WorldWideScience

Sample records for river extensional corridor

  1. Miocene extension and extensional folding in an anticlinal segment of the Black Mountains accommodation zone, Colorado River extensional corridor, southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Robert J.; Faulds, James E.; Snee, Lawrence W.; Harlan, Stephen S.; Bettison-Varga, Lori

    2004-02-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that rifts are characterized by linked tilt domains, each containing a consistent polarity of normal faults and stratal tilt directions, and that the transition between domains is typically through formation of accommodation zones and generally not through production of throughgoing transfer faults. The mid-Miocene Black Mountains accommodation zone of southern Nevada and western Arizona is a well-exposed example of an accommodation zone linking two regionally extensive and opposing tilt domains. In the southeastern part of this zone near Kingman, Arizona, east dipping normal faults of the Whipple tilt domain and west dipping normal faults of the Lake Mead domain coalesce across a relatively narrow region characterized by a series of linked, extensional folds. The geometry of these folds in this strike-parallel portion of the accommodation zone is dictated by the geometry of the interdigitating normal faults of opposed polarity. Synclines formed where normal faults of opposite polarity face away from each other whereas anticlines formed where the opposed normal faults face each other. Opposed normal faults with small overlaps produced short folds with axial trends at significant angles to regional strike directions, whereas large fault overlaps produce elongate folds parallel to faults. Analysis of faults shows that the folds are purely extensional and result from east/northeast stretching and fault-related tilting. The structural geometry of this portion of the accommodation zone mirrors that of the Black Mountains accommodation zone more regionally, with both transverse and strike-parallel antithetic segments. Normal faults of both tilt domains lose displacement and terminate within the accommodation zone northwest of Kingman, Arizona. However, isotopic dating of growth sequences and crosscutting relationships show that the initiation of the two fault systems in this area was not entirely synchronous and that west dipping faults of the

  2. River Corridors (Jan 2, 2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — River corridors are delineated to provide for the least erosive meandering and floodplain geometry toward which a river will evolve over time. River corridor maps...

  3. HANFORD SITE RIVER CORRIDOR CLEANUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BAZZELL, K.D.

    2006-02-01

    In 2005, the US Department of Energy (DOE) launched the third generation of closure contracts, including the River Corridor Closure (RCC) Contract at Hanford. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made on cleaning up the river shore that bordes Hanford. However, the most important cleanup challenges lie ahead. In March 2005, DOE awarded the Hanford River Corridor Closure Contract to Washington Closure Hanford (WCH), a limited liability company owned by Washington Group International, Bechtel National and CH2M HILL. It is a single-purpose company whose goal is to safely and efficiently accelerate cleanup in the 544 km{sup 2} Hanford river corridor and reduce or eliminate future obligations to DOE for maintaining long-term stewardship over the site. The RCC Contract is a cost-plus-incentive-fee closure contract, which incentivizes the contractor to reduce cost and accelerate the schedule. At $1.9 billion and seven years, WCH has accelerated cleaning up Hanford's river corridor significantly compared to the $3.2 billion and 10 years originally estimated by the US Army Corps of Engineers. Predictable funding is one of the key features of the new contract, with funding set by contract at $183 million in fiscal year (FY) 2006 and peaking at $387 million in FY2012. Another feature of the contract allows for Washington Closure to perform up to 40% of the value of the contract and subcontract the balance. One of the major challenges in the next few years will be to identify and qualify sufficient subcontractors to meet the goal.

  4. Variable input parameter influence on river corridor prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zerfu, T.; Beevers, L.; Crosato, A.; Wright, N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the erodible river corridor, which is the area in which the main river channel is free to migrate over a period of time. Due to growing anthropogenic pressure, predicting the corridor width has become increasingly important for the planning of development along rivers. Several a

  5. RIVER CORRIDOR BUILDINGS 324 & 327 CLEANUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BAZZELL, K.D.; SMITH, B.A.

    2006-02-09

    A major challenge in the recently awarded River Corridor Closure (RCC) Contract at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site is decontaminating and demolishing (D&D) facilities in the 300 Area. Located along the banks of the Columbia River about one mile north of Richland, Washington, the 2.5 km{sup 2} (1 mi{sup 2})300 Area comprises only a small part of the 1517 km{sup 2} (586 mi{sup 2}) Hanford Site. However, with more than 300 facilities ranging from clean to highly contaminated, D&D of those facilities represents a major challenge for Washington Closure Hanford (WCH), which manages the new RCC Project for DOE's Richland Operations Office (RL). A complicating factor for this work is the continued use of nearly a dozen facilities by the DOE's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Most of the buildings will not be released to WCH until at least 2009--four years into the seven-year, $1.9 billion RCC Contract. The challenge will be to deactivate, decommission, decontaminate and demolish (D4) highly contaminated buildings, such as 324 and 327, without interrupting PNNL's operations in adjacent facilities. This paper focuses on the challenges associated with the D4 of the 324 Building and the 327 Building.

  6. 75 FR 17756 - Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Office of the Secretary Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting... the John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission will be held on... integrated resource management plan for those lands and waters within the Corridor. The meeting will...

  7. 2010 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. T. Lindsey, A. L. Johnson

    2010-09-30

    This report documents eh status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with CERLA cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. This report contains vegetation monitoring data that were collected in the spring and summer of 2010 from the River Corridor Closure Contract’s revegetation and mitigation areas on the Hanford Site.

  8. 2011 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, W. J.; Lucas, J. G.; Gano, K. A.

    2011-11-14

    This report documents the status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. This report contains the vegetation monitoring data that was collected in the spring and summer of 2011 from the River Corridor Closure Contractor’s revegetation and mitigation areas on the Hanford Site.

  9. Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Iowa River Corridor Project [Land Status Map: Sheet 3 of 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Iowa River Corridor Project. It was generated from...

  10. Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Iowa River Corridor Project [Land Status Map: Sheet 2 of 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Iowa River Corridor Project. It was generated from...

  11. Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Iowa River Corridor Project [Land Status Map: Sheet 1 of 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Iowa River Corridor Project. It was generated from...

  12. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Lower Neches River Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Lower Neches River Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  13. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Lower Neches River Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Lower Neches River Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  14. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Lower Neches River Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Lower Neches River Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  15. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Lower Neches River Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Lower Neches River Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  16. Carbon dynamics of river corridors and the effects of human alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen; Hall, Robert O.; Lininger, Katherine B; Sutfin, Nicholas A.; Walters, David

    2017-01-01

    Research in stream metabolism, gas exchange, and sediment dynamics indicates that rivers are an active component of the global carbon cycle and that river form and process can influence partitioning of terrestrially derived carbon among the atmosphere, geosphere, and ocean. Here we develop a conceptual model of carbon dynamics (inputs, outputs, and storage of organic carbon) within a river corridor, which includes the active channel and the riparian zone. The exchange of carbon from the channel to the riparian zone represents potential for storage of transported carbon not included in the “active pipe” model of organic carbon (OC) dynamics in freshwater systems. The active pipe model recognizes that river processes influence carbon dynamics, but focuses on CO2 emissions from the channel and eventual delivery to the ocean. We also review how human activities directly and indirectly alter carbon dynamics within river corridors. We propose that dams create the most significant alteration of carbon dynamics within a channel, but that alteration of riparian zones, including the reduction of lateral connectivity between the channel and riparian zone, constitutes the most substantial change of carbon dynamics in river corridors. We argue that the morphology and processes of a river corridor regulate the ability to store, transform, and transport OC, and that people are pervasive modifiers of river morphology and processes. The net effect of most human activities, with the notable exception of reservoir construction, appears to be that of reducing the ability of river corridors to store OC within biota and sediment, which effectively converts river corridors to OC sources rather than OC sinks. We conclude by summarizing knowledge gaps in OC dynamics and the implications of our findings for managing OC dynamics within river corridors.

  17. The Bug river - Corridor in the Pan European

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zingstra, H.L.; Simeonova, V.; Kitnaes, K.

    2009-01-01

    This is the final report of the BBI/Matra project 2006/015 “Protection and Management of the Bug as an Ecological Corridor in the Pan European Ecological Network” and is based on “status reports” written for each of the three riparian countries. The purpose of the project was to investigate the

  18. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associations of vascular plants confined to river valleys: towards understanding the river corridor plant distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobis, Agnieszka; Błaszkowski, Janusz; Zubek, Szymon

    2015-01-01

    The group of river corridor plants (RCP) includes vascular plant species which grow mainly or exclusively in the valleys of large rivers. Despite the long recognized fact that some plant species display a corridor-like distribution pattern in Central Europe, there is still no exhaustive explanation of the mechanisms generating this peculiar distribution. The main goal of this study was therefore to investigate whether arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and fungal root endophytes influence the RCP distribution. Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) were observed in 19 out of 33 studied RCP. Dark septate endophytes (DSE) and Olpidium spp. were recorded with low abundance in 15 and 10 plant species, respectively. The spores of AMF were found only in 32% of trap cultures established from the soils collected in the river corridor habitats. In total, six widespread AMF species were identified. Because the percentage of non-mycorrhizal species in the group of RCP is significant and the sites in river corridors are characterized by low AMF species diversity, RCP can be outcompeted outside river valleys by the widespread species that are able to benefit from AM associations in more stable plant-AMF communities in non-river habitats.

  19. Upper Kenai Corridor Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Upper Kenai Corridor study describes and evaluates the Upper Kenai River and the land which embraces it. It also places the river corridor in its regional...

  20. The relative influence of catchment, riparian corridor, and reach-scale anthropogenic pressures on fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages in French rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marzin, A.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Pont, D.

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the relative influences of physiography and anthropogenic pressures on river biota at catchment, riparian corridor, and reach scales. Environmental data, catchment and riparian corridor land use, anthropogenic modifications and biological data were compiled for 301 French sites

  1. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Canyonlands and Upper Neches River Corridor Units, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Canyonlands and Upper Neches River Corridor Units of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was...

  2. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Canyonlands and Upper Neches River Corridor Units, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Canyonlands and Upper Neches River Corridor Units of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was...

  3. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Canyonlands and Upper Neches River Corridor Units, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Canyonlands and Upper Neches River Corridor Units of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was...

  4. Hydrologic Connectivity Estimated throughout the Nation's River Corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J. W.; Gomez-Velez, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrologic connectivity is a key concept that integrates longitudinal transport in rivers with vertical and lateral exchanges between rivers and hyporheic zones, riparian wetlands, floodplains, and ponded aquatic ecosystems. Desirable levels of connectivity are thought to be associated with rivers that are well-connected longitudinally while also being well connected vertically and laterally with marginal waters where carbon and nutrients are efficiently transformed, and where aquatic organisms feed, or are reared, or take refuge during floods. But what is the proper balance between longitudinal and vertical and lateral connectivity? We took a step towards quantifying hydrologic connectivity using the model NEXSS (Gomez-Velez and Harvey, 2014, GRL) applied throughout the nation's rivers. NEXSS simulates vertical and lateral connectivity and compares it with longitudinal transport along the river's main axis. It uses as inputs measured network topology for first to eighth order channels, river hydraulic geometry, sediment grain size, bedform types and sizes, estimated hydraulic conductivity of sediments, and estimates of reaction rates such as denitrification. Results indicate that hyporheic flow is large enough to exchange a river's entire volume many times within a river network, which increases biogeochemical opportunities for nutrient processing and attenuation of contaminants. Also, the analysis demonstrated why and where (i.e., in which physiographic regions of the nation) are hyporheic flow and solute reactions the greatest. The cumulative influence of hydrologic connectivity on water quality is expressed by a dimensionless index of reaction significance. Our quantification of hydrologic connectivity adds a physical basis that supports water quality modeling, and also supports scientifically based prioritization of management actions (e.g. stream restoration) and may support other types of actions (e.g. legislative actions) to help conserve healthy functional

  5. 2007 Weather and Aeolian Sand-Transport Data from the Colorado River Corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draut, Amy E.; Andrews, Timothy; Fairley, Helen C.; Brown, Christopher R.

    2009-01-01

    Weather data constitute an integral part of ecosystem monitoring in the Colorado River corridor and are particularly valuable for understanding processes of landscape change that contribute to the stability of archeological sites. Data collected in 2007 are reported from nine weather stations in the Colorado River corridor through Grand Canyon, Ariz. The stations were deployed in February and March 2007 to measure wind speed and direction, rainfall, air temperature, relative humidity, and barometric pressure. Sand traps near each weather station collect windblown sand, from which daily aeolian sand-transport rates are calculated. The data reported here were collected as part of an ongoing study to test and evaluate methods for quantifying processes that affect the physical integrity of archeological sites along the river corridor; as such, these data can be used to identify rainfall events capable of causing gully incision and to predict likely transport pathways for aeolian sand, two landscape processes integral to the preservation of archeological sites. Weather data also have widespread applications to other studies of physical, cultural, and biological resources in Grand Canyon. Aeolian sand-transport data reported here, collected in the year before the March 2008 High-Flow Experiment (HFE) at Glen Canyon Dam, represent baseline data against which the effects of the 2008 HFE on windblown sand will be compared in future reports.

  6. Hydrologic indicators of hot spots and hot moments of mercury methylation potential along river corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Michael B.; Harrison, Lee R.; Donovan, Patrick M.; Blum, Joel D.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of metals and other contaminants in river-floodplain corridors is controlled by microbial activity responding to dynamic redox conditions. Riverine flooding thus has the potential to affect speciation of redox-sensitive metals such as mercury (Hg). Therefore, inundation history over a period of decades potentially holds information on past production of bioavailable Hg. We investigate this within a Northern California river system with a legacy of landscape-scale 19th century hydraulic gold mining. We combine hydraulic modeling, Hg measurements in sediment and biota, and first-order calculations of mercury transformation to assess the potential role of river floodplains in producing monomethylmercury (MMHg), a neurotoxin which accumulates in local and migratory food webs. We identify frequently inundated floodplain areas, as well as floodplain areas inundated for long periods. We quantify the probability of MMHg production potential (MPP) associated with hydrology in each sector of the river system as a function of the spatial patterns of overbank inundation and drainage, which affect long-term redox history of contaminated sediments. Our findings identify river floodplains as periodic, temporary, yet potentially important, loci of biogeochemical transformation in which contaminants may undergo change during limited periods of the hydrologic record. We suggest that inundation is an important driver of MPP in river corridors and that the entire flow history must be analyzed retrospectively in terms of inundation magnitude and frequency in order to accurately assess biogeochemical risks, rather than merely highlighting the largest floods or low-flow periods. MMHg bioaccumulation within the aquatic food web in this system may pose a major risk to humans and waterfowl that eat migratory salmonids, which are being encouraged to come up these rivers to spawn. There is a long-term pattern of MPP under the current flow regime that is likely to be

  7. Hydrologic indicators of hot spots and hot moments of mercury methylation potential along river corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Michael Bliss; Harrison, Lee R; Donovan, Patrick M; Blum, Joel D; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark

    2016-10-15

    The biogeochemical cycling of metals and other contaminants in river-floodplain corridors is controlled by microbial activity responding to dynamic redox conditions. Riverine flooding thus has the potential to affect speciation of redox-sensitive metals such as mercury (Hg). Therefore, inundation history over a period of decades potentially holds information on past production of bioavailable Hg. We investigate this within a Northern California river system with a legacy of landscape-scale 19th century hydraulic gold mining. We combine hydraulic modeling, Hg measurements in sediment and biota, and first-order calculations of mercury transformation to assess the potential role of river floodplains in producing monomethylmercury (MMHg), a neurotoxin which accumulates in local and migratory food webs. We identify frequently inundated floodplain areas, as well as floodplain areas inundated for long periods. We quantify the probability of MMHg production potential (MPP) associated with hydrology in each sector of the river system as a function of the spatial patterns of overbank inundation and drainage, which affect long-term redox history of contaminated sediments. Our findings identify river floodplains as periodic, temporary, yet potentially important, loci of biogeochemical transformation in which contaminants may undergo change during limited periods of the hydrologic record. We suggest that inundation is an important driver of MPP in river corridors and that the entire flow history must be analyzed retrospectively in terms of inundation magnitude and frequency in order to accurately assess biogeochemical risks, rather than merely highlighting the largest floods or low-flow periods. MMHg bioaccumulation within the aquatic food web in this system may pose a major risk to humans and waterfowl that eat migratory salmonids, which are being encouraged to come up these rivers to spawn. There is a long-term pattern of MPP under the current flow regime that is likely to be

  8. Hydrologic indicators of hot spots and hot moments of mercury methylation along river corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Michael; Harrison, Lee; Donovan, Patrick; Blum, Joel; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark

    2016-04-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of metals and other contaminants river-floodplain corridors is controlled by microbial activity is often affected by dynamic redox conditions. Riverine flooding thus has the potential to affect speciation of redox-sensitive metals such as mercury (Hg). Therefore, flow history over a period of decades potentially holds information on past production of bioavailable Hg. We investigate this process within a Northern California river system that has a legacy of industrial-scale 19th century hydraulic gold mining. In the first known application of this methodology, we combine hydraulic modeling, measurements of Hg species in sediment and biota, and first-order calculations to assess the role of river floodplains in producing monomethylmercury (MMHg), which accumulates in local and migratory biota. We identify areas that represent 'hot spots' (frequently inundated areas of floodplains) and 'hot moments' (floodplain areas inundated for consecutive long periods). We show that the probability of MMHg production in each sector of the river system is dependent on the spatial patterns of overbank flow and drainage, which affect its long-term redox history. MMHg bioaccumulation within the aquatic food web may pose a major risk to humans and waterfowl that eat migratory salmonids, which are being encouraged to come up these rivers to spawn, and there appears to be no end to MMHg production under a regime of increasingly common large floods with extended duration. These findings identify river floodplains as periodic, temporary, yet important, loci of biogeochemical transformation in which contaminants may undergo change during limited periods of the historical hydrologic record. We suggest that inundation is the primary driver of MMHg production in river corridors and that the entire flow history must be analyzed in terms of magnitude and frequency of inundation in order to accurately assess biogeochemical risks, rather than merely highlighting the

  9. Slovenian and European legal stipulations concerning protection and rehabilitation of river corridors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Mikoš

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the state of hydromorphological preservation of river corridors in the Slovenian hydrographic network and because of demands imposed by domestic and European legislature concerning water resource management and environmental protection, certain sections of rivers and streams that were for various reasons regulated in the past, will have to be rehabilitated. Permanent solutions to such issues demand careful planning of rehabilitation on suitable sections of rivers and streams, adequate positioning within physical planning acts, as well as streamlined administrative procedures and devised maintenance of rehabilitation areas. Because the process demands the return of formerly taken water surfaces into the domain of water ecosystems and dynamics of hydromorphological processes, and consequentially maintenance of regained surfaces, the public becomes an important factor, which is a position, granted by domestic and European laws. Last, but not least, successful execution of rehabilitation of water corridors, besides planning, administration and consistent public participation, demands knowledge about good practices of project management, as well as technical execution of such projects.

