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Sample records for river formation water

  1. Investigation of trihalomethanes formation potential in Karoon River water, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fooladvand, Moradali; Ramavandi, Bahman; Zandi, Keyvan; Ardestani, Mojtaba

    2011-07-01

    Organic matters in raw water have a potential to generate harmful disinfection by-products such as trihalomethanes (THMs) during the chlorination process. The objectives of this study were to investigate the trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) in Karoon River water and to determine the effect of several factors including total organic carbon (TOC), pH, chlorine dosage, water temperature, and seasonal variation. The results showed that, among all factors, TOC and water temperature have a remarkable effect on THMFP. The experimental results from batch studies indicated that increasing of pH value yielded a greater THMFP concentration for Karoon River water. THMFP levels of Karoon River water in summer times, when water temperature exceeded 26°C, were 1.2-1.6 times higher than in the spring and fall seasons, when water temperature was below 15°C. It was found that the measured THMFP at Karoon River water in the spring and fall seasons were very rarely higher than 100 μg/L.

  2. Effect of water quality and operational parameters on trihalomethanes formation potential in Dez River water, Iran

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    Bahman Ramavandi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the influence of the total organic carbon (TOC content, chlorine quantity, water temperature, bromide ion concentration, and seasonal variations on trihalomethanes (THMs formation potential (THMFP in Dez River water in Iran. The water temperature and TOC content had a significant effect on THMFP. Further, the experimental results showed that increasing the concentration of bromide ions enhances the formation of dibromochloromethane and bromoform. It was found that the THMFP in Dez River water during summer times was relatively higher than 100 µg/L, maximum contaminant level for THMs in drinking water. By increasing the reaction time until 80 h, the THMFP was gradually increased and reached to 177.4 µg/L. The most abundant fraction of natural organic matter in the river was hydrophobic acid fraction (49.4 μg/L. Overall, our study demonstrated that however the THMFP of Dez River water was relatively high but a usual waterworks could effectively reduce THMFP.

  3. Green River Formation water flood demonstration project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, B.I.; Dyer, J.E.; Lomax, J.D. [Inland Resources, Inc. (United States)]|[Lomax Exploration Co., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, M.D. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Fuels Engineering

    1996-11-01

    The objectives of the project were to understand the oil production mechanisms in the Monument Butte unit via reservoir characterization and reservoir simulations and to transfer the water flooding technology to similar units in the vicinity, particularly the Travis and the Boundary units. The reservoir characterization activity in the project basically consisted of extraction and analysis of a full diameter core, Formation Micro Imaging (FMI) logs from several wells and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) logs from two wells. In addition, several side-wall cores were drilled and analyzed, oil samples from a number of wells were physically and chemically characterized (using high-temperature gas chromatography), oil-water relative permeabilities were measured and pour points and cloud points of a few oil samples were determined. The reservoir modeling activity comprised of reservoir simulation of all the three units at different scales and near well-bore modeling of the wax precipitation effects. The reservoir simulation activities established the extent of pressurization of the sections of the reservoirs in the immediate vicinity of the Monument Butte unit. This resulted in a major expansion of the unit and the production from this expanded unit increased from about 300 barrels per day to about 2,000 barrels per day.

  4. The Niobrara Formation as a challenge to water quality in the Arkansas River, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Carleton R.; Stogner, Sr., Robert W.

    2017-01-01

    Study regionArkansas River, east of the Rocky Mountains.Study focusCretaceous sedimentary rocks in the western United States generally pose challenges to water quality, often through mobilization of salts and trace metals by irrigation. However, in the Arkansas River Basin of Colorado, patchy exposure of multiple Cretaceous formations has made it difficult to identify which formations are most problematic. This paper examines water quality in surface-water inflows along a 26-km reach of the Arkansas River relative to the presence or absence of the Cretaceous Niobrara Formation within the watershed.New hydrological insights for the regionPrincipal component analysis (PCA) shows Niobrara-influenced inflows have distinctive geochemistry, particularly with respect to Na, Mg, SO42−, and Se. Uranium concentrations are also greater in Niobrara-influenced inflows. During the irrigation season, median dissolved solids, Se, and U concentrations in Niobrara-influenced inflows were 83%, 646%, and 55%, respectively, greater than medians where Niobrara Formation surface exposures were absent. During the non-irrigation season, which better reflects geologic influence, the differences were more striking. Median dissolved solids, Se, and U concentrations in Niobrara-influenced inflows were 288%, 863%, and 155%, respectively, greater than median concentrations where the Niobrara Formation was absent. Identification of the Niobrara Formation as a disproportionate source for dissolved solids, Se, and U will allow for more targeted studies and management, particularly where exposures underlie irrigated agriculture.

  5. Trihalomethane formation during water disinfection in four water supplies in the Somes river basin in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristoiu, Dumitru; von Gunten, Urs; Mocan, Aurel; Chira, Romeo; Siegfried, Barbara; Haydee Kovacs, Melinda; Vancea, Sidonia

    2009-08-01

    After the discovery of chloroform in drinking water, an extensive amount of work has been dedicated to the factors influencing the formation of halogenated disinfections by-products (DBPs). The disinfection practice can vary significantly from one country to another. Whereas no disinfectant is added to many water supplies in Switzerland or no disinfectant residual is maintained in the distribution system, high disinfectant doses are applied together with high residual concentrations in the distribution system in other countries such as the USA or some southern European countries and Romania. In the present study, several treatment plants in the Somes river basin in Romania were investigated with regard to chlorine practice and DBP formation (trihalomethanes (THMs)). Laboratory kinetic studies were also performed to investigate whether there is a relationship between raw water dissolved organic matter, residual chlorine, water temperature and THM formation. Drinking water samples were collected from different sampling points in the water treatment plant (WTP) from Gilau and the corresponding distribution system in Cluj-Napoca and also from Beclean, Dej and Jibou WTPs. The water samples were collected once a month from July 2006 to November 2007 and stored in 40-mL vials closed with Teflon lined screw caps. Water samples were preserved at 4 degrees C until analysis after sodium thiosulfate (Na(2)S(2)O(3)) had been added to quench residual chlorine. All samples were analysed for THMs using headspace GC-ECD between 1 and 7 days after sampling. The sample (10 mL) was filled into 20-mL headspace vials and closed with a Teflon-lined screw cap. Thereafter, the samples were equilibrated in an oven at 60 degrees C for 45 min. The headspace (1 mL) was then injected into the GC (Cyanopropylphenyl Polysiloxane column, 30 m x 53 mm, 3 microm film thickness, Thermo Finnigan, USA). The MDLs for THMs were determined from the standard deviation of eight standards at 1 microg/L. The

  6. Effect of Pre-ozonation on Haloacetic Acids Formation in Ganga River Water at Kanpur, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naladala, Nagasrinivasa Rao; Singh, Rambabu; Katiyar, Kumud Lata Devi; Bose, Purnendu; Dutta, Venkatesh

    2017-11-01

    Almost all natural water bodies which are considered to be sustainable sources of drinking water contain organic matter in dissolved form and pathogens. This dissolved organic matter and pathogens cannot be removed effectively through traditional filtering processes in drinking water treatment plants. Chlorination of such water for disinfection results in large amounts of disinfection by-products (DBPs), mainly trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids (HAAs), which showed many health effects like cancer and reproductive problems in lab animals and in human beings as well. Complete removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which is a precursor compound for HAAs formation, is impossible from a practical point of view; hence, it will be better if DOC activity towards DBPs formation can be reduced via some process. The present article describes the process of pre-ozonating post-coagulated Ganga River water at Kanpur in a continuous flow mode and its effect on HAAs formation. Nearly 58% reduction in HAAs formation was observed during this study at higher doses of ozone.

  7. Modelling of Disinfection by-products formation via UV irradiation of the water from Tajan River (source water for Sari drinking water, Iran)

    OpenAIRE

    Allahbakhsh Javid; Aliakbar Roudbari; Ahmad Reza Yari

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims of the Study Irradiation with ultraviolet light (UV) is used for the disinfection of bacterial contaminants in the production of potable water. The main objective of the study was to investigate and model Disinfection By-Products (DBPs) formation due to the UV Irradiation of the Tajan River water under different Irradiation conditions. Materials & Methods:  Water samples were collected throughout September 2011 to August 2013. Transportation of the sampl...

  8. [Effects of different pre-oxidants on DBPs formation potential by chlorination and chloramination of Yangtze River raw water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fu-Xiang; Xu, Bin; Rong, Rong; Chen, Ying-Ying; Zhang, Tian-Yang; Zhu, He-Zhen

    2014-02-01

    Yangtze River raw water from Yangshupu Water Plant, Shanghai was studied in this paper for reduced formation potential of chlorination and chloramination disinfection by-products (DBPs) after pre-oxidation by three kinds of common pre-oxidants, whiich were potassium permanganate, chlorine and chlorine dioxide. Results of chlorination showed that removal effectiveness of all the selected oxidants on total chlorination DBPs was not significant, and the reduction percentages by ClO2, Cl2 and KMnO4 were 8.4%, 5.7% and 3.9%, respectively. The order of DBPs control effect was ClO2, > Cl2 > KMnO4. As to Yangtze River raw water in case of chlorine disinfection, using ClO2 as pre-oxidation agent showed relatively better effect on removal of DBPs. However, chloramination results demonstrated that impacts of the three preoxidants on DBPs formation potential were quite different, and the reduction percentages by ClO2 and KMnO4 were 18.1% and 4.1%, respectively, while pre-chlorination increased the potential by 12.3%. These results revealed that ClO2 had the highest removal effectiveness, meanwhile pre-chlorination should be avoided due to its notable increase in DBPs formation.

  9. Modelling of Disinfection by-products formation via UV irradiation of the water from Tajan River (source water for Sari drinking water, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahbakhsh Javid

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study Irradiation with ultraviolet light (UV is used for the disinfection of bacterial contaminants in the production of potable water. The main objective of the study was to investigate and model Disinfection By-Products (DBPs formation due to the UV Irradiation of the Tajan River water under different Irradiation conditions. Materials & Methods:  Water samples were collected throughout September 2011 to August 2013. Transportation of the sample to the laboratory was done on ice in a cooler, and physiochemical analysis was conducted immediately within one day. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC was determined by a TOC analyzer. Irradiation experiments were conducted in a series of 25 mL glass serum bottles with Teflon septa. The present study adopts an orthogonal design. The design involved irradiation with UV at a UV/DOC ratio of 0.5–3.0 and incubating (headspace-free storage for 5–25 sec. A 1 mM phosphate buffer maintained the pH at 6, 7, or 8 respectively, and an incubator maintained the temperature (Temp at 15, 20, or 25 °C respectively. The development of empirical models for DBPs formation used a multivariate regression procedure (stepwise which applied the SPSS System for Windows (Version 16.0. Results:  The results showed that the total DBPs formation ranged between 12.3 and 67.4 mg/l and that control of the levels was primarily due to the reaction time and the dissolved organic carbon level (DOC in the water. Conclusions:  Reaction time and level of DOC concentrations in water exerted a dominant influence on the formation of DBPs during the UV irradiation of water from the Tajan River. The relationships between the measured and predicted values were satisfactory with R 2 values ranging from 0.89 (for Octanal–0.92 (for Formaldehydes. The DOC level in water is the key factor in controlling DBPs formation.

  10. Role of water in hydrocarbon generation from Type-I kerogen in Mahogany oil shale of the Green River Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewan, M.D.; Roy, S.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrous and anhydrous closed-system pyrolysis experiments were conducted on a sample of Mahogany oil shale (Eocene Green River Formation) containing Type-I kerogen to determine whether the role of water had the same effect on petroleum generation as reported for Type-II kerogen in the Woodford Shale. The experiments were conducted at 330 and 350??C for 72h to determine the effects of water during kerogen decomposition to polar-rich bitumen and subsequent bitumen decomposition to hydrocarbon-rich oil. The results showed that the role of water was more significant in bitumen decomposition to oil at 350??C than in kerogen decomposition to bitumen at 330??C. At 350??C, the hydrous experiment generated 29% more total hydrocarbon product and 33% more C15+ hydrocarbons than the anhydrous experiment. This is attributed to water dissolved in the bitumen serving as a source of hydrogen to enhance thermal cracking and facilitate the expulsion of immiscible oil. In the absence of water, cross linking is enhanced in the confines of the rock, resulting in formation of pyrobitumen and molecular hydrogen. These differences are also reflected in the color and texture of the recovered rock. Despite confining liquid-water pressure being 7-9 times greater in the hydrous experiments than the confining vapor pressure in the anhydrous experiments, recovered rock from the former had a lighter color and expansion fractures parallel to the bedding fabric of the rock. The absence of these open tensile fractures in the recovered rock from the anhydrous experiments indicates that water promotes net-volume increase reactions like thermal cracking over net-volume decrease reactions like cross linking, which results in pyrobitumen. The results indicate the role of water in hydrocarbon and petroleum formation from Type-I kerogen is significant, as reported for Type-II kerogen. ?? 2010.

  11. Green River Formation Water Flood Demonstration Project: Final report. [October 21, 1992-April, 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deo, M.D. [Dept. of Chemical and Fuels Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City (US); Dyer, J.E.; Lomax, J.D. [Inland Resources, Inc., Lomax Exploration Co., Salt Lake City, UT (US); Nielson, D.L.; Lutz, S.J. [Energy and Geoscience Institute at the University of Utah, Salt Lake City (US)

    1996-11-01

    The objectives were to understand the oil production mechanisms in the Monument Butte unit via reservoir characterization and reservoir simulations and to transfer the water flooding technology to similar units in the vicinity, particularly the Travis and the Boundary units. Comprehensive reservoir characterization and reservoir simulations of the Monument Butte, Travis and Boundary units were presented in the two published project yearly reports. The primary and the secondary production from the Monument Butte unit were typical of oil production from an undersaturated oil reservoir close to its bubble point. The water flood in the smaller Travis unit appeared affected by natural and possibly by large interconnecting hydraulic fractures. Water flooding the boundary unit was considered more complicated due to the presence of an oil water contact in one of the wells. The reservoir characterization activity in the project basically consisted of extraction and analysis of a full diameter c ore, Formation Micro Imaging logs from several wells and Magnetic Resonance Imaging logs from two wells. In addition, several side-wall cores were drilled and analyzed, oil samples from a number of wells were physically and chemically characterized (using gas chromatography), oil-water relative permeabilities were measured and pour points and cloud points of a few oil samples were determined. The reservoir modeling activity comprised of reservoir simulation of all the three units at different scales and near well-bore modeling of the wax precipitation effects. The reservoir characterization efforts identified new reservoirs in the Travis and the Boundary units. The reservoir simulation activities established the extent of pressurization of the sections of the reservoirs in the immediate vicinity of the Monument Butte unit. This resulted in a major expansion of the unit and the production from this expanded unit increased from about 300 barrels per day to about 2000 barrels per day.

  12. [Formation and changes of regulated trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids in raw water of Yangtze River, Huangpu River and different treatment processes and pipelines network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Zhang, Dong; Lu, Yin-hao; Zheng, Wei-wei; Wu, Yu-xin; Wei, Xiao; Tian, Da-jun; Wang, Xia; Zhang, Hao; Guo, Shuai; Jiang, Song-hui; Qu, Wei-dong

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the pollutant levels of regulated disinfection by-products trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) in raw water from the Huangpu River, the Yangtze River and different treatment processes and finished water, and to explore the changes tendency in transmission and distribution pipeline network. A total of 65 ml water samples with two replicates were collected from different raw water, corresponding treatment processes, finished water and six national surveillance points in main network of transmission and distribution, water source for A water plant and B, C water plant was the Huangpu River and the Yangtze River, respectively. Regulated THMs and HAAs above water samples were detected by gas chromatography. The total trihalomethanes (THM(4)) concentration in different treatment processes of A water plant was ND-9.64 µg/L, dichlorobromomethane was the highest (6.43 µg/L). The THM(4) concentration in B and C water plant was ND to 38.06 µg/L, dibromochloromethane (12.24 µg/L) and bromoform (14.07 µg/L) were the highest in the B and the C water plant respectively. In addition to trichloroacetic acid in A water plant from the raw water, the other HAAs came from different treatment processes. The total haloacetic acids (HAA(6)) concentration of different treated processes in A water plant was 3.21 - 22.97 µg/L, mobromoacetic acid (10.40 µg/L) was the highest. Dibromoacetic acid was the highest both in B (8.25 µg/L) and C (8.84 µg/L) water plant, HAA(6) concentration was ND to 27.18 µg/L. The highest and the lowest concentration of THM(4) were found from the main distribution network of C and A water plant respectively, but the concentration of HAA(6) in the main water pipes network of A water plant was the highest, and the lowest in C water plant. The THMs concentration was 21.11 - 31.18 µg/L in C water plant and 6.72 - 8.51 µg/L in A water plant. The concentration of HAA(6) was 25.02 - 37.31 µg/L in A water plant and 18.69 - 23

  13. Formation of Hydrochemical River Regime Under Extreme Contamination by Waste Water (the Sak-Elga River in the Chelyabinsk Region)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, S. E.; Ulrikh, D. V.; Zhbankov, G. O.

    2017-11-01

    Modern technologies designed to use natural resources in different ways are applied to restructure the environment. The use of technologies results in the deformation of environment, its local, regional and global changes occur. In the course of mining the spaces disturbed by the mine opening rock heaps and processing wastes are formed and rapidly appear. These spaces are dead surfaces the negative effect of which extends to the surrounding areas. Thus, the indirect impact on the lands connected with the change of the condition and regime of the surface and groundwater, settling of dust and chemical compounds from emissions to the atmosphere as well as the products of wind and water erosion lead to deterioration in the quality of the lands, surface and groundwater resources in the area affected by mining.

  14. Data on the relationship between bromide content and the formation potential of THMs, HAAs, and HANs upon chlorination and monochloramination of Karoon River water, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Akbarzadeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This data article reports the relationship between of the bromide ion concentration and the formation potential of disinfectant byproducts (DBPs including, trihalomethanes (THMs, haloacetic acids (HAAs, and haloacetonitriles (HANs upon chlorination and monochloramination of the raw water of Karoon River water in Iran. Water samples were collected at an intake of a drinking water treatment plant during July 2014. All tests were performed in triplicate (n=3 and the mean of three measurements reported herein. The data of the formation potential of DBPs was determined under different bromide ions content. The data show the relationship between bromide concentration and DBPs formation that will be useful in the future management, operation and design of water treatment plants.

  15. Molecular size distribution of dissolved organic matter in water of the Pearl River and trihalomethane formation characteristics with chlorine and chlorine dioxide treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhen-Ye; Gu, Ji-Dong; Fan, Xiao-Jun; Li, Hai-Bo

    2006-06-30

    River water sample was collected from Guangzhou section of the Pearl River to investigate soluble organic fractions and formation of trihalomethane (THMs) after chlorine and chlorine dioxide treatments. The water sample was passed through Amicon YC-05, YM-1, YM-3, YM-10, YM-30, YM-100 and ZM-500 series membranes after a pre-treatment. The molecular weight distribution and the specific ultra-violet absorbance (SUVA(254)) of each fraction obtained from membrane were analyzed, and these fractions were further disinfected with chlorine and chlorine dioxide. The results showed that reverse osmosis (RO) fraction contained mainly dissolved organic matter (DOM) from the water sample, suggesting that the water has been highly contaminated by anthropogenic activities. Meanwhile, the THMs concentration and SUVA(254) increased gradually as the molecular weight of the obtained fractions reduced, indicating that the low molecular weight DOM was the major THMs precursor in the disinfection process with chlorine and chlorine dioxide. The results suggest that THMs in source water of Pearl River could be effectively reduced when pollution of human activity is greatly controlled. Between the two disinfection processes tested, chlorine dioxide produced less THMs than chlorine in this study.

  16. Oxygenated, nitrated, methyl and parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rivers of Haihe River System, China: occurrence, possible formation, and source and fate in a water-shortage area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Meng; Qi, Weixiao; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui

    2014-05-15

    Substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (SPAHs) occur ubiquitously in the whole global environment as a result of their persistence and widely-spread sources. Some SPAHs show higher toxicities and levels than the corresponding PAHs. Three types of most frequently existing SPAHs, oxygenated-PAHs (OPAHs), nitrated-PAHs (NPAHs), and methyl-PAHs (MPAHs), as well as the 16 priority PAHs were investigated in this study. The purpose was to identify the occurrence, possible transformation, and source and fate of these target compounds in a water shortage area of North China. We took a river system in the water-shortage area in China, the Haihe River System (HRS), as a typical case. The rivers are used for irrigating the farmland in the North of China, which probably introduce these pollutants to the farmland of this area. The MPAHs (0.02-0.40 μg/L in dissolved phase; 0.32-16.54 μg/g in particulate phase), OPAHs (0.06-0.19 μg/L; 0.41-17.98 μg/g), and PAHs (0.16-1.20 μg/L; 1.56-79.38 μg/g) were found in the water samples, but no NPAHs were detected. The concentrations of OPAHs were higher than that of the corresponding PAHs. Seasonal comparison results indicated that the OPAHs, such as anthraquinone and 2-methylanthraquinone, were possibly transformed from the PAHs, particularly at higher temperature. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent was deemed to be the major source for the MPAHs (contributing 62.3% and 87.6% to the receiving river in the two seasons), PAHs (68.5% and 89.4%), and especially OPAHs (80.3% and 93.2%) in the rivers. Additionally, the majority of MPAHs (12.4 kg, 80.0% of the total input), OPAHs (16.2 kg, 83.5%), and PAHs (65.9 kg, 93.3%) in the studied months entered the farmland through irrigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of organic wastes on water quality from processing of oil shale from the Green River Formation, Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenheer, J.A.; Noyes, T.I.

    1986-01-01

    A series of investigations were conducted during a 6-year research project to determine the nature and effects of organic wastes from processing of Green River Formation oil shale on water quality. Fifty percent of the organic compounds in two retort wastewaters were identified as various aromatic amines, mono- and dicarboxylic acids phenols, amides, alcohols, ketones, nitriles, and hydroxypyridines. Spent shales with carbonaceous coatings were found to have good sorbent properties for organic constituents of retort wastewaters. However, soils sampled adjacent to an in situ retort had only fair sorbent properties for organic constituents or retort wastewater, and application of retort wastewater caused disruption of soil structure characteristics and extracted soil organic matter constituents. Microbiological degradation of organic solutes in retort wastewaters was found to occur preferentially in hydrocarbons and fatty acid groups of compounds. Aromatic amines did not degrade and they inhibited bacterial growth where their concentrations were significant. Ammonia, aromatic amines, and thiocyanate persisted in groundwater contaminated by in situ oil shale retorting, but thiosulfate was quantitatively degraded one year after the burn. Thiocyanate was found to be the best conservative tracer for retort water discharged into groundwater. Natural organic solutes, isolated from groundwater in contact with Green River Formation oil shale and from the White River near Rangely, Colorado, were readily distinguished from organic constituents in retort wastewaters by molecular weight and chemical characteristic differences. (USGS)

  18. Use of multiple regression models to evaluate the formation of halonitromethane via chlorination/chloramination of water from Tai Lake and the Qiantang River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Huachang; Qian, Lingya; Xiong, Yujing; Xiao, Zhuoqun; Lin, Hongjun; Yu, Haiying

    2015-01-01

    The deterioration of water quality, especially organic pollution in Tai Lake and the Qiantang River, have recently received attention in China. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the formation of halonitromethanes (HNMs) using multiple regression models for chlorination and chloramination and to identify the key factors that influence the formation of HNMs in Tai Lake and the Qiantang River. The results showed that the total formation of HNMs (T-HNMs) during chlorination and chloramination could be described using the following models: (1) [Formula: see text] =(10)(5.267)(DON)(6.645)(Br(-))(0.737)(DOC)(-)(5.537)(Cl2)(0.333)(t)(0.165) (R(2)=0.974, p<0.01, n=33), and (2) T-HNMNH2Cl=(10)(-)(2.481)(Cl2)(0.451)(NO2(-))(0.382)(Br(-))(0.630)(t)(0.640)(Temp)(0.581) (R(2)=0.961, p<0.05, n=33), respectively. The key factors that influenced the T-HNM yields during chlorination were dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), bromide and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The nitrite and bromide concentrations and the reaction time mainly affected the T-HNM yields during chloramination. Additional analysis indicated that the bromine incorporation factors (BIFs) for trihalogenated HNMs generally decreased as the chlorine/chloramine dose, temperature and reaction time decreased and increased as the bromide concentration increased. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reduction of DOM fractions and their trihalomethane formation potential in surface river water by in-line coagulation with ceramic membrane filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakruam, Pharkphum; Wattanachira, Suraphong

    2014-03-01

    This research was aimed at investigating the reduction of DOM fractions and their trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) by in-line coagulation with 0.1 μm ceramic membrane filtration. The combination of ceramic membrane filtration with a coagulation process is an alternative technology which can be applied to enhance conventional coagulation processes in the field of water treatment and drinking water production. The Ping River water (high turbidity water) was selected as the raw surface water because it is currently the main raw water source for water supply production in the urban and rural areas of Chiang Mai Province. From the investigation, the results showed that the highest percent reductions of DOC, UV-254, and THMFP (47.6%, 71.0%, and 67.4%, respectively) were achieved from in-line coagulation with ceramic membrane filtration at polyaluminum chloride dosage 40 mg/L. Resin adsorption techniques were employed to characterize the DOM in raw surface water and filtered water. The results showed that the use of a ceramic membrane with in-line coagulation was able to most efficiently reduce the hydrophobic fraction (HPOA) (68.5%), which was then followed by the hydrophilic fraction (HPIA) (49.3%). The greater mass DOC reduction of these two fractions provided the highest THMFP reductions (55.1% and 37.2%, respectively). Furthermore, the in-line coagulation with ceramic membrane filtration was able to reduce the hydrophobic (HPOB) fraction which is characterized by high reactivity toward THM formation. The percent reduction of mass DOC and THMFP of HPOB by in-line coagulation with ceramic membrane filtration was 45.9% and 48.0%, respectively. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sources and characteristics of organic matter in the Clackamas River, Oregon, related to the formation of disinfection by-products in treated drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kurt D.; Kraus, Tamara E.C.; Goldman, Jami H.; Saraceno, John Franco; Downing, Bryan D.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; McGhee, Gordon; Triplett, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    This study characterized the amount and quality of organic matter in the Clackamas River, Oregon, to gain an understanding of sources that contribute to the formation of chlorinated and brominated disinfection by-products (DBPs), focusing on regulated DBPs in treated drinking water from two direct-filtration treatment plants that together serve approximately 100,000 customers. The central hypothesis guiding this study was that natural organic matter leaching out of the forested watershed, in-stream growth of benthic algae, and phytoplankton blooms in the reservoirs contribute different and varying proportions of organic carbon to the river. Differences in the amount and composition of carbon derived from each source affects the types and concentrations of DBP precursors entering the treatment plants and, as a result, yield varying DBP concentrations and species in finished water. The two classes of DBPs analyzed in this study-trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs)-form from precursors within the dissolved and particulate pools of organic matter present in source water. The five principal objectives of the study were to (1) describe the seasonal quantity and character of organic matter in the Clackamas River; (2) relate the amount and composition of organic matter to the formation of DBPs; (3) evaluate sources of DBP precursors in the watershed; (4) assess the use of optical measurements, including in-situ fluorescence, for estimating dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and DBP formation; and (5) assess the removal of DBP precursors during treatment by conducting treatability "jar-test" experiments at one of the treatment plants. Data collection consisted of (1) monthly sampling of source and finished water at two drinking-water treatment plants; (2) event-based sampling in the mainstem, tributaries, and North Fork Reservoir; and (3) in-situ continuous monitoring of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM), turbidity, chlorophyll-a, and

  1. Using regression models to evaluate the formation of trihalomethanes and haloacetonitriles via chlorination of source water with low SUVA values in the Yangtze River Delta region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Huachang; Song, Qianyun; Mazumder, Asit; Luo, Qian; Chen, Jianrong; Lin, Hongjun; Yu, Haiying; Shen, Liguo; Liang, Yan

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop the multiple regression models to evaluate the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetonitriles (HANs) during chlorination of source water with low specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) in Yangtze River Delta, China. The results showed that the regression models of THMs exhibited good accuracy and precision, and 86-97 % of the calculated values fell within ±25 % of the measured values. While the HANs models showed relatively weak evaluation ability, as only 75-83 % of the calculated values were within ±25 % of the measured values. The organic matter [dissolved organic carbon (DOC) or UV absorbance at 254 nm] and bromide exerted the most important influence on the formation of HANs. While for THMs, besides the organic matter and bromide, reaction time was also a key factor. Comparing the models for total THMs (T-THMs) in this study with others revealed that the regression models from the low SUVA waters may have low DOC coefficients, but high bromide coefficients as compared with those from the high SUVA waters.

  2. Beaver assisted river valley formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, C.J.; Cooper, D.J.; Baker, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    We examined how beaver dams affect key ecosystem processes, including pattern and process of sediment deposition, the composition and spatial pattern of vegetation, and nutrient loading and processing. We provide new evidence for the formation of heterogeneous beaver meadows on riverine system floodplains and terraces where dynamic flows are capable of breaching in-channel beaver dams. Our data show a 1.7-m high beaver dam triggered overbank flooding that drowned vegetation in areas deeply flooded, deposited nutrient-rich sediment in a spatially heterogeneous pattern on the floodplain and terrace, and scoured soils in other areas. The site quickly de-watered following the dam breach by high stream flows, protecting the deposited sediment from future re-mobilization by overbank floods. Bare sediment either exposed by scouring or deposited by the beaver flood was quickly colonized by a spatially heterogeneous plant community, forming a beaver meadow. Many willow and some aspen seedlings established in the more heavily disturbed areas, suggesting the site may succeed to a willow carr plant community suitable for future beaver re-occupation. We expand existing theory beyond the beaver pond to include terraces within valleys. This more fully explains how beavers can help drive the formation of alluvial valleys and their complex vegetation patterns as was first postulated by Ruedemann and Schoonmaker in 1938. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Arkansas River Water Needs Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is on the legal elements, hydrologic analysis, objectives, and water levels related to the Arkansas River and the management of it.

  4. Chemical and stable isotopic composition of water and gas in the Fort Union Formation of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana: Evidence for water/rock interaction and the biogenic origin of coalbed natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Cynthia A.; Flores, Romeo M.; Stricker, Gary D.; Ellis, Margaret S.

    2008-01-01

    Significant amounts (> 36 million m3/day) of coalbed methane (CBM) are currently being extracted from coal beds in the Paleocene Fort Union Formation of the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana. Information on processes that generate methane in these coalbed reservoirs is important for developing methods that will stimulate additional production. The chemical and isotopic compositions of gas and ground water from CBM wells throughout the basin reflect generation processes as well as those that affect water/rock interaction. Our study included analyses of water samples collected from 228 CBM wells. Major cations and anions were measured for all samples, δDH2O and δ18OH2O were measured for 199 of the samples, and δDCH4 of gas co-produced with water was measured for 100 of the samples. Results show that (1) water from Fort Union Formation coal beds is exclusively Na–HCO3-type water with low dissolved SO4 content (median water/rock interactions, such as cation exchange on clay minerals and precipitation/dissolution of CaCO3 and SO4 minerals, account for the accumulation of dissolved Na and depletion of Ca and Mg; (3) bacterially-mediated oxidation–reduction reactions account for high HCO3 (270–3310 mg/L) and low SO4 (median water line, indicating that the original meteoric water has been influenced by methanogenesis and by being mixed with surface and shallow groundwater.

  5. 2010 Hudson River Shallow Water Sediment Cores

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hudson River Shallow Water Mapping project characterizes the bottom of the Hudson River Estuary in shallow water (<3 m). The characterization includes...

  6. 2010 Hudson River Shallow Water Sediment Grabs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hudson River Shallow Water Mapping project characterizes the bottom of the Hudson River Estuary in shallow water (<3 m). The characterization includes...

  7. Trace Elements in River Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillardet, J.; Viers, J.; Dupré, B.

    2003-12-01

    Trace elements are characterized by concentrations lower than 1 mg L-1 in natural waters. This means that trace elements are not considered when "total dissolved solids" are calculated in rivers, lakes, or groundwaters, because their combined mass is not significant compared to the sum of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, H4SiO4, HCO3-, CO32-, SO42-, Cl-, and NO3-. Therefore, most of the elements, except about ten of them, occur at trace levels in natural waters. Being trace elements in natural waters does not necessarily qualify them as trace elements in rocks. For example, aluminum, iron, and titanium are major elements in rocks, but they occur as trace elements in waters, due to their low mobility at the Earth's surface. Conversely, trace elements in rocks such as chlorine and carbon are major elements in waters.The geochemistry of trace elements in river waters, like that of groundwater and seawater, is receiving increasing attention. This growing interest is clearly triggered by the technical advances made in the determination of concentrations at lower levels in water. In particular, the development of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has considerably improved our knowledge of trace-element levels in waters since the early 1990s. ICP-MS provides the capability of determining trace elements having isotopes of interest for geochemical dating or tracing, even where their dissolved concentrations are extremely low.The determination of trace elements in natural waters is motivated by a number of issues. Although rare, trace elements in natural systems can play a major role in hydrosystems. This is particularly evident for toxic elements such as aluminum, whose concentrations are related to the abundance of fish in rivers. Many trace elements have been exploited from natural accumulation sites and used over thousands of years by human activities. Trace elements are therefore highly sensitive indexes of human impact from local to global scale. Pollution

  8. Physical simulation of gas reservoir formation in the Liwan 3-1 deep-water gas field in the Baiyun sag, Pearl River Mouth Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Gang; Gang, Wenzhe; Zhang, Gongcheng; He, Wenjun; Cui, Xin; Shen, Huailei; Miao, Shunde

    2015-01-01

    To figure out the process and controlling factors of gas reservoir formation in deep-waters, based on an analysis of geological features, source of natural gas and process of reservoir formation in the Liwan 3-1 gas field, physical simulation experiment of the gas reservoir formation process has been performed, consequently, pattern and features of gas reservoir formation in the Baiyun sag has been found out. The results of the experiment show that: ① the formation of the Liwan 3-1 faulted an...

  9. River water quality modelling: II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanahan, P.; Henze, Mogens; Koncsos, L.

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. EPA QUAL2E model is currently the standard for river water quality modelling. While QUAL2E is adequate for the regulatory situation for which it was developed (the U.S. wasteload allocation process), there is a need for a more comprehensive framework for research and teaching. Moreover......, and to achieve robust model calibration. Mass balance problems arise from failure to account for mass in the sediment as well as in the water column and due to the fundamental imprecision of BOD as a state variable. (C) 1998 IAWQ Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  10. Water quality and environmental isotopic analyses of ground-water samples collected from the Wasatch and Fort Union Formations in areas of coalbed methane development : implications to recharge and ground-water flow, eastern Powder River basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, Timothy T.; Ogle, Kathy Muller

    2002-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ground-water samples were evaluated as part of an investigation of lower Tertiary aquifers in the eastern Powder River Basin where coalbed methane is being developed. Ground-water samples were collected from two springs discharging from clinker, eight monitoring wells completed in the Wasatch aquifer, and 13 monitoring or coalbed methane production wells completed in coalbed aquifers. The ground-water samples were analyzed for major ions and environmental isotopes (tritium and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen) to characterize the composition of waters in these aquifers, to relate these characteristics to geochemical processes, and to evaluate recharge and ground-water flow within and between these aquifers. This investigation was conducted in cooperation with the Wyoming State Engineer's Office and the Bureau of Land Management. Water quality in the different aquifers was characterized by major-ion composition. Samples collected from the two springs were classified as calcium-sulfate-type and calcium-bicarbonate-type waters. All ground-water samples from the coalbed aquifers were sodium-bicarbonate-type waters as were five of eight samples collected from the overlying Wasatch aquifer. Potential areal patterns in ionic composition were examined. Ground-water samples collected during this and another investigation suggest that dissolved-solids concentrations in the coalbed aquifers may be lower south of the Belle Fourche River (generally less than 600 milligrams per liter). As ground water in coalbed aquifers flows to the north and northwest away from an inferred source of recharge (clinker in the study area), dissolved-solids concentrations appear to increase. Variation in ionic composition in the vertical dimension was examined qualitatively and statistically within and between aquifers. A relationship between ionic composition and well depth was noted and corroborates similar observations by earlier investigators in the Powder River

  11. Chemical and stable isotopic evidence for water/rock interaction and biogenic origin of coalbed methane, Fort Union Formation, Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, C.A.; Flores, R.M.; Stricker, G.D.; Ellis, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Significant amounts (> 36??million m3/day) of coalbed methane (CBM) are currently being extracted from coal beds in the Paleocene Fort Union Formation of the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana. Information on processes that generate methane in these coalbed reservoirs is important for developing methods that will stimulate additional production. The chemical and isotopic compositions of gas and ground water from CBM wells throughout the basin reflect generation processes as well as those that affect water/rock interaction. Our study included analyses of water samples collected from 228 CBM wells. Major cations and anions were measured for all samples, ??DH2O and ??18OH2O were measured for 199 of the samples, and ??DCH4 of gas co-produced with water was measured for 100 of the samples. Results show that (1) water from Fort Union Formation coal beds is exclusively Na-HCO3-type water with low dissolved SO4 content (median water/rock interactions, such as cation exchange on clay minerals and precipitation/dissolution of CaCO3 and SO4 minerals, account for the accumulation of dissolved Na and depletion of Ca and Mg; (3) bacterially-mediated oxidation-reduction reactions account for high HCO3 (270-3310??mg/L) and low SO4 (median water line, indicating that the original meteoric water has been influenced by methanogenesis and by being mixed with surface and shallow groundwater.

  12. Water quality of the Modder River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Koning

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal and spatial patterns in the Modder River system, the influence of Botshabelo's sewage outflow’ on the water quality of the river, as well as the presence of any toxic compounds were determined. The Modder and Klein Modder Rivers do not follow distinctive seasonal patterns in terms of chemical parameters.

  13. Physical simulation of gas reservoir formation in the Liwan 3-1 deep-water gas field in the Baiyun sag, Pearl River Mouth Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To figure out the process and controlling factors of gas reservoir formation in deep-waters, based on an analysis of geological features, source of natural gas and process of reservoir formation in the Liwan 3-1 gas field, physical simulation experiment of the gas reservoir formation process has been performed, consequently, pattern and features of gas reservoir formation in the Baiyun sag has been found out. The results of the experiment show that: ① the formation of the Liwan 3-1 faulted anticline gas field is closely related to the longstanding active large faults, where natural gas is composed of a high proportion of hydrocarbons, a small amount of non-hydrocarbons, and the wet gas generated during highly mature stage shows obvious vertical migration signs; ② liquid hydrocarbons associated with natural gas there are derived from source rock of the Enping & Zhuhai Formation, whereas natural gas comes mainly from source rock of the Enping Formation, and source rock of the Wenchang Formation made a little contribution during the early Eocene period as well; ③ although there was gas migration and accumulation, yet most of the natural gas mainly scattered and dispersed due to the stronger activity of faults in the early period; later as fault activity gradually weakened, gas started to accumulate into reservoirs in the Baiyun sag; ④ there is stronger vertical migration of oil and gas than lateral migration, and the places where fault links effective source rocks with reservoirs are most likely for gas accumulation; ⑤ effective temporal-spatial coupling of source-fault-reservoir in late stage is the key to gas reservoir formation in the Baiyun sag; ⑥ the nearer the distance from a trap to a large-scale fault and hydrocarbon source kitchen, the more likely gas may accumulate in the trap in late stage, therefore gas accumulation efficiency is much lower for the traps which are far away from large-scale faults and hydrocarbon source

  14. River water pollution condition in upper part of Brantas River and Bengawan Solo River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosmini, D.; Septiono, M. A.; Putri, N. E.; Shabrina, H. M.; Salami, I. R. S.; Ariesyady, H. D.

    2018-01-01

    Wastewater and solid waste from both domestic and industry have been known to give burden on river water quality. Most of river water quality problem in Indonesia has start in the upper part of river due to anthropogenic activities, due to inappropriate land use management including the poor wastewater infrastructure. Base on Upper Citarum River Water pollution problem, it is interesting to study the other main river in Java Island. Bengawan Solo River and Brantas River were chosen as the sample in this study. Parameters assessed in this study are as follows: TSS, TDS, pH, DO, and hexavalent chromium. The status of river water quality are assess using STORET method. Based on (five) parameters, STORET value showed that in Brantas River, Pagerluyung monitoring point had the worst quality relatively compared to other monitoring point in Brantas River with exceeding copper, lead and tin compared to the stream standard in East Java Provincial Regulation No. 2 in 2008. Brantas River was categorized as lightly polluted river based on monitoring period 2011-2015 in 5 monitoring points, namely Pendem, Sengguruh, Kademangan, Meritjan and Kertosono.

  15. Microbial cyanide sensor for monitoring river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikebukuro, K; Miyata, A; Cho, S J; Nomura, Y; Chang, S M; Yamauchi, Y; Hasebe, Y; Uchiyama, S; Karube, I

    1996-07-18

    A microbial cyanide sensor using Saccharomyces cerevisiae for monitoring a river water is described. This sensor is based on the inhibition of S. cerevisiae's respiration by cyanide. This sensor is a reactor type flow system and composed of two oxygen electrodes and a reactor which contains S. cerevisiae immobilized beads. The S. cerevisiae's respiration activity is measured using the oxygen electrodes. The sensor showed a linear response in the range from 0 to 15 microM and maintained stable response for 9 days at ambient temperature. The sensor was optimized for the monitoring of river water and was applied to river water analysis.

  16. Clayey materials in river basin enhancing microbial contamination of river water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosso-Kankeu, E.; Mulaba-Bafubiandi, A. F.; Barnard, T. G.

    Mineral constituents of clay materials may promote interaction, adsorption and attachment of microorganisms, often resulting in biofilms' formation. In this study investigation is made to determine how littoral clayey materials on the shores of a river promote accumulation of bacteria and increase contamination of river water. Clayey samples were collected at various points along the shore of a river around Mondeor in Johannesburg and the mineralogical composition was determined using XRD and XRF. Microorganisms in clay-biofilm and river water were identified by DNA sequencing and plate count. Results showed that total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp. and presumptive indigenous microorganisms attached to littoral clayey materials containing the mineral muscovite (characterising argillaceous soils). Bacteria number on clayey materials was significantly higher than on overlying water especially before rainy season. However a decrease of the number of bacteria in clayey materials concurrent with an increase in the number of suspended bacteria after rain events, was the result of the action of high and fast flows in the basin, eroding the biofilms. Attachment of microorganisms in clayey material as observed in this study could be ascribed to the glue-like aspect of soil (due to muscovite) that facilitates adhesion. It therefore demonstrates the potential of clayey materials to encourage biofilm formation and enhance microbial contamination of river water as shown here.

  17. SURVIVAL OF SALMONELLA SPECIES IN RIVER WATER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The survival of four Salmonella strains in river water microcosms was monitored using culturing techniques, direct counts, whole cell hybridization, scanning electron microscopy, and resuscitation techniques via the direct viable count method and flow cytrometry. Plate counts of...

  18. Water resources of the Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daddow, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    Existing data were used in conjunction with onsite measurements to evaluate the water resources on the Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming. The reservation is located mainly in the Wind River drainage basin. Ground water is used for public- supply, domestic, agricultural, and industrial purposes, and potentially for irrigation. Deposits of Quaternary age provide water for domestic and public-supply uses. Median well yields from different types of Quaternary deposits ranged from 6 to 20 gallons per minute. The Wind River Formation of Tertiary age is a major source of water for domestic and public-supply uses; well yields ranged from 0.1 to 350 gallons per minute. For the Tensleep Sandstone and Madison Limestone of Paleozoic age, wells might yield as much as 1,000 gallons per minute. The dissolved-solids concentration of water from the Little Wind River and Popo Agie River flood-plain alluvium near mountains was generally less than 400 mg/L (milligrams per liter), but with increasing distance from mountains, the range was about 600 to about 750 mg/L. Dissolved-solids concentrations of water in the Wind River Formation ranged from 211 to 5,110 mg/L. Streams provide most water used for irrigation. Discharge records from streamflow-gaging stations indicate flow characteristics of streams on the reservation are extremely variable. Average annual runoff was 122 to 1,150 acre-feet per square mile on perennial streams with gaging stations. Near the mountains, most perennial streams had dissolved-solids concentrations less than 200 mg/L, and with increasing distance from the mountains, concentrations were about 400 to 600 mg/L.

  19. Rare earth elements in river waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Steven J.; Jacobsen, Stein B.

    1988-01-01

    To characterize the input to the oceans of rare earth elements (REE) in the dissolved and the suspended loads of rivers, the REE concentrations were measured in samples of Amazon, Indus, Mississippi, Murray-Darling, and Ohio rivers and in samples of smaller rivers that had more distinct drainage basin lithology and water chemistry. It was found that, in the suspended loads of small rivers, the REE pattern was dependent on drainage basin geology, whereas the suspended loads in major rivers had relatively uniform REE patterns and were heavy-REE depleted relative to the North American Shale composite (NASC). The dissolved loads in the five major rivers had marked relative heavy-REE enrichments, relative to the NASC and the suspended material, with the (La/Yb)N ratio of about 0.4 (as compared with the ratio of about 1.9 in suspended loads).

  20. Hydrogeology of the Judith River Formation in southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, David; Lypka, Morgan; Ferguson, Grant

    2017-06-01

    The Judith River Formation forms an important regional aquifer in southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada. This aquifer is used for domestic and agricultural purposes in some areas and supports oil and gas production in other areas. As a result, the available data come from a range of sources and integration is required to provide an overview of aquifer characteristics. Here, data from oil and gas databases are combined with data from groundwater resource assessments. Analysis of cores, drill-stem tests and pumping tests provide a good overview of the physical hydrogeology of the Judith River Aquifer. Water chemistry data from oil and gas databases were less helpful in understanding the chemical hydrogeology due contamination of samples and unreliable laboratory analyses. Analytical modeling of past pumping in the aquifer indicates that decreases in hydraulic head exceeding 2 m are possible over distances of 10s of kilometers. Similar decreases in head should be expected for additional large withdrawals of groundwater from the Judith River Aquifer. Long-term groundwater abstraction should be limited by low pumping rates. Higher pumping rates appear to be possible for short-term uses, such as those required by the oil and gas industry.

  1. Hydrogeology of the Judith River Formation in southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, David; Lypka, Morgan; Ferguson, Grant

    2017-11-01

    The Judith River Formation forms an important regional aquifer in southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada. This aquifer is used for domestic and agricultural purposes in some areas and supports oil and gas production in other areas. As a result, the available data come from a range of sources and integration is required to provide an overview of aquifer characteristics. Here, data from oil and gas databases are combined with data from groundwater resource assessments. Analysis of cores, drill-stem tests and pumping tests provide a good overview of the physical hydrogeology of the Judith River Aquifer. Water chemistry data from oil and gas databases were less helpful in understanding the chemical hydrogeology due contamination of samples and unreliable laboratory analyses. Analytical modeling of past pumping in the aquifer indicates that decreases in hydraulic head exceeding 2 m are possible over distances of 10s of kilometers. Similar decreases in head should be expected for additional large withdrawals of groundwater from the Judith River Aquifer. Long-term groundwater abstraction should be limited by low pumping rates. Higher pumping rates appear to be possible for short-term uses, such as those required by the oil and gas industry.

  2. SURFACE WATER QUALITY IN THE RIVER PRUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA DUMITRAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Water is an increasingly important and why it is important to surfacewater quality, which is given by the analysis of physical - chemical, biological andobserving the investigation of water, biota, environments investigation. Analysis ofthe Prut river in terms of biological and physical elements - chemical. Evaluationof ecological and chemical status of water was done according to order of approvalof the standard classification nr.161/2006 surface water to determine the ecologicalstatus of water bodies

  3. Radon in water of Shu river valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena Kuyanova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The values of radon and its daughter products in water of Shu River valley have been received, using liquid scintillation spectrometry. The radon concentration naturally increases in investigated water samples downstream the Shu River, reaching the maximum value in the Tashutkolsky basin. The radon and its daughter products in a human body of 15 % are in soft tissues have been calculated by a mathematical modeling method. The annual dose from radon and its daughter products calculated by a mathematical modeling method received by the residents living in Shu river valley is 0,03 mSv/year.

  4. 77 FR 45653 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, Yakima, WA AGENCY: Bureau of... Committee Act, the Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement... River Basin Water Conservation Program. DATES: The meeting will be held on Tuesday, August 21, 2012...

  5. Seasonal variability of Crvena river water mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manojlović Predrag

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The mineralization of water and its content in Crvena River so far have not been studied. Water sampling was conducted from April 2008 - May 2009. Total mineralization is relatively low, which is consistent with the dominant lithological structure (Permian red sandstone. Dry residue contains Ca2+ ion, with the increased participation of SiO2. During the observational period it is clearly expressed seasonal effect. It is reflected not in the direct but the indirect impact. Based on the ratio of individual ions a model is determined for estimation of water flow at the confluence of the Crvena River in Nisava River. It could be applied to other drainage basins that have not been studied so far.

  6. The chemistry which created Green River Formation oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.W.

    1983-02-01

    The genesis pattern presented for Green River Formation oil shale explains the major observation. Deposition of relatively large quantities of hydrogen-rich organic matter in the oil shales is a natural consequence of the chemical conditions (basic water and reducing atmosphere) and the physical limitation of clastic materials developed in the stratified ancient Lake Uinta. Stability of the stratification produced the continuous deposition of the organic matter and its uniformity over the deposit. Authigenic formation of the oil-shale minerals proceeds naturally from the lake stratification, and the varve production stems from the seasonable development of organic matter. The lake's stratification produced uniform deposition over the entire area it covered, making the correlatable lateral persistence of the thin laminations a natural consequence. As the lake developed, the attack on aluminosilicates by sodium carbonate in the lake's lower layer produced a silicate skeleton protected by aluminum trihydroxide. On deposition, this aluminum-rich skeleton formed illite in quantity. As the lake became more basic, the protecting aluminum hydroxide coating dissolved amphoterically and illite production dropped at a specific point. Continual build-up of sodium carbonate and aluminate ion in the water of the lake's lower layer reached conditions which

  7. Chemistry which created Green River Formation oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    The genesis pattern presented for Green River Formation oil shale explains the major observation. Deposition of relatively large quantities of hydrogen-rich organic matter in the oil shales is a natural consequence of the chemical conditions (basic water and reducing atmosphere) and the physical limitation of clastic materials developed in the stratified ancient Lake Uinta. Stability of the stratification produced the continuous deposition of the organic matter and its uniformity over the deposit. Authigenic formation of the oil-shale minerals proceeds naturally from the lake stratification, and the varve production stems from the seasonable development of organic matter. The lake's stratification produced uniform deposition over the entire area it covered, making the correlatable lateral persistence of the thin laminations a natural consequence. As the lake developed, the attack on aluminosilicates by sodium carbonate in the lower layer produced a silicate skeleton protected by aluminum trihydroxide. On deposition, this aluminum-rich skeleton formed illite in quantity. As the lake became more basic, the protecting aluminum hydroxide coating dissolved amphoterically and illite production dropped at a specific point. Continual build-up of sodium carbonate and aluminate ion in the water of the lake's lower layer reached conditions which precipitated dawsonite and crystallized nahcolite in the sediment as a result of CO/sub 2/ production from organic matter. (JMT)

  8. Mouth Bar Formation in Yangtze River Estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, C.

    2002-01-01

    The periodic shifting of the bifurcation point of the North Channel and South Channel of the Yangtze river is very important in the estuary. The North Channel is bifurcated from the South Branch by cutting a channel through the submerged sandbanks. Once a bifurcation channel is formed, the

  9. An assessment of water quality of Angaw River in Southeastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical and bacteriological water quality of the Angaw river were investigated at three different locations on the river. A range of water quality variables were measured in the river over a period of 12 months. The river was characterized by high ionic content. Relatively higher levels of ionic constituents occurred at ...

  10. Impact of Yangtze river water transfer on the water quality of the Lixia river watershed, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoxue; Wang, Lachun; Wu, Hao; Li, Na; Ma, Lei; Zeng, Chunfen; Zhou, Yi; Yang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    To improve water quality and reduce the negative impacts of sudden inputs of water pollution in the Lixia River watershed, China, a series of experimental water transfers from the Yangtze River to the Lixia River were conducted from 2 December 2006 to 7 January 2007. Water samples were collected every six days at 55 monitoring sites during this period. Eight water parameters (water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD), potassium permanganate index (CODMn), ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N), electrical conductivity (EC), and water transparency (WT)) were analyzed to determine changes in nutrient concentrations during water transfers. The comprehensive pollution index (Pi) and single-factor (Si) evaluation methods were applied to evaluate spatio-temporal patterns of water quality during water transfers. Water quality parameters displayed different spatial and temporal distribution patterns within the watershed. Water quality was improved significantly by the water transfers, especially for sites closer to water intake points. The degree of improvement is positively related to rates of transfer inflow and drainage outflow. The effects differed for different water quality parameters at each site and at different water transfer times. There were notable decreases in NH4+-N, DO, COD, and CODMn across the entire watershed. However, positive effects on EC and pH were not observed. It is concluded that freshwater transfers from the Yangtze River can be used as an emergency measure to flush pollutants from the Lixia River watershed. Improved understanding of the effects of water transfers on water quality can help the development and implementation of effective strategies to improve water quality within this watershed.

  11. Conversion of organic micropollutants with limited bromate formation during the Peroxone process in drinking water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, A.H.; Lekkerkerker-Teunissen, K.; Houtman, C.J.; Scheideler, J.; Ried, A.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced oxidation with O3 / H2O2 (peroxone) was conducted on pilot plant scale on pre-treated Meuse river water to investigate the conversion of organic micropollutants (OMPs) and the formation of bromate. Fourteen selected model compounds were dosed to the pre-treated river water on a regular

  12. Robustness of river basin water quality models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Blois, Chris; Wind, H.G.; de Kok, Jean-Luc; Koppeschaar, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the concept of robustness is introduced and applied to a model for the analysis of the impacts of spatially distributed policy measures on the surface water quality on a river basin scale. In this model the influence of precipitation on emissions and resuspension of pollutants in the

  13. Particulate matter characterization of Cauca River water in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez Marin, Juan Pablo; van Halem, D.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2016-01-01

    The particulate matter composition in the Upper Cauca River section was studied, considering the importance of this river for the water supply of Cali, Colombia, and the implications that the turbidity of this water source has had for the city's water treatment. Additionally, the upstream Palo River

  14. Sustainable River Water Quality Management in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Al-Mamun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ecological status of Malaysia is not as bad as many other developing nations in the world. However, despite the enforcement of the Environmental Quality Act (EQA in 1974, the water quality of Malaysian inland water (especially rivers is following deteriorating trend. The rivers are mainly polluted due to the point and non-point pollution sources. Point sources are monitored and controlled by the Department of Environment (DOE, whereas a significant amount of pollutants is contributed by untreated sullage and storm runoff. Nevertheless, it is not too late to take some bold steps for the effective control of non-point source pollution and untreated sullage discharge, which play significant roles on the status of the rivers. This paper reviews the existing procedures and guidelines related to protection of the river water quality in Malaysia.  There is a good possibility that the sewage and effluent discharge limits in the Environmental Quality Act (EQA may pose hindrance against achieving good quality water in the rivers as required by the National Water Quality Standards (NWQS. For instance, Ammoniacal Nitrogen (NH3-N is identified as one of the main pollutants to render many of the rivers polluted but it was not considered in the EQA as a monitoring parameter until the new regulations published in 2009.  Surprisingly, the new regulation for sewage and industrial effluent limits set allowable NH3-N concentration quite high (5 mg/L, which may result in low Water Quality Index (WQI values for the river water. The water environment is a dynamic system. Periodical review of the monitoring requirements, detecting emerging pollutants in sewage, effluent and runoff, and proper revision of water quality standards are necessary for the management of sustainable water resources in the country. ABSTRAK: Satus ekologi Malaysia tidak seburuk kebanyakan negara membangun lain di dunia. Walaupun Akta Kualiti Alam Sekitar (EQA dikuatkuasakan pada tahun 1974

  15. Biofilm formation in a hot water system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagh, L.K.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Arvin, Erik

    2002-01-01

    The biofilm formation rate was measured in situ in a hot water system in an apartment building by specially designed sampling equipment, and the net growth of the suspended bacteria was measured by incubation of water samples with the indigeneous bacteria. The biofilm formation rate reached......, in the sludge, or in the water from the distribution system was negligible. This indicated that bacterial growth took place on the inner surfaces in the hot water system and biofilm formation and detachment of bacteria could account for most of the suspended bacteria actually measured in hot water. Therefore...

  16. Klang River water quality modelling using music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahari, Nazirul Mubin; Zawawi, Mohd Hafiz; Muda, Zakaria Che; Sidek, Lariyah Mohd; Fauzi, Nurfazila Mohd; Othman, Mohd Edzham Fareez; Ahmad, Zulkepply

    2017-09-01

    Water is an essential resource that sustains life on earth; changes in the natural quality and distribution of water have ecological impacts that can sometimes be devastating. Recently, Malaysia is facing many environmental issues regarding water pollution. The main causes of river pollution are rapid urbanization, arising from the development of residential, commercial, industrial sites, infrastructural facilities and others. The purpose of the study was to predict the water quality of the Connaught Bridge Power Station (CBPS), Klang River. Besides that, affects to the low tide and high tide and. to forecast the pollutant concentrations of the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Total Suspended Solid (TSS) for existing land use of the catchment area through water quality modeling (by using the MUSIC software). Besides that, to identifying an integrated urban stormwater treatment system (Best Management Practice or BMPs) to achieve optimal performance in improving the water quality of the catchment using the MUSIC software in catchment areas having tropical climates. Result from MUSIC Model such as BOD5 at station 1 can be reduce the concentration from Class IV to become Class III. Whereas, for TSS concentration from Class III to become Class II at the station 1. The model predicted a mean TSS reduction of 0.17%, TP reduction of 0.14%, TN reduction of 0.48% and BOD5 reduction of 0.31% for Station 1 Thus, from the result after purposed BMPs the water quality is safe to use because basically water quality monitoring is important due to threat such as activities are harmful to aquatic organisms and public health.

  17. Industrial pollution and the management of river water quality: a model of Kelani River, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, Asha; Wijeratne, E M S; White, Ben; Hailu, Atakelty; Pandit, Ram

    2017-08-19

    Water quality of the Kelani River has become a critical issue in Sri Lanka due to the high cost of maintaining drinking water standards and the market and non-market costs of deteriorating river ecosystem services. By integrating a catchment model with a river model of water quality, we developed a method to estimate the effect of pollution sources on ambient water quality. Using integrated model simulations, we estimate (1) the relative contribution from point (industrial and domestic) and non-point sources (river catchment) to river water quality and (2) pollutant transfer coefficients for zones along the lower section of the river. Transfer coefficients provide the basis for policy analyses in relation to the location of new industries and the setting of priorities for industrial pollution control. They also offer valuable information to design socially optimal economic policy to manage industrialized river catchments.

