixed. However, during low-flow conditions, water in the ponds is enriched near the surface due to evaporation, and has a similar signal to the adjacent near-surface, floodplain aquifer below a weak thermocline. This shows that these systems have a dual function, behaving more as groundwater dependent systems during low flow

  10. Landscape ecology of the Upper Mississippi River System: Lessons learned, challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJager, Nathan R.

    2016-03-22

    The Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) is a mosaic of river channels, backwater lakes, floodplain forests, and emergent marshes. This complex mosaic supports diverse aquatic and terrestrial plant communities, over 150 fish species; 40 freshwater mussel species; 50 amphibian and reptile species; and over 360 bird species, many of which use the UMRS as a critical migratory route. The river and floodplain are also hotspots for biogeochemical activity as the river-floodplain collects and processes nutrients derived from the UMR basin. These features qualify the UMRS as a Ramsar wetland of international significance.Two centuries of land-use change, including construction for navigation and conversion of large areas to agriculture, has altered the broad-scale structure of the river and changed local environmental conditions in many areas. Such changes have affected rates of nutrient processing and transport, as well as the abundance of various fish, mussel, plant, and bird species. However, the magnitude and spatial scale of these effects are not well quantified, especially in regards to the best methods and locations for restoring various aspects of the river ecosystem.The U.S. Congress declared the navigable portions of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) a “nationally significant ecosystem and nationally significant commercial navigation system” in the Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-662) and launched the Upper Mississippi River Restoration (UMRR) Program, the first comprehensive program for ecosystem restoration, monitoring, and research on a large river system. This fact sheet focuses on landscape ecological studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey to support decision making by the UMRR with respect to ecosystem restoration.

  11. Variability in the hydrology of the Ikpoba River system | Iloba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The variability in some physico-chemical parameters was studied in Ikpoba River from June to November, 2009, in three stations. The study shows high variability in transparency, flow velocity, BOD, alkalinity, chloride, nitrate, phosphate with over 40% variability coefficient which is an indication that these parameters ...

  12. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small-scale hydroelectric power in Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy in Virginia are described. The state regulatory system does not comprise final authority; the Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. This dual system is a function of the federalist nature of our government. The introductory section examines the dual system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and inquires into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. The use of a natural-surface watercourse in Virginia is governed generally by the doctrine of riparian rights. Riparian rights is a system of water rights based on ownership of land bordering on a natural stream or watercourse. For land to be considered riparian to a stream, that land must be located on the watershed of that portion of the stream. The theory of riparian rights followed in Virginia is one of reasonable use. Under the reasonable-use doctrine, each riparian owner has an equal right to the reasonable use of the water running naturally through or by his land for any useful purpose. The water must continue to run after such use without material diminution or alteration and without pollution.

  13. Flood Hazard Mapping by Using Geographic Information System and Hydraulic Model: Mert River, Samsun, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahdettin Demir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, flood hazard maps were prepared for the Mert River Basin, Samsun, Turkey, by using GIS and Hydrologic Engineering Centers River Analysis System (HEC-RAS. In this river basin, human life losses and a significant amount of property damages were experienced in 2012 flood. The preparation of flood risk maps employed in the study includes the following steps: (1 digitization of topographical data and preparation of digital elevation model using ArcGIS, (2 simulation of flood lows of different return periods using a hydraulic model (HEC-RAS, and (3 preparation of flood risk maps by integrating the results of (1 and (2.

  14. Rural electrification in Santarem: contribution of micro hydroelectric power plants; Eletrificacao rural em Santarem: contribuicao das micro centrais hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Els, Rudi Henri Van; Diniz, Janaina Deane De Abreu Sa; Souza, Josiane do Socorro Aguiar de; Brasil Junior, Antonio Cesar Pinho; Sousa, Antonio Nazareno Almada de [Universidade de Barsilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Lab. de Energia e Ambiente; Kroetz, Jaemir Grasiel [Indalma Industria e Comercio, Santarem, PA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The municipality of Santarem in the lower Amazon river is the main center in the western region of the state of Para with a population of 274.285 inhabitants, with 31.633 of them living in the rural zone, where only 1.060 rural costumers have access to regular electricity service from the utility provider. This incipient coverage of electricity service in the rural zone urged the local population to look for alternatives. This was found in the use of the hydraulic potential of creeks and rivers with rapids and waterfalls to implement pico and micro hydroelectric plants. So since 2001, 44 pico and 12 micro hydropower plants were installed in the municipalities of Santarem, Belterra and Uruara in the state of Para by local entrepreneurs and communities to attend their basic electricity needs. These systems attend approximately 580 families with a total installed capacity of more than 700 kVA. The consolidation of this technological alternative induced the Regional Superintendent of the Institute for Colonization and Land Reform (INCRA) and the Municipality of Santarem to elaborate a project to attend the land reform settlements in the region. This led to the installation of 6 micro hydropower (MHP) with a total installed capacity of 820kVA and a 252 km distribution network to attend 1.630 families in the settlements of Moju and Corta Corda. The purpose of this paper is to present the MHP's installed in the region and to show the contribution of these units in the rural electrification of rural settlements in Santarem. The paper discusses also the management model of these units. The survey's methodology consisted in the systematization of project data from the plant builder, INCRA and the municipality. The information was obtained from the official bibliography from the local actors and complemented by field surveys with interviews and observation. Despite the fact that the MHP's are in operation, they are not yet registered in the data base of the

  15. Heavy Metals and Biogenic Elements in Aquatic Systems of the Don River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, Anna; Tkachenko, Oleg

    2014-05-01

    River deltas are located in the lower parts of the cascade landscape-geochemical systems of the river basins, so their geochemical conditions often characterize the anthropogenic impact on whole river system. The Don River runs through the one of the most agriculturally developed and densely populated area of Russia, and flows into the Azov Sea - the smallest and shallowest sea in the world. These factors determine the geochemical features of aquatic systems of the Don River mouth area and the specificity of the "river-sea" geochemical barrier zone. The paper presents results of the field studies of the geochemical structure of the Don River mouth area, which were conducted in frames of the RFBR project in 2012-2013. Major types of the deltaic water streams and bodies were studied in different hydrological seasons: spring floods, summer, autumn and winter low water periods. About 50 samples of water, suspended matter and 60 samples of bottom sediments have been collected and analyzed for heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Cr, Cd etc.) and biogenic elements (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosphates, silica, total nitrogen and phosphorus, dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll) content. To assess the toxicity degree and nutrient potential of water, bioassay test conducted by growing daphnia in water samples were held. The study shows that the Don River delta water is characterized by the relatively low values of dissolved heavy metal content. Significantly higher values of heavy metals were determined in the vicinity of settlements only. Metal accumulation in bottom sediments can be associated mainly with the rate of water flow. Higher values were found in sediments of small channels with weak flow velocity and prevailing processes of the suspended matter deposition. The data on the seasonal dynamics of nutrients and spatial variability of their forms have been obtained. The maximum concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus, silicon, and other biogenic elements are

  16. A Real-Time Decision Support System for River Basin Management

    OpenAIRE

    Vyas Ayushi; John Siby

    2016-01-01

    The applications of computer technology to analysis of the rainfall-runoff process and the hydrological dynamics of natural rivers have greatly expanded in the past few years. A large number of general purpose programs and a few programs designed for specific application have been developed and applied to hydrologic engineering problems. This paper briefly describes the study of climate change effects on the hydrological dynamics of the Satluj and Beas river system using computer models like ...

  17. Carbon fate in a large temperate human-impacted river system: focus on benthic dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilmin, Lauriane; Flipo, Nicolas; Escoffier, Nicolas; Rocher, Vincent; Groleau, Alexis

    2016-04-01

    During the last decade, several studies highlighted the important role of fluvial networks in regional and global carbon (C) budgets. Therefore, for sustainable C management, in-river C processing needs to be well understood. The Seine River from the Paris urban area to the entrance of its estuary (220 km) is studied here as a pertinent example of a large human impacted river system subject to temperate climatic conditions. We assess organic C (OC) budgets up- and downstream one of the world's largest waste water treatment plants and for different hydrological conditions through hydro-biogeochemical distributed modelling. The fine representation of sediment accumulation on the river bed allows the quantification of the effect of pelagic and benthic processes on OC export towards the estuary and on river metabolism (i.e. net CO2 emission). OC export is significantly affected by benthic dynamics during the driest periods, when 25 % of the inputs to the system is transformed or stored in the sediment layer. River metabolism is also significantly affected by benthic processes, whatever the hydrological conditions. On average, benthic respiration accounts for one third of the total ecosystem respiration along the studied stretch (0.23 out of 0.86 gC.m-2.d-1). These results stress the major influence of benthic dynamics, and thus of physical processes such as sedimentation and re-suspension on C cycling, in large human-impacted temperate river systems and on C export to the estuaries. Even though the importance of benthos processes was already acknowledged by the scientific community for headwater streams, this work highlights its importance for downstream river systems and opens the door to new developments in the quantification of C emissions by global models, in which biogeochemical processing and benthic dynamics must be taken into account.

  18. River utilization and transportation for 21st century: experiences and recommendations for a sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Hasegawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    From ancient times, rivers play a very important role. They are utilized in various ways; drinking water, water distribution into agricultural area, catching river fish as food, transportation, hydroelectricity, etc. They are also important for culture and wildlife reservation. Some rivers such as Ganges in India are important from religious meaning, too. In China, due to the rapid development of economy the river transportation is almost at its maximum capacity. The river transportation near...

  19. Effect of the Operation of Kerr and Hungry Horse Dams on the Reproduction Success of Kokanee in the Flathead River System, 1986 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, Will; Clancey, Patrick

    1987-03-01

    The 1985 kokanee spawning run in the Flathead system was the strongest in five years. Escapement to the Flathead River system was 147,000 fish, including 123,000 in McDonald Creek and an estimated 20,000 in the main stem. Enumeration of spawners and redds in the Flathead River was hindered by high fall flows and early freezing in November. The upstream spawning migration from Flathead Lake began in late August. Schools of kokanee were seen six miles above the lake on September 4. We counted 1,156 redds in Flathead Lake, distributed primarily along the southeastern shore. An unusually high proportion (90 percent) of lakeshore spawning occurred in the zone above minimum pool, where egg mortality is very high because of exposure from drawdown. Escapement to the Swan River was 1,350 fish. Four year old (III+) fish comprised 95 percent of the spawning run in the Flathead system. This continues a five-year trend toward dominance of the III+ year class. The age composition of spawners has varied considerably for the past 15 years. The average size of spawning fish was 365 mm, which is identical to the average size of the parent year class in 1981. One of the goals of managing Flathead kokanee is to produce mature fish 300-330 mm in length. In the main stem Flathead River, pre-emergent survival was 80 percent. Survival in McDonald Creek, unaffected by hydroelectric operations, was 83 percent. Sampling showed few hatched alevins, probably due to unusually cold winter temperatures. Egg survival at Blue Bay, a spawning area on Flathead Lake where redds are concentrated below minimum pool, varied in relation to depth and dissolved oxygen concentration in the substrate. Eggs survived 78 days at 2,880 feet where dissolved oxygen was 5.7 mg/l. Eggs survived 35 days at 2,870 feet where dissolved oxygen concentration averaged 2.9 mg/l. Low dissolved oxygen contributed to poor survival to emergence at all elevations in Blue Ray. Experiments in Skidoo Bay confirmed that survival of

  20. Low head hydroelectric installation. Installation hydroelectrique de basse chute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megnint, L.

    1987-08-04

    A low head hydroelectric installation, in particular for tidal power plant use, is intended to function at variable head heights which can descend to near-zero values. While the head height is lower than a determined value, inferior to at least half the nominal head, the turbomachinery is made to turn at a speed lower than the synchronizing speed and bringing its output near the middle of the output curve. A frequency converter is inserted between the electric generator and the power network, said converter being constructed for a power in any case inferior to at least half of the nominal power. The invention also concerns a process for obtaining at the outlet of a hydraulic turbine an optimal output under a defined, nominal head or output, corresponding to a nominal power of a low head hydroelectric installation and for a rotation speed corresponding to the speed of synchronization with the frequency of a power network.

  1. Downstream environmental impacts of dams: case study Tucurui Hydroelectric Plant, PA; Impactos ambientais a jusante de hidreletricas: o caso da usina de Tucurui, PA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manyari, Waleska Valenca

    2007-12-15

    The hydroelectric resources of the Amazon region are considered a competitive alternative despite the structural problems they entail. Concerning the latter, plans to build large-scale dams in the region have drawn criticism mainly on account of the loss of forest cover in areas flooded by dam reservoirs and the conflicts concerning the relocation of indigenous and riverside communities in the region. This study seeks to contribute to better understanding of the environmental issue in the Amazon by focusing attention on the downstream effects of dams, which have large-scale, hitherto neglected ecological repercussions. The impact of dams extends well beyond the area surrounding the artificial lakes they create, harming rich Amazon wetland ecosystems. The morphology of dammed rivers changes in response to new inputs of energy and matter, which may in turn destroy certain biotypes. This is a remote-sensing-based case study of the Tucurui hydroelectric scheme in the Amazon state of Para. Attention is drawn to the need to take into account effects on alluvial rivers downstream from hydroelectric power plants when it comes to making planning decisions, as part of a sustainable energy policy. (author)

  2. Executive summary: legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric potential in the seven mid-western states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The relationship of Federal law and regulation to state law and regulation of small-scale hydroelectric facilities is described. Important features of the constitutional law, statutory law, case law, and regulations of each of the 7 mid-western states (Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio, West Virginia, and Wisconsin) are highlighted. The introductory section examines the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, i.e., the law of pre-emption, and the application of this law to the case of hydroelectric development and regulation of water resources. A state-by-state synopsis of these important provisions of the laws of the states that have a bearing on small-scale hydroelectric development is presented.

  3. Turbulence at Hydroelectric Power Plants and its Potential Effects on Fish.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cada, Glenn F.; Odeh, Mufeed

    2001-01-01

    The fundamental influence of fluid dynamics on aquatic organisms is receiving increasing attention among aquatic ecologists. For example, the importance of turbulence to ocean plankton has long been a subject of investigation (Peters and Redondo 1997). More recently, studies have begun to emerge that explicitly consider the effects of shear and turbulence on freshwater invertebrates (Statzner et al. 1988; Hart et al. 1996) and fishes (Pavlov et al. 1994, 1995). Hydraulic shear stress and turbulence are interdependent natural fluid phenomena that are important to fish, and consequently it is important to develop an understanding of how fish sense, react to, and perhaps utilize these phenomena under normal river flows. The appropriate reaction to turbulence may promote movement of migratory fish or prevent displacement of resident fish. It has been suggested that one of the adverse effects of flow regulation by hydroelectric projects is the reduction of normal turbulence, particularly in the headwaters of reservoirs, which can lead to disorientation and slowing of migration (Williams et al. 1996; Coutant et al. 1997; Coutant 1998). On the other hand, greatly elevated levels of shear and turbulence may be injurious to fish; injuries can range from removal of the mucous layer on the body surface to descaling to torn opercula, popped eyes, and decapitation (Neitzel et al. 2000a,b). Damaging levels of fluid stress can occur in a variety of circumstances in both natural and man-made environments. This paper discusses the effects of shear stress and turbulence on fish, with an emphasis on potentially damaging levels in man-made environments. It defines these phenomena, describes studies that have been conducted to understand their effects, and identifies gaps in our knowledge. In particular, this report reviews the available information on the levels of turbulence that can occur within hydroelectric power plants, and the associated biological effects. The final section

  4. Influence of environmental variables on diffusive greenhouse gas fluxes at hydroelectric reservoirs in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JP. Rogério

    Full Text Available For almost two decades, studies have been under way in Brazil, showing how hydroelectric reservoirs produce biogenic gases, mainly methane (CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2, through the organic decomposition of flooded biomass. This somewhat complex phenomenon is due to a set of variables with differing levels of interdependence that directly or indirectly affect greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. The purpose of this paper is to determine, through a statistical data analysis, the relation between CO2, CH4 diffusive fluxes and environmental variables at the Furnas, Itumbiara and Serra da Mesa hydroelectric reservoirs, located in the Cerrado biome on Brazil's high central plateau. The choice of this region was prompted by its importance in the national context, covering an area of some two million square kilometers, encompassing two major river basins (Paraná and Tocantins-Araguaia, with the largest installed power generation capacity in Brazil, together accounting for around 23% of Brazilian territory. This study shows that CH4 presented a moderate negative correlation between CO2 and depth. Additionally, a moderate positive correlation was noted for pH, water temperature and wind. The CO2 presented a moderate negative correlation for pH, wind speed, water temperature and air temperature. Additionally, a moderate positive correlation was noted for CO2 and water temperature. The complexity of the emission phenomenon is unlikely to occur through a simultaneous understanding of all the factors, due to difficulties in accessing and analyzing all the variables that have real, direct effects on GHG production and emission.

  5. Remote video radioactive systems evaluation, Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Robinson, C.W.

    1991-12-31

    Specialized miniature low cost video equipment has been effectively used in a number of remote, radioactive, and contaminated environments at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The equipment and related techniques have reduced the potential for personnel exposure to both radiation and physical hazards. The valuable process information thus provided would not have otherwise been available for use in improving the quality of operation at SRS.

  6. Legal factors affecting the financing of small scale hydroelectric projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, W.H.; Ringo, M.J.; Forgione, N.

    1983-09-01

    An introduction to the major business organizational options open to small-scale hydroelectric (SSH) projects is given. The major federal income tax treatments of these options are compared. Significant general federal income tax factors affecting SSH projects are reintroduced and explained. Some of the special federal income tax problem areas in SSH development are isolated. Tax benefit flow through or transfer mechanisms are discussed. Tax exempt financing opportunities for private SSH projects are reviewed. (MHR)

  7. Electro-economic, environmental and social consequences in the efficient abatement of a hydroelectric plant (C. H. Santa Rosa, CFE-ACO); Consecuencias electro-economicas, ambientales y sociales del abatimiento eficiente de una central hidroelectrica (C. H. Santa Rosa, CFE-ACO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narvaez Perez, Camilo; Garcia Conejo, Dante Aristoteles [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Centro Nacional de Control de Energia, Area de Control Occidental, Zapopan, Jalisco (Mexico)]. E-mail: camilo.narvaez@cfe.gob.mx; camilo.narvaez@univa.mx; Narvaez Perez, Claudia Universidad de Guadalajara, Zapopan, Jalisco [Mexico]). E-mail: claudia_narvaez@hotmail.com; Blanco Gomez, Cesar Eduardo [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Centro Nacional de Control de Energia, Area de Control Occidental, Zapopan, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2013-03-15

    Renewable energy systems, like hydroelectric generation system gives electric energy, in reliable economic, it takes care with environment, and growths the society, if the hydroelectric dam is suitably drained in non rainy season, if we consider, flow rate in its river, rain, thunderstorms and floods, dam's size, load shape per day, generators capacity unit and the flow in turbines, generating units maintenance and other necessities like irrigation crops in farms. In this research we propose a new methodology about hydroelectric dam drained in non rainy season. But in rainy season, you can consider this methodology with few changes and you would obtain satisfactory results. The methodology is used since 2010 in the Area de Control Occidental in the Comision Federal de Electricidad with results compared with data from previous years, in which different methodologies were applied. [Spanish] Los sistemas de energias renovables, como los complejos hidroelectricos impactan de manera electrica, economica, ambiental y social, siempre y cuando se realice adecuadamente el abatimiento de la presa en el estiaje, considerando, el aporte del cauce, las lluvias aun siendo escasas, el tamano del embalse, la demanda horaria de la carga abastecida, el tamano de los generadores y su gasto turbinado, los mantenimientos de las unidades, las necesidades hidraulicas aguas abajo y demas imponderantes. En esta investigacion se propone una metodologia de abatimiento de presas de centrales hidroelectricas en estiaje. Y para tiempo de lluvias se aplica la metodologia con variantes pequenas y con resultados satisfactorios. La metodologia es utilizada desde el 2010 en el Area de Control Occidental de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, con resultados comparados con los datos de los anos anteriores, en los cuales se aplicaron metodologias diversas.

  8. [Tritium in the Water System of the Techa River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebotina, M Ja; Nikolin, O A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to study modern tritium levels in various sources of the drinking water supply in the settlements situated in the riverside zone of the Techa. Almost everywhere the water entering water-conduit wells from deep slits (100-180 m) contains averagely 2-3 times higher tritium concentrations than the water from less deep personal wells, slits and springs. Tritium levels in the drinking water supply decrease with the distance from the dam; while in wells, springs and personal wells they are constant all along the river. The observed phenomenon can be explained by the fact that the river bed of the Techa is situated at a break zone of the earth crust, where the contaminated deep water penetrates from the reservoirs of the "Mayak" enterprise situated in the upper part of the regulated river bed. Less deep water sources (personal wells, slits and springs) receive predominantly flood, atmospheric and subsoil waters and are not connected with the reservoirs.

  9. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix D: Exhibits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River and its tributaries are the primary water system in the Pacific Northwest, draining some 219,000 square miles in seven states and another 39,500 square miles in British Columbia. Beginning in the 1930`s, the Columbia River has been significantly modified by construction of 30 major dams on the river and its tributaries, along with dozens of non-Federal projects. Construction and subsequent operation of these water development projects have contributed to eight primary uses of the river system, including navigation, flood control, irrigation, electric power generation, fish migration, fish and wildlife habitat, recreation, and water supply and quality considerations. Increasing stress on the water development of the Columbia River and its tributaries has led primary Federal agencies to undertake intensive analysis and evaluation of the operation of these projects. These agencies are the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation, who operate the large Federal dams on the river, and the Bonneville Power Administration who sells the power generated at the dams. This review, termed the System Operation Review (SOR), has as its ultimate goal to define a strategy for future operation of the major Columbia River projects which effectively considers the needs of all river uses. This volume, Appendix D: Cultural resources appendix, Technical imput includes the following: Development of geomorphology based framework for cultural resources management, Dworshak Reservoir, Idaho; Impact profiles for SOR reservoirs; comments from the following Native American tribes: Burns Paiute Tribe; Coville Confederated Tribes; Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Indian Reservation; Confederated Tribes and bands of the Yakama Indian Nation (comments); Nez Perce Tribe; Coeur D`Alene Tribe; Spokane Tribe of Indians; The confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation.

  10. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level in Maryland are described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The dual regulatory system is examined with the aim of creating a more orderly understanding of the vagaries of the system, focusing on the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. In Maryland, by common law rule, title to all navigable waters and to the soil below the high-water mark of those waters is vested in the state as successor to the Lord Proprietary who had received it by grant from the Crown. Rights to non-navigable water, public trust doctrine, and eminent domain are also discussed. Direct and indirect regulations, continuing obligations, loan programs, and regional organizations are described in additional sections.

  11. An Innovative Steering System for a River Push Barge Operated in Environmentally Sensitive Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramowicz-Gerigk Teresa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an innovative steering system for a river push barge dedicated for operation in environmentally sensitive inland waterways. Development of the inland waterborne transport in Poland is dependent on the exploitation of rivers which can be adapted to navigation in the limited range because a high percent of their length is classified within special environment protection areas of Natura 2000 network. This is now the main reason that their better exploitation cannot be obtained without an introduction of a new generation of waterborne environment friendly inland units. In naturally winding rivers with differing and rapidly changing depths and widths it is important to equip a push barge with an efficient steering system that has a low environmental impact. The innovative steering system proposed in the paper is composed of main steering devices located at the pusher stern, auxiliary steering devices installed on the barge bow and a mechanical coupling system.

  12. Geographical Information Systems for International River Basin Management in the Third World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kammerud, Terje Andre

    1997-12-31

    This thesis discusses implementation and application of Geographical Information systems (GIS) in international River Basin Organizations (RBOs) in the Third World. Third World countries sharing the same river basin are increasingly experiencing conflicts because they exploit the same water resource. Empirical knowledge is derived from two case studies. (1) The Mekong River Commission Secretariat`s experiences in applying GIS are investigated. The conditions assessed are related to institutional, funding, expertise, training and technology issues for successful application of GIS. (2) The prospects for the implementation of GIS at a future WATERNET Centre in Amman are investigated. Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority have decided to establish a regional GIS Centre in the lower Jordan River Basin. The study assesses political, legal and institutional conditions for the successful implementation of GIS. It is concluded that implementing and applying GIS successfully in RBOs in the Third World is challenging, although not for technological reasons. 265 refs., 28 figs., 13 tabs.

  13. Tracking suspended particle transport via radium isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) through the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Richard N; Burnett, William C; Opsahl, Stephen P; Santos, Isaac R; Misra, Sambuddha; Froelich, Philip N

    2013-02-01

    Suspended particles in rivers can carry metals, nutrients, and pollutants downstream which can become bioactive in estuaries and coastal marine waters. In river systems with multiple sources of both suspended particles and contamination sources, it is important to assess the hydrologic conditions under which contaminated particles can be delivered to downstream ecosystems. The Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River system in the southeastern United States represents an ideal system to study these hydrologic impacts on particle transport through a heavily-impacted river (the Chattahoochee River) and one much less impacted by anthropogenic activities (the Flint River). We demonstrate here the utility of natural radioisotopes as tracers of suspended particles through the ACF system, where particles contaminated with arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) have been shown to be contributed from coal-fired power plants along the Chattahoochee River, and have elevated concentrations in the surficial sediments of the Apalachicola Bay Delta. Radium isotopes ((228)Ra and (226)Ra) on suspended particles should vary throughout the different geologic provinces of this river system, allowing differentiation of the relative contributions of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers to the suspended load delivered to Lake Seminole, the Apalachicola River, and ultimately to Apalachicola Bay. We also use various geochemical proxies ((40)K, organic carbon, and calcium) to assess the relative composition of suspended particles (lithogenic, organic, and carbonate fractions, respectively) under a range of hydrologic conditions. During low (base) flow conditions, the Flint River contributed 70% of the suspended particle load to both the Apalachicola River and the bay, whereas the Chattahoochee River became the dominant source during higher discharge, contributing 80% of the suspended load to the Apalachicola River and 62% of the particles entering the estuary. Neither of these hydrologic

  14. Geospatial Modelling Approach for Interlinking of Rivers: A Case Study of Vamsadhara and Nagavali River Systems in Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swathi Lakshmi, A.; Saran, S.; Srivastav, S. K.; Krishna Murthy, Y. V. N.

    2014-11-01

    India is prone to several natural disasters such as floods, droughts, cyclones, landslides and earthquakes on account of its geoclimatic conditions. But the most frequent and prominent disasters are floods and droughts. So to reduce the impact of floods and droughts in India, interlinking of rivers is one of the best solutions to transfer the surplus flood waters to deficit/drought prone areas. Geospatial modelling provides a holistic approach to generate probable interlinking routes of rivers based on existing geoinformatics tools and technologies. In the present study, SRTM DEM and AWiFS datasets coupled with land-use/land -cover, geomorphology, soil and interpolated rainfall surface maps have been used to identify the potential routes in geospatial domain for interlinking of Vamsadhara and Nagavali River Systems in Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh. The first order derivatives are derived from DEM and road, railway and drainage networks have been delineated using the satellite data. The inundation map has been prepared using AWiFS derived Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). The Drought prone areas were delineated on the satellite image as per the records declared by Revenue Department, Srikakulam. Majority Rule Based (MRB) aggregation technique is performed to optimize the resolution of obtained data in order to retain the spatial variability of the classes. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) based Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) is implemented to obtain the prioritization of parameters like geomorphology, soil, DEM, slope, and land use/land-cover. A likelihood grid has been generated and all the thematic layers are overlaid to identify the potential grids for routing optimization. To give a better routing map, impedance map has been generated and several other constraints are considered. The implementation of canal construction needs extra cost in some areas. The developed routing map is published into OGC WMS services using open source Geo

  15. An estimation of the capacity to produce hydrogen by wasted hydroelectric energy for the three largest Brazilian hydroelectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilha, Janine C.; Trindade, Leticia G. da; Souza, Roberto F. de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. of Chemistry], Email: janine@iq.ufrgs.br; Miguel, Marcelo [Itaipu Binacional, Foz do Iguacu, PR (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The use of water wasted in hydroelectric plants as normalization dam excess, which constitute a hydrodynamic potential useful to generate electric energy which can be subsequently used to produce hydrogen and its subsequent consumption in fuel cells has been considered as an alternative for hydraulic energy-rich countries like Brazil. The case is examined in which all the water wasted in the hydroelectric plants, spilled by dam gates to maintain acceptable water levels, from the 3 largest Brazilian hydroelectric plants was used to produce hydrogen. During the year of 2008, the electric energy produced from this utilization would have been equivalent to 52.8 TWh, an amount that corresponds to an increase of ca. 15% of the total electric energy produced in the country. Furthermore, if this amount of hydrogen was used in the replacement of internal combustion vehicles by fuel cells, this would have prevented the production of 2.26 x 10{sup 7} ton of Co{sub 2} per year. This plan would also significantly decrease production and release of greenhouse gases. (author)

  16. Investigations into the application of a new sonar system for assessing fish passage in Alaskan rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burwen, Deborah; Maxwell, Suzanne; Pfisterer, Carl

    2004-05-01

    Over a two-year period (2002-2003) the Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADFG) has evaluated a relatively new sonar technology at several sites in Alaska to determine its applicability to counting migrating fish in rivers. The new system, called a dual frequency identification sonar (DIDSON), is a high-definition imaging sonar designed and manufactured by the University of Washingtons Applied Physics Lab for military applications such as diver detection and underwater mine identification. Studies conducted in 2002 in a clearwater stream with high fish passage rates (5000 fish/hour) demonstrated that the DIDSON could provide accurate estimates of fish migrating upstream in rivers. Additional studies conducted in 2002 with live tethered fish indicated that size information could be derived from the cameralike images produced by the DIDSON system at ranges up to 12 m. In 2003, ADFG deployed DIDSON systems to assess fish passage in five Alaskan rivers. In each river, the DIDSON system was deployed in the side-looking configuration typically used in riverine sonar applications for estimating fish passage. Preliminary results from experiments in both 2002 and 2003 indicate that the DIDSON provides significant improvements in our ability to detect, track, and determine the direction of travel of migrating fish in rivers.

  17. Modeling the System: How Computers are Used in Columbia River Planning.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; United States. Army Corps of Engineers; United States. Bureau of Reclamation

    1992-10-01

    This publication describes the three computer models Federal agencies and the Northwest Power Pool use regularly to help plan hydro operations in the Columbia River Basin: HYSSR, HYDROSIM, and HYDREG. It is one of a series of booklets written for participants in the System Operation Review (SOR) being conducted jointly by the US Army Corps of Engineers (Corps), the US Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), and theBonneville Power Administration (BPA). A list of the other publications appears on the inside front cover. The SOR is the environmental analysis required to consider changes in Columbia River system operations related contract arrangements. Over the next few years, the agencies will develop a new multiple-use operation for the Columbia River. At the time, the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) and other contracts related to the Columbia River Treaty between the United States and Canada will be renegotiated and renewed. Many alternative ways of operating individual projects and the river system as a whole will be considered in the SOR. To analyze how these changes would affect the system's ability to meet its multiple-use goals, various operating scenarios will be thoroughly evaluated. The three computer models, HYSSR, HYDROSIM, and HYDREG, will play an important role in this evaluation.

  18. Daily Water Quality Forecasting System Linking Weather, Watersheds, Rivers and Dam Reservoirs Based On Numerical Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, C. Y.; Lee, S. J.; Oh, S. S.; Hwang, H. S.; Kim, H. S.