  10. Value and Resilience in the Case of 'Invasive' Tamarix in the Colorado River Riparian Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, P. A.; Gerlach, S.; Zamora, F.

    2009-12-01

    A common premise of science for conservation and sustainability is an assumption that despite any human definitions of value, there are ecological first principles, e.g., resilience, which must be understood if sustainability is to be possible. As I show here, however, pursuits such as restoration, conservation, and sustainability remain tangled in (and sometimes at odds with one another regarding) many value-laden decisions regarding the equity, justice, and morality of human-environment interactions. These include such important decisions as: what should be restored or sustained and for whom, how and by whom, and at what cost. This paper uses examples from the lower Colorado River Riparian Corridor, in particular the issue of the so-called ‘invasive’ saltcedar (Tamarix spp.), to illustrate some of the implicit value judgments common to the practice of managing ecosystems. There are many possible perspectives to be taken on a matter like Tamarix, each implicitly or explicitly representing different worldviews and agendas for the ecosystems in question. Resilience theory provides one such perspective, but as I show here, it proves incapable of producing recommendations for managing the corridor that are free of subjective valuations. I end with a case study of habitat and Tamarix management practices in the Mexican portion of the Colorado River Delta, highlighting the proven potential when up-front values are explicitly coupled to the practice of sustainability science, rather than left as details for 'good governance,' a realm presently imagined as separate from science, to sort out. Map of the Colorado River Delta. The Sonoran Institute manages projects in the Mexican portion of the Colorado River Delta region, along the Rio Hardy, the mainstem of the Colorado River in Baja California, MX and in the Cienega de Santa Clara wetlands, Sonora, MX. Map courtesy of Water Education Foundation. www.watereducation.org

  11. A water balance model to estimate flow through the Old and Middle River corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Stephen W.; Gross, Edward S.; Hutton, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    We applied a water balance model to predict tidally averaged (subtidal) flows through the Old River and Middle River corridor in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta. We reviewed the dynamics that govern subtidal flows and water levels and adopted a simplified representation. In this water balance approach, we estimated ungaged flows as linear functions of known (or specified) flows. We assumed that subtidal storage within the control volume varies because of fortnightly variation in subtidal water level, Delta inflow, and barometric pressure. The water balance model effectively predicts subtidal flows and approaches the accuracy of a 1–D Delta hydrodynamic model. We explore the potential to improve the approach by representing more complex dynamics and identify possible future improvements.

  12. From mountains to the ocean: quantifying connectivity along the river corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Velez, J. D.; Harvey, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    Rivers are the landscape's arteries; they convey water, solutes, energy, and living organisms from the hillslopes, floodplains, aquifers, and atmosphere to the oceans. As water moves along this complex circulatory system, it is continuously exchanged with the surrounding alluvial aquifer, termed hyporheic exchange, which strongly conditions and constrains the biogeochemical evolution of water at the local scale with basin-scale consequences. Over the last two decades, considerable efforts have focused on the use of detailed mathematical models to explore the hydrodynamics and biogeochemical effect of hyporheic exchange at the scale of individual channel morphologies. While these efforts are essential to gain mechanistic understanding, their computational demand makes them impractical for basin applications. In this talk, a parsimonious but physically based model of hyporheic flow for application in large river basins is presented: Networks with EXchange and Subsurface Storage (NEXSS). At the core of NEXSS are the up-scaling of detailed mathematical models and a characterization of the channel geometry, geomorphic features, and related hydraulic drivers based on scaling equations from the literature and readily accessible information such as river discharge, width, grain size, sinuosity, channel slope, and regional groundwater gradients. As a proof-of-concept, we use NEXSS to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of hyporheic exchange and denitrification potential along the Mississippi River basin. This modeling approach allows us to map the location of critical hot spots for biogeochemical transformation, their geomorphic drivers, and cumulative effect. Finally, we discuss new avenues to incorporate exchange with floodplains and ponded waters, which also play a key role in water quality along the river corridor. This new modeling approach is critical to transition from purely empirical continental models of water quality to hybrid approaches that

  13. River Networks As Ecological Corridors for Species, Populations and Pathogens of Water-Borne Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldo, A.

    2014-12-01

    River basins are a natural laboratory for the study of the integration of hydrological, ecological and geomorphological processes. Moving from morphological and functional analyses of dendritic geometries observed in Nature over a wide range of scales, this Lecture addresses essential ecological processes that take place along dendritic structures, hydrology-driven and controlled, like e.g.: population migrations and human settlements, that historically proceeded along river networks to follow water supply routes; riparian ecosystems composition that owing to their positioning along streams play crucial roles in their watersheds and in the loss of biodiversity proceeding at unprecedented rates; waterborne disease spreading, like epidemic cholera that exhibits epidemic patterns that mirror those of watercourses and of human mobility and resurgences upon heavy rainfall. Moreover, the regional incidence of Schistosomiasis, a parasitic waterborne disease, and water resources developments prove tightly related, and proliferative kidney disease in fish thrives differently in pristine and engineered watercourses: can we establish quantitatively the critical linkages with hydrologic drivers and controls? How does connectivity within a river network affect community composition or the spreading mechanisms? Does the river basin act as a template for biodiversity or for species' persistence? Are there hydrologic controls on epidemics of water-borne disease? Here, I shall focus on the noteworthy scientific perspectives provided by spatially explicit eco-hydrological studies centered on river networks viewed as ecological corridors for species, populations and pathogens of waterborne disease. A notable methodological coherence is granted by the mathematical description of river networks as the support for reactive transport. The Lecture overviews a number of topics idiosyncratically related to my own research work but ideally aimed at a coherent body of materials and methods. A

  14. Melampyrum Cristatum L. – A Rare River Corridor Plant in Wielkopolska and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stachnowicz Wojciech

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Melampyrum cristatum is an extremely rare, native, hemi-parasitic, vascular plant, recently considered to be extinct in Poland. The article presents data concerning new localities of the species recorded in 2007-2012 in the valley of the River Warta (Wielkopolska, Poland. Local distribution of M. cristatum in the Natura 2000 sites: PLH300012 - Rogalińska Dolina Warty (ca. 147.5 sq. km and PLH300053 - Lasy Żerkowsko-Czeszewskie (ca. 71.6 sq. km, as well as its updated regional (in Wielkopolska and national (Poland ranges are shown on maps and interpreted on the background of the geomorphic diversity of occupied habitats. The results suggest that in Poland the species is distributed mainly along valleys of large, lowland rivers, which corresponds with its ‘River Corridor Plant’ status in Central Europe. The species rarity is discussed considering its outline phytocoenological scale (comprising various plant communities within 6 syntaxonomical classes, the riverine distribution pattern and chosen biological features. Natural habitat heterogeneity along with changeable water regime in floodplains, as well as potential limitations of myrmecochoric seed dispersal, may constitute potential reasons for the species low frequency

  15. Corridor effect of the spatial changes of landscape patterns in arid areas: A case study of the river corridor areas in the middle and lower reaches of Tarim River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Huarong; XIAO Duning; ZHOU Kefa

    2006-01-01

    The river corridor areas in the middle and lower reaches of the Tarim River are dominated by the traditional green corridors along the river section from the Qara Reservoir in Yuli County to the Taitema Lake in Ruoqiang County, which plays an important role in the social and economic development in the Tarim River Watershed with a extremely significant ecological functions. The buffer zones perpendicular to the watercourse were defined along both riversides at a 5-km interval beginning from the watercourse (10 km wider) using the method of the buffer zone analysis. The landscape pattern indexes of each buffer zone were calculated, and the indexes of the main landscape patterns were analyzed so as to reveal the radiative effect and the characteristics of the river corridors on landscape and patch levels.The results show that the radiative width is generally 30 km in the study area, and can be up to 50-70 km in sub- region FG1 because the study area is located in two drainage basins, with an ecological interstitial zone between them. The landscapes of woodlands and wetlands are generally distributed within the 10km buffer zone (it means that the buffer zone is 5 km away from the watercourse; the same hereafter)along both riversides. Moreover, the closer the buffer zone is to the watercourse, the higher the patch density and the largest patch index are. In the ecological and environmental regeneration for the study area,the extent of ecological effect of the river corridors 82must be fully considered, and the projects must be scientifically and rationally planned and designed.

  16. Conditions and processes affecting sand resources at archeological sites in the Colorado River corridor below Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Amy E.; Collins, Brian D.; Sankey, Joel B.; Corbett, Skye C.; Fairley, Helen C.; Caster, Joshua

    2016-05-17

    This study examined links among fluvial, aeolian, and hillslope geomorphic processes that affect archeological sites and surrounding landscapes in the Colorado River corridor downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona. We assessed the potential for Colorado River sediment to enhance the preservation of river-corridor archeological resources through aeolian sand deposition or mitigation of gully erosion. By identifying locally prevailing wind directions, locations of modern sandbars, and likely aeolian-transport barriers, we determined that relatively few archeological sites are now ideally situated to receive aeolian sand supply from sandbars deposited by recent controlled floods. Whereas three-fourths of the 358 river-corridor archeological sites we examined include Colorado River sediment as an integral component of their geomorphic context, only 32 sites currently appear to have a high degree of connectivity (coupled interactions) between modern fluvial sandbars and sand-dominated landscapes downwind. This represents a substantial decrease from past decades, as determined by aerial-photograph analysis. Thus, we infer that recent controlled floods have had a limited, and declining, influence on archeological-site preservation.

  17. Self-potential investigations of a gravel bar in a restored river corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, N.; Doetsch, J.; Jougnot, D.; Genoni, O.; Durst, Y.; Minsley, Burke J.; Vogt, T.; Pasquale, N.; Luster, J.

    2011-01-01

     Self-potentials (SP) are sensitive to water fluxes and concentration gradients in both saturated and unsaturated geological media, but quantitative interpretations of SP field data may often be hindered by the superposition of different source contributions and time-varying electrode potentials. Self-potential mapping and close to two months of SP monitoring on a gravel bar were performed to investigate the origins of SP signals at a restored river section of the Thur River in northeastern Switzerland. The SP mapping and subsequent inversion of the data indicate that the SP sources are mainly located in the upper few meters in regions of soil cover rather than bare gravel. Wavelet analyses of the time-series indicate a strong, but non-linear influence of water table and water content variations, as well as rainfall intensity on the recorded SP signals. Modeling of the SP response with respect to an increase in the water table elevation and precipitation indicate that the distribution of soil properties in the vadose zone has a very strong influence. We conclude that the observed SP responses on the gravel bar are more complicated than previously proposed semi-empiric relationships between SP signals and hydraulic head or the thickness of the vadose zone. We suggest that future SP monitoring in restored river corridors should either focus on quantifying vadose zone processes by installing vertical profiles of closely spaced SP electrodes or by installing the electrodes within the river to avoid signals arising from vadose zone processes and time-varying electrochemical conditions in the vicinity of the electrodes.

  18. Self-potential investigations of a gravel bar in a restored river corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Linde

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-potentials (SP are sensitive to water fluxes and concentration gradients in both saturated and unsaturated geological media, but quantitative interpretations of SP field data may often be hindered by the superposition of different source contributions and time-varying electrode potentials. Self-potential mapping and close to two months of SP monitoring on a gravel bar were performed to investigate the origins of SP signals at a restored river section of the Thur River in northeastern Switzerland. The SP mapping and subsequent inversion of the data indicate that the SP sources are mainly located in the upper few meters in regions of soil cover rather than bare gravel. Wavelet analyses of the time-series indicate a strong, but non-linear influence of water table and water content variations, as well as rainfall intensity on the recorded SP signals. Modeling of the SP response with respect to an increase in the water table elevation and precipitation indicate that the distribution of soil properties in the vadose zone has a very strong influence. We conclude that the observed SP responses on the gravel bar are more complicated than previously proposed semi-empiric relationships between SP signals and hydraulic head or the thickness of the vadose zone. We suggest that future SP monitoring in restored river corridors should either focus on quantifying vadose zone processes by installing vertical profiles of closely spaced SP electrodes or by installing the electrodes within the river to avoid signals arising from vadose zone processes and time-varying electrochemical conditions in the vicinity of the electrodes.

  19. First steps toward automatic patterns recognition from sequences of a restored river corridor photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouta, S.; Perona, P.; Schneider, P.; Wombacher, A.; Burlando, P.

    2009-04-01

    Obtaining information about river morphology and riparian vegetation patterns by means of photographic techniques is a challenging task with promising applications in the field of river hydraulic engineering and restoration. For instance, such a tool would speed up the post- processing phase of aerial images that is needed to calibrate both hydraulics and ecosystem models. Recognizing patterns automatically is relatively easy in the presence of well-defined objects and contrasting background colors, but this operation becomes rather difficult for open air or environmental photographs (e.g. of river corridors) where a multitude of colors, shadows, reflections and changing light conditions typically characterize the images. In this work an attempt is made in this direction and we begin with the already challenging task of recognizing water and non-water classes from digital photographs under changing light and surface albedo. Such conditions are typically due to either diurnal variability or bad weather conditions (e.g., like fog or snow). We use aerial photographs of the restored corridor of River Thur at Niederneunforn (Switzerland), which is currently monitored with high-resolution digital cameras as a task of the research project RECORD. Images of the river reach are taken from the top of two observation towers installed on the river levee and shots are frequency-dependent on current flow conditions. The approach we present here consists of masking the images by ignoring the irrelevant parts like mountains and sky, for instance. Next, features are defined which describe properties of the image or the image content, like e.g. color values, gradients of neighboring pixels, or application specific information like a probability distribution of a pixel being water derived from the digital elevation model. The investigated features can be classified according to two orthogonal dimensions: i) Pixel based features and features derived from a group of pixels and ii) Time

  20. Modern comprehensive approach to monitor the morphodynamic evolution of restored river corridors

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    N. Pasquale

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available River restoration has become a common measure to repair anthropogenically-induced alteration of fluvial ecosystems. The inherent complexity of ecohydrologic systems, leads to limitations in understanding the response of such systems to restoration over time. Up to now a lot of effort has therefore been dedicated worldwide to document the efficiency of restoration actions and to produce new effective guidelines that may help overcoming our deficiencies. At the same time very few attentions focused on illustrating the reasons and the use of certain monitoring and experimental techniques in spite of others, or in relation to the specific ecohydrologic process being investigated. The purpose of this paper is to enrich efforts in this direction by discussing the experimental setup that we designed and installed in order to accomplish some of the research tasks of the multidisciplinary scientific project RECORD (Restored Corridor Dynamics. Therein, we study the morphodynamic evolution of the restored reaches of River Thur near Niederneunforn (Switzerland, also in relation to the role of pioneer vegetation roots in stabilizing the alluvial sediment. In this work we describe and motivate the methodology chosen for monitoring the river morphodynamics, the dynamics of riparian and of in-bed vegetation and their mutual interactions, as well as the need of complementing such observations with experiments and with the hydraulic modeling of the site. We also discuss how the designed installation and the experiments integrate with the needs of other research groups within the project, in particular providing data for a number of investigations ranging from surface water to groundwater, soil moisture and vegetation dynamics.