  18. Dominant processes controlling water chemistry of the Pecos River in American southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fasong; Miyamoto, Seiichi

    2005-09-01

    Here we show an analysis of river flow and water chemistry data from eleven gauging stations along the Pecos River in eastern New Mexico and western Texas, with time spanning 1959-2002. Analysis of spatial relationship between the long-term average flow and total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration allows us to illuminate four major processes controlling river chemistry, namely saline water addition, evaporative concentration with salt gain or loss, dilution with salt gain or loss, and salt storage. Of the 10 river reaches studied, six reaches exhibit the process dominated by evaporative concentration or freshwater dilution with little change in salt load. Four reaches show considerable salt gains or losses that are induced by surface-ground water interactions. This analysis suggests that the evaporative concentration and freshwater dilution are the prevailing mechanisms, but local processes (e.g., variations in hydrologic flowpath and lithologic formation) also play an important role in regulating the hydrochemistry of the Pecos River.

  19. Data Assimilation to Estimate the Water Level of River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apriliani, Erna; Hanafi, Lukman; Imron, Chairul

    2017-09-01

    Data assimilation is an estimation method for stochastic dynamic system by combining the mathematical model with measurement data. Water level and velocity of river are stochastic dynamic system, and it is important to estimate the water level and velocity of river flow to reduce flood risk disaster. Here, we estimate the water level and velocity of river flow by using data assimilation specially Kalman filter and Ensemble Kalman filter. We define mathematical model of river flow, discretize and do simulation by Kalman filter and Ensemble Kalman filter. In data assimilation, we forecast the water level and velocity by using mathematical model and based on the measurement data, the correction of forecasting is made.

  20. Potability Evaluation of Selected River Waters in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on the seasonal variation of physiochemical and microbial characteristics of three selected river water in Ebonyi State for human consumption. The three selected rivers studied were Iyioka, Idima and Ubei Rivers. Data were generated using Direct Reading Engineering method (DREM), Gravimetric ...

  1. 76 FR 18780 - Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, Benton...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement... Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project. The Washington State... Integrated Water Resource Management Alternative in June 2009 under SEPA. The Integrated Water Resource...

  2. Simulation of the Regional Ground-Water-Flow System and Ground-Water/Surface-Water Interaction in the Rock River Basin, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.

    2009-01-01

    A regional, two-dimensional, areal ground-water-flow model was developed to simulate the ground-water-flow system and ground-water/surface-water interaction in the Rock River Basin. The model was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Rock River Coalition. The objectives of the regional model were to improve understanding of the ground-water-flow system and to develop a tool suitable for evaluating the effects of potential regional water-management programs. The computer code GFLOW was used because of the ease with which the model can simulate ground-water/surface-water interactions, provide a framework for simulating regional ground-water-flow systems, and be refined in a stepwise fashion to incorporate new data and simulate ground-water-flow patterns at multiple scales. The ground-water-flow model described in this report simulates the major hydrogeologic features of the modeled area, including bedrock and surficial aquifers, ground-water/surface-water interactions, and ground-water withdrawals from high-capacity wells. The steady-state model treats the ground-water-flow system as a single layer with hydraulic conductivity and base elevation zones that reflect the distribution of lithologic groups above the Precambrian bedrock and a regionally significant confining unit, the Maquoketa Formation. In the eastern part of the Basin where the shale-rich Maquoketa Formation is present, deep ground-water flow in the sandstone aquifer below the Maquoketa Formation was not simulated directly, but flow into this aquifer was incorporated into the GFLOW model from previous work in southeastern Wisconsin. Recharge was constrained primarily by stream base-flow estimates and was applied uniformly within zones guided by regional infiltration estimates for soils. The model includes average ground-water withdrawals from 1997 to 2006 for municipal wells and from 1997 to 2005 for high-capacity irrigation, industrial, and commercial wells. In addition

  3. Dynamic management of water transfer between two interconnected river basins

    OpenAIRE

    Cabo, Francisco; Erdlenbruch, Katrin; Tidball, Mabel

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the dynamic interaction between two regions with interconnected river basins. Precipitation is higher in one river-basin while water productivity is higher in the other. Water transfer increases productivity in the recipient basin, but may cause environmental damage in the donor basin. The recipient faces a trade-off between paying the price of the water transfer, or investing in alternative water supplies to achieve a higher usable water capacity. We analyze the design of...

  4. River Water Quality Zoning: A Case Study of Karoon and Dez River System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Karamouz, N Mahjouri, R Kerachian

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Karoon-Dez River basin, with an area of 67000 square kilometers, is located in southern part of Iran. This river system supplies the water demands of 16 cities, several villages, thousands hectares of agricultural lands, and several hydropower plants. The increasing water demands at the project development stage including agricultural networks, fish hatchery projects, and inter-basin water transfers, have caused a gloomy future for water quality of the Karoon and Dez Rivers. A good part of used agricultural water, which is about 8040 million cubic meters, is returned to the rivers through agricultural drainage systems or as non-point, return flows. River water quality zoning could provide essential information for developing river water quality management policies. In this paper, a methodology is presented for this purpose using methods of -mean crisp classification and a fuzzy clustering scheme. The efficiency of these clustering methods was evaluated using water quality data gathered from the monitoring sampling points along Karoon and Dez Rivers. The results show that the proposed methodology can provide valuable information to support decision-making and to help river water quality management in the region.

  5. Managing the water quality of the Kafue River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambole, Michael Sankwe

    Most vital surface water bodies in developing countries are under serious threat of degradation resulting from constant discharge of polluted effluents stemming from industrial, agricultural, mining and domestic/sewage activities. The most affected river systems are those traversing cities and towns in urban areas. The Kafue River in Zambia is one such river system that is threatened with serious degradation and probable loss of biodiversity. Kafue River cuts across the country in a North-South direction, stretches for about 1576 km before draining into the Zambezi River. It covers an area of 152,000 km 2 and generates a mean annual runoff of 350 m 3/s which represents about 12% of the Zambezi’s mean annual runoff at the confluence [Water Resources Development and Vector-borne Diseases in Zambia: Report of a National Seminar held at Kafue Gorge, Zambia, WHO, Geneva, 1995]. The area coverage of the Kafue River Basin (KRB) is approximately 20% of Zambia’s land area (743,000 km 2) and approximately 17% of the Zambezi Basin [Water Resources Use in the Zambezi Basin: Proceedings of a Workshop held at Kasane, Botswana, IUCN, 1993]. More than half of Zambia’s population live in the KRB, of which about 65% are in urban while 35% are in rural areas. Over the years, however, the Kafue River has been receiving all sorts of pollutant and effluents from all sectors of economical development in Zambia that include mining, industrial and agricultural. The continuous discharge of pollutants into the Kafue river has led to the deterioration of the river water quality. The consequences have been heightened eutrophic conditions, increased heavy metal concentration in the river sediments and aquatic life, increased suspended solids, etc. leading to proliferation of Salvinia molesta in some sections of the river, decreased fish catch and fish size and objectionable taste of the Kafue River water. Fishermen along the Chanyanya-Kafue Gorge stretch of the Kafue River have complained

  6. Cache River National Wildlife Refuge Water Resource Inventory and Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) for Cache River National Wildlife Refuge summarizes available and relevant information for refuge water...

  7. Primary Datasets for Case Studies of River-Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulder, Raymond

    2008-01-01

    Level 6 (final-year BSc) students undertook case studies on between-site and temporal variation in river-water quality. They used professionally-collected datasets supplied by the Environment Agency. The exercise gave students the experience of working with large, real-world datasets and led to their understanding how the quality of river water is…

  8. Heterogeneous photocatalysis for selected atypical antipsychotic removal from river waters

    OpenAIRE

    Regulska, El?bieta; Karpi?ska, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneous photocatalysis of selected atypical antipsychotic, namely olanzapine, was examined. Photocatalytic degradation of above mentioned pharmaceutic was investigated in deionized and river water solution in the presence of titanium dioxide as a photocatalyst. River water samples were collected from Narew and Marycha, which run in the east of Poland. Studied irradiation sources included ultraviolet radiation and simulated solar light. Photodegradation efficiency and the presen...

  9. River Pollution: Part II. Biological Methods for Assessing Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Openshaw, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Discusses methods used in the biological assessment of river quality and such indicators of clean and polluted waters as the Trent Biotic Index, Chandler Score System, and species diversity indexes. Includes a summary of a river classification scheme based on quality criteria related to water use. (JN)

  10. THE WATER QUALITY DEGRADATION OF UPPER AWASH RIVER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-01-11

    Jan 11, 2013 ... agricultural activities are intense including river water abstraction for irrigation using motor pumps. The river water is quite turbid (319 - 472. FTU) in both dry and wet seasons. The benthic- macroinvertebrate community is dominated by pollution tolerant organisms such as chironomids and oligochaetes.

  11. River water remediation using pulsed corona, pulsed spark or ozonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izdebski, T.; Dors, M. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Szewalski Inst. of Fluid Flow Machiney, Fiszera (Poland). Centre for Plasma and Laser Engineering; Mizeraczyk, J. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Szewalski Inst. of Fluid Flow Machiney, Fiszera (Poland). Centre for Plasma and Laser Engineering; Gdynia Maritime Univ., Morska (Poland). Dept. of Marine Electronics

    2010-07-01

    The most common reason for epidemic formation is the pollution of surface and drinking water by wastewater bacteria. Pathogenic microorganisms that form the largest part of this are fecal bacteria, such as escherichia coli (E. coli). Wastewater treatment plants reduce the amount of the fecal bacteria by 1-3 orders of magnitude, depending on the initial number of bacteria. There is a lack of data on waste and drinking water purification by the electrohydraulic discharges method, which causes the destruction and inactivation of viruses, yeast, and bacteria. This paper investigated river water cleaning from microorganisms using pulsed corona, spark discharge and ozonization. The paper discussed the experimental setup and results. It was concluded that ozonization is the most efficient method of water disinfection as compared with pulsed spark and pulsed corona discharges. The pulsed spark discharge in water was capable of killing all microorganism similarly to ozonization, but with much lower energy efficiency. The pulsed corona discharge was found to be the less effective method of water disinfection. 21 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Ichthyoplankton entrainment study at the SRS Savannah River water intakes for Westinghouse Savannah River Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1992-03-26

    Cooling water for L and K Reactors and makeup water for Par Pond is pumped from the Savannah River at the 1G, 3G, and 5G pump houses. Ichthyoplankton (drifting fish larvae and eggs) from the river are entrained into the reactor cooling systems with the river water and passed through the reactor's heat exchangers where temperatures may reach 70[degrees]C during full power operation. Ichthyoplankton mortality under such conditions is assumed to be 100 percent. The number of ichthyoplankton entrained into the cooling system depends on a variety of variables, including time of year, density and distribution of ichthyoplankton in the river, discharge levels in the river, and the volume of water withdrawn by the pumps. Entrainment at the 1 G pump house, which is immediately downstream from the confluence of Upper Three Runs Creek and the Savannah River, is also influenced by discharge rates and ichthyoplankton densities in Upper Three Runs Creek. Because of the anticipated restart of several SRS reactors and the growing concern surrounding striped bass and American shad stocks in the Savannah River, the Department of Energy requested that the Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Savannah River Laboratory sample ichthyoplankton at the SRS Savannah River intakes. Dams Moore, Inc., under a contract with Westinghouse Savannah River Company performed the sampling and data analysis for the ESS.

  13. The problem of salt waters and its influence on the rivers in the Odra river basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magdziorz, A.; Lach, R.; Korczak, K.; Pluta, I.; Niedziocha, Z.; Dziewulski, M.; Lach, H.; Filipek, K. [Central Mining Institute, Katowice (Poland). Dept. of Water Protection

    1997-12-31

    Coal mining in the Odra and Wisla river basins in Poland gives rise to salination of the rivers Olza, Klodnica, Ruda and Nacyna, and Bierawka. This causes problems in use of river water for drinking water, for irrigation and for industrial applications and causes corrosion of water facilities. The paper discusses the water pollution due to mine drainage in the Odra basin and then reviews methods to reduce this (by desalination, hydrotechnological methods, hydrogeological methods (recirculation and deep roll injection), and mining methods). 5 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  14. [Formation of geochemistry in underground river under rainfall conditions: an examule for underground river at Xueyu Cave, Chongqing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng-Kang; Liang, Zuo-Bing; Yu, Zheng-Liang; Jiang, Ze-Li

    2014-10-01

    Through the monitoring of geochemical indexes in underground river of Xueyu Cave in Chongqing under rainfall conditions, we found that all indexes responded quickly to rainfall, and there was a correlation among them. Each index was analyzed with the principal component analysis, three main components were extracted which can represent 82.761% of the information to reflect the formation of geochemistry in underground river under rainfall conditions. The results showed that the contribution rates of soil leaching represented as increased concentration of total Fe, total Mn, and Al3+, and dilution effect represented as reduced concentration of K+, Na+ and Sr2+ to the change of geochemical characteristics were 41.718%, which should be paid more attentions for its great damage to karst soil and safety of drinking water. Karst water dissolution of dolomite and recharge area of agricultural activities, caverns were 29.958%, as for karst water on limestone dissolution represented, as increased concentration of Ca2+ the contribution rate was 11.084%.

  15. Evaluation Of Water Quality At River Bian In Merauke Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djaja Irba

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available River Bian in Merauke Regency has been utilized by local people in Papua (the Marind who live along the river for fulfilling their daily needs, such as shower, cloth and dish washing, and even defecation, waste disposal, including domestic waste, as well as for ceremonial activities related to the locally traditional culture. Change in land use for other necessities and domestic activities of the local people have mounted pressures on the status of the River Bian, thus decreasing the quality of the river. This study had objectives to find out and to analyze river water quality and water quality status of the River Bian, and its compliance with water quality standards for ideal use. The study determined sample point by a purposive sampling method, taking the water samples with a grab method. The analysis of the water quality was performed by standard and pollution index methods. The study revealed that the water quality of River Bian, concerning BOD, at the station 3 had exceeded quality threshold. COD parameter for all stations had exceeded the quality threshold for class III. At three stations, there was a decreasing value due to increasing PI, as found at the stations 1, 2, and 3. In other words, River Bian had been lightly contaminated.

  16. Water quality assessment of the Sinos River, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KK. Blume

    Full Text Available The Sinos River basin is located Northeast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (29º 20' to 30º 10' S and 50º 15' to 51º20'W, Southern Brazil, covering two geomorphologic provinces: the Southern plateau and central depression. It is part of the Guaíba basin and has an area of approximately 800 km², encompassing 32 municipalities. The objective of this study was to monitor water quality in the Sinos River, the largest river in this basin. Water samples were collected at four selected sites in the Sinos River, and the following parameters were analysed: pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, turbidity, fecal coliforms, total dissolved solids, temperature, nitrate, nitrite, phosphorous, chromium, lead, aluminum, zinc, iron, and copper. The results were analysed based on Resolution No. 357/2005 of the Brazilian National Environmental Council (CONAMA regarding regulatory limits for residues in water. A second analysis was performed based on a water quality index (WQI used by the Sinos River Basin Management Committee (COMITESINOS. Poor water quality in the Sinos River presents a worrying scenario for the region, since this river is the main source of water supply for the urban core. Health conditions found in the Sinos River, mainly in its lower reaches, are worrying and a strong indicator of human activities on the basin.

  17. Kyiv Small Rivers in Metropolis Water Objects System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krelshteyn, P.; Dubnytska, M.

    2017-12-01

    The article answers the question, what really are the small underground rivers with artificial watercourses: water bodies or city engineering infrastructure objects? The place of such rivers in metropolis water objects system is identified. The ecological state and the degree of urbanization of small rivers, as well as the dynamics of change in these indicators are analysed on the Kiev city example with the help of water objects cadastre. It was found that the registration of small rivers in Kyiv city is not conducted, and the summary information on such water objects is absent and is not taken into account when making managerial decisions at the urban level. To solve this problem, we propose to create some water bodies accounting system (water cadastre).

  18. WATER POLLUTION AND RIVER ALGAE: STUDY IN ZAYANDEH ROOD RIVER – ISFAHAN

    OpenAIRE

    H POUR MOGHADAS; S AFSHARZADEH; M SANIEI

    2001-01-01

    Introduction: Dischange of domestic, agricultural and industrial waste water into the rivers increase chemical substances such as nitrate and phosphate. These chemical changes increase algal population. High density of algae may cause changes in color, odor and taste of water. Some of the algae such as Oscillatoria, Microcystis and Anabeana produce toxins and in high concentrations may kill fishes. While Zayandehrud river is considered as one of the main water supply sources for drinking wate...

  19. Cr-isotope fractionation during oxidative weathering of ultramafic rocks and its impact on river waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulukat, Cora Stefanie; Døssing, Lasse Nørbye; Mondal, Sisir K.

    We investigated Cr isotope fractionation during soil formation from Precambrian ultramafic rocks. A soil profile was logged in an active open-cast chromite mine (Sukinda Valley, India). In addition, mine and river waters, as well as seawater were collected to trace the Cr-isotope signal into the ...

  20. Water contamination and environmental ecosystem in the Harlem River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.

    2013-12-01

    Nutrients, bacteria, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other contaminates have degraded water quality of the Harlem River. The Harlem River is a natural straight connected to the Hudson River and the East River, and it has been used for navigation and boating. Water samples have been collected and analyzed from 2011 to 2013. Phosphorus, ammonia, turbidity, fecal coliform, E.Coli., and enterococcus all exceed regulated levels for New York City waters. There is only one wastewater treatment plant (Wards Island WWTP) that serves this river. Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) discharge raw sewage into the river during storms in spring and summer. Commercial fishing is banned, .however, individuals still fish. While some fishermen catch and release, it is likely some fish are consumed, creating concern for the environmental health of the community along the river. Storm water runoff, CSOs, and wastewater effluents are major pollutant sources of PCB 11 (3,3' dichlorobiphenyl), nutrient and bacteria. Nutrients, bacteria levels and their spatial/temporal variations were analyzed, and PCB analysis is underway. This data is a critical first step towards improving the water quality and environmental ecosystem in the Harlem River.

  1. Water resources: the prerequisite for ecological restoration of rivers in the Hai River Basin, northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wenzhong; Mao, Zhanpo; Zhang, Hong; Shan, Baoqing; Zhao, Yu; Ding, Yuekui

    2015-01-01

    The competition for water resources between humans and river ecosystems is becoming ever more intense worldwide, especially in developing countries. In China, with rapid socioeconomic development, water resources to maintain river ecosystems are progressively decreasing, especially in the Hai River Basin (HRB), which has attracted much attention from the Chinese government. In the past 56 years, water resources have continuously decreased in the basin, such that there is 54.2 % less surface water now compared with then. Water shortages, mainly due to local anthropogenic activities, have emerged as the main limiting factor to river ecological restoration in the HRB. However, the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, the largest such project in the world, presents a good opportunity for ecological restoration of rivers in this basin. Water diverted from the Danjiangkou Reservoir will restore surface water resources in the HRB to levels of 30 years ago and will amount to more than 20 billion m(3). Our findings highlight the fact that water resources are crucial for river ecological restoration.

  2. Situation analysis of water quality in the Umtata River catchment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Umtata River was characterised by using standard physico-chemical and microbiological methods to assess the present water quality in the river. The results indicated high turbidity, gross microbiological and cadmium pollution. Turbidity values ranged from 0.28 NTU to 1 899 NTU highlighting the known problem of ...

  3. Climate influences on upper Limpopo River flow | Jury | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study demonstrates how the regional climate affects river flow in the upper Limpopo Valley of southern Africa (21–24.5S, 26–30E). The catchment basin receives inflow from the Crocodile, Marico, Mahalapse and Lotsane Rivers, and lies on the eastern fringe of the Kalahari plateau, known for water-deficit conditions.

  4. Safety Evaluation of Osun River Water Containing Heavy Metals and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Male and female rats were exposed to Osun river water for three weeks and then sacrificed. The abundance of heavy metals in Osun river followed the trend Pb > Cd > Zn > Fe > Cr > Cu while VOCs followed the trend benzene < ethylbenzene < toluene < xylene. The concentrations of Pb, Cd and benzene were higher than ...

  5. Mississippi National River and Recreation Area Water Trail Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-05

    The Water Trail Plan describes the current conditions of and future plans for the Mississippi National River and Recreation Area (NRRA), a 72-mile stretch of the Mississippi River running through the Twin Cities region of Minnesota. In 2012, the NRRA...

  6. River water quality modelling under drought situations – the Turia River case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Paredes-Arquiola

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Drought and water shortage effects are normally exacerbated due to collateral impacts on water quality, since low streamflow affects water quality in rivers and water uses depend on it. One of the most common problems during drought conditions is maintaining a good water quality while securing the water supply to demands. This research analyses the case of the Turia River Water Resource System located in Eastern Spain. Its main water demand comes as urban demand from Valencia City, which intake is located in the final stretch of the river, where streamflow may become very low during droughts. As a result, during drought conditions concentrations of pathogens and other contaminants increase, compromising the water supply to Valencia City. In order to define possible solutions for the above-mentioned problem, we have developed an integrated model for simulating water management and water quality in the Turia River Basin to propose solutions for water quality problems under water scarcity. For this purpose, the Decision Support System Shell AQUATOOL has been used. The results demonstrate the importance of applying environmental flows as a measure of reducing pollutant's concentration depending on the evolution of a drought event and the state of the water resources system.

  7. River water quality modelling under drought situations - the Turia River case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes-Arquiola, Javier; Macián, Javier; Pedro-Monzonís, María; Belda, Edgar; Momblanch, Andrea; Andreu, Joaquín

    2016-10-01

    Drought and water shortage effects are normally exacerbated due to collateral impacts on water quality, since low streamflow affects water quality in rivers and water uses depend on it. One of the most common problems during drought conditions is maintaining a good water quality while securing the water supply to demands. This research analyses the case of the Turia River Water Resource System located in Eastern Spain. Its main water demand comes as urban demand from Valencia City, which intake is located in the final stretch of the river, where streamflow may become very low during droughts. As a result, during drought conditions concentrations of pathogens and other contaminants increase, compromising the water supply to Valencia City. In order to define possible solutions for the above-mentioned problem, we have developed an integrated model for simulating water management and water quality in the Turia River Basin to propose solutions for water quality problems under water scarcity. For this purpose, the Decision Support System Shell AQUATOOL has been used. The results demonstrate the importance of applying environmental flows as a measure of reducing pollutant's concentration depending on the evolution of a drought event and the state of the water resources system.

  8. Dynamic water accounting in heavily committed river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmant, Amaury; Marques, Guilherme

    2014-05-01

    Many river basins throughout the world are increasingly under pressure as water demands keep rising due to population growth, industrialization, urbanization and rising living standards. In the past, the typical answer to meet those demands focused on the supply-side and involved the construction of hydraulic infrastructures to capture more water from surface water bodies and from aquifers. As river basins were being more and more developed, downstream water users and ecosystems have become increasingly dependant on the management actions taken by upstream users. The increased interconnectedness between water users, aquatic ecosystems and the built environment is further compounded by climate change and its impact on the water cycle. Those pressures mean that it has become increasingly important to measure and account for changes in water fluxes and their corresponding economic value as they progress throughout the river system. Such basin water accounting should provide policy makers with important information regarding the relative contribution of each water user, infrastructure and management decision to the overall economic value of the river basin. This paper presents a dynamic water accounting approach whereby the entire river basin is considered as a value chain with multiple services including production and storage. Water users and reservoirs operators are considered as economic agents who can exchange water with their hydraulic neighbors at a price corresponding to the marginal value of water. Effective water accounting is made possible by keeping track of all water fluxes and their corresponding transactions using the results of a hydro-economic model. The proposed approach is illustrated with the Eastern Nile River basin in Africa.

  9. Formation Conditions and Sedimentary Characteristics of a Triassic Shallow Water Braided Delta in the Yanchang Formation, Southwest Ordos Basin, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziliang Liu

    Full Text Available A large, shallow braided river delta sedimentary system developed in the Yanchang Formation during the Triassic in the southwest of the Ordos basin. In this braided delta system, abundant oil and gas resources have been observed, and the area is a hotspot for oil and gas resource exploration. Through extensive field work on outcrops and cores and analyses of geophysical data, it was determined that developments in the Late Triassic produced favorable geological conditions for the development of shallow water braided river deltas. Such conditions included a large basin, flat terrain, and wide and shallow water areas; wet and dry cyclical climate changes; ancient water turbulence; dramatic depth cycle changes; ancient uplift development; strong weathering of parent rock; and abundant supply. The shallow water braided river delta showed grain sediment granularity, plastic debris, and sediment with mature composition and structure that reflected the strong hydrodynamic environment of large tabular cross-bedding, wedge cross-bedding, and multiple positive rhythms superimposed to form a thick sand body layer. The branch river bifurcation developed underwater, and the thickness of the sand body increased further, indicating that the slope was slow and located in shallow water. The seismic responses of the braided river delta reflected strong shallow water performance, indicated by a progradation seismic reflection phase axis that was relatively flat; in addition, the seismic reflection amplitude was strong and continuous with a low angle and extended over considerable distances (up to 50 km. The sedimentary center was close to the provenance, the width of the river was large, and a shallow sedimentary structure and a sedimentary rhythm were developed. The development of the delta was primarily controlled by tectonic activity and changes in the lake level; as a result, the river delta sedimentary system eventually presented a "small plain, big front

  10. Formation Conditions and Sedimentary Characteristics of a Triassic Shallow Water Braided Delta in the Yanchang Formation, Southwest Ordos Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ziliang; Shen, Fang; Zhu, Xiaomin; Li, Fengjie; Tan, Mengqi

    2015-01-01

    A large, shallow braided river delta sedimentary system developed in the Yanchang Formation during the Triassic in the southwest of the Ordos basin. In this braided delta system, abundant oil and gas resources have been observed, and the area is a hotspot for oil and gas resource exploration. Through extensive field work on outcrops and cores and analyses of geophysical data, it was determined that developments in the Late Triassic produced favorable geological conditions for the development of shallow water braided river deltas. Such conditions included a large basin, flat terrain, and wide and shallow water areas; wet and dry cyclical climate changes; ancient water turbulence; dramatic depth cycle changes; ancient uplift development; strong weathering of parent rock; and abundant supply. The shallow water braided river delta showed grain sediment granularity, plastic debris, and sediment with mature composition and structure that reflected the strong hydrodynamic environment of large tabular cross-bedding, wedge cross-bedding, and multiple positive rhythms superimposed to form a thick sand body layer. The branch river bifurcation developed underwater, and the thickness of the sand body increased further, indicating that the slope was slow and located in shallow water. The seismic responses of the braided river delta reflected strong shallow water performance, indicated by a progradation seismic reflection phase axis that was relatively flat; in addition, the seismic reflection amplitude was strong and continuous with a low angle and extended over considerable distances (up to 50 km). The sedimentary center was close to the provenance, the width of the river was large, and a shallow sedimentary structure and a sedimentary rhythm were developed. The development of the delta was primarily controlled by tectonic activity and changes in the lake level; as a result, the river delta sedimentary system eventually presented a "small plain, big front" character.

  11. Evidence for sites of methylmercury formation in a flowing water system: impact of anthropogenic barriers and water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro-Barraza, Claudia; Gustin, Mae Sexauer; Peacock, Mary; Miller, Matthieu

    2014-04-15

    The Truckee River, California-Nevada, USA is impacted by mercury (Hg) contamination associated with legacy gold mining. In this work, we investigated the potential for hot-spots of methylmercury (MeHg) formation in the river. Mercury concentrations in multiple media were also used to assess the impacts of anthropogenic barriers, restoration, and water management in this flowing water ecosystem. Water samples were collected on a seasonal time step over 3 years, and analyzed for total Hg (THg) and MeHg concentrations, along with a variety of other water quality parameters. In addition, we measured THg and MeHg in sediments, THg in macroinvertebrates, and THg and δ(15)N and δ(13)C concentrations in fish. Differences in stable isotopes and Hg concentrations in fish were applied to understand the mobility of fish in the river. Mercury concentrations of specific macroinvertebrate species were used to identify sites of MeHg production. In general, loads of Hg and nutrients in the river reach above the Reno-Sparks metropolitan area were similar to that reported for pristine systems, while within and below the city, water quality impacts were observed. Fish isotope data showed that in the city reach food resources were different than those upriver and downriver. Based on Hg and isotope data, mobility of the fish in the river is impacted by anthropogenic obstructions and water manipulation. Below the city, particle bound Hg, derived from the legacy mining, continues to be input to the Truckee River. This Hg is deposited in riparian habitats and areas of river restoration, where it is methylated and becomes available to biota. During spring, when flows were highest, MeHg produced and stored in the sediments is mobilized and transported downriver. Fish and macroinvertebrate concentrations increased downriver indicating passive uptake from water. The information presented here could be useful for those doing river restoration and water manipulation in mercury contaminated

  12. Biodegradation of complex bacteria on phenolic derivatives in river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guang-Hua; Wang, Chao; Sun, Zhe

    2009-04-01

    To isolate, incubate, and identify 4-chlorophenol-degrading complex bacteria, determine the tolerance of these bacteria to phenolic derivatives and study their synergetic metabolism as well as the aboriginal micrpbes and co-metabolic degradation of mixed chlorophenols in river water. Microbial community of complex bacteria was identified by plate culture observation techniques and Gram stain method. Bacterial growth inhibition test was used to determine the tolerance of complex bacteria to toxicants. Biodegradability of phenolic derivatives was determined by adding 4-chlorophenol-degrading bacteria in river water. The complex bacteria were identified as Mycopiana, Alcaligenes, Pseudomonas, and Flavobacterium. The domesticated complex bacteria were more tolerant to phenolic derivatives than the aboriginal bacteria from Qinhuai River. The biodegradability of chlorophenols, dihydroxybenzenes and nitrophenols under various aquatic conditions was determined and compared. The complex bacteria exhibited a higher metabolic efficiency on chemicals than the aboriginal microbes, and the final removal rate of phenolic derivatives was increased at least by 55% when the complex bacteria were added into river water. The metabolic relationship between dominant mixed bacteria and river bacteria was studied. The complex bacteria domesticated by 4-chlorophenol can grow and be metabolized to take other chlorophenols, dihydroxybenzenes and nitrophenols as the sole carbon and energy source. There is a synergetic metabolism of most compounds between the aboriginal microbes in river water and the domesticated complex bacteria. 4-chlorophenol-degrading bacteria can co-metabolize various chlorophenols in river water.

  13. SOME INDICATORS OF WATER QUALITY OF THE TAMIŠ RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGAN MARKOVIĆ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results obtained in field analysis performed at the Tamiš River, starting from the settlement Jaša Tomić (the border between Serbia and Romania to Pančevo (the confluence of Tamiš into the Danube. The Tamiš is a 359 km long river rising in the southern Carpathian Mountains. It flows through the Banat region and flows into the Danube near Pančevo. Over the years, the water quality of the river has severely deteriorated and badly affected the environment and the river ecosystem. In situ measurements enabled determination of physico-chemical parameters of water quality of the Tamiš River at every 400 m of the watercourse, such as: water temperature, pH value, electrical conductivity, contents of dissolved oxygen and oxygen saturation. The main reason of higher pollution of Tamiš is seen in connection to DTD hydro system. Sampling was performed at 7 points with regard to color, turbidity, total hardness, alkalinity, concentration of ammonium nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, iron, chlorides and sulphates in samples. The aim of the present work was to evaluate water quality in the Tamiš River taking into account significant pollution, which originates from settlements, industry and agriculture, and to suggest appropriate preventive measures to further decrease the pollution of the river's water.

  14. Study on measuring social cost of water pollution: concentrated on Han River water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Im; Min, Dong Gee; Chung, Hoe Seong; Lim, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Mee Sook [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    Following the economic development and the progress of urbanization, the damage on water pollution has been more serious but a social cost caused by water pollution cannot be measured. Although the need of water quality preservation is emphasized, a base material for public investment on enhancing water quality preservation is not equipped yet due to the absence of economic values of water resource. Therefore it measured a cost generated by leaving pollution not treated water quality in this study. To measure the usable value of water resource or the cost of water pollution all over the country should include a national water system, but this study is limited on the mainstream of Han River water system from North Han River through Paldang to Chamsil sluice gates. Further study on Nakdong River and Keum River water systems should be done. 74 refs., 4 figs., 51 tabs.

  15. Review of robust measurement of phosphorus in river water: sampling, storage, fractionation and sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. Jarvie

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews current knowledge on sampling, storage and analysis of phosphorus (P in river waters. Potential sensitivity of rivers with different physical, chemical and biological characteristics (trophic status, turbidity, flow regime, matrix chemistry is examined in terms of errors associated with sampling, sample preparation, storage, contamination, interference and analytical errors. Key issues identified include: The need to tailor analytical reagents and concentrations to take into account the characteristics of the sample matrix. The effects of matrix interference on the colorimetric analysis. The influence of variable rates of phospho-molybdenum blue colour formation. The differing responses of river waters to physical and chemical conditions of storage. The higher sensitivities of samples with low P concentrations to storage and analytical errors. Given high variability of river water characteristics in space and time, no single standardised methodology for sampling, storage and analysis of P in rivers can be offered. ‘Good Practice’ guidelines are suggested, which recommend that protocols for sampling, storage and analysis of river water for P is based on thorough site-specific method testing and assessment of P stability on storage. For wider sampling programmes at the regional/national scale where intensive site-specific method and stability testing are not feasible, ‘Precautionary Practice’ guidelines are suggested. The study highlights key areas requiring further investigation for improving methodological rigour. Keywords: phosphorus, orthophosphate, soluble reactive, particulate, colorimetry, stability, sensitivity, analytical error, storage, sampling, filtration, preservative, fractionation, digestion

  16. 2012 Water Levels - Mojave River and the Morongo Groundwater Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — During 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey and other agencies made approximately 2,500 water-level measurements in the Mojave River and Morongo groundwater basins....

  17. 2012 Suwannee River Water Management District (SRWMD) Lidar: Bradford (FL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — USGS - Suwannee River Water Management District Contract No.G10PC00093, Task Order No.G12PD00242 Prime Contractor: Digital Aerial Solutions (DAS) Sub-Contractor:...

  18. Water Resources Inventory and Assessment: Parker River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment report for Parker River National Wildlife Refuge describes current hydrologic information, provides an assessment of...

  19. St. Louis River water quality assessment 2012, 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — St. Louis River Area of Concern surface water nutrient (TP, TN, NOx-N, NH4-N), dissolved oxygen, and particulate (TSS, chlorophyll a) concentration data from 2012...

  20. Cahaba River National Wildlife Refuge Water Resource Inventory and Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) report for Cahaba River National Wildlife Refuge describes current hydrologic information, provides an assessment...

  1. Water quality and treatment of river bank filtrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vet, W.W.J.M.; Van Genuchten, C.C.A.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    In drinking water production, river bank filtration has the advantages of dampening peak concentrations of many dissolved components, substantially removing many micropollutants and removing, virtually completely, the pathogens and suspended solids. The production aquifer is not only fed by the

  2. Water quality and treatment of river bank filtrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vet, W.W.J.M.; Van Genuchten, C.C.A.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    In drinking water production, river bank filtration has the advantages of dampening peak concentrations of many dissolved components, substantially removing many micropollutants and removing, virtually completely, the pathogens and suspended solids. The production aquifer is not only fed by the

  3. Control options for river water improvement: a case study of TDS and inorganic nitrogen in the Crocodile river (South Africa)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Deksissa, T

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Using a simple conceptual dynamic river water quality model, the effects of different basin-wide water quality management options on downstream water quality improvements in a semi-arid river, the Crocodile River (South Africa) were investigated...

  4. The Niagara River: A water quality management overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbert, F J

    1991-01-01

    The Niagara River constitutes part of the Laurentian Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River system which represents approximately 80% of North America's supply of surface fresh water. The river is a major source of water for industry, municipalities, recreation and power generation and is the link between Lakes Erie and Ontario. The river forms part of the Canada-U.S. border and falls under the jurisdiction of both countries.The massive industrialization of the region surrounding the river has led to a typical resource use conflict situation in which pollution of the river continues to be a major public concern.A number of constitutional, institutional and jurisdictional factors make the management of the Niagara River an involved and complicated matter. The interests, intent, philosophies, laws and regulations are not necessarily the same among the numerous jurisdiction involved. Despite these differences, however, Canada and the United States have succeeded in developing and implementing a model cooperative international management plan for the river. An overview of the main international aspects relating to the development and implementation of this plan, the Niagara River Toxics Management Plan, is presented.

  5. Water resources of the Bad River Indian Reservation, northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batten, W.G.; Lidwin, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    Water-resources data were collected in the Bad River Indian Reservation of northern Wisconsin from 1983 through 1987. Some data are interpreted to describe ground-water flow, groundwater quality, streamflow, and surface-water quality. Data also are presented in tables and appendixes for baseline reference.

  6. THE WATER QUALITY DEGRADATION OF UPPER AWASH RIVER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-01-11

    Jan 11, 2013 ... faunal diversity was observed in Koka Bridge (7 families) indicating the effect of water quality class differences among the sampling sites. Key words: Macroinvertebrates, organic pollution, heavy metals, water quality, anthropogenic impact, upper Awash River. Introduction. Water is critical for sustainable ...

  7. Assessment of water quality of Obueyinomo River, Ovia North East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to assess the water quality of Obueyinomo River using water quality index. Ambient and water temperatures were determined in-situ while total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), total solids (TS), turbidity, pH, conductivity, hardness, alkalinity, dissolved Oxygen (DO), ...

  8. River water infiltration enhances denitrification efficiency in riparian groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauth, Nico; Musolff, Andreas; Knöller, Kay; Kaden, Ute S; Keller, Toralf; Werban, Ulrike; Fleckenstein, Jan H

    2018-03-01

    Nitrate contamination in ground- and surface water is a persistent problem in countries with intense agriculture. The transition zone between rivers and their riparian aquifers, where river water and groundwater interact, may play an important role in mediating nitrate exports, as it can facilitate intensive denitrification, which permanently removes nitrate from the aquatic system. However, the in-situ factors controlling riparian denitrification are not fully understood, as they are often strongly linked and their effects superimpose each other. In this study, we present the evaluation of hydrochemical and isotopic data from a 2-year sampling period of river water and groundwater in the riparian zone along a 3rd order river in Central Germany. Based on bi- and multivariate statistics (Spearman's rank correlation and partial least squares regression) we can show, that highest rates for oxygen consumption and denitrification in the riparian aquifer occur where the fraction of infiltrated river water and at the same time groundwater temperature, are high. River discharge and depth to groundwater are additional explanatory variables for those reaction rates, but of minor importance. Our data and analyses suggest that at locations in the riparian aquifer, which show significant river water infiltration, heterotrophic microbial reactions in the riparian zone may be fueled by bioavailable organic carbon derived from the river water. We conclude that interactions between rivers and riparian groundwater are likely to be a key control of nitrate removal and should be considered as a measure to mitigate high nitrate exports from agricultural catchments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental investigation on water quality standard of Yangtze River water source heat pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zenghu; Tong, Mingwei; Kun, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Due to the surface water in the upper reaches of Yangtze River in China containing large amounts of silt and algae, high content of microorganisms and suspended solids, the water in Yangtze River cannot be used for cooling a heat pump directly. In this paper, the possibility of using Yangtze River, which goes through Chongqing, a city in southwest China, as a heat source-sink was investigated. Water temperature and quality of the Yangtze River in the Chongqing area were analyzed and the performance of water source heat pump units in different sediment concentrations, turbidity and algae material conditions were tested experimentally, and the water quality standards, in particular surface water conditions, in the Yangtze River region that adapt to energy-efficient heat pumps were also proposed. The experimental results show that the coefficient of performance heat pump falls by 3.73% to the greatest extent, and the fouling resistance of cooling water in the heat exchanger increases up to 25.6% in different water conditions. When the sediment concentration and the turbidity in the river water are no more than 100 g/m3 and 50 NTU respectively, the performance of the heat pump is better, which can be used as a suitable river water quality standard for river water source heat pumps.

  10. The main factors of water pollution in Danube River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Gasparotti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposed herewith aims to give an overview on the pollution along the Danube River. Water quality in Danube River basin (DRB is under a great pressure due to the diverse range of the human activities including large urban center, industrial, agriculture, transport and mining activities. The most important aspects of the water pollution are: organic, nutrient and microbial pollution, , hazardous substances, and hydro-morphological alteration. Analysis of the pressures on the Danube River showed that a large part of the Danube River is subject to multiple pressures and there are important risks for not reaching good ecological status and good chemical status of the water in the foreseeable future. In 2009, the evaluation based on the results of the Trans National Monitoring Network showed for the length of water bodies from the Danube River basin that 22% achieved good ecological status or ecological potential and 45% river water bodies achieved good chemical status. Another important issue is related to the policy of water pollution.

  11. Water quality index for Al-Gharraf River, southern Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam Hussein Ewaid

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Water Quality Index has been developed mathematically to evaluate the water quality of Al-Gharraf River, the main branch of the Tigris River in the south of Iraq. Water samples were collected monthly from five sampling stations during 2015–2016, and 11 parameters were analyzed: biological oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, the concentration of hydrogen ions, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, phosphates, nitrates, chlorides, as well as turbidity, total hardness, electrical conductivity and alkalinity. The index classified the river water, without including turbidity as a parameter, as good for drinking at the first station, poor at stations 2, 3, 4 and very poor at station 5. When turbidity was included, the index classified the river water as unsuitable for drinking purposes in the entire river. The study highlights the importance of applying the water quality indices which indicate the total effect of the ecological factors on surface water quality and which give a simple interpretation of the monitoring data to help local people in improving water quality.

  12. Water Accounting Plus for Water Resources Reporting and River Basin Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, P.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis introduces Water Accounting Plus (WA+), which is a new framework designed to provide explicit spatial information on water depletion and net withdrawal processes in complex river basins. WA+ is a simple, yet comprehensive and understandable water accounting framework that provides a standardized way of data collection and a presentation system that describes the overall land and water management situation in complex river basins. WA+ tracks water depletions rather than withdrawals...

  13. Radiolysis of confined water: molecular hydrogen formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotureau, P.; Renault, J.P.; Mialocq, J.C. [CEA/Saclay, DSM/DRECAM/SCM/URA 331 CNRS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Lebeau, B.; Patarin, J. [Laboratoire de Materiaux a Porosite Controlee, UMR CNRS 7016, ENSCMu-UHA, 3, Rue Alfred Werner, 68093 Mulhouse Cedex (France)

    2005-07-11

    The formation of molecular hydrogen in the radiolysis of water confined in nanoscale pores of well-characterised porous silica glasses and mesoporous molecular sieves (MCM-41) is examined. The comparison of dihydrogen formation by irradiation of both materials, dry and hydrated, shows that a large part of the H{sub 2} comes from the surface of the material. The radiolytic yields, G(H{sub 2})=(3{+-}0.5) x 10{sup -7} mol J{sup -1}, calculated using the total energy deposited in the material and the water, are only slightly affected by the degree of hydration of the material and by the pore size. These yields are also not modified by the presence of hydroxyl radical scavengers. This observation proves that the back reaction between H{sub 2} and HO{sup .} is inoperative in such confined environments. Furthermore, the large amount of H{sub 2} produced in the presence of different concentrated scavengers of the hydrated electron and its precursor suggests that these two species are far from being the only species responsible for the H{sub 2} formation. Our results show that the radiolytic phenomena that occur in water confined in nanoporous silica are dramatically different to those in bulk water, suggesting the need to investigate further the chemical reactivity in this type of environment. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. Radiolysis of confined water: molecular hydrogen formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotureau, P; Renault, J P; Lebeau, B; Patarin, J; Mialocq, J-C

    2005-07-11

    The formation of molecular hydrogen in the radiolysis of water confined in nanoscale pores of well-characterised porous silica glasses and mesoporous molecular sieves (MCM-41) is examined. The comparison of dihydrogen formation by irradiation of both materials, dry and hydrated, shows that a large part of the H2 comes from the surface of the material. The radiolytic yields, G(H2)=(3+/-0.5)x10(-7) mol J(-1), calculated using the total energy deposited in the material and the water, are only slightly affected by the degree of hydration of the material and by the pore size. These yields are also not modified by the presence of hydroxyl radical scavengers. This observation proves that the back reaction between H2 and HO(.) is inoperative in such confined environments. Furthermore, the large amount of H2 produced in the presence of different concentrated scavengers of the hydrated electron and its precursor suggests that these two species are far from being the only species responsible for the H2 formation. Our results show that the radiolytic phenomena that occur in water confined in nanoporous silica are dramatically different to those in bulk water, suggesting the need to investigate further the chemical reactivity in this type of environment.

  15. The agricultural water footprint of EU river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanham, Davy

    2014-05-01

    This work analyses the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod,agr) and consumption (WFcons,agr) as well as the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi,agr) for 365 EU river basins with an area larger than 1000 km2. Apart from total amounts, also a differentiation between the green, blue and grey components is made. River basins where the WFcons,agr,tot exceeds WFprod,agr,tot values substantially (resulting in positive netVWi,agr,tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. River basins where the WFprod,agr,totexceeds WFcons,agr,totare found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. The effect of a healthy (HEALTHY) and vegetarian (VEG) diet on the WFcons,agr is assessed, as well as resulting changes in netVWi,agr. For HEALTHY, the WFcons,agr,tot of most river basins decreases (max 32%), although in the east some basins show an increase. For VEG, in all but one river basins a reduction (max 46%) in WFcons,agr,tot is observed. The effect of diets on the WFcons,agrof a river basin has not been carried out so far. River basins and not administrative borders are the key geographical entity for water management. Such a comprehensive analysis on the river basin scale is the first in its kind. Reduced river basin WFcons,agrcan contribute to sustainable water management both within the EU and outside its borders. They could help to reduce the dependency of EU consumption on domestic and foreign water resources.

  16. Links between river water acidity, land use and hydrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarinen, T.; Celebi, A.; Kloeve, B. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Water Resources and Environmental Eng. Lab.], Email: tuomas.saarinen@oulu.fi

    2013-11-01

    In western Finland, acid leaching to watercourses is mainly due to drainage of acid sulphate (As) soils. This study examined how different land-use and land-cover types affect water acidity in the northwestern coastal region of Finland, which has abundant drained AS soils and peatlands. Sampling conducted in different hydrological conditions in studied river basins revealed two different catchment types: catchments dominated by drained forested peatlands and catchments used by agriculture. Low pH and high electric conductivity (EC) were typical in rivers affected by agriculture. In rivers dominated by forested peatlands and wetlands, EC was considerably lower. During spring and autumn high runoff events, water quality was poor and showed large spatial variation. Thus it is important to ensure that in river basin status assessment, sampling is carried out in different hydrological situations and in also water from some tributaries is sampled. (orig.)

  17. Formation and fates of nitrosamines and their formation potentials from a surface water source to drinking water treatment plants in Southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Hsiang; Wang, Chung-Ya; Huang, Tsung-Hsien

    2016-10-01

    Nitrosamines are toxic and emerging disinfection byproducts. In this study, three drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in southern Taiwan treating the same source water in Gaoping River with comparable technologies were selected. The objective was to evaluate the formation and fates of six nitrosamines and their formation potentials (FPs) from a surface water source to drinking water. Albeit decreased further downstream in the river, four nitrosamine-FPs were observed in the source water due to anthropogenic pollution in the upstream areas. In the DWTPs, nitrosamines were formed and NDMA was the main species. While high organic carbon concentrations indicated elevated nitrosamine-FPs in the source water, NDMA formation in the DWTPs was more positively associated with reductions of water parameters that quantify organic matters with double bonded ring structures. Although precursor removal via pre-oxidation is a viable approach to limit nitrosamine formation during post-disinfection, this study clearly indicates that a great portion of NDMA in treated water has been formed in the 1st oxidation step of drinking water treatment. The pre-oxidation simulations in the lab demonstrated the impact of pre-chlorination on nitrosamine formation. Given the limited removal in conventional treatment processes, avoiding nitrosamine-FPs in sources and/or nitrosamine formation during pre-oxidation become important issues to control the threats of nitrosamines in drinking water. Under current circumstance in which pre-oxidation is widely used to optimize the treatment effectiveness in many DWTPs, its adverse effect by forming nitrosamines needs to be carefully minimized and using technologies other than pre-chlorination (e.g., pre-ozonation) may be considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evidence for sites of methylmercury formation in a flowing water system: Impact of anthropogenic barriers and water management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizarro-Barraza, Claudia [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV 89557 (United States); Gustin, Mae Sexauer, E-mail: mgustin@cabnr.unr.edu [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV 89557 (United States); Peacock, Mary [Department of Biology, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV 89557 (United States); Miller, Matthieu [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV 89557 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The Truckee River, California-Nevada, USA is impacted by mercury (Hg) contamination associated with legacy gold mining. In this work, we investigated the potential for hot-spots of methylmercury (MeHg) formation in the river. Mercury concentrations in multiple media were also used to assess the impacts of anthropogenic barriers, restoration, and water management in this flowing water ecosystem. Water samples were collected on a seasonal time step over 3 years, and analyzed for total Hg (THg) and MeHg concentrations, along with a variety of other water quality parameters. In addition, we measured THg and MeHg in sediments, THg in macroinvertebrates, and THg and δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 13}C concentrations in fish. Differences in stable isotopes and Hg concentrations in fish were applied to understand the mobility of fish in the river. Mercury concentrations of specific macroinvertebrate species were used to identify sites of MeHg production. In general, loads of Hg and nutrients in the river reach above the Reno–Sparks metropolitan area were similar to that reported for pristine systems, while within and below the city, water quality impacts were observed. Fish isotope data showed that in the city reach food resources were different than those upriver and downriver. Based on Hg and isotope data, mobility of the fish in the river is impacted by anthropogenic obstructions and water manipulation. Below the city, particle bound Hg, derived from the legacy mining, continues to be input to the Truckee River. This Hg is deposited in riparian habitats and areas of river restoration, where it is methylated and becomes available to biota. During spring, when flows were highest, MeHg produced and stored in the sediments is mobilized and transported downriver. Fish and macroinvertebrate concentrations increased downriver indicating passive uptake from water. The information presented here could be useful for those doing river restoration and water manipulation in mercury

  19. Hydrochemical evaluation of river water quality—a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qishlaqi, Afishin; Kordian, Sediqeh; Parsaie, Abbas

    2017-09-01

    Rivers are one of the most environmentally vulnerable sources for contamination. Since the rivers pass through the cities, industrial and agricultural centers, these have been considered as place to dispose the sewages. This issue is more important when the river is one of the main sources of water supplying for drinking, agricultural and industrial utilizations. The goal of the present study was assessing the physicochemical characteristics of the Tireh River water. The Tireh River is the main river in the Karkheh catchment in the Iran. To this end, 14 sampling stations for measuring the physicochemical properties of Tireh River along the two main cities (Borujerd and Dorud) were measured. The results showed that (except SO4) Mg, Ca and other anions and cations have concentrations under WHO standard limitation. Almost all samples have suitable conditions for drinking with regard to the WHO standard and in comparison with agricultural standard (FAO Standard), and the potential of water is suitable for irrigation purposes. According to Wilcox diagram, 78 % of samples were at the C3-S1 and 21.5 % were at C2-S1 classes. The piper diagram shows that most of samples are bicarbonate and calcic facies.

  20. Modelling trihalomethanes formation in water supply systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cristo, Cristiana; Esposito, Giovanni; Leopardi, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    Chlorination is the most widely used method for disinfection of drinking water, but there are concerns about the formation of by-products, such as trihalomethanes (THMs), since the chronic exposure to them may pose risks to human health. For these reasons regulations fix maximum acceptable THMs levels throughout distribution networks, so it is very important to be able to correctly reproduce their formation. In the literature many models for predicting THMs formation have been developed, both based on empirical relationships and on kinetics involved during chlorine reactions. In this work the use of some of these models and their reliability in real situations is investigated through the application to the Aurunci-Valcanneto Water Supply System in Southern Lazio (Italy). The comparison of the performances of 18 selected literature empirical models furnishes interesting observations, indicating that the formula, developed using field data, results in being more suitable for reproducing THMs formation for the presented case study. Other considerations are also offered from the comparison with the results obtained using a simple first order kinetic model, calibrated using measured data.

  1. Precipitation and stream water stable isotope data from the Marys River, Oregon in water year 2015.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Water stable isotope data collected from a range of streams throughout the Marys River basin in water year 2015, and precipitation data collected within the basin at...

  2. Water and Benefit Sharing in Transboundary River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjoon, D.; Tilmant, A.; Herrmann, M.

    2015-12-01

    Growing water scarcity underlies the importance of cooperation for the effective management of river basins, particularly in the context of international rivers in which unidirectional externalities can lead to asymmetric relationships between riparian countries. Studies have shown that significant economic benefits can be expected through basin-wide cooperation, however, the equitable partitioning of these benefits over the basin is less well studied and tends to overlook the importance of stakeholder input in the definition of equitability. In this study, an institutional arrangement to maximize welfare and then share the scarcity cost in a river basin is proposed. A river basin authority plays the role of a bulk water market operator, efficiently allocating bulk water to the users and collecting bulk water charges which are then equitably redistributed among water users. This highly regulated market restrains the behaviour of water users to control externalities and to ensure basin-wide coordination, enhanced efficiency, and the equitable redistribution of the scarcity cost. The institutional arrangement is implemented using the Eastern Nile River basin as a case study. The importance of this arrangement is that it can be adopted for application in negotiations to cooperate in trans-boundary river basins. The benefit sharing solution proposed is more likely to be perceived as equitable because water users help define the sharing rule. As a result, the definition of the sharing rule is not in question, as it would be if existing rules, such as bankruptcy rules or cooperative game theory solutions, are applied, with their inherent definitions of fairness. Results of the case study show that the sharing rule is predictable. Water users can expect to receive between 93.5% and 95% of their uncontested benefits (benefits that they expect to receive if water was not rationed), depending on the hydrologic scenario.

  3. WATER POLLUTION AND RIVER ALGAE: STUDY IN ZAYANDEH ROOD RIVER – ISFAHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H POUR MOGHADAS

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dischange of domestic, agricultural and industrial waste water into the rivers increase chemical substances such as nitrate and phosphate. These chemical changes increase algal population. High density of algae may cause changes in color, odor and taste of water. Some of the algae such as Oscillatoria, Microcystis and Anabeana produce toxins and in high concentrations may kill fishes. While Zayandehrud river is considered as one of the main water supply sources for drinking water and valuable water resources of Isfahan Province, water quality control of this river is important. The study of algae of the river in relation with the concentration of nitrate and phosphate is the purpose of this research project. Methods: To perform this projects, seven sampling stations from "Pole Vahid" to .Pole choom. were selected. Grab methods were used for sampling of the river water. 147 water samples were collected in one year of the study.The samples were analyzed for phosphate, nitrate and genera of the algae. Nitrate and phosphate of the water samples were determined using Phenol Disulfonic Acid and Stanous chloride methods, respectively. The genera of the algae were detennined using the keys. Results and Disccusion:The result of the study showed that the frequency of the algae increased with increasing nitrate and phosphate. Overall.35 genera of algae in the area of the study were observed, which six of them were indicators of water pollution. Minimum frequency of indicators of pollution was observed in the enterance of Isfahan city and maximum frequency was observed after the discharge of municipal water from waste water treatment plant (pole Choom.

  4. Water quality of Flag Boshielo Dam, Olifants River, South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing demands for water, discharge of effluents, and variable rainfall have a negative impact on water quality in the Olifants River. Crocodile and fish mortalities attributed to pansteatitis, in Loskop Dam and downstream in the Kruger National Park (KNP), have highlighted the serious effects these impacts are having on ...

  5. Evaluation of the Water Quality of River Kaduna, Nigeria Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twelve (12) water quality parameters (turbidity, TDS, pH, Cl- , EC, DO, BOD5, COD, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, Fe and Mn) were analyzed in River Kaduna, Nigeria on a monthly basis for a period of one year in 15 sampling locations using standard methods. The data obtained were used to develop Water Quality Index ...

  6. Hydrological and Water Quality Characteristics of Rivers Feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reliability of rivers flows that supply small earth dams designed for rural water supply in Malawi, using. Kalolo area in .... bearing system in the district (Malawi Government, 2006). Mean Annual .... For collection, preservation and analysis of water samples, the standard methods (Rainwater and Thatcher. 1960; Brown et al, ...

  7. Reginol interpretation of river Indus water quality data using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water samples were collected from river Indus over 591 km2 from Kashmor to Keti Bandar/Shah Bandar in the province of Sindh, Pakistan, during 2008 and 2009 on seasonal bases. These samples were analyzed for 12 water quality variables including physical and chemical parameters. Then correlation study was carried ...

  8. Evaluation of the Water Quality of River Kaduna, Nigeria Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: Twelve (12) water quality parameters (turbidity, TDS, pH, Cl- , EC, DO, BOD5, COD, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, Fe and Mn) were analyzed in River Kaduna, Nigeria on a monthly basis for a period of one year in 15 sampling locations using standard methods. The data obtained were used to develop Water ...

  9. Water quality assessment of the Siluko River, southern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The water quality of the Siluko River, Edo State, Nigeria was investigated from March to August 2015 to determine its suitability for drinking and usage for domestic purposes. Water samples collected from three stations were tested for thirteen physico-chemical parameters using standard analytical procedures. Temperature ...

  10. Control options for river water quality improvement: a case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a simple conceptual dynamic river water quality model, the effects of different basin-wide water quality management options on downstream water quality improvements in a semi-arid river, the Crocodile River (South Africa) were investigated. When a river is impacted by high rates of freshwater withdrawal (in its ...

  11. Sustainable land and water management of River Oases along the Tarim River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Disse

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Tarim Basin in Xinjiang province in northwest China is characterized by a hyper arid climate. Climate change and a strong increase in agricultural land use are major challenges for sustainable water management. The largest competition for water resources exists between irrigated fields and natural riparian vegetation, which is dependent on seasonal flooding of the Tarim River. In addition to numerous water management measures implemented by the Chinese government, the Sino-German project SuMaRiO (Sustainable Management of River Oases along the Tarim River provided a decision support system based on ecosystem services for the Chinese stakeholders. This tool will help to implement sustainable land and water management measures in the next 5-year plan.