    2016-12-01

    Many large dam reservoirs and rivers, which are the most important water resources in Korea, are under increased pressure from various environmental issues, including an excessive growth of phytoplanktons(algae) because of eutrophication and long-term impact of turbid water on the water supply system after flood events. However most of organizations managing water quality respond to these problems after turbid water or algal blooms happen. But nowadays Korea Water Resources Corporation(K-water) has been upgrading its water quality management system to establish a predictive and preventive management paradigm not only in dam reservoirs but also in rivers and watersheds. For these, K-water has been setting up water quality forecasting systems using 3-dimensional hydrodynamic water quality model ELCOM-CAEDYM to all reservoirs, HSPF(Hydrological Simulation Program Fortran) to 4 watersheds and CE-QUAL-W2 to 4 main rivers in Korean Peninsula. For efficient operation and real time water quality modeling of 3 different models, K-water have also developed integrated software and centralized simulation hardware machines which run all models, link all in- and output together and visualizes results every day. With systems, K-water has been forecasting water quality of all reservoirs and rivers according to 5 days weather forecasting results and applying to predict the water quality changes in dams, rivers and watersheds in advance according to operation rule changes and climate changes.

  19. 77 FR 2966 - Rock River Beach, Inc.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Rock River Beach, Inc.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the...: Exemption from Licensing. b. Project No.: 14345-000. c. Filing Date: January 5, 2012. d. Applicant: Rock River Beach, Inc. e. Name of Project: Rock River Beach Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On the Rock...

  20. The exceptional sediment load of fine-grained dispersal systems: Example of the Yellow River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongbo; Nittrouer, Jeffrey A; Naito, Kensuke; Fu, Xudong; Zhang, Yuanfeng; Moodie, Andrew J; Wang, Yuanjian; Wu, Baosheng; Parker, Gary

    2017-05-01

    Sedimentary dispersal systems with fine-grained beds are common, yet the physics of sediment movement within them remains poorly constrained. We analyze sediment transport data for the best-documented, fine-grained river worldwide, the Huanghe (Yellow River) of China, where sediment flux is underpredicted by an order of magnitude according to well-accepted sediment transport relations. Our theoretical framework, bolstered by field observations, demonstrates that the Huanghe tends toward upper-stage plane bed, yielding minimal form drag, thus markedly enhancing sediment transport efficiency. We present a sediment transport formulation applicable to all river systems with silt to coarse-sand beds. This formulation demonstrates a remarkably sensitive dependence on grain size within a certain narrow range and therefore has special relevance to silt-sand fluvial systems, particularly those affected by dams.

  1. Monitoring headloss caused by debris on hydro-electric power intake trashracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelnour, R.; Gong, Y.; Comfort, G. [Fleet Technology Ltd., Kanata, ON (Canada)

    1996-06-01

    The importance of power generation losses at hydro-electric power dams from debris (mostly logs) and ice accumulation was discussed. A system which could monitor headlosses due to debris accumulation at water intake trashracks, was described. Two systems were used at the Chelsea power plant in Quebec. The systems consisted of measuring the water levels of the reservoir and the tailrace. The amount of power generated and the turbine rating curves were used to determine the headlosses. The headlosses due to trash were calculated in real time. Results demonstrated the reliability of the system and showed that it could be implemented at most low head dams in Canada at a reasonable cost. 4 refs., 7 tabs., 6 figs.

  2. Non–invasive sampling of endangered neotropical river otters reveals high levels of dispersion in the Lacantun River System of Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortega, J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of genetic dispersion, levels of population genetic structure, and movement of the neotropical river otter (Lontra longicaudis were investigated by screening eight polymorphic microsatellites from DNA extracted from fecal samples, collected in a hydrologic system of the Lacandon rainforest in Chiapas, Mexico. A total of 34 unique genotypes were detected from our surveys along six different rivers, and the effect of landscape genetic structure was studied. We recovered 16 of the 34 individuals in multiple rivers at multiple times. We found high levels of dispersion and low levels of genetic differentiation among otters from the six surveyed rivers (P > 0.05, except for the pairwise comparison among the Lacantún and José rivers (P < 0.05. We recommend that conservation management plans for the species consider the entire Lacantún River System and its tributaries as a single management unit to ensure the maintenance of current levels of population genetic diversity, because the population analyzed seems to follow a source–sink dynamic mainly determined by the existence of the major river.

  3. Metal removal via particulate material in a lowland river system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster-Brown, J G; Dee, T J; Hegan, A F

    2012-01-01

    Twelve month surveys of acid-soluble and dissolved trace metal concentrations in the lower Waikato River (in 1998/9 and 2005/6) showed abnormally low particulate Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations and mass flux in autumn, when the suspended particulate material (SPM) had a relatively high diatom and organic carbon content, and low Fe and Al content. Dissolved Mn, Cu and Zn concentrations also decreased in autumn, while dissolved Fe and Pb concentrations were unaffected. While SPM settlement under the low river flow conditions present in autumn can explain the removal of particulate metals, it does not explain dissolved metal removal. SPM-metal interaction was therefore investigated using seasonal monitoring data, experimental adsorption studies, sequential extraction and geochemical modelling. Pb binding to SPM occurred predominantly via Fe-oxide surfaces, and could be reliably predicted using surface complexation adsorption modelling. Dissolved Mn concentrations were controlled by the solubility of Mn oxide, but enhanced removal during autumn could be attributed to uptake by diatoms. Zn and Cu were also adsorbed on Fe-oxide in the SPM, but removal from the water column in autumn appeared augmented by Zn adsorption onto Mn-oxide, and Cu adsorption onto the organic extracellular surfaces of the diatoms.

  4. Status and trends of selected resources in the Upper Mississippi River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Barry L.; Hagerty, Karen H.

    2010-01-01

    Like other large rivers, the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) serves a diversity of roles. The UMRS provides commercial and recreational fishing, floodplain agriculture, drinking water for many communities, an important bird migration pathway, a variety of recreational activities, and a navigation system that transports much of the country's agricultural exports. These multiple roles present significant management challenges. Regular assessment of the condition of the river is needed to improve management plans and evaluate their effectiveness. This report provides a summary of the recent status (mean and range of conditions) and trends (change in direction over time) for 24 indicators of the ecological condition of the Upper Mississippi and Illinois Rivers using data collected through the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP). The 24 indicators were grouped into seven categories: hydrology, sedimentation, water quality, land cover, aquatic vegetation, invertebrates, and fish. Most of the data used in the report were collected between about 1993 and 2004, although some older data were also used to compare to recent conditions.Historical observations and current LTRMP data clearly indicate that the UMRS has been changed by human activity in ways that have diminished the ecological health of the river. The data indicate that status and trends differ among regions, and we expect that regional responses to various ecological rehabilitation techniques will differ as well. The continuing role of the LTRMP will be to provide the data needed to assess changes in river conditions and to determine how those changes relate to management actions, natural variation, and the overall ecological integrity of the river system.

  5. ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE HUMAN -TRANSFORMED SYSTEMS OF THE IRPIN RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Madzhd

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to learn the interaction of natural and anthropogenic factors and their consequences in the system “Natural environment (Irpin river – human-transformed environment (Nyvka river”. Methods: To assess the structural and functional changes of hydroecosystems, transformed under technogenic impact, hydrochemical, toxicological and biological techniques, as well as the methods of mathematical statistics for experimental data processing and summarization of obtained results, were applied. Results: it is proposed to determine the dynamics of the biotic self-regulation mechanism change under impact of the modifying (anthropogenic factors, by the example of the two-component system – “Natural environment (Irpin River – environment, transformed under technogenic impact (Nyvka River, the right-hand tributary of the Irpin River”. It is proposed to extend additionally the opportunities of the ecological assessment due to application of the integrating index – the index of ecological conformity. Discussion: obtained results stipulate necessity of the further investigation of structural and functional patterns of the Irpin River ecosystem in space and time. Assessment of anthropogenic factors impact on hydroecosystem condition will make it possible to correct the nature guard activity concerning the improvement of the fishery object ecological condition and recreation essence of the Irpin River. Integration of the Nyvka and Irpin Rivers into a single system “Natural environment – environment, transformed under technogenic impact” will make it possible to obtain the objective assessment of technogenic changes in hydroecosystems. Implementation of the index of ecological conformity will make it possible to estimate completely the inner processes in the rivers.

  6. Insights on Uranium Behavior in a Dynamic Vadose Zone-Aquifer-River Hydrologic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabusaki, S.; Fang, Y.; Waichler, S.

    2008-12-01

    In this study, conceptual process models of uranium behavior for a vadose zone-aquifer-river hydrologic system are evaluated using numerical simulations of dynamic hydrologic and geochemical conditions. The simulations target (1) the vadose zone-aquifer interface under multiple time scales of water table fluctuation, and (2) the aquifer-river interface under spatially and temporally variable solution chemistry in the subsurface of the Hanford Site 300 Area. The large range of diurnal and seasonal fluctuations in the Columbia River stage and the highly transmissive subsurface sediments result in groundwater flow reversals, inland transport above the average water table (in contrast to the net groundwater flow to the river), and cycles of river water incursion into the aquifer. The lower pH, bicarbonate, and calcium in the dilute river water favor the formation of increased amounts of adsorbing uranyl species. Spatially and temporally variable solution chemistry in the unconfined aquifer is shown to significantly alter uranium mobility. In this case, the simulations provide a framework for upscaling and evaluating bench scale uranium sorption characterizations in the context of site-specific hydrology and geochemistry. They also offer insight on the potential for uranium-contaminated sediments in the lower vadose zone to act as a long-term, chronic source of uranium to the groundwater.

  7. Stock participation in hydroelectric projects; Hacia una participacion accionaria en los proyectos hidroelectricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Scott S. [Universidad Metropolitana, Iztapalapa (Mexico). Dept. de Antropologia

    1996-12-31

    This work talks about the way the hydroelectric companies deal with the moving of people for reservoir construction. It happens trough an authoritarian way without a previous communication with the people that will be moved what make them resist. The proposal of author is make people that will be affected by the hydroelectric construction participate in the benefices it will generate. It happened in the construction of hydroelectric project in Pangue, Chile, with good results

  8. Variation in turbidity with precipitation and flow in a regulated river systemriver Göta Älv, SW Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Göransson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The turbidity variation in time and space is investigated in the downstream stretch of the river Göta Älv in Sweden. The river is heavily regulated and carries the discharge from the largest fresh water lake in Sweden, Lake Vänern, to the outflow point in Göteborg Harbour on the Swedish west coast. The river is an important waterway and serves as a fresh-water supply for 700 000 users. Turbidity is utilised as a water quality indicator to ensure sufficient quality of the intake water to the treatment plant. The overall objective of the study was to investigate the influence of rainfall, surface runoff, and river water flow on the temporal and spatial variability of the turbidity in the regulated river system by employing statistical analysis of an extensive data set. A six year long time series of daily mean values on precipitation, discharge, and turbidity from six stations along the river were examined primarily through linear correlation and regression analysis, combined with nonparametric tests and analysis of variance. The analyses were performed on annual, monthly, and daily bases, establishing temporal patterns and dependences, including; seasonal changes, impacts from extreme events, influences from tributaries, and the spatial variation along the river. The results showed that there is no simple relationship between discharge, precipitation, and turbidity, mainly due to the complexity of the runoff process, the regulation of the river, and the effects of Lake Vänern and its large catchment area. For the river Göta Älv, significant, positive correlations between turbidity, discharge, and precipitation could only be found during periods with high flow combined with heavy rainfall. Local precipitation does not seem to have any significant impact on the discharge in the main river, which is primarily governed by precipitation at catchment scale. The discharge from Lake Vänern determines the base level for the turbidity in the river

  9. Establishing baseline biodiversity data prior to hydroelectric dam construction to monitoring impacts to bats in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrowiec, Paulo Estefano D; Tavares, Valéria da Cunha

    2017-01-01

    The modification of Amazonian rivers by the construction of megaprojects of hydroelectric dams has widely increased over the last decade. Robust monitoring programs have been rarely conducted prior to the establishment of dams to measure to what extent the fauna, and its associated habitats may be affected by upcoming impacts. Using bats as models, we performed analyses throughout the area under the influence of the Santo Antônio hydroelectric dam, Southwestern Brazilian Amazonia before its construction to estimate how the fauna and its associated habitats would be affected by the upcoming impacts. We surveyed bats in 49 plots distributed along the areas going to be inundated by the dam and those remaining dry. As predictors for the species distribution, we tested the variables of vegetation structure and topography. Species composition largely differed between the dry plots and the plots located in areas that will be flooded, and this was strongly associated with the variables of forest basal area and elevation. Vegetation-related variables also had strong influence on the guilds distribution. The flooding of lower elevations areas is expected to negatively affect the species number and abundance of frugivorous species. In contrast, it is likely that animalivores will be less vulnerable to dam-induced flooding, since they were abundant in the areas not expect to be inundated. We urge for the implementation of studies to predict impacts caused by large hydroelectric dams, including tests of the influence of the local conditions that shape diversity to avoid massive losses of the biota, and to build preventive monitoring and management actions.

  10. Biogeochemistry of mercury in a river-reservoir system: impact of an inactive chloralkali plant on the Holston River-Cherokee Reservoir, Virginia and Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrand, S. G.; Lindberg, S. E.; Turner, R. R.; Huckabee, J. W.; Strand, R. H.; Lund, J. R.; Andren, A. W.

    1980-08-01

    Elevated mercury concentrations in fish species from the North Fork of the Holston River were observed in the early 1970's. The source of the mercury was a chloralkali plant which had ceased operation in 1972. Mercury continues to be released to the river from two large (approx. 40-ha) waste disposal ponds at the plant site. This report presents results of a study of the emission of mercury to the environment from the abandoned waste ponds and of the distribution of mercury in water, sediment, and biota of the Holston River-Cherokee Reservoir System in Virginia and eastern Tennessee.

  11. Projecting cumulative benefits of multiple river restoration projects: an example from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River system in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondolf, G. Mathias; Angermeier, Paul L.; Cummins, Kenneth; Dunne, Thomas; Healey, Michael; Kimmerer, Wim; Moyle, Peter B.; Murphy, Dennis; Patten, Duncan; Railsback, Steve F.; Reed, Denise J.; Spies, Robert B.; Twiss, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Despite increasingly large investments, the potential ecological effects of river restoration programs are still small compared to the degree of human alterations to physical and ecological function. Thus, it is rarely possible to “restore” pre-disturbance conditions; rather restoration programs (even large, well-funded ones) will nearly always involve multiple small projects, each of which can make some modest change to selected ecosystem processes and habitats. At present, such projects are typically selected based on their attributes as individual projects (e.g., consistency with programmatic goals of the funders, scientific soundness, and acceptance by local communities), and ease of implementation. Projects are rarely prioritized (at least explicitly) based on how they will cumulatively affect ecosystem function over coming decades. Such projections require an understanding of the form of the restoration response curve, or at least that we assume some plausible relations and estimate cumulative effects based thereon. Drawing on our experience with the CALFED Bay-Delta Ecosystem Restoration Program in California, we consider potential cumulative system-wide benefits of a restoration activity extensively implemented in the region: isolating/filling abandoned floodplain gravel pits captured by rivers to reduce predation of outmigrating juvenile salmon by exotic warmwater species inhabiting the pits. We present a simple spreadsheet model to show how different assumptions about gravel pit bathymetry and predator behavior would affect the cumulative benefits of multiple pit-filling and isolation projects, and how these insights could help managers prioritize which pits to fill.

  12. Real Time Monitoring System of Pollution Waste on Musi River Using Support Vector Machine (SVM) Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachrurrozi, Muhammad; Saparudin; Erwin

    2017-04-01

    Real-time Monitoring and early detection system which measures the quality standard of waste in Musi River, Palembang, Indonesia is a system for determining air and water pollution level. This system was designed in order to create an integrated monitoring system and provide real time information that can be read. It is designed to measure acidity and water turbidity polluted by industrial waste, as well as to show and provide conditional data integrated in one system. This system consists of inputting and processing the data, and giving output based on processed data. Turbidity, substances, and pH sensor is used as a detector that produce analog electrical direct current voltage (DC). Early detection system works by determining the value of the ammonia threshold, acidity, and turbidity level of water in Musi River. The results is then presented based on the level group pollution by the Support Vector Machine classification method.

  13. A qualitative ecological risk assessment of the invasive Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus in a sub-tropical African river system (Limpopo River, South Africa)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zengeya, TA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available CONSERVATION: MARINE AND FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS Aquatic Conserv: Mar. Freshw. Ecosyst. 23: 51–64 (2013) A QUALITATIVE ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF THE INVASIVE NILE TILAPIA, OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS IN A SUB- TROPICAL AFRICAN RIVER SYSTEM (LIMPOPO RIVER... Hatfield, Pretoria, 0028 South Africa b Department of Ichthyology and Fisheries Science, Rhodes University, PO Box 94, Grahamstown, 6140 South Africa c Natural Resources and the Environment Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), PO Box...

  14. High Falls Hydroelectric Plant feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diezemann, Gustav A.

    1979-07-01

    This study was made in order to determine if re-activating the retired High Falls Hydro Station in New York would result in a more economical generation of some of the power required in the Central Hudson System than is being obtained with the oil-burning thermal plants. The findings show that the construction of a new plant is more economical than rehabilitation of the existing station. All new construction schemes are marginally unattractive at today's costs but are found to become profitable within a short period as alternative energy sources escalate in price. A new powerhouse with an installed capacity of 2390 kW proved most economical, and its construction is recommended.

  15. A digital underwater video camera system for aquatic research in regulated rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Benjamin M.; Irwin, Elise R.

    2010-01-01

    We designed a digital underwater video camera system to monitor nesting centrarchid behavior in the Tallapoosa River, Alabama, 20 km below a peaking hydropower dam with a highly variable flow regime. Major components of the system included a digital video recorder, multiple underwater cameras, and specially fabricated substrate stakes. The innovative design of the substrate stakes allowed us to effectively observe nesting redbreast sunfish Lepomis auritus in a highly regulated river. Substrate stakes, which were constructed for the specific substratum complex (i.e., sand, gravel, and cobble) identified at our study site, were able to withstand a discharge level of approximately 300 m3/s and allowed us to simultaneously record 10 active nests before and during water releases from the dam. We believe our technique will be valuable for other researchers that work in regulated rivers to quantify behavior of aquatic fauna in response to a discharge disturbance.

  16. Geomorphic assessment of habitat suitability in large rivers from satellite remote sensing: a case study from the Ganga river system, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozumder, C.; Sinha, R.; Carbonneau, P.

    2010-12-01

    The ecological condition and biotic associations in a river are significantly influenced by geomorphic condition of the river, and therefore, any efforts towards river rehabilitation must address these issues to derive a long-term benefit. Such geomorphic diversity may be generated in various ways - discharge regimes and vegetation cover (driven by climatic setting), channel slope and bankline (driven by catchment morphology), sediment flux and accommodation (driven by geological settings). A pilot study in parts of the Ganga river in India using satellite remote sensing data involved analysis of (a) longitudinal form, (b) cross sectional form and (c) planform of the channel at these sites and derivation of various morphometric parameters. Twelve geomorphic parameters were been identified which influence the aquatic life along with the Land Use/ Land cover in the floodplain, planform dynamics, and channel-floodplain connectivity. For each parameter, four classes are defined as Excellent (A), Good (B), Degraded (C) and Poor (D). Both traditional GIS and the newly developed Fluvial Information System (FIS) were used to analyse the present geomorphic condition of the river for habitat suitability. An attempt was also made to suggest the desired future condition of the river from a geomorphic perspective and the necessary changes/adjustments in river form. These results when integrated with the hydraulic analysis can provide estimates of flow depth and flow volumes necessary for channel maintenance from ecological perspective.

  17. Developing an Approach to Prioritize River Restoration using Data Extracted from Flood Risk Information System Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimal, S.; Tarboton, D. G.; Band, L. E.; Duncan, J. M.; Lovette, J. P.; Corzo, G.; Miles, B.

    2015-12-01

    Prioritizing river restoration requires information on river geometry. In many states in the US detailed river geometry has been collected for floodplain mapping and is available in Flood Risk Information Systems (FRIS). In particular, North Carolina has, for its 100 Counties, developed a database of numerous HEC-RAS models which are available through its Flood Risk Information System (FRIS). These models that include over 260 variables were developed and updated by numerous contractors. They contain detailed surveyed or LiDAR derived cross-sections and modeled flood extents for different extreme event return periods. In this work, over 4700 HEC-RAS models' data was integrated and upscaled to utilize detailed cross-section information and 100-year modelled flood extent information to enable river restoration prioritization for the entire state of North Carolina. We developed procedures to extract geomorphic properties such as entrenchment ratio, incision ratio, etc. from these models. Entrenchment ratio quantifies the vertical containment of rivers and thereby their vulnerability to flooding and incision ratio quantifies the depth per unit width. A map of entrenchment ratio for the whole state was derived by linking these model results to a geodatabase. A ranking of highly entrenched counties enabling prioritization for flood allowance and mitigation was obtained. The results were shared through HydroShare and web maps developed for their visualization using Google Maps Engine API.

  18. CRevolution 2—Origin and evolution of the Colorado River system, workshop abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, L. Sue; Karlstrom, Karl E.; Young, Richard A.; Billingsley, George H.

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 Colorado River symposium, held in Flagstaff, Arizona, involved 70 participants who engaged in intense debate about the origin and evolution of the Colorado River system. This symposium, built upon two previous decadal scientific meetings, focused on forging scientific consensus, where possible, while articulating continued controversies regarding the Cenozoic evolution of the Colorado River System and the landscapes of the Colorado Plateau-Rocky Mountain region that it drains. New developments involved hypotheses that Neogene mantle flow is driving plateau tilting and differential uplift and new and controversial hypotheses for the pre-6 Ma presence and evolution of ancestral rivers that may be important in the history and birth of the present Colorado River. There is a consensus that plateau tilt and uplift models must be tested with multidisciplinary studies involving differential incision studies and additional geochronology and thermochronology to determine the relative importance of tectonic and geomorphic forces that shape the spectacular landscapes of the Colorado Plateau, Arizona and region. In addition to the scientific goals, the meeting participants emphasized the iconic status of Grand Canyon for geosciences and the importance of good communication between the research community, the geoscience education/interpretation community, the public, and the media. Building on a century-long tradition, this region still provides a globally important natural laboratory for studies of the interactions of erosion and tectonism in shaping the landscape of elevated plateaus.

  19. Linking the distribution of an invasive amphibian (Rana catesbeiana) to habitat conditions in a managed river system in northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra Fuller; Karen Pope; Donald Ashton; Hartwell Welsh

    2010-01-01

    Extensive modifications of river systems have left floodplains some of the most endangered ecosystems in the world and made restoration of these systems a priority. Modified river ecosystems frequently support invasive species to the detriment of native species. Rana catesbeiana (American bullfrog) is an invasive amphibian that thrives in modified...

  20. Design Optimization of Spillways at Baihetan Hydroelectric Dam

    OpenAIRE

    Lönn, Jack; Dahl, Oskar

    2016-01-01

    China’s economic prosperity has led to a massive development in the hydropower sector. The Baihetan hydropower project is an ongoing construction and will become the third largest hydroelectric power plant in the world in regards to generating capacity and is projected to be finished in the year 2020.For every fault that an investment this massive has, it will lead to enormous cost and safety risks. Therefore the standards for every detail are especially high to ensure the success of its futu...

  1. Modeling Possible Cooling-Water Intake System Impacts on Ohio River Fish Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elgin Perry

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the possible impacts caused by cooling-water intake system entrainment and impingement losses, populations of six target fish species near power plants on the Ohio River were modeled. A Leslie matrix model was constructed to allow an evaluation of bluegill, freshwater drum, emerald shiner, gizzard shad, sauger, and white bass populations within five river pools. Site-specific information on fish abundance and length-frequency distribution was obtained from long-term Ohio River Ecological Research Program and Ohio River Sanitation Commission (ORSANCO electrofishing monitoring programs. Entrainment and impingement data were obtained from 316(b demonstrations previously completed at eight Ohio River power plants. The model was first run under a scenario representative of current conditions, which included fish losses due to entrainment and impingement. The model was then rerun with these losses added back into the populations, representative of what would happen if all entrainment and impingement losses were eliminated. The model was run to represent a 50-year time period, which is a typical life span for an Ohio River coal-fired power plant. Percent changes between populations modeled with and without entrainment and impingement losses in each pool were compared to the mean interannual coefficient of variation (CV, a measure of normal fish population variability. In 6 of the 22 scenarios of fish species and river pools that were evaluated (6 species × 5 river pools, minus 8 species/river pool combinations that could not be evaluated due to insufficient fish data, the projected fish population change was greater than the expected variability of the existing fish population, indicating a possible adverse environmental impact. Given the number of other variables affecting fish populations and the conservative modeling approach, which assumed 100% mortality for all entrained fish and eggs, it was concluded that the likelihood of impact was

  2. Modeling possible cooling-water intake system impacts on Ohio River fish populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Elgin; Seegert, Greg; Vondruska, Joe; Lohner, Timothy; Lewis, Randy

    2002-04-26

    To assess the possible impacts caused by cooling-water intake system entrainment and impingement losses, populations of six target fish species near power plants on the Ohio River were modeled. A Leslie matrix model was constructed to allow an evaluation of bluegill, freshwater drum, emerald shiner, gizzard shad, sauger, and white bass populations within five river pools. Site-specific information on fish abundance and length-frequency distribution was obtained from long-term Ohio River Ecological Research Program and Ohio River Sanitation Commission (ORSANCO) electrofishing monitoring programs. Entrainment and impingement data were obtained from 316(b) demonstrations previously completed at eight Ohio River power plants. The model was first run under a scenario representative of current conditions, which included fish losses due to entrainment and impingement. The model was then rerun with these losses added back into the populations, representative of what would happen if all entrainment and impingement losses were eliminated. The model was run to represent a 50-year time period, which is a typical life span for an Ohio River coal-fired power plant. Percent changes between populations modeled with and without entrainment and impingement losses in each pool were compared to the mean interannual coefficient of variation (CV), a measure of normal fish population variability. In 6 of the 22 scenarios of fish species and river pools that were evaluated (6 species x 5 river pools, minus 8 species/river pool combinations that could not be evaluated due to insufficient fish data), the projected fish population change was greater than the expected variability of the existing fish population, indicating a possible adverse environmental impact. Given the number of other variables affecting fish populations and the conservative modeling approach, which assumed 100% mortality for all entrained fish and eggs, it was concluded that the likelihood of impact was by no means

  3. Coastal aquifer groundwater dynamics and salt intrusion: Monitoring system of river Neretva delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srzić, Veljko; Vranješ, Mijo; Deković, Jure; Romić, Davor; Zovko, Monika; Milin, Marin

    2017-04-01

    River Neretva delta is located in southern part of Croatia and creates a complex surface- groundwater system influenced by tidal forces characteristic for Adriatic Sea and river Neretva whose discharge varies from 70 - 2700 m3/s over the year. From agricultural point of view, area is used widely for fruit production which implies existence and functionality of complex drainage system consisted of a net of lateral channels and pumping station plants with the capacity of app. 25 m3/s. Area of interest covers app 3500 ha and is bounded by river Neretva from North and Adriatic sea from West. Southern and eastern boundaries are dominantly karstic hills. Lover aquifer is confined with app depth of 65 m, made of fine gravel. Aquitard is a 15 m height layer of clay. Upper aquifer in unconfined with depth of app 10-20 m. Inside the area of interest there are 8 wells installed (each aquifer 4) measuring piezometric head on hourly/daily temporal scale. Sea level measurements are also made capturing for long term tidal oscillations. Discharge measurements are made few km downstream from hydropower plant Mostar (Bosnia and Herzegovina), while three meteorological stations for rainfall measurements are located at the area boundaries. Salt water concentration, pH and resistivity values have been measured locally, app 6 times per year for last 10 years. Results imply confined aquifer is dominantly influenced by the sea level while tidal effects are noticed 9 km upstream the river Neretva with delay of 9-12 minutes compared to sea level. Salt water cline inside the river is related to tidal effects and river discharge, with potential presence at distances of more than 15 km upstream from the sea. Salt water intrusion dominantly occurs through confined aquifer while vertical transport of salt is supposed to be enhanced by the effects of drainage system.

  4. Reactivity, interactions and transport of trace elements, organic carbon and particulate material in a mountain range river system (Adour River, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Point, David; Bareille, Gilles; Amouroux, David; Etcheber, Henri; Donard, Olivier F X

    2007-02-01

    The background levels, variability, partitioning and transport of eleven trace elements-Ag, Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn and U-were investigated in a mountain range river system (Adour River, France). This particular river system displayed a turbulent hydrodynamic regime, characterized by flash-transient discharge conditions leading to fast shifts in suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations as high as two orders of magnitude (12 to 600 mg l(-1)). The distribution of SPM was accurately predicted with a "hysteresis" transport model, indicating that about 75% of the annual solids load was exported within 20 to 40 days. Dissolved and particulate concentrations of most trace elements were low compared to their concentrations in other reference river systems expect for Pb and Cr, associated with historical anthropogenic activities. Although dissolved and particulate metal concentrations were steady for most elements during low and average discharge conditions, significant changes were observed with increasing river discharge. The changes in trace element concentrations in the two compartments was found to induce a partitioning anomaly referred to as the particulate concentration effect. This anomaly was significant for Cr, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cu and organic carbon (p < 0.03). The processes driving this anomaly were possibly linked to the modification and/or increase of colloidal organic and inorganic vectors, suggested by the significant increase of DOC (p < 0.001) and dissolved Al concentrations (p < 0.05) during flood conditions. A complementary process linked to the influence of coarse particles of low complexation capacity and transported mainly during high discharge may also effect trace element concentrations. Annual metal fluxes transported by this river system were estimated using the hysteresis SPM model with consideration of these fate processes. Metals in the Adour River system are primarily exported into the Bay of Biscay (Atlantic Ocean).

  5. LEVELS OF SOME ANIONS IN SOKOTO-RIMA RIVER SYSTEM IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ABSTRACT. The level of some anions in Sokoto-Rima River system at the fishing site of the Argungu. International Fishing and Cultural Festival (AIFCF) were analyzed. Water samples were collected for twelve months and analyzed for anions. Data generated was analyzed using. ANOVA. Statistical analysis of the data was ...

  6. Grid-connected in-stream hydroelectric generation based on the doubly fed induction machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenberg, Timothy J.

    Within the United States, there is a growing demand for new environmentally friendly power generation. This has led to a surge in wind turbine development. Unfortunately, wind is not a stable prime mover, but water is. Why not apply the advances made for wind to in-stream hydroelectric generation? One important advancement is the creation of the Doubly Fed Induction Machine (DFIM). This thesis covers the application of a gearless DFIM topology for hydrokinetic generation. After providing background, this thesis presents many of the options available for the mechanical portion of the design. A mechanical turbine is then specified. Next, a method is presented for designing a DFIM including the actual design for this application. In Chapter 4, a simulation model of the system is presented, complete with a control system that maximizes power generation based on water speed. This section then goes on to present simulation results demonstrating proper operation.

  7. REFINED MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF HYDROELECTRIC DRIVE OF THE CRYSTALLIZER ROLLING OF HIGH-SPEED MNLZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Bolotskij

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available At present time the high emphasis is placed on the problems of the quality improvement and increase of the metal cast speed at the machines of the slugs continuous casting. One of the ways of solving of this task is using of hydroelectric drive of the mechanism of the crystallizer swinging, which allows to vary frequency and amplitude of swinging and also to change the principle of crystallizer. In the work there is presented the improved mathematical model of the crystallizer swinging mechanism in the form of the automatic control system, using of which one can investigate the influence of different parameters of the system on quality and productivity of the machines of the slugs continuous casting.

  8. Development of Newfoundland Power`s Rose Blanche hydroelectric power project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, M.C.