  1. Modern comprehensive approach to monitor the morphodynamic evolution of a restored river corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Pasquale

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available River restoration has become a common measure to repair anthropogenically-induced alteration of fluvial ecosystems. The inherent complexity of ecohydrologic systems leads to limitations in understanding the response of such systems to restoration over time. Therefore, a significant effort has been dedicated in the recent years worldwide to document the efficiency of restoration actions and to produce new effective guidelines that may help overcoming existing deficiencies. At the same time little attention was paid to illustrate the reasons and the use of certain monitoring and experimental techniques in spite of others, or in relation to the specific ecohydrologic process being investigated. The purpose of this paper is to enrich efforts in this direction by presenting the framework of experimental activities and the related experimental setup that we designed and installed in order to accomplish some of the research tasks of the multidisciplinary scientific project RECORD (Restored Corridor Dynamics. Therein, we studied the morphodynamic evolution of the restored reach of the River Thur near Niederneunforn (Switzerland, also in relation to the role of pioneer vegetation roots in stabilizing the alluvial sediment. In this work we describe the methodology chosen for monitoring the river morphodynamics, the dynamics of riparian and of in-bed vegetation and their mutual interactions, as well as the need of complementing such observations with experiments and with the hydraulic modeling of the site. We also discuss how the designed installation and the experiments integrate with the needs of other research groups within the project, in particular providing data for a number of investigations thereby including surface water and groundwater interactions, soil moisture and vegetation dynamics.

  2. Towards improved instrumentation for assessing river-groundwater interactions in a restored river corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Schneider

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available River restoration projects have been launched over the last two decades to improve the ecological status and water quality of regulated rivers. As most restored rivers are not monitored at all, it is difficult to predict consequences of restoration projects or analyze why restorations fail or are successful. It is thus necessary to implement efficient field assessment strategies, for example by employing sensor networks that continuously measure physical parameters at high spatial and temporal resolution. This paper focuses on the design and implementation of an instrumentation strategy for monitoring changes in bank filtration, hydrological connectivity, groundwater travel time and quality due to river restoration. We specifically designed and instrumented a network of monitoring wells at the Thur River (NE Switzerland, which is partly restored and mainly channelized since more than 100 years. Our results show that bank filtration – especially in a restored section with alternating riverbed morphology – is variable in time and space. Consequently, our monitoring network sensing physical and sampling chemical water quality parameters was adapted in response to that variability. Although not available at our test site, we consider long-term measurements – ideally initialized before and continued after restoration – as a fundamental step, towards predicting consequences of river restoration for groundwater quality. As a result, process-based models could be adapted and evaluated using these types of high-resolution data sets.

  3. Towards improved instrumentation for assessing river-groundwater interactions in a restored river corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Schneider

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available River restoration projects have been launched over the last two decades to improve the ecological status and water quality of regulated rivers. As most restored rivers are not monitored at all, it is difficult to predict consequences of restoration projects or analyze why restorations fail or are successful. It is thus necessary to implement efficient field assessment strategies, for example by employing sensor networks that continuously measure physical parameters at high spatial and temporal resolution. This paper focuses on the design and implementation of an instrumentation strategy for monitoring changes in bank filtration, hydrological connectivity, groundwater travel time and quality due to river restoration. We specifically designed and instrumented a network of monitoring wells at the Thur River (NE Switzerland, which is partly restored and has been mainly channelized for more than 100 years. Our results show that bank filtration – especially in a restored section with alternating riverbed morphology – is variable in time and space. Consequently, our monitoring network has been adapted in response to that variability. Although not available at our test site, we consider long-term measurements – ideally initiated before and continued after restoration – as a fundamental step towards predicting consequences of river restoration for groundwater quality. As a result, process-based models could be adapted and evaluated using these types of high-resolution data sets.

  4. Riparian vegetation dynamics and evapotranspiration in the riparian corridor in the delta of the Colorado River, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Pamela L; Glenn, Edward P; Hinojosa-Huerta, Osvel; Zamora, Francisco; Howard, Keith

    2008-09-01

    Like other great desert rivers, the Colorado River in the United States and Mexico is highly regulated to provide water for human use. No water is officially allotted to support the natural ecosystems in the delta of the river in Mexico. However, precipitation is inherently variable in this watershed, and from 1981-2004, 15% of the mean annual flow of the Lower Colorado River has entered the riparian corridor below the last diversion point for water in Mexico. These flows include flood releases from US dams and much smaller administrative spills released back to the river from irrigators in the US and Mexico. These flows have germinated new cohorts of native cottonwood and willow trees and have established an active aquatic ecosystem in the riparian corridor in Mexico. We used ground and remote-sensing methods to determine the composition and fractional cover of the vegetation in the riparian corridor, its annual water consumption, and the sources of water that support the ecosystem. The study covered the period 2000-2004, a flood year followed by 4 dry years. The riparian corridor occupies 30,000 ha between flood control levees in Mexico. Annual evapotranspiration (ET), estimated by Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) satellite imagery calibrated against moisture flux tower data, was about 1.1 m yr(-1) and was fairly constant throughout the study period despite a paucity of surface flows 2001-2004. Total ET averaged 3.4 x 10(8)m(3)yr(-1), about 15% of Colorado River water entering Mexico from the US Surface flows could have played only a small part in supporting these high ET losses. We conclude that the riparian ET is supported mainly by the shallow regional aquifer, derived from agricultural return flows, that approaches the surface in the riparian zone. Nevertheless, surface flows are important in germinating cohorts of native trees, in washing salts from the soil and aquifer, and in providing aquatic habitat, thereby enriching the habitat value of

  5. How to comprehensively evaluate river corridor conditions? A comparison of different biotic and morphological indices in northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golfieri, Bruno; Surian, Nicola; Hardersen, Sönke; Maiolini, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    The assessment of river conditions is crucial for planning appropriate management actions. The European Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC (WFD) requires the assessment of biological, physical-chemical and hydromorphological elements to define the ecological status of rivers. The WFD suggests the use of different bioindicators (i.e. benthic macroinvertebrates, diatoms, aquatic macrophytes and fish), the so called "biological quality elements" (BQEs). However, recent studies showed that BQEs-based indices have two main limitations: (i) their standard application is limited to flowing channels and (ii) they are not sensitive to hydromorphological alteration. Hydromorphological conditions are usually evaluated applying methods for physical habitat assessment (i.e. the River Habitat Survey or derived methods) that consist in site-scale inventories of river forms and anthropic structures. The lack of consideration of wider spatial (i.e. reach or catchment scale) and temporal scales (e.g. channel evolution over the last 50-100 years) make such methods inadequate for a sound diagnosis of morphological alterations. The Morphological Quality Index (MQI) and the dragonfly-based Odonate River Index (ORI) were developed in the recent years to overcome the above-mentioned limitations and to assess the condition of the whole river corridor (i.e. the channel and its adjacent floodplain) at reach scale. In this study we correlated the assessments of MQI, ORI and two BQEs-based biotic indices (i.e. STAR_ICMi for benthic macroinvertebrates and ICMi for diatoms) in 15 lowland river reaches in northern Italy. The selected reaches are characterized by a wide range of morphological degradation. MQI and ORI were highly correlated, probably because both methods work at reach scale and consider the integrity of the whole river corridor, either in terms of morphology or considering ecological aspects. In contrast, no significant relationships were found between MQI and ORI and the BQEs

  6. The Casiquiare river acts as a corridor between the Amazonas and Orinoco river basins: biogeographic analysis of the genus Cichla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, S C; Nunes, M; Montaña, C G; Farias, I P; Ortí, G; Lovejoy, N R

    2010-03-01

    The Casiquiare River is a unique biogeographic corridor between the Orinoco and Amazonas basins. We investigated the importance of this connection for Neotropical fishes using peacock cichlids (Cichla spp.) as a model system. We tested whether the Casiquiare provides a conduit for gene flow between contemporary populations, and investigated the origin of biogeographic distributions that span the Casiquiare. Using sequences from the mitochondrial control region of three focal species (C. temensis, C. monoculus, and C. orinocensis) whose distributions include the Amazonas, Orinoco, and Casiquiare, we constructed maximum likelihood phylograms of haplotypes and analyzed the populations under an isolation-with-migration coalescent model. Our analyses suggest that populations of all three species have experienced some degree of gene flow via the Casiquiare. We also generated a mitochondrial genealogy of all Cichla species using >2000 bp and performed a dispersal-vicariance analysis (DIVA) to reconstruct the historical biogeography of the genus. This analysis, when combined with the intraspecific results, supports two instances of dispersal from the Amazonas to the Orinoco. Thus, our results support the idea that the Casiquiare connection is important across temporal scales, facilitating both gene flow and the dispersal and range expansion of species.

  7. Sedimentology and stratigraphy of the Palisades, Lower Comanche, and Arroyo Grande areas of the Colorado River Corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draut, Amy E.; Rubin, David M.; Dierker, Jennifer L.; Fairley, Helen C.; Griffiths, Ronald E.; Hazel, Joseph E.; Hunter, Ralph E.; Kohl, Keith; Leap, Lisa M.; Nials, Fred L.; Topping, David J.; Yeatts, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This report analyzes various depositional environments in three archaeologically significant areas of the Colorado River corridor in Grand Canyon. Archaeological features are built on and buried by fluvial, aeolian, and locally derived sediment, representing a complex interaction between geologic and cultural history. These analyses provide a basis for determining the potential influence of Glen Canyon Dam operations on selected archaeological sites and thus for guiding dam operations in order to facilitate preservation of cultural resources. This report presents initial results of a joint effort between geologists and archaeologists to evaluate the significance of various depositional processes and environments in the prehistoric formation and modern preservation of archaeological sites along the Colorado River corridor in Grand Canyon National Park. Stratigraphic investigations of the Palisades, Lower Comanche, and Arroyo Grande areas of Grand Canyon yield detailed information regarding the sedimentary history at these locations. Reconstruction of past depositional settings is critical to a thorough understanding of the geomorphic and stratigraphic evolution of these three archaeologically significant areas. This examination of past sedimentary environments allows the relative significance of fluvial, aeolian, debris-fan, and slope-wash sedimentary deposits to be identified at each site. In general the proportion of fluvial sediment (number and thickness of flood deposits) is shown to decrease away from the river, and locally derived sediment becomes more significant. Flood sequences often occur as 'couplets' that contain a fluvial deposit overlain by an interflood unit that reflects reworking of fluvial sediment at the land surface by wind and local runoff. Archaeological features are built on and buried by sediment of various depositional environments, implying a complex interaction between geologic and cultural history. Such field analysis, which combines

  8. LJUBLJANICA CONNECTS - Restoration of the Ljubljanica River corridor and improvement of the river's flow regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabret, Katarina; Sapač, Klaudija; Šraj, Mojca; Bezak, Nejc; Sečnik, Matej; Vidmar, Andrej; Brilly, Mitja

    2016-04-01

    The project Ljubljanica connects is focused on improving connectivity and living conditions in Ljubljanica River which flows through capital city of Slovenia, Ljubljana. It represents living environment for endangered and Natura 2000 targeted fish species Danube Salmon (Hucho hucho), Danube Roach (Rutilus pigus) and Striped Chub (Leuciscus souffia). The project consists of four sets of activities: concrete restoration actions including improvement of two fish passes, monitoring of fish migration, monitoring of eco-hydrological parameters, and raising of public awareness. To improve living conditions the concrete restoration measures were performed. The reconstructions of sill and two fish passes on the Ljubljanica River have been implemented and barrier's lifting system on the weir was modernized. Above the sill in Zalog there is an oxbow which was disconnected with main river channel during the low flows. Interrupted inflow of fresh water caused very poor living conditions for animals in the oxbow. The raise of the sill helped to improve this situation. One of the fish passes included in the project is more than 100 years old whereas both are protected as cultural and technical heritage. None was working properly and due to the protection no visible nor drastic measures were allowed. With smaller improvements we managed to re-establish their operation. A lifting system of the barrier at the Ambrožev trg gate was outdated and did not allow precise regulation of the water level. Too fast raising of the barrier instantly caused deterioration of eco-hydrological conditions downstream. With modernization of the electromechanical equipment the situation is improved. The fish monitoring helps us to evaluate success of concrete restoration actions. The fish population status is monitored with marking the fish with Visible Implant Elastomer (VIE) tags. Regarding the location of catch we implant tags beneath transparent or translucent tissue combining different tag

  9. Integrated modelling for Sustainability Appraisal of urban river corridors: going beyond compartmentalised thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vikas; Rouquette, J R; Lerner, David N

    2013-12-15

    Sustainability Appraisal (SA) is a complex task that involves integration of social, environmental and economic considerations and often requires trade-offs between multiple stakeholders that may not easily be brought to consensus. Classical SA, often compartmentalised in the rigid boundary of disciplines, can facilitate discussion, but can only partially inform decision makers as many important aspects of sustainability remain abstract and not interlinked. A fully integrated model can overcome compartmentality in the assessment process and provides opportunity for a better integrative exploratory planning process. The objective of this paper is to explore the benefit of an integrated modelling approach to SA and how a structured integrated model can be used to provide a coherent, consistent and deliberative platform to assess policy or planning proposals. The paper discusses a participative and integrative modelling approach to urban river corridor development, incorporating the principal of sustainability. The paper uses a case study site in Sheffield, UK, with three alternative development scenarios, incorporating a number of possible riverside design features. An integrated SA model is used to develop better design by optimising different design elements and delivering a more sustainable (re)-development plan. We conclude that participatory integrated modelling has strong potential for supporting the SA processes. A high degree of integration provides the opportunity for more inclusive and informed decision-making regarding issues of urban development. It also provides the opportunity to reflect on their long-term dynamics, and to gain insights on the interrelationships underlying persistent sustainability problems. Thus the ability to address economic, social and environmental interdependencies within policies, plans, and legislations is enhanced. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 2008 Weather and Aeolian Sand-Transport Data from the Colorado River Corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draut, Amy E.; Sondossi, Hoda A.; Hazel, Joseph E.; Andrews, Timothy; Fairley, Helen C.; Brown, Christopher R.; Vanaman, Karen M.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents measurements of weather parameters and aeolian (windblown) sand transport made in 2008 near selected archaeological sites in the Colorado River corridor through Grand Canyon, Ariz. The quantitative methods and data discussed here form a basis for monitoring ecosystem processes that affect archeological-site stability. Combined with forthcoming work to evaluate landscape evolution at nearby archaeological sites, these data can be used to document the relationship between physical processes, including weather and aeolian sand transport, and their effects on the physical integrity of archaeological sites. Data collected in 2008 reveal event- and seasonal-scale variations in rainfall, wind, temperature, humidity, and barometric pressure. Broad seasonal changes in aeolian sediment flux are also apparent at most study sites. The continuation of monitoring that began in 2007, and installation of equipment at several new sites in early 2008, allowed evaluation of the effects of the March 2008 high-flow experiment (HFE) on aeolian sand transport. At two of the nine sites studied, spring and summer winds reworked 2008 HFE sandbars to form new aeolian dunes, at which sand moved inland toward larger, well-established dune fields. At the other seven study sites, neither dune formation nor enhanced sand transport after the HFE were observed. At several of those sites, dominant wind directions in spring 2008 were not oriented such that much HFE sand would have moved inland; at other sites, lack of increased inland sand flux is attributable to lack of sandbar enlargement near the study sites or to inhibition of sand movement by vegetation or local topography.

  11. Colonisation trends of the invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera, along river corridors: some preliminary findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Phil; Kuhn, Brigitte; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2016-04-01

    -density, finer grain-size characteristics, and possibly higher total phosphorous (TP) content, when compared against soils from nearby uncontaminated areas. Approximately 250 pairs of (contaminated and uncontaminated) soil samples were obtained from nine different sub-catchments located in four different European countries; namely, France, Germany, Switzerland and the UK. Sample pairs were sub-divided into contaminated & uncontaminated soils and each variable was subjected to a pair-wise statistical test; firstly for all catchments combined, and then on a catchment-by-catchment basis, to determine whether differences were significant. In addition to the above analyses, further evidence of spatial and topographic colonisation tendencies was sought from digital imagery captured using a remotely-controlled drone (quadcopter) flown along a ca. 1.0 km section of contaminated river corridor. Images were georeferenced, displayed together in a Geographic Information System (GIS) and used to construct a 3-dimensional digital elevation model (DEM). The DEM was interrogated to determine the presence / absence of colonisation trends (i.e. a tendency to colonise low-lying areas). This communication reports preliminary findings from this ongoing work and discusses key implications and possible future directions.