  12. Potability Evaluation of Selected River Waters in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. I. Awu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on the seasonal variation of physiochemical and microbial characteristics of three selected river water in Ebonyi State for human consumption. The three selected rivers studied were Iyioka, Idima and Ubei Rivers. Data were generated using Direct Reading Engineering method (DREM, Gravimetric method, Titrimetric method, Spectrophotometric method, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric method, and Total Viable count for physiochemical and microbiological analysis. The generated data was further subjected to statistical analysis using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA on difference between means of parameters and graphical method to determine the spatial variation of the water quality characteristics. The time variations of the water quality characteristics as compared with the spatial variations showed that for some variables, there was statistical difference between the means of parameters with respect to time and space at various levels of significance. These include Phosphorus (5%, Copper (1%, Iron (5%, Nickel (5%, Cadmium (1%, Salinity (1%, Bacteria (1% for time variation; and Sulphate (1%, Chemical Oxygen (5%,Nickel (1%, Arsenic (1%, Zinc (1%, Cadmium (1%, Bacteria (1% for spatial variations during dry season and Chemical Oxygen (5%, Nickel (1%, for spatial variation during rainy season. Based on the World Health Organization and Standard Organization of Nigeria guidelines for drinking water, the results of microbial analysis also indicated that the selected river waters were polluted with disease causing microorganisms, such as E.Coliform, Salmonella, Bacillus Subtilis. Therefore, the river waters are not good for drinking. The consumers of water obtained from the three rivers are likely to suffer the following: typhoid, fever, intestinal problem, diarrhea, skin rash, cholera. Necessary recommendations such as treating the water with bio-sand filter before use, amongst others, were made.

  13. Integrated hydrological and water quality model for river management: A case study on Lena River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, André, E-mail: andrerd@gmail.com; Botelho, Cidália; Boaventura, Rui A.R.; Vilar, Vítor J.P., E-mail: vilar@fe.up.pt

    2014-07-01

    The Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF) model was used to assess the impact of wastewater discharges on the water quality of a Lis River tributary (Lena River), a 176 km{sup 2} watershed in Leiria region, Portugal. The model parameters obtained in this study, could potentially serve as reference values for the calibration of other watersheds in the area or with similar climatic characteristics, which don't have enough data for calibration. Water quality constituents modeled in this study included temperature, fecal coliforms, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, nitrates, orthophosphates and pH. The results were found to be close to the average observed values for all parameters studied for both calibration and validation periods with percent bias values between − 26% and 23% for calibration and − 30% and 51% for validation for all parameters, with fecal coliforms showing the highest deviation. The model revealed a poor water quality in Lena River for the entire simulation period, according to the Council Directive concerning the surface water quality intended for drinking water abstraction in the Member States (75/440/EEC). Fecal coliforms, orthophosphates and nitrates were found to be 99, 82 and 46% above the limit established in the Directive. HSPF was used to predict the impact of point and nonpoint pollution sources on the water quality of Lena River. Winter and summer scenarios were also addressed to evaluate water quality in high and low flow conditions. A maximum daily load was calculated to determine the reduction needed to comply with the Council Directive 75/440/EEC. The study showed that Lena River is fairly polluted calling for awareness at behavioral change of waste management in order to prevent the escalation of these effects with especially attention to fecal coliforms. - Highlights: • An integrated hydrological and water quality model for river management is presented. • An insight into the

  14. Trace metal pollution in Umtata River | Fatoki | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dissolved trace metals, i.e Fe, Mn, Al, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were determined in the Umtata River. High levels of Al, Cd, Pb, Zn and. Cu were observed, which may affect the “health” of the aquatic ecosystem. The high levels of Al, Cd and Pb may also affect the health of the rural community that uses the river water directly for ...

  15. Water quality and treatment of river bank filtrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. W. J. M. de Vet

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In drinking water production, river bank filtration has the advantages of dampening peak concentrations of many dissolved components, substantially removing many micropollutants and removing, virtually completely, the pathogens and suspended solids. The production aquifer is not only fed by the river bank infiltrate but also by water percolating through covering layers. In the polder areas, these top layers consist of peat and deposits from river sediments and sea intrusions.

    This paper discusses the origin and fate of macro components in river bank filtrate, based on extensive full-scale measurements in well fields and treatment systems of the Drinking Water Company Oasen in the Netherlands. First, it clarifies and illustrates redox reactions and the mixing of river bank filtrate and PW as the dominant processes determining the raw water quality for drinking water production. Next, full-scale results are elaborated on to evaluate trickling filtration as an efficient and proven one-step process to remove methane, iron, ammonium and manganese. The interaction of methane and manganese removal with nitrification in these systems is further analyzed. Methane is mostly stripped during trickling filtration and its removal hardly interferes with nitrification. Under specific conditions, microbial manganese removal may play a dominant role.

  16. Effects of global warming on floods and droughts and related water quality of rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, B.

    2006-01-01

    This review focuses on the effect of global warming on droughts, rainstorms and floods and related water quality of rivers. Relations of temperature, rainstorms and river discharges with water quality variables like water temperature, chemical concentrations and microbiological activity are

  17. Application of water quality models to rivers in Johor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chii, Puah Lih; Rahman, Haliza Abd.

    2017-08-01

    River pollution is one the most common hazard in many countries in the world, which includes Malaysia. Many rivers have been polluted because of the rapid growth in industrialization to support the country's growing population and economy. Domestic and industrial sewage, agricultural wastes have polluted the rivers and will affect the water quality. Based on the Malaysia Environment Quality Report 2007, the Department of Environment (DOE) has described that one of the major pollutants is Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD). Data from DOE in 2004, based on BOD, 18 river basins were classified polluted, 37 river basins were slightly polluted and 65 river basins were in clean condition. In this paper, two models are fitted the data of rivers in Johor state namely Streeter-Phelps model and nonlinear regression (NLR) model. The BOD concentration data for the two rivers in Johor state from year 1981 to year 1990 is analyzed. To estimate the parameters for the Streeter-Phelps model and NLR model, this study focuses on the weighted least squares and Gauss-Newton method respectively. Based on the value of Mean Square Error, NLR model is a better model compared to Streeter-Phelps model.

  18. River-spring connectivity and hydrogeochemical interactions in a shallow fractured rock formation. The case study of Fuensanta river valley (Southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberá, J. A.; Andreo, B.

    2017-04-01

    In upland catchments, the hydrology and hydrochemistry of streams are largely influenced by groundwater inflows, at both regional and local scale. However, reverse conditions (groundwater dynamics conditioned by surface water interferences), although less described, may also occur. In this research, the local river-spring connectivity and induced hydrogeochemical interactions in intensely folded, fractured and layered Cretaceous marls and marly-limestones (Fuensanta river valley, S Spain) are discussed based on field observations, tracer tests and hydrodynamic and hydrochemical data. The differential flow measurements and tracing experiments performed in the Fuensanta river permitted us to quantify the surface water losses and to verify its direct hydraulic connection with the Fuensanta spring. The numerical simulations of tracer breakthrough curves suggest the existence of a groundwater flow system through well-connected master and tributary fractures, with fast and multi-source flow components. Furthermore, the multivariate statistical analysis conducted using chemical data from the sampled waters, the geochemical study of water-rock interactions and the proposed water mixing approach allowed the spatial characterization of the chemistry of the springs and river/stream waters draining low permeable Cretaceous formations. Results corroborated that the mixing of surface waters, as well as calcite dissolution and CO2 dissolution/exsolution, are the main geochemical processes constraining Fuensanta spring hydrochemistry. The estimated contribution of the tributary surface waters to the spring flow during the research period was approximately 26-53% (Fuensanta river) and 47-74% (Convento stream), being predominant the first component during high flow and the second one during the dry season. The identification of secondary geochemical processes (dolomite and gypsum dissolution and dedolomitization) in Fuensanta spring waters evidences the induced hydrogeochemical

  19. Reconnaissance of the chemical quality of surface waters of the Neches River basin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Leon S.; Leifeste, Donald K.

    1967-01-01

    The kinds and quantities of minerals dissolved in the surface water of the Neches River basin result from such environmental factors as geology, streamflow patterns and characteristics, and industrial influences. As a result of high rainfall in the basin, much of the readily soluble material has been leached from the surface rocks and soils. Consequently, the water in the streams is usually low in concentrations of dissolved minerals and meets the U.S. Public Health Service drinking-water standards. In most streams the concentration of dissolved solids is less than 250 ppm (parts per million). The Neches River drains an area of about 10,000 square miles in eastern Texas. From its source in southeast Van Zandt County the river flows in a general southeasterly direction and empties into Sabine Lake, an arm of the Gulf of Mexico. In the basin the climate ranges from moist subhumid to humid, and the average annual rainfall ranges from 46 inches is the northwest to more than 52 inches in the southeast. Annual runoff from the basin has averaged 11 inches; however, runoff rates vary widely from year to year. The yearly mean discharge of the Neches River at Evadale has ranged from 994 to 12,720 cubic feet per second. The rocks exposed in the Neches River basin are of the Quaternary and Tertiary Systems and range in age from Eocene to Recent. Throughout most of the basin the geologic formations dip generally south and southeast toward the gulf coast. The rate of dip is greater than that of the land surface; and as a result, the older formations crop out to the north of the younger formations. Water from the outcrop areas of the Wilcox Group and from the older formations of the Claiborne Group generally has dissolved-solids concentrations ranging from 100 to 250 ppm; water from the younger formations has concentrations less than 100 ppm. The northern half of the basin has soft water, with less than 60 ppm hardness. The southern half of .the basin has very soft water, usually

  20. Water quality of the river Damanganga (Gujarat)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Narvekar, P.V.; Sarma, R.V.; Desai, B.N.

    strong. Quality of water in the discharge zone deteriorated considerably after March (DO decreasing to about 1 mg/litre). High acid content of the effluent lowered pH of water. The discharge in the fresh water zone, presently did not affect the water...

  1. Global modelling of river water quality under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Franssen, Wietse H. P.; Yearsley, John R.

    2017-04-01

    Climate change will pose challenges on the quality of freshwater resources for human use and ecosystems for instance by changing the dilution capacity and by affecting the rate of chemical processes in rivers. Here we assess the impacts of climate change and induced streamflow changes on a selection of water quality parameters for river basins globally. We used the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model and a newly developed global water quality module for salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand. The modelling framework was validated using observed records of streamflow, water temperature, chloride, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand for 1981-2010. VIC and the water quality module were then forced with an ensemble of bias-corrected General Circulation Model (GCM) output for the representative concentration pathways RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 to study water quality trends and identify critical regions (hotspots) of water quality deterioration for the 21st century.

  2. Ground-Water Sources, Flow-Paths, and Residence Times in the Middle Verde River Watershed, Northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatos, C. M.; Hogan, J. F.; Blasch, K. W.; Bills, D. J.; Meixner, T.

    2007-12-01

    Geochemical tracers serve as valuable tools for characterizing basin hydrogeology. By combining stable and radioactive isotopic analyses with solute concentrations and discharge data, one can constrain hydrologic flow- paths and water sources in an area of complex hydrogeology. These techniques are applicable to the Middle Verde River watershed, a region located in the transition zone between the Southern Colorado Plateau and the Basin and Range structural provinces. As the population within the Verde River Valley is projected to double by 2050, efforts to improve the conceptual understanding of basin hydrogeology and to quantify recharge rates within the watershed are critical for water resources management. The primary objective of the investigation is to determine the hydrologic connection between aquifers underlying the Colorado Plateau and adjacent aquifers in the Verde River watershed through analysis of oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopes, tritium, carbon-14, and major solute concentrations. The secondary objective is to gain an understanding of how these water sources and flow-paths contribute to and sustain Verde River base-flow. Two surface-water datasets collected from the Middle Verde River and its tributaries (Oak Creek, Wet Beaver Creek, and West Clear Creek) in November 2006 and June 2007 serve as snapshots of winter and summer base-flow conditions, respectively. Ground-water samples complement these datasets by serving as end members for base-flow source mixing models. Preliminary analyses based on solute relationships (i.e. chloride- sulfate and bromide-chloride) show evidence of separate solute sources for the Verde River and its tributaries. The distinct Verde River trends, including overall increases in solute concentrations along two reaches (kilometers 15 to 30 and 57 to 66, as measured upstream from USGS gauge 09506000), suggest dissolution of evaporite deposits within the Tertiary lakebed-derived Verde Formation. Notably, ground-water from

  3. Water Resources Development in the Mbuluzi River Basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Mbuluzi river basin originates in Swaziland and exits in Mozambique. The mean annual runoff is estimated to be 372x10 m. The highest recorded flow is 68m/s while the lowest flow is 1.1m/s. The current water demand is estimated to be 8.14m/s while the projected water demand excluding irrigation water demand is ...

  4. Energy Efficient Networks for Monitoring Water Quality in Subterranean Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Ge

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The fresh water in rivers beneath the Earth’s surface is as significant to humans as that on the surface. However, the water quality is difficult to monitor due to its unapproachable nature. In this work, we consider building networks to monitor water quality in subterranean rivers. The network node is designed to have limited functions of floating and staying in these rivers when necessary. We provide the necessary conditions to set up such networks and a topology building method, as well as the communication process between nodes. Furthermore, we provide every an node’s energy consumption model in the network building stage, the data acquiring and transmission stage. The numerical results show that the energy consumption in every node is different, and the node number should be moderate to ensure energy efficiency.

  5. Water balance of the Drini i Bardh River Basin, Kosova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdullahi, Sabri; Fejza, Isalm

    2010-05-01

    Republic of Kosova lines on the highlands (500-600 m above sea level) surrounded by the mountains reaching the altitude of more than 2000m. Lower mountains divide the highland plain into four watershed areas, from where waters flow to there different seas, namely to the Adriatic Sea, the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea. In the present day world, the problems of too much, too little or too polluted water are increasing at a rapid rate. These problems have become particularly severe for the developing countries, adversely affecting their agriculture, drinking water supply and sanitation. Water recourse management is no more just a challenger it is a declared crises. Water resources in Kosova are relatively small, total amount of water in our country is small around 1600 m3/inhabitant /year Drini i Bardhë river basin is in the western part of Kosova, it is the biggest river basin with surface of 4.289 km2. Drini i Bardhë discharges its water to Albania and finally to the Adriatic Sea. The area consist of several small stream from the mountains, water flows into tributaries and Drini i Bardhë River. In this river basin are based 12 hydrometric stations, 27 manual and 5 automatic rainfall measurements Drini i Bardhe River main basin contain a big number of sub basins from which the most important are: Lumëbardhi i Pejës (503.5km2), Lumëbardhi i Deçanit (278.3km2), Erenikut (515.5km2), Burimi (446.7km2), Klinës (439.0km2), Mirushes (334.5km2), Toplluges (498.2km2), Bistrica e Prizrenit (266.0 km2) and Plava (309 km2) fig 2. For evapotranspiration measurement we have applied four methods: the method of BLANEY - CRIDDLE, radiation, SCHENDELE and Turk. Protecting from pollution is a very important issue having in consideration that this river discharges its water and outside the territory. Hydrometeorology Institute of Kosova is in charge for monitoring of water quality. Key works: rainfall, flow, evaporation, river, evaporation coefficient (Ke) and feeding coefficient

  6. Evaluation of water quality index for River Sabarmati, Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kosha A.; Joshi, Geeta S.

    2017-06-01

    An attempt has been made to develop water quality index (WQI), using six water quality parameters pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, electrical conductivity, nitrate nitrogen and total coliform measured at three different stations along the Sabarmati river basin from the year 2005 to 2008. Rating scale is developed based on the tolerance limits of inland waters and health point of view. Weighted arithmetic water quality index method was used to find WQI along the stretch of the river basin. It was observed from this study that the impact of human activity and sewage disposal in the river was severe on most of the parameters. The station located in highly urban area showed the worst water quality followed by the station located in moderately urban area and lastly station located in a moderately rural area. It was observed that the main cause of deterioration in water quality was due to the high anthropogenic activities, illegal discharge of sewage and industrial effluent, lack of proper sanitation, unprotected river sites and urban runoff.

  7. [Water environmental capacity calculation model for the rivers in drinking water source conservation area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ding-jiang; Lü, Jun; Shen, Ye-na; Jin, Shu-quan; Shi, Yi-ming

    2008-09-01

    Based on the one-dimension model for water environmental capacity (WEC) in river, a new model for the WEC estimation in river-reservoir system was developed in drinking water source conservation area (DWSCA). In the new model, the concept was introduced that the water quality target of the rivers in DWSCA was determined by the water quality demand of reservoir for drinking water source. It implied that the WEC of the reservoir could be used as the water quality control target at the reach-end of the upstream rivers in DWSCA so that the problems for WEC estimation might be avoided that the differences of the standards for a water quality control target between in river and in reservoir, such as the criterions differences for total phosphorus (TP)/total nitrogen (TN) between in reservoir and in river according to the National Surface Water Quality Standard of China (GB 3838-2002), and the difference of designed hydrology conditions for WEC estimation between in reservoir and in river. The new model described the quantitative relationship between the WEC of drinking water source and of the river, and it factually expressed the continuity and interplay of these low water areas. As a case study, WEC for the rivers in DWSCA of Laohutan reservoir located in southeast China was estimated using the new model. Results indicated that the WEC for TN and TP was 65.05 t x a(-1) and 5.05 t x a(-1) in the rivers of the DWSCA, respectively. According to the WEC of Laohutan reservoir and current TN and TP quantity that entered into the rivers, about 33.86 t x a(-1) of current TN quantity should be reduced in the DWSCA, while there was 2.23 t x a(-1) of residual WEC of TP in the rivers. The modeling method was also widely applicable for the continuous water bodies with different water quality targets, especially for the situation of higher water quality control target in downstream water body than that in upstream.

  8. Water poverty in upper Bagmati River Basin in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Krishna Thakur

    2017-04-01

    The WPI was calculated for the upper Bagmati river Basin together with High–Medium–Low category scale and interpretations. WPI intensity scale depicts Sundarijal and Lubhu are in a range of very low water poverty, which means the water situation is better in these two areas. Daman region has a medium level, meaning this region is located into poor-accessible water zone. Kathmandu, Sankhu and Thankot have a low to medium low WPI, what characterize them as neutral. WPI can be used as an effective tool in integrated water resources management and water use master plan for meeting sustainable development goals. Based on the observation, the water agencies required to focus over water-poverty interface, water for sanitation, hygiene and health, water for production and employment generation, sustainable environmental management, gender equality, and water rights.

  9. Influence of a water regulation event on the age of Yellow River water in the Bohai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Wang, Haiyan; Guo, Xinyu; Liu, Zhe; Gao, Huiwang; Zhang, Guiling

    2017-10-01

    Abrupt changes in freshwater inputs from large rivers usually imply regime shifts in coastal water environments. The influence of a water regulation event on the age of the Yellow River water in the Bohai was modeled using constituent-oriented age and residence time theory to better understand the change in the environmental function of the hydrodynamic field owing to human activities. The water ages in Laizhou Bay, the central basin, and the Bohai strait are sensitive to water regulation. The surface ages in those areas can decrease by about 300 days, particularly in July, and the age stratification is also strengthened. A water regulation event can result in declines in the water age in early July ahead of declines in the water age under climatological conditions (without the regulation event) by about 1 and 5 months in the central basin and Laizhou Bay, respectively. The change in the coastal circulation due to the water regulation event is the primary reason for the change in the Yellow River water age. The high Yellow River flow rate can enhance the density flow and, therefore, reduce the age of the Yellow River water. The subsequent impact of a single water regulation event can last about 1.0 to 4.0 years in different subregions.

  10. Water quality in Una River Basin – Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Silva Tavares

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the water quality of the lower portion of Una River Basin, Pernambuco, by means of analysis of physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. The monitoring was conducted among October 2013 and March 2014. Sampling locations were in the cities of Catende, Palmares and Água Preta, selecting three collection points in each district. Parameters analyzed: temperature, electric conductivity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, turbidity, potassium, pH, total phosphorus, thermotolerant coliforms, and Escherichia Coli. The results showed the water quality in the Basin Una River is outside of CONAMA standars Resolution 357/2005 for fresh water Class II parameters: dissolved oxygen, pH, phosphorus, thermotolerant coliforms and Escherichia Coli. Potassium concentration shows the discharge of effluents from the processing of sugar cane in the hydrous body did not affect the quality of the water. The main contamination source of water was the release of domestic sewage.

  11. Time lapse inversion of 2D ERT data for monitoring river water infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, E. L.; Johnson, T. C.; Greenwood, W. J.

    2011-12-01

    Uranium transport in the 300 area is driven by both the chemical and physical effects of stage fluctuations in the Columbia River and resulting river water, ground water interaction. Because river water is less conductive than groundwater, it serves as a natural tracer that can be imaged using surface ERT. We've monitored 4 lines for 4 months over the high stage spring runoff interval to identify preferred flowpaths for river water intrusion. The four lines overlay former waste disposal sites including the processing ponds and sanitary leach trenches. We have used this ERT data set to investigate two methods of time lapse inversion, sequential and all-at-once. Each technique is a model difference approach as opposed to a data difference inversion approach. Both use a regularized inversion with model constraints that regularize spatially and temporally. For the sequential inversion, the starting and reference models are taken from the previous inversion. Both starting and reference models are taken from the first inversion for the all-at-once method. In either case an inversion is triggered if data misfit from the starting model exceeds the chi-squared convergence criteria. It was found that starting with a relatively smooth model provided better visualization of temporal conductivity changes when inverting all data sets with the same initial model, while an initial model exhibiting smaller data misfit may be used successfully as the starting point for sequential inversion. Inland conductivity changes within model cells were found to be highly correlated with river stage, and when paired with the characterization model, provide evidence of waste trenches, the processing pond, as well as the existence of a paleo-channel incised into the Ringold Formation and dipping structures on the Hanford-Ringold contact that provide preferred pathways for river water intrusion.

  12. Water quality assessment of the Sinos River - RS, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, C; Klauck, C R; Benvenuti, T; Silva, L B; Rodrigues, M A S

    2015-12-01

    Worldwide environmental pollution is increasing at the same rate as social and economic development. This growth, however, is disorganized and leads to increased degradation of water resources. Water, which was once considered inexhaustible, has become the focus of environmental concerns because it is essential for life and for many production processes. This article describes monitoring of the water quality at three points along the Sinos River (RS, Brazil), one in each of the upper, middle and lower stretches. The points were sampled in 2013 and again in 2014. The water samples were analyzed to determine the following physical and chemical parameters plus genotoxicity to fish: metals (Cr, Fe, Al), chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, chlorides, conductivity, total suspended solids, total phosphorous, total and fecal coliforms, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, total Kjeldahl nitrogen nitrate and ammoniacal nitrogen. Genotoxicity was tested by exposing individuals of the species Astyanax jacuhiensis to water samples and then comparing them with a control group exposed to water from the public water supply. The results confirmed the presence of substances with genotoxic potential at the sample points located in the middle and lower stretches of the river. The results for samples from the upper stretch, at P1, did not exhibit differences in relation to the control group. The physical and chemical analyses did not detect reductions in water quality in the lower stretch, as had been expected in view of the large volumes of domestic and industrial effluents discharged into this part of the river.

  13. Water quality assessment of the Sinos River – RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Steffens

    Full Text Available Worldwide environmental pollution is increasing at the same rate as social and economic development. This growth, however, is disorganized and leads to increased degradation of water resources. Water, which was once considered inexhaustible, has become the focus of environmental concerns because it is essential for life and for many production processes. This article describes monitoring of the water quality at three points along the Sinos River (RS, Brazil, one in each of the upper, middle and lower stretches. The points were sampled in 2013 and again in 2014. The water samples were analyzed to determine the following physical and chemical parameters plus genotoxicity to fish: metals (Cr, Fe, Al, chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, chlorides, conductivity, total suspended solids, total phosphorous, total and fecal coliforms, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, total Kjeldahl nitrogen nitrate and ammoniacal nitrogen. Genotoxicity was tested by exposing individuals of the species Astyanax jacuhiensis to water samples and then comparing them with a control group exposed to water from the public water supply. The results confirmed the presence of substances with genotoxic potential at the sample points located in the middle and lower stretches of the river. The results for samples from the upper stretch, at P1, did not exhibit differences in relation to the control group. The physical and chemical analyses did not detect reductions in water quality in the lower stretch, as had been expected in view of the large volumes of domestic and industrial effluents discharged into this part of the river.

  14. [Tritium in the Water System of the Techa River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebotina, M Ja; Nikolin, O A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to study modern tritium levels in various sources of the drinking water supply in the settlements situated in the riverside zone of the Techa. Almost everywhere the water entering water-conduit wells from deep slits (100-180 m) contains averagely 2-3 times higher tritium concentrations than the water from less deep personal wells, slits and springs. Tritium levels in the drinking water supply decrease with the distance from the dam; while in wells, springs and personal wells they are constant all along the river. The observed phenomenon can be explained by the fact that the river bed of the Techa is situated at a break zone of the earth crust, where the contaminated deep water penetrates from the reservoirs of the "Mayak" enterprise situated in the upper part of the regulated river bed. Less deep water sources (personal wells, slits and springs) receive predominantly flood, atmospheric and subsoil waters and are not connected with the reservoirs.

  15. Survey on monthly variations of water quality in the Tajan River (Sari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Key words: Water quality, Tajan River, river pollution, water pollution. INTRODUCTION. Water quality plays important role on the health of human, animals and .... year from Tajen River. The collected samples were kept in 2 L polyethylene plastic bottles cleaned with metal free soap, rinsed many times with distilled water and ...

  16. Numerical simulation of transverse mixing of waters at the confluence of two rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubimova, Tatyana; Lepikhin, Anatoliy; Parshakova, Yanina

    2017-04-01

    Surface water bodies, both natural (rivers, lakes) and artificial (ponds, reservoirs) are the main source of drinking water. In this regard, special attention should be paid to their pollution, first of all, to extreme pollution, creating a direct danger to their consumption properties. Traditionally, it is believed that the primary mechanism of the pollutants transport in surface water bodies is the Fick diffusion for which the concentration and nature of the pollutants does not affect the transport mechanisms. However, recent studies have shown that these traditional concepts are not always acceptable. In some cases, even relatively low concentrations of pollutants can fundamentally change the hydrodynamics of a flow through a change in density. Density effects playing in these cases an important role can be very important in solving applied problems of water consumption. One an important question is the mechanism of the formation of the streams do not mixing at large distances from the place of confluence of two rivers with significantly different physical and chemical properties of water. In particular, the Vishera river and the Kama river in Perm Region, as evidenced by the numerous space- and aero photographs, virtually do not mix from the place of their confluence to the territory of Solikamsk-Berezniki industrial area. This is fundamentally important for solving the problem of regulation of technological impacts of this source of technogenic pollution, largest in the basin of the Kama river. In the present paper, the phenomenon of a significant weakening of the transverse mixing of water masses in the surface water bodies is investigated with the help of the numerical simulation of the transverse mixing of water masses at the confluence of two rivers. The calculations are carried out with the help of CFD package ANSYS Fluent using k-epsilon model to describe the turbulent pulsations. The dependence of the transverse mixing speed on the flow rates in the

  17. The water footprint of agricultural products in European river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanham, D.; Bidoglio, G.

    2014-05-01

    This work quantifies the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod, agr) and consumption (WFcons, agr) and the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi, agr) of 365 European river basins for a reference period (REF, 1996-2005) and two diet scenarios (a healthy diet based upon food-based dietary guidelines (HEALTHY) and a vegetarian (VEG) diet). In addition to total (tot) amounts, a differentiation is also made between the green (gn), blue (bl) and grey (gy) components. River basins where the REF WFcons, agr, tot exceeds the WFprod, agr, tot (resulting in positive netVWi, agr, tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. These include the Thames, Scheldt, Meuse, Seine, Rhine and Po basins. River basins where the WFprod, agr, tot exceeds the WFcons, agr, tot are found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. These include the Loire, Ebro and Nemunas basins. Under the HEALTHY diet scenario, the WFcons, agr, tot of most river basins decreases (max -32%), although it was found to increase in some basins in northern and eastern Europe. This results in 22 river basins, including the Danube, shifting from being net VW importers to being net VW exporters. A reduction (max -46%) in WFcons, agr, tot is observed for all but one river basin under the VEG diet scenario. In total, 50 river basins shift from being net VW importers to being net exporters, including the Danube, Seine, Rhone and Elbe basins. Similar observations are made when only the gn + bl and gn components are assessed. When analysing only the bl component, a different river basin pattern is observed.

  18. The water quality of the river Svratka and its tributaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Grmela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Water quality in river depends on water quality of its tributaries. During the year 2011 nine selected sites downstream under the Vír dam (from 108 to 79 river km were monitored. For observation were chosen tributaries Besének, Loučka, Nedvědička, Chlebský creek, Hodonínka, Vrtěžířský creek and Tresný creek. At the same time samples from the places above and under the whole monitored section of the river were taken. Basic physicochemical parameters were monitored monthly during the vegetation period. Flow velocity and discharge were assessed three times. Based on the water quality evaluation of, the river Svratka and its tributaries Hodonínka, Vrtěžířský creek and Tresný creek belong to the second quality class, tributaries Besének, Loučka, Nedvědička and Chlebský belong to the third quality class. In the monitored section the retention of phosphorus in annual amount about 2.2 tons were occurance. Annual volume of phosphorus at the end of observed section (upstream the Tišnov town was nearly 17.5 tons. Annual total balance of nitrogen at the end of monitored section was 700 tons per year and 6000 tons of carbon per year. The major source of these nutrients is the river Loučka.

  19. Mineral Occurrence data for the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance and Uinta Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This legacy database lists occurrences of minerals identified in the Green River Formation in the Uinta and Piceance Basins, Utah and Colorado using X-ray...

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in Hudson River water and treated drinking water at Waterford, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, R.A.; Barnes, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    Past discharge of PCBs into the Hudson River has resulted in contaminant concentrations of a few tenths of a microgram per liter in the water. Waterford is one of two large municipal users of the Hudson River for drinking-water supply. The treatment scheme at the Waterford plant, which processes approximately 1 million gallons per day, is similar to that of most conventional treatment plants except for the addition of powdered activated carbon during flocculation. Comparison of PCB concentrations in river water and intake water at the plant to concentrations in treated drinking-water samples indicates that purification processes remove 80 to 90 percent of the PCBs and that final concentrations seldom exceed 0.1 microgram per liter. No significant difference was noted between the removal efficiencies during periods of high river discharge, when PCBs are associated with suspended sediment, and low discharge, when PCBs are generally dissolved. (USGS)

  1. Integrated hydrological and water quality model for river management: a case study on Lena River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, André; Botelho, Cidália; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2014-07-01

    The Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF) model was used to assess the impact of wastewater discharges on the water quality of a Lis River tributary (Lena River), a 176 km(2) watershed in Leiria region, Portugal. The model parameters obtained in this study, could potentially serve as reference values for the calibration of other watersheds in the area or with similar climatic characteristics, which don't have enough data for calibration. Water quality constituents modeled in this study included temperature, fecal coliforms, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, nitrates, orthophosphates and pH. The results were found to be close to the average observed values for all parameters studied for both calibration and validation periods with percent bias values between -26% and 23% for calibration and -30% and 51% for validation for all parameters, with fecal coliforms showing the highest deviation. The model revealed a poor water quality in Lena River for the entire simulation period, according to the Council Directive concerning the surface water quality intended for drinking water abstraction in the Member States (75/440/EEC). Fecal coliforms, orthophosphates and nitrates were found to be 99, 82 and 46% above the limit established in the Directive. HSPF was used to predict the impact of point and nonpoint pollution sources on the water quality of Lena River. Winter and summer scenarios were also addressed to evaluate water quality in high and low flow conditions. A maximum daily load was calculated to determine the reduction needed to comply with the Council Directive 75/440/EEC. The study showed that Lena River is fairly polluted calling for awareness at behavioral change of waste management in order to prevent the escalation of these effects with especially attention to fecal coliforms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Fair Water Allocation in Complex International River Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, L.; Bernauer, T.

    2011-12-01

    Conflicts over water allocation in international freshwater systems are recurring phenomena, and climatic changes are likely to make existing problems worse in many parts of the world. Science-based proposals for water allocation frequently focus on allocating water to the economically most efficient purposes. In reality, allocation outcomes are often shaped by political and economic power, rather than considerations of economic efficiency. This paper develops a new approach to fair international water allocation in complex international freshwater systems. This approach covers both needs-based criteria - if acute water scarcity is present - and criteria for fair water allocation pertaining to relative gains in water-abundant situations. The usefulness of the approach is illustrated with a case study on the Zambezi River Basin (ZRB). Based on a hydrological model, and scenarios for water availability and demand in the ZRB until 2050, the paper shows how the waters of the ZRB could be allocated in a way that fairly distributes costs and benefits.

  3. Optimum Water Quality Monitoring Network Design for Bidirectional River Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaohui; Yue, Yong; Wong, Prudence W H; Zhang, Yixin; Tan, Jianhong

    2018-01-24

    Affected by regular tides, bidirectional water flows play a crucial role in surface river systems. Using optimization theory to design a water quality monitoring network can reduce the redundant monitoring nodes as well as save the costs for building and running a monitoring network. A novel algorithm is proposed to design an optimum water quality monitoring network for tidal rivers with bidirectional water flows. Two optimization objectives of minimum pollution detection time and maximum pollution detection probability are used in our optimization algorithm. We modify the Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO) algorithm and develop new fitness functions to calculate pollution detection time and pollution detection probability in a discrete manner. In addition, the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is used to simulate hydraulic characteristics and pollution events based on a hypothetical river system studied in the literature. Experimental results show that our algorithm can obtain a better Pareto frontier. The influence of bidirectional water flows to the network design is also identified, which has not been studied in the literature. Besides that, we also find that the probability of bidirectional water flows has no effect on the optimum monitoring network design but slightly changes the mean pollution detection time.

  4. Optimum Water Quality Monitoring Network Design for Bidirectional River Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Affected by regular tides, bidirectional water flows play a crucial role in surface river systems. Using optimization theory to design a water quality monitoring network can reduce the redundant monitoring nodes as well as save the costs for building and running a monitoring network. A novel algorithm is proposed to design an optimum water quality monitoring network for tidal rivers with bidirectional water flows. Two optimization objectives of minimum pollution detection time and maximum pollution detection probability are used in our optimization algorithm. We modify the Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO algorithm and develop new fitness functions to calculate pollution detection time and pollution detection probability in a discrete manner. In addition, the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM is used to simulate hydraulic characteristics and pollution events based on a hypothetical river system studied in the literature. Experimental results show that our algorithm can obtain a better Pareto frontier. The influence of bidirectional water flows to the network design is also identified, which has not been studied in the literature. Besides that, we also find that the probability of bidirectional water flows has no effect on the optimum monitoring network design but slightly changes the mean pollution detection time.

  5. Organic Compounds in Clackamas River Water Used for Public Supply near Portland, Oregon, 2003-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kurt D.; McGhee, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    Organic compounds studied in this U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment generally are man-made, including pesticides, gasoline hydrocarbons, solvents, personal care and domestic-use products, disinfection by-products, and manufacturing additives. In all, 56 compounds were detected in samples collected approximately monthly during 2003-05 at the intake for the Clackamas River Water plant, one of four community water systems on the lower Clackamas River. The diversity of compounds detected suggests a variety of different sources and uses (including wastewater discharges, industrial, agricultural, domestic, and others) and different pathways to drinking-water supplies (point sources, precipitation, overland runoff, ground-water discharge, and formation during water treatment). A total of 20 organic compounds were commonly detected (in at least 20 percent of the samples) in source water and (or) finished water. Fifteen compounds were commonly detected in source water, and five of these compounds (benzene, m- and p-xylene, diuron, simazine, and chloroform) also were commonly detected in finished water. With the exception of gasoline hydrocarbons, disinfection by-products, chloromethane, and the herbicide diuron, concentrations in source and finished water were less than 0.1 microgram per liter and always less than human-health benchmarks, which are available for about 60 percent of the compounds detected. On the basis of this screening-level assessment, adverse effects to human health are assumed to be negligible (subject to limitations of available human-health benchmarks).

  6. A Water Resources Planning Tool for the Jordan River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Bonzi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Jordan River basin is subject to extreme and increasing water scarcity. Management of transboundary water resources in the basin is closely intertwined with political conflicts in the region. We have jointly developed with stakeholders and experts from the riparian countries, a new dynamic consensus database and—supported by hydro-climatological model simulations and participatory scenario exercises in the GLOWA (Global Change and the Hydrological Cycle Jordan River project—a basin-wide Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP tool, which will allow testing of various unilateral and multilateral adaptation options under climate and socio-economic change. We present its validation and initial (climate and socio-economic scenario analyses with this budget and allocation tool, and invite further adaptation and application of the tool for specific Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM problems.

  7. Safety Evaluation of Osun River Water Containing Heavy Metals and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    1Environmental, Analytical and Nutritional Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Chemical Sciences,. Osun State University ... Summary: This study evaluated the pH, heavy metals and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Osun river water. It also evaluated its ..... toxicity of pollutants. ALT and AST are markers of.

  8. Computing the Water Quality Index: The Hudson River Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihich, Orlando

    1996-01-01

    Describes a science project at Booker T. Washington Middle School #54 (New York City) where seventh and eighth graders computed the Hudson River's water quality using ClarisWorks spreadsheets and MicroWorlds software. Students gained technology skills and public recognition, as well as scientific and environmental information. Includes sample…

  9. Forecasting water flows in Pakistan's Indus River | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-15

    Jul 15, 2011 ... A Pakistan-Canada research partnership has led to the launch of a sophisticated forecasting system that promises to help Pakistani authorities accurately estimate how much water flows into the Indus River — the lifeline of one of the largest irrigation networks in the world.

  10. Determination of Triclosan and Ketoprofen in River Water and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Both triclosan and ketoprofen have been detected in river water,7 wastewater influent7–9 and effluent.7–9 Triclosan was even detected in human milk.5 Triclosan inhibits the enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase enzyme that is responsible for bacterial lipid biosynthesis. Triclosan is known to be toxic to aquatic organisms.

  11. OPTIMIZATION OF FLOCCULATION PROCESS BY MICROBIAL COAGULANT IN RIVER WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatin Nabilah Murad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The existing process of coagulation and flocculation are using chemicals that known as cationic coagulant such as alum, ferric sulfate, calcium oxide, and organic polymers.  Thus, this study concentrates on optimizing of flocculation process by microbial coagulant in river water. Turbidity and suspended solids are the main constraints of river water quality in Malaysia. Hence, a study is proposed to produce microbial coagulants isolated locally for river water treatment. The chosen microbe used as the bioflocculant producer is Aspergillus niger. The parameters to optimization in the flocculation process were pH, bioflocculant dosage and effluent concentration. The research was done in the jar test process and the process parameters for maximum turbidity removal was validated. The highest flocculating activity was obtained on day seven of cultivation in the supernatant. The optimum pH and bioflocculant dosage for an optimize sedimentation process were between 4-5 and 2-3 mL for 0.3 g/L of effluent concentration respectively. The model was validated by using a river water sample from Sg. Pusu and the result showed that the model was acceptable to evaluate the bioflocculation process.

  12. Generation of river discharge using water balance computer model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper presents a study on river discharge generation using a water balance computer model. The results of the data generated shows that the computer program designed gave a good· prediction of the recorded discharge within 95% confidence interval. The model is therefore recommended for other catchments with ...

  13. Assessment of human impact on water quality along Manyame River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirivashe P. Masere

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Human activities such as urbanization, agriculture, sewage treatment and industrialization are affecting water resources both quantitatively and qualitatively. The impact of these activities were studied by measuring and determining the concentration and values of eight selected water quality parameters namely nitrates, phosphates, copper, iron, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, dissolved oxygen (DO, pH and turbidity along Manyame River, in the Manyame Catchment. Thirty five sites were sampled from the source of the river which is at Seke Dam, along Manyame River and on the tributaries (Ruwa, Nyatsime, Mukuvisi and Marimba just before they join the river. The 35 sites were categorized into 5 groups (A, B, C, D and E with group A and E being the upstream and downstream of Manyame. The analysis of results was undertaken using a simple one-way ANOVA with group as the only source of variation. Turbidity values, nitrate and phosphate concentrations were found to be higher than the Zimbabwe National Water Authority (ZINWA maximum permissible standards for surface waters. DO saturation in the downstream groups was less than 75% (ZINWA standard. Agricultural and urban runoff and sewage effluent were responsible of the high nutrient levels and turbidity, which in turn, reduced the dissolved oxygen (DO.

  14. Turbidity and microbial load removal from river water using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... wastewater treatment, including Alzheimer's disease and related health problems have necessitated the need for alternative cost ... bioflocculants is a promising alternative to alum in the treatment of contaminated river water. ..... health concern where heavy metal ions, pesticides or waterborne disease ...

  15. Hydrological and Water Quality Characteristics of Rivers Feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, FDC analysis, in conjunction with water quality assessment, was used to evaluate the reliability of rivers flows that supply small earth dams designed for ... It is then recommended that construction of such small earth dams should be preceded by thorough scientific design through appropriate engineering and ...

  16. Turbidity and microbial load removal from river water using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) by using BLAST search tool (Altschul et al., 1997) to determine the most ... priate dilution of the river water in each tube were spread plated on nutrient agar plates and incubated at ... The test tube was mixed vigorously for 30 s and then left to stand, without shaking, for 2 h.

  17. in cross River Estuary and Adjacent Coastal waters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the length distribution of bonga, Ethmalosa fimbriata, in the Cross River estuary and adjacent coastal waters were conducted from October 1999 to December 2000. A total of 15,182 specimens of bonga from gill nets, purse seine and boat seine fisheries were measured. Post-larvae measuring between 2 cm and ...

  18. Water Stress in Global Transboundary River Basins: Significance of Upstream Water Use on Downstream Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munia, H.; Guillaume, J. H. A.; Mirumachi, N.; Porkka,M.; Wada, Yoshihide; Kummu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growing population and water demand have increased pressure on water resources in various parts of the globe, including many transboundary river basins. While the impacts of upstream water use on downstream water availability have been analyzed in many of these international river basins, this has not been systematically done at the global scale using coherent and comparable datasets. In this study, we aim to assess the change in downstream water stress due to upstream water use in the world's transboundary river basins. Water stress was first calculated considering only local water use of each sub-basin based on country-basin mesh, then compared with the situation when upstream water use was subtracted from downstream water availability. Wefound that water stress was generally already high when considering only local water use, affecting 0.95-1.44 billion people or 33%-51% of the population in transboundary river basins. After accounting for upstream water use, stress level increased by at least 1 percentage-point for 30-65 sub-basins, affecting 0.29-1.13 billion people. Altogether 288 out of 298 middle-stream and downstream sub-basin areas experienced some change in stress level. Further, we assessed whether there is a link between increased water stress due to upstream water use and the number of conflictive and cooperative events in the transboundary river basins, as captured by two prominent databases. No direct relationship was found. This supports the argument that conflicts and cooperation events originate from a combination of different drivers, among which upstream-induced water stress may play a role. Our findings contribute to better understanding of upstream-downstream dynamics in water stress to help address water allocation problems.

  19. Phosphorus speciation in the surface sediment and river water from the Orontes (Asi) River, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Isil; Aydin, Firat; Hamamci, Candan

    2010-11-01

    The paper presents the results of the distribution of phosphorus bioavailability (total, organic, and inorganic phosphorus) in surface sediment and river water from the Orontes (Asi) River (Samandag, Antakya, Turkey) in March 2008. Speciation of inorganic phosphorus was carried out using a method on sequential extractions, with each releasing four forms of inorganic phosphorus-loosely sorbed phosphorus, phosphorus bound to aluminum (P-AL), phosphorus bound to iron (P-Fe), and phosphorus bound to calcium (P-Ca). Total phosphorus concentrations are, on average, 3.724 mg/L and 312.30 mg/kg dry weight in the river water and surface sediment, respectively. The interstitial water of the surface sediment contains less than 1% of the surface sediment's total phosphorus pool. The most abundant form of inorganic phosphorus is P-Ca. Relative abundances of the remaining phosphorus forms both in surface sediment and river water follow the order P-Al > loosely bound-P > P-Fe.

  20. Bacterial Pollution in River Waters and Gastrointestinal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Rodríguez-Tapia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, one of Mexico’s most severe environmental problems is the high levels of pollution of many of its rivers. The present article focuses on the relationship between total coliform bacteria levels and the increase of human digestive tract diseases in the highly polluted Atoyac River in the central Mexican states of Puebla and Tlaxcala. Pollution has become a potential health hazard for people living in nearby river communities. Based on data collected from six of the most contaminated riverside municipalities, two environmental models were developed taking into consideration the health of the entire population, not simply that of its individual members. Such models estimate a health-disease function that confirm the link between Atoyac River pollution and the incidence of gastrointestinal diseases. The causal relation between pollution and gastrointestinal disease incentivizes the creation of epidemiological and public health programs aimed at reducing the environmental health impact of the pollution associated with the Atoyac River. The results presented here are the first of their kind of this river and will serve as basis for future research exploring other similarly contaminated riparian communities. As the causes of pollution are directly related to the economic development and population growth of the region, further research should be conducted for prevention of diseases, educational programs, water remediation and conservation programs that will have a positive impact on the quality of life of the population presently at risk.

  1. Bacterial Pollution in River Waters and Gastrointestinal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Tapia, Lilia; Morales-Novelo, Jorge A

    2017-05-04

    Currently, one of Mexico's most severe environmental problems is the high levels of pollution of many of its rivers. The present article focuses on the relationship between total coliform bacteria levels and the increase of human digestive tract diseases in the highly polluted Atoyac River in the central Mexican states of Puebla and Tlaxcala. Pollution has become a potential health hazard for people living in nearby river communities. Based on data collected from six of the most contaminated riverside municipalities, two environmental models were developed taking into consideration the health of the entire population, not simply that of its individual members. Such models estimate a health-disease function that confirm the link between Atoyac River pollution and the incidence of gastrointestinal diseases. The causal relation between pollution and gastrointestinal disease incentivizes the creation of epidemiological and public health programs aimed at reducing the environmental health impact of the pollution associated with the Atoyac River. The results presented here are the first of their kind of this river and will serve as basis for future research exploring other similarly contaminated riparian communities. As the causes of pollution are directly related to the economic development and population growth of the region, further research should be conducted for prevention of diseases, educational programs, water remediation and conservation programs that will have a positive impact on the quality of life of the population presently at risk.

  2. Annual Report Card Shows Water Quality Improvements in Parts of the Mystic River Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each year, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in collaboration with the Mystic River Watershed Association (MyRWA), issues a Water Quality Report Card on water quality in the Mystic River watershed.

  3. Nano-silver in drinking water and drinking water sources: stability and influences on disinfection by-product formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugulea, A-M; Bérubé, D; Giddings, M; Lemieux, F; Hnatiw, J; Priem, J; Avramescu, M-L

    2014-10-01

    untreated Ottawa River water, with a dissolved organic carbon concentration of 6 mg/L, was significantly higher than the stability of the nano-silver dispersions in distilled, organic-free water. Nano-silver particles suspended in the groundwater agglomerated and were quickly and quantitatively removed from the solution. Our data confirm previous observations that natural dissolved organic matter stabilizes nano-silver particles, while the high-ionic strength of groundwater appears to favor their agglomeration and precipitation. As expected, nano-silver was not stable in Ottawa River water through the chlorination process, but survived for many days when added to the Ottawa River water after treatment with chlorine or chloramines. Stirring appeared to have minimal effect on nano-silver stability in untreated and treated Ottawa River water. The profile of DBPs formed in the presence of nAg differed significantly from the profile of DBPs formed in the absence of nAg only at the 1 mg/L nAg concentration. The differences observed consisted mainly in reduced formation of some brominated DBPs and a small increase in the formation of cyanogen chloride. The reduced formation of brominated congeners may be explained by the decrease in available bromide due to the presence of Ag(+) ions. It should be noted that a concentration of 1 mg/L is significantly higher than nAg concentrations that would be expected to be present in surface waters, but these results could be significant for the disinfection of some wastewaters with comparably high nano-silver concentrations.

  4. Po River plume and Northern Adriatic Dense Waters: a modeling and statistical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcello Falcieri, Francesco; Benetazzo, Alvise; Sclavo, Mauro; Carniel, Sandro; Bergamasco, Andrea; Bonaldo, Davide; Barbariol, Francesco; Russo, Aniello

    2014-05-01

    The semi enclosed Adriatic Sea, located in the North-Eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea, is a small regional sea strongly influenced by riverine inputs. In its northern shallow sub-basin both the physical and biogeochemical features are strongly influenced by the Po River (together with some other minor ones) through its freshwater plume, by buoyancy changes and nutrients and sediments loads. The major outcomes of this interaction are on primary production, on the rising of hypoxic and anoxic bottom water conditions, on the formation of strong salinity gradients (that influence the water column structure and both coastal and basinwide circulation) and on the formation processes of the Northern Adriatic Dense Water (NAdDW). The NAdDW is a dense water mass that is formed during winter in the shallow Northern Adriatic under buoyancy loss conditions; it then travels southwardly along the Italian coasts reaching the Southern Adriatic after a few months. The NAdDW formation process is mostly locally wind driven but it has been proved that freshwater discharges play an important preconditioning role, starting since the summer previous to the formation period. To investigate the relationship between the Po plume (as a preconditioning factor) and the subsequent dense water formation, the results obtained by a numerical simulation with the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) have been statistically analyzed. The model has been implemented over the whole basin with a 2 km regular grid, and surface fluxes computed through a bulk fluxes formulation using an high resolution meteorological model (COSMO I7). The only open boundary (the Otranto Strait) is imposed from an operational Mediterranean model (MFS) and main rivers discharges are introduced as a freshwater mass fluxes measured by river gauges closest to the rivers' mouths. The model was run for 8 years, from 2003 to 2010. The Po plume was analysed with a 2x3 Self-Organizing Map (SOM) and two major antithetic patterns

  5. Hydrochemical evaluation of river water quality—a case study: Horroud River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falah, Fatemeh; Haghizadeh, Ali

    2017-11-01

    Surface waters, especially rivers are the most important sources of water supply for drinking and agricultural purposes. Water with desirable quality is necessary for human life. Therefore, knowledge of water quality and its temporal changes is of particular importance in sustainable management of water resources. In this study, available data during 20 years from two hydrometry stations located in the way of Horroud River in Lorestan province were used and analyzed using Aq.QA software. Piper, Schoeller, Stiff, and Wilcox diagram were drawn and Mann-Kendal test was used for determining data trend. According to Wilcox diagram, water of this river in both stations is placed in c2s1 class which is good for agricultural purposes, and according to Schoeller diagram, there is no restrict for drinking purposes. Results of Man-Kendal test show increasing trend for colorine, EC, TDS while decreasing trend for potassium in Kakareza station. On the other hand in Dehnu station, positive trend was seen in calcium and colorine while negative trend for sulfate and potassium. For other variables, no specific trend was found.

  6. Hydrochemical evaluation of river water quality—a case study: Horroud River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falah, Fatemeh; Haghizadeh, Ali

    2017-12-01

    Surface waters, especially rivers are the most important sources of water supply for drinking and agricultural purposes. Water with desirable quality is necessary for human life. Therefore, knowledge of water quality and its temporal changes is of particular importance in sustainable management of water resources. In this study, available data during 20 years from two hydrometry stations located in the way of Horroud River in Lorestan province were used and analyzed using Aq.QA software. Piper, Schoeller, Stiff, and Wilcox diagram were drawn and Mann-Kendal test was used for determining data trend. According to Wilcox diagram, water of this river in both stations is placed in c2s1 class which is good for agricultural purposes, and according to Schoeller diagram, there is no restrict for drinking purposes. Results of Man-Kendal test show increasing trend for colorine, EC, TDS while decreasing trend for potassium in Kakareza station. On the other hand in Dehnu station, positive trend was seen in calcium and colorine while negative trend for sulfate and potassium. For other variables, no specific trend was found.

  7. Water Accounting Plus for Water Resources Reporting and River Basin Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karimi, P.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis introduces Water Accounting Plus (WA+), which is a new framework designed to provide explicit spatial information on water depletion and net withdrawal processes in complex river basins. WA+ is a simple, yet comprehensive and understandable water accounting framework that provides a

  8. Driver detection of water quality trends across Mediterranean river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantini, Elena; Lutz, Stefanie; Mallucci, Stefano; Majone, Bruno; Merz, Ralf; Bellin, Alberto

    2017-04-01

    In this study, thirteen physicochemical surficial water variables and four drivers (i.e. monthly aggregated air temperature and streamflow, population density and percentage of agricultural land use) were analysed in three large Mediterranean river basins (i.e. Adige, Ebro, Sava). In particular, the purpose of the analysis is to identify how indicators of water quality and drivers of change coevolve in three large river basins representing the diversity of climatic, soil and water uses conditions observed in southern Europe. Spearman rank correlation, principal component analysis, Mann-Kendall trend test and Sen's Slope estimator were performed in order to (i) analyse long-term time series of water quality data during the period 1990-2015, (ii) detect links between variables patterns and drivers and (iii) compare the river basins under investigation with respect to their vulnerability and resilience to the identified drivers of change. Results show that air temperature, considered as a proxy of climate change, has a significant impact in all basins but in particular in the Adige and Ebro: positive trends of water temperature and negative for dissolved oxygen are found to be correlated with upward trends of air temperatures. The aquatic ecosystems of these rivers are therefore experiencing a reduction in oxygen, which may further worsen in the future given the projected increase of temperature for this century. At the same time, monthly streamflow has been shown to reduce in the Ebro River, thereby decreasing the beneficial effect of dilution, as appears evident from the observed upward patterns of chloride concentration and electrical conductivity. Upward trends of chloride and biological oxygen demand in the Adige and Sava and positive trends of phosphate in the Adige are related to the increase of population and finally phosphates in the Sava and biological oxygen demand in the Ebro are highly correlated with agricultural land use. The study showed the complex

  9. It takes more than water: Restoring the Colorado River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Jennifer; Kendy, Eloise; Schlatter, Karen; Hinojosa-Huertaf, Osvel; Flessa, Karl W.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Ramirez-Hernandez, Jorge; Nagler, Pamela L.; Glenn, Edward P.

    2017-01-01

    Environmental flows have become important tools for restoring rivers and associated riparian ecosystems (Arthington, 2012; Glenn et al., 2017). In March 2014, the United States and Mexico initiated a bold effort in restoration, delivering from Morelos Dam a “pulse flow” of water into the Colorado River in its delta for the purpose of learning about its environmental effects (Flessa et al., 2013; Bark et al., 2016). Specifically, scientists evaluated whether the pulse flow, albeit miniscule compared to historical floods, could provide the ecological functions needed to establish native, flood-dependent vegetation to restore natural habitat along the riparian corridor.

  10. Analysis of ground-water-quality data of the Upper Colorado River basin, water years 1972-92

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, L.E.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program, an analysis of the existing ground-water-quality data in the Upper Colorado River Basin study unit is necessary to provide information on the historic water-quality conditions. Analysis of the historical data provides information on the availability or lack of data and water-quality issues. The information gathered from the historical data will be used in the design of ground-water-quality studies in the basin. This report includes an analysis of the ground-water data (well and spring data) available for the Upper Colorado River Basin study unit from water years 1972 to 1992 for major cations and anions, metals and selected trace elements, and nutrients. The data used in the analysis of the ground-water quality in the Upper Colorado River Basin study unit were predominantly from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System and the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment data bases. A total of 212 sites representing alluvial aquifers and 187 sites representing bedrock aquifers were used in the analysis. The available data were not ideal for conducting a comprehensive basinwide water-quality assessment because of lack of sufficient geographical coverage.Evaluation of the ground-water data in the Upper Colorado River Basin study unit was based on the regional environmental setting, which describes the natural and human factors that can affect the water quality. In this report, the ground-water-quality information is evaluated on the basis of aquifers or potential aquifers (alluvial, Green River Formation, Mesaverde Group, Mancos Shale, Dakota Sandstone, Morrison Formation, Entrada Sandstone, Leadville Limestone, and Precambrian) and land-use classifications for alluvial aquifers.Most of the ground-water-quality data in the study unit were for major cations and anions and dissolved-solids concentrations. The aquifer with the highest median concentrations of

  11. [Nutrients Input Characteristics of the Yangtze River and Wangyu River During the "Water Transfers on Lake Taihu from the Yangtze River"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiao-xue; Ma, Ying-qun; Qin, Yan-wen; Zou, Hua

    2015-08-01

    Overall 20 surface water samples were collected from the Yangtze River, the Wangyu River and the Gonghu Bay (Lake Taihu) to clarify the pollution characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus during 2 sample stages of "Water Transfers on Lake Taihu from the Yangtze River" in August and December of 2013 respectively. The results showed that the mass concentrations of NO2- -N, NO3- -N, NH4+ -N and TN in the Gonghu Bay were lower than those of the Yangtze River and Wangyu River during the 2 water transfer processes. However, there was higher level of DON content in the Gonghu Bay than that of the Yangtze River and Wangyu River. The percentages of various N species showed that NO3- -N was the major N species in the Yangtze River and Wangyu River during the 2 water transfer processes. TP contents in samples collected from the Yangtze River displayed a constant trend compared with the Wangyu River. However, the percentages of various P species were different with each other during the 2 water transfer processes. Mass concentrations of DON and TP in surface water in August were higher than those in December and the contents of NO3- -N and TDP were lower in August than those in December. In general, NO3- -N and TPP were the main N and P species in Wangyu River from the Yangtze River. NO3- -N, PO4(3-) -P and TPP were the main N and P species in Gonghu Bay from Wangyu River during the 2 water transfer processes.

  12. Characterization of Formation Water Constituents and the Effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of Formation Water Constituents and the Effect of Fresh Water Dilution from Land Rig Location of the Niger Delta, Nigeria. ... The oil & grease values for 90/10 ratio at both ambient and formation temperature were 0.32(mg/l) and 0.2(mg/l) respectively. While the 50/50 ratio at both ambient and formation ...

  13. Evaluation of surface water quality and pollution in Lepenica river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Ana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Lepenica river basin is axis of economic and urban development of Šumadija region. However, because of disorderly water regime of Lepenica river and its tributaries, it appears several hydrologic problems on this territory, as example insufficiency of drinking and irrigating water by one cite, and floods and torrents (especially in Kragujevac valley by other cite. Particular problem is water quality and pollution in river basin. In this paper will be analyzed water quality of Lepenica river and artificial lakes, built in its river basin, according to the data of Republic Hydrometeorologic Institute of Serbia. Also, it will be present polluter cadastre in river basin.

  14. Water quality assessment of Ogun river, South West Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaji, M O; Bamgbose, O; Odukoya, O O; Arowolo, T A

    2007-10-01

    The quality of Ogun river in South-West, Nigeria was studied by a field survey for a period of 1 year (covering dry season and rainy season). Water samples were collected from thirteen sites and analysed for physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters as well as heavy metals using standard methods. Generally, the values obtained for turbidity, phosphate, oil and grease, iron and faecal coliform from all the sites in both seasons were above the maximum acceptable limit set by the World Health Organization (WHO) for drinking water. Also, the manganese content from all the sites in the dry season, lead concentrations from three sites in the dry season and cadmium concentrations from some sites in both seasons were above the WHO limit. The values obtained for total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen and chloride at site M in the dry season and nitrate at site J in the rainy season were also above the WHO limit. Pollution of Ogun river water along its course is evidenced by the high concentrations of pollution indicators, nutrients and trace metals above the acceptable limit. This poses a health risk to several rural communities who rely on the river primarily as their source of domestic water. The study showed a need for continuous pollution monitoring programme of surface waters in Nigeria.