    1999-08-01

    The 6.0 Mw Rose Blanche hydroelectric development is located on the southwest portion of the island of Newfoundland. This is the first new development by Newfoundland Power since 1983 and was a learning experience because of changes in regulatory requirements, available technologies and the working relationships between suppliers and contractors. Environmental issues dealt with included a five year assessment process, fisheries compensation/enhancement, minimum streamflow requirements, and construction and emergency preparedness plans. Technical issues included the use of spiral welded steel penstock, design and construction of an earthfill concrete face dam, and turbine generator design and control systems. There was a necessity to build the plant in one construction season and the plant was synchronized to the system in December 1998. The approach taken by the design and construction team was cooperative as they worked together with suppliers and contractors to develop the most expedient and cost effective methods of construction.

  9. Bacterial communities hitching a hike - a guide to the river system of the Red river, Disko Island, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, Aviaja Zenia Edna Lyberth; Markussen, Thor N.; Stibal, Marek

    Glacier melting and altered precipitation patterns influence Arctic freshwater and coastal ecosystems. Arctic rivers are central to Arctic water ecosystems linking glacier meltwaters and precipitation with the ocean through transport of particulate matter and microorganisms. However, the impact...... of different water sources on the microbial communities in Arctic rivers and estuaries remains unknown. In this study we used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to assess a small river and its estuary on Disko Island, West Greenland (69°N). We describe the bacterial community through a river into the estuary......, including communities originating in a glacier and a proglacial lake. Our results show that water from the glacier and lake transports distinct communities into the river in terms of diversity and community composition. Bacteria of terrestrial origin were among the dominating OTUs in the main river, while...

  10. Modelling Dissolved Pollutants in Krishna River Using Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matli, C. S.; Umamahesh, N. V.

    2014-01-01

    Water quality models are used to describe the discharge concentration relationships in the river. Number of models exists to simulate the pollutant loads in a river, of which some of them are based on simple cause effect relationships and others on highly sophisticated physical and mathematical approaches that require extensive data inputs. Fuzzy rule based modeling extensively used in other disciplines, is attempted in the present study for modeling water quality with respect of dissolved pollutants in Krishna river flowing in Southern part of India. Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference Systems (ANFIS), a recent development in the area of neuro-computing, based on the concept of fuzzy sets is used to model highly non-linear relationships and are capable of adaptive learning. This paper presents the results of the application of ANFIS for modeling dissolved pollutants in the Krishna River. The application and validation of the models is carried out using water quality and flow data obtained from the monitoring stations on the river. The results indicate that the models are quite successful in simulating the physical processes of the relationships between discharge and concentrations.

  11. Integrated Database Construction for Efficient Support of Yeongsan River Estuary Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, G. H.; Kim, K. H.; Lee, S. J.

    2014-02-01

    Yeongsan River is one of the four major rivers in South Korea, and it flows toward the Yellow Sea by passing through Damyang and Gwangju. In particular, the skewness of the main stream in Yeongsan River is relatively higher compared to other rivers. Accordingly, flood damage occurred frequently due to the flooding of sea water during tidal periods. Additionally, the environment of the estuary in Yeongsan River has been severely damaged due to indiscreet development and the inflow of various waste waters. Therefore, water quality improvement and management are crucial. For better water quality management, the government ministry is collecting various data from different fields to identify the water quality conditions. The necessity of collected data is being heightened in order to apply them into the estuary management system. However, in terms of the observed data, the observed field or items frequently modified according to social interests. Additionally, index is needed in order to search for massive amount of observation data. Due to this, the process of construction into database is relatively difficult. Therefore, in this study, these characteristics were considered for construction into the integrated DB.

  12. Numerical models for calculating hydrologic processes in river and lake-river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforovskaya, V. S.; Voevodin, A. F.

    2017-10-01

    We use one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) longitudinal-vertical mathematical models and their 2D+1D combination as well as numerical methods to study unsteady processes in the complex open channel systems under the influence of water management measures. The analysis shows the economic feasibility and efficiency of using the developed mathematical models to study hydrological process in water bodies. The study of the physical processes in complex water body, consisting of significantly different components, based on the use of only one chosen mathematical model, is uneconomical and inefficient from the viewpoint of computational expense.

  13. Daily/Hourly Hydrosystem Operation : How the Columbia River System Responds to Short-Term Needs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1994-02-01

    The System Operation Review, being conducted by the Bonneville Power Administration, the US Army Corps of Engineers, and the US Bureau of Reclamation, is analyzing current and potential future operations of the Columbia River System. One goal of the System Operations Review is to develop a new System Operation Strategy. The strategy will be designed to balance the many regionally and nationally important uses of the Columbia River system. Short-term operations address the dynamics that affect the Northwest hydro system and its multiple uses. Demands for electrical power and natural streamflows change constantly and thus are not precisely predictable. Other uses of the hydro system have constantly changing needs, too, many of which can interfere with other uses. Project operators must address various river needs, physical limitations, weather, and streamflow conditions while maintaining the stability of the electric system and keeping your lights on. It takes staffing around the clock to manage the hour-to-hour changes that occur and the challenges that face project operators all the time.

  14. Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Demonstration Project. Pennsylvania Hydroelectric Development Corporation Flat Rock Dam: Project summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleeson, L.

    1991-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Field Office, Idaho, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program was initiated in conjunction with the restoration of three power generating plants in Idaho Falls, Idaho, following damage caused by the Teton Dam failure on June 5, 1976. There were many parties interested in this project, including the state and environmental groups, with different concerns. This report was prepared by the developer and describes the design alternatives the applicant provided in an attempt to secure the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission license. Also included are correspondence between the related parties concerning the project, major design alternatives/project plan diagrams, the license, and energy and project economics.

  15. Investigating the Performance of One- and Two-dimensional Flood Models in a Channelized River Network: A Case Study of the Obion River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanapu, A. J.; Dullo, T. T.; Thornton, J. C.; Auld, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    Obion River, is located in the northwestern Tennessee region, and discharges into the Mississippi River. In the past, the river system was largely channelized for agricultural purposes that resulted in increased erosion, loss of wildlife habitat and downstream flood risks. These impacts are now being slowly reversed mainly due to wetland restoration. The river system is characterized by a large network of "loops" around the main channels that hold water either from excess flows or due to flow diversions. Without data on each individual channel, levee, canal, or pond it is not known where the water flows from or to. In some segments along the river, the natural channel has been altered and rerouted by the farmers for their irrigation purposes. Satellite imagery can aid in identifying these features, but its spatial coverage is temporally sparse. All the alterations that have been done to the watershed make it difficult to develop hydraulic models, which could predict flooding and droughts. This is especially true when building one-dimensional (1D) hydraulic models compared to two-dimensional (2D) models, as the former cannot adequately simulate lateral flows in the floodplain and in complex terrains. The objective of this study therefore is to study the performance of 1D and 2D flood models in this complex river system, evaluate the limitations of 1D models and highlight the advantages of 2D models. The study presents the application of HEC-RAS and HEC-2D models developed by the Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC), a division of the US Army Corps of Engineers. The broader impacts of this study is the development of best practices for developing flood models in channelized river systems and in agricultural watersheds.

  16. Downstream and seasonal changes of lithium isotope ratios in the Ganges-Brahmaputra river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaka, Takuya; Araoka, Daisuke; Yoshimura, Toshihiro; Hossain, H. M. Zakir; Nishio, Yoshiro; Suzuki, Atsushi; Kawahata, Hodaka

    2017-08-01

    The Li isotope ratio (δ7Li) is expected to be a useful tracer of silicate weathering in river and groundwater systems, which is an important contributor to the seawater compositional changes that accompany the evolution of the Earth's surface environment. To obtain accurate estimates of continental Li fluxes to the ocean, we determined δ7Li values of dissolved Li in the lower Ganges-Brahmaputra river system in both the dry and rainy seasons, and in deep groundwater in the Bengal basin. Dissolved Li and δ7Li values in the lower reaches of the rivers (0.04-0.66 µmol kg-1 and +19.1‰ to +34.2‰, respectively) were predominantly derived from silicate weathering, as is the case in the upper parts of these rivers. We observed large changes in δ7Li over a distance of more than 1000 km downstream that were due mainly to Rayleigh-type removal of Li from river water. Extremely high Li concentrations (1.15-1.67 µmol kg-1) and low δ7Li values (+5.1‰ to +11.6‰) in groundwater samples indicate congruent isotope leaching and dissolution of silicate minerals in the deep aquifer, where the water residence time is long. In the rainy season, Li concentrations and δ7Li values were lower than in the dry season, owing to the shorter residence time of river water and the substantial input of local subsurface flow through lowland alluvium. These results suggest that accurate estimation of continental Li fluxes to the ocean should take account of downstream and seasonal changes, as well as aquifer depth variations, in δ7Li values.

  17. 77 FR 47628 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy... Management Act and the Federal Power Act), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project...

  18. 77 FR 43280 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy... Management Act and the Federal Power Act), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. e. All...

  19. 78 FR 26358 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy...), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. e. All local, state, and federal agencies...

  20. 78 FR 25263 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy... Power Act), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. e. All local, state, and federal...

  1. 76 FR 51027 - F&B Wood Corporation; Milltown Hydroelectric LLC.; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission F&B Wood Corporation; Milltown Hydroelectric LLC.; Notice of Transfer of Exemption 1. Pursuant to section 4.106(i) of the Commission's regulations,\\1\\ F&B Wood Corporation, exemptee for the Corriveau Hydroelectric...

  2. Multi purpose planning with the ``River System Simulator``, a design support system for water resources planning and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harby, A. [Norsk Hydroteknisk Lab., Trondheim (Norway); Killingtveit, Aa. [Inst. for Vassbygging, Norges Tekniske Hoegskole, Trondheim (Norway)

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes a computer system called the River System Simulator (RSS) which has been developed in Norway and released for use in 1994. The simulator includes 14 different models for use in hydropower and water resources planning and operation, with special emphasis on environmental effects of river regulations. All models are integrated within one system, with a common user interface and one common database to facilitate the data exchange between different models, and to simplify data storage and data integrity. The user interface is based on modern principles, with emphasis on graphics and readily available help on-line. The first implementation of the simulator has been on Unix-workstations with access to a powerful commercial relational database manager for data storage. The simulator was aimed at two main purposes, multi purpose planning in connection with uprating and refurbishing of existing power plants, and for new hydro power plants, and optimal operation of hydro power systems. The RSS has been extensively tested in three Norwegian rivers in 1993. As the first applications outside Norway the database part of the simulator was selected for environmental data in a large water use project in Zambezi river in Africa. This project will be finished in 1994. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Adding a small hydroelectric power plant to the irrigation system of the Liddes community. Feasibility study; Installation d'une petite centrale hydraulique sur le reseau d'irrigation de la commune de Liddes. Etude de faisabilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This final report prepared for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the possibility of generating electric power with an irrigation system in the southwestern Swiss Alps. The water of the mountain torrent of Palasuit is collected at an altitude of 1620 m above sea-level in a reservoir. It is then passed through a pipeline to the distribution reservoir at 1450 m above sea-level. Among the various schemes studied, the most promising one comprises a Pelton turbine with 2 injectors that utilises a net height-difference of 162 meters. The resulting flow amounts to 150 l/s producing 197 kW of power. In order to achieve this flow, some sections of the pipeline must be replaced by ducts of a larger diameter. If the community of Liddes would obtain the permission to generate power during the whole year, the production would amount to 574,000 kWh/year and the resulting cost 0.090 CHF/kWh.

  4. Ashlu Creek hydroelectric project: Design and optimization of hydraulic structures under construction using 2D and 3D numerical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briand, Marie-Helene; Tremblay, Catherine; Bosse, Yannick; Gacek, Julian; Alfaro, Carola [RSW Inc., (Canada); Blanchet, Richard [Innergex Renewable Energy, Vancouver, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    A hydroelectric project located on Ashlu Creek, halfway between Whistler and Vancouver in British Columbia, consisted of a run-of-river project that used a short stretch of steep rapids to generate a capacity of 49.9MW. This paper presented the design and the optimization of the hydraulic structures during the construction phases using 2-D and 3-D numerical modelling. The proposed works included an emergency spillway weir equipped with an Obermeyer gate, a rock-fill weir, a Denil type fish ladder, a sluiceway and a side intake. The design and the verification of the upstream works were carried out using these models. The hydraulic conditions during construction phases were also simulated using the models in order to estimate the impact of the operations and validate the diversion works. It was found that numerical modeling can be an efficient alternative to small-scale physical modeling for specific applications in designing hydraulic structures.

  5. Case studies of the legal and institutional obstacles and incentives to the development of small-scale hydroelectric power. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Larry; Wilson, William

    1979-11-01

    This Executive Summary presents observations, conclusions, and recommendations developed from the completion of five (5) case studies of hydroelectric sites at High Falls, Georgia; Traverse City, Michigan; Swanville Lake, Maine; Cornell, Wisconsin; and Maxwell Locks, Pennsylvania. The work was accomplished by the Energy Law Institute of the Franklin Pierce Law Center, Concord, NH, for the National Conference of State Legislatures. The material contained here is, in part, a summary of the five separate reports on the legal and institutional barriers and incentives bearing on the development of each site. It is also a summary of the cumulative impressions of the actual general legal and institutional climate for small-scale hydroelectric development represented by the issues confronting each site. This document provides a general analysis and overview of the significant problems and opportunities for the development of hydroelectric facilities identified in the five full reports. A second Executive Summary is presented on the findings of two case studies of small-scale hydroelectric power at existing dams. The projects reviewed are: six sites in the irrigation system known as the Columbia Basin Project and two sites in the Bull Run watershed which supplies water to the City of Portland, Oregon. Key incentives and impediments are identified in these case studies conducted at the University of Washington.

  6. Quantitative mineralogy of the Yukon River system: Changes with reach and season, and determining sediment provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberl, D.D.

    2004-01-01

    mineral dissolution during transport between Eagle and Pilot Station, a distance of over 2000 km. We estimate that approximately 3 wt% of the quartz, 15 wt% of the feldspar (1 wt% of the alkali and 25 wt% of the plagioclase), and 26 wt% of the carbonates (31 wt% of the calcite and 15 wt% of the dolomite) carried by the river dissolve in this reach. The mineralogies of the suspended sediments change with the season. For example, during the summer of 2002 the quartz content varied by 20 wt%, with a minimum in mid-summer. The calcite content varied by a similar amount, and had a maximum corresponding to the quartz minimum. These modes are related to the relative amount of sediment flowing from the White River system, which is relatively poor in quartz, but rich in carbonate minerals. Suspended total clay minerals varied by as much as 25 wt%, with maxima in mid July, and suspended feldspar varied up to 10 wt%. Suspended sediment data from the summers of 2001 and 2003 support the 2002 trends. A calculation technique was developed to determine theproportion of various sediment sources in a mixed sediment by unmixing its quantitative mineralogy. Results from this method indicate that at least three sediment sources can be identified quantitatively with good accuracy. With this technique, sediment mineralogies can be used to calculate the relative flux of sediment from different tributaries, thereby identifying sediment provenance.

  7. Resilience and flood risk management: A systems approach applied to lowland rivers

    OpenAIRE

    de Bruijn, K.M.

    2005-01-01

    Floods along lowland rivers still cause a lot of damage and casualties although centuries of experience with flood risk management have passed. In order to reduce flood impacts and to prevent flood waves from causing disasters, the current and alternative flood risk management strategies need to be reconsidered. As a potential solution the Dutch policy makers propose to increase the resilience of systems, since resilient systems are expected to be able to cope better with disturbances such as...

  8. An accounting system for water and consumptive use along the Colorado River, Hoover Dam to Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.; Raymond, Lee H.

    1996-01-01

    An accounting system for estimating and distributing consumptive use of water by vegetation to water users was developed for the Colorado River to meet the requirements of a U.S. Supreme Court decree and used with data from calendar year 1984. The system is based on a water-budget method to estimate total consumptive use by vegetation which is apportioned to agricultural users by using percentages of total evapotranspiration by vegetation estimated from digital-image analysis of satellite data.

  9. A fuzzy risk approach for seasonal water quality management of a river system.

    OpenAIRE

    Mujumdar, PP; K Sasikumar

    2002-01-01

    A fuzzy optimization model is developed for the seasonal water quality management of river systems. The model addresses the uncertainty in a water quality system in a fuzzy probability framework. The occurrence of low water quality is treated as a fuzzy event. Randomness associated with the water quality indicator is linked to this fuzzy event using the concept of probability of a fuzzy event. In most water quality management models the risk level for violation of a water quality standard is ...

  10. Numerical simulation of groundwater flow for the Yakima River basin aquifer system, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, D.M.; Bachmann, M.P.; Vaccaro, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    A regional, three-dimensional, transient numerical model of groundwater flow was constructed for the Yakima River basin aquifer system to better understand the groundwater-flow system and its relation to surface-water resources. The model described in this report can be used as a tool by water-management agencies and other stakeholders to quantitatively evaluate proposed alternative management strategies that consider the interrelation between groundwater availability and surface-water resources.

  11. Development of a dynamic strategy planning theory and system for sustainable river basin land use management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Ho; Liu, Wei-Lin; Liaw, Shu-Liang; Yu, Chien-Hwa

    2005-06-15

    Land use management is central to government planning for sustainable development. The main purpose of this study is to develop a novel strategy planning theory and system to assist responsible authorities in obtaining alternatives of sustainable top river basin land use management. The concepts and theory of system analysis, driving force-state-response (DSR) framework, and system dynamics are used to establish the DSR dynamic strategy planning procedure in this work. The integrated management of the land, water, and air resources of a river basin system is considered in the procedure. Two modified land use management procedures combined with the DSR dynamic strategy planning procedure are developed in this work. Based on the DSR dynamic strategy planning procedure, the sustainable river basin land use management DSR dynamic decision support system (SRBLUM-DSRD-DSS) is developed by using the Vensim, MS Excel, ArcView, and Visual Basic software. The concepts of object-orientation are used to develop the system dynamic optimization and simulation models of SRBLUM-DSRD-DSS. Based on the modified land use management procedures, SRBLUM-DSRD-DSS is used to assist decision makers in generating the land use plans of the Nankan river basin in Taoyuan County of Taiwan. Since the decisions of land, water and air resources management are still made at different agencies, the land use management system should be modified based on the innovational procedure to implement the management strategy developed in this work. The results show that the modified land use management procedures can be a guidance for the governments in modifying the systems and regulation of urban and regional plans in Taiwan.

  12. Application of a Sediment Information System to the Three Gorges Project on Yangtze River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuyou; Liu, Xingnian; Yang, Kejun; Li, Changzhi

    Based on survey and analysis of a huge number of observed entrance sediment transport data and the research results of physical and numerical modeling of Three Gorges Reservoir on the Yangtze River, a sediment information system was designed. The basis of this system includes spatial data and properties of geographic elements, and various documents involved to the Three Gorges Project (TGP). Database and knowledge base are constructed as the information bank. The running environment is constructed by the general control program to realize requirements about various sediment information. The system chooses the window software as the system software. The techniques of graphical user interfaces and groupware geographic information system are applied in this system. In this phase, the emphases of the system are development of document system, map system, and presentation system. Cross-section system of the TGP was also attached. For further improvement of the system, a prepared interface of decision supporting subsystem is finished.

  13. Magnetic tracing of material from a point source in a river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Erwin; Liu, Zhao; Mülller, Christina; Frančišković-Bilinski, Stanislav; Rösler, Wolfgang; Zhang, Qi

    2017-04-01

    In fluvial environment, the mechanism of transport, distribution, and fate of contaminants, and the resulting distribution patterns are complex but only limited studied. A case in Croatia where highly magnetic coal slag was dumped into a river for more than one century (1884-1994) offers an ideal target for studying principles of how to capture the magnetic record of environmental pollution in a river system originating from a well-defined point source. Downstream transport of the coal slag can be roughly recognized by simple sampling of river sediments, but this approach is poorly significant due to the extremely variable magnetic properties caused by hydrodynamic sorting. We suggest applying variogram analyses in river traverses to obtain more reliable values of magnetic concentration, and combining these results with modeling of river bottom magnetic anomalies in order to estimate the amount of coal slag at certain positions. A major focus of this presentation is the translocation of coal slag material to the riverbanks by flooding, i.e. the possible identification of flood affected areas and the discrimination of different flood events. Surface magnetic susceptibility (MS) mapping clearly outlines the extent of flooded areas, and repeated measurements after one year reveal the reach of two recent smaller floods within this period by spatial delineation of strong positive and negative changes of MS values. To identify older flood signatures, dense grids of vertical MS profiles were analyzed at two riverbank areas in two different ways. First, by determining differences between depth horizons at the measurement points, and second, by contouring the vertical MS profiles as a function of the distance to the river (area with flat riverbank topography) and as a function of terrain elevation (area with oblique riverbank). Single flood events cannot be discriminated, but the second approach allows to approximately identify the extent of major historical floods which

  14. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Vermont

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level in Vermont are discussed. The dual regulatory system involving state and Federal governments is discussed followed by discussions on property interests; direct regulation by the Public Service Board; indirect regulation; and financial considerations. An initial step required of any developer is that of real property acquisition. Ordinarily this involves acquiring the stream bed, land along the stream banks, and land needed for the impoundment reservoir. Ownership of land along the stream banks places the developer in the position of a riparian owner. This status is important in that only riparian owners are entitled to a reasonable use of the flowing water. In addition to acquisition by sale, lease, or gift, Vermont law allows certain developers to acquire property via eminent domain. Some general rules which have evolved as riparian law and applied in Vermont are discussed.

  15. River networks as ecological corridors: A complex systems perspective for integrating hydrologic, geomorphologic, and ecologic dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Levin, Simon A.; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    This paper synthesizes recent works at the interface of hydrology, geomorphology, and ecology under an integrated framework of analysis with an aim for a general theory. It addresses a wide range of related topics, including biodiversity of freshwater fish in river networks and vegetation along riparian systems, how river networks affected historic spreading of human populations, and how they influence the spreading of water-borne diseases. Given the commonalities among various dendritic structures and despite the variety and complexity of the ecosystems involved, we present here an integrated line of research addressing the above and related topics through a unique, coherent ecohydrological thread and similar mathematical methods. Metacommunity and individual-based models are studied in the context of hydrochory, population, and species migrations and the spreading of infections of water-borne diseases along the ecological corridors of river basins. A general theory emerges on the effects of dendritic geometries on the ecological processes and dynamics operating on river basins that will establish a new significant scientific branch. Insights provided by such a theory will lend themselves to issues of great practical importance such as integration of riparian systems into large-scale resource management, spatial strategies to minimize loss of freshwater biodiversity, and effective prevention campaigns against water-borne diseases.

  16. A concurrent neuro-fuzzy inference system for screening the ecological risk in rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo-Duque, William; Juraske, Ronnie; Kumar, Vikas; Nadal, Martí; Domingo, José Luis; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2012-05-01

    A conceptual model to assess water quality in river basins was developed here. The model was based on ecological risk assessment principles, and incorporated a novel ranking and scoring system, based on self-organizing maps, to account for the likely ecological hazards posed by the presence of chemical substances in freshwater. This approach was used to study the chemical pollution in the Ebro River basin (Spain), whose currently applied environmental indices must be revised in terms of scientific accuracy. Ecological hazard indexes for chemical substances were calculated by pattern recognition of persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity properties. A fuzzy inference system was proposed to compute ecological risk points (ERP), which are a combination of the ecological hazard to aquatic sensitive organisms and environmental concentrations. By aggregating ERP, changes in water quality over time were estimated. The proposed concurrent neuro-fuzzy model was applied to a comprehensive dataset of the network controlling the levels of dangerous substances, such as metals, pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, in the Ebro river basin. The approach was verified by comparison versus biological monitoring. The results showed that water quality in the Ebro river basin is affected by presence of micro-pollutants. The ERP approach is suitable to analyze overall trends of potential threats to freshwater ecosystems by anticipating the likely impacts from multiple substances, although it does not account for synergies among pollutants. Anyhow, the model produces a convenient indicator to search for pollutant levels of concern.

  17. Scaling characteristics of mountainous river flow fluctuations determined using a shallow-water acoustic tomography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Sawaf, Mohamad Basel; Kawanisi, Kiyosi; Kagami, Junya; Bahreinimotlagh, Masoud; Danial, Mochammad Meddy

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the scaling exponent properties of mountainous river flow fluctuations by detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). Streamflow data were collected continuously using Fluvial Acoustic Tomography System (FATS), which is a novel system for measuring continuous streamflow at high-frequency scales. The results revealed that river discharge fluctuations have two scaling regimes and scaling break. In contrast to the Ranting Curve method (RC), the small-scale exponent detected by the FATS is estimated to be 1.02 ± 0.42% less than that estimated by RC. More importantly, the crossover times evaluated from the FATS delayed approximately by 42 ± 21 hr ≈2-3 days than their counterparts estimated by RC. The power spectral density analysis assists our findings. We found that scaling characteristics information evaluated for a river using flux data obtained by RC approach might not be accurately detected, because this classical method assumes that flow in river is steady and depends on constructing a relationship between discharge and water level, while the discharge obtained by the FATS decomposes velocity and depth into two ratings according to the continuity equation. Generally, this work highlights the performance of FATS as a powerful and effective approach for continuous streamflow measurements at high-frequency levels.

  18. Occurrence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in the Temuan Orang Asli (aborigine) River System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Y A L; Aahmad, R A

    2004-12-01

    A survey of the river water frequently used by the Temuan Orang Asli (aborigine) indicated that 66.7% of the river water samples were Giardia cyst positive and 5.6% were Cryptosporidium oocyst positive. Although Giardia cysts were detected in samples from all the sites (e.g. upstream, midstream, and downstream), Cryptosporidium was only present in one river water sample taken from downstream from a village. The only sample of upstream water which contained Giardia cysts had a concentration of 0.7 cysts/l. All samples taken from midstream contained cysts with a mean concentration of 9.8 +/- 6.6 cysts/l (range = 1-20 cysts/l). Eighty-three point three percent of the samples collected from downstream contained cysts and 16.7% had oocysts. The average concentration of cysts was 12.9 +/- 16.4 cysts/l (range = 0-44 cysts/l), whereas the oocyst concentration was 0.4 oocysts/l. All river samples tested positive for the presence of E. coli, indicating fecal contamination. The results of this study imply that the river system is contaminated with fecal-oral transmitted parasites. The river water, used by the Orang Asli, is a probable route for Giardia and Cryptosporidium transmission in this community. Long term strategies, incorporating health education regarding personal hygiene, and provision of toilets and the importance of their proper usage, need to be embraced by this community in order to control the spread of these parasites.

  19. Role of hydrological events in sediment and sediment-associated heavy metals transport within a continental transboundary river system - Tuul River case study (Mongolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietroń, Jan; Jarsjö, Jerker

    2013-04-01

    The concentration of heavy metals in rivers is often greater in the sediment load than in the water solution. Overall, heavy metal conveyance with sediment transport is a significant contributor to the global transport of heavy metals. Heavy metals once released to a river system may remain in the deposits of the river from short to very long times, for instance depending on to which extent erosion and deposition can influence the sediment mass stored in the river bed. In general, the mobility of contaminated sediments to downstream water recipients may to large extent be governed by natural sediment transport dynamics during hydrological events, such as flow peaks following heavy rainfalls. The Tuul River (Northern Mongolia) belongs to a Tuul River-Orkhon River-Selenga River- transboundary river system that discharges into Lake Baikal. The river system is largely characterized by its natural hydrological regime with numerous rapid peak flow events of the spring-summer periods. However, recent studies indicate contamination of fine sediment with heavy metals coming from placer gold mining area (Zaamar Goldfield) located along the downstream Tuul River. In this work, the general idea is to create a one-dimensional sediment transport model of the downstream Tuul River, and use field-data supported modeling to investigate natural erosion-deposition rates and the role of peak flows in natural sediment transport at 14 km reach just downstream the gold mining area. The model results show that the sediment load of the finest investigated grain size has a great potential to be eroded from the bed of the studied reach, especially during the main peak flow events. However, the same events are associated with a significant deposition of the finest material. The model results also show different hysteresis behavior of the sediment load rating curves (clockwise and counter-clockwise) during the main peak flow events. These are interpreted as effects of changing in

  20. Carbon Transport, Transformation and Retention in Tropical Systems: The Lower Tana River Corridor as a Natural Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govers, G.; Omengo, F.; Geeraert, N.; Bouillon, S.; Neyens, G.

    2016-12-01

    The lower Tana river in Kenya is an active river carrying high sediment and carbon loads, while lateral influxes from tributaries are very limited. We used this river as a natural laboratory to study the dynamics of carbon in the river-floodplain system. We measured carbon fluxes in the river as well as rates of carbon processing. Furthermore, we assessed carbon deposition in the floodplain and carbon mobilisation by river migration. We show that both within-river carbon dynamics as well as river-floodplain interaction can only be understood by accounting for autogenic river processes: the amounts of sediment (5-6 Mt yr-1) and particulate organic carbon (120-180 Mg yr-1) that are re-mobilised within the river reach (300 km) are similar to the amounts the reach receives from upstream. Carbon and sediment mobilisation are compensated for by deposition, both in the floodplain and within the river (point bars). This intensive exchange explains why the suspended sediment in the Tana river becomes finer (and more enriched in carbon) in the downstream direction, despite the deposition of fine, carbon-rich sediments in the floodplain. Contrary to what is found in temperate floodplains, overall carbon burial appears not to be very effective: most buried carbon is mineralised within decades after burial. However, burial efficiency is much higher for allochthonous organic carbon (deposited by the river) than for autochthonous organic carbon (sourced from local primary production). The Tana river does not only exchange carbon with its floodplain through deposition and remobilisation of POC. When floods occur, the floodplain acts as an important source of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon which is not only produced by organic carbon decomposition but also by weathering. Finally, there is significant CO2 outgassing from the Tana river, releasing 3-5 Mg C yr-1 to the atmosphere. Our study highlights the role of tropical river corridors as highly dynamic environments, which

  1. A SYSTEM DYNAMICS-BASED CONFLICT RESOLUTION MODEL FOR RIVER WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karamouz, M. Akhbari, A. Moridi, R. Kerachian

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available System dynamics approach by simulating a bargaining process can be used for resolving conflict of interests in water quality management. This approach can be a powerful alternative for traditional approaches for conflict resolution, which often rely on classical game theory. Waste load allocation models for river water quality management determine the optimal monthly waste load allocation to each point load. Most of these approaches are based on the multi-objective optimization models and do not consider the existing conflicts. In this study, a system dynamics-based conflict resolution model is presented for monthly waste load allocation in river systems. In this model, the stakeholders and decision-makers negotiate with each other considering their relative authorities, aspirations and dissatisfactions. System dynamics approach is actually used for simulating the bargaining process among the players. The model incorporates the objectives and preferences of stakeholders and decision-makers of the system in the form of utility functions and could provide a final agreement among the players. To evaluate the spatial and temporal variation of the concentration of the water quality indicator in the system, a water quality simulation model is also linked to the conflict resolution model. In the proposed model, a pre-assigned utility is allocated to different water users and the results are evaluated using a simulation model. The allocated utilities are tested and adjusted in order to provide an agreement between the assumed utilities and the utilities assigned by the model. The proposed model is applied to the Karkheh River system located in the southwest of Iran. The results show that the model can effectively incorporate the preferences of the players in providing a final agreement and the runtime of the proposed model is much less than the classical conflict resolution models. It is also shown that the waste load allocation can significantly reduce

  2. Development and application of a large scale river system model for National Water Accounting in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Dushmanta; Vaze, Jai; Kim, Shaun; Hughes, Justin; Yang, Ang; Teng, Jin; Lerat, Julien

    2017-04-01

    Existing global and continental scale river models, mainly designed for integrating with global climate models, are of very coarse spatial resolutions and lack many important hydrological processes, such as overbank flow, irrigation diversion, groundwater seepage/recharge, which operate at a much finer resolution. Thus, these models are not suitable for producing water accounts, which have become increasingly important for water resources planning and management at regional and national scales. A continental scale river system model called Australian Water Resource Assessment River System model (AWRA-R) has been developed and implemented for national water accounting in Australia using a node-link architecture. The model includes major hydrological processes, anthropogenic water utilisation and storage routing that influence the streamflow in both regulated and unregulated river systems. Two key components of the model are an irrigation model to compute water diversion for irrigation use and associated fluxes and stores and a storage-based floodplain inundation model to compute overbank flow from river to floodplain and associated floodplain fluxes and stores. The results in the Murray-Darling Basin shows highly satisfactory performance of the model with median daily Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) of 0.64 and median annual bias of less than 1% for the period of calibration (1970-1991) and median daily NSE of 0.69 and median annual bias of 12% for validation period (1992-2014). The results have demonstrated that the performance of the model is less satisfactory when the key processes such as overbank flow, groundwater seepage and irrigation diversion are switched off. The AWRA-R model, which has been operationalised by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology for continental scale water accounting, has contributed to improvements in the national water account by substantially reducing accounted different volume (gain/loss).