  12. Restored river corridors: first results on the effects of flow variability on vegetation cuttings survival rate and related root architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquale, N.; Perona, P.; Jiang, Z.; Burlando, P.

    2009-04-01

    Understanding and predicting the evolution of river alluvial bed forms toward a vegetated or a non-vegetated morphology have important implications for restored river corridors and the related ecosystem functioning (see also Schäppi et al, this session). Vegetation recruitment and growth on non-cohesive material of river corridors, such as gravel bars and islands of braided river, depend on the ability of roots to develop and anchor efficiently such to resist against flow erosion. In this work, we study the interannual morphological evolution of a gravel bar island, the survival rate and the growth of a number of plots with different density and orientation of transplanted cuttings (Salix Alba), the space and time dynamics of which depend on erosion and deposition processes due to floods. Our purpose is to identify island locations where the hydrodynamic conditions are more suitable for plants germination, growth and survival in relation to the river hydrograph statistics. This information is a first step to build a stochastic model able to predict the future evolution and progress of the restoration action of the investigated river reach. We focus at the main island of River Thur at Niederneunforn (Canton Thurgau, Switzerland), the restoration success of which is investigated from a mechanistic viewpoint in the research project "REstored CORridor Dynamics" (www.record.ethz.ch). Accordingly, we analyze two recent Digital Elevation Models (1 year difference), which were first corrected to account for the river bathymetry, and then we compare them in order to extract relevant interannual morphological changes. Using a two dimensional numerical hydrodynamic model we simulate several flow conditions ranging from the minimum recorded flow up to the one that completely inundates the island. Hence, we build inundation maps of the island that we associate to the frequency and the submergence duration of every area. We then correlate such results to the observed survival

  13. Drainage evolution of the Heihe River in western Hexi Corridor, China, derived from sedimentary and magnetostratigraphic results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Baotian; Chen, Dianbao; Hu, Xiaofei; Cao, Xilin; Chen, Jinjun; Mao, Junwei

    2016-10-01

    The uplifting of the Tibetan Plateau has significantly changed the environment in surrounding areas by delivering abundant water and sediment. The Heihe River draining the Qilian Shan in the NE Tibetan Plateau acts as a dominant sediment routing system from the uplifted NE Tibetan Plateau to the Hexi Corridor as well as the Badain Jaran Desert. Reconstructing the evolution of the Heihe River could provide evidence for the birth of the Badain Jaran Desert and enhance the understanding of sedimentary basin fill and the relationship between tectonism, drainage evolution and environmental changes. With this aim, two parallel cores (DWJ and XKJD with depths of 140 and 68.2 m, respectively) were drilled in the floodplain of the Heihe River. The facies analysis of the sedimentary sequences from the drilling cores showed that the sedimentary environment changed from the lake system to a delta system and finally to a fluvial system at the depths of ∼133.3 and ∼68 m, respectively. The magnetostratigraphic results revealed ages of approximately 1.75 and 1.12 Ma for the DWJ and XKJD cores, respectively, and an age of approximately 1.1 Ma for the transition from delta to fluvial environment in both the cores. The change of the sedimentary environment at approximately 1.1 Ma was caused by the formation of the integrated Heihe River. The integrated Heihe River may have developed via mechanisms such as river capture and river diversion due to the uplifting of the North Qilian Shan and the Longshou Shan. The present study suggested that the formation of large inland rivers, such as the Heihe River and the Shiyang River in NW China, played an important role in the evolution of the deserts and the Loess Plateau.

  14. River Floodplains as Habitat and Bio-Corridors for Distribution of Land Snails: Their Past and Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horáčková Jitka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available River floodplains of Czech rivers serve as refugia to woodland or hydrophilous gastropods, in current intensively agriculturally utilised, urbanised and largely fragmented landscape. This habitat often form one of the last refuge and replace the natural habitat of these species. River floodplains also represent linear bio-corridors in landscape and allow gastropods to spread through the landscape in both directions, up and down the stream. We showed based on available fossil mollusc successions that development of the floodplain mollusc fauna took place quite different way in various river floodplains, depending on their specifics and geographical location, because especially the ones situated in the chernozem area of the Czech Republic had very different history in comparison with those in higher altitudes. The species richness and composition of recent floodplain malacofauna arises from historical development of particular area/site and depends also on environmental factors such as an elevation, humidity gradient, vegetation type and its biomass, light conditions of the site and soil reaction. Recently, the invasive plants represent a serious problem for current floodplain ecosystems; species richness and abundances of terrestrial mollusc floodplain assemblages are changing due to their effect. The impact on gastropods is species-specific and was described for the following species: Impatiens glandulifera, Fallopia japonica subsp. japonica, F. sachalinensis, F. ×bohemica.

  15. Proposal of Environmental Zoning for the María Aguilar River Inter-city Wildlife Corridor, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Solano-Monge

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife corridors are recognized for their importance as connectors of elements and ecological functions. Those located in urban areas are crucial for the environmental, social and economic functioning in their influence area; however, they have important challenges in their consolidation and management as they are frequently exposed to stress and human disturbance. In this article, the geographic analysis combines urban, biogeographical, hydrological and territorial planning perspectives in order to develop an environmental zoning to be applied to the María Aguilar River Inter-city Wildlife Corridor, in Costa Rica. A mixed analysis methodology was implemented; besides the search of databases, records, and secondary sources, it considers the application of a statistical method of analytical hierarchies proposed by Thomas Saaty. After satisfactorily accomplishing the ordered pairs procedure, the area could be divided in intervention levels from very high to very low ones, allowing to more effectively manage the area of influence. A set of recommendations is provided with the framework of the National Development Plan 2015–2018, and the National Act on Territorial Planning.

  16. Water classification of the Colorado River Corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona, 2013—Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data area classified maps of water in the Colorado River at a discharge of approximately 227 meters squared/second in Grand Canyon from Glen Canyon Dam to...

  17. Riparian vegetation classification of the Colorado River Corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona, 2013—Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are classification maps of total riparian vegetation along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon from Glen Canyon Dam to Pearce Ferry in Arizona. The data...

  18. Estuary fish data - Juvenile salmon in migratory corridors of lower Columbia River estuary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sampling juvenile salmon and associated fishes in open waters of the lower Columbia River estuary. Field work includes bi-weekly sampling during the spring...

  19. 77 FR 61631 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for Stehekin River Corridor Implementation Plan, Lake Chelan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... prioritizing potential exchange/ acquisition lands, including scenic resources and threats within debris flow..., maintenance yard) in response to increased flooding and erosion issues in the lower Stehekin River watershed... erosion threats to NPS facilities and are impacting natural resources within Lake Chelan NRA. The...

  20. Understanding the Ecology of Blue Elderberry to Inform Landscape Restoration in Semiarid River Corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaghti, Mehrey G.; Holyoak, Marcel; Williams, Amy; Talley, Theresa S.; Fremier, Alexander K.; Greco, Steven E.

    2009-01-01

    Societal constraints often limit full process restoration in large river systems, making local rehabilitation activities valuable for regeneration of riparian vegetation. A target of much mitigation and restoration is the federally threatened Valley elderberry longhorn beetle and its sole host plant, blue elderberry, in upper riparian floodplain environments. However, blue elderberry ecology is not well understood and restoration attempts typically have low success rates. We determined broad-scale habitat characteristics of elderberry in altered systems and examined associated plant species composition in remnant habitat. We quantified vegetation community composition in 139 remnant riparian forest patches along the Sacramento River and elderberry stem diameters along this and four adjacent rivers. The greatest proportion of plots containing elderberry was located on higher and older floodplain surfaces and in riparian woodlands dominated by black walnut. Blue elderberry saplings and shrubs with stems light, water, or other resources. Such lack of recruitment places increased importance on horticultural restoration for the survival of an imperiled species. These findings further indicate a need to ascertain whether intervention is necessary to maintain functional and diverse riparian woodlands, and a need to monitor vegetative species composition over time, especially in relation to flow regulation.

  1. Tightening the River Meander-Belt: Application of a Topographic Erodible Corridor Concept Using DEM Raster Analysis. A Case Study of Highland Creek, Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R. T.

    2009-05-01

    Planimetric river hazard assessments, typically delineated as meander-belts, are complicated in southern Ontario by rivers which are incised into thick glacial sediments. Active and relic floodplain surfaces are topographically diverse, with river terraces commonly observed in the valleys due to deglacial and Holocene incision. Consequently, channels are often in contact with a mixed boundary of alluvial and glaciogenic sediments. Accepted meander-belt delineation procedures and protocols vary between intra-national and international jurisdictions; however, a focus on planimetric mapping and historical techniques is common place. In the southern Ontario context, this type of reach-scale river hazard assessment is important for protection of upland property, erosion risks to valley bottom infrastructure, and delineation of new development limits. Given the ecological and public safety benefits, there is growing acceptance and expectation that river bank erosion processes should be preserved within an erodible corridor, with a decreased emphasis on channel intervention and engineering approaches where possible. However, the use of planimetric meander- belt delineation techniques for incised valley settings frequently meets both practical and conceptual challenges. This study explores the potential for a Topographic Erodible Corridor Concept (TECC) as an improved representation of river evolution compared to the traditional planimetric techniques, particularly in previously glaciated regions. Such a concept would account for differences in erodible volumes of sediment associated with topographic variations within incised river valleys. Application of this concept is investigated using raster analysis of a high resolution digital elevation model (DEM), within widely available GIS software. Initial results from a case study on Highland Creek (Ontario) confirm that the corridor alignment and diverse topography of the incised valley morphology are well represented by a

  2. Inference of Eco-geomorphic Processes Using Integrated Historical Data for a Rapidly Changing Mediterranean-climate River Corridor: Lower Santa Clara River, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, E. E.; Grossinger, R. M.; Downs, P. W.; Orr, B. K.

    2010-12-01

    Environmental conservation demands reach-specific data as the basis for place-based restoration and management measures. However, areas such as the lower Santa Clara River valley have been subject to intensive modification since the at least the nineteenth century, but without regular hydrogeomorphic or ecological monitoring (e.g., flow gauging, repeat topographic surveys, vegetation mapping) until the mid-twentieth century. This gap has limited data on former river corridor form and understanding of historical eco-geomorphic processes. The result is a lack of consensus about the range of potential riparian and aquatic habitats to consider as restoration targets, their appropriate relative distribution, and the relationship between such ecological targets and physical processes on the river, past and present. To address this data gap on the lower Santa Clara River, we initiated an effort to extend the documentation of river characteristics beyond readily available early data sets (such as aerial photography from 1927) by integrating historical cartographic, textual, and visual accounts to create a heterogeneous but substantial dataset describing hydrologic, geomorphic, and riparian characteristics back to 1769 - the date of the first non-native exploration of the region. We collected over 1,000 documents, including General Land Office survey data, early maps from the county surveyor, and traveler’s accounts of the region, evaluating each source for its accuracy and reliability. These data were synthesized to evaluate the location and composition of riparian areas that persisted despite substantial flood events and impacts of rapidly changing land use, and to determine aspects of the former hydrology of the river affecting riparian pattern that are still relevant today. The data also indicate the general resilience of mainstem channel form in response to these events in contrast to the present-day eco-geomorphic system, which is far more sensitive to change. Used

  3. Advancing the Food-Energy-Water Nexus: Closing Nutrient Loops in Arid River Corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Jacob G; González-Pinzón, Ricardo; Dahm, Clifford N; Wang, Jingjing; Zeglin, Lydia H; Van Horn, David J

    2016-08-16

    Closing nutrient loops in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems is integral to achieve resource security in the food-energy-water (FEW) nexus. We performed multiyear (2005-2008), monthly sampling of instream dissolved inorganic nutrient concentrations (NH4-N, NO3-N, soluble reactive phosphorus-SRP) along a ∼ 300-km arid-land river (Rio Grande, NM) and generated nutrient budgets to investigate how the net source/sink behavior of wastewater and irrigated agriculture can be holistically managed to improve water quality and close nutrient loops. Treated wastewater on average contributed over 90% of the instream dissolved inorganic nutrients (101 kg/day NH4-N, 1097 kg/day NO3-N, 656 kg/day SRP). During growing seasons, the irrigation network downstream of wastewater outfalls retained on average 37% of NO3-N and 45% of SRP inputs, with maximum retention exceeding 60% and 80% of NO3-N and SRP inputs, respectively. Accurate quantification of NH4-N retention was hindered by low loading and high variability. Nutrient retention in the irrigation network and instream processes together limited downstream export during growing seasons, with total retention of 33-99% of NO3-N inputs and 45-99% of SRP inputs. From our synoptic analysis, we identify trade-offs associated with wastewater reuse for agriculture within the scope of the FEW nexus and propose strategies for closing nutrient loops in arid-land rivers.

  4. Fish assemblages of the Casiquiare River, a corridor and zoogeographical filter for dispersal between the Orinoco and Amazon basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winemiller, K.O.; Lopez-Fernandez, H.; Taphorn, D.C.; Nico, L.G.; Duque, A.B.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine whether the Casiquiare River functions as a free dispersal corridor or as a partial barrier (i.e. filter) for the interchange of fish species of the Orinoco and Negro/Amazon basins using species assemblage patterns according to geographical location and environmental features. Location: The Casiquiare, Upper Orinoco and Upper Negro rivers in southern Venezuela, South America. Methods: Our study was based on an analysis of species presence/absence data and environmental information (11 habitat characteristics) collected by the authors and colleagues between the years 1984 and 1999. The data set consisted of 269 sampled sites and 452 fish species (> 50,000 specimens). A wide range of habitat types was included in the samples, and the collection sites were located at various points along the entire length of the Casiquiare main channel, at multiple sites on its tributary streams, as well as at various nearby sites outside the Casiquiare drainage, within the Upper Orinoco and Upper Rio Negro river systems. Most specimens and field data used in this analysis are archived in the Museo de Ciencias Naturales in Guanare, Venezuela. We performed canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) based on species presence/absence using two versions of the data set: one that eliminated sites having < 5 species and species occurring at < 5 sites; and another that eliminated sites having < 10 species and species occurring at < 10 sites. Cluster analysis was performed on sites based on species assemblage similarity, and a separate analysis was performed on species based on CCA loadings. Results: The CCA results for the two versions of the data set were qualitatively the same. The dominant environmental axis contrasted assemblages and sites associated with blackwater vs. clearwater conditions. Longitudinal position on the Casiquiare River was correlated (r2 = 0.33) with CCA axis-1 scores, reflecting clearwater conditions nearer to its origin

  5. Denitrification capacity and greenhouse gas emissions of soils in channelized and restored reaches along an Alpine river corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Juna; Niklaus, Pascal; Samaritani, Emanuela; Frossard, Emmanuel; Tockner, Klement; Luster, Jörg

    2010-05-01

    In order to assess the effects of river restoration on water and air quality, the biogeochemical functions of channelized and restored river reaches have to be quantified. The objective of this study was to compare denitrification potential and greenhouse gas emissions of functional processing zones (FPZ) in a channelized and a recently restored reach of the alpine river Thur in north-eastern Switzerland. The study was part of the project cluster RECORD of the ETH domain, Switzerland, which was initiated to increase the mechanistic understanding of coupled hydrological and ecological processes in river corridors. The denitrification potential represents an important aspect of the soil filter function related to water quality. Besides, it also contributes to the emission of greenhouse gases. Extensively used pasture growing on a sandy loam is the characteristic FPZ of the channelized section. The restored section encompasses five FPZ: (i) bare gravel bars sparsely colonized by plants, (ii) gravel bars densely colonized by grass (mainly canary reed grass with up to 80 cm sandy deposits), (iii) mixed forest dominated by ash and maple, (iv) riparian forest dominated by willow (Salix alba), (v) older overbank sediments stabilized during restoration with young willows separating the forests from the river-gravel bar system (willow bush). The FPZ were sampled in January, April, August and October 2009. In addition, in June and July 2009 two flood events were monitored in the restored section with more frequent samplings. At each date, topsoil samples were collected in each FPZ (four replicates per samples) and analyzed for denitrifier enzyme activity (DEA). In addition, gas samples were taken in-situ using the closed chamber technique to measure soil respiration as well as N2O and CH4 fluxes. In all FPZ, the denitrification potential was mainly governed by soil moisture. It was highest in the willow forest exhibiting low spatial variability. The DEA in pasture, grass zone

  6. Syn-extensional plutonism and peak metamorphism in the albion-raft river-grouse creek metamorphic core complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, A.; Miller, E.L.; Wooden, J.L.; Kozdon, R.; Valley, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    The Cassia plutonic complex (CPC) is a group of variably deformed, Oligocene granitic plutons exposed in the lower plate of the Albion-Raft River- Grouse Creek (ARG) metamorphic core complex of Idaho and Utah. The plutons range from granodiorite to garnet-bearing, leucogranite, and during intrusion, sillimanite- grade peak metamorphism and ductile attenuation occurred in the country rocks and normal-sense, amphibolite-grade deformation took place along the Middle Mountain shear zone. U-Pb zircon geochronology from three variably deformed plutons exposed in the lower plate of the ARG metamorphic core complex revealed that each zircon is comprised of inherited cores (dominantly late Archean) and Oligocene igneous overgrowths. Within each pluton, a spread of concordant ages from the Oligocene zircon overgrowths is interpreted as zircon recycling within a long-lived magmatic system. The plutons of the CPC have very low negative whole rock ??Nd values of -26 to -35, and initial Sr values of 0.714 to 0.718, consistent with an ancient, crustal source. Oxygen isotope ratios of the Oligocene zircon overgrowths from the CPC have an average ??18O value of 5.40 ?? 0.63 permil (2SD, n = 65) with a slight trend towards higher ??18O values through time. The ??18O values of the inherited cores of the zircons are more variable at 5.93 ?? 1.51 permil (2SD, n = 29). Therefore, we interpret the plutons of the CPC as derived, at least in part, from melting Archean crust based on the isotope geochemistry. In situ partial melting of the exposed Archean basement that was intruded by the Oligocene plutons of the CPC is excluded as the source for the CPC based on field relationships, age and geochemistry. Correlations between Ti and Hf concentrations in zircons from the CPC suggest that the magmatic system may have become hotter (higher Ti concentration in zircon) and less evolved (lower Hf in zircon concentration) through time. Therefore, the CPC represents prolonged or episodic magmatism

  7. Ecological function regionalization of fluvial corridor landscapes and measures for ecological regeneration in the middle and lower reaches of the Tarim River,Xinjiang of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The middle and lower reaches of the Tarim River are currently one of the main regions of ecological restoration in the arid areas of western China.Using the principles and method of landscape ecology,this study has chosen the fluvial corridor landscape in the middle and lower reaches of the Tarim River,and discusses the region’s ecologically functional regionalization system and issues related to its practical classification.On this basis the corresponding regionalizing principles and standards were developed which were used to qualitatively divide the three main landscapes as the ecologically functional areas in the drainage basin.The paper has also analyzed the characteristic of the study areas,and has put forward the measures for its ecological restoration.