  15. RES2DINV Format Continuous Resistivity Profiles Collected in the Neuse River, April 20, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  16. RES2DINV Format Continuous Resistivity Profiles Collected in the Neuse River, April 21, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  17. RES2DINV Format Continuous Resistivity Profiles Collected in the Neuse River, May3, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  18. RES2DINV Format Continuous Resistivity Profile Collected in the Neuse River, April 19, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  19. RES2DINV Format Continuous Resistivity Profiles Collected in the Neuse River, April 23, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  20. RES2DINV Format Continuous Resistivity Profiles Collected in the Neuse River, May 4, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  1. RES2DINV Format Continuous Resistivity Profiles Collected in the Neuse River, April 22, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  2. RES2DINV Format Continuous Resistivity Profiles Collected in the Neuse River, May 5, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  3. Sharing water and benefits in transboundary river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjoon, Diane; Tilmant, Amaury; Herrmann, Markus

    2016-06-01

    The equitable sharing of benefits in transboundary river basins is necessary to solve disputes among riparian countries and to reach a consensus on basin-wide development and management activities. Benefit-sharing arrangements must be collaboratively developed to be perceived not only as efficient, but also as equitable in order to be considered acceptable to all riparian countries. The current literature mainly describes what is meant by the term benefit sharing in the context of transboundary river basins and discusses this from a conceptual point of view, but falls short of providing practical, institutional arrangements that ensure maximum economic welfare as well as collaboratively developed methods for encouraging the equitable sharing of benefits. In this study, we define an institutional arrangement that distributes welfare in a river basin by maximizing the economic benefits of water use and then sharing these benefits in an equitable manner using a method developed through stakeholder involvement. We describe a methodology in which (i) a hydrological model is used to allocate scarce water resources, in an economically efficient manner, to water users in a transboundary basin, (ii) water users are obliged to pay for water, and (iii) the total of these water charges is equitably redistributed as monetary compensation to users in an amount determined through the application of a sharing method developed by stakeholder input, thus based on a stakeholder vision of fairness, using an axiomatic approach. With the proposed benefit-sharing mechanism, the efficiency-equity trade-off still exists, but the extent of the imbalance is reduced because benefits are maximized and redistributed according to a key that has been collectively agreed upon by the participants. The whole system is overseen by a river basin authority. The methodology is applied to the Eastern Nile River basin as a case study. The described technique not only ensures economic efficiency, but may

  4. A reduced-complexity model for river delta formation - Part 1: Modeling deltas with channel dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, M.; Voller, V. R.; Paola, C.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we develop a reduced-complexity model (RCM) for river delta formation (referred to as DeltaRCM in the following). It is a rule-based cellular morphodynamic model, in contrast to reductionist models based on detailed computational fluid dynamics. The basic framework of this model (DeltaRCM) consists of stochastic parcel-based cellular routing schemes for water and sediment and a set of phenomenological rules for sediment deposition and erosion. The outputs of the model include a depth-averaged flow field, water surface elevation and bed topography that evolve in time. Results show that DeltaRCM is able (1) to resolve a wide range of channel dynamics - including elongation, bifurcation, avulsion and migration - and (2) to produce a variety of deltas such as alluvial fan deltas and deltas with multiple orders of bifurcations. We also demonstrate a simple stratigraphy recording component which tracks the distribution of coarse and fine materials and the age of the deposits. Essential processes that must be included in reduced-complexity delta models include a depth-averaged flow field that guides sediment transport a nontrivial water surface profile that accounts for backwater effects at least in the main channels, both bedload and suspended sediment transport, and topographic steering of sediment transport.

  5. Social and ecological aspects of the water resources management of the transboundary rivers of Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normatov, P.

    2014-09-01

    The Zeravshan River is a transboundary river whose water is mainly used for irrigation of agricultural lands of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Sufficiently rich hydropower resources in upstream of the Zeravshan River characterize the Republic of Tajikistan. Continuous monitoring of water resources condition is necessary for planning the development of this area taking into account hydropower production and irrigation needs. Water quality of Zeravshan River is currently one of the main problems in the relationship between the Republics of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, and it frequently triggers conflict situations between the two countries. In most cases, the problem of water quality of the Zeravshan River is related to river pollution by wastewater of the Anzob Mountain-concentrating Industrial Complex (AMCC) in Tajikistan. In this paper results of research of chemical and bacteriological composition of the Zeravshan River waters are presented. The minimum impact of AMCC on quality of water of the river was experimentally established.

  6. Social and ecological aspects of the water resources management of the transboundary rivers of Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Normatov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Zeravshan River is a transboundary river whose water is mainly used for irrigation of agricultural lands of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Sufficiently rich hydropower resources in upstream of the Zeravshan River characterize the Republic of Tajikistan. Continuous monitoring of water resources condition is necessary for planning the development of this area taking into account hydropower production and irrigation needs. Water quality of Zeravshan River is currently one of the main problems in the relationship between the Republics of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, and it frequently triggers conflict situations between the two countries. In most cases, the problem of water quality of the Zeravshan River is related to river pollution by wastewater of the Anzob Mountain-concentrating Industrial Complex (AMCC in Tajikistan. In this paper results of research of chemical and bacteriological composition of the Zeravshan River waters are presented. The minimum impact of AMCC on quality of water of the river was experimentally established.

  7. The impacts of river regulation and water diversion on the hydrological drought characteristics in the Lower Murrumbidgee River, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Li; Rogers, Kerrylee; Ling, Joanne; Saintilan, Neil

    2011-08-01

    SummaryThis study demonstrated that the Standardised Flow Index (SFI) was a simple and useful tool to research, monitor and manage hydrologic drought in a highly regulated river system, the Murrumbidgee River in southeast Australia. To validate the applicability of the theory underlining the widely used Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) to river discharge data, we investigated the probability distribution of the time series of monthly river discharge month by month using long-term (over 100 years) river flow records. Our results showed that the Gamma probability distribution function was adequate to describe and model the skewed river flow data. The generalised additive models (GAM) with Locally Estimated Scattersplot Smoothing (LOESS) additive terms were applied to the computed SFI and SPI sequences to investigate the impacts of river regulation and water diversion on the duration and magnitude of hydrologic droughts in Lower Murrumbidgee River from 1890. The results revealed that upstream regulations had successfully reduced the drought severity at Wagga Wagga, a weir located downstream of the two major dams but immediately upstream of the major irrigation areas. However, the hydrological benefits of river regulation gradually disappeared as the river travels downstream and more and more water abstracted. At Balranald, the end valley weir, hydrologic drought was progressively aggravated during the modelling period, and the impacts were greater during drier periods. The results of the study highlighted the importance of balancing the needs between upstream and downstream water users in river management.

  8. Salinity Effects on Iron Speciation in Boreal River Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Simon D; Persson, Per; Kritzberg, Emma S

    2017-09-05

    Previous studies report high and increasing iron (Fe) concentrations in boreal river mouths. This Fe has shown relatively high stability to salinity-induced aggregation in estuaries. The aim of this study was to understand how the speciation of Fe affects stability over salinity gradients. For Fe to remain in suspension interactions with organic matter (OM) are fundamental and these interactions can be divided in two dominant phases: organically complexed Fe, and colloidal Fe (oxy)hydroxides, stabilized by surface interactions with OM. The stability of these two Fe phases was tested using mixing experiments with river water and artificial seawater. Fe speciation of river waters and salinity-induced aggregates was determined by synchrotron-based extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The relative contribution of the two Fe phases varied widely across the sampled rivers. Moreover, we found selective removal of Fe (oxy)hydroxides by aggregation at increasing salinity, while organically complexed Fe was less affected. However, Fe-OM complexes were also found in the aggregates, illustrating that the control of Fe stability is not explained by the prevalence of the respective Fe phases alone. Factors such as colloid size and the chemical composition of the OM may also impact the behavior of Fe species.

  9. Ichthyoplankton entrainment study at the SRS Savannah River water intakes for Westinghouse Savannah River Company. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1992-03-26

    Cooling water for L and K Reactors and makeup water for Par Pond is pumped from the Savannah River at the 1G, 3G, and 5G pump houses. Ichthyoplankton (drifting fish larvae and eggs) from the river are entrained into the reactor cooling systems with the river water and passed through the reactor`s heat exchangers where temperatures may reach 70{degrees}C during full power operation. Ichthyoplankton mortality under such conditions is assumed to be 100 percent. The number of ichthyoplankton entrained into the cooling system depends on a variety of variables, including time of year, density and distribution of ichthyoplankton in the river, discharge levels in the river, and the volume of water withdrawn by the pumps. Entrainment at the 1 G pump house, which is immediately downstream from the confluence of Upper Three Runs Creek and the Savannah River, is also influenced by discharge rates and ichthyoplankton densities in Upper Three Runs Creek. Because of the anticipated restart of several SRS reactors and the growing concern surrounding striped bass and American shad stocks in the Savannah River, the Department of Energy requested that the Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Savannah River Laboratory sample ichthyoplankton at the SRS Savannah River intakes. Dams & Moore, Inc., under a contract with Westinghouse Savannah River Company performed the sampling and data analysis for the ESS.

  10. Water risk assessment for river basins in China based on WWF water risk assessment tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Wei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Water resource problems, one of the most important environmental and socio-economic issues, have been a common concern worldwide in recent years. Water resource risks are attracting more and more attention from the international community and national governments. Given the current situations of water resources and the water environment, and the characteristics of water resources management and information statistics of China, this paper establishes an index system for water risk assessment in river basins of China based on the index system of water risk assessment proposed by the World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF and German Investment and Development Co., Ltd (DEG. The new system is more suitable for Chinese national conditions and endorses the international assessment index. A variety of factors are considered to determine the critical values of classification for each index, and the indexes are graded by means of 5-grade and 5-score scales; the weights and calculation methods of some indexes are adjusted, with the remaining indexes adopting the method of WWF. The Weighted Comprehensive Index Summation Process is adopted to calculate the integrated assessment score of the river basin. The method is applied to the Haihe River basin in China. The assessment shows that the method can accurately reflect the water risk level of different river basins. Finally, the paper discusses the continuing problems in water risk assessment and points out the research required to provide a reference for further study in this field.

  11. Ground-water resources of the upper White River basin in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, J.M.; Ludwig, A.H.

    1990-01-01

    The upper White River basin in Arkansas lies almost entirely within the Ozark Plateaus physiographic province, which consists of deeply dissected plateaus underlain by limestone, shale, and dolomite. Significant water-yielding units within the upper White River basin include the Eminence and Potosi Dolomites, the Roubidou Formation, the Gasconade Dolomite and the Van Buren Formation, outcrops of undifferentiated Paleozoic rocks, the Nacatoch Sand, and quaternary deposits. Water in the Quaternary deposits is the most heavily used, but areally, other units are significant sources of groundwater for domestic and rural use. The quality of groundwater withdrawn from the various units generally is suitable for most uses, although groundwater in the study area is typically very hard. Iron concentrations commonly exceed allowable limits. Yields from the different water-yielding units are highly variable. The Eminence and Potosi Dolomites are known to yield as much as 230 gal/min. Nearer the surface, the Gunter Sandstone Member of the Van Buren Formation yields as much as 500 gal/min. Above the Gunter Sandstone, the Roubidoux Formation yields as much as 450 gal/min to wells. In contrast to the high yields from these deeper units , the outcrops of Paleozoic rocks commonly yield less than 10 gal/min. The Quaternary deposits yield as much as 2,500 gal/min of very hard water. Elevated nitrate concentrations that exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking-water standards occur in Marion County. In addition, saline water is present in the Quaternary deposits near Bald Knob and Cord, Arkansas. (USGS)

  12. Research on Efficiency of Ozonation and Bromate Formation in Low Temperature and Low Turbidity Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qi; Liu, Dongmei; Cui, Fuyi; Fang, Lei; Zhao, Zhiwei; Liu, Tongmian

    2010-11-01

    The efficiency of ozonation and the influence factor of bromate formation were studied in filtered water at low temperature and low turbidity in Harbin Shaohe water treatment plant, of which source water was from Songhua river. The results showed that when adding 3 mg/L O3 to the filtered water, the average removal rate of UV254 were 22.31%, the removal rate of TOC in filtered water were 6.33%. When adding 2 mg/L O3 and 4 mg/L O3 to the filtered water, the CODMn decreased by 21.53% and 24.68%, respectively. Ozonation had no obvious effect on reducing turbidity and the content of ammonia nitrogen of filtered water in Shaohe water treatment plant. It could be found that the formation amount of BrO3- would increase with the concentration of Br- increasing in low temperature and low turbidity water. When Ct value of filtered water in Shaohe water treatment plant was less than 30 mgṡL-1ṡmin, the formation amount of BrO3- could be controlled under 10 μg/L.

  13. Monitoring of pesticides water pollution-The Egyptian River Nile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahshan, Hesham; Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy Abdel-Goad; Nabawy, Ehab; Elbana, Mariam Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants represent about 95 % of the industrial sector effluents in Egypt. Contamination of the River Nile water with various pesticides poses a hazardous risk to both human and environmental compartments. Therefore, a large scale monitoring study was carried on pesticides pollution in three geographical main regions along the River Nil water stream, Egypt. Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction and analyzed by GC-ECD. Organochlorine pesticides mean concentrations along the River Nile water samples were 0.403, 1.081, 1.209, 3.22, and 1.192 μg L-1 for endrin, dieldrin, p, p'-DDD, p, p'-DDT, and p, p'-DDE, respectively. Dieldrin, p, p'-DDT, and p, p'-DDE were above the standard guidelines of the World Health Organization. Detected organophosphorus pesticides were Triazophos (2.601 μg L-1), Quinalphos (1.91 μg L-1), fenitrothion (1.222 μg L-1), Ethoprophos (1.076 μg L-1), chlorpyrifos (0.578 μg L-1), ethion (0.263 μg L-1), Fenamiphos (0.111 μg L-1), and pirimiphos-methyl (0.04 μg L-1). Toxicity characterization of organophosphorus pesticides according to water quality guidelines indicated the hazardous risk of detected chemicals to the public and to the different environmental compartments. The spatial distribution patterns of detected pesticides reflected the reverse relationship between regional temperature and organochlorine pesticides distribution. However, organophosphorus was distributed according to the local inputs of pollutant compounds. Toxicological and water quality standards data revealed the hazardous risk of detected pesticides in the Egyptian River Nile water to human and aquatic life. Thus, our monitoring data will provide viewpoints by which stricter legislation and regulatory controls can be admitted to avoid River Nile pesticide water pollution.

  14. Framework for Assessing Water Resource Sustainability in River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, J.; Goodwin, P.; Swanson, D.

    2013-12-01

    As the anthropogenic footprint increases on Earth, the wise use, maintenance, and protection of freshwater resources will be a key element in the sustainability of development. Borne from efforts to promote sustainable development of water resources is Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM), which promotes efficiency of water resources, equity in water allocation across different social and economic groups, and environmental sustainability. Methodologies supporting IWRM implementation have largely focused on the overall process, but have had limited attention on the evaluation methods for ecologic, economic, and social conditions (the sustainability criterion). Thus, assessment frameworks are needed to support the analysis of water resources and evaluation of sustainable solutions in the IWRM process. To address this need, the River Basin Analysis Framework (RBAF) provides a structure for understanding water related issues and testing the sustainability of proposed solutions in river basins. The RBAF merges three approaches: the UN GEO 4 DPSIR approach, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment approach, and the principles of sustainable development. Merging these approaches enables users to understand the spatiotemporal interactions between the hydrologic and ecologic systems, evaluate the impacts of disturbances (drivers, pressures) on the ecosystem goods and services (EGS) and constituents of human well-being (HWB), and identify and employ analytical methods and indicators in the assessments. The RBAF is comprised of a conceptual component (RBAF-C) and an analytical component (RBAF-A). For each disturbance type, the RBAF-C shows the potential directional change in the hydrologic cycle (peak flows, seasonality, etc.), EGS (drinking water supply, water purification, recreational opportunities, etc.), and HWB (safety, health, access to a basic materials), thus allowing users insight into potential impacts as well as providing technical guidance on the methods and

  15. Impact of river restoration on groundwater - surface water - interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Anne-Marie; Schirmer, Mario

    2014-05-01

    Since the end of the 19th century, flood protection was increasingly based on the construction of impermeable dams and side walls (BWG, 2003). In spite of providing flood protection, these measures also limited the connectivity between the river and the land, restricted the area available for flooding, and hampered the natural flow dynamics of the river. Apart from the debilitating effect on riverine ecosystems due to loss of habitats, these measures also limited bank filtration, inhibited the infiltration of storm water, and affected groundwater-surface water-interactions. This in turn had a profound effect on ecosystem health, as a lack of groundwater-surface water interactions led to decreased cycling of pollutants and nutrients in the hyporheic zone and limited the moderation of the water temperature (EA, 2009). In recent decades, it has become apparent that further damages to riverine ecosystems must be prohibited, as the damages to ecology, economy and society surmount any benefits gained from exploiting them. Nowadays, the restoration of rivers is a globally accepted means to restore ecosystem functioning, protect water resources and amend flood protection (Andrea et al., 2012; Palmer et al., 2005; Wortley et al., 2013). In spite of huge efforts regarding the restoration of rivers over the last 30 years, the question of its effectiveness remains, as river restorations often reconstruct a naturally looking rather than a naturally functioning stream (EA, 2009). We therefore focussed our research on the effectiveness of river restorations, represented by the groundwater-surface water-interactions. Given a sufficiently high groundwater level, a lack of groundwater-surface water-interactions after restoration may indicate that the vertical connectivity in the stream was not fully restored. In order to investigate groundwater-surface water-interactions we determined the thermal signature on the stream bed and in +/- 40 cm depth by using Distributed Temperature

  16. Seasonal Variation in Physicochemical and Microbial Parameters in Treated River Water from Bangladesh

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mahedy Hasan Chowdhury; Partha Saha; S M Estiar Haque; Md Fuadh-Al-Kabir

    2013-01-01

      This study examines the main Physico-chemical and microbial water quality parameters of drinking water supplied by Chandnighat Water Treatment Plant, which treat raw water from the river Buriganga...

  17. Near real time water resources data for river basin management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, R. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Twenty Data Collection Platforms (DCP) are being field installed on USGS water resources stations in the Delaware River Basin. DCP's have been successfully installed and are operating well on five stream gaging stations, three observation wells, and one water quality monitor in the basin. DCP's have been installed at nine additional water quality monitors, and work is progressing on interfacing the platforms to the monitors. ERTS-related water resources data from the platforms are being provided in near real time, by the Goddard Space Flight Center to the Pennsylvania district, Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey. On a daily basis, the data are computer processed by the Survey and provided to the Delaware River Basin Commission. Each daily summary contains data that were relayed during 4 or 5 of the 15 orbits made by ERTS-1 during the previous day. Water resources parameters relays by the platforms include dissolved oxygen concentrations, temperature, pH, specific conductance, well level, and stream gage height, which is used to compute stream flow for the daily summary.

  18. Irrigation Water Value Scenarios for 2015: Application to Guadalquivir River

    OpenAIRE

    Mesa-Jurado, María Azahara; Pistón, Juan Máximo; Berbel, Julio; Giannoccaro, Giacomo

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the application of a scenario for the 2015 agricultural policy and markets for the irrigated agriculture in Europe. Scenarios for irrigated agriculture 2015 are also described in detail including Reformed CAP and biomass demand. It is applied at the basin level for the Guadalquivir River in southern Spain. The methodology is based upon residual value of water and it combines budget and farm analysis at municipality level, with the Guadalquivir basin divided at 50 ‘comarcas’...

  19. "Phosphorous Insecticides Residues in Mazandaran River Waters, Iran (2000)"

    OpenAIRE

    Shayeghi, M.; SJ Shahtaheri; M Selsele

    2001-01-01

    In order to study the residues of phosphorous insecticides in Mazandaran district of Iran, Ethion, Azinphosmethyl, Diazinon and Malathion four most used pesticides were chosen and river water samples were collected in April to Sept. 2000, throughout the Mazandaran state. Thin layer chromatography was used, since it was the best applicable method in area with reasonably high level of sensitivity up to 0-01 ppm and acceptable recovery of 80% . Four hundred eighty samples were collected and test...

  20. Controlling The Surface Water of Shatt Al Arab River by using Sluice Gates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Naseh Ahmed Hamdan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to find hydrodynamic simulations of river water by controlging gates in Shatt Al Arab river. This river is formed by the meeting of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers near the city of Qurna in the south of Iraq, and it pours into the Arabian Gulf. Hydrodynamic simulations give a proper understanding performance and optimize utilization of the gates controlging the water level. Three different sluice gates opening cases simulate the water surface level using HEC-RAS in Shatt Al Arab river. These cases where being studied within two situations of Tide (the highest high water level and the lowest low water level within the downstream of Shatt Al Arab river. The study also deals with six cases of flow rates in upstream of Shatt Al Arab river. Hec-Ras model is produced by US Army for analyzing river system. This model could simulate steady and unsteady open channel flow.

  1. Application of Multivariate Statistical Analysis in Evaluation of Surface River Water Quality of a Tropical River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teck-Yee Ling

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the spatial variations of surface water quality in a tropical river using multivariate statistical techniques, including cluster analysis (CA and principal component analysis (PCA. Twenty physicochemical parameters were measured at 30 stations along the Batang Baram and its tributaries. The water quality of the Batang Baram was categorized as “slightly polluted” where the chemical oxygen demand and total suspended solids were the most deteriorated parameters. The CA grouped the 30 stations into four clusters which shared similar characteristics within the same cluster, representing the upstream, middle, and downstream regions of the main river and the tributaries from the middle to downstream regions of the river. The PCA has determined a reduced number of six principal components that explained 83.6% of the data set variance. The first PC indicated that the total suspended solids, turbidity, and hydrogen sulphide were the dominant polluting factors which is attributed to the logging activities, followed by the five-day biochemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus, organic nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen in the second PC which are related to the discharges from domestic wastewater. The components also imply that logging activities are the major anthropogenic activities responsible for water quality variations in the Batang Baram when compared to the domestic wastewater discharge.

  2. Air-water oxygen exchange in a large whitewater river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Robert O.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J.

    2012-01-01

    Air-water gas exchange governs fluxes of gas into and out of aquatic ecosystems. Knowing this flux is necessary to calculate gas budgets (i.e., O2) to estimate whole-ecosystem metabolism and basin-scale carbon budgets. Empirical data on rates of gas exchange for streams, estuaries, and oceans are readily available. However, there are few data from large rivers and no data from whitewater rapids. We measured gas transfer velocity in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, as decline in O2 saturation deficit, 7 times in a 28-km segment spanning 7 rapids. The O2 saturation deficit exists because of hypolimnetic discharge from Glen Canyon Dam, located 25 km upriver from Lees Ferry. Gas transfer velocity (k600) increased with slope of the immediate reach. k600 was -1 in flat reaches, while k600 for the steepest rapid ranged 3600-7700 cm h-1, an extremely high value of k600. Using the rate of gas exchange per unit length of water surface elevation (Kdrop, m-1), segment-integrated k600 varied between 74 and 101 cm h-1. Using Kdrop we scaled k600 to the remainder of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. At the scale corresponding to the segment length where 80% of the O2 exchanged with the atmosphere (mean length = 26.1 km), k600 varied 4.5-fold between 56 and 272 cm h-1 with a mean of 113 cm h-1. Gas transfer velocity for the Colorado River was higher than those from other aquatic ecosystems because of large rapids. Our approach of scaling k600 based on Kdrop allows comparing gas transfer velocity across rivers with spatially heterogeneous morphology.

  3. Characteristics of water quality of rivers related to land-use in Penang Island Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Lim Jia; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Yin, Chee Su; Wern, Hong Chern; Inoue, Takanobu; Usami, Akiko; Iwatsuki, Eiji; Yagi, Akihiko

    2017-10-01

    A study of the Water Quality Index (WQI) of rivers in Penang Island, Malaysia conducted by Universiti Sains Malaysia from October 2012 to January 2013 shows that almost all rivers in Penang Island were slightly polluted or polluted. However, WQI does not clarify each water quality indices, for example nutrients and organic pollutants, that reflect the land-use and pollution source in the catchment. Therefore, in this research, the main objectives are to investigate the interaction of land-use and the water quality of rivers in Penang Island, the quantity of pollutant loads discharged, and identification of the pollution sources along the rivers. The procedure starts from the selection of rivers and parameters for investigation, carrying out field survey and sampling, measuring and analyzing each sample, and lastly, providing a conclusion. The three rivers selected are Pinang River, Keluang River and Burung River. In this research, the results show that total organic carbon (TOC) increases generally as the rivers flow towards the river mouths, which means the degree of organic pollution increases along the rivers. In Pinang River, TOC increases as the tributaries from housing areas flow into the mainstream whereas in Keluang River, a marked increase of TOC is shown in the location where the wastewater from a sewage treatment plant discharges. In Burung River, TOC increases as the river flows through the paddy fields. In the principal component analysis, all sampling points of the three rivers are able to be classified into five groups based on the characteristics of water quality. For example, upstream of Keluang River and Burung River show mutual characteristics in terms of man-made pollution index and heavy metal pollution index. As a conclusion, the results in this research show that the characteristics of water quality in Penang Island are highly affected by land-use surrounding the rivers.

  4. Ground-water resources of the Arkansas River basin in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, J.M.; Ludwig, A.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Arkansas River basin in Arkansas lies almost entirely within the Interior Highlands physiographic division. The Interior Highlands consist of hilly to mountainous terrain underlain by sandstone, shale, limestone, and dolomite. That part of the basin southeast of Little Rock lies within the Gulf Coastal Plain and is characterized by flat to hilly topography. Significant water-yielding units within the Arkansas River basin include subsurface Paleozoic units such as the Eminence and Potosi Dolomites, the Gasconade Dolomite, and the Van Buren Formations, and Roubidoux Formation as well as outcrops of Paleozoic rocks, the Sparta Sand, and Quaternary deposits. The quality of groundwater withdrawn from the various aquifers in the study area is generally suitable for most uses, although commonly very hard and highly mineralized. Only the Sparta Sand yields a soft, less mineralized water. Yields from the different water-bearing units are highly variable. Several of the subsurface Paleozoic rocks rarely yield more than 10 gal/min. In the Coastal Plain, the Sparta Sand and the Quaternary deposits yield as much as 2,000 and 2,500 gal/min, respectively. Several studies have indicated substantial bacterial contamination of both wells and springs in this part of the study area. Also, nitrate concentrations that exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking water standards occur in some areas. (USGS)

  5. The impact of industries on surface water quality of River Ona and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of water from two rivers (River Ona and River Alaro) in Oluyole Industrial Estate, Ibadan, Nigeria were analysed to evaluate the impact of industrial discharges on the surface water quality. The results obtained indicated that most of the parameters analysed (pH, total hardness, sulphate, chloride, nitrate and ...

  6. 33 CFR 223.1 - Mississippi River Water Control Management Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., responsibilities and authority of the Mississippi River Water Control Management Board. (b) Applicability. This... control management within the Mississippi River Basin. (c) Objectives. The objectives of the Board are: (1...) Composition. The Mississippi River Water Control Management Board is a continuing board consisting of the...

  7. The Water Footprint of Agriculture in Duero River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel de Miguel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate the green, blue and grey water footprint (WF of crops in the Duero river basin. For this purpose CWUModel was developed. CWUModel is able to estimate the green and blue water consumed by crops and the water needed to assimilate the nitrogen leaching resulting from fertilizer application. The total WF of crops in the Spanish Duero river basin was simulated as 9473 Mm3/year (59% green, 20% blue and 21% grey. Cultivation of crops in rain-fed lands is responsible for 5548 Mm3/year of the WF (86% green and 14% grey, whereas the irrigated WF accounts for 3924 Mm3/year (20% green, 47% blue and 33% grey. Barley is the crop with the highest WF, with almost 37% of the total WF for the crops simulated for the basin, followed by wheat (17%. Although maize makes up 16% of the total WF of the basin, the blue and grey components comprise the 36% of the total blue and grey WF in the basin. The relevance of green water goes beyond the rain-fed production, to the extent that in long-cycle irrigated cereals it accounts for over 40% of the total water consumed. Nonetheless, blue water is a key component in agriculture, both for production and economically. The sustainability assessment shows that the current blue water consumption of crops causes a significant or severe water stress level in 2–5 months of the year. The anticipated expansion of irrigation in the coming years could hamper water management, despite the Duero being a relatively humid basin.

  8. Enhanced formation of disinfection byproducts in shale gas wastewater-impacted drinking water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Kimberly M; Zeng, Teng; Harkness, Jennifer; Vengosh, Avner; Mitch, William A

    2014-10-07

    The disposal and leaks of hydraulic fracturing wastewater (HFW) to the environment pose human health risks. Since HFW is typically characterized by elevated salinity, concerns have been raised whether the high bromide and iodide in HFW may promote the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) and alter their speciation to more toxic brominated and iodinated analogues. This study evaluated the minimum volume percentage of two Marcellus Shale and one Fayetteville Shale HFWs diluted by fresh water collected from the Ohio and Allegheny Rivers that would generate and/or alter the formation and speciation of DBPs following chlorination, chloramination, and ozonation treatments of the blended solutions. During chlorination, dilutions as low as 0.01% HFW altered the speciation toward formation of brominated and iodinated trihalomethanes (THMs) and brominated haloacetonitriles (HANs), and dilutions as low as 0.03% increased the overall formation of both compound classes. The increase in bromide concentration associated with 0.01-0.03% contribution of Marcellus HFW (a range of 70-200 μg/L for HFW with bromide = 600 mg/L) mimics the increased bromide levels observed in western Pennsylvanian surface waters following the Marcellus Shale gas production boom. Chloramination reduced HAN and regulated THM formation; however, iodinated trihalomethane formation was observed at lower pH. For municipal wastewater-impacted river water, the presence of 0.1% HFW increased the formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) during chloramination, particularly for the high iodide (54 ppm) Fayetteville Shale HFW. Finally, ozonation of 0.01-0.03% HFW-impacted river water resulted in significant increases in bromate formation. The results suggest that total elimination of HFW discharge and/or installation of halide-specific removal techniques in centralized brine treatment facilities may be a better strategy to mitigate impacts on downstream drinking water treatment plants than altering

  9. TRENDS IN VARIABILITY OF WATER FLOW OF TELEAJEN RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. JIPA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available TRENDS IN VARIABILITY OF WATER FLOW OF TELEAJEN RIVER. In the context of climate change at global and regional scale, this study intends to identify the trends in variability of the annual and monthly flow of Teleajen river. The study is based on processing the series of mean, maximum and minimum flows at Cheia and Moara Domnească hydrometric stations (these data were taken from the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology. The period of analysis is 1966-1998, statistical methods beeing mostly used, among which the Mann – Kendall test, that identifies the liniar trend and its statistic significance, comes into focus. The trends in the variability of water annual and monthly flows are highlighted. The results obtained show downward trends for the mean and maximum annual flows, and for the minimum water discharge, a downward trend for Cheia station and an upward trend for Moara Domnească station. Knowing the trends in the variability of the rivers’ flow is important empirically in view of taking adequate administration measures of the water resources and managment measures for the risks lead by extreme hidrologic events (floods, low-water, according to the possible identified changes.

  10. River ice implications related to water power production in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asvall, R.P. [Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate, Oslo (Norway). Hydrology Dept.

    2009-07-01

    Nearly 99 per cent of the electricity produced in Norway is based on water power. While the period of large power development is over, the current focus lies in developing small hydroelectric power plants. A new market based energy law was implemented in Norway in 1991 to achieve more efficient use of electricity production by means of market forces. Since water regulation influences ice conditions in lakes and rivers, this paper focused on the implications of changes in ice conditions. In Norway, the expected changes in ice conditions are taken into account when issuing permits for water regulations and schemes for water discharge because some waterways are used as winter roads. Follow-up includes both close and long term observations and measurements. The impact of variable price on power was also discussed, with particular reference to ice conditions in cases where water discharge occurs on rivers. This paper summarized selected ice problems and how they have been handled. The paper also included a summary of anticipated climatic changes relevant to ice conditions.

  11. Microcystin-LR in surface water of Ponjavica river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natić Dejan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Cyanobacterial toxins befall a group of various compounds according to chemical structure and health effects on people and animals. The most significant in this large group of compounds are microcystins. Their presence in water used for human consumption causes serious health problems, liver beeing the target organ. Microcystins are spread all over the world. Waterblooms of cyanobacterias and their cyanotoxins are also common in the majority of surface waters in Serbia. The aim of this study was to propose HPLC method for determination of mikrocystin-LR, to validate the method and to use it for determination of microcystin-LR in the surface water of the river Ponjavica. The Ponjavica is very eutrophic water and has ideal conditions for the cyanobacterial growth. Methods. Sample of water form the Ponjavica river were collected during the summer 2008. Coupled columns (HLB, Sep-Pak, were used for sample preparation and HPLC/PDA method was used for quantification of microcystin- LR. Results. Parameters of validation show that the proposed method is simple, fast, sensitive (0.1 mg/L and selective with the yield of 89%-92%. The measuring uncertainty of

  12. Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) Water Temperature Models Developed for the Missouri River Recovery Management Plan and Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-18

    ER D C/ EL T R- 17 -1 8 Missouri River Recovery Program (MRRP) Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) Water... Engineering Center-River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) Water Temperature Models Developed for the Missouri River Recovery Management Plan and Environmental...Impact Statement” ERDC/EL TR-17-18 ii Abstract This report describes the Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) water

  13. Acid mine-water and agriculture pollution in a river skirting the Donana National Park (Guadiamar River, South West Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, F.; Toca, C.G.; Diaz, E.; De Arambarri, P.

    1984-01-01

    The Agrio river receives the drainage waters from Aznalcollar opencast-worked polymetallic sulfide deposits and the old mine spoil heaps. Some 7 km downstream, the Agrio river joins the Guadiamar river, which is the last tributary on the right of the Guadalquivir river. Drainage waters from the mine and old spoil heaps are the source of high concentrations of heavy metals in the water and sediments of the Agrio and Guadiamar rivers. When river flows increase because of heavy rains or reservoir discharges, sediments are resuspended and transported downstream. The presence of other effluents rich in organic matter with active chelating agents facilitates the dissolution and transport of the metals. Consequently, 30 km downstream from the mine heavy metal concentrations in Guadiamar river are still higher than those in other unpolluted rivers of this zone. Pollution by olive mill effluents (alpechines) is important during the grinding season, causing increases in the K, P and organic matter, and decreases in dissolved oxygen. Nitrogen and P fertilization of rice fields at present does not produce abnormal increases in the concentration of these elements in the water. Concentrations of herbicides in rice field canals and Donana National Park waters reach values considered as the limit of safety for aquatic life. 37 references, 8 figures, 7 tables.

  14. Detection of Coxiella burnetii in Urban River Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ugo, Emilio; Sdanganelli, Massimo; Grasso, Cinzia; Magurano, Fabio; Marcheggiani, Stefania; Boots, Bas; Baggieri, Melissa; Mancini, Laura

    2017-07-01

    Previous molecular-based studies have identified microorganisms of zoonotic and human nature in surface waters. Contaminated water can lead to human health issues, and the detection of pathogenic microorganisms is a valuable tool for the prevention of their spread. Water samples were taken from the River Tiber in and out of the city of Rome. Genetic analysis of the sequences obtained showed the presence of Coxiella burnetii in both the analyzed sites. Blast analysis showed that two sequences were identical to each other. Sequences from the polluted site showed high homology with different strains of C. burnetii. In this article, we report for the first time the presence of C. burnetii in environmental waters.

  15. Speciation of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in the waters of River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The water of river Mzimbazi and its attributaries are known to contain heavy metals originating from industry and the water is used for domestic and vegetable irrigation purposes. The present study describes chemical forms of some of the heavy metals found in the water. Water samples from different locations along river ...

  16. Assessment of the Water Quality of the Oti River in Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sam Eshun

    Composite water samples drawn from some sections of the Oti river were analysed in the laboratory for certain parameters to enable assessment of water quality. ... Sanitary facilities to control river pollution and appropriate water treatments ..... organic wastes (e.g. refuse, human and animal excreta, soap, etc.) into the water ...

  17. THE IMPACT OF TBILISI USED WATER ON ECOCHEMICAL STATE OF SMALL RIVERS OF THE CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIAM TABATADZE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The centralized sewerage systems and wastewater treatment facilities were constructed in Tbilisi in the middle of the previous century. Nowadays only mechanical treatment stage operates in wastewater treatment facilities of Tbilisi. Moreover, collected wastewater from the sewerage systems often drains without any treatment directly into the small rivers located in Tbilisi area. These rivers feed the main water artery of our capital – river Mtkvari and play an important role in its salt balance. As a result of study of hydro-chemical parameters of Tbilisi small rivers were identified Water Pollution Index (WPI and assessment of small rivers pollution by sewage waters was carried out. It was established that small rivers of Tbilisi belong to the IV and V classes, i.e. less polluted and polluted rivers, while according to the content of fecal matter in the river water they are ranged in the class of polluted and most polluted.

  18. Possible water cluster formation by dilution and succussions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anagnostatos, G.S. [National Centre for Scientific Research ``Demokritos``, Aghia Paraskevi (Greece). Inst. of Nuclear Physics; Pissis, P. [Physics Dept., National Technical Univ. of Athens, Athens (Greece); Viras, K. [Physical Chemistry Dept., Kapodistrian Univ. of Athens (Greece)

    1995-12-31

    While the formation of stable water clusters in no-water environment is well established, the present study, for the first time, proposes an approach of producing stable water clusters in water environment. The approach involves sequential dilutions and succussions of water extracts, where here chamomile extract is taken as an exmple. The approach uses solutions far beyond the Avogardo number in order to secure that such formations are not those formed around the impurity (chamomile) molecules. By using dielectric relaxation spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry techniques experimental evidence was obtained for the existence of such water clusters. (orig.)

  19. Carbon-Water-Energy Relations for Selected River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, B. J.

    1998-01-01

    A biophysical process-based model was run using satellite, assimilated and ancillary data for four years (1987-1990) to calculate components of total evaporation (transpiration, interception, soil and snow evaporation), net radiation, absorbed photosynthetically active radiation and net primary productivity over the global land surface. Satellite observations provided fractional vegetation cover, solar and photosynthetically active radiation incident of the surface, surface albedo, fractional cloud cover, air temperature and vapor pressure. The friction velocity and surface air pressure are obtained from a four dimensional data assimilation results, while precipitation is either only surface observations or a blended product of surface and satellite observations. All surface and satellite data are monthly mean values; precipitation has been disaggregated into daily values. All biophysical parameters of the model are prescribed according to published records. From these global land surface calculations results for river basins are derived using digital templates of basin boundaries. Comparisons with field observations (micrometeorologic, catchment water balance, biomass production) and atmospheric water budget analysis for monthly evaporation from six river basins have been done to assess errors in the calculations. Comparisons are also made with previous estimates of zonal variations of evaporation and net primary productivity. Efficiencies of transpiration, total evaporation and radiation use, and evaporative fraction for selected river basins will be presented.

  20. Development of the sediment and water quality management strategies for the Salt-water River, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C E; Chen, C T; Kao, C M; Hong, A; Wu, C Y

    2011-01-01

    The Salt-water River watershed is one of the major river watersheds in the Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. Water quality and sediment investigation results show that the river water contained high concentrations of organics and ammonia-nitrogen, and sediments contained high concentrations of heavy metals and organic contaminants. The main pollution sources were municipal and industrial wastewaters. Results from the enrichment factor (EF) and geo-accumulation index (Igeo) analyses imply that the sediments can be characterized as heavily polluted in regard to Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn, and Cu. The water quality analysis simulation program (WASP) model was applied for water quality evaluation and carrying capacity calculation. Modeling results show that the daily pollutant inputs were much higher than the calculated carrying capacity (1050 kg day(-1) for biochemical oxygen demand and 420 kg day(-1) for ammonia-nitrogen). The proposed watershed management strategies included river water dilution, intercepting sewer system construction and sediment dredging. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dynamics and ecological risk assessment of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in the Yinma River Watershed: Rivers, reservoirs, and urban waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sijia; Zhang, Jiquan; Guo, Enliang; Zhang, Feng; Ma, Qiyun; Mu, Guangyi

    2017-10-01

    The extensive use of a geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing in ecological risk assessment from a spatiotemporal perspective complements ecological environment management. Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), which is a complex mixture of organic matter that can be estimated via remote sensing, carries and produces carcinogenic disinfection by-products and organic pollutants in various aquatic environments. This paper reports the first ecological risk assessment, which was conducted in 2016, of CDOM in the Yinma River watershed including riverine waters, reservoir waters, and urban waters. Referring to the risk formation theory of natural disaster, the entropy evaluation method and DPSIR (driving force-pressure-state-impact-response) framework were coupled to establish a hazard and vulnerability index with multisource data, i.e., meteorological, remote sensing, experimental, and socioeconomic data, of this watershed. This ecological vulnerability assessment indicator system contains 23 indicators with respect to ecological sensitivity, ecological pressure, and self-resilience. The characteristics of CDOM absorption parameters from different waters showed higher aromatic content and molecular weights in May because of increased terrestrial inputs. The assessment results indicated that the overall ecosystem risk in the study area was focused in the extremely, heavily, and moderately vulnerable regions. The ecological risk assessment results objectively reflect the regional ecological environment and demonstrate the potential of ecological risk assessment of pollutants over traditional chemical measurements. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Evaluation of Solar Photosensitised River Water Treatment in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tota-Maharaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An economical supply of hygienic potable water is one of the most pressing public health issues facing developing countries in the Caribbean region today. This project investigates the performance of a novel solar photochemical reactor for disinfecting river water. The prototype photochemical reactor was designed, constructed, and tested for the microbiological degradation of faecal coliform present in River Water. The experiments evaluated the efficacy of two photosensitive dyes (malachite green and methylene blue as agents for detoxification with concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 mg/L. The photochemical reactor operated in a single-pass mode and compared the disinfection rates with direct photolysis. The photosensitizers showed a high efficacy rate using natural sunlight with microbial reduction ranging from 97 to 99% for concentrations as low as 0.5 mg/L of dye. The sensitizers were found to be photobleaching and were very effective at lower concentrations (0.01. Post-solar disinfection included the use of a coconut fiber filter which polished the water removing residual dye concentrations and bacterial contaminants.

  3. Water quality assessment of highly polluted rivers in a semi-arid Mediterranean zone Oued Fez and Sebou River (Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, J. L.; Raïs, N.; Chahinian, N.; Moulin, P.; Ijjaali, M.

    2014-03-01

    Oued Fez (one of the Sebou River tributaries - Morocco) allowed us to study and quantify the effect of the lack of wastewater treatment on surface water quality in semi-arid hydrological context. The analysis is based on field data collected from June 2009 to December 2011. Concentration and load patterns of nitrogen, phosphorus and chromium (used in the processing of leather) are compared in stable hydrological conditions during low flow and high flow periods in an eight-location sampling network. The Oued Fez and the Sebou River are characterised by severe pollution downstream from the city of Fez, particularly TN (mainly NH4 and Norg), TP (mainly Ppart) and TCr. The most polluted sites are those directly under the influence of domestic and industrial waste water inputs, particularly tannery effluents. Obviously, the concentrations measured at these locations are above all environmental quality standards. Pollutant loads are very heavy in the Sebou River and can contaminate the river course for kilometres. Moreover, as the water of the Sebou River is used for the irrigation of vegetables, serious problems of public health could arise. A better understanding of contaminant dynamics and self-purifying processes in these rivers will help implement actions and steps aimed at improving water quality in the Sebou River, which is the primary water supply source in Morocco and is used for agricultural and industrials purposes as well as for drinking water.

  4. Water Resources Data. Ohio - Water Year 1992. Volume 1. Ohio River Basin excluding project data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.L. Shindel; J.H. Klingler; J.P. Mangus; L.E. Trimble

    1993-03-01

    Water-resources data for the 1992 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 121 gaging stations, 336 wells, and 72 partial-record sites; and water levels at 312 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the US Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. Volume 1 covers the central and southern parts of Ohio, emphasizing the Ohio River Basin. (See Order Number DE95010451 for Volume 2 covering the northern part of Ohio.)

  5. What maintains the waters flowing in our rivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Vitor Vieira

    2017-07-01

    This article discusses how new contributions from hydrogeological science in the 20th and 21st centuries have allowed for a better understanding of the processes that affect the maintenance of river flows. Moreover, the way in which this knowledge has been conveyed beyond academia and has been gradually incorporated into public policy for natural resource management is also discussed. This article explains the development of several approaches used to understand the relationships among the management of aquifers, vegetation and river flows, including water balance, aquifer recharge, the piston effect, seasonal effects, and safe and sustainable yields. Additionally, the current challenges regarding the modeling of hydrological processes that integrate groundwater and surface waters are discussed. Examples of studies applied in Brazil that demonstrate these processes and stimulate thought regarding water management strategies are presented. In light of the case studies, it is possible to propose different strategies, each adapted for specific hydrogeological context to maximize aquifer recharge or base flow maintenance. Based on these strategies, the role of infiltration ponds and other artificial recharge techniques is re-evaluated in the context of the mitigation of environmental impacts on the maintenance of river flows. Proposals for the improvement of public policies regarding the payment of related environmental services to stimulate investment in aquifer recharge and the maintenance of base flow, for which the goal is to attain win-win-win situations for the environment, farmers and water users, while preventing land speculation, are discussed. Lastly, a conceptual model for the dissemination of hydrogeological knowledge in public policies is provided, and its challenges and possibilities are discussed.

  6. Geology and ground water of the Savannah River Plant and vicinity, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siple, George E.

    1967-01-01

    Cretaceous deposits are, in turn, overlain by the, McBean Formation and the Congaree(?) Formation of middle Eocene age, the Barnwell Formation of late Eocene age, the Hawthorn Formation of early and middle Miocene age, and by fluvial and marine(?) terrace deposits of Pliocene(?), Pleistocene, and Recent age. In the mapped area, the Congaree(?) Formation includes undifferentiated rocks (mostly Congaree and Barnwell Formations and some Mcbean outliers). (See map explanation.) Structurally, the Upper Cretaceous sediments are overlapped to the northwest by Tertiary deposits. A preliminary geologic map of the general area is included in the report. The principal aquifer in the area is composed of the beds of medium to coarse sand and gravel contained in the Tuscaloosa and Ellenton Formations. Subordinate aquifers include deposits of sand and limestone of Tertiary and Quaternary age. The ground water in the principal aquifer occurs under water-table conditions in the outcrop area of the Tuscaloosa Formation in the northern and western parts of the study area, but it is under artesian pressure downdip in the southern and eastern parts of the study area. Contours drawn on the piezometric surface of the water in the principal aquifer indicate that water is recharged to the aquifer mainly by leakage through the overlying Tertiary formations. Likewise, the piezometric contours show that the outcrop area of the Tuscaloosa Formation functions chiefly as an area of discharge. Doubtless, water is also discharged from the aquifer by moving downdip to areas near the coast where the prevailing hydraulic gradient may favor the upward leakage of water through the upper confining beds. The hydraulic properties of the principal aquifer were determined by a series of pumping tests. The results indicate that the aquifer is highly productive and could supply 15 million gallons per day in the vicinity of the Savannah River Plant without exceeding the available drawdown. Gr

  7. Water quality comparison of secondary effluent and reclaimed water to ambient river water of southern Okinawa Island via biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Fumihiko; Kitamura, Tomokazu; Okamoto, Seiichiro; Suzuki, Yutaka; Park, Chang-Beom; Yasui, Nobuhito; Kobayashi, Kentarou; Tanaka, Yuji; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Minamiyama, Mizuhiko

    2017-08-08

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the biological effect of the secondary effluent (SE) of a wastewater treatment plant and reclaimed water treated via ultrafiltration (UF) followed by either reverse osmosis (RO) membrane filtration or nanofiltration (NF) to be used for environmental use by comparing the results of algal growth inhibition tests of concentrated samples of the SE and permeates of RO and NF with those of six rivers in southern Okinawa Island. Although the SE water had no adverse effects on the growth of the algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, it could lead to water quality degradation of rivers in terms of its toxic unit value, whereas the use of RO and NF permeates would not lead to such degradation. The recharge of rivers, into which domestic wastewater and livestock effluents might be discharged in southern Okinawa Island, with reclaimed water subjected to advanced treatment could dilute the concentrations of chemicals that cause biological effects and improve the water quality of the rivers, based on the results of the bioassay using P. subcapitata. Comparing the results of bioassays of reclaimed water with those of the ambient water at a site might be effective in assessing the water quality of reclaimed water for environmental use at the site.

  8. Record of Lower Gondwana megafloral assemblage from Lower Kamthi Formation of Ib River Coalfield, Orissa, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goswami, S. [Birbal Sahni Institute of Paleobotany, Lucknow (India)

    2006-03-15

    Recent investigations carried out in the Ib River Coalfield, Mahanadi Master Basin, Orissa, identified some fossiliferous beds in the Lower Gondwana deposits. Two exposures of the Lower Kamthi Formation yielded diverse and abundant plant remains, which include Neomariopteris, Vertebraria, and a scale leaf along with 14 Glossopteris species otherwise mapped as Barren Measures and Upper Kamthi formations. Glossopteris indica dominates the flora (22.78%) followed by G. communis (17.72%) and G. browniana (13.92%). Based on megafloral assemblages, different beds exposed at Gopalpur and Laxamanpur Pahar are assigned here to the Lower Kamthi Formation (Late Permian). The floristic composition suggests that a warm and humid climate prevailed during the Late Permian. The status of the Kamthi Formation in the Ib River Coalfield has been redefined in the present study.

  9. DETERMINATION OF WATER RESOURCES IN RIVERS IN THE BULGARIAN BASINS OF THE LOWER DANUBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plamen Iliev Ninov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Object of the study is surface water bodies from category “rivers” according to Water Framework Directive 2000/60/ЕС. Surface water assessment is important for number of activities such as: water management in the country, making reports to international agencies, determining the change of the resources in the light of upcoming climate changes. The determination of water resources is based on information of hydrometric stations from the monitoring network system in the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology — Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (NIMH-BAS in which real ongoing and available water flows that are subject of management are registered. In the study a technology for surface water bodies in the Bulgarian basins of the lower Danube is applied which has been developed in the frame of cooperative project together with the Ministry of Environment and Water. This is absolutely true for the Bulgarian section of the Danube River basin which is expressed in big number and variety of hydrological homogeneous sections. The river flow is characterized with annual and inter-annual variability determined by climatic factors and anthropogenic influences. The main obtained results of the present hydrologic studies are the usage of transferred information from gauged to ungauged watersheds and the estimation of the surface water bodies’ resources using original regression relationships based on multiannual hydrological information from the NIMH-BAS monitoring network. The relationships delineate the hydrological homogeneous areas with similar conditions of flow formation. The estimated resources have significant usefulness for all State institutions managing the water in the Danube basin and have already been introduced in the operative and management practice.

  10. Formation of useful waters on the Stara Planina mountain, in the area Visok Kraj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikić Zoran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation and discharge of useful waters was studied on southwestern slopes of the Stara Planina Mountain, in the area Visok Kraj that is the typical hilly-mountainous region in East Serbia. The catchment’s area of Dojkinacka River was chosen due to numerous and specific edaphic properties. Pump forests (association: Fagetum moesiacea serbicum Rud. dominate here and were mostly developed on slightly acidic, humus-silicate or on acidic brownish soil. Soils are of a range of depths and development of pedogenetic processes. The aim of this work is to highlight elements that have pronounced influence on supply of useful and small water bodies in the catchment area of Dojkinacka River. Complex relations between geological setting, climate conditions, pedological characteristics, hydrological and hydrogeological conditions, forest vegetation etc. were analyzed. Elements that are significant for proper evaluation of useful water or small domains supply were in this case detected through water balance methods, geological mapping and tracking. It was deduced that the disagreement of topographic and hydrological catchment’s area of Dojkinacka River represents the significant element which should be taken into consideration in order to determine the real reserves of useful, i.e. small water domains.

  11. Changing of Cations Concentrations in Waters of Polluted Urban River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrianova Maria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water from urban river Okhta polluted with domestic and industrial wastewaters was investigated. Specific electric conductivity (k, molar concentrations of ions Na+, K+, Mg++ and Ca++, concentration of total nitrogen (TN were measured in water samples. Increasing of k happened together with increasing of molar fraction of sodium-ion (RNa among all studied cations (and correspondingly decreasing of molar fractions of other cations. Good correlations were found between RNa and TN (r = 0.67, k and TN (r = 0.84. The results support the idea of the leading role of wastewaters in changing of k and cations concentrations. Electric conductivity and RNa could be used to distinguish between polluted and not polluted waters in the Okhta.

  12. Global Floods and Water Availability Driven by Atmospheric Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltan, Homero; Waliser, Duane; Lim, Wee Ho; Guan, Bin; Yamazaki, Dai; Pant, Raghav; Dadson, Simon

    2017-10-01

    While emerging regional evidence shows that atmospheric rivers (ARs) can exert strong impacts on local water availability and flooding, their role in shaping global hydrological extremes has not yet been investigated. Here we quantify the relative contribution of ARs variability to both flood hazard and water availability. We find that globally, precipitation from ARs contributes 22% of total global runoff, with a number of regions reaching 50% or more. In areas where their influence is strongest, ARs may increase the occurrence of floods by 80%, while absence of ARs may increase the occurrence of hydrological droughts events by up to 90%. We also find that 300 million people are exposed to additional floods and droughts due the occurrence of ARs. ARs provide a source of hydroclimatic variability whose beneficial or damaging effects depend on the capacity of water resources managers to predict and adapt to them.

  13. Water temperature modeling in the Garonne River (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larnier K.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Stream water temperature is one of the most important parameters for water quality and ecosystem studies. Temperature can influence many chemical and biological processes and therefore impacts on the living conditions and distribution of aquatic ecosystems. Simplified models such as statistical models can be very useful for practitioners and water resource management. The present study assessed two statistical models – an equilibrium-based model and stochastic autoregressive model with exogenous inputs – in modeling daily mean water temperatures in the Garonne River from 1988 to 2005. The equilibrium temperature-based model is an approach where net heat flux at the water surface is expressed as a simpler form than in traditional deterministic models. The stochastic autoregressive model with exogenous inputs consists of decomposing the water temperature time series into a seasonal component and a short-term component (residual component. The seasonal component was modeled by Fourier series and residuals by a second-order autoregressive process (Markov chain with use of short-term air temperatures as exogenous input. The models were calibrated using data of the first half of the period 1988–2005 and validated on the second half. Calibration of the models was done using temperatures above 20 °C only to ensure better prediction of high temperatures that are currently at stake for the aquatic conditions of the Garonne River, and particularly for freshwater migrating fishes such as Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.. The results obtained for both approaches indicated that both models performed well with an average root mean square error for observed temperatures above 20 °C that varied on an annual basis from 0.55 °C to 1.72 °C on validation, and good predictions of temporal occurrences and durations of three temperature threshold crossings linked to the conditions of migration and survival of Atlantic Salmon.

  14. Geoelectrical imaging of hyporheic exchange and mixing of river water and groundwater in a large regulated river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, M Bayani; Markowski, Michael S

    2011-02-15

    Hyporheic mixing and surface water-groundwater interactions are critical processes in aquatic environments. Yet, there is a lack of methods for assessing the spatial extent and distribution of these mixing zones. This study applied time-lapse electrical resistivity (ER) imaging in a 60-m wide and 0.7-m deep alluvial river whose stage periodically varied by 0.7 m due to dam operations to assess dynamic hyporheic mixing and surface water-groundwater interactions. Sixteen channel-spanning repeat ER tomograms (2D sections) over one flood cycle captured the dynamic ER distribution. We mapped a laterally discontinuous hyporheic zone, which had mainly river water circulating through it, several meters into the bed. Underneath the hyporheic zone was a transitional mixing zone intermittently flushed by mixing river water and deep groundwater. Minimally mixed groundwater dominated the deepest areas. ER imaging allows for unraveling hyporheic and deep mixing zone dynamics in large regulated rivers.

  15. Platform for monitoring water and solid fluxes in mountainous rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Guillaume; Esteves, Michel; Aubert, Coralie; Belleudy, Philippe; Coulaud, Catherine; Bois, Jérôme; Geay, Thomas; Gratiot, Nicolas; Legout, Cédric; Mercier, Bernard; Némery, Julien; Michielin, Yoann

    2016-04-01

    The project aims to develop a platform that electronically integrates a set of existing sensors for the continuous measurement at high temporal frequency of water and solid fluxes (bed load and suspension), characteristics of suspended solids (distribution in particle size, settling velocity of the particles) and other variables on water quality (color, nutrient concentration). The project is preferentially intended for rivers in mountainous catchments draining areas from 10 to 1000 km², with high suspended sediment concentrations (maxima between 10 and 300 g/l) and highly dynamic behavior, water discharge varying of several orders of magnitude in a short period of time (a few hours). The measurement of water and solid fluxes in this type of river remains a challenge and, to date, there is no built-in device on the market to continuously monitor all these variables. The development of this platform is based on a long experience of measurement of sediment fluxes in rivers within the French Critical Zone Observatories (http://portailrbv.sedoo.fr/), especially in the Draix-Bléone (http://oredraixbleone.irstea.fr/) and OHMCV (http://www.ohmcv.fr/) observatories. The choice was made to integrate in the platform instruments already available on the market and currently used by the scientific community (water level radar, surface velocity radar, turbidity sensor, automatic water sampler, video camera) and to include also newly developed instruments (System for the Characterization of Aggregates and Flocs - see EGU2016-8542 - and hydrophone) or commercial instruments (spectrophotometer and radiometer) to be tested in surface water with high suspended sediment concentration. Priority is given to non-intrusive instruments due to their robustness in this type of environment with high destructive potential. Development work includes the construction of a platform prototype "smart" and remotely configurable for implantation in an isolated environment (absence of electric

  16. A drifter for measuring water turbidity in rivers and coastal oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Ross; Reading, Dean; Ridd, James; Campbell, Sean; Ridd, Peter

    2015-02-15

    A disposable instrument for measuring water turbidity in rivers and coastal oceans is described. It transmits turbidity measurements and position data via a satellite uplink to a processing server. The primary purpose of the instrument is to help document changes in sediment runoff from river catchments in North Queensland, Australia. The 'river drifter' is released into a flooded river and drifts downstream to the ocean, measuring turbidity at regular intervals. Deployment in the Herbert River showed a downstream increase in turbidity, and thus suspended sediment concentration, while for the Johnstone River there was a rapid reduction in turbidity where the river entered the sea. Potential stranding along river banks is a limitation of the instrument. However, it has proved possible for drifters to routinely collect data along 80 km of the Herbert River. One drifter deployed in the Fly River, Papua New Guinea, travelled almost 200 km before stranding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ground-water resources of the Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Laurence J.; Hodson, Warren Gayler; Rucker, Samuel J.