  3. Source to sink: Evolution of lignin composition in the Madre de Dios River system with connection to the Amazon basin and offshore

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Xiaojuan; Feakins, Sarah J.; Liu, Zongguang; Ponton, Camilo; Wang, Renée Z.; Karkabi, Elias; Galy, Valier; Berelson, William M.; Nottingham, Andrew T.; Meir, Patrick; West, A. Joshua

    2016-01-01

    While lignin geochemistry has been extensively investigated in the Amazon River, little is known about lignin distribution and dynamics within deep, stratified river channels or its transformations within soils prior to delivery to rivers. We characterized lignin phenols in soils, river particulate organic matter (POM), and dissolved organic matter (DOM) across a 4 km elevation gradient in the Madre de Dios River system, Peru, as well as in marine sediments to investigate the source-to-sink e...

  4. The Platte River Hydrologic Observatory (PRIVHO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, F.; Ramirez, J. A.; Thurow, T. L.

    2004-12-01

    The Platte River Hydrologic Observatory (PRIVHO), located within the Platte River Basin, of the U.S. central Great Plains, affords excellent interdisciplinary and multi-disciplinary research opportunities for scientists to examine the impacts of scaling, to investigate forcing feedbacks and coupling of various interconnected hydrological, geological, climatological and biological systems, and to test the applicability and limits of prediction in keeping with all five of CUAHSI's priority science criteria; linking hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles, sustainability of water resources, hydrologic and ecosystem interactions, hydrologic extremes, and fate and transport of contaminants. In addition, PRIVHO is uniquely positioned to investigate many human dimension questions such as those related to interstate and intrastate conflicts over water use, evolution of water policy and law in the wake of advancing science, societal and economic changes that are driven by water use, availability and management, and human impacts on climate and land use changes. The Platte River traverses several important environmental gradients, including temperature and precipitation-to-evaporation ratio, is underlain by the High Plains Aquifer under much of its reach, crosses a number of terrestrial ecoregions, and in central Nebraska, serves as a vital link in the Central Flyway, providing habitat for 300 species of migratory birds and many threatened or endangered species. The Platte River flows through metropolitan, urban and agricultural settings and is impacted by both point and non-point pollution. The Platte River is one of the most over-appropriated rivers in the country with 15 major dams, hundreds of small reservoirs, and thousands of irrigation wells. The river provides municipal and industrial water supplies for about 3.5 million people, irrigation water for millions of acres of farmland, and generates millions of dollars of hydroelectric power. PRIVHO will allow researchers to

  5. SOFTWARE AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM OF YENISEI RIVER BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kadochnikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The work considers the questions of formation of problem-focused geoinformation system of the Yenisei river basin based on interdisciplinary scientific studies. The creation of a system, in which are collected and systematized information about its river network, will provide an opportunity for analysis and modeling of hydrological processes various natural and man-made phenomena, qualitative and quantitative assessment of water resources, ecological status. Methodological basis of development is a regional system of indicators for sustainable environmental management. Development is created in the service-oriented paradigm on the basis of geoportal technologies, interactive web mapping, distributed storage and data processing. The focus in this article is paid to the problems of software design and technological support, the characteristics of software components implementation of the web GIS, the effective processing and presentation of geospatial data.

  6. A Review of Flood-Related Storage and Remobilization of Heavy Metal Pollutants in River Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszewski, Dariusz; Grygar, Tomáš Matys

    2016-01-01

    Recently observed rapid climate changes have focused the attention of researchers and river managers on the possible effects of increased flooding frequency on the mobilization and redistribution of historical pollutants within some river systems. This text summarizes regularities in the flood-related transport, channel-to-floodplain transfer, and storage and remobilization of heavy metals, which are the most persistent environmental pollutants in river systems. Metal-dispersal processes are essentially much more variable in alluvia than in soils of non-inundated areas due to the effects of flood-sediment sorting and the mixing of pollutants with grains of different origins in a catchment, resulting in changes of one to two orders of magnitude in metal content over distances of centimetres. Furthermore, metal remobilization can be more intensive in alluvia than in soils as a result of bank erosion, prolonged floodplain inundation associated with reducing conditions alternating with oxygen-driven processes of dry periods and frequent water-table fluctuations, which affect the distribution of metals at low-lying strata. Moreover, metal storage and remobilization are controlled by river channelization, but their influence depends on the period and extent of the engineering works. Generally, artificial structures such as groynes, dams or cut-off channels performed before pollution periods favour the entrapment of polluted sediments, whereas the floodplains of lined river channels that adjust to new, post-channelization hydraulic conditions become a permanent sink for fine polluted sediments, which accumulate solely during overbank flows. Metal mobilization in such floodplains takes place only by slow leaching, and their sediments, which accrete at a moderate rate, are the best archives of the catchment pollution with heavy metals.

  7. Evolution of the vegetation system in the Heihe River basin in the last 2000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shoubo; Zhao, Yan; Wei, Yongping; Zheng, Hang

    2017-08-01

    The response of vegetation systems to the long-term changes in climate, hydrology, and social-economic conditions in river basins is critical for sustainable river basin management. This study aims to investigate the evolution of natural and crop vegetation systems in the Heihe River basin (HRB) over the past 2000 years. Archived Landsat images, historical land use maps and hydrological records were introduced to derive the long-term spatial distribution of natural and crop vegetation and the corresponding biomass levels. The major findings are that (1) both natural and crop vegetation experienced three development stages: a pre-development stage (before the Republic of China), a rapid development stage (Republic of China - 2000), and a post-development stage (after 2000). Climate and hydrological conditions did not show significant impacts over crop vegetation, while streamflow presented synchronous changes with natural vegetation in the first stage. For the second stage, warmer temperature and increasing streamflow were found to be important factors for the increase in both natural and crop vegetation in the middle reaches of the HRB. For the third stage, positive climate and hydrological conditions, together with policy interventions, supported the overall vegetation increase in both the middle and lower HRB; (2) there was a significantly faster increase in crop biomass than that of native vegetation since 1949, which could be explained by the technological development; and (3) the ratio of natural vegetation to crop vegetation decreased from 16 during the Yuan Dynasty to about 2.2 since 2005. This ratio reflects the reaction of land and water development to a changing climate and altering social-economic conditions at the river basin level; therefore, it could be used as an indicator of water and land management at river basins.

  8. Dynamic transport capacity in gravel-bed river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. E. Lisle; B. Smith

    2003-01-01

    Abstract - Sediment transport capacity mediates the transfer and storage of bed material between alluvial reservoirs in a drainage system. At intermediate time scales corresponding to the evolution of sediment pulses, conditions governing bed-material transport capacity under the hydrologic regime respond to variations in storage and sediment flux as pulses extend,...

  9. The Impacts of Agricultural Land Use on Dissolved Organic Matter in a Dryland River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, J. L.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Van Horn, D. J.; Diefendorf, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    Globally, expanding agriculture is significantly impacting aquatic nutrient cycles. In mesic systems, agriculture is a source of nitrogen and phosphorus and increases concentrations of structurally simple dissolved organic carbon (DOC). In contrast, recent studies suggest in dryland systems, where wastewater effluent is a primary nutrient source, agriculture is a nutrient sink—retaining nitrogen and phosphorous. Importantly, very little, is known about the influence of agriculture on DOC dynamics in dryland systems. To address this gap we used synoptic sampling, UV-absorbance, and fluorescence spectroscopy to elucidate source, character, and concentration of riverine and runoff DOC in a dryland agricultural system. Samples were collected along a 25 km stretch of the Rio Grande River in New Mexico (USA). The Rio Grande is an impoundment/irrigation-withdrawal controlled river that receives water from snowmelt, monsoonal storms, and wastewater effluent. During irrigation approximately 80% of the river's water is diverted into a manmade network where it waters crops and percolates through the soil before it enters a series of drains that return water to the river. Our preliminary characterization of the DOC reentering the river (DOCmean=3.23 mg/L, sd=0.81; SUVAmean=4.05, sd=1.37) indicates the agricultural pool is similar in concentration and aromaticity to riverine DOC (DOCmean= 3.10 mg/L, sd=1.17; SUVAmean= 4.64, sd=1.12). However, riverine organic matter is more terrestrially derived (FImean=1.68, sd=0.17) than organic matter in the drains (FImean=1.9, sd=0.24). Additionally, drains directly adjacent to actively irrigated fields show high concentrations (DOCmean=58.35; sd=0.91) of low aromaticity organic matter (SUVAmean=0.33; sd=0.11). We are continuing analysis throughout the irrigation season to further explore organic matter quality (traits such as bioavailability and freshness) and identify locations and processes of DOC transformation within the system

  10. Development and Application of a Process-based River System Model at a Continental Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. S. H.; Dutta, D.; Vaze, J.; Hughes, J. D.; Yang, A.; Teng, J.

    2014-12-01

    Existing global and continental scale river models, mainly designed for integrating with global climate model, are of very course spatial resolutions and they lack many important hydrological processes, such as overbank flow, irrigation diversion, groundwater seepage/recharge, which operate at a much finer resolution. Thus, these models are not suitable for producing streamflow forecast at fine spatial resolution and water accounts at sub-catchment levels, which are important for water resources planning and management at regional and national scale. A large-scale river system model has been developed and implemented for water accounting in Australia as part of the Water Information Research and Development Alliance between Australia's Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) and CSIRO. The model, developed using node-link architecture, includes all major hydrological processes, anthropogenic water utilisation and storage routing that influence the streamflow in both regulated and unregulated river systems. It includes an irrigation model to compute water diversion for irrigation use and associated fluxes and stores and a storage-based floodplain inundation model to compute overbank flow from river to floodplain and associated floodplain fluxes and stores. An auto-calibration tool has been built within the modelling system to automatically calibrate the model in large river systems using Shuffled Complex Evolution optimiser and user-defined objective functions. The auto-calibration tool makes the model computationally efficient and practical for large basin applications. The model has been implemented in several large basins in Australia including the Murray-Darling Basin, covering more than 2 million km2. The results of calibration and validation of the model shows highly satisfactory performance. The model has been operalisationalised in BoM for producing various fluxes and stores for national water accounting. This paper introduces this newly developed river system model

  11. Survival of migrating salmon smolts in large rivers with and without dams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Welch

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The mortality of salmon smolts during their migration out of freshwater and into the ocean has been difficult to measure. In the Columbia River, which has an extensive network of hydroelectric dams, the decline in abundance of adult salmon returning from the ocean since the late 1970s has been ascribed in large measure to the presence of the dams, although the completion of the hydropower system occurred at the same time as large-scale shifts in ocean climate, as measured by climate indices such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We measured the survival of salmon smolts during their migration to sea using elements of the large-scale acoustic telemetry system, the Pacific Ocean Shelf Tracking (POST array. Survival measurements using acoustic tags were comparable to those obtained independently using the Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT tag system, which is operational at Columbia and Snake River dams. Because the technology underlying the POST array works in both freshwater and the ocean, it is therefore possible to extend the measurement of survival to large rivers lacking dams, such as the Fraser, and to also extend the measurement of survival to the lower Columbia River and estuary, where there are no dams. Of particular note, survival during the downstream migration of at least some endangered Columbia and Snake River Chinook and steelhead stocks appears to be as high or higher than that of the same species migrating out of the Fraser River in Canada, which lacks dams. Equally surprising, smolt survival during migration through the hydrosystem, when scaled by either the time or distance migrated, is higher than in the lower Columbia River and estuary where dams are absent. Our results raise important questions regarding the factors that are preventing the recovery of salmon stocks in the Columbia and the future health of stocks in the Fraser River.

  12. Survival of migrating salmon smolts in large rivers with and without dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, David W; Rechisky, Erin L; Melnychuk, Michael C; Porter, Aswea D; Walters, Carl J; Clements, Shaun; Clemens, Benjamin J; McKinley, R Scott; Schreck, Carl

    2008-10-28

    The mortality of salmon smolts during their migration out of freshwater and into the ocean has been difficult to measure. In the Columbia River, which has an extensive network of hydroelectric dams, the decline in abundance of adult salmon returning from the ocean since the late 1970s has been ascribed in large measure to the presence of the dams, although the completion of the hydropower system occurred at the same time as large-scale shifts in ocean climate, as measured by climate indices such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We measured the survival of salmon smolts during their migration to sea using elements of the large-scale acoustic telemetry system, the Pacific Ocean Shelf Tracking (POST) array. Survival measurements using acoustic tags were comparable to those obtained independently using the Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag system, which is operational at Columbia and Snake River dams. Because the technology underlying the POST array works in both freshwater and the ocean, it is therefore possible to extend the measurement of survival to large rivers lacking dams, such as the Fraser, and to also extend the measurement of survival to the lower Columbia River and estuary, where there are no dams. Of particular note, survival during the downstream migration of at least some endangered Columbia and Snake River Chinook and steelhead stocks appears to be as high or higher than that of the same species migrating out of the Fraser River in Canada, which lacks dams. Equally surprising, smolt survival during migration through the hydrosystem, when scaled by either the time or distance migrated, is higher than in the lower Columbia River and estuary where dams are absent. Our results raise important questions regarding the factors that are preventing the recovery of salmon stocks in the Columbia and the future health of stocks in the Fraser River.

  13. Spatial-temporal fluvial morphology analysis in the Quelite river: It's impact on communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Judith; Gracia, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    SummaryDuring 2008 and 2009 heavy rainfall took place around the Mazatlan County in the Sinaloa state, Mexico, with a return period (Tr) between 50 and 100 years. As a result, the region and its infrastructure, such as the railways and highways (designed for a Tr = 20 years) were severely exposed to floods and, as a consequence damage caused by debris and sediments dragged into the channel. One of the highest levels of damage to the infrastructure was observed in the columns of Quelite River railway's bridge. This is catastrophic as the railway is very important for trade within the state and also among other states in Mexico and in the USA. In order to understand the impact of the flooding and to avoid the rail system being damaged it is necessary to analyse how significant the changes in the river channel have been. This analysis looks at the definition of the main channel and its floodplain as a result of the sediment variability, not only at the bridge area, but also upstream and downstream. The Quelite River study considers the integration of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing data to map, recognise and assess the spatio-temporal change channel morphology. This increases the effectiveness of using different types of geospatial data with in situ measurements such as hydrological data. Thus, this paper is an assessment of a 20 years study period carried out using historical Landsat images and aerial photographs as well as recent Spot images. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of local topography and flow volumes were also used. The results show the Quelite River is an active river with a high suspended sediment load and migration of meanders associated to heavy rainfall. The river also has several deep alluvial floodplain channels which modified the geometry and other morphological characteristics of the channel in the downstream direction. After the identification of the channel changes, their causes and solutions to control, the channel

  14. Population Aspects of Fishes in Geba and Sor Rivers, White Nile System in Ethiopia, East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simagegnew Melaku

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the diversity, condition factor, length-weight relationship, and sex ratio of fishes in Geba and Sor Rivers located in Baro-Akobo Basin, White Nile system within Ethiopia. Fish samples were collected in one wet and one dry season. The length-weight relationships were fitted using power equation for the most abundant species. A total of 348 fish specimens were collected using gillnets and hooks. These were identified into eight species and one Garra sp. representing seven genera and four families. Family Cyprinidae was the most dominant with six species (66.7%. Labeobarbus intermedius, Labeobarbus nedgia, and Labeo cylindricus were the most abundant fish species, respectively, with 60.72%, 16.83%, and 14.66% index of relative importance (IRI. The diversity index was higher for Geba River (H′ = 1.50 than for Sor River (H′ = 1.10. All the three most abundant species had negative allometric growth. Seasonal variations in the mean Fulton condition factor (FCF were statistically significant for L. cylindricus (p<0.05. There was variation in the sex ratio with the females dominating in all the three most abundant species. Further investigation into the fish diversity, food, feeding, and reproductive behaviors of fish species especially in the tributaries of these rivers and their socioeconomic aspects is recommended.

  15. Ultra-low-head hydroelectric technology: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Daqing; Deng, Zhiqun (Daniel)

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, distributed renewable energy-generation technologies, such as wind and solar, have developed rapidly. Nevertheless, the utilization of ultra-low-head (ULH) water energy (i.e., situations where the hydraulic head is less than 3 m or the water flow is more than 0.5 m/s with zero head) has received little attention. We believe that, through technological innovations and cost reductions, ULH hydropower has the potential to become an attractive, renewable, and sustainable resource. This paper investigates potential sites for ULH energy resources, the selection of relevant turbines and generators, simplification of civil works, and project costs. This review introduces the current achievements on ULH hydroelectric technology to stimulate discussions and participation of stakeholders to develop related technologies for further expanding its utilization as an important form of renewable energy.

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions from Brazil’s Amazonian hydroelectric dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnside, Philip M.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical dams are often falsely portrayed as ‘clean’ emissions-free energy sources. The letter by de Faria et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 124019) adds to evidence questioning this myth. Calculations are made for 18 dams that are planned or under construction in Brazilian Amazonia and show that emissions from storage hydroelectric dams would exceed those from electricity generation based on fossil fuels. Fossil fuels need not be the alternative, because Brazil has vast potential for wind and solar power as well as opportunities for energy conservation. Because dam-building is rapidly shifting to humid tropical areas, where emissions are higher than in other climatic zones, the impact of these emissions needs to be given proper weight in energy-policy decisions.

  17. Early 21st century snow cover state over the western river basins of the Indus River system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, S.; Lucarini, V.; Khan, M. R.; Petitta, M.; Bolch, T.; Gioli, G.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we assess the snow cover and its dynamics for the western river basins of the Indus River system (IRS) and their sub-basins located in Afghanistan, China, India and Pakistan for the period 2001-2012. First, we validate the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily snow products from Terra (MOD10A1) and Aqua (MYD10A1) against the Landsat Thematic Mapper/Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (TM/ETM+) data set, and then improve them for clouds by applying a validated non-spectral cloud removal technique. The improved snow product has been analysed on a seasonal and annual basis against different topographic parameters (aspect, elevation and slope). Our results show a decreasing tendency for the annual average snow cover for the westerlies-influenced basins (upper Indus basin (UIB), Astore, Hunza, Shigar and Shyok) and an increasing tendency for the monsoon-influenced basins (Jhelum, Kabul, Swat and Gilgit). Seasonal average snow cover decreases during winter and autumn, and increases during spring and summer, which is consistent with the observed cooling and warming trends during the respective seasons. Sub-basins at relatively higher latitudes/altitudes show higher variability than basins at lower latitudes/middle altitudes. Northeastern and northwestern aspects feature greater snow cover. The mean end-of-summer regional snow line altitude (SLA) zones range from 3000 to 5000 m a.s.l. for all basins. Our analysis provides an indication of a descending end-of-summer regional SLA zone for most of the studied basins, which is significant for the Shyok and Kabul basins, thus indicating a change in their water resources. Such results are consistent with the observed hydro-climatic data, recently collected local perceptions and glacier mass balances for the investigated period within the UIB. Moreover, our analysis shows a significant correlation between winter season snow cover and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index of the previous autumn

  18. Early 21st century climatology of snow cover for the western river basins of the Indus River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, S.; Lucarini, V.; Khan, M. R.; Petitta, M.; Bolch, T.; Gioli, G.

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we assess the snow cover and its dynamics for the western river basins of the Indus River System (IRS) and their sub-basins located in Afghanistan, China, India and Pakistan for the period 2001-2012. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) daily snow products from Terra (MOD) and Aqua (MYD) have been first improved and then analysed on seasonal and annual basis against different topographic parameters (aspect, elevation and slope). Our applied cloud filtering technique has reduced the cloud cover from 37% (MOD) and 43% (MYD) to 7%, thus improving snow cover estimates from 7% (MOD) and 5% (MYD) to 14% for the area of interest (AOI) during the validation period (2004). Our results show a decreasing tendency for the annual average snow cover for the westerlies-influenced basins (Upper Indus Basin, Astore, Hunza, Shigar, Shyok) and an increasing tendency for the monsoon-influenced basins (Jhelum, Kabul, Swat and Gilgit). Regarding the seasonal snow cover, decrease during winter and autumn and increase during spring and summer has been found, which is consistent with the observed cooling and warming trends during the respective seasons. Sub-basins at relatively higher latitude/altitude show higher variability than basins at lower latitude/mid-altitude. Northeastern and northwestern aspects feature larger snow cover. The mean regional snow line altitude (SLA) zones range between 3000 and 5000 m a.s.l. for all basins. Our analysis provides an indication of a decrease in the regional SLA zone, thus indicating a change in the water resources of the studied basins, particularly for the Upper Indus Basin (UIB). Such results are consistent with the observed hydro-climate data, recently collected local perceptions and glacier mass balances for the investigated period. Moreover, our analysis suggests some potential for the seasonal stream flow forecast as a significant negative correlation has been detected for the inter-annual variability of winter

  19. Woodruff Narrows low head hydroelectric power plant feasibility determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    Woodruff Narrows Reservoir, owned by the State of Utah, was built in 1961 as an irrigation reservoir. The reservoir outlet works and spillway are in need of repair, and plans have been made to enlarge the reservoir from its present capacity of 28,000 acre-feet to 53,200 acre-feet when these repairs are made. The purpose of this study was to determine if it is feasible to add hydropower facilities when the reservoir is repaired and enlarged. A computer simulation model based on mean monthly values, utilizing 26 years of recorded streamflow into the reservoir, was used to determine the mean annual energy potential for the following configurations: (1) present dam, (2) the proposed enlarged dam, (3) a new dam at the lower site with a maximum head of 65 feet, and (4) a new dam at the lower site which would store water to the same elevation as the proposed enlarged dam. Results of the simulation study show that maximum power capacities are respectively 2.1, 3.0, 3.9, and 4.5 megawatts. The marketing potential for this electric power, cost estimates and financial analysis, and environmental, social, and regulatory aspects of the proposed hydropower facilities were evaluated. The results showed the addition of hydroelectric power development at the Woodruff Narrows site would have minimal social and environmental effects on the area, would result in little or no changes in the present patterns of water and land use, income, population, and employment and would not result in any significant changes of the social structure or characteristics of the area. However, hydroelectric power development at the Woodruff Narrows site is not economically feasible at the present time. (LCL)

  20. An integrated modelling framework for regulated river systems in Land Surface Hydrological Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehan Anis, Muhammad; razavi, Saman; Wheater, Howard

    2017-04-01

    Many of the large river systems around the world are highly regulated with numerous physical flow control and storage structures as well as a range of water abstraction rules and regulations. Most existing Land Surface Models (LSM) do not represent the modifications to the hydrological regimes introduced by water management (reservoirs, irrigation diversions, etc.). The interactions between natural hydrological processes and changes in water and energy fluxes and storage due to human interventions are important to the understanding of how these systems may respond to climate change amongst other drivers for change as well as to the assessment of their feedbacks to the climate system at regional and global scales. This study presents an integrated modelling approach to include human interventions within natural hydrological systems using a fully coupled modelling platform. The Bow River Basin in Alberta (26,200 km2), one of the most managed Canadian rivers, is used to demonstrate the approach. We have dynamically linked the MESH modelling system, which embeds the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS), with the MODSIM-DSS water management modelling tool. MESH models the natural hydrology while MODSIM optimizes the reservoir operation of 4 simulated reservoirs to satisfy demands within the study basin. MESH was calibrated for the catchments upstream the reservoirs and gave good performance (NSE = 0.81) while BIAS was only 2.3% at the catchment outlet. Without coupling with MODSIM (i.e. no regulation), simulated hydrographs at the catchment outlet were in complete disagreement with observations (NSE = 0.28). The coupled model simulated the optimization introduced by the operation of the multi-reservoir system in the Bow river basin and shows excellent agreement between observed and simulated hourly flows (NSE = 0.98). Irrigation demands are fully satisfied during summer, however, there are some shortages in winter demand from industries, which can be rectified by

  1. Bathymetric surveys of the Neosho River, Spring River, and Elk River, northeastern Oklahoma and southwestern Missouri, 2016–17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Shelby L.; Ashworth, Chad E.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2017-09-26

    In February 2017, the Grand River Dam Authority filed to relicense the Pensacola Hydroelectric Project with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. The predominant feature of the Pensacola Hydroelectric Project is Pensacola Dam, which impounds Grand Lake O’ the Cherokees (locally called Grand Lake) in northeastern Oklahoma. Identification of information gaps and assessment of project effects on stakeholders are central aspects of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission relicensing process. Some upstream stakeholders have expressed concerns about the dynamics of sedimentation and flood flows in the transition zone between major rivers and Grand Lake O’ the Cherokees. To relicense the Pensacola Hydroelectric Project with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, the hydraulic models for these rivers require high-resolution bathymetric data along the river channels. In support of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission relicensing process, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Grand River Dam Authority, performed bathymetric surveys of (1) the Neosho River from the Oklahoma border to the U.S. Highway 60 bridge at Twin Bridges State Park, (2) the Spring River from the Oklahoma border to the U.S. Highway 60 bridge at Twin Bridges State Park, and (3) the Elk River from Noel, Missouri, to the Oklahoma State Highway 10 bridge near Grove, Oklahoma. The Neosho River and Spring River bathymetric surveys were performed from October 26 to December 14, 2016; the Elk River bathymetric survey was performed from February 27 to March 21, 2017. Only areas inundated during those periods were surveyed.The bathymetric surveys covered a total distance of about 76 river miles and a total area of about 5 square miles. Greater than 1.4 million bathymetric-survey data points were used in the computation and interpolation of bathymetric-survey digital elevation models and derived contours at 1-foot (ft) intervals. The minimum bathymetric-survey elevation of the Neosho

  2. Geospatial Information Systems Analysis of Regional Environmental Change along the Savannah River Basin of Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund C. Merem

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS; and descriptive statistics in the assessment of environmental change along the Savannah River Basin of Georgia. Results of the study show that Savannah River basin side of Georgia has been experiencing environmental change due to several decades of relentless pressure induced by anthropocentric activities and host of other socio-economic factors. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI analysis of the area also shows a decline in vegetation cover. The pace of ecological change showed some variations across time and space. Generally, the results point to a decline in water bodies, vegetation, and increase in population, loss of harvested cropland, farms and increasing threats to the environmental systems of the region.

  3. Does reintroducing large wood influence the hydraulic landscape of a lowland river system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Adrian; Thoms, Martin; Reid, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Our understanding of the effectiveness of reintroduced large wood for restoration is largely based on studies from high energy river systems. By contrast, few studies of the effectiveness of reintroducing large wood have been undertaken on large, low energy, lowland river systems: river systems where large wood is a significant physical feature on the in-channel environment. This study investigated the effect of reintroduced large wood on the hydraulic landscape of the Barwon-Darling River, Australia, at low flows. To achieve this, the study compared three hydraulic landscapes of replicated reference (naturally wooded), control (unwooded,) and managed (wood reintroduced) treatments on three low flow periods. These time periods were prior to the reintroduction of large wood to managed reaches; several months after the reintroduction of large wood into the managed reaches; and then more than four years after wood reintroduction following several large flood events. Hydraulic landscapes of reaches were characterised using a range of spatial measures calculated from velocity measurements taken with a boat-mounted Acoustic Doppler Profiler. We hypothesised that reintroduced large wood would increase the diversity of the hydraulic landscape at low flows and that managed reaches would be more similar to the reference reaches. Our results suggest that the reintroduction of large wood did not significantly change the character of the hydraulic landscape at the reach scale after several months (p = 0.16) or several years (p = 0.29). Overall, the character of the hydraulic landscape in the managed reaches was more similar to the hydraulic landscape of the control reaches than the hydraulic landscape of the reference reaches, at low flows. Some variability in the hydraulic landscapes was detected over time, and this may reflect reworking of riverbed sediments and sensitivity to variation in discharge. The lack of a response in the low flow hydraulic landscape to the

  4. Geohydrologic framework of the Snake River plain regional aquifer system, Idaho and eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Snake River Plain in southern Idaho is a major geologic structure of uncertain origin. Surface geology is generally well defined, but subsurface geology is poorly defined below about 500 feet. Rocks that underlie the plain form the framework for a regional ground-water system that supplies large quantities of water for irrigation and makes the plain nationally important in terms of agricultural production.

  5. EVALUATION OF DISASTER MITIGATION SYSTEM AGAINST LAHAR FLOW OF PUTIH RIVER, MT. MERAPI AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Maksal Saputra

    2013-05-01

    Result of the evaluation shows that the existing early warning system does not produce sufficient time for the sand miners to save themselves. The proposed solution is to divide sand mine area in Putih River into 3 zones, each zone has different procedure of the early warning and evacuation. This is arranged to avoid casualties to the sand miners. Keywords: Lahar flood, sand miners, early warning.

  6. Soil and Land Resources Information System (SLISYS-Tarim) for Sustainable Management of River Oases along the Tarim River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othmanli, Hussein; Zhao, Chengyi; Stahr, Karl

    2017-04-01

    The Tarim River Basin is the largest continental basin in China. The region has extremely continental desert climate characterized by little rainfall 3000 mm/a. The climate change is affecting severely the basin causing soil salinization, water shortage, and regression in crop production. Therefore, a Soil and Land Resources Information System (SLISYS-Tarim) for the regional simulation of crop yield production in the basin was developed. The SLISYS-Tarim consists of a database and an agro-ecological simulation model EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate). The database comprises relational tables including information about soils, terrain conditions, land use, and climate. The soil data implicate information of 50 soil profiles which were dug, analyzed, described and classified in order to characterize the soils in the region. DEM data were integrated with geological maps to build a digital terrain structure. Remote sensing data of Landsat images were applied for soil mapping, and for land use and land cover classification. An additional database for climate data, land management and crop information were linked to the system, too. Construction of the SLISYS-Tarim database was accomplished by integrating and overlaying the recommended thematic maps within environment of the geographic information system (GIS) to meet the data standard of the global and national SOTER digital database. This database forms appropriate input- and output data for the crop modelling with the EPIC model at various scales in the Tarim Basin. The EPIC model was run for simulating cotton production under a constructed scenario characterizing the current management practices, soil properties and climate conditions. For the EPIC model calibration, some parameters were adjusted so that the modeled cotton yield fits to the measured yield on the filed scale. The validation of the modeling results was achieved in a later step based on remote sensing data. The simulated cotton yield varied

  7. Follow-up studies of the river Glaama and some tributaries in Hedmark; Etterundersoekelser i Glaama og noen sidevassdrag i Hedmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roerslett, B.; Brandrud, T.E.; Baekken, T.; Hessen, D.; Lindstroem, E.A.; Mjelde, M.; Johansen, S.W.