  8. Modern landscape processes affecting archaeological sites along the Colorado River corridor downstream of Glen Canyon Dam, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Amy E.; Sankey, Joel B.; Fairley, Helen C.; Caster, Joshua J.; Kasprak, Alan

    2017-08-29

    The landscape of the Colorado River through Glen Canyon National Recreation Area formed over many thousands of years and was modified substantially after the completion of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963. Changes to river flow, sediment supply, channel base level, lateral extent of sedimentary terraces, and vegetation in the post-dam era have modified the river-corridor landscape and have altered the effects of geologic processes that continue to shape the landscape and its cultural resources. The Glen Canyon reach of the Colorado River downstream of Glen Canyon Dam hosts many archaeological sites that are prone to erosion in this changing landscape. This study uses field evaluations from 2016 and aerial photographs from 1952, 1973, 1984, and 1996 to characterize changes in potential windblown sand supply and drainage configuration that have occurred over more than six decades at 54 archaeological sites in Glen Canyon and uppermost Marble Canyon. To assess landscape change at these sites, we use two complementary geomorphic classification systems. The first evaluates the potential for aeolian (windblown) transport of river-derived sand from the active river channel to higher elevation archaeological sites. The second identifies whether rills, gullies, or arroyos (that is, overland drainages that erode the ground surface) exist at the archaeological sites as well as the geomorphic surface, and therefore the relative base level, to which those flow paths drain. Results of these assessments are intended to aid in the management of irreplaceable archaeological resources by the National Park Service and stakeholders of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program.

  9. Hydrogeological modeling of water exchange between a river valley aquifer and the Colorado River at a riparian corridor of the Colorado River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Gonzalez, D.; Ramirez-Hernandez, J.; Zamora, F.

    2008-05-01

    The Colorado River Delta has shown a high capacity of regeneration in spite of the drastic reduction of the freshwater flows. This river has an important ecological value for the remaining ecosystems at the regional and continental level. It is not known when this river will present again surpluses of superficial water in the basin, as it happened in the decades of 1980 and 1990. The ecosystems of the Delta depend on the availability of groundwater to survive. The practices of blanket irrigation in the Valley of Mexicali have favored the vertical refill of the aquifer. Part of this water that infiltrates the ground is captured by the Colorado River (CR). As a consequence, even in years in which the CR has not received surpluses of superficial water low flow can be observed in the river, especially in the area of our study that comprises 12 km of the CR between the interception of the railroad with the river and the entrance to Carranza City. This low flow provides water to maintain the riparian vegetation of the zone. For this reason, it is important to know the hydrologic relationship between the river aquifer and the CR. The purpose of this work is to determine the volumes of water supplied by the aquifer to the riparian system and its relationship with the vegetation. Measurements of the fluctuations of the freatic level (FL) in 27 boreholes located in 8 cross sections during more than 2 years have been used for this study. The system was modelled using the program MODFLOW considering diverse water levels in the CR and flow exchange with the aquifer. The hydrogeological properties of the aquifer were found from slug tests and correlations with the textures of 100 soil samples. The modeling results allow to separate the zone of study in three sections. The first one extends 5km from the railroad to the south. In this section the CR receives water from the aquifer producing the observed water in the river bed all the year. The second section, of approximately 2 km

  10. The natural and social history of the indigenous lands and protected areas corridor of the Xingu River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzman, Stephan; Boas, André Villas; Ono, Katia Yukari; Fonseca, Marisa Gesteira; Doblas, Juan; Zimmerman, Barbara; Junqueira, Paulo; Jerozolimski, Adriano; Salazar, Marcelo; Junqueira, Rodrigo Prates; Torres, Maurício

    2013-06-05

    The 280,000 km² Xingu indigenous lands and protected areas (ILPAs) corridor, inhabited by 24 indigenous peoples and about 215 riverine (ribeirinho) families, lies across active agriculture frontiers in some of the historically highest-deforestation regions of the Amazon. Much of the Xingu is anthropogenic landscape, densely inhabited and managed by indigenous populations over the past millennium. Indigenous and riverine peoples' historical management and use of these landscapes have enabled their long-term occupation and ultimately their protection. The corridor vividly demonstrates how ILPAs halt deforestation and why they may account for a large part of the 70 per cent reduction in Amazon deforestation below the 1996-2005 average since 2005. However, ongoing and planned dams, road paving, logging and mining, together with increasing demand for agricultural commodities, continued degradation of upper headwaters outside ILPA borders and climate change impacts may render these gains ephemeral. Local peoples will need new, bottom-up, forms of governance to gain recognition for the high social and biological diversity of these territories in development policy and planning, and finance commensurate with the value of their ecosystem services. Indigenous groups' reports of changing fire and rainfall regimes may themselves evidence climate change impacts, a new and serious threat.

  11. Mapping the river landscape "before and after": the utility of pre-existing digital data for floodplain definition and the documentation and analysis of human impacts along river corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, P. M.

    2009-12-01

    Critical to the analysis of the impacts of human activities on floodplain form and function are: 1) establishing the extent of the floodplain prior to human intervention, and 2) establishing the current extent of the functional floodplain surface as limited by human land use changes. In this study, I critically examine data, methods and concepts used in the definition and analysis of floodplain landscapes. I focus on data that are readily available, free of charge, and on techniques that may be quickly, easily, and inexpensively implemented. These topics are explored in a case study of the extent and ecological impact of floodplain disconnection caused by transportation infrastructure in three river corridors in Washington State. Specifically, I compare the utility of pre-existing digital data sets and different metrics for 1) floodplain delineation, and 2) analysis of the spatial extent and environmental impact of disconnection caused by transportation infrastructure across a variety of valley settings in the Chehalis and Upper and Lower Yakima basins. Pre-existing digital soil and geologic data, along with elevation data are useful for quickly delineating the extent of potential floodplain surface prior to human alteration, and have utility for many types of floodplain analysis. Valley confinement is likewise readily calculated from existing data, and provides a useful index for predicting channel and floodplain behavior, and its response to land use changes. Remotely sensed and GIS data are useful for mapping floodplain alteration at the river corridor scale, and assessing its ecological impact, particularly on the riparian zone. Lastly, the case study illustrates the utility of corridor-scale analysis as a methodological linkage between mapping and descriptive approaches used to assess basin-scale patterns and processes, and mechanistic and process-based approaches used to quantify reach scale impacts on channel and riparian habitat.

  12. Natural-color and color-infrared image mosaics of the Colorado River corridor in Arizona derived from the May 2009 airborne image collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) periodically collects airborne image data for the Colorado River corridor within Arizona (fig. 1) to allow scientists to study the impacts of Glen Canyon Dam water release on the corridor’s natural and cultural resources. These data are collected from just above Glen Canyon Dam (in Lake Powell) down to the entrance of Lake Mead, for a total distance of 450 kilometers (km) and within a 500-meter (m) swath centered on the river’s mainstem and its seven main tributaries (fig. 1). The most recent airborne data collection in 2009 acquired image data in four wavelength bands (blue, green, red, and near infrared) at a spatial resolution of 20 centimeters (cm). The image collection used the latest model of the Leica ADS40 airborne digital sensor (the SH52), which uses a single optic for all four bands and collects and stores band radiance in 12-bits. Davis (2012) reported on the performance of the SH52 sensor and on the processing steps required to produce the nearly flawless four-band image mosaic (sectioned into map tiles) for the river corridor. The final image mosaic has a total of only 3 km of surface defects in addition to some areas of cloud shadow because of persistent inclement weather during data collection. The 2009 four-band image mosaic is perhaps the best image dataset that exists for the entire Arizona part of the Colorado River. Some analyses of these image mosaics do not require the full 12-bit dynamic range or all four bands of the calibrated image database, in which atmospheric scattering (or haze) had not been removed from the four bands. To provide scientists and the general public with image products that are more useful for visual interpretation, the 12-bit image data were converted to 8-bit natural-color and color-infrared images, which also removed atmospheric scattering within each wavelength-band image. The conversion required an evaluation of the

  13. Interannual kinetics (2010-2013) of large wood in a river corridor exposed to a 50-year flood event and fluvial ice dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Maxime; Buffin-Bélanger, Thomas; Piégay, Hervé

    2017-02-01

    Semi-alluvial rivers of the Gaspé Peninsula, Québec, are prone to produce and transport vast quantities of large wood (LW). The high rate of lateral erosion owing to high energy flows and noncohesive banks is the main process leading to the recruitment of large wood, which in turn initiates complex patterns of wood accumulation and reentrainment within the active channel. The delta of the Saint-Jean River (SJR) has accumulated large annual wood fluxes since 1960 that culminated in a wood raft of > 3-km in length in 2014. To document the kinetics of large wood on the main channel of SJR, four annual surveys were carried out from 2010 to 2013 to locate and describe > 1000 large wood jams (LWJ) and 2000 large wood individuals (LWI) along a 60-km river section. Airborne and ground photo/video images were used to estimate the wood volume introduced by lateral erosion and to identify local geomorphic conditions that control wood mobility and deposits. Video camera analysis allowed the examination of transport rates from three hydrometeorological events for specific river sections. Results indicate that the volume of LW recruited between 2010 and 2013 represents 57% of the total LW production over the 2004-2013 period. Volumes of wood deposited along the 60-km section were four times higher in 2013 than in 2010. Increases in wood amount occurred mainly in upper alluvial sections of the river, whereas decreases were observed in the semi-alluvial middle sections. Observations suggest that the 50-year flood event of 2010 produced large amounts of LW that were only partly exported out of the basin so that a significant amount was still available for subsequent floods. Large wood storage continued after this flood until a similar flood or an ice-breakup event could remobilise these LW accumulations into the river corridor. Ice-jam floods transport large amounts of wood during events with fairly low flow but do not contribute significantly to recruitment rates (ca. 10 to 30

  14. Simulated Effects of Year 2030 Water-Use and Land-Use Changes on Streamflow near the Interstate-495 Corridor, Assabet and Upper Charles River Basins, Eastern Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Carl S.; DeSimone, Leslie A.; Weiskel, Peter K.

    2008-01-01

    Continued population growth and land development for commercial, industrial, and residential uses have created concerns regarding the future supply of potable water and the quantity of ground water discharging to streams in the area of Interstate 495 in eastern Massachusetts. Two ground-water models developed in 2002-2004 for the Assabet and Upper Charles River Basins were used to simulate water supply and land-use scenarios relevant for the entire Interstate-495 corridor. Future population growth, water demands, and commercial and residential growth were projected for year 2030 by the Metropolitan Area Planning Council. To assess the effects of future development on subbasin streamflows, seven scenarios were simulated by using existing computer-based ground-water-flow models with the data projected for year 2030. The scenarios incorporate three categories of projected 2030 water- and land-use data: (1) 2030 water use, (2) 2030 land use, and (3) a combination of 2030 water use and 2030 land use. Hydrologic, land-use, and water-use data from 1997 through 2001 for the Assabet River Basin study and 1989 through 1998 for the Upper Charles River Basin study were used to represent current conditions - referred to as 'basecase' conditions - in each basin to which each 2030 scenario was compared. The effects of projected 2030 land- and water-use change on streamflows in the Assabet River Basin depended upon the time of year, the hydrologic position of the subbasin in the larger basin, and the relative areas of new commercial and residential development projected for a subbasin. Effects of water use and land use on streamflow were evaluated by comparing average monthly nonstorm streamflow (base flow) for March and September simulated by using the models. The greatest decreases in streamflow (up to 76 percent in one subbasin), compared to the basecase, occurred in September, when streamflows are naturally at their lowest level. By contrast, simulated March streamflows

  15. The Role of Eolian Sediment in the Preservation of Archeologic Sites Along the Colorado River Corridor in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draut, Amy E.; Rubin, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Since the closure of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963, the natural hydrologic and sedimentary systems along the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon reach have changed substantially (see, for example, Andrews, 1986; Johnson and Carothers, 1987; Webb and others, 1999b; Rubin and others, 2002; Topping and others, 2003; Wright and others, 2005; Hazel and others, 2006b). The dam has reduced the fluvial sediment supply at the upstream boundary of Grand Canyon National Park by about 95 percent. Regulation of river discharge by dam operations has important implications for the storage and redistribution of sediment in the Colorado River corridor. In the absence of floods, sediment is not deposited at elevations that regularly received sediment before dam closure. Riparian vegetation has colonized areas at lower elevations than in predam time when annual floods removed young vegetation (Turner and Karpiscak, 1980). Together, these factors have caused a systemwide decrease in the size and number of subaerially exposed fluvial sand deposits since the 1960s, punctuated by episodic aggradation during the exceptional high-flow intervals in 1983-84, 1996, and 2004 and by sediment input from occasional tributary floods (Beus and others, 1985; Schmidt and Graf, 1987; Kearsley and others, 1994; Hazel and others, 1999; Schmidt and others, 2004; Wright and others, 2005). When the Bureau of Reclamation sponsored the creation of the Glen Canyon Environmental Studies (GCES) research initiative in 1982, research objectives included physical and biologic resources, whereas the effects of dam operations on cultural resources were not addressed (Fairley and others, 1994; Fairley, 2003). In the early 1980s, it was widely believed that because few archeologic sites were preserved within the river's annual-flood zone, cultural features would not be greatly affected by dam operations. Recent studies, however, indicate that alterations in the flow and sediment load of the Colorado River by Glen Canyon Dam

  16. Natural-color and color-infrared image mosaics of the Colorado River corridor in Arizona derived from the May 2009 airborne image collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) periodically collects airborne image data for the Colorado River corridor within Arizona (fig. 1) to allow scientists to study the impacts of Glen Canyon Dam water release on the corridor’s natural and cultural resources. These data are collected from just above Glen Canyon Dam (in Lake Powell) down to the entrance of Lake Mead, for a total distance of 450 kilometers (km) and within a 500-meter (m) swath centered on the river’s mainstem and its seven main tributaries (fig. 1). The most recent airborne data collection in 2009 acquired image data in four wavelength bands (blue, green, red, and near infrared) at a spatial resolution of 20 centimeters (cm). The image collection used the latest model of the Leica ADS40 airborne digital sensor (the SH52), which uses a single optic for all four bands and collects and stores band radiance in 12-bits. Davis (2012) reported on the performance of the SH52 sensor and on the processing steps required to produce the nearly flawless four-band image mosaic (sectioned into map tiles) for the river corridor. The final image mosaic has a total of only 3 km of surface defects in addition to some areas of cloud shadow because of persistent inclement weather during data collection. The 2009 four-band image mosaic is perhaps the best image dataset that exists for the entire Arizona part of the Colorado River. Some analyses of these image mosaics do not require the full 12-bit dynamic range or all four bands of the calibrated image database, in which atmospheric scattering (or haze) had not been removed from the four bands. To provide scientists and the general public with image products that are more useful for visual interpretation, the 12-bit image data were converted to 8-bit natural-color and color-infrared images, which also removed atmospheric scattering within each wavelength-band image. The conversion required an evaluation of the

  17. Gully annealing by aeolian sediment: field and remote-sensing investigation of aeolian-hillslope-fluvial interactions, Colorado River corridor, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Joel B.; Draut, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    Processes contributing to development of ephemeral gully channels are of great importance to landscapes worldwide, and particularly in dryland regions where soil loss and land degradation from gully erosion pose long-term land-management problems. Whereas gully formation has been relatively well studied, much less is known of the processes that anneal gullies and impede their growth. This study of gully annealing by aeolian sediment, spanning 95 km along the Colorado River corridor in Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA, employed field and remote sensing observations, including digital topographic modelling. Results indicate that aeolian sediment activity can be locally effective at counteracting gully erosion. Gullies are less prevalent in areas where surficial sediment undergoes active aeolian transport, and have a greater tendency to terminate in active aeolian sand. Although not common, examples exist in the record of historical imagery of gullies that underwent infilling by aeolian sediment in past decades and evidently were effectively annealed. We thus provide new evidence for a potentially important interaction of aeolian–hillslope–fluvial processes, which could affect dryland regions substantially in ways not widely recognized. Moreover, because the biologic soil crust plays an important role in determining aeolian sand activity, and so in turn the extent of gully development, this study highlights a critical role of geomorphic–ecologic interactions in determining arid-landscape evolution.