    1969-01-01

    The area of this investigation is in the western part of the Wind River Basin and includes parts of the Absaroka, Washakie, Wind River, and Owl Creek Mountains. The purposes of the study were to determine the general hydrologic properties of the rocks in the area and the occurrence and quality c f the water in them. Structurally, the area is a downfolded basin surrounded by upfolded mountain ranges. Igneous and metamorphic rocks of Precambrian age are exposed in the mountains: folded sedimentary rocks representing all geologic periods, except the Silurian, crop out along the margins of the basin; and relatively flat-lying Tertiary rocks are at the surface in the central part of the basin. Surficial sand and gravel deposits of Quaternary age occur along streams and underlie numerous terraces throughout the basin. The potential yield and quality of water from most rocks in the area are poorly known, but estimates are possible, based on local well data and on data concerning similar rocks in nearby areas. Yields of more than 1,000 gpm are possible from the rocks comprising the Bighorn Dolomite (Ordovician), Darby Formation (Devonian), Madison Limestone (Mississippian), and Tensleep Sandstone (Pennsylvanian). Total dissolved solids in the water range from about 300 to 3,000 ppm. Yields of as much as several hundred gallons per minute are possible from the Nugget Sandstone (Jurassic? and Triassic?). Yields of 20 gpm or more are possible from the Crow Mountain Sandstone (Triassic) and Sundance Formation (Jurassic). Dissolved solids are generally high but are less than 1,000 ppm near outcrops in some locations. The Cloverly and Morrison (Cretaceous and Jurassic), Mesaverde (Cretaceous) and Lance(?) (Cretaceous) Formations may yield as much as several hundred gallons per minute, but most wells in Cretaceous rocks yield less than 20 gpm. Dissolved solids generally range from 1,000 to 5,000 ppm but may be higher. In some areas, water with less than 1,000 ppm dissolved solids

  18. Reconnaissance of water resources of the Upper Klickitat River Basin, Yakima Indian Reservation, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Denzel R.

    1975-01-01

    Large quantities of ground water and surface water are available in Washington County. Major sources of ground water are the Gosport Sand and Lisbon Formation undifferentiated, the Miocene Series undifferentiated, and alluvium and low terrace deposits. The Miocene, the most productive source of ground water, will yield 0.5 to 1.0 mgd (million gallons per day) per well and is a potential source of larger supplies in most of the county. The quantity of potable water available is governed largely by geologic structures. Average flows of the Tombigbee and Mobile Rivers in the southeast corner of the county are 18,200 and 39,400 mgd. Average runoff originating in the county is about 1,100 mgd or 1 mgd per square mile. Water in aquifers tapped by wells generally contains less than 500 mg/l (milligrams per liter) dissolved solids. The water generally is soft to moderately hard. Water in streams is soft to moderately hard and low in dissolved solids. Estimated water use in 1966 was 43.5 mgd of which 10.9 mgd was ground water and 32.6 mgd was surface water. Lava flows underlie the entire basin, and unconsolidated sedimentary deposits overlie the lavas in the Camas Prairie-Glenwood area and in small areas elsewhere. A spring supplies water to much of the Camas Prairie-Glenwood area through a public system, so not many wells are used now. About 56 million gallons (110 acre-feet) of ground water was used in 1974. The unconsolidated deposits yield from 1 to 500 gallons per minute of water to wells, and the basalt can yield more than 100 gallons per minute and possibly several thousand gallons per minute to deep wells. Ground-water recharge and discharge on the reservation is estimated to average 550,000 acre-feet per year.

  19. Assessment of river water quality under urban influence: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Shobharam; Joshi, Himanshu

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the water quality status of river Solani in India was assessed under the influence of urbanization. Physico-chemical and biological analysis of water reflected maximum adverse impact during summer low flow season. Variation in river flows during monsoon, post monsoon and low flow seasons was found to substantially affect the river water quality regime. Whereas the monsoon season displayed addition of suspended impurities and provided dilution in the dissolved components, the summer low flow season revealed an anaerobic condition in the river as the entire river flow comprised of only drain effluents. All the drains were observed to carry contaminated water with impurities from various point and non-point sources emanating from diverse human activities. The present study indicated that the drain waste water deserves a prior treatment in order to protect the Solani river water from pollution.

  20. Basin management plan for efficient use of water resource : based on Nakdong River water system management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Lee Byoung Kook; Choi, Jee Yong; Kim, Eun Jeong [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    Nakdong River basin is about 23,800 km{sup 2} occupying 24% of whole area in Korea and stretches over 3 metropolitan cities, 5 provinces, 19 cities and 22 districts. The annual rainfall in this basin is 1,187 mm, which is the smallest among waster systems of 4 great rivers and it results in making worse of water quality and destroying ecosystem in low part of basin due to the reduction of inflowing water in a dry season. For the fundamental solution of water quality problem and water dispute between regions, it is recommended in domestic and abroad that it requires an integrated water resource management by each basin through the voluntary participation of interested parties free from the government-led downward management system. Therefore, this study introduces the concept of basin management that is applied as a new water resource management in the advanced countries and suggests a plan that can be applied for the efficient use of Nakdong River water resource. 60 refs., 24 figs., 15 tabs.

  1. Assessing water deprivation at the sub-river basin scale in LCA integrating downstream cascade effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubet, Philippe; Roux, Philippe; Núñez, Montserrat; Belaud, Gilles; Bellon-Maurel, Véronique

    2013-12-17

    Physical water deprivation at the midpoint level is assessed in water-related LCIA methods using water scarcity indicators (e.g., withdrawal-to-availability and consumption-to-availability) at the river basin scale. Although these indicators represent a great step forward in the assessment of water-use-related impacts in LCA, significant challenges still remain in improving their accuracy and relevance. This paper presents a methodology that can be used to derive midpoint characterization factors for water deprivation taking into account downstream cascade effects within a single river basin. This effect is considered at a finer scale because a river basin must be split into different subunits. The proposed framework is based on a two-step approach. First, water scarcity is defined at the sub-river basin scale with the consumption-to-availability (CTA) ratio, and second, characterization factors for water deprivation (CFWD) are calculated, integrating the effects on downstream sub-river basins. The sub-river basin CTA and CFWD were computed based on runoff data, water consumption data and a water balance for two different river basins. The results show significant differences between the CFWD in a given river basin, depending on the upstream or downstream position. Finally, an illustrative example is presented, in which different land planning scenarios, taking into account additional water consumption in a city, are assessed. Our work demonstrates how crucial it is to localize the withdrawal and release positions within a river basin.

  2. Water resources in the Blackstone River basin, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Eugene H.; Krejmas, Bruce E.

    1983-01-01

    The Blackstone River heads in brooks 6 miles northwest of Worcester and drains about 330 square miles of central Massachusetts before crossing into Rhode Island at Woonsocket. The primary source of the Worcester water supply is reservoirs, but for the remaining 23 communities in the basin, the primary source is wells. Bedrock consists of granitic and metamorphic rocks. Till mantles the uplands and extends beneath stratified drift in the valleys. Stratified glacial drift, consisting of clay, silt, and fine sand deposited in lakes and coarse-textured sand and gravel deposited by streams, is found in lowlands and valleys. The bedrock aquifer is capable of sustaining rural domestic supplies throughout the Blackstone River basin. Bedrock wells yield an average of 10 gallons per minute, but some wells, especially those in lowlands where bedrock probably contains more fractures and receives more recharge than in the upland areas, yield as much as 100 gallons per minute. Glacial sand and gravel is the principal aquifer. It is capable of sustaining municipal supplies. Average daily pumpage from this aquifer in the Blackstone River basin was 10.4 million gallons per day in 1978. The median yield of large-diameter wells in the aquifer is 325 gallons per minute. The range of yields from these wells is 45 to 3,300 gallons per minute. The median specific capacity is about 30 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown.

  3. Studies on water resources carrying capacity in Tuhai river basin based on ecological footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengshuai; Xu, Lirong; Fu, Xin

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the method of the water ecological footprint (WEF) was used to evaluate water resources carrying capacity and water resources sustainability of Tuhai River Basin in Shandong Province. The results show that: (1) The WEF had a downward trend in overall volatility in Tuhai River Basin from 2003 to 2011. Agricultural water occupies high proportion, which was a major contributor to the WEF, and about 86.9% of agricultural WEF was used for farmland irrigation; (2) The water resources carrying capacity had a downward trend in general, which was mostly affected by some natural factors in this basin such as hydrology and meteorology in Tuhai River Basin; (3) Based on analysis of water resources ecological deficit, it can be concluded that the water resources utilization mode was in an unhealthy pattern and it was necessary to improve the utilization efficiency of water resources in Tuhai River Basin; (4) In view of water resources utilization problems in the studied area, well irrigation should be greatly developed at the head of Yellow River Irrigation Area(YRIA), however, water from Yellow River should be utilized for irrigation as much as possible, combined with agricultural water-saving measures and controlled exploiting groundwater at the tail of YRIA. Therefore, the combined usage of surface water and ground water of YRIA is an important way to realize agricultural water saving and sustainable utilization of water resources in Tuhai River Basin.

  4. Separation of water through gas hydrate formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boch Andersen, Torben; Thomsen, Kaj

    2009-01-01

    Gas hydrate is normally recognized as a troublemaker in the oil and gas industry. However, gas hydrate has some interesting possibilities when used in connection with separation of water. Nordic Sugar has investigated the possibility of using gas hydrates for concentration of sugar juice. The goal...... of the project was to formulate an alternative separation concept, which can replace the traditional water evaporation process in the sugar production. Work with the separation concept showed that gas hydrates can be used for water separation. The process is not suitable for sugar production because of large...

  5. Trans-Himalayan water contributions to river discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andermann, Christoff; Stieglitz, Thomas; Schuessler, Jan A.; Parajouli, Binod

    2017-04-01

    Hydrological processes in high mountains are not well understood. Groundwater is commonly considered to be of little importance in the mountain water balance, while direct runoff, snow and ice melt are thought to be the principal hydrological buffer. We present new insights into hydrological fluxes between major reservoirs in a trans-Himalayan catchment. The study area is the Kali Gandaki catchment, rising in the dry Tibetan interior, carving through the high Himalayas and draining the full width of the foothills to the Ganges foreland. The catchment has a well-defined monsoon climate, with pronounced annual wet and dry seasons and a clear separation of wind- and leeward regions. We have sampled the main river and its tributaries as well as several springs during the four hydrological seasons (winter, pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon). We have measured major element abundances as well as 222Rn in situ, as a tracer for groundwater contribution. These measurements are placed in a context of topographic analyses as well as continuous discharge and precipitation measurements. Furthermore, we have equipped two sites with continuous water samplers, sampling over > 4 monsoon seasons, allowing us to resolve the seasonal hydrological dynamic range on a very high temporal resolution. Chemical fluxes vary spatially over several orders of magnitude, showing a systematic downstream dilution trend for most major elements during all hydrological seasons. High initial concentrations derive from evaporite deposits in the uppermost part of the catchment, constituting a large scale, natural salt tracer experiment. The well-defined decline of solute concentrations along the main river, paired with constraints on the composition of lateral water inputs downstream allow the calculation of the spatial distribution of additional hydrological fluxes, by applying end member mixing modeling. Continuous river stage and bulk dissolved load (electrical conductivity) monitoring depict well

  6. Water quality dynamics in the Boro-Thamalakane-Boteti river system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water quality dynamics in the Boro-Thamalakane-Boteti river system, northern Botswana. ... settlements and associated developments on waterbodies, and lends strong support to management efforts to maintain river water quality to ensure the suitability of the water for various ecosystem uses. Keywords: human activities ...

  7. Assessment of the Water Quality of the Oti River in Ghana | Abdul ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oti river, an important tributary of the Volta lake in Ghana, was chosen as a case study to investigate the variations in the quality of its water at different locations. This was necessitated by the people's reliance on the river for their domestic and agricultural water use. Composite water samples drawn from some sections of the ...

  8. Land Use Impacts on Water Quality of Rivers draining from Mulanje ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A research study was carried out to determine the effects of different land uses on the water quality of Ruo River. Water sampling was done both in the upper and the middle sections of the river. The water samples were analysed for pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO), ...

  9. Tracing the spatial propagation of river inlet water into an agricultural polder area using anthropogenic gadolinium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rozemeijer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Diverting river water into agricultural areas or nature reserves is a frequently applied management strategy to prevent fresh water shortage. However, the river water might have negative consequences for chemical and ecological water quality in the receiving water bodies. This study aimed to obtain a spatial image of the diverted river water propagation into a hydrologically complex polder area, the polder Quarles van Ufford in The Netherlands. We used anthropogenic gadolinium (Gd-anomaly as a tracer for river water that was diverted into the polder. A clear reduction in the river water contribution was found between very dry conditions on 5 August 2010 and very wet conditions on 22 October. Despite the large river water impact on 5 August, the diverted river water did not propagate up into the small agricultural headwater ditches. Gadolinium proved to be an effective tracer for diverted river water in a polder system. We applied our results to upgrade the interpretation of water quality monitoring data and to validate an integrated nutrient transport model.

  10. trend analysis of raw water parameters in river benue at the reach of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    This study ascertained the extent of pollution of the water body of river Benue at the reach of Makurdi. Trend analysis gives an insight to the ... degradation of surface waters have rendered most water bodies unsuitable for their ... Bridge, the river is 1.194Km wide with average depth and cross sectional area of 7.82m and.

  11. A Hybrid Prediction Model for Monitoring of River Water Quality in the USN System

    OpenAIRE

    Hoontae Kim; Minsoo Kim

    2015-01-01

    River water quality is directly related to the wellness of its neighbors. Because the West Nakdong River has long suffered both from the infiltration of sea water and from the inflow of turbid wastewater, inconsiderate use of this water can cause disastrous result to nearby agricultural areas and neighbors. Busan city in Korea had deployed a pilot USN (ubiquitous sensor network) system that monitors this river and nearby tube wells to properly react to those situations. In this paper, we have...

  12. Geochemistry of ground water at the Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marine, I.W.

    1976-09-01

    Subsurface hydrogeologic systems underlying the Savannah River Plant (SRP) were studied to determine the origin and age of the contained fluids. Three distinct systems exist beneath SRP: the Coastal Plain sediments, crystalline metamorphic basement rock, and a Triassic rock basin surrounded by the crystalline rock. The water in the Coastal Plain sediments is low in dissolved solids (approximately 30 mg/l), acidic (pH approximately 5.5), and comparatively recent. Water in the crystalline rock is high in dissolved solids (approximately 6000 mg/l), alkaline (pH approximately 8), and approximately 840,000 years old as determined by helium dating techniques. Water in the Triassic rock is highest in dissolved solids (approximately 18,000 mg/l) and is probably older than the water in the surrounding crystalline rock; a quantitative age was not determined. The origin of the water in the crystalline and Triassic rock could not be determined with certainty; however, it is not relic sea water. A detailed geologic-hydrologic history of the SRP region is presented.

  13. FORUM: Bilateral Monopoly: A Market for Intercountry River Water Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekakis

    1998-01-01

    / Collaboration of countries with an aim to share fresh surface water resources promises to generate potential joint benefits. Unfortunately, existing agreements lack the perspective and capacity to produce any real action in efficient cross-border water allocation. When that problem is encountered by any two adjacent countries claiming riparian rights to the same watercourse, this paper suggests that apossible solution to be examined is a water market. This market requires the relevant countries to engage in a bargaining process as described in the theory of bilateral monopoly. The bargaining process should determine both the water quantity to be transferred and the price to be paid. However, there has to be a fair allocation of the joint benefits resulting from the transfer for a sustainable price solution. As an empirical illustration, the paper examines the case of river Nestos shared by Bulgaria and Greece in the southern Balkans. A net revenue function quadratic in water is specified and estimated using scarce data on three agricultural crops in Greece. Sensitivity analysis on the size and distribution of the net benefits is also performed.KEY WORDS: Bilateral agreements; Water markets; Efficient allocation

  14. Water resources inventory of Connecticut Part 8: Quinnipiac River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzaferro, David L.; Handman, Elinor H.; Thomas, Mendall P.

    1978-01-01

    The Quinnipiac River basin area in southcentral Connecticut covers 363 square miles, and includes all drainage basins that enter Long Island Sound from the Branford to the Wepawaug Rivers. Its population in 1970 was estimated at 535,000. Precipitation averages 47 inches per year and provides an abundant supply of water. Twenty-one inches returns to the atmosphere as evapotranspiration; the remainder flows directly to streams or percolates to the water table and discharges to Long Island Sound. Small amounts of water are exported from the basin by the New Britain Water Department, and small amounts are imported to the basin by the New Haven Water Company. The amount of water that can be developed at a given place depends upon precipitation, variability of streamflow, hydraulic properties and areal extent of the aquifers, and hydraulic connection between the aquifers and major streams. The quality of the water is determined by the physical environment and the effects of man. Stratified drift is the only aquifer capable of large sustained yields of water to individual wells. Yields of 64 screened wells tapping stratified drift range from 17 to 2,000 gpm (gallons per minute); their median yield is 500 gpm. Till is widespread and generally provides only small amounts of water. Wells in till normally yield only a few hundred gallons of water daily and commonly are inadequate during dry periods. Till is generally used only as an emergency or secondary source of water. Bedrock aquifers underlie the entire report area and include sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rock types. These aquifers supply small but reliable quantities of water to wells throughout the basin and are the chief source for many nonurban homes and farms. About 90 percent of the wells tapping bedrock yield at least 2 pgm, and much larger yields are occasionally reported. Maximum well yields of 305 gpm for sedimentary, 75 gpm for igneous, and 200 gpm for metamorphic bedrock have been reported. Water

  15. Chute Formation and Iterative Adjustment in Large, Sand-Bed Meandering Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell, M. C.; Aalto, R. E.; Nicholas, A.

    2011-12-01

    The meandering-braided continuum is a planform manifestation of excess available river energy; a balance between the energy of flow (commonly quantified as unit steam power or shear stress), and dynamic resistance due to bed material calibre and bank strength. Single-thread meandering rivers plot in part of the continuum defined by low excess available river energy, while braided rivers plot in part of the continuum defined by high excess available river energy. Planform patterns that are transitional between single-thread meandering and braided occur where chute channel formation is prolific. In this presentation we will elucidate the morphodynamic implications of chute formation for sinuosity and planform pattern in large, sand-bed meandering rivers. We draw on the results of recent research that applied binary logistic regression analysis to determine the possibility of predicting chute initiation based on attributes of meander bend character and dynamics (Grenfell et al., accepted, ESP&L). Regression models developed for the Strickland River, Papua New Guinea (54 bends), the lower Paraguay River, Paraguay/Argentina (45 bends), and the Beni River, Bolivia (114 bends), revealed that the probability of chute initiation at a meander bend is a function of the bend extension rate (the rate at which a bend elongates). Image analyses of all rivers and field observations from the Strickland suggest that the majority of chute channels form during scroll-slough development. Rapid extension is shown to favour chute initiation by breaking the continuity of point bar deposition and vegetation encroachment at the inner bank, resulting in widely-spaced scrolls with intervening sloughs that are positively aligned with primary over-bar flow. The rivers plot in order of increasing chute activity on an empirical meandering-braided pattern continuum (Kleinhans and van den Berg, 2011, ESP&L 36) defined by potential specific stream power (ωpv) and bedload calibre (D50). Increasing

  16. Studies on kinetics of water quality factors to establish water transparency model in Neijiang River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ronghui; Pan, Wei; Guo, Jinchuan; Pang, Yong; Wu, Jianqiang; Li, Yiping; Pan, Baozhu; Ji, Yong; Ding, Ling

    2014-05-01

    The basis for submerged plant restoration in surface water is to research the complicated dynamic mechanism of water transparency. In this paper, through the impact factor analysis of water transparency, the suspended sediment, dissolved organic matter, algae were determined as three main impactfactors for water transparency of Neijiang River in Eastern China. And the multiple regression equation of water transparency and sediment concentration, permanganate index, chlorophyll-a concentration was developed. Considering the complicated transport and transformation of suspended sediment, dissolved organic matter and algae, numerical model of them were developed respectively for simulating the dynamic process. Water transparency numerical model was finally developed by coupling the sediment, water quality, and algae model. These results showed that suspended sediment was a key factor influencing water transparency of Neijiang River, the influence of water quality indicated by chemical oxygen demand and algal concentration indicated by chlorophyll a were indeterminate when their concentrations were lower, the influence was more obvious when high concentrations are available, such three factors showed direct influence on water transparency.

  17. Sediment transport following water transfer from Yangtze River to Taihu Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Zheng; Chang-kuan ZHANG; Cheng-biao ZUO; Wei-deng WU

    2011-01-01

    To meet the increasing need of fresh water and to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake, water transfer from the Yangtze River was initiated in 2002. This study was performed to investigate the sediment distribution along the river course following water transfer. A rainfall-runoff model was first built to calculate the runoff of the Taihu Basin in 2003. Then, the flow patterns of river networks were simulated using a one-dimensional river network hydrodynamic model. Based on the boundary c...

  18. Polyfluorinated compounds in waste water treatment plant effluents and surface waters along the River Elbe, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Lutz; Felizeter, Sebastian; Sturm, Renate; Xie, Zhiyong; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2009-09-01

    Polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were investigated in waste water treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and surface waters of the River Elbe from samples collected in 2007. Concentrations of various PFCs, including C(4)-C(8) perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs), C(6) and C(8) perfluorinated sulfinates, 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate, C(5)-C(13) perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), C(4) and C(8) perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides and 6:2, 8:2 and 10:2 unsaturated fluorotelomercarboxylic acids were quantified. Sum PFC concentrations of the river water ranged from 7.6 to 26.4ngL(-1), whereas sum PFC concentrations of WWTP effluents were approximately 5-10 times higher (30.5-266.3ngL(-1)), indicating that WWTPs are potential sources of PFCs in the marine environment. PFC patterns of different WWTP effluents varied depending on the origin of the waste water, whereas the profile of PFC composition in the river water was relatively constant. In both kinds of water samples, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the major PFC, whereas perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) was the predominant PFSA.

  19. A study of the water quality of the osun river: metal monitoring and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1999-10-27

    A study of the water quality of the osun river: metal monitoring and geochemistry. A.A. Olajire, F.E. Imeokparia. Abstract. Abstract. (Received October 27, 1999; revised March 24, 2000) The concentrations and distributions of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cr and Zn in Osun river, selected rivers in the region and groundwaters have been ...

  20. Survey on monthly variations of water quality in the Tajan River (Sari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aims of the study were to evaluate water quality of Tajan River in Sari in terms of chemical pollution and the impact of pollutant sources near the river by considering the climate, hydrological and hydraulic condition on it. In this study, 10 critical points of river were selected as sampling stations from dam to sea. Sampling ...

  1. Water quality parameters in the major rivers of Kainji Lake National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    This study examined the physical and chemical properties of waters of the major rivers in Kainji Lake. National Park for a period of twenty four months. The implications on the public health and aquatic organisms were also determined. The major rivers include; Oli, Manyera, Nuwanzurugi, and Poto. River. Oli was sampled ...

  2. Halocline water formation in the Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Michael; Morison, James H.; Curtin, Thomas B.

    1995-01-01

    Hydrographic data from the first phase of the Coordinated Eastern Arctic Experiment (CEAREX) are analyzed. The data consist of temperature and salinity measurements made by a ship-based conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) instrument and by a drifting SALARGOS buoy. These data were collected in the autumn and early winter of 1988-1989 in the northern Barents Sea, mostly in ice-covered conditions and then across the marginal ice zone (MIZ). The data show that relatively warm, salty water of Atlantic origin is modified by air cooling and ice melting to produce lighter water that has properties identical to (lower) halocline water found in the Arctic Ocean. This occurs mostly at the MIZ and to a lesser degree within the ice pack itself. At the MIZ the halocline water subjects underneath the lighter meltwater that resides directly under the ice pack; geostrophic velocity calculations indicate that it then turns eastward and flows toward the Kara Sea, in keeping with previous chemical tracer analyses. A rough calculation reveals that the amount of halocline water formed in this way in the Barents Sea and Fram Strait is 30-50% of that formed by ice growth in eastern Arctic polynyas.

  3. Occurrence, molecular characterization and antibiogram of water quality indicator bacteria in river water serving a water treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okeke, Benedict C., E-mail: bokeke@aum.edu [Department of Biology, Auburn University at Montgomery, P.O. Box 244023, Montgomery, AL 36124 (United States); Thomson, M. Sue [Department of Biology, Auburn University at Montgomery, P.O. Box 244023, Montgomery, AL 36124 (United States); Moss, Elica M. [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, Alabama A and M University, AL 35762 (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Water pollution by microorganisms of fecal origin is a current world-wide public health concern. Total coliforms, fecal coliforms (Escherichia coli) and enterococci are indicators commonly used to assess the microbiological safety of water resources. In this study, influent water samples and treated water were collected seasonally from a water treatment plant and two major water wells in a Black Belt county of Alabama and evaluated for water quality indicator bacteria. Influent river water samples serving the treatment plant were positive for total coliforms, fecal coliforms (E. coli), and enterococci. The highest number of total coliform most probable number (MPN) was observed in the winter (847.5 MPN/100 mL) and the lowest number in the summer (385.6 MPN/100 mL). Similarly E. coli MPN was substantially higher in the winter (62.25 MPN/100 mL). Seasonal variation of E. coli MPN in influent river water samples was strongly correlated with color (R{sup 2} = 0.998) and turbidity (R{sup 2} = 0.992). Neither E. coli nor other coliform type bacteria were detected in effluent potable water from the treatment plant. The MPN of enterococci was the highest in the fall and the lowest in the winter. Approximately 99.7 and 51.5 enterococci MPN/100 mL were recorded in fall and winter seasons respectively. One-way ANOVA tests revealed significant differences in seasonal variation of total coliforms (P < 0.05), fecal coliforms (P < 0.01) and enterococci (P < 0.01). Treated effluent river water samples and well water samples revealed no enterococci contamination. Representative coliform bacteria selected by differential screening on Coliscan Easygel were identified by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis. E. coli isolates were sensitive to gentamicin, trimethoprim/sulfamethazole, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, cefixime, and nitrofurantoin. Nonetheless, isolate BO-54 displayed decreased sensitivity compared to other E. coli isolates. Antibiotic sensitivity

  4. Using a novel Mg isotope tracer to investigate the dolomitization of the Red River Formation in the Williston Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmig, S. R.; Holmden, C. E.; Qing, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Williston Basin is a sub-circular intracratonic basin spanning central North America with its center in NW North Dakota. The Late Ordovician Red River Formation is an economically viable unit in the Williston Basin containing large hydrocarbon reserves in Saskatchewan, North Dakota, Manitoba, and Montana. Red River dolomitization contributed to the reservoir-quality porosity and permeability observed today with three types of dolomite (burrow, matrix, and saddle) possibly representing three events. Dolomitization is widely believed to have resulted from downward percolating brines, due to the stratigraphically close association between dolomite deposits and overlying basin-scale evaporites. However, in contrast, Sr isotope evidence suggests an upward fluid migration in the basin. Spatial variation of Mg isotopes (δ26Mg) may serve as a direct tracer of dolomitizing fluid flow. Dolomite sequesters light isotopes of Mg from dolomitizing fluids, therefore, the fluid will evolve with time and distance to heavier δ26Mg values. Accordingly, the δ26Mg values of the Red River dolomite should increase in the direction of fluid flow. We test this hypothesis on Red River burrow dolomite from the Williston Basin; the first event most often attributed to downward infiltration of brines. Burrow δ26Mg values range between -1.89‰ and -1.31‰. Using contouring software, the data are shown to form a pattern of increasing δ26Mg values out from the center of the Williston Basin, indicating an up-dip migration of dolomitizing fluids through the burrow network, rather than down-dip as suggested by the brine reflux model. We conclude that dolomitization of the Red River carbonate is not tied to the spatial and temporal history of evaporite deposition in the Williston Basin, but rather to the thermal history of the basin, suggesting dolomitization likely occurred during a late Paleozoic heating event that drove Mg-rich connate waters ponded in the center of the basin upwards

  5. Daphnia diversity in water bodies of the Po River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Marková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Shallow water bodies dominate the areal extent of continental waters and host a proportion of biodiversity higher than the percentage of Earth’s surface they cover. Daphnia is a key component of small aquatic ecosystems food webs. Here we present the result of a survey in 24 ponds located in the core of Po river Basin, to assess the actual spreading of Daphnia species in one of the most productive areas of the Northern hemisphere. By using diagnostic genetic markers (12S rRNA and ND5 genes we identified five Daphnia species: D. ambigua, D. curvirostris, D. longispina, D. obtusa and D. pulex in fourteen ponds. Additional analyses of two nuclear genes (LdhA and Rab4 revealed that D. pulex in the study area is native European strain. In opposite, D. ambigua shared haplotype with the North-Eastern American lineage that was introduced to Europe by long-distance dispersal. In the Po river Basin we identified a highly divergent lineage of D. longispina group that formed a clade with individuals from northern European Russia and might represent a new Daphnia species. Daphnia species in the Cremona province have European origin, except for D. ambigua which is a North American species spreading across Europe. Future attention will require monitoring of invasive species, particularly D. ambigua and the North American invasive clone of D. pulex that is already present in Northern Italy. 

  6. Rheomorphic ignimbrites of the Rogerson Formation, central Snake River plain, USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Thomas R.; Reichow, Marc K.; Branney, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Rogerson Graben, USA, is critically placed at the intersection between the Yellowstone hotspot track and the southern projection of the west Snake River rift. Eleven rhyolitic members of the re-defined, ≥420-m-thick, Rogerson Formation record voluminous high-temperature explosive eruptions...... by a trend towards less-evolved rhyolites that may record melting and hybridisation of a mid-crustal source region. Contemporaneous magmatism-induced crustal subsidence of the central Snake River Basin is recorded by successive ignimbrites offlapping and thinning up the N-facing limb of a regional basin...

  7. VICIOUS CIRCULATION OF WATER DEFICIENCY AND WATER POLLUTION – “CANCER” OF THE RIVERS IN THE NORTH OF CHINA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liankang

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The North of China belongs to the basin of the Tarim River ,the Heihe River , the Yellow River , the Huaihe River ,the Haihe River ,the Liaohe River , the Heilongjiang River and other shorter rivers and other indraft areas. The total area of all river basin is about 3,200,000 sq. km., exceeds 3/5 of area of land of 13 provinces , municipalities and autonomous regions of the North of China (5, 220,000 sq. km. .Follow the growth of the economy and the population, lacking of water in the rivers of the northern China is serious,. Since the sixties and seventies of previous century, the blanking has taken place successively in numerous rivers, brought serious influence on the development of the economic, made the society to shake. Afterwards, through certain effort, although the blanking phenomenon is alleviated for the past several years, but the water quality of manyrivers has sharply worsened and was dropped to V, bad V grade in the numerous sections, fromthe situation that the water quality in a great part sections in the main stream was still rather good for past more than 20 years ago. It has become the first killer, influencing the life of river.Therefore, we must summarize the experiences on that the rivers of the northern China, especially the most influential Yellow River, have gone from blanking to resuming flow, we also must control the pollution and proportionate the development of the society and theeconomic, with the water yield and the water quality. These affair have already become task of top priority!

  8. Studying groundwater and surface water interactions using airborne remote sensing in Heihe River basin, northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Managing surface water and groundwater as a unified system is important for water resource exploitation and aquatic ecosystem conservation. The unified approach to water management needs accurate characterization of surface water and groundwater interactions. Temperature is a natural tracer for identifying surface water and groundwater interactions, and the use of remote sensing techniques facilitates basin-scale temperature measurement. This study focuses on the Heihe River basin, the second largest inland river basin in the arid and semi-arid northwest of China where surface water and groundwater undergoes dynamic exchanges. The spatially continuous river-surface temperature of the midstream section of the Heihe River was obtained by using an airborne pushbroom hyperspectral thermal sensor system. By using the hot spot analysis toolkit in the ArcGIS software, abnormally cold water zones were identified as indicators of the spatial pattern of groundwater discharge to the river.

  9. Determination of aldehydes in drinking water and river water by headspace GC/negative-ion chemical-ionization MS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Minako HADA; Masahiko TAKINO; Shigeki DAISHIMA

    2000-01-01

      A method for the analysis of 7 aldehydes in drinking water and river water was developed using an headspace sampler in combination with a GC/MS with negative-ion chemical ionization(NICI).A sample(15ml...

  10. 2002 Water-Table Contours of the Mojave River and the Morongo Ground-Water Basins, San Bernardino County, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Mojave River and Morongo ground-water basins are in the southwestern part of the Mojave Desert in southern California. Ground water from these basins supplies a...

  11. The 2014 water release into the arid Colorado River delta and associated water losses by evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daesslé, L.W., E-mail: walter@uabc.edu.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, CarreteraTranspeninsular Tijuana-Ensenada No. 3917, Fraccionamiento Playitas, CP 22860 Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU), Department of Geography and Geosciences, GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Schlossgarten 5, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Geldern, R. van [Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU), Department of Geography and Geosciences, GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Schlossgarten 5, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Orozco-Durán, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, CarreteraTranspeninsular Tijuana-Ensenada No. 3917, Fraccionamiento Playitas, CP 22860 Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Barth, J.A.C. [Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU), Department of Geography and Geosciences, GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Schlossgarten 5, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    For the first time in history, water was intentionally released for environmental purposes into the final, otherwise dry, 160-km stretch of the Colorado River basin, south of the Mexican border. Between March and May 2014 three pulses of water with a total volume of 132 × 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} were released to assess the restoration potential of endemic flora along its course and to reach its estuary. The latter had not received a sustained input of fresh water and nutrients from its main fluvial source for over 50 years because of numerous upstream dam constructions. During this pulse flow large amounts of water were lost and negligible amounts reached the ocean. While some of these water losses can be attributed to plant uptake and infiltration, we were able to quantify evaporation losses between 16.1 to 17.3% of the original water mass % within the first 80 km after the Morels Dam with water stable isotope data. Our results showed no evidence for freshwater reaching the upper Colorado River estuary and it is assumed that the pulse flow had only negligible influences on the coastal ecosystem. Future water releases that aim on ecological restoration need to become more frequent and should have larger volumes if more significant effects are to be established on the area. - Highlights: • Isotope ratios of oxygen and hydrogen quantify water lost through evaporation. • Evaporation losses between 16.1 and 17.3% during the 2014 Colorado River • Larger water volumes are required to influence the estuary ecosystem.

  12. Assessing river water quality using water quality index in Lake Taihu Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhaoshi; Wang, Xiaolong; Chen, Yuwei; Cai, Yongjiu; Deng, Jiancai

    2018-01-15

    Lake Taihu Basin, one of the most developed regions in China, has received considerable attention due to its severe pollution. Our study provides a clear understanding of the water quality in the rivers of Lake Taihu Basin based on basin-scale monitoring and a water quality index (WQI) method. From September 2014 to January 2016, four samplings across four seasons were conducted at 96 sites along main rivers. Fifteen parameters, including water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), conductivity, turbidity (tur), permanganate index (CODMn), total nitrogen, total phosphorus, ammonium (NH4-N), nitrite, nitrate (NO3-N), calcium, magnesium, chloride, and sulfate, were measured to calculate the WQI. The average WQI value during our study period was 59.33; consequently, the water quality was considered as generally "moderate". Significant differences in WQI values were detected among the 6 river systems, with better water quality in the Tiaoxi and Nanhe systems. The water quality presented distinct seasonal variation, with the highest WQI values in autumn, followed by spring and summer, and the lowest values in winter. The minimum WQI (WQImin), which was developed based on a stepwise linear regression analysis, consisted of five parameters: NH4-N, CODMn, NO3-N, DO, and tur. The model exhibited excellent performance in representing the water quality in Lake Taihu Basin, especially when weights were fully considered. Our results are beneficial for water quality management and could be used for rapid and low-cost water quality evaluation in Lake Taihu Basin. Additionally, we suggest that weights of environmental parameters should be fully considered in water quality assessments when using the WQImin method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Hydrogeology and ground-water/surface water interactions in the Des Moines River valley, southwestern Minnesota, 1997-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowdery, Timothy K.

    2005-01-01

    Increased water demand in and around Windom led the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, local water suppliers, and Cottonwood County, to study the hydrology of aquifers in the Des Moines River Valley near Windom. The study area is the watershed of a 30-kilometer (19-mile) reach of the Des Moines River upstream from Windom.

  14. Assessment of surface-water quantity and quality, Eagle River watershed, Colorado, 1947-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cory A.; Moore, Jennifer L.; Richards, Rodney J.

    2011-01-01

    From the early mining days to the current tourism-based economy, the Eagle River watershed (ERW) in central Colorado has undergone a sequence of land-use changes that has affected the hydrology, habitat, and water quality of the area. In 2000, the USGS, in cooperation with the Colorado River Water Conservation District, Eagle County, Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority, Colorado Department of Transportation, City of Aurora, Town of Eagle, Town of Gypsum, Town of Minturn, Town of Vail, Vail Resorts, City of Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs Utilities, and Denver Water, initiated a retrospective analysis of surface-water quantity and quality in the ERW.

  15. Features of water purification from Vuoksa river during the summer period

    OpenAIRE

    N.I. Vatin; V.N. Chechevichkin; A. V. Chechevichkin

    2010-01-01

    Purification of water from the river Vuoksi of the Karelian Isthmus of Russia to drinking water quality is important and serious problem.Fluctuations in the composition of these waters in the summer, not only related to the hydrometeorological situation, but with increasing human influence on the ecosystem of the river Vuoksi greatly complicate usually adopted for such waters coagulation treatment.The instability of such indicators of these waters, as alkalinity, permanganate oxidation and co...

  16. Impact of Vladivostok’s solid waste landfill for ecological risks formation of nearby rivers pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solyanik, I. V.; Zinkov, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    This article analyzes the environmental issues arising from the development and operation of the landfill and the theoretical calculation of the timing and expected output sites with contaminated water into the neighboring valley streams, including Brook Desantny, Brook Rybachy, and River Bolshaya Pionerskaya.

  17. Reduction of Bromate Formation During Ozonation of Drinking Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoniou, Maria; Sichel, C.; Andre, K.

    This study focused on the prevention of carcinogenic bromate formation during ozonation of tap water from the DTU university campus. To achieve this, different pre-treatments including pH-adjustment, ammonia addition and chlorine-ammonia addition, were tested. Formation of bromated was drastically...

  18. Chronological trends in maximum and minimum water flows of the Teesta River, Bangladesh, and its implications

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Sanaul H. Mondal; Md Serajul Islam

    2017-01-01

    Bangladesh shares a common border with India in the west, north and east and with Myanmar in the southeast. These borders cut across 57 rivers that discharge through Bangladesh into the Bay of Bengal in the south. The upstream courses of these rivers traverse India, China, Nepal and Bhutan. Transboundary flows are the important sources of water resources in Bangladesh. Among the 57 transboundary rivers, the Teesta is the fourth major river in Bangladesh after the Ganges, the Brahmaputra and t...

  19. Water quality monitoring of the Pirapó River watershed, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Bortoletto

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the water quality of the Pirapó River watershed in Paraná, Brazil, and identify the critical pollution sites throughout the drainage basin. The water quality was monitored during the period from January 2011 to December 2012. Nine points distributed throughout the main channel of the Pirapó River were sampled for a total of 17 samplings. The water quality was evaluated based on the determination of 14 physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. Analysis of the variables monitored in the Pirapó River watershed using factor analysis/principal components analysis (FA/PCA indicated the formation of three distinct groups of parameters: water temperature (Twater, dissolved oxygen (DO and a group composed of total suspended solids (TSS, turbidity and nitrite (NO2–. The parameters Twater and DO exhibited a relationship with the seasonality, and the TSS, turbidity, and NO2– levels were correlated with surface runoff caused by rainfall events. Principal component analysis (PCA of the sampling points enabled the selection of the 10 most important variables from among the 14 evaluated parameters. The results showed that the nitrate (NO3–, NO2–, TSS, turbidity and total phosphorous (TP levels were related to the soil type, and the parameters DO, electrical conductivity (EC, ammoniacal nitrogen (N-NH3 and thermotolerant coliforms (TC were related to organic matter pollution, with the P5 sampling site being the most critical site. The ordination diagram of the sampling points as a function of the PCA indicated a reduction from 9 to 5 sampling points, indicating the potential for decreasing the costs associated with monitoring.

  20. Results of modeling of interactions of "water – oil" in sea and river systems of the Far East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazukhina S.I.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Using physical-chemical modeling (Selector software package, Chudnenko, 2010 the investigations identified the features of interactions of oil with sea and fresh waters on objects of the Far East have been performed. The results of the modeling have confirmed the patterns found on objects of the Murmansk region but there have been some differences connected with conditions of the Far East waters chemical composition formation. The developed models can be used for the forecasting of consequences of oil spills in sea and river waters of the Far East

  1. Water quality of the Modder River, South Africa | Koning | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Modder River is a relatively small river in the central region of the Free State Province, South Africa and has a mean annual runoff of 184 x 106m3. Botshabelo is a city, which has developed in the catchment area of the river, and its sewage outflows are discharged into the Klein Modder, a tributary of the Modder River.

  2. ALWAYS A RIVER - SUPPLEMENTAL ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM ON THE OHIO RIVER AND WATER GRADES K - 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    This curriculum was developed as a significant component of the project, Always a River: The Ohio River and the American Experience, a six-state collaboration devoted to exploring the historical and cultural development of the Ohio River. The Always a River project is being joint...

  3. Purification effects of five landscape plants on river landscape water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Sun; Lei, Zheng; Mao, Qinqing; Ji, Qingxin

    2017-12-01

    Five species of landscape plants which are scindapsus aureus, water hyacinth, cockscomb, calendula officinalis and salvia splendens were used as experimental materials to study their removal effects on nitrogen, phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand (CODMn) and suspended solids (SS) in urban river water. The results show that the 5 landscape plants have good adaptability and vitality in water body, among them, water hyacinth had the best life signs than the other 4 plants, and its plant height and root length increased significantly. They have certain removal effects on the nitrogen, phosphorus, CODMn (Chemical Oxygen Demand) and SS (Suspended Substance) in the landscape water of Dalong Lake, Xuzhou. Scindapsus aureus, water hyacinth, cockscomb, calendula officinalis and salvia splendens on the removal rate of total nitrogen were 76.69%, 78.57%, 71.42%, 69.64%, 67.86%; the ammonia nitrogen removal rate were 71.06%, 74.28%, 67.85%, 63.02%, 59.81%;the total phosphorus removal rate were 78.70%, 81.48%, 73.15%, 72.22%, 68.52%;the orthophosphate removal rates were 78.37%, 80.77%, 75.96%, 75.96%, 71.15%;the removal rate of CODMn was 52.5%, 55.35%, 46.02%, 45.42%, 44.19%; the removal rate of SS was 81.4%, 86%, 79.1%, 76.7%, 74.42%.The purification effect of 5 kinds of landscape plants of Dalong Lake in Xuzhou City: water hyacinth> scindapsus aureus>cockscomb>calendula officinalis>salvia splendens.

  4. Rivers in the Anthropocene: Mapping Human Water Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorosmarty, C. J.; Green, P.

    2014-12-01

    Fresh water underpins countless benefits to society and is pivotal to the success of the food and energy sectors, industry and commerce, and the expanding urban domain. It provides essential cultural, recreational, and aesthetic values and also plays a critical role in the maintenance of ecosystem services and biodiversity. Recent analyses of water systems across the planet, summarized using high resolution, geospatial indicator maps of rivers, demonstrate that a wide array of stressors combine to produce a pattern of worldwide threat to much of the freshwater resource base that sustains human water supply and aquatic biodiversity. A pervasive, globally-significant pattern of management is evident in the contemporary setting, through which impairment accumulates as a function of wealth, but is then remedied by costly, after-the-fact technological investments. This strategy of treating symptoms while leaving unabated the underlying causes is practiced widely across rich countries, but it strands poor nations and much of the world's aquatic lifeforms at high levels of vulnerability. The seeds of such an approach to water management are hardly new and are evident throughout human history. This talk will explore the implications of these global realities and will focus on the role of 21st century engineering as in both contributing to the growing water crisis and stimulating innovation for more effective stewardship of our water resource systems. It will also present a first global synthesis of the geography of freshwater provisioning source areas, evaluating jointly the quantity and condition of freshwater produced from these areas, and the downstream populations served by these resources. A geospatial indicator is derived, the freshwater provisioning index for humans (FPIh), which constitutes an objective measure of the state of the resource base and its role in supporting human water security.

  5. Reconnaissance of the Manistee River, a cold-water river in the northwestern part of Michigan's Southern Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, G.E.; Doonan, C.J.

    1972-01-01

    The cold-water streams of the northern states provide unique recreational values to the American people (wilderness or semi-wilderness atmosphere, fast-water canoeing, trout fishing), but expanding recreational needs must be balanced against the growing demand of water for public and industrial supplies, irrigation, and dilution of sewage and other wastes. In order to make intelligent decisions regarding use and management of water resources for recreation and other demands, an analysis of hydrologic factors related to recreation is essential.The Manistee River is one of Michigan's well-known trout streams-a stream having numerous public access sites and campgrounds. Upstream from Cameron Bridge (see location map) the Manistee is rated as a first-class trout stream but below Cameron Bridge the river is rated only as a fair trout stream by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources. As a Michigan canoe trail it is second only to the Au Sable River in popularity. Esthetically, the Manistee is one of Michigan's most attractive rivers, its waters flowing cool and clean, and around each bend a pleasant wilderness scene. This report deals with that part of the river upstream from State Highway M-66 at Smithville. Several hard-surface roads give access to the upper river as shown on the location map. Numerous dirt roads and trails give access to the river at intermediate points. The recreational values of the Manistee depend on its characteristics of streamflow, water quality, and bed and banks. This atlas describes these characteristics and shows how they relate to recreational use.Much of the information presented here was obtained from basic records of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water Resources Division. Additional information was obtained from field reconnaissance surveys in 1968 and 1969. The study was made in cooperation with the Michigan Geological Survey, Gerald E. Eddy, Chief. Assistance was also obtained from other sections of the Michigan Department of

  6. Resilience in Transboundary Water Governance: the Okavango River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia O. Green

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available When the availability of a vital resource varies between times of overabundance and extreme scarcity, management regimes must manifest flexibility and authority to adapt while maintaining legitimacy. Unfortunately, the need for adaptability often conflicts with the desire for certainty in legal and regulatory regimes, and laws that fail to account for variability often result in conflict when the inevitable disturbance occurs. Additional keys to resilience are collaboration among physical scientists, political actors, local leaders, and other stakeholders, and, when the commons is shared among sovereign states, collaboration between and among institutions with authority to act at different scales or with respect to different aspects of an ecological system. At the scale of transboundary river basins, where treaties govern water utilization, particular treaty mechanisms can reduce conflict potential by fostering collaboration and accounting for change. One necessary element is a mechanism for coordination and collaboration at the scale of the basin. This could be satisfied by mechanisms ranging from informal networks to the establishment of an international commission to jointly manage water, but a mechanism for collaboration at the basin scale alone does not ensure sound water management. To better guide resource management, study of applied resilience theory has revealed a number of management practices that are integral for adaptive governance. Here, we describe key resilience principles for treaty design and adaptive governance and then apply the principles to a case study of one transboundary basin where the need and willingness to manage collaboratively and iteratively is high - the Okavango River Basin of southwest Africa. This descriptive and applied approach should be particularly instructive for treaty negotiators, transboundary resource managers, and should aid program developers.

  7. Climate and basin drivers of seasonal river water temperature dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laizé, Cédric L. R.; Bruna Meredith, Cristian; Dunbar, Michael J.; Hannah, David M.

    2017-06-01

    Stream water temperature is a key control of many river processes (e.g. ecology, biogeochemistry, hydraulics) and services (e.g. power plant cooling, recreational use). Consequently, the effect of climate change and variability on stream temperature is a major scientific and practical concern. This paper aims (1) to improve the understanding of large-scale spatial and temporal variability in climate-water temperature associations, and (2) to assess explicitly the influence of basin properties as modifiers of these relationships. A dataset was assembled including six distinct modelled climatic variables (air temperature, downward short-wave and long-wave radiation, wind speed, specific humidity, and precipitation) and observed stream temperatures for the period 1984-2007 at 35 sites located on 21 rivers within 16 basins (Great Britain geographical extent); the study focuses on broad spatio-temporal patterns, and hence was based on 3-month-averaged data (i.e. seasonal). A wide range of basin properties was derived. Five models were fitted (all seasons, winter, spring, summer, and autumn). Both site and national spatial scales were investigated at once by using multi-level modelling with linear multiple regressions. Model selection used multi-model inference, which provides more robust models, based on sets of good models, rather than a single best model. Broad climate-water temperature associations common to all sites were obtained from the analysis of the fixed coefficients, while site-specific responses, i.e. random coefficients, were assessed against basin properties with analysis of variance (ANOVA). All six climate predictors investigated play a role as a control of water temperature. Air temperature and short-wave radiation are important for all models/seasons, while the other predictors are important for some models/seasons only. The form and strength of the climate-stream temperature association vary depending on season and on water temperature. The

  8. Hydrological forecast of maximal water level in Lepenica river basin and flood control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Ana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Lepenica river basin territory has became axis of economic and urban development of Šumadija district. However, considering Lepenica River with its tributaries, and their disordered river regime, there is insufficient of water for water supply and irrigation, while on the other hand, this area is suffering big flood and torrent damages (especially Kragujevac basin. The paper presents flood problems in the river basin, maximum water level forecasts, and flood control measures carried out until now. Some of the potential solutions, aiming to achieve the effective flood control, are suggested as well.

  9. The Environmental Impact of Oilfield Formation Water on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The environmental impact resulting from the discharge of treated oilfield formation water into freshwater samples collected from this stream with no previous history of pollution from oil exploration activities was assessed in terms of changes in water quality parameters such as Dissolved oxygen (DO), Biochemical oxygen ...

  10. Characterization of Formation Water Constituents and the Effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    2, 3Pollution Control and Environmental Management Limited, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. ABSTRACT: The research work examined the constituents of formation water and fresh water dilution effects from a land location in the Niger Delta Area of Nigeria. Some selected physicochemical and microbiological analyses were.

  11. Formation water resistivity (R w )determination: The SP method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uncontaminated by drilling mud) that saturates the porous formation. It is also referred to as connate water or interstitial water. Its resistivity can be determined by a number of methods, one of which is by the SP curve discussed in this work. Analysis of ...

  12. Comparison of Solid-Water Partitions of Radiocesium in River Waters in Fukushima and Chernobyl Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshio; Fan, Qiaohui; Suga, Hiroki; Tanaka, Kazuya; Sakaguchi, Aya; Takeichi, Yasuo; Ono, Kanta; Mase, Kazuhiko; Kato, Kenji; Kanivets, Vladimir V

    2017-09-29

    Adsorption of radiocesium (RCs) on particulate matters in aquatic environment is important to understand its mobility and bioavailability. We here focused on factors controlling partition of RCs on particulate matters and sediments in Kuchibuto (Fukushima) and Pripyat (Chernobyl) Rivers, though RCs level in water was much smaller than WHO guideline. Moreover, Cs speciation and organic matter-clay mineral interaction were studied: (i) extended X-ray absorption fine structure showed that the contribution of outer-sphere complex of Cs on particulate matters is larger in Chernobyl than in Fukushima and (ii) scanning transmission X-ray microscope revealed larger association of humic substances and clay minerals in Chernobyl partly due to high [Ca(2+)] in the Pripyat River. Consequently, RCs is more soluble in the Pripyat River due to weaker interaction of RCs with clay minerals caused by the inhibition effect of the adsorbed humic substances. In contrast, particulate matters and sediments in the Kuchibuto River display high adsorption affinity with lesser inhibition effect of adsorbed humic substances. This difference is possibly governed by the geology and soil type of provenances surrounding both catchments (Fukushima: weathered granite; Chernobyl: peat wetland and carbonate platform) which leads to high concentrations of organic matter and Ca(2+) in the Pripyat River.

  13. Anthropogenic impacts on water pollution and water quality in the Harlem River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Harlem River, a 9.3 mile long natural straight, connects the Hudson and East Rivers in New York City. It had been historically used for swimming, fishing, boating. Anthropogenic impacts have degraded water quality, limiting current aquatic activity in the river. Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) discharge rainwater mixed with untreated sewage during or following rainfall and can contain illness-causing bacteria. It is not safe for swimming, fishing or boating especially in rainstorms. CSOs water samples were collected during rainstorms, and analyzed in the laboratories of the Chemistry and Biology Department, Bronx Community College, City University of New York. Results showed elevated bacteria/pathogen and nutrient levels. Most recent data showed an ammonia concentration of 2.6 mg/L on July 30, 2015 during a heavy afternoon thunderstorm, and an ammonia level 2.7mg/L during tropical storm Arthur on July 2, 2014. Both significantly exceeded the EPA regulation level for NYC waters of 0.23mg/L. Phosphate levels peaked at 0.197 mg/L during a heavy thunderstorm on Apr 28, 2011, which was much higher than regulated level of 0.033 mg/L. Turbidity was 319 FAU during the July 30 2015 heavy thunderstorm, and was 882 FAU during tropical storm Arthur; which was significantly higher than regulation level of 5.25 FAU. CSOs collected during a recent heavy rainstorm on Oct 28, 2015, showed fecal coliform of 1 million MPN/100ml, E.Coli. of 60,000 MPN/100ml, and enterococcus of 65,000 MPN/100ml; which exceeded regulated levels of fecal coliform-200 MPN/100ml, E.Coli.-126 MPN/100ml, enterococcus-104 MPN/100ml. It is critical to reduce CSOs, restore ecosystem and improve water quality of the Harlem River. Green wall, green roof, and wetland had been used to reduce stormwater runoff & CSOs in the Bronx River; these green infrastructures are going to be used along the Harlem River waterfront as well. The goal of this research is to make the Harlem River swimmable and fishable again in

  14. Managing water and riparian habitats on the Bill Williams River with scientific benefit for other desert river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Hickey,; Woodrow Fields,; Andrew Hautzinger,; Steven Sesnie,; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Dick Gilbert,

    2016-01-01

    This report details modeling to: 1) codify flow-ecology relationships for riparian species of the Bill Williams River as operational guidance for water managers, 2) test the guidance under different climate scenarios, and 3) revise the operational guidance as needed to address the effects of climate change. Model applications detailed herein include the River Analysis System  (HEC-RAS) and the Ecosystem Functions Model  (HEC-EFM), which was used to generate more than three million estimates of local seedling recruitment areas. Areas were aggregated and compared to determine which scenarios generated the most seedling area per unit volume of water. Scenarios that maximized seedling area were grouped into a family of curves that serve as guidance for water managers. This work has direct connections to water management decision-making and builds upon and adds to the rich history of science-based management for the Bill Williams River, Arizona, USA. 

  15. Water supply, demand, and quality indicators for assessing the spatial distribution of water resource vulnerability in the Columbia River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Heejun; Jung, Il-Won; Strecker, Angela; Wise, Daniel; Lafrenz, Martin; Shandas, Vivek; ,; Yeakley, Alan; Pan, Yangdong; Johnson, Gunnar; Psaris, Mike

    2013-01-01

    We investigated water resource vulnerability in the US portion of the Columbia River basin (CRB) using multiple indicators representing water supply, water demand, and water quality. Based on the US county scale, spatial analysis was conducted using various biophysical and socio-economic indicators that control water vulnerability. Water supply vulnerability and water demand vulnerability exhibited a similar spatial clustering of hotspots in areas where agricultural lands and variability of precipitation were high but dam storage capacity was low. The hotspots of water quality vulnerability were clustered around the main stem of the Columbia River where major population and agricultural centres are located. This multiple equal weight indicator approach confirmed that different drivers were associated with different vulnerability maps in the sub-basins of the CRB. Water quality variables are more important than water supply and water demand variables in the Willamette River basin, whereas water supply and demand variables are more important than water quality variables in the Upper Snake and Upper Columbia River basins. This result suggests that current water resources management and practices drive much of the vulnerability within the study area. The analysis suggests the need for increased coordination of water management across multiple levels of water governance to reduce water resource vulnerability in the CRB and a potentially different weighting scheme that explicitly takes into account the input of various water stakeholders.

  16. Assessing water footprint at river basin level: a case study for the Heihe River Basin in northwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, Z; Liu, J.; Koeneman, P.H.; Zarate, E.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2012-01-01

    Increasing water scarcity places considerable importance on the quantification of water footprint (WF) at different levels. Despite progress made previously, there are still very few WF studies focusing on specific river basins, especially for those in arid and semi-arid regions. The aim of this

  17. Assessing water footprint at river basin level: a case study for the Heihe River Basin in Northwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, Z.; Liu, J.; Koeneman, P.H.; Zarate, E.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2012-01-01

    Increasing water scarcity places considerable importance on the quantification of water footprint (WF) at different levels. Despite progress made previously, there are still very few WF studies focusing on specific river basins, especially for those in arid and semi-arid regions. The aim of this

  18. Formation of Haloforms during Chlorination of Natural Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grünwald

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent drinking water regulations have lowered the standards for disinfection by-products and have added new disinfection by-products for regulation. Natural organic matter (NOM, mainly humic compounds, plays a major role in the formation of undesirable organic by-products following disinfection of drinking water. Many disinfection by-products have adverse carcinogenic or mutagenic effects on human health. This paper deals with the formation potencial of disinfection by-products in water samples taken from different places in the Flaje catchment.

  19. Formation of trihalomethanes of dissolved organic matter fractions in reservoir and canal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musikavong, Charongpun; Srimuang, Kanjanee; Tachapattaworakul Suksaroj, Thunwadee; Suksaroj, Chaisri

    2016-07-28

    The formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) of hydrophobic organic fraction (HPO), transphilic organic fraction (TPI), and hydrophilic organic fraction (HPI) of reservoir and canal waters from the U-Tapao River Basin, Songkhla, Thailand was investigated. Water samples were collected three times from two reservoirs, upstream, midstream, and downstream of the U-Tapao canal. The HPO was the major dissolved organic matter (DOM) fraction in reservoir and canal waters. On average, the HPO accounted for 53 and 45% of the DOM in reservoir and canal waters, respectively. The TPI of 19 and 23% in reservoir and canal waters were determined, respectively. The HPI of 29% of the reservoir water and HPI of 32% of the canal water were detected. For the reservoir water, the highest trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP)/dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was determined for the HPI, followed by the TPI and HPO, respectively. The average values of the THMFP/DOC of the HPI, TPI, and HPO of the reservoir water were 78, 52, and 49 µg THMs/mg C, respectively. The highest THMFP/DOC of the canal water was detected for the HPI, followed by HPO and TPI, respectively. Average values of the THMFP/DOC of HPI of water at upstream and midstream locations of 58 µg THMs/mg C and downstream location of 113 µg THMs/mg C were determined. Average values of THMFP/DOC of HPO of water at upstream and midstream and downstream locations were 48 and 93 µg THMs/mg C, respectively. For the lowest THMFP/DOC fraction, the average values of THMFP/DOC of TPI of water at upstream and midstream and downstream locations were 35 and 73 µg THMs/mg C, respectively.