    1995-06-01

    According to this report, follow-up studies of the environmental effects of hydroelectric power development are much less frequent than the mandatory preliminary investigations. Thus, it is not always known to what extent the adverse effects predicted by the consequence analyses do take place. In an investigation of the Norwegian river system Glaama 1989-92 a number of changes in the biological conditions were found and ascribed to the river regulation. In general, the water vegetation has responded favourably upstream from the magazines while the response downstream the production plants is less certain. The vegetation above the water surface, however, responded unfavourably and reduced species diversity is observed in the flooded zones. There are further discussions on the hydrological conditions in the river magazines and downstream the power stations, and of the optical conditions of the lakes. It is concluded from the experience with the Glaama river system that the common discussion about minimum water flow is ``distorted``. One simply cannot keep a stretch of a river as an aquatic system when only a fraction of the pre-development flow will remain. Hydrological data series showing that a small flow has been measured at a given location by no means justify the assertion that the ``natural`` minimum flow can be set equal to that measurement. A natural river experiencing a brief episode of low flow cannot be compared to a regulated system in which this low flow is kept constant. 13 refs., 30 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Main Report Exhibits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Volume is a part of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Columbia River System. This volume contains technical exhibits of cultural resources and commentary on the (System Operation Review) SOR process. The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation comment is the majority of the material in the volume, in the Consultation Plan, Identification of trust resources; Criteria for the selection of a System Operating Strategy; comment on rights protection and implementation of Federal Trust responsibility; analysis of the draft EIS. Comment by other Native American Tribes and groups is also included: Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation; Kootenai Tribe of Idaho; Spokane Tribe of Indians; Coeur d` Alene tribe.

  9. Flood protection effect of the existing and projected reservoirs in the Amur River basin: evaluation by the hydrological modeling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Motovilov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological modeling system was developed as a tool addressed supporting flood risk management by the existing and projected reservoirs in the Amur River basin. The system includes the physically-based semi-distributed model of runoff generation ECOMAG coupled with a hydrodynamic MIKE-11 model to simulate channel flow in the main river. The case study was carried out for the middle part of the Amur River where large reservoirs are located on the Zeya and Bureya Rivers. The models were calibrated and validated using streamflow measuruments at the different gauges of the main river and its tributaries. Numerical experiments were carried out to assess the effect of the existing Zeya and Bureya reservoirs regulation on 850 km stretch of the middle Amur River stage. It was shown that in the absence of the reservoirs, the water levels downstream of the Zeya and Bureya Rivers would be 0.5–1.5 m higher than the levels measured during the disastrous flood of 2013. Similar experiments were carried out to assess possible flood protection effect of new projected reservoirs on the Zeya and Bureya Rivers.

  10. Flood protection effect of the existing and projected reservoirs in the Amur River basin: evaluation by the hydrological modeling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motovilov, Y.; Danilov-Danilyan, V.; Dod, E.; Kalugin, A.

    2015-06-01

    Hydrological modeling system was developed as a tool addressed supporting flood risk management by the existing and projected reservoirs in the Amur River basin. The system includes the physically-based semi-distributed model of runoff generation ECOMAG coupled with a hydrodynamic MIKE-11 model to simulate channel flow in the main river. The case study was carried out for the middle part of the Amur River where large reservoirs are located on the Zeya and Bureya Rivers. The models were calibrated and validated using streamflow measuruments at the different gauges of the main river and its tributaries. Numerical experiments were carried out to assess the effect of the existing Zeya and Bureya reservoirs regulation on 850 km stretch of the middle Amur River stage. It was shown that in the absence of the reservoirs, the water levels downstream of the Zeya and Bureya Rivers would be 0.5-1.5 m higher than the levels measured during the disastrous flood of 2013. Similar experiments were carried out to assess possible flood protection effect of new projected reservoirs on the Zeya and Bureya Rivers.

  11. SNAKE LINE ANALYSIS FOR LAHAR FLOW WARNING SYSTEM (CASE STUDY IN PUTIH RIVER, MOUNT MERAPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Yulinsa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lahar flow in the region of Mount Merapi after an eruption of 2010 is still considered potentially to happen and threat the region along the river from the upstream. The development of warning criteria against the potential occurrence of lahar flow is a thing that should be done continuously to accommodate dynamics data availability (rainfall data and lahar flow occurrence data, although with limited data. This study aims to develop lahar warning system applying snake line as a rain phenomenon in Putih catchment area which will affect the occurrence of lahar flow and to evaluate the success rate of snake line for deciding the warning system. This study used the main reference from Guidelines for Development of Warning and Evacuation System against Sediment Disasters in Developing Countries released by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport Infrastructure Development Institute – Japan (2004. This research was conducted through several stages, i.e. secondary data collection in the form of rainfall data, lahar flow occurrence data, making correlation graph between rainfall intensity and working rainfall, determination of critical line, warning line and evacuation line. The results show that standard rainfall for warning and evacuation alert in Putih River are 22 mm, and 49 mm, respectively. The accuracy of warning criteria and the evacuation criteria against snake line for warning line is 30%, evacuation line is 61% and the critical line is 83%. The behavior of snake line that indicates lahar flow occurrence in Putih River forming an angle of 40o up to 45o.

  12. The Performance of Equalization Model of Water Allocation Inter Irrigation Areas in River System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farriansyah Anang M.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, water is public goods so it is necessary to control water allocation. Inequity of water allocation between water users is expanding largely, including irrigation as the largest user, while the density of headworks in the river are getting higher. Considering that water is limited, the practice of irrigation water allocation needs to be refined, from the traditional equity to volumetric equity. MEQAA (Model Equalisasi Alokasi Air/Equalization Model of Water Allocation plays a role in determining water sharing between headworks in order to meet the maximum-equal K-factor in river. MEQAA-Generic is a calculation machine with: analog-deterministic dynamic model; network equation according to mass balance and linear optimization; independent-based system; sustainability-efficiency-equity constraints; Ms. Excel-VBA. The inputs are: scheme system, local inflow, and irrigation demand. The outputs are: K-factor, release and ecosystem quote. The model performance is identified by comparing the output to the class of K-factor based on treatment of water distribution. The model test is performed in an uncontrolled and complicated system in Kukusan Tanggek watershed with 24 headworks in Lombok river basin. As long as it is adequate for water sharing, MEQAA-G can always produce maximum-equal K-factor. The output model is used to operation control.

  13. Urban Flood Management with Integrated Inland-River System in Seoul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Y. I.; Kim, J. S.; Yuk, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Global warming and climate change have caused significant damage and loss of life worldwide. The pattern of natural disasters has gradually diversified and their frequency is increasing. The impact of climate change on flood risk in urban rivers is of particular interest because these areas are typically densely populated. The occurrence of urban river flooding due to climate change not only causes significant loss of life and property but also causes health and social problems. It is therefore necessary to develop a scientific urban flood management system to cope with and reduce the impacts of climate change, including flood damage. In this study, we are going to introduce Integrated Inland-River Flood Analysis System in Seoul to conduct predictions on flash rain or short-term rainfall by using radar and satellite information and perform prompt and accurate prediction on the inland flooded areas. In addition, this urban flood management system can be used as a tool for decision making of systematic disaster prevention through real-time monitoring.

  14. Study of ranking of bio-indices using benthic macroinvertebrates for Lower Dongnai River System, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nga, Le Phi; Quoi, Le Phat; Duc, Pham Anh

    2012-04-01

    It has been demonstrated by research that the most successful assessment methods have been based on the benthic macroinvertebrate communities. A lot of bio-indices have been applied to evaluate the water quality widely. However, most of them have got the rankings for the water quality assessment. In this study, based on the monitoring results of the benthic macroinvertebrate and the environmental parameters in the Lower Dongnai River System during three-year periods (2007 - 2009), the linear correlations among the most popular bio-indices and each environmental parameter were considered. These environmental variables having the most closed correlation with the biological indices were DO (dissolved oxygen), WQI (water quality index) and total nitrogen. From the analysis, the ranking of bio-indices using benthic macroinvertebrate for the Lower Dongnai River System were established. The findings proved that the ranking of bio-indices for water quality assessment can be used to evaluate the water quality for the Lower Dongnai River System.

  15. Contributions to a thermodynamic model of Earth systems on rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberall, A. S.

    1981-01-01

    A model for the chemical (ground water) erosion and physical (bed load, including sedimentation) erosion of the land was developed. The rudiments of the relation between a regulated sea level (for the past 2500 million years) and the episodic rise and erosion of continents was examined to obtain some notion of the process scalings. Major process scales of about 200 years, 100,000 years, 3 My, 40 My, 300 My were estimated. It was suggested that a program targeted at ecological management would have to become familiar with processes at the first four scales (i.e., from glaciation to the horizontal movement of continents). The study returns to the initial premise. In order to understand and manage Earth biology (life, and modern man), it is necessary minimally to pursue systems' biogeology at a considerable number of process space and time scales via their irreversible thermodynamic couplings.

  16. One-dimensional flow model of the river-hyporheic zone system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrajac, D.

    2016-12-01

    The hyporheic zone is a shallow layer beneath natural streams that is characterized by intense exchange of water, nutrients, pollutants and thermal energy. Understanding these exchange processes is crucial for successful modelling of the river hydrodynamics and morphodynamics at various scales from the river corridor up to the river network scale (Cardenas, 2015). Existing simulation models of hyporheic exchange processes are either idealized models of the tracer movement through the river-hyporheic zone system (e.g. TSM, Bencala and Walters, 1983) or detailed models of turbulent flow in a stream, coupled with a conventional 2D Darcian groundwater model (e.g. Cardenas and Wilson, 2007). This paper presents an alternative approach which involves a simple 1-D simulation model of the hyporheic zone system based on the classical SWE equations coupled with the newly developed porous media analogue. This allows incorporating the effects of flow unsteadiness and non-Darcian parameterization od the drag term in the hyporheic zone model. The conceptual model of the stream-hyporheic zone system consists of a 1D model of the open channel flow in the river, coupled with a 1D model of the flow in the hyporheic zone via volume flux due to the difference in the water level in the river and the hyporheic zone. The interaction with the underlying groundwater aquifer is neglected, but coupling the present model with any conventional groundwater model is straightforward. The paper presents the derivation of the 1D flow equations for flow in the hyporheic zone, the details of the numerical scheme used for solving them and the model validation by comparison with published experimental data. References Bencala, K. E., and R. A. Walters (1983) "Simulation of solute transport in a mountain pool-and-riffle stream- a transient storage model", Water Resources Reseach 19(3): 718-724. Cardenas, M. B. (2015) "Hyporheic zone hydrologic science: A historical account of its emergence and a

  17. Hydrogeologic framework of the Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolino, James R.; Adkins, Candice B.

    2012-01-01

    The Wood River Valley contains most of the population of Blaine County and the cities of Sun Valley, Ketchum, Hailey, and Bellevue. This mountain valley is underlain by the alluvial Wood River Valley aquifer system, which consists primarily of a single unconfined aquifer that underlies the entire valley, an underlying confined aquifer that is present only in the southernmost valley, and the confining unit that separates them. The entire population of the area depends on groundwater for domestic supply, either from domestic or municipal-supply wells, and rapid population growth since the 1970s has caused concern about the long-term sustainability of the groundwater resource. As part of an ongoing U.S. Geological Survey effort to characterize the groundwater resources of the Wood River Valley, this report describes the hydrogeologic framework of the Wood River Valley aquifer system. Although most of the Wood River Valley aquifer system is composed of Quaternary-age sediments and basalts of the Wood River Valley and its tributaries, older igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic rocks that underlie these Quaternary deposits also are used for water supply. It is unclear to what extent these rocks are hydraulically connected to the main part of Wood River Valley aquifer system and thus whether they constitute separate aquifers. Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in and near the study area that produce water to wells and springs are the Phi Kappa and Trail Creek Formations (Ordovician and Silurian), the Milligen Formation (Devonian), and the Sun Valley Group including the Wood River Formation (Pennsylvanian-Permian) and the Dollarhide Formation (Permian). These sedimentary rocks are intruded by granitic rocks of the Late Cretaceous Idaho batholith. Eocene Challis Volcanic Group rocks overlie all of the older rocks (except where removed by erosion). Miocene Idavada Volcanics are found in the southern part of the study area. Most of these rocks have been folded, faulted, and

  18. MODELING AND STUDY OF HYDROELECTRIC GENERATING SETS OF SMALL HYDRO POWER PLANTS WITH FREQUENCY-CONTROLLED PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Mustafayev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the hydroelectric generating sets of small HPPs with Pelton turbines employ as their generating units conventional synchronous generators with electromagnetic excitation. To deal with the torque pulsatile behaviour, they generally install a supplementary flywheel on the system shaft that levels the pulsations. The Pelton turbine power output is adjusted by the needle changing water flow in the nozzle, whose advancement modifies the nozzle area and eventually – the flow. They limit the needle full stroke time to 20–40 sec. since quick shutting the nozzle for swift water flow reduction may result in pressure surges. For quick power adjustment so-called deflectors are employed, whose task is retraction of water jets from the Pelton turbine buckets. Thus, the mechanical method of power output regulation requires agreement between the needle stroke inside the turbine nozzles and the deflector. The paper offers employing frequency-controlled synchronous machines with permanent magnets qua generating units for the hydroelectric generating sets of small HPPs with Pelton turbines. The developed computer model reveals that this provides a higher level of adjustability towards rapid-changing loads in the grid. Furthermore, this will replace the power output mechanical control involving the valuable deflector drive and the turbine nozzle needles with electrical revolution rate and power output regulation by a frequency converter located in the generator stator circuit. Via frequency start, the controllable synchronous machine ensures stable operation of the hydroelectric generating set with negligibly small amount of water (energy carrier. Finally, in complete absence of water, the frequency-relay start facilitates shifting the generator operation to the synchronous capacitor mode, which the system operating parameter fluctograms obtained through computer modeling prove. 

  19. Legal obstacles and incentives to the third development of small-scale hydroelectric potential in the six New England states: executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    This executive summary describes the relationship of Federal law and regulation to state law and regulation of small-scale hydroelectric facilities. It also highlights important features of the constitutional law, statutory law, case law, and regulations of each of the six New England states. The summary may serve as a concise overview of and introduction to the detailed reports prepared by the Energy Law Institute on the legal and regulatory systems of each of the six states. The dual regulatory system is a function of the federalist nature of our government. This dual system is examined from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, i.e., the law of pre-emption, and the application of this law to the case of hydroelectric development. The regulation of small dams are discussed and flow diagrams of the regulations are presented for each of the six states - Maine, Massachusetts, Vermont, New Hampshire, Vermont, and Connecticut.

  20. Recommended Investigations of Sediment Transport and Deposition for Predicting Future Configurations of Mississippi River System Channels and Floodplain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gaugush, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the progress made in the study of sediment transport and geomorphology in the Upper Mississippi River System since the 1994 meeting of the working group that developed a description of activities needed...

  1. Water-table altitude of the unconfined aquifer, Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho, October 2012.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Water levels in 93 wells completed in the Wood River Valley aquifer system were measured during October 22–24, 2012; these wells are part of a network established...

  2. Potentiometric-surface altitude of the confined aquifer, Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho, October 2012.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Water levels in 93 wells completed in the Wood River Valley aquifer system were measured during October 22–24, 2012; these wells are part of a network established...

  3. 1998 Annual Status Report: A Summary of Fish Data in Six Reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burkhardt, Randy

    2000-01-01

    The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) completed 2,664 collections of fishes from stratified random and permanently fixed sampling locations in six study reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System during 1998...

  4. 1997 Annual Status Report A Summary of Fish Data in Six Reaches of The Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burkhardt, Randy

    1998-01-01

    The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) completed 2,797 collections of fishes from stratified random and permanently fixed sampling locations in six study reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System during 1997...

  5. MODFLOW-USG model of groundwater flow in the Wood River Valley aquifer system in Blaine County, Idaho

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A three-dimensional numerical groundwater flow model (MODFLOW-USG) was developed for the Wood River Valley (WRV) aquifer system, south-central Idaho, to evaluate...

  6. Linking hydro-morphology with invertebrate ecology in diverse morphological units of a large river-floodplain system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Blettler, MCM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Interdisciplinary research in the fields of ecohydrology and ecogeomorphology is becoming increasingly important as a way to understand how biological and physical processes interact with each other in river systems. The objectives of the current...

  7. Eustatic and tectonic change effects in the reversion of the transcontinental Amazon River drainage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Vicente Caputo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The development of the transcontinental Amazon River System involved geological events in the Andes Chain; Vaupés, Purus and Gurupá arches; sedimentary basins of the region and sea level changes. The origin and age of this river have been discussed for decades, and many ideas have been proposed, including those pertaining to it having originated in the Holocene, Pleistocene, Pliocene, Late Miocene, or even earlier times. Under this context, the geology of the sedimentary basins of northern Brazil has been analyzed from the Mesozoic time on, and some clarifications are placed on its stratigraphy. Vaupés Arch, in Colombia, was uplifted together with the Andean Mountains in the Middle Miocene time. In the Cenozoic Era, the Purus Arch has not blocked this drainage system westward to marine basins of Western South America or eastward to the Atlantic Ocean. Also the Gurupá Arch remained high up to the end of Middle Miocene, directing this drainage system westward. With the late subsidence and breaching of the Gurupá Arch and a major fall in sea level, at the beginning of the Late Miocene, the Amazon River quickly opened its pathway to the west, from the Marajó Basin, through deep headward erosion, capturing a vast drainage network from cratonic and Andean areas, which had previously been diverted towards the Caribbean Sea. During this time, the large siliciclastic influx to the Amazon Mouth (Foz do Amazonas Basin and its fan increased, due to erosion of large tracts of South America, linking the Amazon drainage network to that of the Marajó Basin. This extensive exposure originated the Late Miocene (Tortonian unconformity, which marks the onset of the transcontinental Amazon River flowing into the Atlantic Ocean.

  8. Study of migration behavior of technogenic radionuclides in the Yenisey River-Kara Sea aquatic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, Yu.; Legin, E.; Legin, V. [Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Shishlov, A.; Savitskii, Yu. [Krasnoyarsk Mining and Chemical Combine, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Novikov, A.; Goryachenkova, T. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-03-01

    For 35 years Krasnoyarsk Mining-Chemical Combine (MCC) manufactures weapon plutonium in single-pass production reactors cooled with water of the Yenisey River. Water discharge from these reactors is the major source of radioactive contamination of the Yenisey River. We have demonstrated that after putting the reactors out of operation (in late 1992) the contamination level of the Yenisey River with short-lived radionuclides considerably decreased, and now the radioactive contamination is caused essentially by Cs-137, Eu-152, Pu-239,240, Sr-90, and Am-241, whose concentration in the aqueous phase is lower than in bottom sediments and, particularly, flood-land deposits by several orders of magnitude (except for Sr-90). The flood-land deposits are classified with the most contaminated environmental objects in the territories under the impact of MCC: their radioactivity is comparable with that of low-level waste. Taking into account the considerable depth and area of the flood-land deposits, this allows their classification as a great technogenic radiation anomaly. Comparison of the maximal Cs-137 and Pu-239,240 levels in flood-land soils and bottom sediments of the Yenisey River with those in bottom sediments of the Pripyat' River and the Kiev reservoir shows that these values are close each to other. A direct correlation is found between the spatial distribution of Cs-137 on the one hand and Pu-239,240, Eu-152, and Am-241 on the other hand in the aqueous phase and bottom sediments, which is not the case for Sr-90. Data on the distribution coefficients of the indicated radionuclides between the deposits and aqueous phase (obtained with actual and model systems) and also on the radionuclide distribution throughout geochemical mobility forms suggest that the essential part of Cs, Pu, Eu, and Am migrates with fine-disperse suspended material, the transport and distribution of which is controlled by the hydrological regime of the Yenisey River. By contrast, strontium

  9. Water Quality Projects Summary for the Mid-Columbia and Cumberland River Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Kevin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Witt, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hadjerioua, Boualem [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Scheduling and operational control of hydropower systems is accompanied with a keen awareness of the management of water use, environmental effects, and policy, especially within the context of strict water rights policy and generation maximization. This is a multi-objective problem for many hydropower systems, including the Cumberland and Mid-Columbia river systems. Though each of these two systems have distinct operational philosophies, hydrologic characteristics, and system dynamics, they both share a responsibility to effectively manage hydropower and the environment, which requires state-of-the art improvements in the approaches and applications for water quality modeling. The Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory have developed tools for total dissolved gas (TDG) prediction on the Mid-Columbia River and a decision-support system used for hydropower generation and environmental optimization on the Cumberland River. In conjunction with IIHR - Hydroscience & Engineering, The University of Iowa and University of Colorado s Center for Advanced Decision Support for Water and Environmental Systems (CADSWES), ORNL has managed the development of a TDG predictive methodology at seven dams along the Mid-Columbia River and has enabled the ability to utilize this methodology for optimization of operations at these projects with the commercially available software package Riverware. ORNL has also managed the collaboration with Vanderbilt University and Lipscomb University to develop a state-of-the art method for reducing high-fidelity water quality modeling results into surrogate models which can be used effectively within the context of optimization efforts to maximize generation for a reservoir system based on environmental and policy constraints. The novel contribution of these efforts is the ability to predict water quality conditions with simplified methodologies at the same level of accuracy as more complex and resource intensive computing methods

  10. Adapting to Variable Water Supply in the Truckee-Carson River System, Western USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley Sterle

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In snow-fed inland river systems in the western United States, water supply depends upon timing, form, and amount of precipitation. In recent years, this region has experienced unprecedented drought conditions due to decreased snowpack, exacerbated by exceptionally warmer winter temperatures averaging 3–4 °C above normal. In the snow-fed Truckee-Carson River System, two sets of interviews were conducted as part of a larger collaborative modeling case study with local water managers to examine local adaptation to current drought conditions. A comparative analysis of these primary qualitative data, collected during the fourth and fifth consecutive years of continued warmer drought conditions, identifies shifts in adaptation strategies and emergent adaptation barriers. That is, under continuous exposure to climate stressors, managers shifted their adaptation focus from short-term efforts to manage water demand toward long-term efforts to enhance water supply. Managers described the need to: improve forecasts and scientific assessments of snowmelt timing, groundwater levels, and soil moisture content; increase flexibility of prior appropriation water allocation rules based on historical snowpack and streamflow timing; and foster collaboration and communication among water managers across the river system. While water scarcity and insufficient water delivery infrastructure remain significant impediments in this arid region, climate uncertainty emerged as a barrier surrounding adaptation to variable water supply. Existing prior appropriation based water institutions were also described as an adaptation barrier, meriting objective evaluation to assess how to best modify these historical institutions to support dynamic adaptation to climate-induced water supply variability. This study contributes to a growing body of research that assesses drought adaptation in snow-fed inland river systems, and contributes a unique report concerning how adaptation

  11. Individual Dose Calculations with Use of the Revised Techa River Dosimetry System TRDS-2009D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degteva, M. O.; Shagina, N. B.; Tolstykh, E. I.; Vorobiova, M. I.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2009-10-23

    An updated deterministic version of the Techa River Dosimetry System (TRDS-2009D) has been developed to estimate individual doses from external exposure and intake of radionuclides for residents living on the Techa River contaminated as a result of radioactive releases from the Mayak plutonium facility in 1949–1956. The TRDS-2009D is designed as a flexible system that uses, depending on the input data for an individual, various elements of system databases to provide the dosimetric variables requested by the user. Several phases are included in the computation schedule. The first phase includes calculations with use of a common protocol for all cohort members based on village-average-intake functions and external dose rates; individual data on age, gender and history of residence are included in the first phase. This phase results in dose estimates similar to those obtained with system TRDS-2000 used previously to derive risks of health effects in the Techa River Cohort. The second phase includes refinement of individual internal doses for those persons who have had body-burden measurements or exposure parameters specific to the household where he/she lived on the Techa River. The third phase includes summation of individual doses from environmental exposure and from radiological examinations. The results of TRDS-2009D dose calculations have demonstrated for the ETRC members on average a moderate increase in RBM dose estimates (34%) and a minor increase (5%) in estimates of stomach dose. The calculations for the members of the ETROC indicated similar small changes for stomach, but significant increase in RBM doses (400%). Individual-dose assessments performed with use of TRDS-2009D have been provided to epidemiologists for exploratory risk analysis in the ETRC and ETROC. These data provide an opportunity to evaluate the possible impact on radiogenic risk of such factors as confounding exposure (environmental and medical), changes in the Techa River source

  12. An automated system to simulate the River discharge in Kyushu Island using the H08 model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, A.; Jeon, J.; Seto, S.

    2015-12-01

    Kyushu Island is located in southwestern part of Japan, and it is often affected by typhoons and a Baiu front. There have been severe water-related disasters recorded in Kyushu Island. On the other hand, because of high population density and for crop growth, water resource is an important issue of Kyushu Island.The simulation of river discharge is important for water resource management and early warning of water-related disasters. This study attempts to apply H08 model to simulate river discharge in Kyushu Island. Geospatial meteorological and topographical data were obtained from Japanese Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT) and Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System (AMeDAS) of Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). The number of the observation stations of AMeDAS is limited and is not quite satisfactory for the application of water resources models in Kyushu. It is necessary to spatially interpolate the point data to produce grid dataset. Meteorological grid dataset is produced by considering elevation dependence. Solar radiation is estimated from hourly sunshine duration by a conventional formula. We successfully improved the accuracy of interpolated data just by considering elevation dependence and found out that the bias is related to geographical location. The rain/snow classification is done by H08 model and is validated by comparing estimated and observed snow rate. The estimates tend to be larger than the corresponding observed values. A system to automatically produce daily meteorological grid dataset is being constructed.The geospatial river network data were produced by ArcGIS and they were utilized in the H08 model to simulate the river discharge. Firstly, this research is to compare simulated and measured specific discharge, which is the ratio of discharge to watershed area. Significant error between simulated and measured data were seen in some rivers. Secondly, the outputs by the coupled model including crop growth

  13. Oxygen, deuterium, and strontium isotope characteristics of the Indus River water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anupam; Kumar, Kamlesh; Laskar, Amzad; Singh, Sunil Kumar; Mehta, Pankaj

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the sources and compositional characteristics of waters and sediments in the Indus River system is extremely important as its water availability is one of the primary factors for sustenance of the irrigation activities and the socioeconomic status of a very densely populated region of the world. Here we used stable isotopic compositions (δD and δ18O) and strontium isotopic ratio (87Sr/86Sr) in the Indus River water, its tributaries and its small streams (nallahs) in the Indian territory to understand the regional hydrology, water sources, and catchment processes (evaporation, transpiration, recycling, and mixing). The δ18O values in the Indus River system (IRS) ranges from - 16.9‰ to - 12.5‰ and δD from - 122.8‰ to - 88.5‰. The Indus River and its major tributaries (such as the Zanskar, Nubra and Shyok rivers) are characterized by relatively lower δ18O values, whereas TangTse and other small streams contributing to the Indus are relatively enriched in 18O. The local meteoric water line for the IRS was found to be δD = 7.87 × δ18O + 11.41, which is similar to the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL) indicating meteoric origin of the water and insignificant secondary evaporation in the catchment. The Deuterium excess (d-excess) in the IRS varies between 6.5‰ and 14.9‰ with an average of 11.7‰, which is mostly higher than the long-term average for the Indian summer monsoon ( 8‰). The higher d-excess value is because of the contribution of moisture from westerlies; a simple mass balance shows 26% water in the main Indus channel is contributed by the westerlies originated from the Mediterranean Sea. The Sr isotope ratio in IRS varies between 0.70515 and 0.71291; wherein the Indus, and its tributary rivers Shyok and Nubra, are characterized by relatively high Sr isotope ratios (avg. 0.71086-0.71243) compared to the Zanskar and TangTse tributaries (Sr 0.709) because of the variation in silicate rock weathering component and carbonate

  14. Understanding the sediment routing system along the Gulf of Kachchh coast, western India: Significance of small ephemeral rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prizomwala, S. P.; Bhatt, Nilesh; Basavaiah, N.

    2014-02-01

    The present study is an attempt towards understanding the sediment routing system in the semi-arid margin of the Gulf of Kachchh, which is one of the largest macrotidal regimes in the northern Arabian Sea. Investigations based on heavy minerals, clay minerals, mineral magnetic properties and sediment geochemistry indicated that there are three major sources of sediments contributing to the Gulf of Kachchh basin: (1) Indus River, (2) Kachchh mainland coastal rivers and (3) the Saurashtra peninsular coastal rivers. The flanks of northern and southern coast of western Gulf of Kachchh show dominant signatures of Kachchh mainland/Saurashtra peninsular provenance. In contrast, the eastern Gulf of Kachchh coast bearing fine grained sediments shows dominant Indus River Provenance. Although ephemeral in nature, the small coastal rivers of Saurashtra and Kachchh contribute significant amount of sediments to the Gulf of Kachchh coastline because of their `dryland' nature and thus they control the coarse grained sedimentation processes.

  15. Establishing the system of public communal utility on the river Danube and the river Sava on the territory of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pušić Antonije

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste disposal and treatment problem consideration in the Republic of Serbia is making a pioneer steps. Main goal of this paper is to emphasize problems of waste disposal on waterways in urban areas, which consists of three aspects: uncontrolled disposal, possibilities of waste elimination and institutional model of collecting and recycling. Considering the fact that Draft version of Waste disposal law is not yet adopted by the national government (beside the fact that it contains the question of disposing and recycling municipal solid waste and that it is not elaborating the problem of dumping the municipal waste into rivers, this paper will give methodological and legislative recommendations for the solution of this problem. However, city of Belgrade and the other cities in Serbia are often facing serious problems (arranged riverfronts covered with municipal waste. Because of that, it is necessary to define methods of collecting and treatment of waste disposed in the water streams (in the area of technology. It is also important to determine legislative framework, and also to establish hierarchy in decision-making on the local level. One of the main goals is to determine new aspects of public communal utilities (so called "river communal utility", which will have jurisdiction in this area. International experiences must be analyzed separately and based on them is proposed new concept of elimination of waste from the rivers. Implementation of this pilot project is recommended on the river Danube and the river Sava on the territory of the city of Belgrade.

  16. Generalization of the Sitnica river drainage system with potential pollution of tributaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valjarević Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maps are miniature graphic representation of distinct area and as not being completely real require generalization. Cartographic generalization represents a specific investigation method in cartography. Generalization includes the processes of selection, simplification, and symbolization of details according to the purpose and the map scale. The river generalization requires the phase classification, selection, magnification and simplification to being used. Linear symbols are given on the map by their corresponding/characteristic length and remained unchanged even after the generalization. Particular cartographic criterions need to be applied during generalization. In the given case of the Sitnica river drainage system were applied the computer supported generalization based on the software Global Mapper 16.1 and the Open source software QGIS 2.6.1. The Sitnica drainage system is generalized in three levels. The first included digitalization of all linear objects related to the river Sitnica and its tributaries. Second level resulted in vector generalized data that indicate on polluted tributaries, whereas the final, third stage led to construction of multilayered vector map of the Sitnica catchments area with polluted tributaries.

  17. Climate Change Impact Assessment of Dike Safety and Flood Risk in the Vidaa River System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, H.; Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia; Larsen, J.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of climate change on the flood risk and dike safety in the Vidaa River system, a cross-border catchment located in the southern part of Jutland, Denmark and northern Germany, is analysed. The river discharges to the Wadden Sea through a tidal sluice, and extreme water level conditions...... in the river system occur in periods of high sea water levels where the sluice is closed and increased catchment run-off take place. Climate model data from the ENSEMBLES data archive are used to assess the changes in climate variables and the resulting effect on catchment run-off. Extreme catchment run......-off is expected to increase about 8 % in 2050 and 14 % in 2100. The changes in sea water level is assessed considering climate projections of mean sea level rise, isostatic changes, and changes in storm surge statistics. At the Vidaa sluice a mean sea level rise of 0.15–0.39 m in 2050 and 0.41–1.11 m in 2010...