  18. 陕南汉江走廊区域旅游协作研究%Research on Regional Tourism Cooperation in Southern Shaanxi along Hanjiang River Corridor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何红

    2013-01-01

    Regional tourism cooperation is an effective way of developing tourism economy and improving competitiveness of peripheral regions. Southern Shaanxi along Hanjiang River corridor is a typical peripheral tourism area and a state key ecological function region, for which regional tourism cooperation is of great significance. The main measures for the achievement of regional tourism cooperation are as follows: dominance by government, guidance of policies, coordination mechanism, benefit sharing, scientific construction plan, investment environment, brand image based on regional features, and tourism industrial clusters.%区域旅游协作是实现边缘地区旅游经济突破发展和提升区域旅游竞争力的有效途径.陕南汉江走廊是典型的旅游边缘地区和国家重点生态功能区,区域旅游协作意义重大.实现区域旅游协作的具体举措包括:坚持政府主导,加强政策引导;完善协调机制,坚持利益共享;编制协作规划,凸显三大效益;改善投资环境,坚持多元投入;立足地域特色,共塑品牌形象;培育区域中心,构建产业集群.

  19. Airborne digital-image data for monitoring the Colorado River corridor below Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, 2009 - Image-mosaic production and comparison with 2002 and 2005 image mosaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    Airborne digital-image data were collected for the Arizona part of the Colorado River ecosystem below Glen Canyon Dam in 2009. These four-band image data are similar in wavelength band (blue, green, red, and near infrared) and spatial resolution (20 centimeters) to image collections of the river corridor in 2002 and 2005. These periodic image collections are used by the Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) of the U.S. Geological Survey to monitor the effects of Glen Canyon Dam operations on the downstream ecosystem. The 2009 collection used the latest model of the Leica ADS40 airborne digital sensor (the SH52), which uses a single optic for all four bands and collects and stores band radiance in 12-bits, unlike the image sensors that GCMRC used in 2002 and 2005. This study examined the performance of the SH52 sensor, on the basis of the collected image data, and determined that the SH52 sensor provided superior data relative to the previously employed sensors (that is, an early ADS40 model and Zeiss Imaging's Digital Mapping Camera) in terms of band-image registration, dynamic range, saturation, linearity to ground reflectance, and noise level. The 2009 image data were provided as orthorectified segments of each flightline to constrain the size of the image files; each river segment was covered by 5 to 6 overlapping, linear flightlines. Most flightline images for each river segment had some surface-smear defects and some river segments had cloud shadows, but these two conditions did not generally coincide in the majority of the overlapping flightlines for a particular river segment. Therefore, the final image mosaic for the 450-kilometer (km)-long river corridor required careful selection and editing of numerous flightline segments (a total of 513 segments, each 3.2 km long) to minimize surface defects and cloud shadows. The final image mosaic has a total of only 3 km of surface defects. The final image mosaic for the western end of the corridor has

  20. Development of a high-resolution binational vegetation map of the Santa Cruz River riparian corridor and surrounding watershed, southern Arizona and northern Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Villarreal, Miguel L.; Norman, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the development of a binational vegetation map developed for the Santa Cruz Watershed, which straddles the southern border of Arizona and the northern border of Sonora, Mexico. The map was created as an environmental input to the Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SCWEPM) that is being created by the U.S. Geological Survey for the watershed. The SCWEPM is a map-based multicriteria evaluation tool that allows stakeholders to explore tradeoffs between valued ecosystem services at multiple scales within a participatory decision-making process. Maps related to vegetation type and are needed for use in modeling wildlife habitat and other ecosystem services. Although detailed vegetation maps existed for the U.S. side of the border, there was a lack of consistent data for the Santa Cruz Watershed in Mexico. We produced a binational vegetation classification of the Santa Cruz River riparian habitat and watershed vegetation based on NatureServe Terrestrial Ecological Systems (TES) units using Classification And Regression Tree (CART) modeling. Environmental layers used as predictor data were derived from a seasonal set of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images (spring, summer, and fall) and from a 30-meter digital-elevation-model (DEM) grid. Because both sources of environmental data are seamless across the international border, they are particularly suited to this binational modeling effort. Training data were compiled from existing field data for the riparian corridor and data collected by the NM-GAP (New Mexico Gap Analysis Project) team for the original Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project (SWReGAP) modeling effort. Additional training data were collected from core areas of the SWReGAP classification itself, allowing the extrapolation of the SWReGAP mapping into the Mexican portion of the watershed without collecting additional training data.

  1. VT Electric Transmission Line Corridors - corridor lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The ELTRN layer depicts electric transmission line corridors in Vermont. Various methods have been used to digitize features. The data layer...

  2. The effects of management and environmental variation on population stage structure in three river-corridor violets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, R. Lutz; Danihelka, Jiří; Hölzel, Norbert; Otte, Annette

    2004-03-01

    Population stage structure of plants, i.e., the density and frequency of individuals in different stages of the life cycle, is a crucial aspect of population viability that depends on a variety of factors. In this paper, we evaluated the effects of (i) management and year, (ii) location (population) and time (year) and (iii) of local habitat quality and population factors on population stage structure of three morphologically similar, closely related violets from floodplains, Viola elatior, V. pumila and V. stagnina. We hypothesised that owing to similar life cycles there should be no significant differences in population stage structure among species. We analysed population stage structure in managed vs. abandoned populations to test whether a proposed effect of management acts through the creation of regeneration niches. We further tried to identify which habitat factors are responsible for possible management effects. We established permanent plots (0.25 m 2) in 27 populations of the species in two different regions (Rhine floodplains, Germany; Dyje River floodplains, Czech Republic) and recorded frequency and density of seedlings, small and large vegetative plants and small and large flowering plants during 2 years. There were significant differences among species, indicating that the species have different life histories. Furthermore, there was a significant effect of management on population stage structure in two of the species. Management significantly increased the proportion of seedlings, over and above possible differences between regions. In our data set, the effects of spatial variation among populations were generally larger than the effects of temporal variation. The only factor that affected the density of life-cycle stages was the cover of bryophytes, while the cover of higher plants, litter or soil (local habitat quality), or isolation and population size (population factors) had no effects.

  3. Green corridors basics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to introduce the concept of ‘green corridors’ as a means to develop integrated, efficient and environmentally friendly transportation of freight between major hubs and by relative long distances. The basis of this material is work conducted in the context of the EU...... SuperGreen project, which aimed at advancing the green corridor concept through a benchmarking exercise involving Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). The chapter discusses the available definitions of green corridors and identifies the characteristics that distinguish a green corridor from any other...... efficient surface transportation corridor. After providing examples of green corridor projects in Europe, it focuses on the KPIs that have been proposed by various projects for monitoring the performance of a freight corridor. Emphasis is given to the SuperGreen KPIs, covering the economic, technical...

  4. Relations between rainfall–runoff-induced erosion and aeolian deposition at archaeological sites in a semi-arid dam-controlled river corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brian; Bedford, David; Corbett, Skye; Fairley, Helen; Cronkite-Ratcliff, Collin

    2016-01-01

    Process dynamics in fluvial-based dryland environments are highly complex with fluvial, aeolian, and alluvial processes all contributing to landscape change. When anthropogenic activities such as dam-building affect fluvial processes, the complexity in local response can be further increased by flood- and sediment-limiting flows. Understanding these complexities is key to predicting landscape behavior in drylands and has important scientific and management implications, including for studies related to paleoclimatology, landscape ecology evolution, and archaeological site context and preservation. Here we use multi-temporal LiDAR surveys, local weather data, and geomorphological observations to identify trends in site change throughout the 446-km-long semi-arid Colorado River corridor in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA, where archaeological site degradation related to the effects of upstream dam operation is a concern. Using several site case studies, we show the range of landscape responses that might be expected from concomitant occurrence of dam-controlled fluvial sand bar deposition, aeolian sand transport, and rainfall-induced erosion. Empirical rainfall-erosion threshold analyses coupled with a numerical rainfall–runoff–soil erosion model indicate that infiltration-excess overland flow and gullying govern large-scale (centimeter- to decimeter-scale) landscape changes, but that aeolian deposition can in some cases mitigate gully erosion. Whereas threshold analyses identify the normalized rainfall intensity (defined as the ratio of rainfall intensity to hydraulic conductivity) as the primary factor governing hydrologic-driven erosion, assessment of false positives and false negatives in the dataset highlight topographic slope as the next most important parameter governing site response. Analysis of 4+ years of high resolution (four-minute) weather data and 75+ years of low resolution (daily) climate records indicates that dryland erosion is dependent on short

  5. Corridors promote fire via connectivity and edge effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudvig, Lars A; Wagner, Stephanie A; Damschen, Ellen I

    2012-04-01

    Landscape corridors, strips of habitat that connect otherwise isolated habitat patches, are commonly employed during management of fragmented landscapes. To date, most reported effects of corridors have been positive; however, there are long-standing concerns that corridors may have unintended consequences. Here, we address concerns over whether corridors promote propagation of disturbances such as fire. We collected data during prescribed fires in the world's largest and best replicated corridor experiment (Savannah River Site, South Carolina, USA), six -50-ha landscapes of open (shrubby/herbaceous) habitat within a pine plantation matrix, to test several mechanisms for how corridors might influence fire. Corridors altered patterns of fire temperature through a direct connectivity effect and an indirect edge effect. The connectivity effect was independent of fuel levels and was consistent with a hypothesized wind-driven "bellows effect." Edges, a consequence of corridor implementation, elevated leaf litter (fuel) input from matrix pine trees, which in turn increased fire temperatures. We found no evidence for corridors or edges impacting patterns of fire spread: plots across all landscape positions burned with similar probability. Impacts of edges and connectivity on fire temperature led to changes in vegetation: hotter-burning plots supported higher bunch grass cover during the field season after burning, suggesting implications for woody/herbaceous species coexistence. To our knowledge, this represents the first experimental evidence that corridors can modify landscape-scale patterns of fire intensity. Corridor impacts on fire should be carefully considered during landscape management, both in the context of how corridors connect or break distributions of fuels and the desired role of fire as a disturbance, which may range from a management tool to an agent to be suppressed. In our focal ecosystem, longleaf pine woodland, corridors might provide a previously

  6. Quantum Ontology and Extensional Mereology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calosi, Claudio; Fano, Vincenzo; Tarozzi, Gino

    2011-11-01

    The present paper has three closely related aims. We first argue that Agazzi's scientific realism about Quantum Mechanics is in line with Selleri's and Tarozzi's proposal of Quantum Waves. We then go on to formulate rigorously different metaphysical principles such as property compositional determinateness and mereological extensionalism. We argue that, contrary to widespread agreement, realism about Quantum Mechanics actually refutes only the former. Indeed we even formulate a new quantum mechanical argument in favor of extensionalism. We conclude by noting that, given the results of the work, Agazzi's particular attitude towards Quantum Mechanics is still one of the most promising theoretical perspectives.

  7. From corridor to region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne; Jespersen, Per Homann

    2006-01-01

    The corridor between Oslo and Berlin is by the politicians of the regional authorities in the Scandinavian part of the corridor seen a region with unique qualities and a large innovation and growth potential. In order to explore and develop this potential an In-terreg project has been launched. E...... this task by applying principles of participative planning and with action research methodology are involving stakeholders in the process of defining, developing and disseminating the idea of the Corridor of Innovation and Cooperation - COINCO.......The corridor between Oslo and Berlin is by the politicians of the regional authorities in the Scandinavian part of the corridor seen a region with unique qualities and a large innovation and growth potential. In order to explore and develop this potential an In-terreg project has been launched...

  8. Pressure Effect on Extensional Viscosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jens Horslund; Kjær, Erik Michael

    1999-01-01

    The primary object of these experiments was to investigate the influence of hydrostatic pressure on entrance flow. The effect of pressure on shear and extensional viscosity was evaluated using an axis symmetric capillary and a slit die where the hydrostatic pressure was raised with valves...

  9. From corridor to region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne; Jespersen, Per Homann

    2006-01-01

    The corridor between Oslo and Berlin is by the politicians of the regional authorities in the Scandinavian part of the corridor seen a region with unique qualities and a large innovation and growth potential. In order to explore and develop this potential an In-terreg project has been launched. E...... this task by applying principles of participative planning and with action research methodology are involving stakeholders in the process of defining, developing and disseminating the idea of the Corridor of Innovation and Cooperation - COINCO....

  10. Metro Conservation Corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Metro Conservation Corridors (MeCC) grow out of the natural resource analysis work done by the DNR in the late '90's, documented in the Metro Greenprint...

  11. Deriving Extensional Spatial Composition Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Geresy, Baher; Abdelmoty, Alia I.; Ware, Andrew J.

    Spatial composition tables are fundamental tools for the realisation of qualitative spatial reasoning techniques. Studying the properties of these tables in relation to the spatial calculi they are based on is essential for understanding the applicability of these calculi and how they can be extended and generalised. An extensional interpretation of a spatial composition table is an important property that has been studied in the literature and is used to determine the validity of the table for the models it is proposed for. It provides means for consistency checking of ground sets of relations and for addressing spatial constraint satisfaction problems. Furthermore, two general conditions that can be used to test for extensionality of spatial composition tables are proposed and applied to the RCC8 composition table to verify the allowable models in this calculus.

  12. The Corridor Chronicles. Integrated perspectives on European transport corridor development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation aims to clarify the added value of an integrated perspective on corridor development in Europe. For many years, knowledge on corridors has been developed in a sectoral, technocratic manner, despite a growing call for an integrated analysis of corridor issues. The integration argume

  13. Birds of the riparian corridors of Potchefstroom, South Africa / Rindert Wyma

    OpenAIRE

    Wyma, Rindert

    2012-01-01

    A riparian ecosystem is the area between the aquatic and terrestrial setting of a stream, and serves as a corridor and habitat for birds. Several riparian ecosystems are located in urban environments, and three main riparian corridors are located in Potchefstroom. They are the Mooi River, Wasgoed Spruit, and Spitskop Spruit, which encompass a wide range of different vegetation types and anthropogenic factors. Therefore, different habitat types for birds occur along the riparian corridors of P...

  14. EVOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF GUANGZHOU-HONG KONG CORRIDOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ping; CAO Xiao-shu

    2005-01-01

    With its rapid development in the past two decades, the Pearl River Delta has become one of the most developed regions in China. During this period, an important corridor between Hong Kong and Guangzhou has emerged and shaped the spatial structure of the region. The growth of this region has been greatly marched with the twin poles of Guangzhou and Hong Kong, and the economic and social development h. as taken place in a corridor between these two metropolises. This paper provides an analysis of the significance of this corridor in terms of its infrastructure, population, land use, and economic development. Massive infrastructure construction in the corridor has played an important role in its development. The corridor has high-frequent transport, and each transport mode has contributed in a different way to the process of development of the corridor, With high land use intensity and high population density, it is developing the characteristics of a megalopolis. As a pathway of connection between Guangzhou and Hong Kong, the corridor includes not only physical infrastructure, such as roads, railways and airports, but also logistics operations, human resources, information and capital, which plays important roles in accelerating business development. It demonstrates how this Main Street has become one of the most important factors in regional development.