  20. Effects of industrial waste disposal on the water quality of the river Kolak

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Sabnis, M.M.; Mandalia, A.V.; Desai, B.N.

    About 6 mld of industrial waste water is discharged without proper treatment in the fresh water zone of the river Kolak. Parameters like suspended solids, pH, chloride, DO, BOD, phosphate, nitrate, boron, sulphate and trace metals were periodically...

  1. River water quality model no. 1 (RWQM1): I. Modelling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanahan, P.; Borchardt, D.; Henze, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    Successful river water quality modelling requires the specification of an appropriate model structure and process formulation. Both must be related to the compartment structure of running water ecosystems including their longitudinal, vertical, and lateral zonation patterns. Furthermore...

  2. Water quality in the Elwha River estuary, Washington, from 2006 to 2014.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This portion of the data release presents water column dissolved nutrient concentration data and water quality parameters from samples collected in the Elwha River...

  3. Institutional arrangements for controlling nonpoint source water pollution: Wisconsin's Root River watershed

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sawicki, D.S; Judd, L.B

    1982-01-01

    This report details a case study of a voluntary, decentralized institutional arrangement for managing nonpoint source water pollution control used in the Root River water shed in southeastern Wisconsin...

  4. Microbial water quality in the upper Olifants River catchment: implications for health

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Rouw, Wouter J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative microbial risk assessment of water in the upper Olifants River catchment showed that sections of the catchment are highly contaminated with faecal indicator bacteria and pathogenic micro-organisms and that the polluted waters pose...

  5. Sensitivity and uncertainty in crop water footprint accounting: a case study for the Yellow River Basin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhuo, L; Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2014-01-01

    .... A grid-based daily water balance model at a 5 by 5 arcmin resolution was applied to compute green and blue water footprints of the four crops in the Yellow River basin in the period considered...

  6. Geological introduction to lithium-rich formation water in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eccles, Roy [Energy Resources Conservation Board (Canada)], email: roy.eccles@ercb.ca

    2011-07-01

    In Alberta, the exploitation of oil and gas resources can result in high concentration levels of lithium, potassium, boron and bromine in Alberta formation waters. Therefore the idea of extracting minerals from waste well water to yield products in an eco-friendly manner is appealing and the implementation of a multi-commodity extraction plant is under consideration. The aim of this paper is to present the locations of lithium-rich formation waters in Alberta and deduce what the source of the lithium is. The geological features of west-central Alberta are reviewed herein, as is its geochemistry. In addition it is shown that contact between Devonian formation water and the crystalline basement, or the deposit above it, should be taken into consideration in modeling lithium sources for the sake of accuracy. This paper provided useful information on high lithium brines and showed that they could become an economically viable resource for Alberta.

  7. Diversity of the chironomidae (diptera) of river Niger related to water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diversity of the chironomidae (diptera) of river Niger related to water pollution at Niamey (Niger). Bassirou Alhou, Jean-Claude Micha, Boudewijn Goddeeris. Abstract. This paper presents the first results on the water quality of the River Niger at Niamey based on the Chironomidae. Artificial substrata of stones covered with ...

  8. Accounting System for Water Use by Vegetation in the Lower Colorado River Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.

    1992-01-01

    The Colorado River is the principal source of water in the valley of the Colorado River between Hoover Dam and the international boundary with Mexico (fig. 1). Agricultural, domestic, municipal, industrial, hydroelectric-power genera-tion, and recreation are the primary uses of river water in the valley. Most of the consumptive use of water from the river occurs downstream from Davis Dam, where water is diverted to irrigate crops along the river or is exported to interior regions of California and Arizona. Most of the agricultural areas are on the alluvium of the flood plain; in a few areas, land on the alluvial terraces has been cultivated. River water is consumed mainly by vegetation (crops and phreatophytes) on the flood plain. Crops were grown on 70.3 percent of the vegetated area classified by using 1984 digital image satellite data. Phreatophytes, natural vege-tation that obtain water from the alluvial aquifer, covered the remaining vegetated areas on the uncultivated flood plain. Most of the water used for irrigation is diverted or pumped from the river. In some areas, water is pumped from wells completed in the alluvial aquifer, which is hydraulically connected to the river.

  9. Nutrients Export by Rivers to the Coastal Waters of Africa: Past and Future trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yasin, J.A.; Kroeze, C.; Mayorga, E.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze past and future trends in nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and carbon (C) export by rivers to the coastal waters of Africa as calculated by the Global Nutrient Export to WaterShed (NEWS) models for the period 1970–2050. Between 1970 and 2000 the total nutrient export by African rivers

  10. Effect of abattoir wastes on the water quality of Aleto River in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of abattoir effluent on the water quality parameters, pH, dissolved oxygen, nitrate (NO3), phosphate (PO4), sulphate (SO4), hardness, conductivity, faecal coliform and the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), of the receiving surface water of Aleto River in River State (Niger Delta, Nigeria) was monitored monthly ...

  11. Past and future trends in nutrients export by rivers to the coastal waters of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, H.J.; Kroeze, C.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the past and future trends in river export of dissolved and particulate nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) to the coastal waters of China, for sixteen rivers, as calculated by the Global NEWS models (Nutrient Export from WaterSheds). Between 1970 and 2000, the dissolved N and P

  12. Baseline studies of water quality of Okura River in Kogi State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water samples from Okura river in kogi state were analysed for some physicochemical parameters and heavy metals to ascertain the water quality. The samples were collected at six sampling points along the river. Results obtained were compared with WHO and other regulatory standard guidelines. Average nitrate and ...

  13. Impacts of impervious cover, water withdrawals, and climate change on river flows in the conterminous US

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. V. Caldwell; G. Sun; S. G. McNulty; E. C. Cohen; J. A. Moore Myers

    2012-01-01

    Rivers are essential to aquatic ecosystem and societal sustainability, but are increasingly impacted by water withdrawals, land-use change, and climate change. The relative and cumulative effects of these stressors on continental river flows are relatively unknown. In this study, we used an integrated water balance and flow routing model to evaluate the impacts of...

  14. studies on solvent extraction of free hydrogen cyanide from river water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A method for free and strongly complexed cyanide measurement in river water was developed. Recovery tests from solution with and without river water, using various solvent combinations and background control were investigated to obtain an accurate and precise extraction method for the measurement of hydrogen ...

  15. California GAMA Special Study: Importance of River Water Recharge to Selected Groundwater Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, Ate [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moran, Jean E. [California State Univ. East Bay (CalState), Hayward, CA (United States); Singleton, Michael J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Esser, Bradley K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-03-21

    River recharge represents 63%, 86% and 46% of modern groundwater in the Mojave Desert, Owens Valley, and San Joaquin Valley, respectively. In pre-modern groundwater, river recharge represents a lower fraction: 36%, 46%, and 24% respectively. The importance of river water recharge in the San Joaquin valley has nearly doubled and is likely the result of a total increase of recharge of 40%, caused by river water irrigation return flows. This emphasizes the importance of recharge of river water via irrigation for renewal of groundwater resources. Mountain front recharge and local precipitation contribute to recharge of desert groundwater basins in part as the result of geological features focusing scarce precipitation promoting infiltration. River water recharges groundwater systems under lower temperatures and with larger water table fluctuations than local precipitation recharge. Surface storage is limited in time and volume, as evidenced by cold river recharge temperatures resulting from fast recharge, compared to the large capacity for subsurface storage. Groundwater banking of seasonal surface water flows therefore appears to be a natural and promising method for increasing the resilience of water supply systems. The distinct isotopic and noble gas signatures of river water recharge, compared to local precipitation recharge, reflecting the source and mechanism of recharge, are valuable constraints for numerical flow models.

  16. Simulation of blue and green water resources in the Wei River basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Xu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Wei River is the largest tributary of the Yellow River in China and it is suffering from water scarcity and water pollution. In order to quantify the amount of water resources in the study area, a hydrological modelling approach was applied by using SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool, calibrated and validated with SUFI-2 (Sequential Uncertainty Fitting program based on river discharge in the Wei River basin (WRB. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses were also performed to improve the model performance. Water resources components of blue water flow, green water flow and green water storage were estimated at the HRU (Hydrological Response Unit scales. Water resources in HRUs were also aggregated to sub-basins, river catchments, and then city/region scales for further analysis. The results showed that most parts of the WRB experienced a decrease in blue water resources between the 1960s and 2000s, with a minimum value in the 1990s. The decrease is particularly significant in the most southern part of the WRB (Guanzhong Plain, one of the most important grain production basements in China. Variations of green water flow and green water storage were relatively small on the spatial and temporal dimensions. This study provides strategic information for optimal utilization of water resources and planning of cultivating seasons in the Wei River basin.

  17. Summer water temperature of lowland Mazovian rivers in the context of fisheries management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łaszewski Maksym

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Water temperatures in three upstream and three downstream profiles of the Jeziorka, Świder, and Utrata rivers were recorded in the summer period of hydrological year 2015 using digital data loggers. The measurement data was used to estimate statistical and ecological thermal parameters. The results demonstrated that water temperature in the studied lowland rivers was quite similar, except in the downstream reaches of the Utrata River, which is subjected to strong anthropogenic modification. The best thermal conditions for the survival and growth of the cold-water fish assemblage were observed upstream in the Jeziorka River in Głuchów, while the worst were downstream in the Utrata River in Nowy Łuszczewek. However, the results suggest that in quasi-natural rivers, such as the Jeziorka and Świder, cold-water fish can exist and be stocked in both the upstream and downstream segments. For the warm-water fish assemblage, the best thermal conditions were noted downstream in the Utrata River, while the worst were upstream in the Świder River; nevertheless, differences between the rivers were relatively small. The results of the analysis have practical implications for managing these waters with a view to optimizing angling and natural resources.

  18. Monitoring of the three organophosphate esters TBP, TCEP and TBEP in river water and ground water (Oder, Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Elke; Püttmann, Wilhelm

    2003-04-01

    The behaviour of the three organophosphate esters tributyl phosphate (TBP), tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP) and tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate (TBEP) during infiltration of river water to ground water has been investigated. The monitoring site is the Oder River and the adjacent Oderbruch aquifer. From March 2000 to July 2001, 76 ground water samples from monitoring wells located close to the Oder River and nine river water samples were collected. Additionally, influent and effluent samples from local waste water treatment plants, one sample of rain water and samples of roof runoff were collected. All samples were analysed by solid-phase-extraction followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. TBP, TCEP and TBEP were detected at mean values of 622 ng l(-1), 352 ng l(-1), and 2955 ng l(-1), respectively in municipal waste water effluents. This points to a major input of these compounds into the Oder River by municipal waste water discharge. The concentrations of TBP and TBEP decreased downstream the Oder River possibly due to aerobic degradation. TBP, TCEP and TBEP were detected in ground water influenced predominantly by bank-filtered water. This demonstrates a transport of organic compounds by river water infiltration to ground water. TBP, TCEP and TBEP were also detected in rain water precipitation, roof runoff and ground water predominantly influenced by rain water infiltration. This hints to an input of these compounds to ground water by dry and wet deposition after atmospheric transport. Organophosphate esters were also detected in parts of the aquifer at 21 m depth. This demonstrates low anaerobic degradation rates of TBP, TCEP and TBEP.

  19. Surface-water salinity in the Gunnison River Basin, Colorado, water years 1989 through 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffrath, Keelin R.

    2012-01-01

    Elevated levels of dissolved solids in water (salinity) can result in numerous and costly issues for agricultural, industrial, and municipal water users. The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-320) authorized planning and construction of salinity-control projects in the Colorado River Basin. One of the first projects was the Lower Gunnison Unit, a project to mitigate salinity in the Lower Gunnison and Uncompahgre River Basins. In cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study to quantify changes in salinity in the Gunnison River Basin. Trends in salinity concentration and load during the period water years (WY) 1989 through 2004 (1989-2004) were determined for 15 selected streamflow-gaging stations in the Gunnison River Basin. Additionally, trends in salinity concentration and load during the period WY1989 through 2007 (1989-2007) were determined for 5 of the 15 sites for which sufficient data were available. Trend results also were used to identify regions in the Lower Gunnison River Basin (downstream from the Gunnison Tunnel) where the largest changes in salinity loads occur. Additional sources of salinity, including residential development (urbanization), changes in land cover, and natural sources, were estimated within the context of the trend results. The trend results and salinity loads estimated from trends testing also were compared to USBR and Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) estimates of off-farm and on-farm salinity reduction from salinity-control projects in the basin. Finally, salinity from six additional sites in basins that are not affected by irrigated agriculture or urbanization was monitored from WY 2008 to 2010 to quantify what portion of salinity may be from nonagricultural or natural sources. In the Upper Gunnison area, which refers to Gunnison River Basin above the site located on the Gunnison River below the Gunnison Tunnel, estimated mean annual

  20. INTELLIGENT COMPUTING SYSTEM FOR RESERVOIR ANALYSIS AND RISK ASSESSMENT OF THE RED RIVER FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark A. Sippel; William C. Carrigan; Kenneth D. Luff; Lyn Canter

    2003-11-12

    Integrated software has been written that comprises the tool kit for the Intelligent Computing System (ICS). The software tools in ICS have been developed for characterization of reservoir properties and evaluation of hydrocarbon potential using a combination of inter-disciplinary data sources such as geophysical, geologic and engineering variables. The ICS tools provide a means for logical and consistent reservoir characterization and oil reserve estimates. The tools can be broadly characterized as (1) clustering tools, (2) neural solvers, (3) multiple-linear regression, (4) entrapment-potential calculator and (5) file utility tools. ICS tools are extremely flexible in their approach and use, and applicable to most geologic settings. The tools are primarily designed to correlate relationships between seismic information and engineering and geologic data obtained from wells, and to convert or translate seismic information into engineering and geologic terms or units. It is also possible to apply ICS in a simple framework that may include reservoir characterization using only engineering, seismic, or geologic data in the analysis. ICS tools were developed and tested using geophysical, geologic and engineering data obtained from an exploitation and development project involving the Red River Formation in Bowman County, North Dakota and Harding County, South Dakota. Data obtained from 3D seismic surveys, and 2D seismic lines encompassing nine prospective field areas were used in the analysis. The geologic setting of the Red River Formation in Bowman and Harding counties is that of a shallow-shelf, carbonate system. Present-day depth of the Red River formation is approximately 8000 to 10,000 ft below ground surface. This report summarizes production results from well demonstration activity, results of reservoir characterization of the Red River Formation at demonstration sites, descriptions of ICS tools and strategies for their application.

  1. Combined assessment and regulation on ecological land use and water demand of the river system: a case study in Luanhe River, North China

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, D. H.; Wang, G.; H. Wang; T. L. Qin

    2011-01-01

    With economic and social development, ecological water and land use of the river system were seriously misappropriated, which resulted in overall degradation of the river systems. In this study, theoretical and technical frameworks of regionalisation on the eco-environmental function of the river systems were preliminarily formulated. According to the river eco-environmental functions, Luanhe River was regionalised into four types of first-class functional areas, i.e., ecological preservation...

  2. Daily Water Quality Forecasting System Linking Weather, Watersheds, Rivers and Dam Reservoirs Based On Numerical Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, C. Y.; Lee, S. J.; Oh, S. S.; Hwang, H. S.; Kim, H. S.

    2016-12-01

    Many large dam reservoirs and rivers, which are the most important water resources in Korea, are under increased pressure from various environmental issues, including an excessive growth of phytoplanktons(algae) because of eutrophication and long-term impact of turbid water on the water supply system after flood events. However most of organizations managing water quality respond to these problems after turbid water or algal blooms happen. But nowadays Korea Water Resources Corporation(K-water) has been upgrading its water quality management system to establish a predictive and preventive management paradigm not only in dam reservoirs but also in rivers and watersheds. For these, K-water has been setting up water quality forecasting systems using 3-dimensional hydrodynamic water quality model ELCOM-CAEDYM to all reservoirs, HSPF(Hydrological Simulation Program Fortran) to 4 watersheds and CE-QUAL-W2 to 4 main rivers in Korean Peninsula. For efficient operation and real time water quality modeling of 3 different models, K-water have also developed integrated software and centralized simulation hardware machines which run all models, link all in- and output together and visualizes results every day. With systems, K-water has been forecasting water quality of all reservoirs and rivers according to 5 days weather forecasting results and applying to predict the water quality changes in dams, rivers and watersheds in advance according to operation rule changes and climate changes.

  3. Importance of inorganic geochemical characteristics on assessment of shale gas potential in the Devonian Horn River Formation of western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Kyung; Shinn, Young Jae; Choi, Jiyoung; Lee, Hyun Suk

    2017-04-01

    The gas generation and storage potentials of shale has mostly been assessed by original TOC (TOCo) and original kerogen type. However, in the Horn River Formation, organic geochemical tools and analysis are barely sufficient for assessing the TOCo and original kerogen type because residual carbon contents represent up to 90% of TOC in shales. Major and trace elements are used as proxies for the bottom water oxygen level, for terrestrial sediment input and for productivity, which is related with variation of kerogen type. By using the inorganic geochemical proxies, we attempt to assess original kerogen type in shale gas formation and suggest its implication for HIo (original Hydrogen Index) estimation. The estimated HIo in this study allows us to calculate a reliable TOCo. These results provide new insights into the accurate estimation of the hydrocarbon potential of shale gas resources. The inorganic geochemical proxies indicate vertical variations of productivity (EX-SiO2 and Baauth), terrestrial sediment input (Al2O3, Zr, Hf, and Nb) and oxygen content in bottom water during deposition (Moauth, Uauth and Th/U), which represent the temporal changes in the mixing ratio between Type II and III kerogens. The Horn River Formation has different HIo values calculated from EX-SiO2 (biogenic origin) and it is ranked by HIo value in descending order: Evie and Muskwa members (500-700 mgHC/gTOC) > middle Otterpark Member (400-500 mgHC/gTOC) > upper Otterpark Member (300-400 mgHC/gTOC) > lower Otterpark Member (200 mgHC/gTOC). Based on the original kerogen type and TOCo, the gas generation and storage potentials of the Evie, middle Otterpark and Muskwa members are higher than those of other members. The source rock potential is excellent for the Evie Member with a remarkable difference between TOCo and measured TOC.

  4. [Treatment of polluted urban river water using filamentous green algae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xia; Li, Xiao-Ping

    2008-01-01

    Filamentous green algae dominated treatment system was set up to remove contaminants from polluted urban river water under lab conditions. Experiments show that TP is decreased up to 50%, associated with 72% removal of TSS. The removal efficiencies of soluble species, PO4(3-) and NH4(+)-N, are up to 90% and 85% respectively. Under heavily polluted conditions (TP > 3.0 mg x L(-1), TN > 22.0 mg x L(-1)), the average removal efficiencies of TP and TN are 89% and 45% respectively, while under light polluted conditions (TP filamentous green algae is increased significantly (38.78%), and at the same time a large number of unicellular Chlorophytes and Cyanophytes species are occurred on the interior wall surface of experimental fertility. The maximum biomass occurs at the highest concentration of DO.

  5. Toxicity bioassays for water from black-odor rivers in Wenzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFu, He; RuiRui, Chen; EnHui, Zhu; Na, Chen; Bo, Yang; HuaHong, Shi; MinSheng, Huang

    2015-02-01

    Following urbanization, a large number of urban rivers were contaminated and turned to black-odor rivers. The traditional approach for detecting water quality is based on chemical or physical analysis. However, biological toxicity of black-odor water has been less addressed. As two typical black-odor rivers, Jiushanwai River (JS) and Shanxia River (SX) are tributaries of Wen-Rui Tang River in Wenzhou (south of China). The eco-safety of the urban rivers was evaluated by bioassay for water toxicity in this study. Ten and 5 sampling sites were respectively set along JS and SX. Water samples were collected monthly from October 2010 to October 2011. The general physical and chemical parameters of river water were monitored. In order to investigate the ecotoxicological effects of black-odor water, the following bioassays were used: (1) Fish acute toxicity test (Danio rerio, comprehensive toxicity), (2) luminescent bacteria bioassay (Qinghaiensis vibrio, toxicity to bacteria), and (3) tropical claw embryo assay (Xenopus tropicalis, embryo toxicity). Biotoxicity of black-odor rivers water was demonstrated by D. rerio, Q. vibrio, and X. tropicalis embryos. Toxicological effects of black-odor water were respectively shown by mortality of zebrafish, and by the relative inhibitory light rate of luminescent bacteria. However, luminescent bacteria were more sensitive to inspect biotoxicity than zebrafish. In X. tropicalis embryos test, toxicological effects of black-odor water were mostly shown by embryos' survival rate and teratogenic rate. Bioassay results showed that toxicity of SX water was higher than that of JS water, especially in summer. Statistical analysis of luminescent bacteria toxicity test showed that biotoxicity of SX and JS was high in summer, but low in winter and spring. The seasonal changes of water toxicity of the black-odor river were positively correlative with changes of water temperature (p water. Typical black-odor river water displays different

  6. Water quality assessment of the Borska Reka river using the WPI (Water Pollution Index method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijašević Dragana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Borska Reka river (47 km long, 373 km2 of basin area is located in eastern Serbia and it is the biggest tributary of the river Veliki Timok. It is also one of the most polluted watercourses in Serbia. Using the data of the Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia, the paper analyzes water pollution using the combined physical-chemical WPI index (water pollution index over two periods: 1993-1996 and 2006-2009. The analysis of parameters showed significantly increased values of heavy metals (especially iron and manganese which are indicators of inorganic pollution (primarily because of mining, but also increased values of organic pollution indicators (Biological Oxygen Demand-BOD5, ammonium, coliform germs, as the result of uncontrolled domestic wastewater discharge.

  7. Physico-chemical and genotoxicity analysis of Guaribas river water in the Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro E Sousa, João Marcelo; Peron, Ana Paula; da Silva, Felipe Cavalcanti Carneiro; de Siqueira Dantas, Ellifran Bezerra; de Macedo Vieira Lima, Ataíde; de Oliveira, Victor Alves; Matos, Leomá Albuquerque; Paz, Márcia Fernanda Correia Jardim; de Alencar, Marcus Vinicius Oliveira Barros; Islam, Muhammad Torequl; de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante, Ana Amélia; Bonecker, Cláudia Costa; Júlio, Horácio Ferreira

    2017-06-01

    River pollution in Brazil is significant. This study aimed to evaluate the physico-chemical and genotoxic profiles of the Guaribas river water, located in Northeast Brazil (State of Piauí, Brazil). The study conducted during the dry and wet seasons to understand the frequency of pollution throughout the year. Genotoxicity analysis was done with the blood of Oreochromis niloticus by using the comet assay. Water samples were collected from upstream, within and downstream the city Picos. The results suggest a significant (p < 0.05) genotoxic effect of the Guaribas river water when compared to the control group. In comparison to the control group, in the river water we found a significant increase in metals such as - Fe, Zn, Cr, Cu and Al. In conclusion, Guaribas river carries polluted water, especially a large quantity of toxic metals, which may impart the genotoxic effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Managing Water Resource Challenges in the Congo River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloysius, N. R.

    2015-12-01

    Water resources in the tropical regions are under pressure from human appropriation and climate change. Current understanding of interactions between hydrology and climate in the tropical regions is inadequate. This is particularly true for the Congo River Basin (CRB), which also lacks hydroclimate data. Global climate models (GCM) show limited skills in simulating CRB's climate, and their future projections vary widely. Yet, GCMs provide the most credible scenarios of future climate, based upon which changes in water resources can be predicted with coupled hydrological models. The objectives of my work are to i) elucidate the spatial and temporal variability of water resources by developing a spatially explicit hydrological model suitable for describing key processes and fluxes, ii) evaluate the performance of GCMs in simulating precipitation and temperature and iii) develop a set of climate change scenarios for the basin. In addition, I also quantify the risks and reliabilities in smallholder rain-fed agriculture and demonstrates how available water resources can be utilized to increase crop yields. Key processes and fluxes of CRB's hydrological cycle are amply characterized by the hydrology model. Climate change projections are evaluated using a multi-model ensemble approach under different greenhouse gas emission scenarios. The near-term projections of climate and hydrological fluxes are not affected by emission scenarios. However, towards the mid-21st century, projections are emission scenario dependent. Available freshwater resources are projected to increase in the CRB, except in the semiarid southeast. These increases present new opportunities and challenges for augmenting human appropriation of water resources. By evaluating agricultural water requirements, and timing and availability of precipitation, I challenge the conventional wisdom that low agriculture productivities in the CRB are primarily attributable to nutrient limitation. Results show that

  9. Sr isotope tracing of multiple water sources in a complex river system, Noteć River, central Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zieliński, Mateusz, E-mail: mateusz.zielinski@amu.edu.pl [Institute of Geoecology and Geoinformation, Adam Mickiewicz University, Dzięgielowa 27, 61-680 Poznań (Poland); Dopieralska, Jolanta, E-mail: dopieralska@amu.edu.pl [Poznań Science and Technology Park, Adam Mickiewicz University Foundation, Rubież 46, 61-612 Poznań (Poland); Belka, Zdzislaw, E-mail: zbelka@amu.edu.pl [Isotope Laboratory, Adam Mickiewicz University, Dzięgielowa 27, 61-680 Poznań (Poland); Walczak, Aleksandra, E-mail: awalczak@amu.edu.pl [Isotope Laboratory, Adam Mickiewicz University, Dzięgielowa 27, 61-680 Poznań (Poland); Siepak, Marcin, E-mail: siep@amu.edu.pl [Institute of Geology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Maków Polnych 16, 61-606 Poznań (Poland); Jakubowicz, Michal, E-mail: mjakub@amu.edu.pl [Institute of Geoecology and Geoinformation, Adam Mickiewicz University, Dzięgielowa 27, 61-680 Poznań (Poland)

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic impact on surface waters and other elements in the environment was investigated in the Noteć River basin in central Poland. The approach was to trace changes in the Sr isotope composition ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr) and concentration in space and time. Systematic sampling of the river water shows a very wide range of {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios, from 0.7089 to 0.7127. This strong variation, however, is restricted to the upper course of the river, whereas the water in the lower course typically shows {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr values around 0.7104–0.7105. Variations in {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr are associated with a wide range of Sr concentrations, from 0.14 to 1.32 mg/L. We find that strong variations in {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr and Sr concentrations can be accounted for by mixing of two end-members: 1) atmospheric waters charged with Sr from the near-surface weathering and wash-out of Quaternary glaciogenic deposits, and 2) waters introduced into the river from an open pit lignite mine. The first reservoir is characterized by a low Sr content and high {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios, whereas mine waters display opposite characteristics. Anthropogenic pollution is also induced by extensive use of fertilizers which constitute the third source of Sr in the environment. The study has an important implication for future archeological studies in the region. It shows that the present-day Sr isotope signatures of river water, flora and fauna cannot be used unambiguously to determine the “baseline” for bioavailable {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr in the past. - Highlights: • Sr isotopes fingerprint water sources and their interactions in a complex river system. • Mine waters and fertilizers are critical anthropogenic additions in the river water. • Limited usage of environmental isotopic data in archeological studies. • Sr budget of the river is dynamic and temporary.

  10. Sustainable water use and management options in a water-stressed river basin in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirpa, Feyera; Dadson, Simon; Dyer, Ellen; Barbour, Emily; Charles, Katrina; Hope, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Sustainable water resource is critical for maintaining healthy ecosystems and supporting socio-economic sectors. Hydro-climatic change and variability, population growth as well as new infrastructure developments create water security risks. Therefore, evidence-based management decisions are necessary to improve water security and meet the future water demands of multiple competing sectors. In this work we perform water resource modelling in order to investigate the impact of increasing water demand (expanding agriculture, booming industry, growing population) on the sustainable water use in Turkwel river basin, located in arid north-western Kenya. We test different management options to determine those that meet the water demands of the concerned sectors whilst minimising environmental impact. We perform scenario analysis using Water Evaluation And Planning (WEAP) model to explore different ranges of climate conditions, population growth rates, irrigation scale, reservoir operations, and economic development. The results can be used as a scientific guideline for the policy makers who decide the alternative management options that ensure the sustainable water use in the basin. The work is part of the REACH - improving water security for the poor program (http://reachwater.org.uk/), aiming to support a pathway to sustainable growth and poverty reduction

  11. MAPPING OF RIVER WATER QUALITY USING INVERSE DISTANCE WEIGHTED INTERPOLATION IN OGUN-OSUN RIVER BASIN, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADEBAYO OLUBUKOLA OKE

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable management of water resources involves inventory, conservation, efficient utilization, and quality management. Although, activities relating to quantity assessment and management in terms of river discharge and water resources planning are given attention at the basin level, water quality assessment are still being done at specific locations of major concern. The use of Geographical Information System (GIS based water quality information system and spatial analysis with Inverse Distance Weighted interpolation enabled the mapping of water quality indicators in Ogun and Ona catchment of Ogun-Osun River Basin, Nigeria. Using 27 established gauging stations as sampling locations, water quality indicators were monitored over 12 months covering full hydrological season. Maps of seasonal variations in 10 water quality indicators as impacted by land-use types were produced. This ensured that trends of specific water quality indicator and diffuse pollution characteristics across the basin were better presented with the variations shown along the river courses than the traditional line graphs. The production of water quality maps will improve monitoring, enforcement of standards and regulations towards better pollution management and control. This strategy holds great potential for real time monitoring of water quality in the basin with adequate instrumentation.

  12. Formation of organic chloramines during water disinfection: chlorination versus chloramination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wontae; Westerhoff, Paul

    2009-05-01

    Many of the available studies on formation of organic chloramines during chlorination or chloramination have involved model organic nitrogen compounds (e.g., amino acids), but not naturally occurring organic nitrogen in water. This study assessed organic chloramine formation during chlorination and chloramination of 16 natural organic matter (NOM) solutions and 16 surface waters which contained dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). Chlorination rapidly formed organic chloramines within 10 min, whereas chloramination formed organic chloramination much more slowly, reaching the maximum concentration between 2 and 120 h after the addition of monochloramine into the solutions containing DON. The average organic chloramine formation upon addition of free chlorine and monochloramine into the NOM solutions were 0.78 mg-Cl(2)/mg-DON at 10 min and 0.16 mg-Cl(2)/mg-DON at 24h, respectively. Organic chloramine formation upon chlorination and chloramination increased as the dissolved organic carbon/dissolved organic nitrogen (DOC/DON) ratio decreased (i.e., DON contents increased). Chlorination of molecular weight (10,000 Da) fractionated water showed that molecular weight of DON would not impact the amount of organic chloramines produced. Comparison of three different disinfection schemes at water treatment plants (free chlorine, preformed monochloramine, and chlorine/ammonia additions) indicated organic chloramine formation could lead to a possible overestimation of disinfection capacity in many chloraminated water systems that add chlorine followed by an ammonia addition to form monochloramine.

  13. Suspended sediment, turbidity, and stream water temperature in the Sauk River Basin, western Washington, water years 2012-16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Kristin L.; Curran, Christopher A.; Anderson, Scott W.; Morris, Scott T.; Moran, Patrick W.; Reams, Katherine A.

    2017-11-01

    The Sauk River is a federally designated Wild and Scenic River that drains a relatively undisturbed landscape along the western slope of the North Cascade Mountain Range, Washington, which includes the glaciated volcano, Glacier Peak. Naturally high sediment loads characteristic of basins draining volcanoes like Glacier Peak make the Sauk River a dominant contributor of sediment to the downstream main stem river, the Skagit River. Additionally, the Sauk River serves as important spawning and rearing habitat for several salmonid species in the greater Skagit River system. Because of the importance of sediment to morphology, flow-conveyance, and ecosystem condition, there is interest in understanding the magnitude and timing of suspended sediment and turbidity from the Sauk River system and its principal tributaries, the White Chuck and Suiattle Rivers, to the Skagit River.Suspended-sediment measurements, turbidity data, and water temperature data were collected at two U.S. Geological Survey streamgages in the upper and middle reaches of the Sauk River over a 4-year period extending from October 2011 to September 2015, and at a downstream location in the lower river for a 5-year period extending from October 2011 to September 2016. Over the collective 5-year study period, mean annual suspended-sediment loads at the three streamgages on the upper, middle, and lower Sauk River streamgages were 94,200 metric tons (t), 203,000 t, and 940,000 t streamgages, respectively. Fine (smaller than 0.0625 millimeter) total suspended-sediment load averaged 49 percent at the upper Sauk River streamgage, 42 percent at the middle Sauk River streamgage, and 34 percent at the lower Sauk River streamgage.

  14. Influence factors analysis of water environmental quality of main rivers in Tianjin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Bao, Jingling; Zou, Di; Shi, Fang

    2018-01-01

    According to the evaluation results of the water environment quality of main rivers in Tianjin in 1986-2015, this paper analyzed the current situation of water environmental quality of main rivers in Tianjin retrospectively, established the index system and multiple factors analysis through selecting factors influencing the water environmental quality of main rivers from the economy, industry and nature aspects with the combination method of principal component analysis and linear regression. The results showed that water consumption, sewage discharge and water resources were the main factors influencing the pollution of main rivers. Therefore, optimizing the utilization of water resources, improving utilization efficiency and reducing effluent discharge are important measures to reduce the pollution of surface water environment.

  15. Nutrient and phytoplankton biomass in the Amazon River shelf waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria L.S. Santos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon River estuary is notable at the Amazon Continental Shelf, where the presence of the large amount of water originating from the Amazon during the river's falling discharge period was made evident by the low salinity values and high nutrient levels. Even so, the presence of oceanic waters in the shelf area was significant. Dissolved organic nitrogen was the predominant species of the nitrogen cycle phases, followed by total particulate nitrogen, nitrate, ammonium and nitrite. The chlorophyll a data in the eutrophic area indicated that there is sufficient nitrogen in the area to withstand productivity, though dissolved inorganic nitrogen removal processes are faster than regeneration or mineralization. The anomalous amounts of inorganic dissolved nitrogen showed more removal than addition. The simulations with the bidimensional MAAC-2D model confirmed that high nutrient waters are displaced northwest-ward (two cores at 2.5ºN-50ºW and 4ºN-51ºW by the stronger NBC during falling river discharge. During high river flow period these nutrient-rich lenses are distributed around 0.5ºN-48.5ºW as well as along the shallow Amazonian shelf (20m-50m depth, 1ºN-3.5ºN, as a result of the spreading of Amazon freshwater outflow.O estuário do rio Amazonas é notável na Plataforma Continental do Amazonas, onde a presença das águas fluviais foi detectada, mesmo durante o período da diminuição da descarga desse rio, pelos baixos valores de salinidade e altos valores de nutrientes. Contudo, a presença das águas oceânicas também foi marcante. Em relação às fases do ciclo do nitrogênio, o nitrogênio orgânico dissolvido foi a forma predominante, seguido do nitrogênio total particulado, nitrato, amônia e nitrito. Os dados de clorofila a indicaram uma área eutrófica onde há nitrogênio embora os valores da anomalia do nitrogênio inorgânico dissolvido tenham mostrado que ocorre maior remoção do que adição dessa forma nitrogenada

  16. Drought Assessment Using Tritium River Water Measurements for Existing Dam Infrastructure in the Ishikari River basin, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusyev, M.; Morgenstern, U.; Stewart, M. K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Kashiwaya, K.; Kuribayashi, D.; Sawano, H.; Iwami, Y.

    2015-12-01

    A proposed methodology is based on estimated groundwater volumes from tritium river water measurements in the Ishikari River basin of Hokkaido Island, Japan. In our drought assessment, we characterize a groundwater storage that is available and can be used for the water supply during prolonged droughts. For the groundwater storage estimation, we utilized tritium river water measurements obtained during baseflows to estimate water mean transit times (MTTs). Tritium is ideally suited for characterization of the catchment's responses in river water samples with MTTs times up to 200 years. Tritium is a component of meteoric water, decays with a half-life of 12.32 years, and is inert in the subsurface. In Hokkaido, river water samples were collected in June, July and October 2014 at selected river gauging stations operated by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT). These stations record hourly water levels, have catchment areas between 45 and 377 km2 and are located upstream of MLIT dams at altitudes between 36 m and 860 m MSL. The measured tritium ranged between 4.065 TU (±0.07) and 5.290 TU (±0.09) with both lowest and highest tritium values analysed in June river samples at Tougeshita and Okukatsura stations, respectively. For the MTT estimation, we selected exponential(80%)-piston(20%) Lumped Parameter Model (LPM) with constructed tritium in Hokkaido precipitation and obtained a non-unique fit of young (1-11 years) and old (16-98 years) groundwater MTTs. This result indicates that the bomb-peak tritium is still present in Japanese groundwater and may take several years to flush out. From the MTTs and baseflow discharges, the calculated groundwater volume ranges between 13 MCM and 12500 MCM and indicates potentially available groundwater storage during prolonged droughts in the Hokkaido headwater catchments. In the future studies, the accuracy of the estimated groundwater volume can be increased by conducting another tritium sampling at

  17. Introducing a water quality index for assessing water for irrigation purposes: A case study of the Ghezel Ozan River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misaghi, Farhad; Delgosha, Fatemeh; Razzaghmanesh, Mostafa; Myers, Baden

    2017-07-01

    Rivers are one of the main water resources for agricultural, drinking, environmental and industrial use. Water quality indices can and have been used to identify threats to water quality along a stream and contribute to better water resources management. There are many water quality indices for the assessment and use of surface water for drinking purposes. However, there is no well-established index for the assessment and direct use of river water for irrigation purposes. The aim of this study was to adopt the framework of the National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index (NSFWQI) and, with adjustments, apply it in a way which will conform to irrigation water quality requirements. To accomplish this, the NSFWQI parameters for drinking water use were amended to include water quality parameters suitable for irrigation. For each selected parameter, an individual weighting chart was generated according to the FAO 29 guideline. The NSFWQI formula was then used to calculate a final index value, and for each parameter an acceptable range in this value was determined. The new index was then applied to the Ghezel Ozan River in Iran as a case study. A forty five year record of water quality data (1966 to 2010) was collected from four hydrometery stations along the river. Water quality parameters including Na + , Cl - , pH, HCO - 3, EC, SAR and TDS were employed for water quality analysis using the adjusted NSFWQI formula. The results of this case study showed variation in water quality from the upstream to downstream ends of the river. Consistent monitoring of the river water quality and the establishment of a long term management plan were recommended for the protection of this valuable water resource. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Removal of micropollutants from Sakarya River water by ozone and membrane processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Fatma Büşra; Çakmakcı, Mehmet; Yüksel, Ebubekir; Özen, İsmail; Gengeç, Erhan

    2017-09-01

    The removal of some pollutants in the Sakarya River was investigated in this study. Sakarya River located in Turkey flows from the northeast of Afyonkarahisar City to the Black Sea. Nineteen different micropollutants including trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), endocrine disrupting compound (EDC) and pharmaceuticals personal care product (PPCP) groups, and water quality parameters such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm wavelength (UV254), hardness, and conductivity values were examined. To remove the micropollutants and improve the water quality, the treatment was performed with ozone, microfiltration (MF), and ultra-filtration (UF) membranes. The highest treatment efficiency was obtained with 1 mg/L ozone dosage and UP005 UF membrane. The trihalomethan formation potential (THMFP) and haloacetic acid formation potential (HAAFP) decreased with ozone + membrane at a concentration of 79 and 75%, respectively. After the treatment with ozone + membrane, the concentration of the micropollutants in the EDC and PPCP group remained below the detection limit. It was found that by using only membrane and only ozone, the maximum DOC removal efficiency achieved was 46 and 18%, respectively; and with ozone + membrane, this efficiency increased up to 82%. The results from the High-Pressure Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC) analyses pointed that the substances with high molecular weight were converted into substances with low molecular weight after the treatment. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis results showed that the aromatic and aliphatic functional groups in water changed after the treatment with ozone and that the peak values decreased more after the ozone + membrane treatment.

  19. Indexes for water management and planning on the Paraopeba River Basin, Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Marcel Barros da Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the true amount of officially granted use of water and the spatial distribution of water usage in a watershed has become indispensable for the appropriate management of water resources. In this process, the use of indexes allows for the identification of possible water use conflicts. The objective of this study was to evaluate the indexes of conflict regarding water use in the management (icg and planning (icp of water resources in the Paraopeba River Basin, focusing on identifying possible water resource conflicts and on providing supportive information for the water management agency in Minas Gerais State. Besides the Digital Elevation Model (DEM for hydrological analyses to calculate the drainage area for every river segment, the official amount of granted water use and estimated river flows at watershed confluences was also needed. The results of the icg calculation demonstrated that in 22.7% of the analyzed river segments the use of water was higher than what is legally granted, and this indicates a potential conflict regarding water use. The icp analyses showed that in three river segments the use of water was higher than the long-term mean flow. The combined icg and icp analyses led us to conclude that in the water use conflict scenario the solution could be establishing an infrastructure that would allow a year-round increase in the availability of water to be granted.

  20. Sediment transport following water transfer from Yangtze River to Taihu Basin

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    Zheng Gong

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To meet the increasing need of fresh water and to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake, water transfer from the Yangtze River was initiated in 2002. This study was performed to investigate the sediment distribution along the river course following water transfer. A rainfall-runoff model was first built to calculate the runoff of the Taihu Basin in 2003. Then, the flow patterns of river networks were simulated using a one-dimensional river network hydrodynamic model. Based on the boundary conditions of the flow in tributaries of the Wangyu River and the water level in Taihu Lake, a one-dimensional hydrodynamic and sediment transport numerical model of the Wangyu River was built to analyze the influences of the inflow rate of the water transfer and the suspended sediment concentration (SSC of inflow on the sediment transport. The results show that the water transfer inflow rate and SSC of inflow have significant effects on the sediment distribution. The higher the inflow rate or SSC of inflow is, the higher the SSC value is at certain cross-sections along the river course of water transfer. Higher inflow rate and SSC of inflow contribute to higher sediment deposition per kilometer and sediment thickness. It is also concluded that a sharp decrease of the inflow velocity at the entrance of the Wangyu River on the river course of water transfer induces intense sedimentation at the cross-section near the Changshu hydro-junction. With an increasing distance from the Changshu hydro-junction, the sediment deposition and sedimentation thickness decrease gradually along the river course.

  1. Hydrochemical regime and water quality of rivers and reservoirs of basins of Shu, Esyl, Tobol, Sirdariya rivers for long-term cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofya Romanova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the literature and materials of own research into the regime of the main polluting components and the chemical composition of water in rivers and lakes of Shu, Esil, Tobol, the Syr Darya basins in the long-term cycle. The background of hydrochemical regime of the rivers at the modern period has been investigated. The water of the rivers is contaminated with mineral and organic origin substances (mostly with the compounds of manganese, fluoride, phosphate, nitrate and nitrogen nitrite have shown which is entering to the river due to natural and anthropogenic factors. The total mineralization of river water downstream in the majority of cases is increased.

  2. Trend analysis of a tropical urban river water quality in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Faridah; M E, Alaa Eldin; Mohamed, Ibrahim

    2012-12-01

    Rivers play a significant role in providing water resources for human and ecosystem survival and health. Hence, river water quality is an important parameter that must be preserved and monitored. As the state of Selangor and the city of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, are undergoing tremendous development, the river is subjected to pollution from point and non-point sources. The water quality of the Klang River basin, one of the most densely populated areas within the region, is significantly degraded due to human activities as well as urbanization. Evaluation of the overall river water quality status is normally represented by a water quality index (WQI), which consists of six parameters, namely dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, ammoniacal nitrogen and pH. The objectives of this study are to assess the water quality status for this tropical, urban river and to establish the WQI trend. Using monthly WQI data from 1997 to 2007, time series were plotted and trend analysis was performed by employing the first-order autocorrelated trend model on the moving average values for every station. The initial and final values of either the moving average or the trend model were used as the estimates of the initial and final WQI at the stations. It was found that Klang River water quality has shown some improvement between 1997 and 2007. Water quality remains good in the upper stream area, which provides vital water sources for water treatment plants in the Klang valley. Meanwhile, the water quality has also improved in other stations. Results of the current study suggest that the present policy on managing river quality in the Klang River has produced encouraging results; the policy should, however, be further improved alongside more vigorous monitoring of pollution discharge from various point sources such as industrial wastewater, municipal sewers, wet markets, sand mining and landfills, as well as non-point sources such as

  3. Water Quality in a Wet Meadow, Platte River Valley, Central Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Patrick J.

    1996-01-01

    The Platte River Valley in Nebraska, and in particular the reach from Kearney to Grand Island, is an extremely important natural habitat area. Over 300 migratory bird species, including several threatened and endangered species, have been observed along the Platte River. In the spring, nearly 500,000 sandhill cranes, along with millions of ducks and geese, use this reach as a staging and feeding area during their northerly migration. Wet meadows (grasslands which have waterlogged soils much of the year) are a critical part of this migratory-bird habitat. However, the area of wet meadows between Kearney and Grand Island has declined nearly 50 percent due to the activities of man. The condition of the remaining wet meadows is of vital importance. The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program is designed to describe the status and trends in the quality of the Nation's surface water and groundwater resources and to provide a sound understanding of the natural and human factors that affect the quality of these resources. A study of the groundwater beneath a selected wet meadow was undertaken as part of the Central Nebraska Basins NAWQA study unit. Observation wells were installed in the wet meadow at various distances along two transects downgradient from the edge of a corn field. One to five wells completed at depths of about 15 to 100 feet were located at each of the 5 sites. The wells were completed in the Platte River alluvium or the underlying Ogallala Formation. The depth to the water table ranges from 0 to 5 feet below land surface. The general direction of groundwater flow is parallel to flow in the Platte River. Selected wells were sampled in February, March, June, and December 1994 for major cations and anions, nutrients, and organonitrogen herbicides. Pesticides and fertilizers are used extensively in Nebraska to enhance the production of row crops. Some of these pesticides and fertilizers have migrated into the groundwater

  4. Water requirement of vegetation and infiltration method for determining the ecological water requirement of dried-up rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Lan; Zhang, Ya; Peng, Jing; Qi, Chaolong; Huang, Jinhui; Liu, Dewen

    2014-01-01

    Many rivers in the region of northwest China are drying up, and the ecological environment is getting worse. Studying methods of calculating the ecological water requirement (EWR) for dried-up rivers will help to slow down the deterioration of the ecological environment and conserve biodiversity. The water requirement of vegetation and infiltration (WRVI) method is proposed in this paper. This method focuses on dried-up rivers and takes the water requirement of vegetation and river bed infiltration into consideration. This is different from the conventional methods, which only focus on the rivers that have a flow rate. Due to drying, the ecological environment is worsening year by year in the lower reaches of the Zhang River in the Haihe River Basin in northwest China. This river is used as an example to determine the EWR, and the results are compared with another method. The results show that the WRVI method can calculate the EWR more accurately by considering various factors in different years and months for dried-up rivers.

  5. A Keystone Methylobacterium Strain in Biofilm Formation in Drinking Water

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    Erifyli Tsagkari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The structure of biofilms in drinking water systems is influenced by the interplay between biological and physical processes. Bacterial aggregates in bulk fluid are important in seeding biofilm formation on surfaces. In simple pure and co-cultures, certain bacteria, including Methylobacterium, are implicated in the formation of aggregates. However, it is unclear whether they help to form aggregates in complex mixed bacterial communities. Furthermore, different flow regimes could affect the formation and destination of aggregates. In this study, real drinking water mixed microbial communities were inoculated with the Methylobacterium strain DSM 18358. The propensity of Methylobacterium to promote aggregation was monitored under both stagnant and flow conditions. Under stagnant conditions, Methylobacterium enhanced bacterial aggregation even when it was inoculated in drinking water at 1% relative abundance. Laminar and turbulent flows were developed in a rotating annular reactor. Methylobacterium was found to promote a higher degree of aggregation in turbulent than laminar flow. Finally, fluorescence in situ hybridisation images revealed that Methylobacterium aggregates had distinct spatial structures under the different flow conditions. Overall, Methylobacterium was found to be a key strain in the formation of aggregates in bulk water and subsequently in the formation of biofilms on surfaces.

  6. Trihalomethanes formation in Iranian water supply systems: predicting and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei, Ali Akbar; Atari, Leila; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Ahmadiangali, Kambiz; Zamanzadeh, Mirzaman; Alavi, Nadali

    2015-09-01

    Trihalomethanes (THMs) were the first disinfection by-products discovered in drinking water and are classified as probable carcinogens. This study measures and models THMs formation at two drinking water distribution systems (WDS1 and WDS2) in Ahvaz City, Iran. The investigation was based on field-scale investigations and an intensive 36-week sampling program, from January to September 2011. The results showed total THM concentrations in the range 17.4-174.8 μg/L and 18.9-99.5 μg/L in WDS1 and WDS2, respectively. Except in a few cases, the THM concentrations in WDS1 and WDS2 were lower than the maximum contaminant level values. Using two-tailed Pearson correlation test, the water temperature, dissolved organic carbon, UV254, bromide ion (Br-), free residual chlorine, and chlorine dose were identified as the significant parameters for THMs formation in WDS2. Water temperature was the only significant parameter for THMs formation in WDS1. Based on the correlation results, a predictive model for THMs formation was developed using a multiple regression approach. A multiple linear regression model showed the best fit according to the coefficients of determination (R2) obtained for WDS1 (R2=0.47) and WDS2 (R2=0.54). Further correlation studies and analysis focusing on THMs formation are necessary to assess THMs concentration using the predictive models.

  7. Chemical composition of sediments, suspended matter, river water and ground water of the Nile (Aswan-Sohag traverse).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekov, V M; Komy, Z; Araújo, F; Van Put, A; Van Grieken, R

    1997-08-18

    Sediment, suspended matter, river water and ground water samples were collected at twelve sites in the drainage valley of the Nile River, around Sohag (Central Egypt) and close to the Aswan High Dam. Elemental composition of the river water (27 elements), ground water (eight elements), suspended matter (12 elements) and sediments (12 elements) was studied. Aswan High Dam construction, agricultural and industrial human activities have led to dramatic changes in the Nile River chemistry. Nowadays, the Nile River has the highest dissolved salt content among the major African rivers. Dissolved transport is a major process for Ca, K, Sr, Zn, Cu, Ni and V. Manganese, Fe and Cr are mainly carried by suspended matter. The Nile suspended matter is exhausted in almost all elements studied (except for Mn) compared to the world average river suspended matter. Along the course of the river, the distribution of elements in the suspended matter and sediments is generally controlled by natural processes: the relative importance of elemental transport phases; and the oxidation, precipitation and sedimentation of mineral species through the varying physico-chemical conditions of the environment. Pollution input in the Nile particulate load is not major, as compared to the natural inputs. Eight genetic particle types describe the composition of the Nile suspended matter and sediments: (1) biogenous-aeolian (or silica); (2) terrigenous (Fe-aluminosilicate); (3) authigenic (calcium carbonate); (4) biogenous (apatite); (5) authigenous-terrigenous (Fe-oxyhydroxide-montmorillonite); (6) diagenetic (iron-sulfide); (7) terrigenous (titanium oxide); (8) authigenous (Mn-Fe-oxyhydroxide).

  8. Factorial analysis of trihalomethanes formation in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Champagne, Pascale; McLellan, P James

    2010-06-01

    Disinfection of drinking water reduces pathogenic infection, but may pose risks to human health through the formation of disinfection byproducts. The effects of different factors on the formation of trihalomethanes were investigated using a statistically designed experimental program, and a predictive model for trihalomethanes formation was developed. Synthetic water samples with different factor levels were produced, and trihalomethanes concentrations were measured. A replicated fractional factorial design with center points was performed, and significant factors were identified through statistical analysis. A second-order trihalomethanes formation model was developed from 92 experiments, and the statistical adequacy was assessed through appropriate diagnostics. This model was validated using additional data from the Drinking Water Surveillance Program database and was applied to the Smiths Falls water supply system in Ontario, Canada. The model predictions were correlated strongly to the measured trihalomethanes, with correlations of 0.95 and 0.91, respectively. The resulting model can assist in analyzing risk-cost tradeoffs in the design and operation of water supply systems.

  9. Final opportunity to rehabilitate an urban river as a water source for Mexico City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Mazari-Hiriart

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount and quality of water in the Magdalena-Eslava river system and to propose alternatives for sustainable water use. The system is the last urban river in the vicinity of Mexico City that supplies surface water to the urban area. Historical flow data were analyzed (1973-2010, along with the physicochemical and bacteriological attributes, documenting the evolution of these variables over the course of five years (2008-2012 in both dry and rainy seasons. The analyses show that the flow regime has been significantly altered. The physicochemical variables show significant differences between the natural area, where the river originates, and the urban area, where the river receives untreated wastewater. Nutrient and conductivity concentrations in the river were equivalent to domestic wastewater. Fecal pollution indicators and various pathogens were present in elevated densities, demonstrating a threat to the population living near the river. Estimates of the value of the water lost as a result of mixing clean and contaminated water are presented. This urban river should be rehabilitated as a sustainability practice, and if possible, these efforts should be replicated in other areas. Because of the public health issues and in view of the population exposure where the river flows through the city, the river should be improved aesthetically and should be treated to allow its ecosystem services to recover. This river represents an iconic case for Mexico City because it connects the natural and urban areas in a socio-ecological system that can potentially provide clean water for human consumption. Contaminated water could be treated and reused for irrigation in one of the green areas of the city. Wastewater treatment plants and the operation of the existing purification plants are urgent priorities that could lead to better, more sustainable water use practices in Mexico City.

  10. Final Opportunity to Rehabilitate an Urban River as a Water Source for Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa; Pérez-Ortiz, Gustavo; Orta-Ledesma, María Teresa; Armas-Vargas, Felipe; Tapia, Marco A.; Solano-Ortiz, Rosa; Silva, Miguel A.; Yañez-Noguez, Isaura; López-Vidal, Yolanda; Díaz-Ávalos, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount and quality of water in the Magdalena-Eslava river system and to propose alternatives for sustainable water use. The system is the last urban river in the vicinity of Mexico City that supplies surface water to the urban area. Historical flow data were analyzed (1973–2010), along with the physicochemical and bacteriological attributes, documenting the evolution of these variables over the course of five years (2008–2012) in both dry and rainy seasons. The analyses show that the flow regime has been significantly altered. The physicochemical variables show significant differences between the natural area, where the river originates, and the urban area, where the river receives untreated wastewater. Nutrient and conductivity concentrations in the river were equivalent to domestic wastewater. Fecal pollution indicators and various pathogens were present in elevated densities, demonstrating a threat to the population living near the river. Estimates of the value of the water lost as a result of mixing clean and contaminated water are presented. This urban river should be rehabilitated as a sustainability practice, and if possible, these efforts should be replicated in other areas. Because of the public health issues and in view of the population exposure where the river flows through the city, the river should be improved aesthetically and should be treated to allow its ecosystem services to recover. This river represents an iconic case for Mexico City because it connects the natural and urban areas in a socio-ecological system that can potentially provide clean water for human consumption. Contaminated water could be treated and reused for irrigation in one of the green areas of the city. Wastewater treatment plants and the operation of the existing purification plants are urgent priorities that could lead to better, more sustainable water use practices in Mexico City. PMID:25054805

  11. Long term changes in the concentration of radium in discharge waters of coal mines and Upper Silesian rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chałupnik, Stanisław; Wysocka, Małgorzata; Janson, Ewa; Chmielewska, Izabela; Wiesner, Marta

    2017-05-01

    According to the latest guidelines of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, 2016), coal mining is one of the most important contributors to occupational exposure. Coal mining contributes about 45% of the total annual collective dose obtained by workers due to the exposure at places of working. One of the sources of exposure in mining are formation brines with elevated concentrations of natural radionuclides, the most common are radium (226)Ra and (228)Ra. Radium isotopes often occur in formation waters in underground collieries in the Upper Silesian region (USCB) in Poland. Significant amounts of radium remain underground in the form of radioactive deposits created as a result of spontaneous deposition or water treatment. This phenomenon leads to the increase of radiation hazard for miners. The remaining activities of (226)Ra and (228)Ra are released into the rivers with mine effluents, causing the contamination of bottom sediments and river banks. The results of radioactivity monitoring of effluents and river waters are presented here to illustrate a trend of long-term changes in environmental contamination, caused by mining industry in the Upper Silesian Region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Water rent: essence, sources of formation and accounting reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Osadcha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is the urgent necessity of the transition to a higher level of economic relations in the system of environmental management in the present conditions of economy of the country. As a result, the issues like formation of information support for water rent management, determining the ways of its calculation, distribution as well as usage of water rents require urgent solutions. The study focuses on the essence of water rent and forming organizational and methodological provisions of its accounting reflection to ensure sustainable ecological and economic development of the enterprise. As a result of research the classification of water rent, that affects reflection of such rent in accounting has been formed. It is established that the amount of water rent for accounting reflection can be defined as the difference between actual and normal profit of enterprise-water users. A number of analytical accounts of first and second order as well as the typical correspondence of accounts for accounting reflection of water rent have been suggested. The information from the Report on the formation of water rent that contains data on the sources of payback of expenses incurred for the maintenance of water bodies and the impact of ecological condition of water body on the size of water rent has been suggested to be used in order to manage the size of water rent and expenses incurred to obtain it. Thus, determining the amount of water rent will allow management personnel to adjust the activity of the company in accordance with the strategic objectives of the company’s development regarding the profitability and compliance with the concept of sustainable development.

  13. Climate change impact assessment on Zhoshui River water supply in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Jyun-Long Lee Wen-Cheng Huang

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of climate change on water resources. An integrated procedure is proposed for assessing the water resources system response to climate change on the basin scale. The Zhoshui River basin in Central Taiwan was selected for the impact assessment. Five downscaled general circulation models based on the A1B scenario for 2046 - 2065 were adopted to assess the climate change impact, including (1) the irrigation water requirement downstream of the basin, (2) the river ...

  14. Assessment of water quality of Ikpoba River, Benin City using d.c. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ascertaining the quality of the water. The d.c. conductivity of Ikpoba River ranges from 400ms/cm - 500ms/cm. This was compared to that of a popular brand of bottled water in the city which has a d.c conductivity of 180ms/cm (Table 3). The measurements show that a lot of ions are present in the river water. The origin of such ...