  18. Basin management plan for efficient use of water resource : based on Nakdong River water system management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Lee Byoung Kook; Choi, Jee Yong; Kim, Eun Jeong [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    Nakdong River basin is about 23,800 km{sup 2} occupying 24% of whole area in Korea and stretches over 3 metropolitan cities, 5 provinces, 19 cities and 22 districts. The annual rainfall in this basin is 1,187 mm, which is the smallest among waster systems of 4 great rivers and it results in making worse of water quality and destroying ecosystem in low part of basin due to the reduction of inflowing water in a dry season. For the fundamental solution of water quality problem and water dispute between regions, it is recommended in domestic and abroad that it requires an integrated water resource management by each basin through the voluntary participation of interested parties free from the government-led downward management system. Therefore, this study introduces the concept of basin management that is applied as a new water resource management in the advanced countries and suggests a plan that can be applied for the efficient use of Nakdong River water resource. 60 refs., 24 figs., 15 tabs.

  19. Introduction: CRevolution 2: origin and evolution of the Colorado River System II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlstrom, Karl E.; Beard, L. Sue; House, P. Kyle; Young, Richard A.; Aslan, Andres; Billingsley, George; Pederson, Joel

    2012-01-01

    A 2010 Colorado River symposium held in Flagstaff, Arizona, in May 2010, had 70 participants who engaged in intense debate about the origin and evolution of the Colorado River system. This symposium, built on two previous decadal scientific meetings, focused on forging scientific consensus where possible, while also articulating continued controversies regarding the Cenozoic evolution of the Colorado River System and the landscapes of the Colorado Plateau–Rocky Mountain region that it drains. New developments involved hypotheses that Neogene mantle flow is driving plateau tilting and differential uplift, with consensus that multidisciplinary studies involving differential incision studies and additional geochronology and thermochronology are needed to test the relative importance of tectonic and geomorphic forcings in shaping the spectacular landscapes of the Colorado Plateau region. In addition to the scientific goals, the meeting participants emphasized the iconic status of Grand Canyon for geosciences, and the importance of good communication between the research community, the geoscience education/interpretation community, the public, and the media. Building on a century-long tradition, this region still provides a globally important natural laboratory for studies of the interactions of erosion and tectonism in the shaping landscape of elevated plateaus.

  20. Spatio-temporal patterns and predictions of phytoplankton assemblages in a subtropical river delta system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chao; Li, Xinhui; Wang, Xiangxiu

    2016-01-01

    Spatial and seasonal sampling within a subtropical river delta system, the Pearl River Delta (China), provided data to determine seasonal phytoplankton patterns and develop prediction models. The high nutrient levels and frequent water exchanges resulted in a phytoplankton community with greatest...... diversity of Bacillariophyceae and Chlorophyceae, and greatest biomass of Bacillariophyceae. Spatial and temporal distributions of phytoplankton assemblages were revealed using non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS). Five groups were established using hierarchical clustering based on species biomass...... similarities. These groups were distinct with respect to species richness, biomass and indicators, especially for groups representing spatial dimension. The Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) model indicated that the spatial patterns of phytoplankton assemblages were mostly explained by water quality variables...

  1. Impact of hydroelectric development upon a northern Manitoba native community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldram, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    This dissertation describes the process of underdevelopment among the Cree Indian people of South Indian Lake, in Northern Manitoba, Canada, following the construction of the Churchill-Nelson River Hydro Project in 1975. The dissertation seeks to link the ecological, political, economic, socio-cultural and health aspects of the impact of the hydro project within the framework of the historical process of underdevelopment as it has occurred in Latin America, among Native people in the United States, and among Native people in Northern Canada. Utilizing both qualitative and quantitative data, a process of increased dependence is described as the product of two related processes. The first process is the impairment of the local commercial and domestic economy caused by the flooding of Southern Indian Lake, which has resulted in a decline in local productivity. The second process is the enhancement of consumerism through rising consumer expectations and a post-project increase in available goods and services which the people are increasingly unable to afford. The overall result has been a process of economic divergence at the local level. The dissertation concludes that the process of underdevelopment which has occurred in South Indian Lake has been the result primarily of changes in the local ecological system caused by the construction of the hydro project. These ecological changes have, in turn, resulted in secondary changes in the socio-economic system.

  2. Geohydrology and model analysis of stream-aquifer system along the Arkansas River in Kearny and Finney Counties, southwestern Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, L.E.; Lindgren, Richard J.; Sauer, C.G.

    1985-01-01

    A study was made, in cooperation with the Division of Water Resources, Kansas State Board of Agriculture, to determine geohydrologic conditions in an area comprising nearly 850,000 acres along the Arkansas River valley in Kearny and Finney Counties, southwestern Kansas. The Arkansas River meanders atop and interacts hydraulically with the area's multilayered, unconsolidated aquifer system. Declines in static water levels in wells in the heavily pumped lower aquifer ranged from 20 to 80 feet during 1974-80. The river is dry in much of the area. A digital computer model was calibrated to simulate the trends of historic water levels. Simulated 1974-80 conditions depicted an average annual recharge to the unconsolidated aquifer system of 66,900 acre-feet from precipitation and 36,200 acre-feet from river and canal seepage and boundary inflow. Simulated average annual discharge consisted of 634,800 acre-feet from pumpage and boundary outflow. Simulated average annual recharge to the unconsolidated aquifer system was 531,700 acre-feet less than average annual discharge, indicating the ground-water resource is currently (1982) being mined in the study area. Simulation also indicated that there would be sufficient saturated thickness in 2005 for irrigation if 1980 hydrologic conditions continued. Seepage losses from the Arkansas River and irrigation canals are a major source of recharge to the unconsolidated aquifer system. Therefore, the amount of flow in the Arkansas River would be important in determining the rate of future water-level declines in the study area. Streamflow seepage losses could be decreased by (1) decreasing the number of wells pumping in the study area in order to reduce downward leakage from the valley aquifer, or (2) increasing streamflow discharge in order to recharge the valley aquifer. The rate and direction of flow between the river and the valley aquifer depend on the hydraulic conductivity of the streambed and the hydraulic gradient between the

  3. INTELLIGENT COMPUTING SYSTEM FOR RESERVOIR ANALYSIS AND RISK ASSESSMENT OF THE RED RIVER FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark A. Sippel; William C. Carrigan; Kenneth D. Luff; Lyn Canter

    2003-11-12

    Integrated software has been written that comprises the tool kit for the Intelligent Computing System (ICS). The software tools in ICS have been developed for characterization of reservoir properties and evaluation of hydrocarbon potential using a combination of inter-disciplinary data sources such as geophysical, geologic and engineering variables. The ICS tools provide a means for logical and consistent reservoir characterization and oil reserve estimates. The tools can be broadly characterized as (1) clustering tools, (2) neural solvers, (3) multiple-linear regression, (4) entrapment-potential calculator and (5) file utility tools. ICS tools are extremely flexible in their approach and use, and applicable to most geologic settings. The tools are primarily designed to correlate relationships between seismic information and engineering and geologic data obtained from wells, and to convert or translate seismic information into engineering and geologic terms or units. It is also possible to apply ICS in a simple framework that may include reservoir characterization using only engineering, seismic, or geologic data in the analysis. ICS tools were developed and tested using geophysical, geologic and engineering data obtained from an exploitation and development project involving the Red River Formation in Bowman County, North Dakota and Harding County, South Dakota. Data obtained from 3D seismic surveys, and 2D seismic lines encompassing nine prospective field areas were used in the analysis. The geologic setting of the Red River Formation in Bowman and Harding counties is that of a shallow-shelf, carbonate system. Present-day depth of the Red River formation is approximately 8000 to 10,000 ft below ground surface. This report summarizes production results from well demonstration activity, results of reservoir characterization of the Red River Formation at demonstration sites, descriptions of ICS tools and strategies for their application.

  4. Model based control for run-of-river system. Part 2: Comparison of control structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liubomyr Vytvytskyi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Optimal operation and control of a run-of-river hydro power plant depend on good knowledge of the elements of the plant in the form of models. Both the control architecture of the system, i.e. the choice of inputs and outputs, and to what degree a model is used, will affect the achievable control performance. Here, a model of a river reach based on the Saint Venant equations for open channel flow illustrates the dynamics of the run-of-river system. The hyperbolic partial differential equations are discretized using the Kurganov-Petrova central upwind scheme - see Part I for details. A comparison is given of achievable control performance using two alternative control signals: the inlet or the outlet volumetric flow rates to the system, in combination with a number of different control structures such as PI control, PI control with Smith predictor, and predictive control. The control objective is to keep the level just in front of the dam as high as possible, and with little variation in the level to avoid overflow over the dam. With a step change in the volumetric inflow to the river reach (disturbance and using the volumetric outflow as the control signal, PI control gives quite good performance. Model predictive control (MPC gives superior control in the sense of constraining the variation in the water level, at a cost of longer computational time and thus constraints on possible sample time. Details on controller tuning are given. With volumetric inflow to the river reach as control signal and outflow (production as disturbance, this introduces a considerable time delay in the control signal. Because of nonlinearity in the system (varying time delay, etc., it is difficult to achieve stable closed loop performance using a simple PI controller. However, by combining a PI controller with a Smith predictor based on a simple integrator + fixed time delay model, stable closed loop operation is possible with decent control performance. Still, an MPC

  5. Design of River System Deadlock Avoidance Supervisor by Using Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danko Kezić

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Advanced function of the computer-based river traffic management system should automatically predict and prevent possible conflict and deadlock states between vessels by using adequate control policy (supervisor. This paper proposes a formal method for calculating maximally permissive deadlock prevention supervisor. To model the river system, the authors use a class of Petri net suitable for describing multiple re-entrant flowlines with disjoint sets of resources, jobs and control places, and matrix-based formal method to analyze the system. By using matrix algebra, the structural characteristics of the Petri net (circular waits, P-invariants, critical siphons and subsystem, key resource have been analyzed and the steps for supervisor design proposed. The first and the second level deadlocks can be avoided by maintaining the number of tokens in the critical subsystems and ensuring that the key resource would not be the last available resource in the system. The derived supervisor has been verified by a computer simulation using MATLAB environment. KEYWORDS: traffic management system, deadlock avoidance, discrete event system, Petri net

  6. Solute geochemistry of the Snake River plain regional aquifer system, Idaho and eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Warren W.; Low, Walton H.

    1988-01-01

    Four geochemical approaches were used to determine chemical reactions controlling solute concentrations in the Snake River Plain regional aquifer system: (1) calculation of a solute balance within the aquifer, (2) identification of weathered products in the aquifer frame- work, (3) comparison of thermodynamic mineral saturation indices with plausible solute reactions, and (4) comparison of stable-isotope ratios of the solutes with those in the aquifer framework. Solutes in the geo- thermal groundwater system underlying the main aquifer were examined by calculating thermodynamic mineral saturation indices, stable-isotope ratios, geothermometry, and radiocarbon dating.

  7. Prediction of dissolved oxygen concentration in hypoxic river systems using support vector machine: a case study of Wen-Rui Tang River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaoliang; Shang, Xu; Dahlgren, Randy A; Zhang, Minghua

    2017-07-01

    Accurate quantification of dissolved oxygen (DO) is critically important for managing water resources and controlling pollution. Artificial intelligence (AI) models have been successfully applied for modeling DO content in aquatic ecosystems with limited data. However, the efficacy of these AI models in predicting DO levels in the hypoxic river systems having multiple pollution sources and complicated pollutants behaviors is unclear. Given this dilemma, we developed a promising AI model, known as support vector machine (SVM), to predict the DO concentration in a hypoxic river in southeastern China. Four different calibration models, specifically, multiple linear regression, back propagation neural network, general regression neural network, and SVM, were established, and their prediction accuracy was systemically investigated and compared. A total of 11 hydro-chemical variables were used as model inputs. These variables were measured bimonthly at eight sampling sites along the rural-suburban-urban portion of Wen-Rui Tang River from 2004 to 2008. The performances of the established models were assessed through the mean square error (MSE), determination coefficient (R 2 ), and Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) model efficiency. The results indicated that the SVM model was superior to other models in predicting DO concentration in Wen-Rui Tang River. For SVM, the MSE, R 2 , and NS values for the testing subset were 0.9416 mg/L, 0.8646, and 0.8763, respectively. Sensitivity analysis showed that ammonium-nitrogen was the most significant input variable of the proposal SVM model. Overall, these results demonstrated that the proposed SVM model can efficiently predict water quality, especially for highly impaired and hypoxic river systems.

  8. Raptor observations associated with Terror Lake hydroelectric project: 1984 annual progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Raptors in the vicinity of the Terror Lake Hydroelectric Project (TLHP) were studied to determine the effects of project construction and operation on nesting and...

  9. Effect of time lag upon the economical operation of cascade hydroelectric power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, X.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper we discretize the state parameter - flow of cascade hydroelectric power stations - into the step function of time variable, and use constrained nonlinear programming to establish a mathematical model of economical operation which is universally applicable for general cascade hydroelectic power stations, and then the primary factors which affect the value of the time lag are discussed. According to each case of different values of the time lag, the formulas for calculating the gradient of augmented objective functions and other important formulas which will be used in SUMT for optimization are derived. Furthermore, the functional relation between the time lag and the state of operation of cascade hydroelectric power stations is derived. The situations in which the time lag will cause the mutual relation between hydroelectric power stations to change were studied. Finally, the affect that time lag will have on the economical operation of cascade hydroelectric power stations is discussed.

  10. Raptor observations associated with Terror Lake Hydroelectric Project: 1983 annual progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The report discusses the modification to both bald eagles and rough-legged hawk nesting behavior seen in the Terror Lake Hydroelectric Project area during 1983. A...

  11. Small scale hydroelectric power potential in Nevada: a preliminary reconnaissance survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, G.F.; Fordham, J.W.; Richard, K.; Loux, R.

    1981-04-01

    This preliminary reconnaissance survey is intended to: develop a first estimate as to the potential number, location and characteristics of small-scale (50 kW to 15 MW) hydroelectric sites in Nevada; provide a compilation of various Federal and state laws and regulations, including tax and financing regulations, that affect small-scale hydroelectric development and provide information on sources of small-scale hydroelectric generation hardware and consultants/ contractors who do small scale hydroelectric work. The entire survey has been conducted in the office working with various available data bases. The site survey and site evaluation methods used are described, and data are tabulated on the flow, power potential, predicted capital expenditures required, etc. for 61 potential sites with measured flows and for 77 sites with derived flows. A map showing potential site locations is included. (LCL)

  12. 77 FR 21556 - Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project: Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project: Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District; Supplement to Notice of Study Dispute Resolution Technical Conference On March 16, 2012...

  13. Relations among geology, physiography, land use, and stream habitat conditions in the Buffalo and Current River Systems, Missouri and Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panfil, Maria S.; Jacobson, Robert B.

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated links between drainage-basin characteristics and stream habitat conditions in the Buffalo National River, Arkansas and the Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri. It was designed as an associative study - the two parks were divided into their principle tributary drainage basins and then basin-scale and stream-habitat data sets were gathered and compared between them. Analyses explored the relative influence of different drainage-basin characteristics on stream habitat conditions. They also investigated whether a relation between land use and stream characteristics could be detected after accounting for geologic and physiographic differences among drainage basins. Data were collected for three spatial scales: tributary drainage basins, tributary stream reaches, and main-stem river segments of the Current and Buffalo Rivers. Tributary drainage-basin characteristics were inventoried using a Geographic Information System (GIS) and included aspects of drainage-basin physiography, geology, and land use. Reach-scale habitat surveys measured channel longitudinal and cross-sectional geometry, substrate particle size and embeddedness, and indicators of channel stability. Segment-scale aerial-photo based inventories measured gravel-bar area, an indicator of coarse sediment load, along main-stem rivers. Relations within and among data sets from each spatial scale were investigated using correlation analysis and multiple linear regression. Study basins encompassed physiographically distinct regions of the Ozarks. The Buffalo River system drains parts of the sandstone-dominated Boston Mountains and of the carbonate-dominated Springfield and Salem Plateaus. The Current River system is within the Salem Plateau. Analyses of drainage-basin variables highlighted the importance of these physiographic differences and demonstrated links among geology, physiography, and land-use patterns. Buffalo River tributaries have greater relief, steeper slopes, and more

  14. A system dynamics approach for integrated management of the Jucar River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Martin, Adria; Macian-Sorribes, Hector; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    System dynamics (SD) is a modelling approach that allows the analysis of complex systems through the mathematical definition of variables and their relationships. Based on systems thinking, SD is suitable for interdisciplinary studies of the management of complex systems. Over the past 50 years, SD tools have been applied to fields as diverse as economics, ecology, politics, sociology and resource management. Its application to the field of water resources has grown significantly over the last two decades, facilitating the enhancement of models by adding social, economic and ecological components. However, its application to the operation of complex multireservoir systems has been very limited so far. In this contribution, we have developed a SD model for the Jucar River Basin, one of the most vulnerable basins in the western Mediterranean region with regard to droughts. The system has three main reservoirs, which allows for a multiannual management of the storage that compensates the highly variable streamflow from upstream. Our SD model of the Jucar River Basin is able to capture the complexity of the water resource system. The model developed consists of five interlinked subsystems: a) Topology of the system network, including the 3 main reservoirs, water seepage and evaporation, inflows and catchments. b) Monthly operating rules of each reservoir. The rules were derived from the expert knowledge eluded from the operators of the reservoirs. c) Monthly urban, agricultural and environmental water demands. d) State index of the system and drought mitigation measures triggered depending on the state index. e) Mancha Oriental aquifer and stream-aquifer interaction with the Jucar River. The comparison between observed and simulated series showed that the model provides a good representation of the observed reservoir operation and total deficits. The interdisciplinary and open nature of the methodology allows to add new variables and dynamics to the model that are

  15. Fine-resolution Modeling of Urban-Energy Systems' Water Footprint in River Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManamay, R.; Surendran Nair, S.; Morton, A.; DeRolph, C.; Stewart, R.

    2015-12-01

    Characterizing the interplay between urbanization, energy production, and water resources is essential for ensuring sustainable population growth. In order to balance limited water supplies, competing users must account for their realized and virtual water footprint, i.e. the total direct and indirect amount of water used, respectively. Unfortunately, publicly reported US water use estimates are spatially coarse, temporally static, and completely ignore returns of water to rivers after use. These estimates are insufficient to account for the high spatial and temporal heterogeneity of water budgets in urbanizing systems. Likewise, urbanizing areas are supported by competing sources of energy production, which also have heterogeneous water footprints. Hence, a fundamental challenge of planning for sustainable urban growth and decision-making across disparate policy sectors lies in characterizing inter-dependencies among urban systems, energy producers, and water resources. A modeling framework is presented that provides a novel approach to integrate urban-energy infrastructure into a spatial accounting network that accurately measures water footprints as changes in the quantity and quality of river flows. River networks (RNs), i.e. networks of branching tributaries nested within larger rivers, provide a spatial structure to measure water budgets by modeling hydrology and accounting for use and returns from urbanizing areas and energy producers. We quantify urban-energy water footprints for Atlanta, GA and Knoxville, TN (USA) based on changes in hydrology in RNs. Although water intakes providing supply to metropolitan areas were proximate to metropolitan areas, power plants contributing to energy demand in Knoxville and Atlanta, occurred 30 and 90km outside the metropolitan boundary, respectively. Direct water footprints from urban landcover primarily comprised smaller streams whereas indirect footprints from water supply reservoirs and energy producers included

  16. Laboratory QA/QC improvements for small drinking water systems at Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, R.D.

    1995-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), a 310 square mile facility located near Aiken, S.C., is operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company for the US Department of Energy. SRS has 28 separate drinking water systems with average daily demands ranging from 0.0002 to 0.5 MGD. All systems utilize treated groundwater. Until recently, the water laboratories for each system operated independently. As a result, equipment, reagents, chemicals, procedures, personnel, and quality control practices differed from location to location. Due to this inconsistency, and a lack of extensive laboratory OA/QC practices at some locations, SRS auditors were not confident in the accuracy of daily water quality analyses results. The Site`s Water Services Department addressed these concerns by developing and implementing a practical laboratory QA/QC program. Basic changes were made which can be readily adopted by most small drinking water systems. Key features of the program include: Standardized and upgraded laboratory instrumentation and equipment; standardized analytical procedures based on vendor manuals and site requirements; periodic accuracy checks for all instrumentation; creation of a centralized laboratory to perform metals digestions and chlorine colorimeter accuracy checks; off-site and on-site operator training; proper storage, inventory and shelf life monitoring for reagents and chemicals. This program has enhanced the credibility and accuracy of SRS drinking water system analyses results.

  17. ASSESSMENT OF UNCERTAINTY IN THE RADIATION DOSES FOR THE TECHA RIVER DOSIMETRY SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Degteva, M. O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Shagina, N. B.

    2009-10-23

    In order to provide more accurate and precise estimates of individual dose (and thus more precise estimates of radiation risk) for the members of the ETRC, a new dosimetric calculation system, the Techa River Dosimetry System-2009 (TRDS-2009) has been prepared. The deterministic version of the improved dosimetry system TRDS-2009D was basically completed in April 2009. Recent developments in evaluation of dose-response models in light of uncertain dose have highlighted the importance of different types of uncertainties in the development of individual dose estimates. These include uncertain parameters that may be either shared or unshared within the dosimetric cohort, and also the nature of the type of uncertainty as aleatory or epistemic and either classical or Berkson. This report identifies the nature of the various input parameters and calculational methods incorporated in the Techa River Dosimetry System (based on the TRDS-2009D implementation), with the intention of preparing a stochastic version to estimate the uncertainties in the dose estimates. This report reviews the equations, databases, and input parameters, and then identifies the author’s interpretations of their general nature. It presents the approach selected so that the stochastic, Monte-Carlo, implementation of the dosimetry System - TRDS-2009MC - will provide useful information regarding the uncertainties of the doses.

  18. The UP modelling system for large scale hydrology: simulation of the Arkansas-Red River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Kilsby

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The UP (Upscaled Physically-based hydrological modelling system to the Arkansas-Red River basin (USA is designed for macro-scale simulations of land surface processes, and aims for a physical basis and, avoids the use of discharge records in the direct calibration of parameters. This is achieved in a two stage process: in the first stage parametrizations are derived from detailed modelling of selected representative small and then used in a second stage in which a simple distributed model is used to simulate the dynamic behaviour of the whole basin. The first stage of the process is described in a companion paper (Ewen et al., this issue, and the second stage of this process is described here. The model operated at an hourly time-step on 17-km grid squares for a two year simulation period, and represents all the important hydrological processes including regional aquifer recharge, groundwater discharge, infiltration- and saturation-excess runoff, evapotranspiration, snowmelt, overland and channel flow. Outputs from the model are discussed, and include river discharge at gauging stations and space-time fields of evaporation and soil moisture. Whilst the model efficiency assessed by comparison of simulated and observed discharge records is not as good as could be achieved with a model calibrated against discharge, there are considerable advantages in retaining a physical basis in applications to ungauged river basins and assessments of impacts of land use or climate change.

  19. 77 FR 51733 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, New River Gorge National River, Bicycle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... River Gorge on rolling, forested terrain. The trail has been built according to the frontcountry trail... Administrative Road. ] Stone Cliff Trail 2.7 Existing Administrative Road. Terry Top Trail 1.7 Existing... Creek Rail Rend Trail. Trail. Fayetteville Trail Headhouse Trail..... Stone Cliff Trail. Park Loop Trail...

  20. Environmental mitigation at hydroelectric projects. Volume 2, Benefits and costs of fish passage and protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.; Sommers, G.L. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cada, G.F.; Jones, D.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dauble, D.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Hunt, R.T. [Hunt (Richard) Associates, Inc., Concord, NH (United States); Costello, R.J. [Northwest Water Resources Advisory Services (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This study examines envirorunental mitigation practices that provide upstream and downstream fish passage and protection at hydroelectric projects. The study includes a survey of fish passage and protection mitigation practices at 1,825 hydroelectric plants regulated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to determine frequencies of occurrence, temporal trends, and regional practices based on FERC regions. The study also describes, in general terms, the fish passage/protection mitigation costs at 50 non-Federal hydroelectric projects. Sixteen case studies are used to examine in detail the benefits and costs of fish passage and protection. The 16 case studies include 15 FERC licensed or exempted hydroelectric projects and one Federally-owned and-operated hydroelectric project. The 16 hydroelectric projects are located in 12 states and range in capacity from 400 kilowatts to 840 megawatts. The fish passage and protection mitigation methods at the case studies include fish ladders and lifts, an Eicher screen, spill flows, airburst-cleaned inclined and cylindrical wedgewire screens, vertical barrier screens, and submerged traveling screens. The costs, benefits, monitoring methods, and operating characteristics of these and other mitigation methods used at the 16 case studies are examined.

  1. Effluent trading in river systems through stochastic decision-making process: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfagharipoor, Mohammad Amin; Ahmadi, Azadeh

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide an efficient framework for effluent trading in river systems. The proposed framework consists of two pessimistic and optimistic decision-making models to increase the executability of river water quality trading programs. The models used for this purpose are (1) stochastic fallback bargaining (SFB) to reach an agreement among wastewater dischargers and (2) stochastic multi-criteria decision-making (SMCDM) to determine the optimal treatment strategy. The Monte-Carlo simulation method is used to incorporate the uncertainty into analysis. This uncertainty arises from stochastic nature and the errors in the calculation of wastewater treatment costs. The results of river water quality simulation model are used as the inputs of models. The proposed models are used in a case study on the Zarjoub River in northern Iran to determine the best solution for the pollution load allocation. The best treatment alternatives selected by each model are imported, as the initial pollution discharge permits, into an optimization model developed for trading of pollution discharge permits among pollutant sources. The results show that the SFB-based water pollution trading approach reduces the costs by US$ 14,834 while providing a relative consensus among pollutant sources. Meanwhile, the SMCDM-based water pollution trading approach reduces the costs by US$ 218,852, but it is less acceptable by pollutant sources. Therefore, it appears that giving due attention to stability, or in other words acceptability of pollution trading programs for all pollutant sources, is an essential element of their success.

  2. Evidence of the St. Clair-Detroit River system as a dispersal corridor and nursery habitat for transient larval burbot

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Darrin E.; Roseman, Edward F.; Keeler, Kevin M.; DeBruyne, Robin L.; Pritt, Jeremy J.; Thompson, Patricia A.; Ireland, Stacey A.; Ross, Jason E.; Bowser, Dustin; Hunter, Robert D.; Castle, Dana Kristina; Fischer, Jason; Provo, Stacy A.

    2015-01-01

    Burbot Lota lota are distributed across the Laurentian Great Lakes where they occupy a top piscivore role. The St. Clair-Detroit River System is known to provide a migration corridor as well as spawning and nursery habitat for many indigenous fishes of economic and ecological significance. However, knowledge is scant of the early life history of burbot and the importance of this system in their dispersal, survival, and recruitment. In order to assess the role of the St. Clair-Detroit River System to burbot ecology, we collected larval burbot during ichthyoplankton surveys in this system from 2010 to 2013 as part of a habitat restoration monitoring program. More and larger burbot larvae were found in the St. Clair River than in the lower Detroit River, although this may be due to differences in sampling methods between the two rivers. Consistent with existing studies, larval burbot exhibited ontogenesis with a distinct transition from a pelagic zooplankton-based diet to a benthic macroinvertebrate-based diet. Our results demonstrate that the St. Clair-Detroit Rivers provide food resources, required habitat, and a migration conduit between the upper and lower Great Lakes, but the contribution of these fish to the lower lakes requires further examination.

  3. Behind an ambitious megaproject in Asia: The history and implications of the Bakun hydroelectric dam in Borneo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K., E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.sg [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore); Bulan, L.C. [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2011-09-15

    Using a case-study, inductive, narrative approach, this article explores the history, drivers, benefits, and barriers to the Bakun Hydroelectric Project in East Malaysia. Situated on the island of Borneo, Bakun Dam is a 204 m high concrete face, rock filled dam on the Balui River in the Upper Rajang Basin in the rainforests of Sarawak. Bakun Dam and its affiliated infrastructure could be the single largest and most expensive energy project ever undertaken in Southeast Asia. Based on data collected through site visits, original field research in Sarawak, and more than 80 research interviews, the article begins by teasing out the complex history and drivers behind the Bakun project before identifying a set of potential social, political, and economic benefits the project could deliver. It then delves into six sets of barriers in the technical, economic, political, legal and regulatory, social, and environmental realms. We find that Bakun illustrates how centralized energy megaprojects, while ostensibly championed for reasons of economies of scale and the ability to bring about transformational change in the shortest period of time, often fail to address broader development goals such as fighting energy poverty and improving the livelihoods of the local communities they are supposed to serve. - Highlights: > Bakun Dam is concrete face, rock filled dam on the Balui River in the Upper Rajang Basin in the rainforests of Sarawak. > The project faces technical, economic, political, legal and regulatory, social, and environmental barriers. > We conclude the project will fail to fight energy poverty or improve the livelihoods of local populations.

  4. Gonad organochlorine concentrations and plasma steroid levels in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) from the Columbia River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, E.P.; Fitzpatrick, M.S.; Feist, G.W.; Schreck, C.B.; Yates, J.

    2001-01-01

    Sturgeon are an important fishery resource world-wide, providing food and income through commercial, sport, and tribal fisheries. However, sturgeon populations are imperiled in many areas due to overharvest, habitat loss, and pollution. White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are found along the west coast of North America from San Francisco Bay, USA to British Columbia, Canada. The Columbia River, located in the Pacific Northwest USA, supports active commercial, sport, and tribal white sturgeon fisheries. The white sturgeon fishery in the Columbia River estuary is one of the most productive sturgeon fisheries in the World. Despite the success of the Columbia River estuary white sturgeon fishery, the populations within the impounded sections (i.e. behind the hydroelectric dams) of the Columbia River experience poor reproductive success (Beamesderfer et al. 1995). This poor reproductive success has been attributed to hydroelectric development, but water pollution could also be a significant factor. The bottom dwelling life history and late maturing reproductive strategy for this species may make it particularly sensitive to the adverse effects of bioaccumulative pollutants.The Columbia River receives effluent from bleached-kraft pulp mills, aluminum smelters, municipal sewage treatment plants and runoff from agricultural. industrial, and urban areas. Bioaccumulative contaminants that have the potential for endocrine disruption have been detected in fish and sediments from the Columbia River (Foster et al. 1999). An integrated system of hormones control reproduction in vertebrates. Plasma steroids direct developmental events essential for reproduction. Disruption of endocrine control by contaminants has been linked to reproductive anomalies and failure in a number of vertebrate species (Guillette et al. 1996; Jobling et al. 1996). Because of this, it is important to understand if organochlorine compounds are accumulating in Columbia River white sturgeon and having

  5. Urban metabolism and river systems: an historical perspective – Paris and the Seine, 1790–1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Barles

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse metabolic interaction between Paris and the Seine during the industrial era, 1790–1970, a period marked by strong population growth, technological changes, and the absence of specific legislation on environmental issues. The viewpoint focuses on exchanges of waters and wastes between city and river, quantifying them and tracing their evolution in the light of the strategies implemented by the stakeholders in charge. The study combines industrial ecology, local history and the history of technology. From 1790 to 1850, waste matters, and especially excreta, were considered as raw materials, not refuse: they generated real profits. The removal of human excreta aimed not only at improving urban hygiene, but at producing the fertilizers needed in rural areas. Discharging them into the river was out of the question. But after the 1860s, several factors upset this exploitation, notably domestic water supply: night soil became more and more liquid, difficult to handle and to turn into fertilizer; once utilised, the water had to be removed from the house; at the same time, the sewerage system developed and had negative impacts on the river. Even so, Parisian engineers continued to process sewage using techniques that would not only ensure hygiene but also conciliate economic and agricultural interests: combined sewerage system and sewage farms. Both of these early periods are thus noteworthy for a relative limitation of the river's deterioration by urban wastes. Not until the 1920s, when domestic water supply had become the standard and excreta came to be considered as worthless waste, was the principle of valorisation abandoned. This led to important and long-lasting pollution of the Seine (despite the construction of a treatment plant, aggravating the industrial pollution that had been in evidence since the 1840s. Analysing the priorities that led to the adoption of one principle or another in matters of urban

  6. Urban metabolism and river systems: an historical perspective - Paris and the Seine, 1790-1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barles, S.