  15. Extensionality of simply typed logic programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Bezem

    1999-01-01

    textabstractWe set up a framework for the study of extensionality in the context of higher-order logic programming. For simply typed logic programs we propose a novel declarative semantics, consisting of a model class with a semi-computable initial model, and a notion of extensionality. We show that

  16. 新疆车尔臣河绿色走廊河湖湿地变化及原因分析%Change and Causes of the River-lake Marshes along the Green Corridor at the Lower Reaches of the Qarqan River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽; 曾庆伟; 周会珍; 汪爱华; 刘畅; 迟耀斌; 王智勇

    2012-01-01

    River green corridor is a narrow barrier region along an inland river in arid region,it has two remarkable characteristics,one is that the soil moisture content in the corridor is higher than that in surrounding desert,and the other is that the landscape types are quite different from those in around environment.As an important landscape type in river green corridor in arid region in northwest China,marsh plays an important role in climatic regulation,water conservation and purification,maintenance of biological diversity,etc.The Qarqan River has the highest annual runoff volume in the southeast Tarim Basin and maintains the entironment of the green corridors in the east Taklimakan Desert and along the Tarim River.Because of its dramatic change,the river-lake marsh change in the green corridor along the Qarqan River attracts more and more attentions in recent years.So we monitored the dynamic change of the river-lake marshes using multispectral RS images from different satellites,such as Beijing-1,HJ,CBERS-2 and Landsat TM during the period from 2000 to 2010.The results show that the area of the river-lake marshes was enlarged at first,then it was reduced and followed by enlargement again since the year of 2000,and the monthly variation was also distinct in 2010.The monitoring area was 141 km2 in the year of 2005,and it was enlarged to 393 km2 in the year of 2010.Moreover,the meteorological,social and economic data,such as annual temperature,annual precipitation,annual cultivated land area and annual GDP in Ruoqiang County and Qiemo County in recent 50 years,were analyzed,and the correlations among the annual runoff volume of the Qarqan River and these factors were computed using quantitative analysis.The quantitative analysis was combined with the statistic data of glacier change in the Muztag Mountain during the period from 2000 to 2010 after analyzing the RS data and the water conservancy policy of Xinjiang government at all levels.The main causes resulting in

  17. 76 FR 63346 - Environmental Impact Statement, Tappan Zee Bridge/I-287 Corridor Project (Rockland and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... Administration Environmental Impact Statement, Tappan Zee Bridge/I-287 Corridor Project (Rockland and Westchester... preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the proposed Tappan Zee Bridge/I-287 Corridor project... Port Chester, Westchester County, New York including the Tappan Zee Bridge over the Hudson River....

  18. 成都市沙河廊道植物群落结构特征分析%Analysis of Plant Community Structure for the Shahe River Corridor in Chengdu City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳丽; 孟长来; 徐嘉; 李智勇; 费世民

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,based on the requirement for studying the structure techniques of urban forest corridor,researches were conducted on the community structure characteristics of forest corridor in the Shahe river of Chengdu city.The result showed that it was a simple community structure with a single tree species composition,but had a good ornamentation,which could be related to the recreation function.The trees were mainly media and small diameter classes,with the proportion of the big diameter class being less,and their height was relatively low,which could be mainly affected by the cultivated time.Abundance indice of arbor,shrub and grass respectively were 6.02,9.78 and 9.63,and total amounts were obviously controlled by shrub and grass layers.Diversity of community was between 3 and 4,relatively lower compared to evergreen broad-leaved forest,which was related to small species kinds and uneven distribution.Bigger three dimensional green quantity had a bigger leaf index and bigger leaf area index should be considered in tree species selection.From techniques,it was suggested to adopt the rare and endangered tree species,allocate the multiplied structure,add the forest zone size and increase the degree of near nature forest when the optimized establishment and management of river forest corridor were conducted.%基于城市森林廊道构建技术研究需要,本文研究了成都市沙河森林廊道的群落结构特征,群落组成简单,树种单一,但观赏性强,可能与游憩功能有关;树木多以中小径级为主,大径级比例较小,高度偏低,主要受培育时间的影响。乔木的丰富度指数为6.02,灌木为9.78,草本为9.63,总体数量明显受到灌草层影响较为明显。群落多样性在3~4之间,与种类少,分布不均有关。较大的三维绿量有较大的叶面积指数,树种选择需要考虑高叶面积指数树种。在技术上,建议河流森林廊道建设优化与管护时,多采用珍稀濒危种类,且配置

  19. Geometry and kinematics of extensional structural wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Baoling; He, Dengfa; Zhang, Yongsheng; Sun, Yanpeng; Huang, Jingyi; Zhang, Wenjun

    2017-03-01

    Structural wedges in the compressive environment have been recognized and studied in different locations. However, extension structural wedges are less well-understood. Based on the normal fault-bend folding theory and inclined shear model, this paper quantitatively analyses deformations related to extensional structural wedges and builds a series of geometric models for them. An extensional structural wedge is a fault-block held by two or more normal faults, the action of which would fold its overlying strata. Extensional structural wedges of different shapes will lead to different deformation results for the overlying strata, and this paper illustrates both the triangular and quadrangular wedges and their related deformations. This paper also discusses differences between the extensional structural wedges and the normal fault-bend-folding. By analysing two seismic sections from Langfang-Gu'an Sag, East China, this paper provides two natural examples of the triangular and quadrangular extensional structural wedges, where the models can reasonably explain the overlying distinct highs and lows without obvious faults. The establishment of a geometric model of extensional structural wedges can provide reference and theoretical bases for future quantitative analysis of deformations in the extensional environment.

  20. Green corridors and network design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to investigate the relation between the Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T) and the green corridor concept. First, the need is established for a corridor governance structure that enables the close cooperation among the numerous stakeholders from both the public...... and private sectors engaged in all corridor related issues ranging from network design to the provision of integrated logistical solutions. The governance scheme of the recently introduced TEN-T core network corridors seems to fulfil this requirement. Following a brief history of TEN-T development, the 2013...... major overhaul of the EU transportation infrastructure policy is outlined and the basic differences with the past are pinpointed. The provisions of the new TEN-T Guidelines are scrutinized so as to check whether the TEN-T core network corridors exhibit the characteristics of a green corridor...

  1. Extensional Information Articulation from the Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasufumi Saruwatari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Information must have physical support and this physical universe comprisesphysical interactions. Hence actual information processes should have a description byinteractions alone, i.e., an extensional description. In this paper, such a model of the processof information articulation from the universe is developed by generalizing the extensivemeasurement theory in metrology. Moreover, a model of the attribute creation processis presented to exemplify a step of the informational articulation process. These modelsdemonstrate the valuableness of the extensional view and are expected to enhance theunderstanding of the extensional aspects of fundamentals of information.

  2. Corridor use by diverse taxa.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Nick, M.; Browne, David, R.; Cunningham, Alan; Danielson, Brent, J.; Levey, Douglas, J.; Sargent, Sarah; Spira, Tim

    2003-01-01

    Haddad, N.M., D.R. Browne, A. Cunningham, B.J. Danielson, D.J. Levey, S. Sargent, and T. Spira. 2003. Corridor use by diverse taxa. Ecology, 84(3):609-615. One of the most popular approaches for maintaining populations and conserving biodiversity in fragmented landscapes is to retain or create corridors that connect otherwise isolated habitat patches. Working in large-scale, experimental landscapes in which open-habitat patches and corridors were created by harvesting pine forest, we showed that corridors direct movements of different types of species, including butterflies, small mammals, and bird dispersed plants, causing higher movement between connected than between unconnected patches. Corridors directed the movement of all 10 species studied, with all corridor effect sizes >68%. However, this corridor effect was significant for five species, not significant for one species, and inconclusive for four species because of small sample sizes. Although we found no evidence that corridors increase emigration from a patch, our results show that movements of disparate taxa with broadly different life histories and functional roles are directed by corridors.

  3. Temporal and spatial change detecting (1998-2003) and predicting of land use and land cover in core corridor of Pearl River Delta (China) by using TM and ETM+ images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fenglei; Wang, Yunpeng; Wang, Zhishi

    2008-02-01

    Land use/land cover (LULC) has a profound impact on economy, society and environment, especially in rapid developing areas. Rapid and prompt monitoring and predicting of LULC's change are crucial and significant. Currently, integration of Geographical Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) methods is one of the most important methods for detecting LULC's change, which includes image processing (such as geometrical-rectifying, supervised-classification, etc.), change detection (post-classification), GIS-based spatial analysis, Markov chain and a Cellular Automata (CA) models, etc. The core corridor of Pearl River Delta was selected for studying LULC's change in this paper by using the above methods for the reason that the area contributed 78.31% (1998)-81.4% (2003) of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) to the whole Pearl River Delta (PRD). The temporal and spatial LULC's changes from 1998 to 2003 were detected by RS data. At the same time, urban expansion levels in the next 5 and 10 years were predicted temporally and spatially by using Markov chain and a simple Cellular Automata model respectively. Finally, urban expansion and farmland loss were discussed against the background of China's urban expansion and cropland loss during 1990-2000. The result showed: (1) the rate of urban expansion was up to 8.91% during 1998-2003 from 169,078.32 to 184,146.48 ha; (2) the rate of farmland loss was 5.94% from 312,069.06 to 293,539.95 ha; (3) a lot of farmland converted to urban or development area, and more forest and grass field converted to farmland accordingly; (4) the spatial predicting result of urban expansion showed that urban area was enlarged ulteriorly compared with the previous results, and the directions of expansion is along the existing urban area and transportation lines.

  4. Extensional scientific realism vs. intensional scientific realism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seungbae

    2016-10-01

    Extensional scientific realism is the view that each believable scientific theory is supported by the unique first-order evidence for it and that if we want to believe that it is true, we should rely on its unique first-order evidence. In contrast, intensional scientific realism is the view that all believable scientific theories have a common feature and that we should rely on it to determine whether a theory is believable or not. Fitzpatrick argues that extensional realism is immune, while intensional realism is not, to the pessimistic induction. I reply that if extensional realism overcomes the pessimistic induction at all, that is because it implicitly relies on the theoretical resource of intensional realism. I also argue that extensional realism, by nature, cannot embed a criterion for distinguishing between believable and unbelievable theories.

  5. Green corridors in freight logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George

    The subject of this thesis is ‘green corridors,’ a European concept denoting a concentration of freight traffic between major hubs and by relatively long distances. Since their inception in 2007, green corridors have gained popularity as a policy tool that enhances the overall environmental susta...

  6. Geology of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park and Potomac River Corridor, District of Columbia, Maryland, West Virginia, and Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southworth, Scott; Brezinski, David K.; Orndorff, Randall C.; Repetski, John E.; Denenny, Danielle M.

    2008-01-01

    The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park is 184.5 mi long and extends from Washington, D.C., to Cumberland, Md. The canal passes through three physiographic provinces including the Piedmont, Valley and Ridge, and the Blue Ridge; the map area also includes rocks of the Coastal Plain and Appalachian Plateaus provinces. Each province contains unique packages of rocks that influenced the character of the canal and towpath. The ages of the bedrock encountered along the length of the park range from Mesoproterozoic to Jurassic and represent a variety of tectonic and depositional environments. The different rock types and surficial deposits dictated the various construction methods for the canal, which was excavated in Quaternary flood-plain deposits as well as through bedrock. The ancient course of the Potomac River and the deposits it left behind also influenced the location of the canal and towpath. The engineers made good use of the many rock types to construct the locks, dams, aqueducts, and culverts that guided water from the Potomac River into the canal and maintained the water level as canal boats traveled between higher elevations in western Maryland to sea level in Washington, D.C. The canal and towpath provide a unique transect across the central Appalachian region for examining the rich geologic diversity and history.

  7. Four-band image mosaic of the Colorado River corridor downstream of Glen Canyon Dam in Arizona, derived from the May 2013 airborne image acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durning, Laura E.; Sankey, Joel B.; Davis, Philip A.; Sankey, Temuulen T.

    2016-12-14

    In May 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey’s Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center acquired airborne multispectral high-resolution data for the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, Arizona. The image data, which consist of four color bands (blue, green, red, and near-infrared) with a ground resolution of 20 centimeters, are available to the public as 16-bit geotiff files at http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7TX3CHS. The images are projected in the State Plane map projection, using the central Arizona zone (202) and the North American Datum of 1983. The assessed accuracy for these data is based on 91 ground-control points and is reported at the 95-percent confidence level as 0.64 meter (m) and a root mean square error of 0.36 m. The primary intended uses of this dataset are for maps to support field data collection and simple river navigation; high-spatial-resolution change detection of sandbars, other geomorphic landforms, riparian vegetation, and backwater and nearshore habitats; and other ecosystem-wide mapping.

  8. Water quality and quantity of selected springs and seeps along the Colorado River corridor, Utah and Arizona: Arches National Park, Canyonlands National Park, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, and Grand Canyon National Park, 1997-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Howard E.; Spence, John R.; Antweiler, Ronald C.; Berghoff, Kevin; Plowman, Terry I.; Peart, Dale B.; Roth, David A.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service conducted an intensive assessment of selected springs along the Colorado River Corridor in Arches National Park, Canyonlands National Park, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, and Grand Canyon National Park in 1997 and 1998, for the purpose of measuring and evaluating the water quality and quantity of the resource. This study was conducted to establish baseline data for the future evaluation of possible effects from recreational use and climate change. Selected springs and seeps were visited over a study period from 1997 to 1998, during which, discharge and on-site chemical measurements were made at selected springs and seeps, and samples were collected for subsequent chemical laboratory analysis. This interdisciplinary study also includes simultaneous studies of flora and fauna, measured and sampled coincidently at the same sites. Samples collected during this study were transported to U.S. Geological Survey laboratories in Boulder, Colorado, where analyses were performed using state-of-the-art laboratory technology. The location of the selected springs and seeps, elevation, geology, aspect, and onsite measurements including temperature, discharge, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance, were recorded. Laboratory analyses include determinations for alkalinity, aluminum, ammonium (nitrogen), antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, bismuth, boron, bromide, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chloride, chromium, cobalt, copper, dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, dysprosium, erbium, europium, fluoride, gadolinium, holmium, iodine, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, lutetium, magnesium, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, neodymium, nickel, nitrate (nitrogen), nitrite (nitrogen), phosphate, phosphorus, potassium, praseodymium, rhenium, rubidium, samarium, selenium, silica, silver, sodium, strontium, sulfate, tellurium, terbium, thallium, thorium, thulium, tin, titanium, tungsten

  9. A Green Corridor Balanced Scorecard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prause Gunnar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Green transport corridors represent trans-shipment routes with a concentration of freight traffic between major hubs and long distances of transport marked by reduced environmental and climate impact. Important characteristics of green corridors are their network structures, their transnational character and their high involvement of public and private stakeholders, including political level requiring new governance models. Network-oriented controlling of green transport corridors require new concepts and instruments concentrating on multi-dimensional evaluation of collective strategies and processes in an international environment with a focus on cross-company aspects.

  10. 西安地区“泾渭水系”生态廊道建构理念与方法研究%Study on the Conception and Methods of Constructing Ecological Corridors of "Jing-Wei River System" in Xi'an Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张定青; 曹象明; 张崇

    2012-01-01

    Jing-Wei river system is the basic frame of the geographical environment in Xi'an area, which played an important role in urban construction and development in history. In the process of accelerated urbanization, the river system's ecological environment has been greatly damaged, which seriously constrains the sustainable development of local area. Aiming at improving regional landscape pattern and urban ecological development, this paper puts forward the conception of constructing Jing-Wei river system ecological corridors in Xi'an area, analyzes its concept and features, proposes the basic principles in construction. The methods of constructing ecological corridors are discussed from macro-view, middle-view and micro-view, and the function and structure of typical corridors are illustrated.%泾渭水系形成西安地区自然地理环境的基本构架,在历代城镇建设与发展中发挥了巨大作用.当代快速城镇化进程中,河流生态系统破坏严重,极大制约了城镇可持续发展.从优化区域景观格局.促进城镇生态化建设出发,提出依托泾渭水系建构生态廊道的理念,分析了泾渭水系生态廊道的基本特征及内涵,提出其建构原则,从宏观、中观及微观3个层面论述了廊道系统结构的建构方法,并对典型廊道功能与结构进行了具体解析.

  11. Evacuation from smoke filled corridors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, E.W.; Leur, P.H.E. van de; Oerle, N.J. van

    1998-01-01

    underpinning compartmentation requirements in the Dutch regulations is that people can and will go through 30 m of smoke filled space. The hypothesis leads to the requirement that corridors are divided in compartments with a maximum length of 30 meters.