  15. Water reuse in river basins with multiple users : A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, G. W H (Gijs); Bastiaanssen, W. G M (Wim); Immerzeel, W. W (Walter)

    2015-01-01

    Unraveling the interaction between water users in a river basin is essential for sound water resources management, particularly in a context of increasing water scarcity and the need to save water. While most attention from managers and decision makers goes to allocation and withdrawals of surface

  16. Impacts of glycolate and formate radiolysis and thermolysis on hydrogen generation rate calculations for the Savannah River Site tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-14

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) personnel requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluate available data and determine its applicability to defining the impact of planned glycolate anion additions to Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) on Tank Farm flammability (primarily with regard to H2 production). Flammability evaluations of formate anion, which is already present in SRS waste, were also needed. This report describes the impacts of glycolate and formate radiolysis and thermolysis on Hydrogen Generation Rate (HGR) calculations for the SRS Tank Farm.

  17. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Guaribas river water (Piauí, Brazil), influenced by anthropogenic action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro E Sousa, João Marcelo; Peron, Ana Paula; da Silva E Sousa, Louridânya; de Moura Holanda, Mércia; de Macedo Vieira Lima, Ataíde; de Oliveira, Vitor Alves; da Silva, Felipe Cavalcanti Carneiro; de Morais Lima, Leonardo Henrique Guedes; Matos, Leomá Albuquerque; de Moura Dantas, Sandra Maria Mendes; de Aguiar, Raí Pablo Sousa; Islam, Muhammad Torequl; de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante, Ana Amélia; Bonecker, Cláudia Costa; Junior, Horácio Ferreira Júlio

    2017-06-01

    In general, tropical rivers have a great impact on human activities. Bioaccumulation of toxins is a worldwide problem nowadays and has been, historically, overlooked by the supervisory authorities. This study evaluated cytogenotoxic effects of Guaribas river (a Brazilian river) water during dry and rainy seasons of 2014 by using the Allium cepa test system. The toxicogenetic variables, including root growth, mitotic index, and chromosomal aberrations, were analyzed in meristematic cells of A. cepa exposed to water samples taken from the up-, within, and downstream of the city Picos (state: Piauí). The physical-chemical parameters were also analyzed to explain water quality and possible anthropogenic action. Additionally, the presence of heavy metals was also analyzed to explain water quality and possible damaging effects on eukaryotic cells. The results suggest that the river water exerted cytotoxic, mutagenic, and genotoxic effects, regardless of the seasons. In addition, Guaribas river presented physico-chemical values outside the Brazilian laws, which can be a characteristic of human pollution (domestic sewage, industrial, and local agriculture). The genetic damage was positively correlated with higher levels of heavy metals. The pollution of the Guaribas river water may link to the chemical contamination, including the action of heavy metals and their impacts on genetic instability in the aquatic ecosystem. In conclusion, necessary steps should be taken into account for further toxicogenetic studies of the Guaribas river water, as it has an influence in human health of the same region of Brazil.

  18. Changes in acidity and metal geochemistry in soils, groundwater, drain and river water in the Lower Murray River after a severe drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Luke M; Fitzpatrick, Rob W; Palmer, David; Leyden, Emily; Shand, Paul

    2014-07-01

    Acid sulfate soils with sulfuric material (pHsoil acidity source to receiving waters. We studied the integrated geochemistry of metals in acid sulfate soils with sulfuric material, groundwater, drain and river water in the Lower Murray River (South Australia) over a 2 year period. The oxidation of an estimated 3500 ha of acid sulfate soils with sulfidic material (pH>4) underlying this former floodplain occurred due to falling river and groundwater levels during the 2006-2010 extreme "millennium" drought. A low pH (soil layer was found approximately 1-2.5m below ground level with substantial amounts (up to 0.2 mol H(+)/kg dry weight) of available/soluble acidity and retained acidity in the form of the Fe oxyhydroxy sulfate mineral jarosite. The jarosite appears to be dissolving over time and buffering the sub-surface soil layers at pH≈4. Metal (Fe, Al, Mn) and metalloid (As) lability was greatly increased in the acidic soil layer. Highly acidic and metal rich groundwater (median pH 4.3, Fe, Al, Mn of 0.04-0.52 mmol/L) was observed at the same depths as the acidic soil layers. Nearly all of the dissolved Fe in the groundwater was present as Fe(2+). In the drains, increases in pH and redox potential promoted formation of the Fe oxyhydroxysulfate mineral schwertmannite. This mineral precipitation transferred a portion of the dissolved acidity to the drain sediments. Upon discharge to, and dilution of, the acid drainage in the river, pH neutralisation and rapid oxidation, hydrolysis, and precipitation of solid Al and Fe phases occurred in a localised area. Acidity is persisting (>3 years) following a return to pre-drought water levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Deep Water Compositions From the Los Angeles Basin and the Origin of Formation Water Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, J.; Giles, G.; Lockman, D.

    2005-12-01

    Deep basin formation waters represent original depositional waters that have been modified by diagenetic processes at elevated temperatures and pressures. In addition, they may be diluted by meteoric incursion from elevated structural blocks along basin flanks. It has long been thought that deep basin formation waters have salinities greater than sea water due to various processes like clay membrane filtration or other types of water-rock interaction. However, our work and similar studies in the San Joaquin basin show that formation waters in deep basins are more likely to become diluted rather than concentrated in the absence of soluble evaporite deposits that might underlie the basin. The idea of increased salinity with depth arose from studies in which the underpinning of the basin consisted of soluble evaporate deposits such as the Texas Gulf Coast, Illinois, Michigan, and some North Sea areas. There are very few deep formation water analyses from the Los Angeles Basin. Furthermore, very few of the current produced waters from any depth can be considered pristine because of the widespread formation water injection programs and commingling of fluids from different levels. Here, we describe the first analyses from a deep, previously untouched part of the basin that is currently being developed in the Inglewood Oil Field. We have analyzed a suite of formation waters from the mid-Miocene marine Sentous sandstone from sub-sea level depths of 2250 m to 2625 m at temperatures of about 110 to 126°C and pressures of about 27 MPa. The original depositional waters in the Sentous Formation were sea water whereas the sampled waters are diluted by about 20% from sea water and some show as much as 50% dilution. Based on comparison of oxygen and deuterium isotopes between the meteoric water trend and these waters, we conclude that the smectite to illite dehydration reaction is the major cause of dilution to the original formation water. Other notable differences include

  20. Development and Application of a Decision Support System for Water Management Investigations in the Upper Yakima River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovee, Ken D.; Waddle, Terry J.; Talbert, Colin; Hatten, James R.; Batt, Thomas R.

    2008-01-01

    The Yakima River Decision Support System (YRDSS) was designed to quantify and display the consequences of different water management scenarios for a variety of state variables in the upper Yakima River Basin, located in central Washington. The impetus for the YRDSS was the Yakima River Basin Water Storage Feasibility Study, which investigated alternatives for providing additional water in the basin for threatened and endangered fish, irrigated agriculture, and municipal water supply. The additional water supplies would be provided by combinations of water exchanges, pumping stations, and off-channel storage facilities, each of which could affect the operations of the Bureau of Reclamation's (BOR) five headwaters reservoirs in the basin. The driver for the YRDSS is RiverWare, a systems-operations model used by BOR to calculate reservoir storage, irrigation deliveries, and streamflow at downstream locations resulting from changes in water supply and reservoir operations. The YRDSS uses output from RiverWare to calculate and summarize changes at 5 important flood plain reaches in the basin to 14 state variables: (1) habitat availability for selected life stages of four salmonid species, (2) spawning-incubation habitat persistence, (3) potential redd scour, (4) maximum water temperatures, (5) outmigration for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) from headwaters reservoirs, (6) outmigration of salmon smolts from Cle Elum Reservoir, (7) frequency of beneficial overbank flooding, (8) frequency of damaging flood events, (9) total deliverable water supply, (10) total water supply deliverable to junior water rights holders, (11) end-of-year reservoir carryover, (12) potential fine sediment transport rates, (13) frequency of events capable of armor layer disruption, and (14) geomorphic work performed during each water year. Output of the YRDSS consists of a series of conditionally formatted scoring tables, wherein the changes to a state variable resulting from an operational

  1. Shift in the microbial community composition of surface water and sediment along an urban river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan; Zhang, Jing; Li, Huilin; Yang, Hong; Peng, Chao; Peng, Zhengsong; Lu, Lu

    2018-01-30

    Urban rivers represent a unique ecosystem in which pollution occurs regularly, leading to significantly altered of chemical and biological characteristics of the surface water and sediments. However, the impact of urbanization on the diversity and structure of the river microbial community has not been well documented. As a major tributary of the Yangtze River, the Jialing River flows through many cities. Here, a comprehensive analysis of the spatial microbial distribution in the surface water and sediments in the Nanchong section of Jialing River and its two urban branches was conducted using 16S rRNA gene-based Illumina MiSeq sequencing. The results revealed distinct differences in surface water bacterial composition along the river with a differential distribution of Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Acidobacteria (P urban water. PICRUSt metabolic inference analysis revealed a growing number of genes associated with xenobiotic metabolism and nitrogen metabolism in the urban water, indicating that urban discharges might act as the dominant selective force to alter the microbial communities. Redundancy analysis suggested that the microbial community structure was influenced by several environmental factors. TP (P urban river. These results highlight that river microbial communities exhibit spatial variation in urban areas due to the joint influence of chemical variables associated with sewage discharging and construction of hydropower stations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Primary oil-shale resources of the Green River Formation in the eastern Uinta Basin, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudell, L.G.; Smith, J.W.; Beard, T.N.; Mason, G.M.

    1983-04-01

    Resources of potential oil in place in the Green River Formation are measured and estimated for the primary oil-shale resource area east of the Green River in Utah's Uinta Basin. The area evaluated (Ts 7-14 S, Rs 19-25 E) includes most of, and certainly the best of Utah's oil-shale resource. For resource evaluation the principal oil-shale section is divided into ten stratigraphic units which are equivalent to units previously evaluated in the Piceance Creek Basin of Colorado. Detailed evaluation of individual oil-shale units sampled by cores, plus estimates by extrapolation into uncored areas indicate a total resource of 214 billion barrels of shale oil in place in the eastern Uinta Basin.

  3. Effect of a reservoir in the water quality of the Reconquista River, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigacci, Laura N; Giorgi, Adonis D N; Vilches, Carolina S; Ossana, Natalia Alejandra; Salibián, Alfredo

    2013-11-01

    The lower portion of the Reconquista River is highly polluted. However, little is known about the state of the high and middle basins. The aims of this work were to assess the water quality on the high and middle Reconquista River basins and to determinate if the presence of a reservoir in the river has a positive effect on the water quality. We conducted a seasonal study between August 2009 and November 2010 at the mouth of La Choza, Durazno, and La Horqueta streams at the Roggero reservoir--which receives the water from the former streams--at the origin of the Reconquista River and 17 km downstream from the reservoir. We measured 25 physical and chemical parameters, including six heavy metal concentrations, and performed a multivariate statistical analysis to summarize the information and allow the interpretation of the whole data set. We found that the Durazno and La Horqueta streams had better water quality than La Choza, and the presence of the reservoir contributed to the improvement of the water quality, allowing oxygenation of the water body and processing of organic matter and ammonia. The water quality of the Reconquista River at its origin is good and similar to the reservoir, but a few kilometers downstream, the water quality declines as a consequence of the presence of industries and human settlements. Therefore, the Roggero reservoir produces a significant improvement of water quality of the river, but the discharge of contaminants downstream quickly reverses this effect.

  4. Water quality assessment of the Shatt al-Arab River, Southern Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Salim Moyel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess suitability of the water quality of Shatt al-Arab River for protection of aquatic life, potable water supply and irrigation uses. Methods: The Shatt al-Arab River was monitored on a monthly basis from July 2009 to June 2010. A water quality index (WQI was calculated to assess the suitability of water for protection of aquatic life, potable water supply and irrigation uses during the dry season from July to December 2009 and the wet season from January until June 2010. Results: The results of the WQI showed that the lowest water quality values were scored during the dry season for all three uses of the river. Marginal water quality values were recorded for protection of aquatic life and fair (upstream to poor (downstream water quality values were recorded for irrigation uses. Moreover, the river water was not suitable for potable water supply without elaborate treatment. Conclusions: Deterioration of the Shatt al-Arab water quality has been attributed to reduced freshwater discharges from Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, low annual precipitations and an advancing salt wedge from the Arabian Gulf. However, a combination of those factors such as low riverine discharge and advancing salt wedge with a continuous discharge of agriculture, oil industry and urban point effluent has polluted the waters and fostered the decline of the Shatt al-Arab River water quality during the study period. The study indicated that application of WQIs was a useful tool to monitor and assess the overall water quality of the Shatt al-Arab River.

  5. History of water quality parameters - a study on the Sinos River/Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konzen, G B; Figueiredo, J A S; Quevedo, D M

    2015-05-01

    Water is increasingly becoming a valuable resource, constituting one of the central themes of environmental, economic and social discussions. The Sinos River, located in southern Brazil, is the main river from the Sinos River Basin, representing a source of drinking water supply for a highly populated region. Considering its size and importance, it becomes necessary to conduct a study to follow up the water quality of this river, which is considered by some experts as one of the most polluted rivers in Brazil. As for this study, its great importance lies in the historical analysis of indicators. In this sense, we sought to develop aspects related to the management of water resources by performing a historical analysis of the Water Quality Index (WQI) of the Sinos River, using statistical methods. With regard to the methodological procedures, it should be pointed out that this study performs a time analysis of monitoring data on parameters related to a punctual measurement that is variable in time, using statistical tools. The data used refer to analyses of the water quality of the Sinos River (WQI) from the State Environmental Protection Agency Henrique Luiz Roessler (Fundação Estadual de Proteção Ambiental Henrique Luiz Roessler, FEPAM) covering the period between 2000 and 2008, as well as to a theoretical analysis focusing on the management of water resources. The study of WQI and its parameters by statistical analysis has shown to be effective, ensuring its effectiveness as a tool for the management of water resources. The descriptive analysis of the WQI and its parameters showed that the water quality of the Sinos River is concerning low, which reaffirms that it is one of the most polluted rivers in Brazil. It should be highlighted that there was an overall difficulty in obtaining data with the appropriate periodicity, as well as a long complete series, which limited the conduction of statistical studies such as the present one.

  6. History of water quality parameters – a study on the Sinos River/Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GB Konzen

    Full Text Available Water is increasingly becoming a valuable resource, constituting one of the central themes of environmental, economic and social discussions. The Sinos River, located in southern Brazil, is the main river from the Sinos River Basin, representing a source of drinking water supply for a highly populated region. Considering its size and importance, it becomes necessary to conduct a study to follow up the water quality of this river, which is considered by some experts as one of the most polluted rivers in Brazil. As for this study, its great importance lies in the historical analysis of indicators. In this sense, we sought to develop aspects related to the management of water resources by performing a historical analysis of the Water Quality Index (WQI of the Sinos River, using statistical methods. With regard to the methodological procedures, it should be pointed out that this study performs a time analysis of monitoring data on parameters related to a punctual measurement that is variable in time, using statistical tools. The data used refer to analyses of the water quality of the Sinos River (WQI from the State Environmental Protection Agency Henrique Luiz Roessler (Fundação Estadual de Proteção Ambiental Henrique Luiz Roessler, FEPAM covering the period between 2000 and 2008, as well as to a theoretical analysis focusing on the management of water resources. The study of WQI and its parameters by statistical analysis has shown to be effective, ensuring its effectiveness as a tool for the management of water resources. The descriptive analysis of the WQI and its parameters showed that the water quality of the Sinos River is concerning low, which reaffirms that it is one of the most polluted rivers in Brazil. It should be highlighted that there was an overall difficulty in obtaining data with the appropriate periodicity, as well as a long complete series, which limited the conduction of statistical studies such as the present one.

  7. Surface-water sampling stations, National Water-Quality Assessment, Yellowstone River Basin, Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, an investigation of the Yellowstone River Basin study unit is being conducted to...

  8. Modeling Possible Cooling-Water Intake System Impacts on Ohio River Fish Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, Elgin; Seegert, Greg; Vondruska, Joe; Lohner, Timothy; Lewis, Randy

    2002-01-01

    To assess the possible impacts caused by cooling-water intake system entrainment and impingement losses, populations of six target fish species near power plants on the Ohio River were modeled. A Leslie matrix model was constructed to allow an evaluation of bluegill, freshwater drum, emerald shiner, gizzard shad, sauger, and white bass populations within five river pools. Site-specific information on fish abundance and length-frequency distribution was obtained from long-term Ohio River Ecolo...

  9. Reconnaissance of the Pere Marquette River, a cold water river in the central part of Michigan's Southern Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, G.E.; Doonan, C.J.

    1971-01-01

    The cold-water streams of the northern states provide unique recreational values to the American people (wilderness or semi-wilderness atmosphere, fast-water canoeing, and trout fishing) but the expanding recreational needs must be balanced against the growing demand of water for public and industrial supplies, for irrigation, and for the dilution of sewage and other wastes. In order to make intelligent decisions regarding use and management of the water resource for recreation and other demands, an analysis of the hydrologic factors related to recreational values is essential.The Pere Marquette, an outstanding river for brown and steelhead trout fishing, is also a popular canoe trail. Larger boats, some equipped with motors, are common in the lower reaches where the river is wide and deep. Cabins are abundant on the river near Baldwin but are relatively sparse elsewhere. The broad swampy floodplain that borders most of the river between Walhalla and Ludington apparently offers few favorable cabin sites.The Pere Marquette is located in the west-central part of the Southern Peninsula of Michigan, and flows westward from the headwaters near Chase in Lake County to the mouth at Ludington, in Mason County. The river is south of, and roughly parallel to, U.S. Highway 10 from Chase to Ludington. Access to the river is by roads leading south from U.S. 10 at Nirvana, Idlewild, Baldwin, Branch, Walhalla, Scottville, and many intermediate points.The recreational value of the river depends on the streamflow characteristics, quality of water, and character of stream channel and bed and banks. The purpose of this report is to describe these characteristics and show how they relate to recreational USGS.Most of the information presented here was obtained from a field reconnaissance in July and August, 1966, and from basic records of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water Resources Division. The area of field study is limited to the channel, bed, and banks of the Middle Branch and

  10. Reconnaissance of the Pigeon River, a cold-water river in the north-central part of Michigan's southern peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, G.E.; Doonan, C.J.

    1970-01-01

    The cold-water streams of the northern states provide unique recreational values to the American people (wilderness or semi-wilderness atmosphere, fast-water canoeing, and trout fishing), but the expanding recreational needs must be balanced against the growing demand of water for public and industrial supplies, for irrigation, and for the dilution of sewage and other wastes. In order to make intelligent decisions regarding use and management of the water resource for recreation and other demands, an analysis of the hydrologic factors related to recreational values is essential.The Pigeon River is one of Michigan's outstanding trout streams and is the favorite of a large number of anglers who return year after year. Camping is also popular and is usually, but not always, associated with fishing. Boating is very rare on the Pigeon because of numerous portages around log jams. Cabin-living and resorting are relatively minor on this river as yet, but much of the private river front may be developed in future years.The Pigeon is located in the north-central part of the southern peninsula of Michigan (see index map). Headwaters are a few miles northeast of Gaylord, and the mouth is at Mullet Lake, a few miles northeast of Indian River. Interstate Highway 75 roughly parallels the river about 5 to 10 miles to the west. Exits from this highway at Gaylord, Vanderbilt, Wolverine, and Indian River, provide easy access to the Pigeon.The recreational value of the river depends on the streamflow characteristics, quality of water, and character of stream channel, and bed and banks. The purpose of this atlas is to describe these characteristics, and to show how they relate to recreational uses.Most of the information presented here was obtained from a field reconnaissance in June, 1966, and from basic records of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water Resources Division. The area of field study is limited to the channel, bed, and banks of the main stem of the Pigeon from source to

  11. GRACE-based estimates of water discharge over the Yellow River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As critical component of hydrologic cycle, basin discharge is a key issue for understanding the hydrological and climatologic related to water and energy cycles. Combining GRACE gravity field models with ET from GLDAS models and precipitation from GPCP, discharge of the Yellow River basin are estimated from the water balance equation. While comparing the results with discharge from GLDAS model and in situ measurements, the results reveal that discharge from Mosaic and CLM GLDAS model can partially represent the river discharge and the discharge estimation from water balance equation could reflect the discharge from precipitation over the Yellow River basin.

  12. Determination of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane in river water and final effluent by headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparham, Chris; Van Egmond, Roger; O'Connor, Sean; Hastie, Colin; Whelan, Mick; Kanda, Rakesh; Franklin, Oliver

    2008-11-28

    A method is described for the analysis of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D(5)) in river water and treated waste water using headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Internal standard addition to samples and field blanks was carried out in the field to provide both a measure of recovery and to prevent any exposure of samples to laboratory air, which contained background levels of D(5). Measured levels of D(5) were typically in the range River Great Ouse (UK) with slightly higher levels in the River Nene (UK). The measured concentration of D(5) in treated waste water varied between 31 and 400ngL(-1), depending on the type of treatment process employed.

  13. Aerial photographic water color variations from pollution in the James River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressette, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    A photographic flight was made over the James River on May 17, 1977. The data show that, in general, James River water has very high sunlight reflectance. In the Bailey Bay area this reflectance is drastically reduced. Also shown is a technique for normalizing off-axis variations in radiance film exposure from camera falloff and uneven sunlight conditions to the nadir value. After data normalization, a spectral analysis is performed that identifies Bailey Creek water in James River water. The spectral results when compared with laboratory spectrometer data indicate that reflectance from James River water is dominated by suspended matter, while the substance most likely responsible for reduced reflectance in Bailey Creek water is dissolved organic carbon.

  14. Field Summary Report for Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington, Collection of Surface Water, River Sediments, and Island Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. C. Hulstrom

    2009-09-28

    This report has been prepared in support of the remedial investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River and describes the 2008/2009 data collection efforts. This report documents field activities associated with collection of sediment, river water, and soil in and adjacent to the Columbia River near the Hanford Site and in nearby tributaries.

  15. Wastewater discharge impact on drinking water sources along the Yangtze River (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuomin; Shao, Dongguo; Westerhoff, Paul

    2017-12-01

    Unplanned indirect (de facto) wastewater reuse occurs when wastewater is discharged into surface waters upstream of potable drinking water treatment plant intakes. This paper aims to predict percentages and trends of de facto reuse throughout the Yangtze River watershed in order to understand the relative contribution of wastewater discharges into the river and its tributaries towards averting water scarcity concerns. The Yangtze River is the third longest in the world and supports more than 1/15 of the world's population, yet the importance of wastewater on the river remains ill-defined. Municipal wastewater produced in the Yangtze River Basin increased by 41% between 1998 and 2014, from 2580m3/s to 3646m3/s. Under low flow conditions in the Yangtze River near Shanghai, treated wastewater contributions to river flows increased from 8% in 1998 to 14% in 2014. The highest levels of de facto reuse appeared along a major tributary (Han River) of the Yangtze River, where de facto reuse can exceed 20%. While this initial analysis of de facto reuse used water supply and wastewater data from 110 cities in the basin and 11 gauging stations with >50years of historic streamflow data, the outcome was limited by the lack of gauging stations at more locations (i.e., data had to be predicted using digital elevation mapping) and lack of precise geospatial location of drinking water intakes or wastewater discharges. This limited the predictive capability of the model relative to larger datasets available in other countries (e.g., USA). This assessment is the first analysis of de facto wastewater reuse in the Yangtze River Basin. It will help identify sections of the river at higher risk for wastewater-related pollutants due to presence of-and reliance on-wastewater discharge that could be the focus of field studies and model predictions of higher spatial and temporal resolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Case study on rehabilitation of a polluted urban water body in Yangtze River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Cheng, Shuiping; Li, Zhu; Guo, Weijie; Zhong, Fei; Yin, Daqiang

    2013-10-01

    In the past three decades, the fast development of economy and urbanization has caused increasingly severe pollutions of urban water bodies in China. Consequently, eutrophication and deterioration of aquatic ecosystem, which is especially significant for aquatic vegetation, inevitably became a pervasive problem across the Yangtze River Basin. To rehabilitate the degraded urban water bodies, vegetation replanting is an important issue to improve water quality and to rehabilitate ecosystem. As a case study, a representative polluted urban river, Nanfeihe River, in Hefei City, Anhui Province, was chosen to be a rehabilitation target. In October 2009 and May 2010, 13 species of indigenous and prevalent macrophytes, including seven species emergent, one species floating leaved, and five species submersed macrophytes, were planted along the bank slopes and in the river. Through 1.5 years' replanting practice, the water quality and biodiversity of the river had been improved. The concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and ammonia nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N) declined by 46.0, 39.5, and 60.4 %, respectively. The species of macrophytes increased from 14 to 60, and the biodiversity of phytoplankton rose significantly in the river (p<0.05). The biomasses of zooplankton and benthos were also improved after the vegetation replanting. The study confirmed that vegetation replanting could alleviate the increasing water pollution and rehabilitate the degraded aquatic ecosystem. The case study would be an example for polluted urban waters restoration in the middle-downstream area of Yangtze River Base.

  17. WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION OF PANCHAGANGA RIVER USING MATLAB

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Riyaj K. Mulla* and Mr. Shrikant M. Bhosale

    2016-01-01

    Panchaganga River is now facing serious problem of pollution and in present situation continuous analysis is needed to control pollution of Panchaganga River. Pollution of Panchaganga River is observed because of disposal of untreated municipal sewage and industrial effluent through various Streams. Time and money for manpower and chemical is needed for continuous sampling work. MATLAB is an interactive software that allows implementation of algorithm, graphics and creation of user interface ...

  18. Prospects for Learning in River Management: Exploring the Initial Implementation of the Water Framework Directive in a Swedish River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundmark, Carina; Jonsson, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    This case study explores the initial implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) in the Lule River basin, Sweden, examining how and to what extent administrative procedures enable learning through dialogue and stakeholder collaboration. Theorising on adaptive co-management and social learning is used to structure what is to be learnt,…

  19. Optimization of ground-water withdrawal in the lower Fox River communities, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J.F.; Saad, D.A.; Krohelski, J.T.

    1998-01-01

    Pumping from closely spaced wells in the Central Brown County area and the Fox Cities area near the north shore of Lake Winnebago has resulted in the formation of deep cones of depression in the vicinity of the two pumping centers. Water-level measurements indicate there has been a steady decline in water levels in the vicinity of these two pumping centers for the past 50 years. This report describes the use of ground-water optimization modeling to efficiently allocate the ground-water resources in the Lower Fox River Valley. A 3-dimensional ground-water flow model was used along with optimization techniques to determine the optimal withdrawal rates for a variety of management alternatives. The simulations were conducted separately for the Central Brown County area and the Fox Cities area. For all simulations, the objective of the optimization was to maximize total ground-water withdrawals. The results indicate that ground water can supply nearly all of the projected 2030 demand for Central Brown County municipalities if all of the wells are managed (including the city of Green Bay), 8 new wells are installed, and the water-levels are allowed to decline to 100 ft below the bottom of the confining unit. Ground water can supply nearly all of the projected 2030 demand for the Fox Cities if the municipalities in Central Brown County convert to surface water; if Central Brown County municipalities follow the optimized strategy described above, there will be a considerable shortfall of available ground water for the Fox Cities communities. Relaxing the water-level constraint in a few wells, however, would likely result in increased availability of water. In all cases examined, optimization alternatives result in a rebound of the steady-state water levels due to projected 2030 withdrawal rates to levels at or near the bottom of the confining unit, resulting in increased well capacity. Because the simulations are steady-state, if all of the conditions of the model remain

  20. Chemical quality of surface water in the Allegheny River basin, Pennsylvania and New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarren, Edward F.

    1967-01-01

    The Allegheny River is the principal source of water to many industries and to communities in the upper Ohio River Valley. The river and its many tributaries pass through 19 counties in northwestern and western Pennsylvania. The population in these counties exceeds 3 million. A major user of the Allegheny River is the city of Pittsburgh, which has a population greater than The Allegheny River is as basic to the economy of the upper Ohio River Valley in western Pennsylvania as are the rich deposits of bituminous coal, gas, and oil that underlie the drainage basin. During the past 5 years many streams that flow into the Allegheny have been low flowing because of droughts affecting much of the eastern United States. Consequently, the concentration of solutes in some streams has been unusually high because of wastes from coal mines and oil wells. These and other water-quality problems in the Allegheny River drainage basin are affecting the economic future of some areas in western Pennsylvania. Because of environmental factors such as climate, geology, and land and water uses, surface-water quality varies considerably throughout the river basin. The natural quality of headwater streams, for example, is affected by saltwater wastes from petroleum production. One of the streams most affected is Kinzua Creek, which had 2,900 parts per million chloride in a sample taken at Westline on September 2, 1959. However, after such streams as the Conewango, Brokenstraw, Tionesta, Oil, and French Creeks merge with the Allegheny River, the dissolved-solids and chloride concentrations are reduced by dilution. Central segments of the main river receive water from the Clarion River, Redbank, Mahoning, and Crooked Creeks after they have crossed the coal fields of west-central Pennsylvania. At times, therefore, these streams carry coal-mine wastes that are acidic. The Kiskiminetas River, which crosses these coal fields, discharged sulfuric acid into the Allegheny at a rate of 299 tons a

  1. A fuzzy risk approach for seasonal water quality management of a river system.

    OpenAIRE

    Mujumdar, PP; K Sasikumar

    2002-01-01

    A fuzzy optimization model is developed for the seasonal water quality management of river systems. The model addresses the uncertainty in a water quality system in a fuzzy probability framework. The occurrence of low water quality is treated as a fuzzy event. Randomness associated with the water quality indicator is linked to this fuzzy event using the concept of probability of a fuzzy event. In most water quality management models the risk level for violation of a water quality standard is ...

  2. Physico-chemical and biological studies on water from Aries River (Romania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butiuc-Keul, A; Momeu, L; Craciunas, C; Dobrota, C; Cuna, S; Balas, G

    2012-03-01

    Our work was focused on physico-chemical and biological characteristics of Aries River, one of the largest rivers from Romania. Water samples were collected from 11 sites along Aries River course. We have measured de (18)O and D isotopic composition of Aries River water in these locations and correlated these data with the isotopic composition of aquatic plants and with the pollution degree. Some ions from Aries River water were also analyzed: NO(3)(-), NO(2)(-), PO(4)(3-) Cu(2+), Fe(3+). Analysis of diatom communities has been performed in order to quantify the level of water pollution of Aries River. All physico-chemical analyses revealed that the most polluted site is Abrud; the source of pollution is most probably the mining enterprise from Rosia Montana. Water isotope content increases from upstream to downstream of the locations analyzed. The structure of diatom communities is strongly influenced by the different pollution sources from this area: mine waters, industrial waters, waste products, land cleaning, tourism etc. The water eutrophication increases from upstream of Campeni to downstream of Campia Turzii. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Temporal water quality response in an urban river: a case study in peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    VishnuRadhan, Renjith; Zainudin, Zaki; Sreekanth, G. B.; Dhiman, Ravinder; Salleh, Mohd. Noor; Vethamony, P.

    2017-05-01

    Ambient water quality is a prerequisite for the health and self-purification capacity of riverine ecosystems. To understand the general water quality situation, the time series data of selected water quality parameters were analyzed in an urban river in Peninsular Malaysia. In this regard, the stations were selected from the main stem of the river as well as from the side channel. The stations located at the main stem of the river are less polluted than that in the side channel. Water Quality Index scores indicated that the side channel station is the most polluted, breaching the Class IV water quality criteria threshold during the monitoring period, followed by stations at the river mouth and the main channel. The effect of immediate anthropogenic waste input is also evident at the side channel station. The Organic Pollution Index of side channel station is (14.99) 3 times higher than at stations at river mouth (4.11) and 6 times higher than at the main channel (2.57). The two-way ANOVA showed significant difference among different stations. Further, the factor analysis on water quality parameters yielded two significant factors. They discriminated the stations into two groups. The land-use land cover classification of the study area shows that the region near the sampling sites is dominated by urban settlements (33.23 %) and this can contribute significantly to the deterioration of ambient river water quality. The present study estimated the water quality condition and response in the river and the study can be an immediate yardstick for base lining river water quality, and a basis for future water quality modeling studies in the region.

  4. Spatial patterns of water quality in Xingu River Basin (Amazonia prior to the Belo Monte dam impoundment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JL. Rodrigues-Filho

    Full Text Available Abstract The Xingu River, one of the most important of the Amazon Basin, is characterized by clear and transparent waters that drain a 509.685 km2 watershed with distinct hydrological and ecological conditions and anthropogenic pressures along its course. As in other basins of the Amazon system, studies in the Xingu are scarce. Furthermore, the eminent construction of the Belo Monte for hydropower production, which will alter the environmental conditions in the basin in its lower middle portion, denotes high importance of studies that generate relevant information that may subsidize a more balanced and equitable development in the Amazon region. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the water quality in the Xingu River and its tributaries focusing on spatial patterns by the use of multivariate statistical techniques, identifying which water quality parameters were more important for the environmental changes in the watershed. Data sampling were carried out during two complete hydrological cycles in twenty-five sampling stations. The data of twenty seven variables were analyzed by Spearman's correlation coefficients, cluster analysis (CA, and principal component analysis (PCA. The results showed a high auto-correlation between variables (> 0.7. These variables were removed from multivariate analyzes because they provided redundant information about the environment. The CA resulted in the formation of six clusters, which were clearly observed in the PCA and were characterized by different water quality. The statistical results allowed to identify a high spatial variation in the water quality, which were related to specific features of the environment, different uses, influences of anthropogenic activities and geochemical characteristics of the drained basins. It was also demonstrated that most of the sampling stations in the Xingu River basin showed good water quality, due to the absence of local impacts and high power of depuration of the

  5. Water supplies in some rural communities around Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria: bacteriology of drinking waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, A A

    2005-07-01

    Several communities in Nigeria exist without regular water supplies of good quality and quantity. Despite this situation, successive governments have tended to ignore the problem. The water supplies to two rural communities 7-8 km north of Calabar, Cross River State of Nigeria, were examined bacteriologically using standard indicator bacteria (coliforms and streptococci). A contiguous community supplied with treated piped water was also studied in parallel. The rural water supplied was found to be bacteriologically unsatisfactory, having failed to meet the international standards for drinking water as set by the WHO. The geometric mean bacterial counts per 100 ml of serial samples from six sources ranged from 0.12 x 10(1) to 1.57 x 10(2) for fecal coliforms (E. col) and 0.05 x 10(1) to 7.5 x 10(1) for the fecal streptococci. Fecal streptococci were particularly recovered in large numbers from one source (Ayip Asikimangfuk) at concentrations of up to 3.0 x 10(2) per 100 ml at the onset of the rains. The water supplies from the community with piped water were, in general, bacteriologically satisfactory; fecal coliforms were found only in occasional samples (0.12 x 10(1)/100 ml).

  6. Cluster formation and percolation in ethanol-water mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gereben, Orsolya; Pusztai, László

    2017-10-01

    Results of systematic molecular dynamics studies of ethanol-water mixtures, over the entire concentration range, were reported previously that agree with experimental X-ray diffraction data. These simulated systems are analyzed in this work to examine cluster formation and percolation, using four different hydrogen bond definitions. Percolation analyses revealed that each mixture (even the one containing 80 mol% ethanol) is above the 3D percolation threshold, with fractal dimensions, df, between 2.6 and 2.9, depending on concentration. Monotype water cluster formation was also studied in the mixtures: 3D water percolation can be found in systems with less than 40 mol% ethanol, with fractal dimensions between 2.53 and 2.84. These observations can be put in parallel with experimental data on some thermodynamic quantities, such as the excess partial molar enthalpy and entropy.

  7. Pore-Water Chemistry and Hydrology in a Spring-Fed River: Implications for Hyporheic Control of Nutrient Cycling and Speleogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, M. J.; Martin, J. B.; Cohen, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    Hyporheic exchange is important for nutrient cycling in rivers, but little is known about the magnitude of this process in karst systems or its influence on speleogenesis and the formation of river channels. We use four pore-water depth profiles to assess nutrient and carbonate processing in the hyporheic zone (HZ) of the Ichetucknee River (north-central, Florida). Co-located pairs of stilling wells equipped with conductivity, temperature, depth (CTD) sensors are used to continuously monitor the hydraulic gradients within the HZ to determine flow directions and temporal variability of groundwater exchange. The Ichetucknee River is sourced from six major and numerous small springs which discharge from the karstic Floridan Aquifer. Downstream and diel variations in nitrate concentrations, specific conductivity and calcite saturation state reflect in-stream processing, but hyporheic exchange should also influence the overall dynamics of nutrient and carbonate fluxes in the river. Our depth profiles and stilling wells are located at four sites in a cross-channel transect and extend through unconsolidated sediment to the solid carbonate of the Floridan Aquifer 35-156 cm below the river bed. Decreasing DOC, pH, and DO concentrations and increased DIC are indicative of organic carbon remineralization in the shallow sediments. Increasing alkalinity, Ca concentrations, specific conductivity and decreasing calcite saturation state indicate carbonate dissolution being driven by the decreasing pH. Decreasing nitrate concentrations indicate denitrification and increasing phosphate concentration could be a result of carbonate dissolution or OC remineralization. Most of these changes appear to occur in the upper 60cm of sediment, below which many concentrations return to values observed in the groundwater, suggesting water discharges from the Floridan Aquifer at the base of the sediment. Hydraulic head is higher in the pore waters than the river indicating groundwater then

  8. Trend Analysis of Raw Water Parameters in River Benue at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study ascertained the extent of pollution of the water body of river Benue at the reach of Makurdi. ... and some laboratory analysis were used to estimate the trend of Escherichia Coli (E.coli), Biochemical oxygen Demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in river Benue at the reach of Makurdi, Benue State.

  9. effect of petroleum waste water on new calabar river and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH EKWUEME

    Effect of petroleum waste water on New Calabar River and its sediments in Buguma, Rivers State of Nigeria, was investigated. ... downstream 1 and 11. Some physico-chemical properties [pH, temperature, turbidity, conductivity, and salinity] were ..... utilizing bacteria in Nigerian Soils contaminated with spent motor oil.

  10. The impact of industries on surface water quality of River Ona and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-09-09

    Sep 9, 2010 ... The impact of industries on surface water quality of. River Ona and River Alaro in Oluyole Industrial Estate,. Ibadan, Nigeria. Oladele Osibanjo1, Adegbenro P. Daso1,2* and Adewole M. Gbadebo3. 1Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. 2Department of Environmental ...

  11. Determination of the water and sediment quality of the Ellah river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physicochemical characteristics and heavy metal levels in water samples and sediments from the Ellah River in Esan South East Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria were investigated to assess the quality status of the river. Four sampling stations were chosen from upstream (station 1), the bridge (station 2) ...

  12. Water quality of the rivers Mandovi and Zuari during 1977-78

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.; Singbal, S.Y.S.

    A study over a period of twelve months for the different indicators of water quality was carried out in the rivers Mandovi and Zuari from October 1977 to September 1978. The study covered observations in both the rivers from close to the source...

  13. Reducing future river export of nutrients to coastal waters of China in optimistic scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strokal, Maryna; Kroeze, Carolien; Wang, Mengru; Ma, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Coastal waters of China are rich in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) and thus often eutrophied. This is because rivers export increasing amounts of nutrients to coastal seas. Animal production and urbanization are important sources of nutrients in Chinese rivers. In this study we explored the

  14. Water quality studies on two irrigation-associated rivers in southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The water quality of two rivers, Ayensu and Okyi-Amisa, associated with irrigation in southern Ghana were assessed in a bid to determine impacts downstream of the irrigated farmlands. Both have man-made reservoirs on their tributaries which flow under gravity into farmlands before entering the main river. A variety of ...

  15. Geology of the Sabie River Basalt Formation in the Southern Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Sweeney

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available The Sabie River Basalt Formation (SRBF in the central Lebombo is a virtually continuous sequence of basaltic lavas some 2 500 m thick that was erupted 200 - 179 Ma ago. Flows are dominantly pahoehoe in character and vary from 2 m to 20 m in thickness. Dolerite dykes cross-cutting the basalt sequence probably represent feeders to this considerable volcanic event. Volcanological features observed within the SRBF are described. Two chemically distinct basaltic magma types are recognised, the simultaneous eruption of which presents an intriguing geochemical problem as to their origins.

  16. The Triassic Santa Juana Formation at the lower Biobío River, south central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Sven N.

    2005-09-01

    A sequence of Triassic rocks is exposed near the town of Concepción, Chile. These clastic strata are interpreted as the deposits of rivers, lakes, playas, and alluvial fans. The deposits comprise conglomerates, arkosic sandstones, and sand-, silt- and mudstones. Four facies associations comprising eight sedimentary facies can be distinguished. Plant fossils from the sedimentary sequence of the Santa Juana Formation indicate a Carnian age. The flora includes ferns ( Gleichenites, Cladophlebis, Dictyophyllum, Thaumatopteris, Asterotheca, Saportaea) and seed ferns ( Kurtziana, Antevsia, Dicroidium), ginkgophytes ( Sphenobaiera), cycads ( Pseudoctenis), conifers ( Heidiphyllum, Telemachus, Rissikia), and gymnosperms of uncertain affinities ( Linguifolium, Gontriglossa). Two new species are presented: Pseudoctenis santajuanensis and Gontriglossa reinerae.

  17. The assessment of khorramabad River water quality with National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index and Zoning by GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abdolrahim Yusefzadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background : Rivers are a fraction of flowing waters in the worlds and one of the important sources of water for different consumptions such as agricultural, drinking and industrial uses. The aim of this study was to assess water quality of the Khorramrood River in Khorramabad by NSFWQI index. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, quality parameters needed for NASWQI index calculation such as BOD5, dissolved oxygen (DO, total nitrate, fecal coliform, pH, total phosphate, temperature, turbidity and total suspended solids content were measured for six months (from July to December 2012using standard methods at six selected stations. The river zoning conducted by GIS software. Results: According to the results obtained through this study, the highest and the lowest water quality value was observed in stations 1 and 6 with NSFWQI indexes 82 water with good quality, 42 water with bad quality, respectively. With moving toward last station (from 1 to 6 station water pollution increased. Conclusion: Results of the study indicated that water quality index NSFWQI is a good index to identify the effect of polluter sources on the river water. Based on the average of the index NSFWQI, water quality in station one was good, in the second, third and fourth stations were mediocre and the fifth and sixth stations had bad quality. These results allow to make decisions about monitoring and controlling water pollution sources, as well as provide different efficient uses of it by relevant authorities.

  18. The Water Quality of the River Enborne, UK: Observations from High-Frequency Monitoring in a Rural, Lowland River System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Halliday

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a 2-year study of water quality in the River Enborne, a rural river in lowland England. Concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus species and other chemical determinands were monitored both at high-frequency (hourly, using automated in situ instrumentation, and by manual weekly sampling and laboratory analysis. The catchment land use is largely agricultural, with a population density of 123 persons km−2. The river water is largely derived from calcareous groundwater, and there are high nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. Agricultural fertiliser is the dominant source of annual loads of both nitrogen and phosphorus. However, the data show that sewage effluent discharges have a disproportionate effect on the river nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics. At least 38% of the catchment population use septic tank systems, but the effects are hard to quantify as only 6% are officially registered, and the characteristics of the others are unknown. Only 4% of the phosphorus input and 9% of the nitrogen input is exported from the catchment by the river, highlighting the importance of catchment process understanding in predicting nutrient concentrations. High-frequency monitoring will be a key to developing this vital process understanding.

  19. Effects of Coordinated Operation of Weirs and Reservoirs on the Water Quality of the Geum River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Min Ahn

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Multifunctional weirs can be used to maintain water supply during dry seasons and to improve downstream water quality during drought conditions through discharge based on retained flux. Sixteen multifunctional weirs were recently constructed in four river systems as part of the Four Rivers Restoration Project. In this study, three multifunctional weirs in the Geum River Basin were investigated to analyze the environmental effects of multifunctional weir operation on downstream flow. To determine seasonal vulnerability to drought, the basin was evaluated using the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI. Furthermore, the downstream flow regime and the effect on water quality improvement of a coordinated dam–multifunctional weir operation controlled by: (a a rainfall–runoff model; (b a reservoir optimization model; and (c a water quality model, were examined. A runoff estimate at each major location in the Geum River Basin was performed using the water quality model, and examined variation in downstream water quality depending on the operational scenario of each irrigation facility such as dams and weirs. Although the water quality was improved by the coordinated operation of the dams and weirs, when the discharged water quality is poor, the downstream water quality is not improved. Therefore, it is necessary to first improve the discharged water quality on the lower Geum River. Improvement of the water quality of main stream in the Geum River is important, but water quality from tributaries should also be improved. By applying the estimated runoff data to the reservoir optimization model, these scenarios will be utilized as basic parameters for assessing the optimal operation of the river.

  20. Occurrence, molecular characterization and antibiogram of water quality indicator bacteria in river water serving a water treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Benedict C; Thomson, M Sue; Moss, Elica M

    2011-11-01

    Water pollution by microorganisms of fecal origin is a current world-wide public health concern. Total coliforms, fecal coliforms (Escherichia coli) and enterococci are indicators commonly used to assess the microbiological safety of water resources. In this study, influent water samples and treated water were collected seasonally from a water treatment plant and two major water wells in a Black Belt county of Alabama and evaluated for water quality indicator bacteria. Influent river water samples serving the treatment plant were positive for total coliforms, fecal coliforms (E. coli), and enterococci. The highest number of total coliform most probable number (MPN) was observed in the winter (847.5 MPN/100 mL) and the lowest number in the summer (385.6 MPN/100 mL). Similarly E. coli MPN was substantially higher in the winter (62.25 MPN/100 mL). Seasonal variation of E. coli MPN in influent river water samples was strongly correlated with color (R(2)=0.998) and turbidity (R(2)=0.992). Neither E. coli nor other coliform type bacteria were detected in effluent potable water from the treatment plant. The MPN of enterococci was the highest in the fall and the lowest in the winter. Approximately 99.7 and 51.5 enterococci MPN/100 mL were recorded in fall and winter seasons respectively. One-way ANOVA tests revealed significant differences in seasonal variation of total coliforms (Pcoliforms (Pcoliform bacteria selected by differential screening on Coliscan Easygel were identified by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis. E. coli isolates were sensitive to gentamicin, trimethoprim/sulfamethazole, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, cefixime, and nitrofurantoin. Nonetheless, isolate BO-54 displayed decreased sensitivity compared to other E. coli isolates. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern can be employed in microbial source tracking. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Seasonal variation in the nature of DOM in a river and drinking water reservoir of a closed catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, John; van Leeuwen, John; Chow, Christopher W K; Smernik, Ronald J; Anderson, Sharolyn J; Cox, Jim W

    2017-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in surface waters used for drinking purposes can vary markedly in character depending on its source within catchments and the timing and intensity of rainfall events. Here we report the findings of a study on the character and concentration of DOM in waters collected during different seasons from Myponga River and Reservoir, South Australia. The character of DOM was assessed in terms of its treatability by enhanced coagulation and potential for disinfection by-product i.e. trihalomethane (THM) formation. During the wet seasons (winter and spring), water samples from the river had higher DOC concentrations (X¯: 21 mg/L) and DOM of higher average molecular weight (AMW: 1526 Da) than waters collected during the dry seasons (summer and autumn: DOC: 13 mg/L; AMW: 1385 Da). Even though these features led to an increase in the percentage removal of organics by coagulation with alum (64% for wet compared with 53% for dry season samples) and a lower alum dose rate (10 versus 15 mg alum/mg DOC removal), there was a higher THM formation potential (THMFP) from wet season waters (treated waters: 217 μg/L vs 172 μg/L). For reservoir waters, samples collected during the wet seasons had an average DOC concentration (X¯: 15 mg/L), percentage removal of organics by alum (54%), alum dose rates (13 mg/mg DOC) and THMFP (treated waters: 207 μg/L) that were similar to samples collected during the dry seasons (mean DOC: 15 mg/L; removal of organics: 52%; alum dose rate: 13 mg/mg DOC; THMFP: 212 μg/L for treated waters). These results show that DOM present in river waters and treatability by alum are highly impacted by seasonal environmental variations. However these in reservoir waters exhibit less seasonal variability. Storage of large volumes of water in the reservoir enables mixing of influent waters and stabilization of water quality. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Stratigraphy and depositional environments of the upper Pleistocene Chemehuevi Formation along the lower Colorado River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmon, Daniel V.; Howard, Keith A.; House, P. Kyle; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Pearthree, Philip A.; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei M.; Wan, Elmira; Wahl, David B.

    2011-01-01

    The Chemehuevi Formation forms a conspicuous, widespread, and correlative set of nonmarine sediments lining the valleys of the Colorado River and several of its larger tributaries in the Basin and Range geologic province. These sediments have been examined by geologists since J. S. Newberry visited the region in 1857 and are widely cited in the geologic literature; however their origin remains unresolved and their stratigraphic context has been confused by inconsistent nomenclature and by conflicting interpretations of their origin. This is one of the most prominent stratigraphic units along the river below the Grand Canyon, and the formation records an important event or set of events in the history of the Colorado River. Here we summarize what is known about these deposits throughout their range, present new stratigraphic, sedimentologic, topographic, and tephrochronologic data, and formally define them as a lithostratigraphic unit. The Chemehuevi Formation consists primarily of a bluff-forming mud facies, consisting of gypsum-bearing, horizontally bedded sand, silt, and clay, and a slope-forming sand facies containing poorly bedded, well sorted, quartz rich sand and scattered gravel. The sedimentary characteristics and fossil assemblages of the two facies types suggest that they were deposited in flood plain and channel environments, respectively. In addition to these two primary facies, we identify three other mappable facies in the formation: a thick-bedded rhythmite facies, now drowned by Lake Mead; a valley-margin facies containing abundant locally derived sediment; and several tributary facies consisting of mixed fluvial and lacustrine deposits in the lower parts of major tributary valleys. Observations from the subsurface and at outcrops near the elevation of the modern flood plain suggest that the formation also contains a regional basal gravel member. Surveys of numerous outcrops using high-precision GPS demonstrate that although the sand facies commonly

  3. Single-Beam Bathymetry Sounding Data of Loxahatcheee and St. Lucie Rivers, Florida (2003) in XYZ format

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Loxahatchee River and estuary is a small (544 square miles), shallow, water body located in Southeastern Florida that empties into the Atlantic Ocean at Jupiter...

  4. Water quality assessment in terms of water quality index (WQI): case study of the Kolong River, Assam, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Minakshi; Goswami, Dulal C.

    2017-10-01

    The Kolong River of Nagaon district, Assam has been facing serious degradation leading to its current moribund condition due to a drastic human intervention in the form of an embankment put across it near its take-off point from the Brahmaputra River in the year 1964. The blockage of the river flow was adopted as a flood control measure to protect its riparian areas, especially the Nagaon town, from flood hazard. The river, once a blooming distributary of the mighty Brahmaputra, had high navigability and rich riparian biodiversity with a well established agriculturally productive watershed. However, the present status of Kolong River is highly wretched as a consequence of the post-dam effects thus leaving it as stagnant pools of polluted water with negligible socio-economic and ecological value. The Central Pollution Control Board, in one of its report has placed the Kolong River among 275 most polluted rivers of India. Thus, this study is conducted to analyze the seasonal water quality status of the Kolong River in terms of water quality index (WQI). The WQI scores shows very poor to unsuitable quality of water samples in almost all the seven sampling sites along the Kolong River. The water quality is found to be most deteriorated during monsoon season with an average WQI value of 122.47 as compared to pre-monsoon and post-monsoon season having average WQI value of 85.73 and 80.75, respectively. Out of the seven sampling sites, Hatimura site (S1) and Nagaon Town site (S4) are observed to be the most polluted sites.

  5. Role of photoexcited nitrogen dioxide chemistry on ozone formation and emission control strategy over the Pearl River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new hydroxyl radical formation pathway via photo-excited nitrogen dioxide chemistry is incorporated into a chemistry-only box model as well as a 3D air quality model to examine its potential role on ozone formation and emission control strategy over the Pearl River Delta region...

  6. Hydrogeological modeling of water exchange between a river valley aquifer and the Colorado River at a riparian corridor of the Colorado River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Gonzalez, D.; Ramirez-Hernandez, J.; Zamora, F.

    2008-05-01

    The Colorado River Delta has shown a high capacity of regeneration in spite of the drastic reduction of the freshwater flows. This river has an important ecological value for the remaining ecosystems at the regional and continental level. It is not known when this river will present again surpluses of superficial water in the basin, as it happened in the decades of 1980 and 1990. The ecosystems of the Delta depend on the availability of groundwater to survive. The practices of blanket irrigation in the Valley of Mexicali have favored the vertical refill of the aquifer. Part of this water that infiltrates the ground is captured by the Colorado River (CR). As a consequence, even in years in which the CR has not received surpluses of superficial water low flow can be observed in the river, especially in the area of our study that comprises 12 km of the CR between the interception of the railroad with the river and the entrance to Carranza City. This low flow provides water to maintain the riparian vegetation of the zone. For this reason, it is important to know the hydrologic relationship between the river aquifer and the CR. The purpose of this work is to determine the volumes of water supplied by the aquifer to the riparian system and its relationship with the vegetation. Measurements of the fluctuations of the freatic level (FL) in 27 boreholes located in 8 cross sections during more than 2 years have been used for this study. The system was modelled using the program MODFLOW considering diverse water levels in the CR and flow exchange with the aquifer. The hydrogeological properties of the aquifer were found from slug tests and correlations with the textures of 100 soil samples. The modeling results allow to separate the zone of study in three sections. The first one extends 5km from the railroad to the south. In this section the CR receives water from the aquifer producing the observed water in the river bed all the year. The second section, of approximately 2 km

  7. Emergy evaluation of the natural value of water resources in Chinese rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dan; Chen, Jing; Luo, Zhaohui; Lv, Zhuwu

    2009-08-01

    Emergy theory and method were used to evaluate the economy of China and the contributions of water resources in Chinese rivers to the real wealth of the Chinese economy. The water cycle and energy conversion were reviewed, and an emergy method for evaluating the natural value of water resources in a river watershed was developed. The indices for China calculated from the emergy evaluation were close to those of developing countries. Despite a small surplus in its balance of payments, China had a net emergy loss from its trade in 2002. The efficiency of Chinese natural resource use was still not high and did not match its economic growth rate. Furthermore, the Chinese economy placed a stress on its ecological environment and natural resources. Several indices of Chinese rivers from the emergy evaluation were close to those of average global river water. The main average indices of Chinese rivers were transformity (4.17 x 10(4) sej/J), emergy per volume (2.05 x 10(11) sej/m(3)), and emdollar per volume (0.06 $/m(3)). The total value of all the rivers' water made up 13.0% of the GDP of China in 2002, and that of water consumption accounted for 2.1%. The value of the water resources in the Haiheluanhe River (11.39 x 10(4) sej/J) was the highest, followed by the Yellow River (10.27 x 10(4) sej/J), while the rivers in Southwest China had the lowest values (2.92 x 10(4) sej/J).

  8. Modelling of the Water Exchange between Shallow Groundwater and River during bank filtration and changing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weishi; Munz, Matthias; Oswald, Sascha E.

    2015-04-01

    The interaction of river water and groundwater is of importance for the hydrological cycle and water quality in rivers. Moreover, drinking water is often obtained by pumping groundwater in the direct vicinity of rivers, called bank filtration. Typically this implies a considerable dynamics, because changes in river water level and pumping activities will cause varying conditions, and in its effects modified by the local hydrogeology. Numerical modelling can be a tool to study spatial patterns and temporal changes. Often this is limited by model performance, uncertainty of geological structure and lack of sufficient observation values beyond water heads, for example water quality or temperature data. The aim of this research is to model the hydraulic conditions for transient conditions, including a period of substantial re-construction works in the river. Later this will then be used to include the temperature and other water quality data to improve the model performance. As shown from the geological information analysis, the majority of the water volume pumped is from the first and second aquifers, where a strong exchange between the river and groundwater can happen. The implementation of the geological structure is based on 7 main geological profiles and several scattered drilling wells of difference depths. A first model has been built in FEFLOW 6.2 as a steady fluid flow model, while the pilot-points auto-calibration method is used for estimating the hydraulic conductivity of different sediment types, based on water head information of 19 observation wells. Then a transient model during the year 2011-2013 is further calibrated based on estimated hydraulic conductivity. Furthermore, the observation wells are used to make a statistic analysis with the hydrograph of the river to clarify the correlation of changes in river to changes in groundwater.

  9. Ground-water resources of the Sevier River basin between Yuba Dam and Leamington Canyon, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, Louis Jay; Robinson, Gerald B.

    1968-01-01

    The area investigated is a segment of the Sevier River basin, Utah, comprising about 900 square miles and including a 19-mile reach of the Sevier River between Yuba Dam and Leamington Canyon. The larger valleys in the area are southern Juab, Round, and Scipio Valleys. The smaller valleys are Mills, Little, Dog, and Tinctic Wash Valleys.The geology of parts of Scipio, Little, and Mills Valleys and parts of the surrounding highlands was mapped and studied to explain the occurrence of numerous sinkholes in the thre valleys and to show their relation to the large springs in Mills Valley. The sinkholes, which are formed in the alluvium, are alined along faults, which penetrate both the alluvium and the underlying bedrock, and they have been formed by collapse of solution cavities in the underlying bedrock. The bedrock is mostly sandy limestone beds of the upper part of the North Horn Formation and of the Flagstaff Limestone. The numerous faults traversing Scipio Valley in a north-northeasterly direction trend directly toward Molter and Blue Springs in Mills Valley. One fault, which can be traced directly between the springs, probably is the principal channelway for the ground water moving from Scipio and Little Valleys to the springs.

  10. Surface-Water Quantity and Quality of the Upper Milwaukee River, Cedar Creek, and Root River Basins, Wisconsin, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David W.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Southeastern Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission (SEWRPC), collected discharge and water-quality data at nine sites in previously monitored areas of the upper Milwaukee River, Cedar Creek, and Root River Basins, in Wisconsin from May 1 through November 15, 2004. The data were collected for calibration of hydrological models that will be used to simulate how various management strategies will affect the water quality of streams. The data also will support SEWRPC and Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District (MMSD) managers in development of the SEWRPC Regional Water Quality Management Plan and the MMSD 2020 Facilities Plan. These management plans will provide a scientific basis for future management decisions regarding development and maintenance of public and private waste-disposal systems. In May 2004, parts of the study area received over 13 inches of precipitation (3.06 inches is normal). In June 2004, most of the study area received between 7 and 11 inches of rainfall (3.56 inches is normal). This excessive rainfall caused flooding throughout the study area and resultant high discharges were measured at all nine monitoring sites. For example, the mean daily discharge recorded at the Cedar Creek site on May 27, 2004, was 2,120 cubic feet per second. This discharge ranked ninth of the largest 10 mean daily discharges in the 75-year record, and was the highest discharge recorded since March 30, 1960. Discharge records from continuous monitoring on the Root River Canal near Franklin since October 1, 1963, indicated that the discharge recorded on May 23, 2004, ranked second highest on record, and was the highest discharge recorded since March 4, 1974. Water-quality samples were taken during two base-flow events and six storm events at each of the nine sites. Analysis of water-quality data indicated that most concentrations of dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, fecal coliform bacteria, chloride, suspended

  11. 78 FR 27033 - Safety Zone; High Water Conditions; Illinois River

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... temporary safety zone on the Illinois River from Mile Marker 187.2 to Mile Marker 285.9. This zone is... of Transportation, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington... established a safety zone on the Illinois River from Mile Marker 187.2 to Mile Marker 285.9 (see USCG-2013...