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse metabolic interaction between Paris and the Seine during the industrial era, 1790-1970, a period marked by strong population growth, technological changes, and the absence of specific legislation on environmental issues. The viewpoint focuses on exchanges of waters and wastes between city and river, quantifying them and tracing their evolution in the light of the strategies implemented by the stakeholders in charge. The study combines industrial ecology, local history and the history of technology. From 1790 to 1850, waste matters, and especially excreta, were considered as raw materials, not refuse: they generated real profits. The removal of human excreta aimed not only at improving urban hygiene, but at producing the fertilizers needed in rural areas. Discharging them into the river was out of the question. But after the 1860s, several factors upset this exploitation, notably domestic water supply: night soil became more and more liquid, difficult to handle and to turn into fertilizer; once utilised, the water had to be removed from the house; at the same time, the sewerage system developed and had negative impacts on the river. Even so, Parisian engineers continued to process sewage using techniques that would not only ensure hygiene but also conciliate economic and agricultural interests: combined sewerage system and sewage farms. Both of these early periods are thus noteworthy for a relative limitation of the river's deterioration by urban wastes. Not until the 1920s, when domestic water supply had become the standard and excreta came to be considered as worthless waste, was the principle of valorisation abandoned. This led to important and long-lasting pollution of the Seine (despite the construction of a treatment plant), aggravating the industrial pollution that had been in evidence since the 1840s. Analysing the priorities that led to the adoption of one principle or another in matters of urban hygiene and techniques

  7. Influence of environmental factors on mercury release in hydroelectric reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, K.; Therien, N.

    1991-04-01

    Due to increased mercury concentrations in fish in hydro-electric reservoirs after flooding, a study was carried out to evaluate the release and transformation of mercury due to vegetation and soil flooded as a result of reservoir creation. Samples of vegetation and soils were immersed in water and concentrations of total mercury, methylmercury and nutrients were followed. The effects of anoxia, pH and temperature on release and transformation were examined. An existing dynamic model of decomposition of flooded materials in reservoirs was modified to include mercury release and transformation, and was calibrated to the experimental data. Amounts of mercury released by the different substrates was of the same order of magnitude. Tree species contributed to the greatest amounts of methylmercury per unit biomass, but the biomass used for these was twigs and foliage. Soil released significant amounts of mercury, but methylation was very low. The model was able to fit well for all substrates except lichen. The model can be adapted to proposed reservoirs to predict nutrient and mecury release and transformation. 175 refs., 38 figs., 38 tabs.

  8. Counter rotating type hydroelectric unit suitable for tidal power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanemoto, T [Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Sensui 1-1, Tobata, Kitakyushu 804-8550 (Japan); Suzuki, T, E-mail: turbo@tobata.isc.kyutech.ac.j [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Sensui 1-1, Tobata, Kitakyushu 804-8550 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    The counter rotating type hydroelectric unit, which is composed of the axial flow type tandem runners and the peculiar generator with double rotational armatures,was proposed to utilize effectively the tidal power. In the unit, the front and the rear runners counter drive the inner and the outer armatures of the generator, respectively. Besides, the flow direction at the rear runner outlet must coincide with the flow direction at the front runner inlet, because the angular momentum through the rear runner must coincides with that through the front runner. That is, the flow runs in the axial direction at the rear runner outlet while the axial inflow at the front runner inlet. Such operations are suitable for working at the seashore with rising and falling tidal flows, and the unit may be able to take place of the traditional bulb type turbines. The tandem runners were operated at the on-cam conditions, in keeping the induced frequency constant. The output and the hydraulic efficiency are affected by the adjustment of the front and the blade setting angles. The both optimum angles giving the maximum output and/or efficiency were presented at the various discharges/heads. To promote more the tidal power generation by this type unit, the runners were also modified so as to be suitable for both rising and falling flows. The hydraulic performances are acceptable while the output is determined mainly by the trailing edge profiles of the runner blades.

  9. Joint Venture Modes of Water Conservancy and Hydroelectric Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiding Chen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available With the long construction period, the giant scope and complex technology, water conservancy and hydroelectric engineering construction has large investment. In the fully competitive water conservancy and hydropower project construction contracting market, it is almost impossible for a company to contract with a water conservancy and hydropower project independently. Therefore, water conservancy and hydropower project construction can be contracted by several construction companies together, to play each company's strengths, lower offer, improve project quality, shorten the construction period and win the competition. In this paper, we started from the definition of Joint Venture, summed up the forms of Joint Venture in water conservancy and hydropower engineering, proposed that the JV modes can be divided into domestic and international union, tight mode, half-tight mode, loose mode, incorporation and consortium. Furthermore, we analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of Joint Venture. Put forward that the JV can relieve the owner from interfacial administrative work, reduce risk of engineering, and raise the success rate of engineering contract, improve the correctness of price and increase the opportunity of project contracting, Learn from other members, enhance technology and management and make full use of idle resources

  10. The Rio Lajas hydroelectric project in Costa Rica; Hydro-Quebec International gained from its Quebec expertise; La centrale Rio Lajas, au Costa Rica; Hydro-Quebec International a mis a profit l`expertise quebecoise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordeau, P.

    1997-08-01

    The participation of Hydro-Quebec International in the construction and development of the Rio Lajas hydroelectric project in Costa Rica was described. The 10 MW Rio Lajas hydroelectric station in Costa Rica is expected to go into operation in September of 1998. The station is owned by the HRL consortium, which is composed of Hydro-Quebec International and Corporacion Superior. Construction of the station was contracted out to SEH Constructora SA, a company composed of the Costarican contractor Saret and two companies from Quebec; Entreprises Bon Conseil and Hydro-Mecanique. The station comprises two horizontal-axis Francis turbines. Turbines and alternators were respectively supplied by Bouvier and GEC Alsthom, two French manufacturers. Considerable attention was given to the control of the Rio Lajas river, whose discharge can vary by as much as 100 times in the steep volcanic terrains. Approximately 15 Hydro-Quebec employees were delegated to Costa Rica to oversee various stages of the project.

  11. The physical and geochemical interaction between a tidally-dominated estuary system (Wassaw Sound, GA) and a river-dominated estuary (Savannah River, GA) through salinity and inorganic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mike Scaboo; Christopher Hintz

    2016-01-01

    The Wilmington, Bull, and Savannah Rivers are interconnected waterways that flow through adjacent Savannah and Wassaw Sound Estuaries. These systems are linked by the upper reaches of the Wilmington River maintained as part of the Intracoastal Waterway. Significant changes to the Savannah River began in December 2014 with the initiation of the Savannah Harbor Expansion...

  12. Urban Floods in Lowlands—Levee Systems, Unplanned Urban Growth and River Restoration Alternative: A Case Study in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Gomes Miguez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of cities has always had a very close relation with water. However, cities directly impact land use patterns and greatly change natural landscapes, aggravating floods. Considering this situation, this paper intends to discuss lowland occupation and city sustainability in what regards urban stormwater management, fluvial space, and river restoration, aiming at minimizing flood risks and improving natural and built environment conditions. River plains tend to be attractive places for a city to grow. From ancient times, levees have been used to protect lowland areas along major watercourses to allow their occupation. However, urban rivers demand space for temporary flood storage. From a systemic point of view, levees along extensive river reaches act as canalization works, limiting river connectivity with flood plains, rising water levels, increasing overtopping risks and transferring floods downstream. Departing from this discussion, four case studies in the Iguaçu-Sarapuí River Basin, a lowland area of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, are used to compose a perspective in which the central point refers to the need of respecting watershed limits and giving space to rivers. Different aspects of low-lying city planning are discussed and analyzed concerning the integration of the built and natural environments.

  13. Ecological sentinels of aquatic contamination in the lower Mississippi River system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bart, H. Jr.; Martinat, P.; Spahn, S. [and others

    1996-05-02

    This project has three major subsections; reports on the progress are detailed in the article. Community and Trophic Responses of fishes to aquatic contamination looks at the fate of environmental contaminants in fish from a lateral floodplain swamp in the lower Mississippi River system and at the ecological risks contaminants pose for fish and other aquatic organisms. Contaminants include cadmium, mercury, nickel, chromium, HCB and HCBC. The second section looks at tree cores of baldcypress as biomarkers of present and past pollution events by heavy metals. The third section evaluates the effects of environmental contamination on colonial wading birds and the usefulness of these birds as indicators of environmental contamination. 3 refs.

  14. The Montana Rivers Information System: Edit/entry program user`s manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    The Montana Rivers Information System (MRIS) was initiated to assess the state`s fish, wildlife, and recreation value; and natural cultural and geologic features. The MRIS is now a set of data bases containing part of the information in the Natural Heritage Program natural features and threatened and endangered species data bases. The purpose of this User`s Manual is to: (1) describe to the user how to maintain the MRIS database of their choice by updating, changing, deleting, and adding records using the edit/entry programs; and (2) provide to the user all information and instructions necessary to complete data entry into the MRIS databases.

  15. Prediction of Francis Turbine Prototype Part Load Pressure and Output Power Fluctuations with Hydroelectric Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alligné, S.; Nicolet, C.; Béguin, A.; Landry, C.; Gomes, J.; Avellan, F.

    2017-04-01

    The prediction of pressure and output power fluctuations amplitudes on Francis turbine prototype is a challenge for hydro-equipment industry since it is subjected to guarantees to ensure smooth and reliable operation of the hydro units. The European FP7 research project Hyperbole aims to setup a methodology to transpose the pressure fluctuations induced by the cavitation vortex rope from the reduced scale model to the prototype generating units. A Francis turbine unit of 444MW with a specific speed value of ν = 0.29, is considered as case study. A SIMSEN model of the power station including electrical system, controllers, rotating train and hydraulic system with transposed draft tube excitation sources is setup. Based on this model, a frequency analysis of the hydroelectric system is performed for all technologies to analyse potential interactions between hydraulic excitation sources and electrical components. Three technologies have been compared: the classical fixed speed configuration with Synchronous Machine (SM) and the two variable speed technologies which are Doubly Fed Induction Machine (DFIM) and Full Size Frequency Converter (FSFC).

  16. Trace metal distributions in the sediments from river-reservoir systems: case of the Congo River and Lake Ma Vallée, Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwanamoki, Paola M; Devarajan, Naresh; Niane, Birane; Ngelinkoto, Patience; Thevenon, Florian; Nlandu, José W; Mpiana, Pius T; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Mubedi, Josué I; Kabele, Christophe G; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

    2015-01-01

    The contamination of drinking water resources by toxic metals is a major problem in many parts of the world, particularly in dense populated areas of developing countries that lack wastewater treatment facilities. The present study characterizes the recent evolution with time of some contaminants deposited in the Congo River and Lake Ma Vallée, both located in the vicinity of the large city of Kinshasa, capital of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Physicochemical parameters including grain size distribution, organic matter and trace element concentrations were measured in sediment cores sampled from Congo River (n = 3) and Lake Ma Vallée (n = 2). The maximum concentration of trace elements in sediment profiles was found in the samples from the sites of Pool Malebo, with the values of 107.2, 111.7, 88.6, 39.3, 15.4, 6.1 and 4.7 mg kg(-1) for Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb, As and Hg, respectively. This site, which is characterized by intense human activities, is especially well known for the construction of numerous boats that are used for regular navigation on Congo River. Concerning Lake Ma Vallée, the concentration of all metals are generally low, with maximum values of 26.3, 53.6, 16.1, 15.3, 6.5 and 1.8 mg kg(-1) for Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb and As, respectively. However, the comparison of the metal profiles retrieved from the different sampled cores also reveals specific variations. The results of this study point out the sediment pollution by toxic metals in the Congo River Basin. This research presents useful tools for the evaluation of sediment contamination of river-reservoir systems.

  17. Tsuwalhkalh Ti Tmicwa (The Land is Ours): Stat'imc Self-Determination in the Face of Large-Scale Hydro-electric Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Sarah Carmen

    In Canada, First Nations asserting authority over their lands are developing diverse strategies to overcome the state''s dogmatic insistence on jurisdictional sovereignty. This movement corresponds to the wider context of the challenges faced by indigenous people to use their own ways of knowing to resist or reformulate legal doctrines and political tenets based on colonial power. Interior Salish Stat'imc people identify themselves through a strong and ongoing social relationship with Sataqwa7, the Fraser River, and the "Valley of Plenty"---now known as the flooded Bridge River Valley---maintained through Stat'imc knowledge and cultural practice and demonstrated by talk of '"the Stat'imc right to fish" and Tsuwalhkalh Ti Tmicwa (The Land is Ours). Stat'imc fishers are prepared to contest and resist any regulatory system that is understood to impact this right to fish while they advocate their own ways of sustainable fishing and water management. Based on ethnographic research in collaboration with Stat'imc people, this thesis explores some of these often successful contestations especially in the context of increasing territorial governance and by example of the rapidly transforming relationship between Stat'imc, BC Hydro and the Province of BC. Interior Salish Stat'imc people are currently navigating through a significant phase of increasing jurisdiction and authority and recognition of (unsettled) territorial property relationships. This very dynamic process is marked by strategic collaborations, compensation for 'infringements' on St'a'imc Title and Rights, and conservation efforts to protect their home. An important example is the changing relationship between Stat'imc people and BC Hydro---a relationship between two groups with radically different cultures and agendas: Stat'imc people in a struggle for self-determination, social justice and cultural survival and BC Hydro, a corporate culture, with the agenda to provide hydro-electric power to BC, maintain

  18. Drivers and Controls of the Zebra Mussel Invasion of the Mississippi-Missouri River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrandi, R.; Mari, L.; Bertuzzo, E.; Gatto, M.; Levin, S. A.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Rinaldo, A.

    2010-12-01

    The zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha has been haunting North American inland waters for the past twenty years. Due to the huge population densities reached by local colonies and the species' unparalleled dispersal ability, the zebra mussel represents a major threat from both an ecological and an economic perspective. We propose a novel ecohydrological model for the invasion of inland waters by this alien species and test it against field data gathered within the Mississippi-Missouri river system in North America. To incorporate both hydrologic controls and anthropogenic drivers of the invasion, the proposed multi-layer network model accounts explicitly for zebra mussel demographic dynamics, hydrologic transport and dispersal due to human activities. We show that hydrologic transport alone is not sufficient to explain the spread of the species at the basin scale. We also quantify the role played by commercial navigation in promoting the initial, selective colonization of the river system and show how recreational boating may have determined the capillary penetration of the species into the water system. The role of post-establishment dispersal mechanisms and the effectiveness of possible prevention measures are also discussed in the context of model sensitivity and robustness to reparameterization.

  19. Flood Frequency Analysis Under Non-stationarity Conditions: the Case of Southern Brazilian Hydroelectric Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartiko, Daniel; Chaffe, Pedro; Bonumá, Nadia

    2017-04-01

    Floods may be strongly affected by climate, land-use, land-cover and water infrastructure changes. However, it is common to model this process as stationary. This approach has been questioned, especially when it involves estimate of the frequency and magnitude of extreme events for designing and maintaining hydraulic structures, as those responsible for flood control and dams safety. Brazil is the third largest producer of hydroelectricity in the world and many of the country's dams are located in the Southern Region. So, it seems appropriate to investigate the presence of non-stationarity in the affluence in these plants. In our study, we used historical flood data from the Brazilian National Grid Operator (ONS) to explore trends in annual maxima in river flow of the 38 main rivers flowing to Southern Brazilian reservoirs (records range from 43 to 84 years). In the analysis, we assumed a two-parameter log-normal distribution a linear regression model was applied in order to allow for the mean to vary with time. We computed recurrence reduction factors to characterize changes in the return period of an initially estimated 100 year-flood by a log-normal stationary model. To evaluate whether or not a particular site exhibits positive trend, we only considered data series with linear regression slope coefficients that exhibit significance levels (pStudent's test. The trend model residuals were analyzed using the Anderson-Darling normality test, the Durbin-Watson test for the independence and the Breusch-Pagan test for heteroscedasticity. Our results showed that 22 of the 38 data series analyzed have a significant positive trend. The trends were mainly in three large basins: Iguazu, Uruguay and Paranapanema, which suffered changes in land use and flow regularization in the last years. The calculated return period for the series that presented positive trend varied from 50 to 77 years for a 100 year-flood estimated by stationary model when considering a planning horizon

  20. The formation and maintenance of single-thread tie channels entering floodplain lakes: observations from three diverse river systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, Joel C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dietrich, William E [UC BERKELEY; Day, Geoff [NEWCREST MINING; Parker, Gary [UNIV OF ILLINOIS

    2009-01-01

    Tie channels connect rivers to floodplain lakes on many lowland rivers and thereby play a central role in floodplain sedimentology and ecology, yet they are generally unrecognized and little studied. here we report the results of field studies focused on tie channel origin and morphodynamics in three contrasting systems: the Middle Fly River, Papua New Guinea, the Lower Mississippi River, and Birch Creek in Alaska. Across these river systems, tie channels vary by an order of magnitude in size but exhibit the same characteristic morphology and appear to develop and evolve by a similar set of processes. In all three systems, the channels are characterized by a narrow, leveed single-thread morphology with maximum width approximately one tenth the width of the mainstem river. The channels typically have a V shaped cross-section, unlike most fluvial channels. These channels develop as lakes become isolated from the river by sedimentation. Narrowing of the connection between river and lake causes a sediment-laden jet to develop. Levees develop along the margins of the jet leading to channel emergence and eventual levee aggradation to the height of the mainstem levees. Bi-directional flow in these channels is common. Outflows from the lake scour sediment and prevent channel blockage. We propose that channel geometry and size are then controlled by a dynamic balance between channel narrowing by suspended sediment deposition and incision and widening by mass failure of banks during outflows. Tie channels are laterally stable and may convey flow for hundreds to a few thousand of years.

  1. Decision support system based on DPSIR framework for a low flow Mediterranean river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangash, Rubab Fatima; Kumar, Vikas; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2013-04-01

    The application of decision making practices are effectively enhanced by adopting a procedural approach setting out a general methodological framework within which specific methods, models and tools can be integrated. Integrated Catchment Management is a process that recognizes the river catchment as a basic organizing unit for understanding and managing ecosystem process. Decision support system becomes more complex by considering unavoidable human activities within a catchment that are motivated by multiple and often competing criteria and/or constraints. DPSIR is a causal framework for describing the interactions between society and the environment. This framework has been adopted by the European Environment Agency and the components of this model are: Driving forces, Pressures, States, Impacts and Responses. The proposed decision support system is a two step framework based on DPSIR. Considering first three component of DPSIR, Driving forces, Pressures and States, hydrological and ecosystem services models are developed. The last two components, Impact and Responses, helped to develop Bayesian Network to integrate the models. This decision support system also takes account of social, economic and environmental aspects. A small river of Catalonia (Northeastern Spain), Francoli River with a low flow (~2 m3/s) is selected for integration of catchment assessment models and to improve knowledge transfer from research to the stakeholders with a view to improve decision making process. DHI's MIKE BASIN software is used to evaluate the low-flow Francolí River with respect to the water bodies' characteristics and also to assess the impact of human activities aiming to achieve good water status for all waters to comply with the WFD's River Basin Management Plan. Based on ArcGIS, MIKE BASIN is a versatile decision support tool that provides a simple and powerful framework for managers and stakeholders to address multisectoral allocation and environmental issues in river

  2. The Dnieper River Aquatic System Radioactive Contamination; Long-tern Natural Attenuation And Remediation History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitsekhovych, Oleg; Laptev, Genadiy; Kanivets, Vladimir; Konoplev, Alexey

    2013-04-01

    Near 27 year passed after the Chernobyl Accident, and the experience gained to study radionuclide behavior in the aquatic systems and to mitigate water contamination are still pose of interest for scientists, society and regulatory austerities. There are different aspects of radionuclide transport in the environment were studied since the Chernobyl fallout in 1986 covered the river catchments, wetlands, river, lakes/reservoirs and reached the Black Sea. The monitoring time series data set and also data on the radionuclides behavior studies in the water bodies (river, lakes and the Black Sea) are available now in Ukraine and other affected countries. Its causation analyses, considering the main geochemical, physical and chemical and hydrological process, governing by radionuclide mobility and transport on the way from the initially contaminated catchments, through the river-reservoir hydrological system to the Black Sea can help in better understanding of the main factors governing be the radionuclide behavior in the environment. Radionuclide washout and its hydrological transport are determined speciation of radionuclides as well as soil types and hydrological mode and also geochemistry and landscape conditions at the affected areas. Mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides are determined by ratio of radionuclide chemical forms in fallout and site-specific environmental characteristics determining rates of leaching, fixation/remobilization as well as sorption-desorption of mobile fraction (its solid-liquid distribution). In many cases the natural attenuation processes governing by the above mentioned processes supported by water flow transportation and sedimentation played the key role in self-rehabilitation of the aquatic ecosystems. The models developed during post-Chernobyl decade and process parameters studies can help in monitoring and remediation programs planed for Fukusima Daichi affected watersheds areas as well. Some most important monitoring data

  3. Migration and degradation of swine farm tetracyclines at the river catchment scale: Can the multi-pond system mitigate pollution risk to receiving rivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiuwen; Guo, Xiao; Hua, Guofen; Li, Guoliang; Feng, Ranran; Liu, Xiaoli

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated the degradation behaviors of swine farm tetracyclines (TCs) at a catchment scale and explored whether multi-pond systems could be beneficial to the interception of TCs so as to reduce the pollution risk to receiving rivers. The occurrence and migration of 12 kinds of tetracycline antibiotics, including their degradation products, were studied in four swine farms of the Meijiang River basin in China. The migration paths of the TCs were examined through sampling and analyzing the soil and/or sediment at different points along the swine wastewater outlet, which included sewer, sewage pond, mixed-canal (stream and sewage), farmland (paddy and upland soil) and finally the river. TC concentrations of all collected samples were obtained by solid phase extraction followed by measurement with high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The results showed that sediment TC concentrations varied greatly in different swine farms, from mg·kg -1 to μg·kg -1 levels. TCs had different decay patterns along different migration paths, such that TCs decayed exponentially in paddy soil, while linearly in sewer and mixed canal. The concentrations of TCs and their degradation products decreased in the order: sewer sediment > sewage pond sediment > mixed-canal sediment > paddy soil > upland soil, indicating that TCs tend to be more easily intercepted and accumulated in water-sediment systems such as ponds. Therefore, the multi-pond system could be an effective way to prevent TCs from migrating into rivers. These results provided essential information for contamination control of antibiotics in aquatic environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Upriver transport of dissolved substances in an estuary and sub-estuary system of the lower James River, Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bo; Shen, Jian; Xu, Hongzhou

    2018-01-01

    The water exchange between the James River and the Elizabeth River, an estuary and sub-estuary system in the lower Chesapeake Bay, was investigated using a 3D numerical model. The conservative passive tracers were used to represent the dissolved substances (DS) discharged from the Elizabeth River. The approach enabled us to diagnose the underlying physical processes that control the expansion of the DS, which is representative of potential transport of harmful algae blooms, pollutants from the Elizabeth River to the James River without explicitly simulating biological processes. Model simulations with realistic forcings in 2005, together with a series of processoriented numerical experiments, were conducted to explore the correlations of the transport process and external forcing. Model results show that the upriver transport depends highly on the freshwater discharge on a seasonal scale and maximum upriver transport occurs in summer with a mean transport time ranging from 15-30 days. The southerly/easterly wind, low river discharge, and neap tidal condition all act to strengthen the upriver transport. On the other hand, the northerly/westerly wind, river pulse, water level pulse, and spring tidal condition act to inhibit the upriver transport. Tidal flushing plays an important role in transporting the DS during spring tide, which shortens the travel time in the lower James River. The multivariable regression analysis of volume mean subtidal DS concentration in the mesohaline portion of the James River indicates that DS concentration in the upriver area can be explained and well predicted by the physical forcings (r = 0.858, p = 0.00001).

  5. Integrated and Sustainable Water Management of Red-Thai Binh Rivers System Under Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, M.; Anghileri, D.; Castelletti, A.; Mason, E.; Micotti, M.; Soncini-Sessa, R.; Weber, E.

    2014-12-01

    Vietnam is currently undergoing a rapid economic and demographic development, characterized by internal migrations from the rural areas to the main cities with increasing water demands to guarantee adequate energy and food productions. Hydropower is the primary renewable energy resource in the country, accounting for 33% of the total electric power production, while agriculture contributes for 18% of the national GDP and employs 70% of the population. To cope with this heterogeneous and fast-evolving context, water resources development and management have to be reconsidered by enlarging their scope across sectors and by adopting effective tools to analyze the potential of current and projected infrastructure along with their operating strategies. This work contributes a novel decision-analytic framework based on Multi-Objective Evolutionary Direct Policy Search (MOE-DPS) to support the design of integrated and sustainable water resources management strategies in the Red-Thai Binh River system. The Red River Basin is the second largest basin of Vietnam, with a total area of about 169,000 km2, and comprises three main tributaries and several reservoirs, namely SonLa and HoaBinh on the Da River, ThacBa and TuyenQuang on the Lo River. These reservoirs are regulated for maximizing hydropower production, mitigating flood primarily in Hanoi, and guaranteeing irrigation water supply to the agricultural districts in the delta. The dimensionality of the system and the number of objectives involved increase the complexity of the problem. We address these challenges by combining the MOE-DPS framework with Gaussian radial basis functions policy approximation and the Borg MOEA, which have been demonstrated to guarantee good solutions quality in such many objective policy design problems. Results show that the proposed framework successfully identified alternative management strategies for the system, which explore different tradeoffs among the multi-sector services involved

  6. Natural flow regimes, nonnative fishes, and native fish persistence in arid-land river systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propst, David L; Gido, Keith B; Stefferud, Jerome A

    2008-07-01

    Escalating demands for water have led to substantial modifications of river systems in arid regions, which coupled with the widespread invasion of nonnative organisms, have increased the vulnerability of native aquatic species to extirpation. Whereas a number of studies have evaluated the role of modified flow regimes and nonnative species on native aquatic assemblages, few have been conducted where the compounding effects of modified flow regimes and established nonnatives do not confound interpretations, particularly at spatial and temporal scales that are relevant to conservation of species at a range-wide level. By evaluating a 19-year data set across six sites in the relatively unaltered upper Gila River basin, New Mexico, USA, we tested how natural flow regimes and presence of nonnative species affected long-term stability of native fish assemblages. Overall, we found that native fish density was greatest during a wet period at the beginning of our study and declined during a dry period near the end of the study. Nonnative fishes, particularly predators, generally responded in opposite directions to these climatic cycles. Our data suggested that chronic presence of nonnative fishes, coupled with naturally low flows reduced abundance of individual species and compromised persistence of native fish assemblages. We also found that a natural flow regime alone was unlikely to ensure persistence of native fish assemblages. Rather, active management that maintains natural flow regimes while concurrently suppressing or excluding nonnative fishes from remaining native fish strongholds is critical to conservation of native fish assemblages in a system, such as the upper Gila River drainage, with comparatively little anthropogenic modification.

  7. Numerical Simulation of Interaction between Groundwater and River for Evaluating Operation Efficiency of Geothermal System in a riverside area, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H. J.; Koh, E. H.; Lee, K. K.

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in new and renewable energy due to the lack of energy resources. Especially, geothermal energy by using groundwater has been studied for its high potential as an energy source. Since groundwater is one of the important factors in geothermal system, it is essential to study securing stable groundwater temperature. In this study, numerical simulations for interaction between groundwater and surface water in Dumulmeori, Korea were carried out. The study site is a small island surrounded by river and open loop ground source heat pump system has been operated near the riverside. Groundwater within the island is immediately influenced by the river. In particular, inflow of river into aquifer causes changes in groundwater temperature depending on the season. These changes lower efficiency of geothermal system which uses stable temperature as heat source. Therefore, understanding the interaction between surface water and groundwater is critical in developing numerical model depending on variable conditions. By estimating groundwater-river interaction, mixing ratio of two water bodies was calculated. The results show that the mixing ratio can demonstrate a dynamic system with variable the interaction between river and groundwater. In addition, since these results can improve understanding of mixing ratio, simulated model is useful to evaluate operation efficiency of geothermal system in this area.

  8. Effects of hyporheic exchange flows on egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, T. P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Geist, D. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Arntzen, E. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Abernethy, C. S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2004-09-01

    The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall Chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period (mid- to late-summer) when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River Chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations (e.g., summer flow augmentation) to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile Chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall Chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas. This was a pilot-scale study to evaluate these relationships under existing operations of Hells Canyon Dam (i.e., without any prescribed manipulations of river discharge) during the 2002–2003 water year.

  9. Developing and testing temperature models for regulated systems: a case study on the Upper Delaware River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jeffrey C.; Maloney, Kelly O.; Schmid, Matthias; McKenna, James E.

    2014-01-01

    well; the HFM model was the most accurate compared other models (RMSE = 0.92, both NSE = 0.98, d = 0.99) and the ARIMA model was least accurate (RMSE = 2.06, NSE = 0.92, d = 0.98); however, all models had an overestimation bias (PBIAS = −4.1 to −10.20). Aside from the one day forecast ARIMA model (md = 0.53), all models forecasted fairly well at the one, three, and five day forecasts (md = 0.77–0.96). Overall, we were successful in developing models predicting daily mean temperature across a broad range of temperatures. These models, specifically the GLScos, ANN, and HFM, may serve as important tools for predicting conditions and managing thermal releases in regulated river systems such as the Delaware River. Further model development may be important in customizing predictions for particular biological or ecological needs, or for particular temporal or spatial scales.

  10. Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Annual Implementation Work Plan for Fiscal Year 1994.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Northwest Power Planning Council (U.S.); Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority

    1994-02-01

    This document is part of Bonneville Power Administration`s program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. The Fiscal Year 1994 (FY 1994) Annual Implementation Work Plan (AIWP) presents Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA`s) plan for implementation of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program). The purpose of the Program is to guide BPA and other federal agencies in carrying out their responsibilities to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife in the Columbia River Basin. Phase I began the work of salmon recovery with certain fast-track measures completed in August 1991. Phase II dealt with Snake and Columbia river flow and salmon harvest and was completed in December 1991. Phase III dealt with system-wide habitat and salmon production issues and was completed in September 1992. Phase IV planning, focusing on resident fish and wildlife, began in August 1993, and was finished and adopted in November 1993. This report provides summaries of the ongoing and new projects for FY 1994 within the areas of juvenile migration, adult migration, salmon harvest, production and habitat, coordinated implementation, monitoring and evaluation, resident fish, and wildlife.

  11. Implications of anthropogenic river stage fluctuations on mass transport in a valley fill aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutt, D.F.; Fleming, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    In humid regions a strong coupling between surface water features and groundwater systems may exist. In these environments the exchange of water and solute depends primarily on the hydraulic gradient between the reservoirs. We hypothesize that daily changes in river stage associated with anthropogenic water releases (such as those from a hydroelectric dam) cause anomalous mixing in the near-stream environment by creating large hydraulic head gradients between the stream and adjacent aquifer. We present field observations of hydraulic gradient reversals in a shallow aquifer. Important physical processes observed in the field are explicitly reproduced in a physically based two-dimensional numerical model of groundwater flow coupled to a simplistic surface water boundary condition. Mass transport simulations of a conservative solute introduced into the surface water are performed and examined relative to a stream condition without stage fluctuations. Simulations of 20 d for both fluctuating river stage and fixed high river stage show that more mass is introduced into the aquifer from the stream in the oscillating case even though the net water flux is zero. Enhanced transport by mechanical dispersion leads to mass being driven away from the hydraulic zone of influence of the river. The modification of local hydraulic gradients is likely to be important for understanding dissolved mass transport in near-stream aquifer environments and can influence exchange zone processes under conditions of high-frequency stream stage changes. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. An integrated optimization method for river water quality management and risk analysis in a rural system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Li, Y P; Huang, G H; Zeng, X T; Nie, S

    2016-01-01

    In this study, an interval-stochastic-based risk analysis (RSRA) method is developed for supporting river water quality management in a rural system under uncertainty (i.e., uncertainties exist in a number of system components as well as their interrelationships). The RSRA method is effective in risk management and policy analysis, particularly when the inputs (such as allowable pollutant discharge and pollutant discharge rate) are expressed as probability distributions and interval values. Moreover, decision-makers' attitudes towards system risk can be reflected using a restricted resource measure by controlling the variability of the recourse cost. The RSRA method is then applied to a real case of water quality management in the Heshui River Basin (a rural area of China), where chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and soil loss are selected as major indicators to identify the water pollution control strategies. Results reveal that uncertainties and risk attitudes have significant effects on both pollutant discharge and system benefit. A high risk measure level can lead to a reduced system benefit; however, this reduction also corresponds to raised system reliability. Results also disclose that (a) agriculture is the dominant contributor to soil loss, TN, and TP loads, and abatement actions should be mainly carried out for paddy and dry farms; (b) livestock husbandry is the main COD discharger, and abatement measures should be mainly conducted for poultry farm; (c) fishery accounts for a high percentage of TN, TP, and COD discharges but a has low percentage of overall net benefit, and it may be beneficial to cease fishery activities in the basin. The findings can facilitate the local authority in identifying desired pollution control strategies with the tradeoff between socioeconomic development and environmental sustainability.

  13. The Toms River Childhood Cancer Cluster: Coupled Groundwater and Water Distribution System Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, J. F.; Normani, S. D.

    2003-12-01

    Toms River, New Jersey is the location of a statistically significant childhood cancer cluster. A 1995 cancer investigation indicated that relative to the state, the Toms River section of Dover Township had excess childhood cancer incidence for all malignant cancers combined, brain and central nervous system (CNS) cancers, and leukemia. Children under the age of five were found to have a seven-fold increase in brain and CNS cancer. The community's concern focused on the possibility that exposure to environmental contaminants may be related to the incidence of these childhood cancers. Two Superfund sites in Dover Township were implicated as having a possible impact on the local water supply. One of these, the Reich Farm site, is a source of contaminants to the aquifer that serves a major well field for Toms River. Contaminants in the aquifer include TCE, PCE and styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) trimer. In 1997, the New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry began an epidemiology study to evaluate the relationship between the environmental exposure pathways and the elevated childhood cancer incidence. Toxicity studies for the SAN trimer were also initiated. Groundwater modeling was undertaken to establish the historical relationship between the Reich Farm site and the municipal well field and to aid in the management and protection of the aquifer and well field to ensure both water quality and quantity. The modeling of the water distribution system for Toms River was also part of the study. Groundwater flow from the Reich Farm Superfund site to the municipal well field for Toms River was modeled for a thirty-year time period using MODFLOW. To account for the growth and development of the well field within the modeling domain, a transient model was constructed. The use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and databases to manage, maintain, and compile field observations for model input and calibration was

  14. Solar energy system performance evaluation - final report for Honeywell OTS 45, Salt River Project, Phoenix, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathur, A K

    1983-09-01

    This report describes the operation and technical performance of the Solar Operational Test Site (OTS 45) at Salt River Project in Phoenix, Arizona, based on the analysis of data collected between April 1981 and March 31, 1982. The following topics are discussed: system description, performance assessment, operating energy, energy savings, system maintenance, and conclusions. The solar energy system at OTS 45 is a hydronic heating and cooling system consisting of 8208 square feet of liquid-cooled flat-plate collectors; a 2500-gallon thermal storage tank; two 25-ton capacity organic Rankine-cycle-engine-assisted water chillers; a forced-draft cooling tower; and associated piping, pumps, valves, controls and heat rejection equipment. The solar system has eight basic modes of operation and several combination modes. The system operation is controlled automatically by a Honeywell-designed microprocessor-based control system, which also provides diagnostics. Based on the instrumented test data monitored and collected during the 8 months of the Operational Test Period, the solar system collected 1143 MMBtu of thermal energy of the total incident solar energy of 3440 MMBtu and provided 241 MMBtu for cooling and 64 MMBtu for heating. The projected net annual electrical energy savings due to the solar system was approximately 40,000 kWh(e).

  15. Po River Basin (Italy) ground water: Resource management problematics. Acque sotterranee del bacino padano: Alcune problematiche di utilizzo e di tutela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuliano, G. (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Rome (Italy). Ist. di Ricerca sulle Acque); Pellegrini, M. (Modena Univ. (Italy))

    1993-06-01

    For Italy's Po River hydrological basin, artificial reservoirs have a great importance, water reserve is about 1600 million cubic meters for the hydroelectric reservoirs and about 76 million cubic meters for irrigation. The Po Plain is made up of quaternary deposits of the main river and its tributaries. The regional aquifer is mainly a monostratum system even though in some locations it is subdivided into several layers. Due to hydro-geological conditions, the high plain, the area of the best quality groundwater, is affected by high vulnerability to pollutants and by the highest density of hazardous sources. The main problems of anthropogenic pollution of groundwater are related to halogenic compounds, nitrates and herbicides. Such a coincidence requires a careful management of water supply, namely, location of new pumping centres, protection of existing sources and finalized use of water resources of different quality.

  16. Ecosystem approach to water resources management using the MIKE 11 modeling system in the Strymonas River and Lake Kerkini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doulgeris, Charalampos; Georgiou, Pantazis; Papadimos, Dimitris; Papamichail, Dimitris

    2012-02-01

    The ability to apply an ecosystem approach to the Strymonas River catchment was investigated using the MIKE 11 modeling system for the simulation of surface water. The Strymonas River catchment is shared mainly between Bulgaria and Greece. The river feeds the artificial Lake Kerkini, a significant wetland ecosystem, and further downstream it outflows to the Gulf of Strymonikos, whose estuary ecosystem is very important for fisheries, biodiversity and tourism. MIKE 11-NAM was used for the simulation of rainfall-runoff process in the Strymonas River catchment and MIKE 11-HD was used to simulate the unsteady flow of the Strymonas River and to apply management rules based on the water level of Lake Kerkini. Two water level management scenarios were investigated. The first scenario referred to the mean daily-observed water level of Lake Kerkini between 1986 and 2006, and the second scenario represented adjustments necessary to fulfill the lake's ecosystem requirements. Under the current water level management practices (Scenario 1), the Strymonas River-Lake Kerkini system has enough water to fulfill its Irrigation Water Requirements (IWR) in normal and wet years while a slight deficit is appeared in dry years; however, both Lake Kerkini and the Strymonas River estuary ecosystems are subject to pressures, since reduction of the forest area has been recorded. Applying the ecosystem approach (Scenario 2), the protection of the riparian forest of Lake Kerkini is achieved while in normal and wet years the IWR are fulfilled and the deficit of the IWR is increased in dry years. Compared to Scenario 1, the pressure of the Strymonas River estuary ecosystem is slightly increased. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Recycling chip thickness screens : relocating a chip screen system from Gold River to Squamish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, D. [Western Pulp Inc., Squamish, BC (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    Western Pulp Inc. acquired a used Chip Thickness Screening and conditioning system at reduced cost in April 2000. It purchased the used screen facility from Bowater's closed down Gold River mill. The advantages of a system similar to the Gold River mill are many: improved yield, improved brown stock washing, reduced bleach chemical consumption, increased pulp strength, improvement of the pulp machine performance, and improved overall quality. The author explained the project that involved moving the entire 1100 ton, 5 story building by barge to the Western Pulp Inc. site located at Squamish. Sandwell Engineering performed the detailed design and the construction phase began soon after. Once on location, the newly acquired facility was set into position and integrated with the remainder of the facilities. For the purpose of proper chip flow and pile management, a new chip reclaim and conveyors were installed. The tie-ins and foundations necessitated special attention to design details. Commonwealth Construction was responsible for the completion of the tie-ins, which took place during the mill annual shutdown. The operation of the new screen facility, which began on December 19, 2000, resulted in lower bleaching costs, energy savings, an increase in production (3.5 per cent in February 2001), as well as a lowering in black liquor solids. Based on the cost savings realized to date, it is expected that the payback period will be one year. 1 tab., 11 figs.

  18. Geographical information system (GIS) mapping of spatio-temporal pollution status of rivers in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemo, Olanike K; Babalobi, Olutayo O

    2008-04-01

    More accurate spatio-temporal predictions of urban environment are needed as a basis for assessing exposures as a part of environmental studies and to inform urban protection policy and management. In this study, an information system was developed to manage the physico-chemical pollution information of Ibadan river system, Oyo State, Southwest Nigeria. The study took into account the seasonal influences of point and non-point discharges on the levels of physico-chemical parameters. The overall sensitivity of the watershed to physicochemical environmental pollution revealed that during dry season, of the 22 (100%) sample points, only 3 (13.6%) were unpolluted; 6 (27.3%) were slightly polluted; 10(45.4%) were moderately polluted; 2 (9.1%) were seriously polluted and 1 (4.5%) was exceptionally polluted. During rainy season, 3 (13.6%) were unpolluted; 7 (31.8%) were slightly polluted; 9 (40.9%) were moderately polluted; 2 (9.1%) were seriously polluted and 1 (4.5%) was exceptionally polluted. There is a considerable environmental risk associated with the present level of pollution of the Ibadan river water body on fish health and biodiversity. This research provides a basis for aquatic management and assist in policy making at national and international levels. Appropriate strategies for the control of point and non-point pollution sources, amendments and enforcement of legislation should be developed.

  19. Drought Impacts on Reservoir Storage and Hydro-electricity Production in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Melo, D. D.; Yin, L.; Wendland, E.

    2015-12-01

    Brazilian hydroelectric plants (HP) generate ~85% of the total electricity in the country (138 GW). More than half of the number largest reservoirs are located in the Southeast/Midwest region, where ~50% of the population (~100 million) lives. The 2014 drought raised several questions about the resilience of the water sources when several urban centers, including Brazilian's largest metropolis (São Paulo, 20 million people), had their water supply threatened. Such drought also affected reservoirs of hydroelectric plants. This study assesses how the storage and, thus the electricity generation, in 14 of the largest reservoirs were affected by drought events within the past 20 years. We computed the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) to identify rainfall anomalies throughout the analyzed period. To evaluate the impacts on surface water, we assessed the changes in total (surface+ subsurface) runoff and soil moisture from Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) and in Total Water Storage (TWS) from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite data. We evaluated the anomalies and significance of the changes in reservoir storage (RS) and electricity generation. The results show that severe dry years (-1.5 < SPI <-2.0) reduce reservoir storage (RS) by up to ~60% of its total capacity. Both electricity generation and reservoir storage showed strong negative trends between 2011 and 2014. Our results also indicate that within the past 20 years, two major depletions in reservoir storage occurred: 2001 and 2014. However, due to lower soil moisture in 2013 compared to that in 2000, distinct impacts were observed on the reservoirs with much stronger impacts on reservoir storage in 2014 relative to those in 2001. No meaningful changes in runoff were shown by GLDAS during the 2014 drought. The observed depletion in the RS in 2014 was similar to that in the TWS, as shown by GRACE data. In 2014, the electricity production by the HP declined by ~20%. As a

  20. Environmental Nitrogen Losses from Commercial Crop Production Systems in the Suwannee River Basin of Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rishi; Hochmuth, George J

    2016-01-01

    The springs and the Suwannee river of northern Florida in Middle Suwanee River Basin (MSRB) are among several examples in this planet that have shown a temporal trend of increasing nitrate concentration primarily due to the impacts of non-point sources such as agriculture. The rate of nitrate increase in the river as documented by Ham and Hatzell (1996) was 0.02 mg N L-1 y-1. Best management practices (BMPs) for nutrients were adopted by the commercial farms in the MSRB region to reduce the amounts of pollutants entering the water bodies, however the effectiveness of BMPs remains a topic of interest and discussion among the researchers, environmental administrators and policy makers about the loads of nitrogen entering into groundwater and river systems. Through this study, an initiative was taken to estimate nitrogen losses into the environment from commercial production systems of row and vegetable crops that had adopted BMPs and were under a presumption of compliance with state water quality standards. Nitrogen mass budget was constructed by quantifying the N sources and sinks for three crops (potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), sweet corn (Zea mays L.) and silage corn (Zea mays L.)) over a four year period (2010-2013) on a large representative commercial farm in northern Florida. Fertilizer N was found to be the primary N input and represented 98.0 ± 1.4, 91.0 ± 13.9, 78.0 ± 17.3% of the total N input for potato, sweet corn, and silage corn, respectively. Average crop N uptake represented 55.5%, 60.5%, and 65.2% of the mean total input N whereas average mineral N left in top 0.3 m soil layer at harvest represented 9.1%, 4.5%, and 2.6% of the mean total input N. Mean environmental N losses represented 35.3%, 34.3%, and 32.7% of the mean total input N for potato, sweet corn, and silage corn, respectively. Nitrogen losses showed a linear trend with increase in N inputs. Although, there is no quick fix for controlling N losses from crop production in MSRB, the

  1. A System Dynamics Model to Improve Water Resources Allocation in the Conchos River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastelum, J. R.; Valdes, J. B.; Stewart, S.

    2005-12-01

    The Conchos river located in Chihuahua state on a semiarid region is the most important Mexican river contributing water deliveries to USA as established by the Water treaty of 1944 signed between Mexico and USA. Historically, Mexico has delivered to UNITED STATES 550 Hm3 (445,549.5 ACF) per year of water since the treaty was established, which is 25% above the yearly water volume Mexico is required to deliver. The Conchos river has contributed with 54% of the historic Mexican water treaty deliveries to the UNITED STATES, which represents the highest percentage of the 6 Mexican rivers considered on the water treaty. However, during drought situations the basin has proven to be vulnerable, for instance, because of the severe drought of the 90's, several cities in 1992 on Chihuahua state where declared disaster areas, and from 1992 to 2001 Mexico had accumulated a water treaty deficit of 2111.6 Hm3 (1,710,586 ACF). This has conduced to economic, social, and political difficulties in both countries. Because of the cited problematic and considering the poor understanding of the relationship between water supply and demand factors on the basin, a decision support system (DSS) has been developed aimed to improve the decision making process related with the water resources allocation process. This DSS has been created using System Dynamics (SD). It is a semi-distributed model and is running on monthly time step basis. For both the short and long term, three important water resources management strategies have been evaluated: several water allocation policies from reservoirs to water users; bulk water rights transfers inside and outside Irrigation Districts; and improvement of water distribution efficiencies. The model results have provided very useful regard to gain more quantitative understanding of the different strategies being implemented. They have also indicated that the different water resources alternatives change its degree of importance according to the

  2. Simulating on water storage and pump capacity of "Kencing" river polder system in Kudus regency, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyudi, Slamet Imam; Adi, Henny Pratiwi; Santoso, Esti; Heikoop, Rick

    2017-03-01

    Settlement in the Jati District, Kudus Regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia, is growing rapidly. Previous paddy fields area turns into new residential, industrial and office buildings. The rain water collected in small Kencing river that flows into big Wulan River. But the current condition, during high rain intensity Wulan river water elevation higher than the Kencing river, so that water can not flow gravity and the area inundated. To reduce the flooding, required polder drainage system by providing a long channel as water storage and pumping water into Wulan river. How to get optimal value of water storage volume, drainage system channels and the pump capacity? The result used to be efficient in the operation and maintenance of the polder system. The purpose of this study is to develop some scenarios water storage volume, water gate operation and to get the optimal value of operational pumps removing water from the Kencing River to Wulan River. Research Method is conducted by some steps. The first step, it is done field orientation in detail, then collecting secondary data including maps and rainfall data. The map is processed into Watershed or catchment area, while the rainfall data is processed into runoff discharge. Furthermore, the team collects primary data by measuring topography to determine the surface and volume of water storage. The analysis conducted to determine of flood discharge, water channel hydraulics, water storage volume and pump capacity corresponding. Based on the simulating of long water storage volume and pump capacity with some scenario trying, it can be determined optimum values. The results used to be guideline in to construction proses, operation and maintenance of the drainage polder system.

  3. Phosphorus characteristics, distribution, and relationship with environmental factors in surface sediments of river systems in Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenqiang; Jin, Xin; Zhu, Xiaolei; Shan, Baoqing; Zhao, Yu

    2016-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for aquatic organisms. However, too much P discharged into limnetic ecosystems can induce eutrophication. The concentration of P in freshwater ecosystems has escalated in Eastern China due to overuse of fertilizer and excess emission of sewage, which is the result of the development of industry and agriculture in this area. However, little is known about the P characteristics and its environmental factors in river systems. Here, we present the results of P characterization and its relationships with environmental factors in Eastern China by applying SMT and (31)P-NMR methods. The results showed that the concentrations of P in surface sediments varied with the river system, and more than 50 % of the samples had P concentrations exceeding 500 mg kg(-1). HCl-Pi was the dominant Pi in surface sediments, with the highest percentage (96.5 %) in the Yellow River System. Mono-P was the dominant Po in river sediments, followed by DNA-P. The PCA approach indicated that NaOH-Pi and ortho-P clustered in one group, with a second group including mono-P, diesters-P, and HCl-Pi. Phon-P and pyro-P belonged to different groups. On a regional scale, NaOH-Pi and Po showed a negative relationship with pH in sediments. Continuous eutrophication was induced by the presence of dams, and oxygen-consuming pollutants, such as NH3-N and CODcr, even when external P input was cut in heavily polluted rivers. The research revealed the characteristics of P in different river systems and proposed a conceptual model of P biogeochemical cycles in heavily polluted rivers. Results from this study may provide insight into P characteristics in Eastern China and would set a scientific basis for effective P management in developing countries.

  4. Progress Report: Chemical contaminants study of the Withlacoochee/Upper Suwannee River Systems reconnaissance field evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Withlacoochee/Upper Suwannee River component of the Suwannee River Basin contains valuable habitat utilized by important trust resources, as well as species of...

  5. Local models for rainstorm-induced hazard analysis on Mediterranean river-torrential geomorphological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Diodato

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Damaging hydrogeomorphological events are defined as one or more simultaneous phenomena (e.g. accelerated erosions, landslides, flash floods and river floods, occurring in a spatially and temporal random way and triggered by rainfall with different intensity and extent. The storm rainfall values are highly dependent on weather condition and relief. However, the impact of rainstorms in Mediterranean mountain environments depend mainly on climatic fluctuations in the short and long term, especially in rainfall quantity. An algorithm for the characterisation of this impact, called Rainfall Hazard Index (RHI, is developed with a less expensive methodology. In RHI modelling, we assume that the river-torrential system has adapted to the natural hydrological regime, and a sudden fluctuation in this regime, especially those exceeding thresholds for an acceptable range of flexibility, may have disastrous consequences for the mountain environment. RHI integrate two rainfall variables based upon storm depth current and historical data, both of a fixed duration, and a one-dimensionless parameter representative of the degree ecosystem flexibility. The approach was applied to a test site in the Benevento river-torrential landscape, Campania (Southern Italy. So, a database including data from 27 events which have occurred during an 77-year period (1926-2002 was compared with Benevento-station RHI(24h, for a qualitative validation. Trends in RHIx for annual maximum storms of duration 1, 3 and 24h were also examined. Little change is observed at the 3- and 24-h duration of a storm, but a significant increase results in hazard of a short and intense storm (RHIx(1h, in agreement with a reduction in return period for extreme rainfall events.

  6. PermVeg: A model to design crop sequences for permanent vegetable production systems in the Red River Delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham Thi Thu Huong, Huong; Everaarts, A.P.; Berg, van den W.; Neeteson, J.J.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    The constraints in current vegetable production systems in the Red River Delta, Vietnam, in which vegetables are rotated with flooded rice, called for the design of alternative systems of permanent vegetable production. The practical model, PermVeg, was developed to generate vegetable crop sequences

  7. Linking Flow Regime, Floodplain Lake Connectivity and Fish Catch in a Large River-Floodplain System, the Volga-Akhtuba Floodplain (Russian Federation)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfshaar, van de K.E.; Middelkoop, H.; Addink, E.; Winter, H.V.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    River-floodplain systems are amongst the most productive—but often severely impacted—aquatic systems worldwide. We explored the ecological response of fish to flow regime in a large river-floodplain system by studying the relationships between (1) discharge and inundated floodplain area, with a

  8. South Fork Clearwater River Habitat Enhancement, Crooked and Red Rivers : Annual Report, 1989.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, William H.

    1990-01-01

    In 1983, the Nez Perce National Forest and the Bonneville Power Administration entered into an interagency agreement to enhance and improve habitat for two anadromous fish species, spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawyscha) and summer steelhead trout (Onchorhyncus mykiss), in the South Fork Clearwater River tributaries. The South Fork Clearwater River was dammed in 1927 for hydroelectric development. Anadromous fish runs were virtually eliminated until the dam was removed in 1962. To complicate the problem, upstream spawning and rearing habitats were severely impacted by dredge and hydraulic mining, road building, timber harvest, and over-grazing. Fish habitat improvement projects under the above contract are being carried out in two major tributaries to the South Fork Clearwater River. Both the Red River and the Crooked River projects began in 1983 and will be completed in 1990. 12 figures., 1 tab.

  9. Impact of Land Use on River Systems in Ghana | Ayivor | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rivers play significant roles in the provision of water for domestic and industrial purposes. Nevertheless, land use dynamics continue to impact on river catchments which have negative repercussions for river health. This study focuses on land use change in the Okyeman Traditional Area, which encompasses three major ...

  10. Sediment management of run-of-river hydroelectric power project in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. NEENA ISAAC1 2 T I ELDHO1. Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076, India; Central Water and Power Research Station, Khadakwasla, Pune 411024, India ...

  11. 78 FR 45918 - Application for Presidential Permit; Soule River Hydroelectric Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... comparable open access and non-discrimination that apply to transmission in interstate commerce. DOE has... non-discrimination contained in the Federal Power Act and articulated in Federal Energy Regulatory... person seeking to become a party to this proceeding must file a ] motion to intervene at the address...

  12. Montana Rivers Information System : Edit/Entry Program User's Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks

    1992-07-01

    The Montana Rivers Information System (MRIS) was initiated to assess the state`s fish, wildlife, and recreation value; and natural cultural, and geologic features. The MRIS is now a set of data bases containing part of the information in the Natural Heritage Program natural features and threatened and endangered species data bases and comprises of the Montana Interagency Stream Fisheries Database; the MDFWP Recreation Database; and the MDFWP Wildlife Geographic Information System. The purpose of this User`s Manual is to describe to the user how to maintain the MRIS database of their choice by updating, changing, deleting, and adding records using the edit/entry programs; and to provide to the user all information and instructions necessary to complete data entry into the MRIS databases.

  13. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study, Weiss Building & Development, LLC., System Home, River Forest, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-09-01

    The Passive House Challenge Home located in River Forest, Illinois, is a 5-bedroom, 4.5-bath, 3,600 ft2 two-story home (plus basement) that costs about $237 less per month to operate than a similar sized home built to the 2009 IECC. For a home with no solar photovoltaic panels installed, it scored an amazingly low 27 on the Home Energy Rating System (HERS) score.An ENERGY STAR-rated dishwasher, clothes washer, and refrigerator; an induction cooktop, condensing clothes dryer, and LED lighting are among the energy-saving devices inside the home. All plumbing fixtures comply with EPA WaterSense criteria. The home was awarded a 2013 Housing Innovation Award in the "systems builder" category.

  14. Final Technical Report. Upgrades to Alabama Power Company Hydroelectric Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crew, James F. [Southern Company Generation, Birmingham, AL (United States). Hydro Services; Johnson, Herbie N. [Southern Company Generation, Birmingham, AL (United States). Hydro Services

    2015-03-31

    From 2010 to 2014, Alabama Power Company (“Alabama Power”) performed upgrades on four units at three of the hydropower developments it operates in east-central Alabama under licenses issued by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (“FERC”). These three hydropower developments are located on the Coosa River in Coosa, Chilton, and Elmore counties in east-central Alabama.

  15. Distribution, source identification, and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in wetland soils of a river-reservoir system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoliang; Xiong, Ziqian; Liu, Hui; Liu, Guihua; Liu, Wenzhi

    2017-01-01

    The majority of rivers in the world have been dammed, and over 45,000 large reservoirs have been constructed for multiple purposes. Riparian and reservoir shorelines are the two most important wetland types in a dammed river. To date, few studies have concerned the heavy metal pollution in wetland soils of these river-reservoir systems. In this study, we measured the concentrations of ten heavy metals (Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn) in surface soils collected from riparian and reservoir shorelines along the Han River in different seasons. Our results found that the Co, Cu, and Ni concentrations in riparian wetlands were significantly lower than those in reservoir shorelines. In riparian wetlands, only soil Sr concentration significantly increased after summer and autumn submergence. Multivariate statistical analyses demonstrated that Ba and Cd might originate from industrial and mining sources, whereas Sr and Mn predominantly originated from natural rock weathering. The ecological risk assessment analysis indicated that both riparian and reservoir shorelines along the Han River in China exhibited a moderate ecological risk in soil heavy metals. The upper Han River basin is the water resource area of China's Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project. Therefore, to control the contamination of heavy metals in wetland soils, more efforts should be focused on reducing the discharge of mining and industrial pollutants into the riparian and reservoir shorelines.

  16. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Main Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.); United States. Bonneville Power Administration; United States. Army. Corps of Engineers. North Pacific Division; United States. Bureau of Reclamation. Pacific Northwest Region.

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) Final EIS addresses four actions: (a) need to develop coordinated strategy for managing the multiple uses of the Federal Columbia River system (System Operating Strategy [SOS]); (b) need to provide interested parties other than management agencies with a long-term role in system planning (Forum); (c) need to renew or change current Canadian Entitlement Allocation Agreements (CEAA); and (d) need to renegotiate and renew the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA). SOS alternatives analyzed are: (1) operation prior to Endangered Species Act listings of salmon stocks; (2) current operations (no action); (3) stable storage project operation; (4) natural river operation; (5) fixed drawdown; (6) operating strategies proposed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Marine Fisheries Service, State fisheries agencies, Native American tribes, and Federal operating agencies; and (7) Preferred Alternative. The seven Forum alternatives analyzed are: (1) decisionmaking by the SOR lead agencies (preferred alternative); (2) decisionmaking by SOR lead agencies and recommendations by an existing regional entity; (3) decisionmaking by SOR lead agencies and recommendations by a new regional entity; (4) decisionmaking by a Federal consultation forum; (5) decisionmaking by a new entity; (6) decisionmaking by one Federal operating agency; (7) decisionmaking by a Federal agency other than an operating agency. PNCA alternatives analyzed are: (1) no replacement contract; (2) contract to maximize regional power benefits; (3) roll over existing PNCA; (4) current PNCA with modified operating procedures (preferred alternative); (5) current PNCA with nonpower modifications. CEAA alternatives include: (1) no action (no replacement of current allocation agreements); (2) entitlement allocation: 55 percent Federal; 45 percent non-Federal; (3) entitlement allocation: 70 percent Federal, 30 percent non-Federal (preferred alternative); (4) no agreement.

  17. Vegetation-controlled modern anastomosing system of the upper Narew River (NE Poland) and its sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradziński, Ryszard; Baryła, Janusz; Doktor, Marek; Gmur, Dariusz; Gradziński, Michał; Kędzior, Artur; Paszkowski, Mariusz; Soja, Roman; Zieliński, Tomasz; Żurek, Sławomir

    2003-04-01

    The anastomosing system of the upper Narew River consists of a network of interconnected channels. The channels are relatively deep (width/depth ratio 2-10), straight to sinuous, and they lack natural levees. They are characterised by a low water slope and very low stream power. The river is distinctly bedload-dominated and the transport of suspended clastic fines is minimal. Channel deposits consist almost exclusively of medium- to coarse-grained sand. Laterally extensive interchannel areas are flat and covered with peat-forming vegetation. These stable wetlands are flooded for many weeks during high water stages. Except for the channels, the valley fill consists of peat layer reaching 4 m in thickness. The rate of vertical aggradation of the peat deposit is estimated at 1-1.5 mm/year. The radiocarbon dating indicates that the peat layer is predominantly late Holocene in age. The impact of vegetation on the system is overwhelming. Vegetation produces an erosion-resistant peat layer, stabilizes channel banks and slows down the water flow. Vegetation also stimulates aggradation of bedload material on the channel bottom, and contributes to avulsion by blocking the channels. The channel network owes its origin to repeated though infrequent avulsion. Avulsion in the studied system is a small-scale, gradational and slow process. New channels evolve very slowly because of unfavourable hydrologic conditions and the presence of a resistant peat substratum. A new channel eventually intercepts only a part of the flow, while the old channel is still active, though to a limited extent. Although newly formed channels might subsequently be abandoned, long-lasting ones predominate within the system.

  18. Streamflow response to glacier melt and related fluvial sediment transport in a proglacial Alpine river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morche, D.; Schuchardt, A.; Baewert, H.; Weber, M.; Faust, M.

    2016-12-01

    Glaciers in the European Alps are retreating since the end of the Little Ice Age around 1850. Where the glaciers shrink, they leave unconsolidated sediment stores (moraines, till, glacifluvial deposits). These sediment stores are highly vulnerable for being subsequently eroded and are thus a key variable (source) in the fluvial sediment budget of proglacial areas. The fluvial system in proglacial areas is more or less continuously fed with (fine) sediment by glacial melt water (glacial milk) during the ablation period and infrequently (e.g. during rainstorm events) supplied with sediment by landslides, debris flows, rock fall or fluvial transport from the slopes. A part of the sediment input is temporary stored in intermitted sinks, such as the river bed, bars or braid plains. These storages can be reworked and then become sources for fluvial sediment transport mainly during floods. These sediment transporting processes are highly variable in both, the temporal and spatial scale. A research project has been set up in the Kaunertal valley, Austrian Alps. The presented part of this joint project is focussed on the quantification of recent fluvial sediment dynamics in the proglacial Fagge River below the glacier Gepatschferner. The glacier is located in the Eastern European Alps at the south end of the Kaunertal valley covering an area of 15.7 km² (2012) and is drained by the Fagge River. During the years 2012 to 2015 the Gepatschferner has shown an accelerated glacial retreat leading to the exposure of unconsolidated sediments as well as bedrock areas. The main aim of the presented part of the joint project is the investigation of the fluvial sediment transport rates in the proglacial Fagge River in the Kaunertal valley. Sediment output of the glacial meltwater stream was measured during the ablation periods at a gauging station installed in front of the glacier outlet. Water level was recorded every 15 minutes and discharge measurements were made at diffe