  12. Securing food and water in Pakistan's vulnerable Indus River basin ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-06-23

    Jun 23, 2014 ... The Indus River flows through the heart of Pakistan, weaving past mountains, forest, and desert to arrive at an impressive delta. This happens to be one of the principal river basins in South Asia, and one that is vulnerable to flood events.

  13. Water resources of the Roseau River Watershed, Northwestern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Thomas C.; Maclay, R.W.; Pike, G.M.

    1967-01-01

    The drainage area of the Roseau River consists of 2,060 square miles above its confluence with the Red River of the North. About 1,150 square miles lie in the United States and 910 square miles in Canada. This report deals only with that portion within the United States, except for a detailed analysis of low flow characteristics of tributary streams.

  14. A water framework directive (WFD) compliant determination of eologically acceptable flows in alpine rivers - a river type specific approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Paul; Zitek, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    Currently the EU-Water Framework Directive (WFD) represents the driving force behind the assessment for rehabilitation and conservation of aquatic resources throughout Europe. Hydropower production, often considered as "green energy", in the past has put significant pressures on river systems like fragmentation by weirs, impoundment, hydropeaking and water abstraction. Due to the limited availability of data for determining ecologically acceptable flow for rivers at water abstraction sites, a special monitoring program was conducted in the federal state of Salzburg in Austria from 2006 to 2009. Water abstraction sites at 19 hydropower plants, mostly within the trout region of the River Salzach catchment, were assessed in detail with regard to the effect of water abstraction on fish and macrozoobenthos. Based on a detailed assessment of the specific local hydro-morphological and biological situations, the validity of natural low flow criteria (Absolute Minimum Flow - AMF, the lowest daily average flow ever measured and Mean Annual Daily Low Flow - MADLF) as starting points for the determination of an ecologically acceptable flow was tested. It was assessed, if a good ecological status in accordance with the EU-WFD can be maintained at natural AMF. Additionally it was tested, if important habitat parameters describing connectivity, river type specific flow variability and river type specific habitats are maintained at this discharge. Habitat modelling was applied in some situations. Hydraulic results showed that at AMF the highest flow velocity classes were lost in most situations. When AMF was significantly undercut, flow velocities between 0,0 - 0,4 m/s became dominant, describing the loss of the river type specific flow character, leading to a loss of river type specific flow variability and habitats and increased sedimentation of fines. Furthermore limits for parameters describing connectivity for fish like maximum depth at the pessimum profile and minimum flow

  15. The influence of land-use patterns in the Ruvu river watershed on water quality in the river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoye, Elizabeth; Machiwa, John F.

    This work assessed the impacts of land-use patterns in the Ruvu river basin on water quality in the river system. Seasonal changes in water quality parameters were also investigated. Ten river water-sampling stations were selected and samples were collected and analysed according to standard analytical procedures. The results showed that physico-chemical parameters of river water ranged as follows: pH, from 6.95 ± 0.09 to 8.07 ± 0.23; temperature, from 14.0 ± 0.06 to 31.1 ± 0.4 °C; EC, from 39.8 ± 0.8 to 48,734 306 μs/cm; TDS, from 19.9 ± 0.4 to 24,367 ± 152.9 mg/l; turbidity, from 3.0 ± 0.6 to 840 ± 69.3 NTU and DO, from 6.8 ± 0.02 to 16.78 mg/l. The ranges for nutrient concentrations were NO 3-N, from 0.006 ± 0.0003 to 0.62 ± 0.3 mg/l; NH 4-N, from 0.34 ± 0.17 to 16.2 ± 0.5 mg/l; PO 4-P, from 0.009 ± 0.001 to 1.75 ± 0.2 mg/l and TP, from 0.02 ± 0.003 to 3.56 ± 0.38 mg/l. Generally, water samples from stations with forested catchments had high levels of DO and low levels of NH 4-N and NO 3-N compared to those from farmland, industrial, residential and market places. There were clear seasonal variations showing an increase in the concentrations of nutrients during rainy season. The results show impairment of the water quality of the river by anthropogenic activities in the catchment. Water pollution prevention strategies to ensure prevention of pollution and protection of water resources in the Ruvu river watershed are recommended.

  16. Manage water resources allocation and water use in the Susquehanna River Basin with a GIS-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Balay, J.

    2012-12-01

    Water supply is one of the priority management areas of the Susquehanna River Basin Commission. The desired results of the water supply is to meet immediate and future water needs of the people of the basin, in order to maintain sustainable economic viability, protect instream uses, and ensure ecological diversity. In this study, a GIS-based model is designed and developed to assist water resource planning and management in the Susquehanna River Basin. A comprehensive basin-wide water use geographic database is compiled by integrating reported/approved water use and estimated water use if no monitoring data is available, such as agriculture water use. Then water availability at each WBD10 watersheds within the Susquehanna River Basin are then determined based on the ecosystem flow needs and acceptable hydrologic alternation. A GIS-based basin-wide model integrates the water use and water availability and couples with a module that allows iterative evaluation of water resources management alternatives. The model is capable of quantification and graphic presentation of water use and availability at various spatial scale and performance of spatial analysis and scenario analysis to aid in determining optimized water resources management.

  17. [Eutrophication of water bodies and pollutions of microcystins in water and sediments in X County in the Huai River Basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Dajun; Zheng, Weiwei; Wei, Xiao; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Hanyi; He, Minfu; Sun, Xin; Zheng, Yuxin; Zhang, Erpeng; Jiang, Songhui; Pang, Lei; Yang, Gonghuan; Qu, Weidong

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the status of eutrophication, the polluted situation of algae and microcystins in different water bodies of X County in the Huai River Basin. Superficial water and sediment samples were taken from S River, Y River and a representative ditch in May 2010 (median-water period) and August (high water period ). Chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), chlorophyll a (Chl a) and algal density were detected by the recommended methods of national standard microcystin-LF/LR/LW/RR/YR in water (dissolved form), algal cells and sediments were detected by solid phase extraction and HPLC. Water pollutions in rivers and ditches of X County were serious, and total nitrogen and total phosphorus significantly exceed to the national standard for surface water quality. Most indexes of the water quality ranged from grade III to worse than grade V of national standard. Total nitrogen (4.78 mg/L) was most serious pollutions in the mainstream of S river, the water quality in high water period was better than in median-water period (P river Y and ditch in high water period was worse than in median-water period. Maximum chlorophyll a in ditch water reached 648.4 mg/ m3. The percent of cyanobacteria in various water bodies was less than 10% in median-water period, increased sharply to 40% and became dominant species in high water period. The maximum percentage of cyanobacteria was 44% in ditch. Microcystin-RR was the main toxin detected in water (dissolved form), algal cells and sediments. Maximum MC-RR in water and sediments reached 17.731 microg/L and 0.802 microg/g, respectively. The detected frequencies and concentrations of MC-LF/LR/LW/YR in most samples were low. Water bodies in X County were between middle eutrophication and hyper-eutrophication. Microcystin-RR of sediments in high water period were significant higher than in median-water period (P < 0.05).

  18. Water classification of the Colorado River Corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona, 2013—Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data area classified maps of water in the Colorado River at a discharge of approximately 227 meters squared/second in Grand Canyon from Glen Canyon Dam to...

  19. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA)- Middle Mississippi River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) Summary Report for Middle Mississippi River National Wildlife Refuge describes current hydrologic information,...

  20. Cache River National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Water Management Program : Calendar Year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Cache River National Wildlife Refuge's Annual Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives. The purpose of this plan is to establish a...

  1. A study of the water quality of the Mhlathuze River, KwaZulu-Natal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chemical parameters of the Mhlathuze River water source were monitored during March 2001 to November 2002 and compared to the previous study conducted during 1998-1999. The results showed that most of the physical and chemical values ...

  2. Water quality evaluation of Himalayan Rivers of Kumaun region, Uttarakhand, India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seth, Richa; Mohan, Manindra; Singh, Prashant; Singh, Rakesh; Dobhal, Rajendra; Singh, Krishna Pal; Gupta, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Water quality of Himalayan rivers has been steadily deteriorating over several decades due to anthropogenic activities, dumping of treated or untreated effluents, poor structured sewerage and drainage system, etc...

  3. Dale Bumpers White River National Wildlife Refuge Water Resource Inventory and Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) for Dale Bumpers White River National Wildlife Refuge summarizes available and relevant information for refuge...

  4. Water-Data Report 433802088410401 West Branch Rock River nr Waupun WI 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Streamflow and water quality parameters recorded on the West Branch Rock River near Horicon NWR; 2013. Location is Latitude 43 deg 38' 02", longitude 88 deg 41' 04",...

  5. An Investigation Into The Water Quality Of Buriganga - A River Running Through Dhaka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Sayed Ahammed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Buriganga river is used for bathing drinking irrigation and industrial purposes and is considered to be the lifeline of Dhaka city. The water quality of Buriganga has become a matter of concern due to serious levels of pollution. The objective of the study was to determine the water quality of the selected section of Buriganga river which passes through Dhaka city. The water quality parameters were sampled during different seasons summer winter and autumn and in 10 different sampling points along the river along the banks of the Buriganga River. The water quality parameters studied for this study were dissolved oxygen DO biochemical oxygen demand BOD chemical oxygen demand COD pH turbidity conductivity total dissolved solids TDS nitrate and phosphate. The results showed that DO BOD COD TDS turbidity nitrate and phosphate are at an alarming level and a discussion on the possible sources of the pollution are presented.

  6. Study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah: water allocation issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, N.J.

    1982-04-01

    According to preliminary studies, operation of a nine-reactor Nuclear Energy Center near Green River, Utah would require the acquisition of 126,630 acre-feet per year. Groundwater aquifers are a potential source of supply but do not present a viable option at this time due to insufficient data on aquifer characteristics. Surface supplies are available from the nearby Green and San Rafael Rivers, tributaries of the Colorado River, but are subject to important constraints. Because of these constraints, the demand for a dependable water supply for a Nuclear Energy Center could best be met by the acquisition of vested water rights from senior appropriators in either the Green or San Rafael Rivers. The Utah Water Code provides a set of procedures to accomplish such a transfer of water rights.

  7. Environmental contaminant investigation of water quality, sediment and biota of the upper Gila River Basin, Arizona

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water, sediment, lizard, and avian samples and fish (whole body and fillet) were collected in 1990 form several locations along the Gila and San Francisco Rivers in...

  8. Water Scarcity as a Cause of Conflict in the Nile, Euphrates, and Jordan River Basins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Still, Douglas R

    2006-01-01

    The Euphrates, Nile, and Jordan Rivers are at center stage in the continued existence of the peoples in their basins where water scarcity serves as a source of conflict between the region's riparian...

  9. Metal concentrations of river water and sediments in West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Masaomi; Yustiawati; Syawal, M Suhaemi; Sikder, Md Tajuddin; Hosokawa, Toshiyuki; Saito, Takeshi; Tanaka, Shunitz; Kurasaki, Masaaki

    2011-12-01

    To determine the water environment and pollutants in West Java, the contents of metals and general water quality of the Ciliwung River in the Jakarta area were measured. High Escherichia coli number (116-149/mL) was detected downstream in the Ciliwung River. In addition to evaluate mercury pollution caused by gold mining, mercury contents of water and sediment samples from the Cikaniki River, and from paddy samples were determined. The water was not badly polluted. However, toxic metals such as mercury were detected at levels close to the baseline environmental standard of Indonesia (0.83-1.07 μg/g of sediments in the Cikaniki River). From analyses of the paddy samples (0.08 μg/g), it is considered that there is a health risk caused by mercury.

  10. Identifying and Remediating High Water Production Problems in Basin-Centered Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.L. Billingsley

    2005-12-01

    Through geochemical analyses of produced waters, petrophysics, and reservoir simulation we developed concepts and approaches for mitigating unwanted water production in tight gas reservoirs and for increasing recovery of gas resources presently considered noncommercial. Only new completion research (outside the scope of this study) will validate our hypothesis. The first task was assembling and interpreting a robust regional database of historical produced-water analyses to address the production of excessive water in basin-centered tight gas fields in the Greater Green (GGRB ) and Wind River basins (WRB), Wyoming. The database is supplemented with a sampling program in currently active areas. Interpretation of the regional water chemistry data indicates most produced waters reflect their original depositional environments and helps identify local anomalies related to basement faulting. After the assembly and evaluation phases of this project, we generated a working model of tight formation reservoir development, based on the regional nature and occurrence of the formation waters. Through an integrative approach to numerous existing reservoir concepts, we synthesized a generalized development scheme organized around reservoir confining stress cycles. This single overarching scheme accommodates a spectrum of outcomes from the GGRB and Wind River basins. Burial and tectonic processes destroy much of the depositional intergranular fabric of the reservoir, generate gas, and create a rock volume marked by extremely low permeabilities to gas and fluids. Stress release associated with uplift regenerates reservoir permeability through the development of a penetrative grain bounding natural fracture fabric. Reservoir mineral composition, magnitude of the stress cycle and local tectonics govern the degree, scale and exact mechanism of permeability development. We applied the reservoir working model to an area of perceived anomalous water production. Detailed water analyses

  11. Evaluation of water quality using water quality index (WQI) method and GIS in Aksu River (SW-Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şener, Şehnaz; Şener, Erhan; Davraz, Ayşen

    2017-04-15

    The aim of this study is evaluate water quality of the Aksu River, the main river recharging the Karacaören-1 Dam Lake and flowing approximately 145km from Isparta province to Mediterranean. Due to plan for obtaining drinking water from the Karacaören-1 Dam Lake for Antalya Province, this study has great importance. In this study, physical and chemical analyses of water samples taken from 21 locations (in October 2011 and May 2012, two periods) through flow path of the river were investigated. The analysis results were compared with maximum permissible limit values recommended by World Health Organization and Turkish drinking water standards. The water quality for drinking purpose was evaluated using the water quality index (WQI) method. The computed WQI values are between 35.6133 and 337.5198 in the study. The prepared WQI map shows that Karacaören-1 Dam Lake generally has good water quality. However, water quality is poor and very poor in the north and south of the river basin. The effects of punctual and diffuse pollutants dominate the water quality in these regions. Furthermore, the most effective water quality parameters are COD and Mg on the determination of WQI for the present study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Satellite radar altimetry water elevations performance over a 200 m wide river: Evaluation over the Garonne River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancamaria, S.; Frappart, F.; Leleu, A.-S.; Marieu, V.; Blumstein, D.; Desjonquères, Jean-Damien; Boy, F.; Sottolichio, A.; Valle-Levinson, A.

    2017-01-01

    For at least 20 years, nadir altimetry satellite missions have been successfully used to first monitor the surface elevation of oceans and, shortly after, of large rivers and lakes. For the last 5-10 years, few studies have demonstrated the possibility to also observe smaller water bodies than previously thought feasible (river smaller than 500 m wide and lake below 10 km2). The present study aims at quantifying the nadir altimetry performance over a medium river (200 m or lower wide) with a pluvio-nival regime in a temperate climate (the Garonne River, France). Three altimetry missions have been considered: ENVISAT (from 2002 to 2010), Jason-2 (from 2008 to 2014) and SARAL (from 2013 to 2014). Compared to nearby in situ gages, ENVISAT and Jason-2 observations over the lower Garonne River mainstream (110 km upstream of the estuary) have the smallest errors, with water elevation anomalies root mean square errors (RMSE) around 50 cm and 20 cm, respectively. The few ENVISAT upstream measurements have RMSE ranging from 80 cm to 160 cm. Over the estuary, ENVISAT and SARAL water elevation anomalies RMSE are around 30 cm and 10 cm, respectively. The most recent altimetry mission, SARAL, does not provide river elevation measurements for most satellite overflights of the river mainstream. The altimeter remains "locked" on the top of surrounding hilly areas and does not observe the steep-sided river valley, which could be 50-100 m lower. This phenomenon is also observed, for fewer dates, on Jason-2 and ENVISAT measurements. In these cases, the measurement is not "erroneous", it just does not correspond to water elevation of the river that is covered by the satellite. ENVISAT is less prone to get 'locked' on the top of the topography due to some differences in the instrument measurement parameters, trading lower accuracy for more useful measurements. Such problems are specific to continental surfaces (or near the coasts), but are not observed over the open oceans, which are

  13. Forming chemical composition of surface waters in the Arctic. Case study of Lake Inari and the River Paz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazukhina S. I.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Questions of studying the formation of surface and ground waters, their interaction with rocks, development of the basics of their rational use and protection are of great fundamental and practical importance. The influence of the northern Fennoscandian (Baltic Shield rock composition on forming surface waters' chemical composition in the border area of Finland – Russia – Norway (Lake Inari, the River Paz using physical-chemical modeling (Selector software package has been evaluated. For the physical-chemical modeling there have been made two samples of chemical analyses of the most widespread rocks forming the catchment area, with their percentage ratio taken into consideration. Since the catchment area of the prevailing majority of streams feeding Lake Inari is composed of rocks of the Lapland granulite belt (LGB and its framing, it will be the main sample (conditional influence of their composition on the chemical composition of waters is about 80 %. The second sample includes gneisses, migmatites, granite-gneisses, granites and quartz diorites typical for Inari terrane (conventional influence of their composition on the chemical composition of waters is about 20 %. It has been found that the chemical composition of the surface waters is formed by interaction of precipitation with intrusive, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks of northern Fennoskandia containing Clarke concentrations of S, C, F, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cu. It has been shown that due to interactions in the water – rock system the chemical composition of Lake Inari waters as well as upper and middle flow of the River Paz is formed by weathering of granulites of the Lapland granulite belt and Inari terrane granitoids of the northern Fennoscandia. The chemical composition of waters in the River Paz downstream is formed by weathering of metamorphosed volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Pechenga structure and the impact of industrial pollution

  14. Human activities and its Responses to Glacier Melt Water Over Tarim River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hai; Zhou, Shenbei; Bai, Minghao

    2017-04-01

    Tarim River Basin lies in the south area of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, the north-west area of China. It is the longest inland river of China. Being far away from ocean and embraced by high mountains, Tarim River Basin is the typical arid region in the world. The intensity of human activities increased rapidly in Tarim River Basin since 1980's and water resources lacking is the major issue restricting the development of social economy. The glacier melt water plays an important role for the regional social and economic development, and it accounts for 40% of mountain-pass runoff. It is a fragile mutual-dependent relationship between local sustainable development and runoff. Under the background of global change glacier melt water process has also changed especially in the arid and semi-arid region. Due to climate change, glacier in Tarim River Basin has melted in an observed way since 1980s, together with increasing trend of annual rainfall and virgin flow in mountain basins. Correspondingly, human activity gets more frequent since 1970s, resulting into the obvious fragile mutual-dependent relationship between basin runoff and water use amount. Through an analysis of meteorological, hydrological and geographical observation data from 1985 to 2015, this thesis make a multi-factor variance analysis of population, cultivation area, industrial development and runoff in upstream and mid-stream of Tarim River under changing conditions. Furthermore, the regulation function of natural factors and water demand management factors on relationship between runoff and water using amount are discussed, including temperature, rainfall, and evaporation, water conservation technology and soil-water exploitation administrative institutions. It concludes that: first, increase in glacier runoff, rainfall amount, and virgin flow haven't notably relieved ecological issue in Tarim River Basin, and even has promoted water use behaviour in different flowing areas and noticeably reduced

  15. Tracing of the Rhône River within Lake Geneva using stable isotope composition of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotte, Gabriel; Vennemann, Torsten

    2017-04-01

    interflow and the control of different wind conditions on the formation of resultant gyres of circulation within Lake Geneva. For example, an anticlockwise gyre forces Rhône River water to flow at intermediate depths towards the northern shore of the lake and a return interflow close to the southern shore of the lake. Isotopic mixing models coupled to physical hydrodynamic models of the lake will help constrain the flow paths of the Rhône. References Halder J., Decrouy L. & Vennemann T. 2013 : Mixing of Rhône River water in Lake Geneva (Switzerland-France) inferred from stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope profiles, Journal of Hydrology 477:152-164

  16. A global analysis of the environmental cost of river water withdrawals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soligno, Irene; Ridolfi, Luca; Laio, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    World freshwater ecosystems are considerably declining, at a faster rate than other ecosystems. Water withdrawals are identified as one of the main drivers of increasing water stress in several river basins worldwide. So far, much effort has been devoted to quantify water withdrawals and fluvial water consumptions at a global scale; however, comparisons are not simple because the irregular spatiotemporal distribution of freshwater resources entails that the same volume of consumed water does not have the same environmental "cost" in different times or places. In order to take into account this spatial and temporal heterogeneity, our work proposes a novel index to evaluate the environmental cost of a reference amount of water withdrawn from a generic river section. The index depends on (i) the local environmental relevance of the impacted fluvial ecosystem (e.g., nutrient/sediment transport capacity, width of the riparian region, biodiversity richness) and (ii) the portion of the river network impacted by the reference water withdrawal, that is the downstream drainage network. In the present work, the index is applied at a global scale with a 0.5° x 0.5° spatial resolution and employing annual average data of river discharge. Globally, regions and countries more environmentally vulnerable to water depletion are identified. Since the proposed index systematically assesses the environmental cost by accounting for the downstream propagation effect of a water withdrawal on the fluvial ecosystem, it aims to support decision-making in global transboundary river basins as well.

  17. Impact of river basin management on coastal water quality and ecosystem services: A southern Baltic estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schernewski, Gerald; Hürdler, Jens; Neumann, Thomas; Stybel, Nardine; Venohr, Markus

    2010-05-01

    Eutrophication management is still a major challenge in the Baltic Sea region. Estuaries or coastal waters linked to large rivers cannot be managed independently. Nutrient loads into these coastal ecosystems depend on processes, utilisation, structure and management in the river basin. In practise this means that we need a large scale approach and integrated models and tools to analyse, assess and evaluate the effects of nutrient loads on coastal water quality as well as the efficiency of river basin management measures on surface waters and especially lagoons and estuaries. The Odra river basin, the Szczecin Lagoon and its coastal waters cover an area of about 150,000 km² and are an eutrophication hot-spot in the Baltic region. To be able to carry out large scale, spatially integrative analyses, we linked the river basin nutrient flux model MONERIS to the coastal 3D-hydrodynamic and ecosystem model ERGOM. Objectives were a) to analyse the eutrophication history in the river basin and the resulting functional changes in the coastal waters between early 1960's and today and b) to analyse the effects of an optimal nitrogen and phosphorus management scenario in the Oder/Odra river basin on coastal water quality. The models show that an optimal river basin management with reduced nutrient loads (e.g. N-load reduction of 35 %) would have positive effects on coastal water quality and algae biomass. The availability of nutrients, N/P ratios and processes like denitrification and nitrogen-fixation would show spatial and temporal changes. It would have positive consequences for ecosystems functions, like the nutrient retention capacity, as well. However, this optimal scenario is by far not sufficient to ensure a good coastal water quality according to the European Water Framework Directive. A "good" water quality in the river will not be sufficient to ensure a "good" water quality in the coastal waters. Further, nitrogen load reductions bear the risk of increased

  18. Precipitation v. River Discharge Controls on Water Availability to Riparian Trees in the Rhône River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, M. B.; Sargeant, C. I.; Vallet-Coulomb, C.; Evans, C.; Bates, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    Water availability to riparian trees in lowlands is controlled through precipitation and its infiltration into floodplain soils, and through river discharge additions to the hyporheic water table. The relative contributions of both water sources to the root zone within river floodplains vary through time, depending on climatic fluctuations. There is currently limited understanding of how climatic fluctuations are expressed at local scales, especially in 'critical zone' hydrology, which is fundamental to the health and sustainability of riparian forest ecosystems. This knowledge is particularly important in water-stressed Mediterranean climate systems, considering climatic trends and projections toward hotter and drier growing seasons, which have the potential to dramatically reduce water availability to riparian forests. Our aim is to identify and quantify the relative contributions of hyporheic (discharge) water v. infiltrated precipitation to water uptake by riparian Mediterranean trees for several distinct hydrologic years, selected to isolate contrasts in water availability from these sources. Our approach includes isotopic analyses of water and tree-ring cellulose, mechanistic modeling of water uptake and wood production, and physically based modeling of subsurface hydrology. We utilize an extensive database of oxygen isotope (δ18O) measurements in surface water and precipitation alongside recent measurements of δ18O in groundwater and soil water and in tree-ring cellulose. We use a mechanistic model to back-calculate source water δ18O based on δ18O in cellulose and climate data. Finally, we test our results via 1-D hydrologic modeling of precipitation infiltration and water table rise and fall. These steps enable us to interpret hydrologic cycle variability within the 'critical zone' and their potential impact on riparian trees.

  19. 78 FR 67336 - Habitat Conservation Plan for the United Water Conservation District, Santa Clara River Watershed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ..., operations, and maintenance of water management facilities within the lower Santa Clara River watershed... water management activities. United intends to request a 50-year permit covering five species federally... describe direct, indirect, and cumulative impacts on biological resources, land use, air quality, water...

  20. Modeling water-quality loads to the reservoirs of the Upper Trinity River Basin, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water quality modeling efforts have been conducted for 12 reservoirs in ten watersheds in Upper Trinity River Basin located in north Texas. The reservoirs are being used for water supply to the populated area around the Dallas-Fort Worth Metro and the water quality of some of these reservoirs has b...

  1. The impact of climate change on the water quality of the Rhine river

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bokhoven, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this research the effect of hydrological extremes on water quality are studied for the Rhine River, in order to assess potential water quality effects of climate change. The water quality of the Rhine was studied for the periods 1975-1977 and 1987-2005. During these periods eight hydrological

  2. Effects of climate variability on water storage in the Colorado river basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurkmans, R.T.W.L.; Troch, P.A.A.; Uijlenhoet, R.; Torfs, P.J.J.F.; Durcik, M.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the long-term (interannual–decadal) variability of water availability in river basins is paramount for water resources management. Here, the authors analyze time series of simulated terrestrial water storage components, observed precipitation, and discharge spanning 74 yr in the

  3. Clarification of Colloidal Particles in Lake and River Water Using AC Electrokinetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtar M.N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scenery of clear water of a lake or river is always a fascinating view. The clarity of a water is subjected to the water free from colloidal particles. Lake or river usually have foreign colloidal particles such as sand, mud, foreign particle, etc. which make the water cloudy. Usually the cloudy water become clear because of natural sedimentation process. However it is not easy to clarify cloudy water of a lake or river and make it clear especially if the sediment of colloidal particle is influence or disturb by water current. The approach by AC Electrokinetic phenomenon able to manipulate colloidal particles in a suspension. It can separate, trap or sort colloidal particle which made the phenomenon as possible reliable option for clarifying lake or river water from colloidal particles hence make it clear water. This work will simulate the process of clarification of colloidal suspension using AC Electrokinetic phenomenon in a lab. Electrodes were fabricated on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO coated glass slide using laser etching technique. The electrode which poses unique geometry will be able to demonstrate electric field gradient as soon as it is introduced with electrical signal. Base on the surface potential of the colloids and the surface potential of the electrode, the colloids will be manipulated. This phenomenon is known as AC Electrokinetics. This can be regarded as guided sedimentation process. The trapped colloidal particle can be now easily extracted or remove from the water thus transform the water from cloudy to clear hence complete water clarification process.

  4. Consequences of long-term consumption of water from Nworie River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The test rats were placed on water from Nworie River while those of the control were placed on Eva water (purified Coca-cola bottled water). The rats were sacrificed in two sets: first set was on thirty-second day while the second set was on the sixty-fourth day. Six rats each from each group were sacrificed at each set.

  5. Seasonal variation in water quality of Orle River Basin, S. W. Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the other hand total hardness show increase in the dry season and decrease in the wet season. The rivers are considered to be more polluted in the wet season than in the dry season. Surface water quality has many effects on human use of water resources, water being a basic natural resource required by all human ...

  6. Concentration of selected heavy metals in water of the Juru River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... laboratory prior to the measurements and all in situ measurements were done during the high tide period. River water was sampled at one meter below the surface using. Van Dorn water sampler. Collected water samples were transferred into acid soaked teflon bottle (100 ml capacity) and acidified to pH 2.

  7. The River Basin Model: Computer Output. Water Pollution Control Research Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Envirometrics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This research report is part of the Water Pollution Control Research Series which describes the results and progress in the control and abatement of pollution in our nation's waters. The River Basin Model described is a computer-assisted decision-making tool in which a number of computer programs simulate major processes related to water use that…

  8. Water Quality Trends in the Entiat River Subbasin: 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andy Bookter; Richard D. Woodsmith; Frank H. McCormick; Karl M. Polivka

    2009-01-01

    Production of high-quality water is a vitally important ecosystem service in the largely semiarid interior Columbia River basin (ICRB). Communities, tribal governments, and various agencies are concerned about maintenance of this water supply for domestic, agricultural, industrial, recreational, and ecosystem uses. Water quantity and...

  9. Southern Africa in water crisis – A case study of the Pangara River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern Africa in water crisis – A case study of the Pangara River water shortage, 1987–1996: Towards a resource-based conflict management and resolution perspective. ... The first is an assessment of the nature of the environmental and regional weather patterns leading to predictable water shortages. This is followed ...

  10. Assessment of trace metals in sewage water and sludge from River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of trace metals in sewage water and sludge samples from River Kubanni drainage basin in Zaria City, Nigeria were investigated in this study. The drainage basin is utilized as a source for irrigation water, during dry seasons. The sewage water quality characteristics in three month sampling periods, that ...

  11. Levels of trace metals in water and sediment from Tyume River and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Levels of trace metals (Cd, Pb, Co, Zn Cu and Ni) were determined in water and sediment from the Tyume River. Occurrence of these metals in vegetables and soil from a nearby farmland as a result of irrigation with the river water was also investigated. Higher levels of Cd (0.038 ± 0.004 to 0.044 ± 0.003 mg/l) and Pb ...

  12. Post conflict water management: learning from the past for recovery planning in the Orontes River basin

    OpenAIRE

    Saadé-Sbeih, Myriam; Zwahlen, François; Haj Asaad, Ahmed; Gonzalez, Raoul; Jaubert, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Water management is a fundamental issue in post-conflict planning in Syria. Based on historical water balance assessment, this study identifies the drivers of the profound changes that took place in the Lebanese and Syrian parts of the Orontes River basin since the 1930s. Both drastic effects of the conflict on the hydro-system and the strong uncontrolled anthropization of the river basin prior to the crisis have to be considered in the design of recovery interventions.

  13. Post conflict water management: learning from the past for recovery planning in the Orontes River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saadé-Sbeih

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Water management is a fundamental issue in post-conflict planning in Syria. Based on historical water balance assessment, this study identifies the drivers of the profound changes that took place in the Lebanese and Syrian parts of the Orontes River basin since the 1930s. Both drastic effects of the conflict on the hydro-system and the strong uncontrolled anthropization of the river basin prior to the crisis have to be considered in the design of recovery interventions.

  14. Post conflict water management: learning from the past for recovery planning in the Orontes River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadé-Sbeih, Myriam; Zwahlen, François; Haj Asaad, Ahmed; Gonzalez, Raoul; Jaubert, Ronald

    2016-10-01

    Water management is a fundamental issue in post-conflict planning in Syria. Based on historical water balance assessment, this study identifies the drivers of the profound changes that took place in the Lebanese and Syrian parts of the Orontes River basin since the 1930s. Both drastic effects of the conflict on the hydro-system and the strong uncontrolled anthropization of the river basin prior to the crisis have to be considered in the design of recovery interventions.

  15. Estuarine River Data for the Ten Thousand Islands Area, Florida, Water Year 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Michael J.; Patino, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected stream discharge, stage, salinity, and water-temperature data near the mouths of 11 tributaries flowing into the Ten Thousand Islands area of Florida from October 2004 to June 2005. Maximum positive discharge from Barron River and Faka Union River was 6,000 and 3,200 ft3/s, respectively; no other tributary exceeded 2,600 ft3/s. Salinity variation was greatest at Barron River and Faka Union River, ranging from 2 to 37 ppt, and from 3 to 34 ppt, respectively. Salinity maximums were greatest at Wood River and Little Wood River, each exceeding 40 ppt. All data were collected prior to the commencement of the Picayune Strand Restoration Project, which is designed to establish a more natural flow regime to the tributaries of the Ten Thousand Islands area.

  16. Longitudinal patterns of fish assemblages, aquatic habitat, and water temperature in the Lower Crooked River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgersen, Christian E.; Hockman-Wert, David P.; Bateman, Douglas S.; Leer, David W.; Gresswell, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    The Lower Crooked River is a remarkable groundwater-fed stream flowing through vertical basalt canyons in the Deschutes River Valley ecoregion in central Oregon (Pater and others, 1998). The 9-mile section of the river between the Crooked River National Grasslands boundary near Ogden Wayside and river mile (RM) 8 is protected under the National Wild and Scenic Rivers Act (16 U.S.C. 1271-1287) for its outstandingly remarkable scenic, recreational, geologic, hydrologic, wildlife, and botanical values (ORVs), and significant fishery and cultural values. Groundwater springs flow directly out of the canyon walls into the Lower Crooked River and create a unique hydrologic setting for native coldwater fish, such as inland Columbia Basin redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri). To protect and enhance the ORVs that are the basis for the wild and scenic designation, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has identified the need to evaluate, among other conditions, fish presence and habitat use of the Lower Crooked River. The results of this and other studies will provide a scientific basis for communication and cooperation between the BLM, Oregon Water Resources Department, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and all water users within the basin. These biological studies initiated by the BLM in the region reflect a growing national awareness of the impacts of agricultural and municipal water use on the integrity of freshwater ecosystems.

  17. Assessment of water quality in the Prut River tributary of the Danube River, according species indicators of phytoplanton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUKANOVA Victoria

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Prut is a 953 km (592 mi long river in Eastern Europe. In part of its course it forms Romanias border with Moldova and Ukraine. The Prut flows southeast eventually joining the Danube river near Reni, east of Galați. Quality of Prut river are influenced by antropicals and naturals factors. The Prut River quality monitoring system includes observation at 8 points. Phytoplankton is one of the most important elements in determining the quality of aquatic ecosystems. The basic indices upon which phytoplankton is examined are: species, quantity and biomass. Change in quality of water leads to the change in above mentioned indices. Samples of phytoplankton were collected in 250 ml. flasks were fixed in 4 of the alignment solution of formalin or Lugols iodine solution, transported to the laboratory, where processed by settling. First, the samples stand for 3-4 weeks, then they thickened up to 30 ml. Then 0.1 ml. condensed sample was placed on a countable glass with glycerol and dried. After this sample was studied under a microscope to determine the species and varieties of algae, the counting numbers and biomass. The components of phytoplankton was made up of species that belong to: Cyanophyta, Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta, Euglenophyta and Dinophyta, with predomination Bacillariophyta. To assess the water quality are used the method of indicators Pantle and Bukk in a change Sladecek. Quality of water depends by location points. The average values are calculated for the saprobic indices at the analyzed sections indicated that 5 sections of Prut river may be classified as Class II quality good and at 6 sections as a Class III (water is moderately polluted.

  18. Genotoxic effects of water from São Francisco River, Brazil, in Astyanax paranae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Diego Luis; Barcelos, Gustavo Rafael Mazzaron; d'Arce, Luciana Paula Grégio

    2014-09-01

    Aquatic monitoring is an important tool for identifying potential compounds in rivers that may damage the environment. Here, we evaluate the potential genotoxic effects of water samples from São Francisco River (Brazil) using the micronuclei (MN) assay in resident species, Astyanax paranae. Four seasonal collections occurred between the years 2009 and 2010, at three locations between two nearby cities in the region. It was clearly observed an increase of MN frequency in fish caught in the river. This result is most likely due to the sewage contamination from the treatment plant, the waste pesticides from crops and the lack of riparian vegetation along the river, especially during the winter when there was a significant increase in the frequencies of MN. These results indicate that compounds in waters from São Francisco River may have genotoxic effects and consequently, cause damage to the environment as well as to human health.

  19. Effects of an Extreme Flood on Trace Elements in River Water-From Urban Stream to Major River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larry B; Paschke, Suzanne S; Battaglin, William A; Douville, Chris; Fitzgerald, Kevin C; Keefe, Steffanie H; Roth, David A; Vajda, Alan M

    2017-09-19

    Major floods adversely affect water quality through surface runoff, groundwater discharge, and damage to municipal water infrastructure. Despite their importance, it can be difficult to assess the effects of floods on streamwater chemistry because of challenges collecting samples and the absence of baseline data. This study documents water quality during the September 2013 extreme flood in the South Platte River, Colorado, USA. Weekly time-series water samples were collected from 3 urban source waters (municipal tap water, streamwater, and wastewater treatment facility effluent) under normal-flow and flood conditions. In addition, water samples were collected during the flood at 5 locations along the South Platte River and from 7 tributaries along the Colorado Front Range. Samples were analyzed for 54 major and trace elements. Specific chemical tracers, representing different natural and anthropogenic sources and geochemical behaviors, were used to compare streamwater composition before and during the flood. The results differentiate hydrological processes that affected water quality: (1) in the upper watershed, runoff diluted most dissolved constituents, (2) in the urban corridor and lower watershed, runoff mobilized soluble constituents accumulated on the landscape and contributed to stream loading, and (3) flood-induced groundwater discharge mobilized soluble constituents stored in the vadose zone.

  20. [Relationships between river water quality and land use type at watershed scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sha-Sha; Tang, Cui-Wen; Liu, Li-Juan; Li, Xiao-Yu; Ye, Yin

    2013-07-01

    Based on the remote sensing images of 54 water quality monitoring stations within the Suzi River watershed, the riparian buffer zones at 6 scales were constructed by ArcGIS, and the 8 landscape indices at landscape and class levels were calculated with FRAGSTATS software. A correlation analysis on the landscape indices and river water quality was made from the viewpoints of landscape space pattern and composition. In the watershed, the landscape pattern in different riparian buffer zones had different effects on the river water quality. When the distance of the buffer zones was less than 300 m, the main landscape types were dry land, construction land, and paddy filed, and their area ratio, patch number, patch density, maximum patch index, maximum shape index, and aggregation index were higher. In these buffer zones, farmlands had higher connectedness, and thus, had greater effects on the river water quality. When the distance of the buffer zones was more than 300 m, forest land had a larger area ratio and a higher connectedness, which would benefit the improvement of river water quality to some extent. In the watershed, farmland and construction land played a key role in affecting the river water quality.

  1. Water quality in the tidal Potomac River and Estuary, hydrologic data report, 1979 water year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Stephen F.; Hahl, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    This report contains data on the physical and chemical properties measured during the 1979 water year for the tidal Potomac River and estuary. Data were collected routinely at five major stations and periodically at 14 intervening stations. Each major station represents a cross section through which the transport of selected dissolved and suspended materials will be computed. The intervening stations represent locations at which data were collected for special studies such as: salt water migration, dissolved oxygen dynamics, and other synoptic studies. About 960 samples were analyzed for silicate, Kjeldhal nitrogen, nitrite, phosphorus, chlorophyll and suspended sediment, with additional samples analyzed for organic carbon, calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, sulfate, potassium, chloride, fluoride, seston and dissolved solids residue. In addition, about 1400 in-situ measurements of dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, temperature, and Secchi disk transparency are reported. (USGS)

  2. Water quality of the tidal Potomac River and estuary hydrologic data report, 1980 water year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Stephen; Coupe, R.H.; Woodward, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    This report contains data on the physical and chemical properties measured in the Tidal Potomac River and Estuary during the 1980 Water Year. Data were collected routinely at five stations, and periodically at 17 stations including three stations near the mouth of the Potomac River in Chesapeake Bay. Each of the five stations represent a cross section through which the transport of selected dissolved and suspended materials can be computed. The remaining stations represent locations at which data were collected for special synoptic studies such as salt water migration, and dissolved oxygen dynamics. Routinely, samples were analyzed for silica, nitrogen, phosphorus, chlorophyll-a, pheophytin, and suspended sediment. Additional samples were analyzed for organic carbon, calcium, manganese, magnesium, sodium, alkalinity, sulfate, iron, potassium, chloride, fluoride, seston, algal growth potential, adenosine triphosphate, nitrifying bacteria and dissolved-solids residue. In addition, solar radiation measurements and in-situ measurements of dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, pH, temperature, and Secchi disk transparency are reported. (USGS)

  3. Water stress, energy security and adaptation under changing climate: case study of Zeravshan river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khujanazarov, T.; Namura, R.; Touge, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Toderich, K.

    2014-12-01

    Zeravshan a transboundary river in Central Asia is a snow-glacier fed river originating in Tajikistan that use only 4% of its resources, further flows to Uzbekistan who fully utilize river resources for irrigation. Such disparity in river usage causes Tajikistan to consider heavy investments in hydropower dams that will increase social and political tension between counterparts. Traditional irrigation under arid climate causes high rates of water losses in infiltration and evapotranspiration leading to land. Water stress analysis and water resources distribution under climate change and possible adaptation measures were investigated. The framework includes model to analyze available water resources and assessment of the basin efficiency including dam operation and irrigation demand, based on it adaptation measures were suggested. Comparison of the increasing irrigation efficiency in downstream to the 10% rate can decrease water requirements on early stages, however there are still large deficiency of the water resources in the peak irrigation season. Dam operation to benefit irrigation has positive impact while can't compensate the needs of energy in winter months. Cooperation of the both sides are required to address such changes in river flow as interest lies on opposite side. Increasing irrigation efficiency through using return marginal waters and salt tolerant crops under water stress were suggested. The plants were tested on several sites in the downstream of the river using mineralized return waters. The results suggest that using such plants can provide additional outcome for the local community while decreasing demand of the water resources and improving soil conditions. Combination of dam operation for energy production and increasing irrigation efficiency additionally by using return waters can provide a beneficial scenario for the region under future climate change. However, it will require strong political will to address energy swap to achieve nexus

  4. Measurement of protein-like fluorescence in river and waste water using a handheld spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Andy; Ward, David; Lieten, Shakti H; Periera, Ryan; Simpson, Ellie C; Slater, Malcolm

    2004-07-01

    Protein-like fluorescence intensity in rivers increases with increasing anthropogenic DOM inputs from sewerage and farm wastes. Here, a portable luminescence spectrophotometer was used to investigate if this technology could be used to provide both field scientists with a rapid pollution monitoring tool and process control engineers with a portable waste water monitoring device, through the measurement of river and waste water tryptophan-like fluorescence from a range of rivers in NE England and from effluents from within two waste water treatment plants. The portable spectrophotometer determined that waste waters and sewerage effluents had the highest tryptophan-like fluorescence intensity, urban streams had an intermediate tryptophan-like fluorescence intensity, and the upstream river samples of good water quality the lowest tryptophan-like fluorescence intensity. Replicate samples demonstrated that fluorescence intensity is reproducible to +/- 20% for low fluorescence, 'clean' river water samples and +/- 5% for urban water and waste waters. Correlations between fluorescence measured by the portable spectrophotometer with a conventional bench machine were 0.91; (Spearman's rho, n = 143), demonstrating that the portable spectrophotometer does correlate with tryptophan-like fluorescence intensity measured using the bench spectrophotometer.

  5. River Water Pollution Status and Water Policy Scenario in Ethiopia: Raising Awareness for Better Implementation in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awoke, Aymere; Beyene, Abebe; Kloos, Helmut; Goethals, Peter L. M.; Triest, Ludwig

    2016-10-01

    Despite the increasing levels of pollution in many tropical African countries, not much is known about the strength and weaknesses of policy and institutional frameworks to tackle pollution and ecological status of rivers and their impacts on the biota. We investigated the ecological status of four large river basins using physicochemical water quality parameters and bioindicators by collecting samples from forest, agriculture, and urban landscapes of the Nile, Omo-Gibe, Tekeze, and Awash River basins in Ethiopia. We also assessed the water policy scenario to evaluate its appropriateness to prevent and control pollution. To investigate the level of understanding and implementation of regulatory frameworks and policies related to water resources, we reviewed the policy documents and conducted in-depth interviews of the stakeholders. Physicochemical and biological data revealed that there is significant water quality deterioration at the impacted sites (agriculture, coffee processing, and urban landscapes) compared to reference sites (forested landscapes) in all four basins. The analysis of legal, policy, and institutional framework showed a lack of cooperation between stakeholders, lack of knowledge of the policy documents, absence of enforcement strategies, unavailability of appropriate working guidelines, and disconnected institutional setup at the grass root level to implement the set strategies as the major problems. In conclusion, river water pollution is a growing challenge and needs urgent action to implement intersectoral collaboration for water resource management that will eventually lead toward integrated watershed management. Revision of policy and increasing the awareness and participation of implementers are vital to improve ecological quality of rivers.

  6. River Water Pollution Status and Water Policy Scenario in Ethiopia: Raising Awareness for Better Implementation in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awoke, Aymere; Beyene, Abebe; Kloos, Helmut; Goethals, Peter L M; Triest, Ludwig

    2016-10-01

    Despite the increasing levels of pollution in many tropical African countries, not much is known about the strength and weaknesses of policy and institutional frameworks to tackle pollution and ecological status of rivers and their impacts on the biota. We investigated the ecological status of four large river basins using physicochemical water quality parameters and bioindicators by collecting samples from forest, agriculture, and urban landscapes of the Nile, Omo-Gibe, Tekeze, and Awash River basins in Ethiopia. We also assessed the water policy scenario to evaluate its appropriateness to prevent and control pollution. To investigate the level of understanding and implementation of regulatory frameworks and policies related to water resources, we reviewed the policy documents and conducted in-depth interviews of the stakeholders. Physicochemical and biological data revealed that there is significant water quality deterioration at the impacted sites (agriculture, coffee processing, and urban landscapes) compared to reference sites (forested landscapes) in all four basins. The analysis of legal, policy, and institutional framework showed a lack of cooperation between stakeholders, lack of knowledge of the policy documents, absence of enforcement strategies, unavailability of appropriate working guidelines, and disconnected institutional setup at the grass root level to implement the set strategies as the major problems. In conclusion, river water pollution is a growing challenge and needs urgent action to implement intersectoral collaboration for water resource management that will eventually lead toward integrated watershed management. Revision of policy and increasing the awareness and participation of implementers are vital to improve ecological quality of rivers.

  7. Reservoir characterization of the Ordovician Red River Formation in southwest Williston Basin Bowman County, ND and Harding County, SD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sippel, M.A.; Luff, K.D.; Hendricks, M.L.; Eby, D.E.

    1998-07-01

    This topical report is a compilation of characterizations by different disciplines of the Red River Formation in the southwest portion of the Williston Basin and the oil reservoirs which it contains in an area which straddles the state line between North Dakota and South Dakota. Goals of the report are to increase understanding of the reservoir rocks, oil-in-place, heterogeneity, and methods for improved recovery. The report is divided by discipline into five major sections: (1) geology, (2) petrography-petrophysical, (3) engineering, (4) case studies and (5) geophysical. Interwoven in these sections are results from demonstration wells which were drilled or selected for special testing to evaluate important concepts for field development and enhanced recovery. The Red River study area has been successfully explored with two-dimensional (2D) seismic. Improved reservoir characterization utilizing 3-dimensional (3D) and has been investigated for identification of structural and stratigraphic reservoir compartments. These seismic characterization tools are integrated with geological and engineering studies. Targeted drilling from predictions using 3D seismic for porosity development were successful in developing significant reserves at close distances to old wells. Short-lateral and horizontal drilling technologies were tested for improved completion efficiency. Lateral completions should improve economics for both primary and secondary recovery where low permeability is a problem and higher density drilling is limited by drilling cost. Low water injectivity and widely spaced wells have restricted the application of waterflooding in the past. Water injection tests were performed in both a vertical and a horizontal well. Data from these tests were used to predict long-term injection and oil recovery.

  8. Evaluation of seasonal patterns of water quality in the Zambezi River Basin, using Zambezi River Authority (ZRA) data of 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Nachiyunde, Kabunga; Namakando, Chrispin

    2013-01-01

    The study reports the seasonal variation of the water quality, along Lake Kariba, Zambezi River and its tributaries in 2011. To evaluate the water pollution quality, the following ten parameters were analysed: water temperature, pH, Electroconductivity (EC), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), alkalinity as CaCO3, turbidity, Total Phosphorus (TP), and ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N). The study found that water quality along the Zambezi River and its tri...

  9. Water quality in the upper Snake River basin, Idaho and Wyoming, 1992-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Gregory M.; Maret, T.R.; Rupert, M.G.; Maupin, M.A.; Low, W.H.; Ott, D.S.

    1998-01-01

    This report is intended to summarize major findings that emerged between 1992 and 1995 from the water-quality assessment of the Upper Snake River Basin Study Unit and to relate these findings to water-quality issues of regional and national concern. This information is primarily intended for those who are involved in water-resource management. Yet, the information contained here may also interest those who simply wish to know more about the quality of water in the rivers and aquifers in the area where they live.

  10. Assessing water footprint at river basin level: a case study for the Heihe River Basin in northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zeng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasing water scarcity places considerable importance on the quantification of water footprint (WF at different levels. Despite progress made previously, there are still very few WF studies focusing on specific river basins, especially for those in arid and semi-arid regions. The aim of this study is to quantify WF within the Heihe River Basin (HRB, a basin located in the arid and semi-arid northwest of China. The findings show that the WF was 1768 million m3 yr−1 in the HRB over 2004–2006. Agricultural production was the largest water consumer, accounting for 96% of the WF (92% for crop production and 4% for livestock production. The remaining 4% was for the industrial and domestic sectors. The "blue" (surface- and groundwater component of WF was 811 million m3 yr−1. This indicates a blue water proportion of 46%, which is much higher than the world average and China's average, which is mainly due to the aridness of the HRB and a high dependence on irrigation for crop production. However, even in such a river basin, blue WF was still smaller than "green" (soil water WF, indicating the importance of green water. We find that blue WF exceeded blue water availability during eight months per year and also on an annual basis. This indicates that WF of human activities was achieved at a cost of violating environmental flows of natural freshwater ecosystems, and such a WF pattern is not sustainable. Considering the large WF of crop production, optimizing the crop planting pattern is often a key to achieving more sustainable water use in arid and semi-arid regions.

  11. Inland Waters - Mississippi River Centerline - Headwaters to Gulf Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — Mississippi River centerline data derived from USACE navigation sailing line (recommended track) data and on-screen digitized in areas of no data. Data set extends...

  12. 2011 Suwannee River Water Management District Lidar: Upper Suwannee (FL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of the Suwannee River project area in Florida. The entire survey area encompasses 1,151 square miles. The...

  13. Quality of water in the Red River alluvial aquifer; Pool 1, Red River waterway area, Vick, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoot, C.W.; Seanor, R.C.; Huff, G.F.

    1994-01-01

    Water-quality changes in the Red River alluvial aquifer within the area affected by pool 1 near Vick, Louisiana, were monitored during pre-construction (1974-78) and post-construction (1984-92) of Lock and Dam 1. Changes greater or less than background values have occurred in an area within 2 miles of Lock and Dam 1, and in one well located about 10 miles west of Lock and Dam 1. Comparison between the pre-construction and post-construction water-quality analyses indicated the total hardness as calcium carbonate and concentrations of dissolved chloride, iron, and manganese generally have decreased in the Red River alluvial aquifer south of the Red River and near Lock and Dam l. The maximum decrease of the median total hardness as calcium carbonate was from 730 to 330 mg/L (milligrams per liter), dissolved chloride from 77 to 46 mg/L, dissolved iron from 18 to 6.9 mg/L, and dissolved manganese from 1.4 to 0.56 mg/L. Analyses of water from wells west of Lock and Dam 1 indicated an increase of the median total hardness as calcium carbonate was from 200 to 260 mg/L, and dissolved iron concentration was from 0.33 to 1.4 mg/L. North of the river and 1 mile west of Lock and Dam l, the median concentration of dissolved chloride increased from 45 to 130 mg/L in water from one well, and median total hardness as calcium cabonate and concentrations of dissolved iron and manganese also increased. Because well Ct-74 is completed in a sand that is in contact with a saltwater sand of Tertiary age, this increase is probably a temporal increase due to upconing after lowering the water level in the alluvial aquifer by pumping of dewatering wells during construction of Lock and Dam 1.

  14. Determination of carbofuran in a river water sample using LC-MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusiasih, R.; Nugraha, W. C.; Hudayya, A.

    2017-03-01

    A study on the presence of carbofuran was conducted in Cikapundung river from an agricultural zone of the Lembang, West-Java, Indonesia. The present study aimed to determine the trace carbofuran in river water using LC-MS/MS. Extraction and purification of carbofuran was carried out simultaneously by Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) system with C18 sorbent. The procedure was evaluated by carbofuran recovery determination. Recovery was studied by spike technique with the addition of 2 and 5 ng/g carbofuran in river water sample. The recovery were of 83.87 and 115.88 % with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 6.28 and 0.47 % respectively. Carbofuran contained in Cikapundung river water samples was of 0.2898 ng/g.

  15. Research NoteEffect of drought and fires on the quality of water in Lithuanian rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sakalauskiene

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In August and September 2002, concentrations of heavy metals (copper, lead, and zinc were 21-74% more than in previous years in Lithuanian rivers. Such a sudden increase in heavy metal pollution reduces the value of any water body for fishing or recreation and poses a potential risk to the environment and to human health. Droughts in the summer of 2002 led to forest and peat bog fires all over Lithuania and may have caused the increase in concentrations of heavy metals detected in Lithuanian rivers in August 2002. The fires could have changed the pH in the top layers of the soil, overcome geochemical barriers in the soil and enabled heavy metals to migrate from the soil to the groundwater and from river bottom sediments to the surface water. Keywords: heavy metals, river water quality, Lithuania

  16. Heavy Metal Pollution of Chari River Water during the Crossing of N’Djamena (Chad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N’garam Nambatingar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to identify and assess the water quality of the Chari River. The Chari, 1200 km long, is Chad’s major water source. Municipal sewage, industrial wastewater discharge, and seasonal run-off from agriculture are regularly fed into the river. Several trace metals such as Cu, Zn, Fe, Ni, Cr, Mn, and Cd, were measured in different sampling stations located along the Chari River at N’Djamena in different campaigns from 2008 to 2010. Overall, manganese, zinc, chromium, and copper concentration levels were mainly in the range of the permissible limits prescribed by WHO guidelines (WHO 2011. Nickel, iron, and cadmium concentrations were still high. This preliminary study allowed us to identify the magnitude of toxic pollutants, which are responsible for Chari River water contamination in the study area. This study revealed that urgent measures must be taken to protect the local people from health problems resulting from high concentrations of heavy metals.

  17. A tale of two rivers: implications of water management practices for mussel biodiversity outcomes during droughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Daniel C; Galbraith, Heather S; Vaughn, Caryn C; Spooner, Daniel E

    2013-11-01

    Droughts often pose situations where stream water levels are lowest while human demand for water is highest. Here we present results of an observational study documenting changes in freshwater mussel communities in two southern US rivers during a multi-year drought. During a 13-year period water releases into the Kiamichi River from an impoundment were halted during droughts, while minimum releases from an impoundment were maintained in the Little River. The Kiamichi observed nearly twice as many low-flow events known to cause mussel mortality than the Little, and regression tree analyses suggest that this difference was influenced by reduced releases. During this period mussel communities in the Kiamichi declined in species richness and abundance, changes that were not observed in the Little. These results suggest that reduced releases during droughts likely led to mussel declines in one river, while maintaining reservoir releases may have sustained mussel populations in another.

  18. [Coupling relationship between water and salt of waters ecosystems in arid zone: a case study in Xinjiang Tarim River basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ranghui; Fan, Zili; Ma, Yingjie

    2002-02-01

    The pollution of waters ecosystems is caused by natural and artificial factors in Tarim River. Temporal and spatial variation of surface runoff is the main reason for changes of coupling relationship between water and salt. In the end of 1950s, mineralization degree was less than 1.0 g.L-1 from the upper reaches to the lower reaches of Tetema Lake in Tarim River. At present, only in July, August and October, mineralization degree is less than 1.0 g.L-1. During the other months, mineralization degree is more than 3.0 g.L-1 in Alaer Lake. In Qiala (the lower reaches of Tarim River), mineralization degree is more than 1.0 g.L-1 except in March. Moreover, mineralization degree is about 5.0 g.L-1 in July and December. It is showed that annual water quality belongs to the fifth seriously polluted water in Alaer, Xinquman and Yingbazha. Meanwhile, annual water quality in Qiala belongs to the fourth polluted water. In a word, water quality state and hydrological chemistry component are the most obviously indicator for coupling relationship between water and salt in Tarim River.

  19. Bacterial flora analysis of coliforms in sewage, river water, and ground water using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Niina, Kouki; Matsuwaki, Tomonori; Nukazawa, Kei; Iguchi, Atsushi

    2017-11-17

    The aim of this study was to rapidly and effectively analyze coliforms, which are the most fundamental indicators of water quality for fecal pollution, using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Coliform bacteria were isolated from municipal sewage, river water, and groundwater. For each sample, 100 isolates were determined by MALDI-TOF MS. In addition, these same 100 isolates were also identified via 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Obtained MALDI-TOF MS data were compared with the 16S rRNA sequencing analysis, and the validity of MALDI-TOF MS for classification of coliform bacteria was examined. The concordance rate of bacterial identification for the 100 isolates obtained by MALDI-TOF MS analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis for sewage, river water, and ground water were 96%, 74%, and 62% at the genus level, respectively. Among the sewage, river water, and ground water samples, the coliform bacterial flora were distinct. The dominant genus of coliforms in sewage, river water, and groundwater were Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., and Serratia spp., respectively. We determined that MALDI-TOF MS is a rapid and accurate tool that can be used to identify coliforms. Therefore, without using conventional 16S rRNA sequencing, it is possible to rapidly and effectively classify coliforms in water using MALDI-TOF MS.

  20. Water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia) from the hyporheic waters of the Selwyn River (New Zealand), with descriptions of nine new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pesic, V.; Smit, H.; Datry, T.

    2010-01-01

    New records of water mite species (Acari: Hydrachnidia) from hyporheic waters of Selwyn River (South Island, New Zealand) are reported. One new genus, Canterburaturus Pesic & Smit n. gen. (Aturidae) and nine new species are described: Taintaturus selwynus Pesic & Smit n. sp., T. rostratus Pesic &