  12. Corridor use by Asian elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wenjing; Lin, Liu; Luo, Aidong; Zhang, Li

    2009-06-01

    There are 18 km of Kunming-Bangkok Highway passing through the Mengyang Nature Reserve of Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve in Yunnan Province, China. From September 2005 to September 2006 the impact of this highway on movement of wild Asian elephants between the eastern and western part of the nature reserve was studied using track transecting, rural surveys and direct monitoring. Our results showed that the number of crossroad corridors used by Asian elephants diminished from 28 to 23 following the construction of the highway. In some areas, the elephant activity diminished or even disappeared, which indicated a change in their home ranges. The utilization rate of artificial corridors was 44%. We also found that elephants preferred artificial corridors that were placed along their original corridors. During the research, wild elephants revealed their adaptation to the highway. They were found walking across the highway road surface many times and for different reasons. We suggest that the highway management bureau should revise their management strategies to mitigate the potential risks caused by elephants on the road for the safety of the public and to protect this endangered species from harm. It is also very important to protect and maintain current Asian elephants corridors in this region.

  13. [Ecological and economic harmony evaluation and spatial evolution of the Hexi corridor, northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-long; Shi, Pei-ji; Li, Sheng-mei; Tong, Hua-li; Nie, Xiao-ying; Wei, Wei

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between economic development and environment and the evolution characteristics of spatial pattern in Hexi Corridor of Northwest China were analyzed based on Landsat images in 1985, 1995, 2000 and 2011 with twenty counties in Hexi Corridor chosen as the basic research units. The ecological economic harmony during 1985-2011 was estimated according to ESV (ecosystem services value) and EEH (ecological and economic harmony) index with the ecosystem services value estimation methods. The results showed that the land type of the study area dramatically changed during the study period, the grassland decreased badly, and the construction land and cultivated land increased quickly. The ESV showed an overall downward trend, especially in the Shiyang River basin and the middle of Heihe River. The ESV in the Shule River basin in this period. After 2000, the economic growth speeded up visibly in the study area. The economic development concentrated in the resource-based cities and regional central cities, and declined from the center of corridor to the both sides. The ecological-economic relation in Hexi Corridor experienced a transformation of "preliminary deterioration--further deterioration--low grade coordination". The EEH had large changes in the Shiyang River basin and the middle of Heihe River, which experienced a transformation of "conflict--more conflicts--less conflicts", however, there was little change in Shule River basin. The development mode and the comprehensive reclamation of Shiyang River basin and Heihe River basin had a significant influence on the regional ecological and economic harmony.

  14. Effects of the Different Structures of Green Belts on the Temperature and Humidity in River Corridors%河流廊道绿带结构的温湿效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪鹏; 朱春阳; 李树华

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand scientific basis for constructing green belts in river corridors, the effects of the different structures (internal constitution, canopy closure density) of green belts on the temperature and humidity were analyzed by the small-scale quantitative measurement. In this paper, four-green belts with different internal constitutions including tree-shrub-herbage mixture, tree-herbage mixture, shrub-herbage mixture and lawn and five-green belts with different canopy closure densities including 0 - 0.20, 0. 20 - 0.40, 0.40 - 0.60, 0. 60 - 0. 80 and 0. 80 - 1.00 along the Qinghe river in Beijing were investigated in July of 2010 . The air temperature and relative humidity in the green belts were measured in two hour interval from 8: 00 to 18: 00 for continuous seven days. The results showed: 1 ) the effects of different belts on the temperature and humidity were ranked in an order of tree-shrub-herbage > tree-herbage > shrub-herbage > lawn. The green belt with internal constitution of lawn had no significant effect on temperature and humidity. The shrub-herbage green belt had a moderate effect on temperature reduction and humidity increase, and an obvious and stable effect was found with the green belts of tree-herbage and tree-shrub-herbage. Based on Duncans Post Hoc Tests (P = 0.05) , it was concluded that the tree-herbage and tree-shrub herbage of urban green belts had obvious effects on the temperature decrease and humidity increase (width of green belt must be about 45 m). 2) The temperature and relative humidity benefits increased with the canopy density of the green belt. The green belt with canopy density of 0.20 -0.40 had a slight effect on the temperature decrease and humidity increase; The density of over0. 40 had an obvious effect, and an extremely obvious and stable effect was found with canopy density of over 0. 60.%选择北京北五环清河两侧不同结构类型(内部构成、郁闭度)的绿地作为研究对象,利用小尺度

  15. Asymmetric Vesicle Instability in Extensional Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Andrew; Zhao, Hong; Shaqfeh, Eric

    2012-11-01

    Previous researchers have chronicled the breakup of drops in an extensional flow as they stretch into a dumbbell shape with a long thin neck. Motivated by recent experimental observations, we study an apparently similar problem with vesicles, which are deformable but incompressible membranes that conserve area and volume. First, we simulate vesicles in an unbounded uniaxial extensional flow which are given general radial perturbations from an initially stable symmetric equilibrium state. For sufficiently low reduced volume (outer viscosity) there exists a capillary number at which an asymmetric perturbation mode will grow, resulting in the formation of an asymmetric dumbbell shape with a thin connecting cylindrical bridge analogous to the shapes associated with drop breakup. Our simulations help elucidate a mechanism for this instability based on a competition between internal pressure differentials in the vesicle resulting from the membrane bending force and ambient flow. We compare and contrast this transition to the ``standard'' drop breakup transition. Funded by NSF GRFP and Stanford Graduate Fellowship.

  16. Extensional Information Articulation from the Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Yasufumi Saruwatari; Makoto Yoshitake

    2012-01-01

    Information must have physical support and this physical universe comprisesphysical interactions. Hence actual information processes should have a description byinteractions alone, i.e., an extensional description. In this paper, such a model of the processof information articulation from the universe is developed by generalizing the extensivemeasurement theory in metrology. Moreover, a model of the attribute creation processis presented to exemplify a step of the informational articulation p...

  17. Capitalizing on spatiality in European transport corridors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, P.A.; van Oort, F.G.; Wiegmans, B.; Spit, T.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    After half a century of corridor development in Europe, the corridor concept is well-established in the academic discourse on transportation. Transport corridors have also been common practice in European transport policy since the creation of a borderless Europe in the 1990s. What is largely lackin

  18. Tectonic inversion of compressional structures in the Southern portion of the Paramirim Corridor, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Cerqueira Pereira Cruz

    Full Text Available The Paramirim Corridor represents the maximum inversion zone of the Paramirim Aulacogen. Reverse-to-reverse dextral shear zones and various types of folds dominate such corridor. These structures reflect a stress field that is WSW-ENE oriented, developed in units of Aulacogen basement, as well as in the Lagoa Real Intrusive Suite, of Statherian age, in Espinhaço and São Francisco supergroups, of Statherian-Tonian and Cryogenian ages, respectively, and in the Macaúbas-Santo Onofre Group, of Tonian age at the most. A rich collection of extensional structures truncate compressional structures of the Paramirim Corridor, characterized by normal shear zones and foliation, which is sometimes mylonitic, down-dip stretching lineation, drag folds, traction fractures and S/C structures. In these shear zones, quartz occurs truncated by the foliation, while feldspars are fractured and altered to white mica. Distribution of the quartz c-axes is at a maximum of 14° from the Z-axis. Thus, it suggests that the deformation activated mainly the basal glide planes in the direction. The paleostress study using the Win-Tensor software demonstrated that the regimen ranged between radial and pure distention. The S1 direction oscillated around a vertical trend, while s3 was sub-horizontal, with a predominant N230-050° direction. Ar-Ar ages in biotite obtained from the extensional shear zones ranged from 480 and 490 Ma. Together, data obtained for the structures associated with the late extensional regimen described in the present study suggest that its nucleation is associated with distal and brittle-ductile sectors of the gravitational collapse zone of Araçuaí-West Congo Orogen.

  19. An Extensional CPS Transform (Preliminary Report)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filinski, Andrzej

    2001-01-01

    We shoe that, in a language wihg general continuation-effects, the syntactic, or intensional, CPS transform is mirrored by a semantic, or extensional, functional term. In other words, form only the observable behavior any direct-style term (possibly containing the usual first-class continuation...... primitives), we can uniformly extract the observable behavior of its CPS counterpart. As a consequence of this result, we show that the computational lambda-calculus is complete for observational equivalence of pure, simply typed lambda-terms in Scheme-like contexts....

  20. Hyperbolic contraction measuring systems for extensional flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, M.; Tamaddon Jahromi, H. R.; Stading, M.; Webster, M. F.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper an experimental method for extensional measurements on medium viscosity fluids in contraction flow is evaluated through numerical simulations and experimental measurements. This measuring technique measures the pressure drop over a hyperbolic contraction, caused by fluid extension and fluid shear, where the extensional component is assumed to dominate. The present evaluative work advances our previous studies on this experimental method by introducing several contraction ratios and addressing different constitutive models of varying shear and extensional response. The constitutive models included are those of the constant viscosity Oldroyd-B and FENE-CR models, and the shear-thinning LPTT model. Examining the results, the impact of shear and first normal stress difference on the measured pressure drop are studied through numerical pressure drop predictions. In addition, stream function patterns are investigated to detect vortex development and influence of contraction ratio. The numerical predictions are further related to experimental measurements for the flow through a 15:1 contraction ratio with three different test fluids. The measured pressure drops are observed to exhibit the same trends as predicted in the numerical simulations, offering close correlation and tight predictive windows for experimental data capture. This result has demonstrated that the hyperbolic contraction flow is well able to detect such elastic fluid properties and that this is matched by numerical predictions in evaluation of their flow response. The hyperbolical contraction flow technique is commended for its distinct benefits: it is straightforward and simple to perform, the Hencky strain can be set by changing contraction ratio, non-homogeneous fluids can be tested, and one can directly determine the degree of elastic fluid behaviour. Based on matching of viscometric extensional viscosity response for FENE-CR and LPTT models, a decline is predicted in pressure drop for

  1. Hyperbolic contraction measuring systems for extensional flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, M.; Tamaddon Jahromi, H. R.; Stading, M.; Webster, M. F.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper an experimental method for extensional measurements on medium viscosity fluids in contraction flow is evaluated through numerical simulations and experimental measurements. This measuring technique measures the pressure drop over a hyperbolic contraction, caused by fluid extension and fluid shear, where the extensional component is assumed to dominate. The present evaluative work advances our previous studies on this experimental method by introducing several contraction ratios and addressing different constitutive models of varying shear and extensional response. The constitutive models included are those of the constant viscosity Oldroyd-B and FENE-CR models, and the shear-thinning LPTT model. Examining the results, the impact of shear and first normal stress difference on the measured pressure drop are studied through numerical pressure drop predictions. In addition, stream function patterns are investigated to detect vortex development and influence of contraction ratio. The numerical predictions are further related to experimental measurements for the flow through a 15:1 contraction ratio with three different test fluids. The measured pressure drops are observed to exhibit the same trends as predicted in the numerical simulations, offering close correlation and tight predictive windows for experimental data capture. This result has demonstrated that the hyperbolic contraction flow is well able to detect such elastic fluid properties and that this is matched by numerical predictions in evaluation of their flow response. The hyperbolical contraction flow technique is commended for its distinct benefits: it is straightforward and simple to perform, the Hencky strain can be set by changing contraction ratio, non-homogeneous fluids can be tested, and one can directly determine the degree of elastic fluid behaviour. Based on matching of viscometric extensional viscosity response for FENE-CR and LPTT models, a decline is predicted in pressure drop for

  2. An Extensional CPS Transform (Preliminary Report)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filinski, Andrzej

    2001-01-01

    We shoe that, in a language wihg general continuation-effects, the syntactic, or intensional, CPS transform is mirrored by a semantic, or extensional, functional term. In other words, form only the observable behavior any direct-style term (possibly containing the usual first-class continuation...... primitives), we can uniformly extract the observable behavior of its CPS counterpart. As a consequence of this result, we show that the computational lambda-calculus is complete for observational equivalence of pure, simply typed lambda-terms in Scheme-like contexts....

  3. Extensional rheometry with a handheld mobile device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Kristin A.; Liedtke, Aleesha M.; Todt, Anika H.; Walker, Travis W.

    2017-06-01

    The on-site characterization of complex fluids is important for a number of academic and industrial applications. Consequently, a need exists to develop portable rheometers that can provide in the field diagnostics and serve as tools for rapid quality assurance. With the advancement of smartphone technology and the widespread global ownership of smart devices, mobile applications are attractive as platforms for rheological characterization. The present work investigates the use of a smartphone device for the extensional characterization of a series of Boger fluids composed of glycerol/water and poly(ethylene oxide), taking advantage of the increasing high-speed video capabilities (currently up to 240 Hz capture rate at 720p) of smartphone cameras. We report a noticeable difference in the characterization of samples with slight variations in polymer concentration and discuss current device limitations. Potential benefits of a handheld extensional rheometer include its use as a point-of-care diagnostic tool, especially in developing communities, as well as a simple and inexpensive tool for assessing product quality in industry.

  4. Extensional properties of mobile polymer solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirel, Christophe; Renoult, Marie-Charlotte; Dumouchel, Christophe; Crumeyrolle, Olivier; Lisiecki, Denis; Mutabazi, Innocent

    2016-11-01

    A deep understanding of the influence of viscoelasticity on the dynamics of liquid flows remains a challenge in the non-Newtonian fluid mechanics field. Previous work has revealed that the addition of minute amount (2.5 part per million) of high molecular weight polymer to water, forming a viscoelastic solution with strong extensional properties, modifies the fission process during droplet snap off with spectacular effects: inhibition of the singularity observed in the reference Newtonian case and formation of a long-lived (milli-second) filament. The measurement of the extensional properties for such mobile polymer solutions is one of the most pressing problem. Here, a global measurement technique, based on the multi-scale analysis of the capillary instability of a free falling jet of a mobile polymer solution, is introduced. The method of analysis allows the characterisation of the jet breakup mechanism from which the relaxation time of the polymer solution can be extracted. One of the advantages of the technique is the simple experiment it requires.

  5. Albania – as the Bridge of Routes and Transport Corridors between the Adriatic Sea and Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan Mazrekaj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Republic of Albania is located in the Western Balkans. Its location in the midst of crossroads for major transit corridors in Europe places Albania in a strategic geographic position. Albania links the western Mediterranean countries with the Balkans and Asia. Its biggest valleys situated in Drin, Shkumbin and Vjose rivers, facilitate the connection of the Balkans with the Adriatic Sea. In the Balkan territory are situated some of the most important Pan - European transport corridors, consisting of: Pan - European Corridor IV, V, VII, VIII, IX and X. Main objective of this paper is the analysis of the development of transport routes and corridors in the Balkans in the context of Pan-European corridors; evaluation of national policy, priorities of Transport, directions of Albania’s main road and their compatibility with the needs of Pan - European connectivity.

  6. Exploration on City Rivers's Function Returning from "Edge Line"to "Public Link"——A Case Study of Ecological Green Corridor Planning of Chuan Yang River%城市河流从“边缘界线”回归“公共纽带”的探索——以川杨河生态绿廊建设规划研究为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑德福

    2012-01-01

    City rivers that carrying the urban's prosperity and decline was the important dependency to urban development.However,now in many cities,city rivers are neglected gradually in the urban planning,especially the main rivers with regional significance,are treated as "edge line" that no one cares about,and become closed and negative corridor space.In case of the construction study on ecological green corridor of Chuan Yang River,the paper not only analyzes the deep reason that urban rivers are being marginalized,from the role evolution and current status of city rivers,but also explores planning practice about city rivers function reviving and returning to city life from the perspective of "public link".%城市河流曾是城市发展的重要依赖,承载着城市的兴衰使命。而当前许多城市中,城市河流在规划中逐渐被忽视,尤其是具有区域性意义的主干河流,成为无人问津的"边缘界线",沦为封闭而消极的廊道空间。以川杨河生态绿廊的建设研究为例,从城市河流的角色演变和现状问题出发,分析城市河流被边缘化的深层原因,并从"公共纽带"的视角来探讨城市河流功能复兴和回归城市生活的规划实践。

  7. THE ROLE OF THE HYDROLOGICAL FACTOR IN HABITAT DYNAMICS WITHIN THE FLUVIAL CORRIDOR OF DANUBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GH. CLOŢĂ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of the hydrological factor in habitat dynamics within the fluvial corridor of Danube. This paper had explored the connections between river hydrology with its changes and habitat dynamics. The fluvial corridor integrates spatially the channel and parts of its floodplain affected by periodical flooding and could be considered as an ecological corridor because of the size of the hydrosystem. The river and its ecosystems depend on geomorphogenetic and biological function and, thus creating a inter-dependence transposed into a concept, namely the fluvial hydrosystem, proposed firstly by Roux 1982, Amoros 1987. The hydrosystem is an ecological complex system constituted of biotopes and specific biocenoses of stream waters, stagnant water bodies, semi-aquatic, terrestrial ecosystems localized in the space of floodplain modeled directly and indirectly by river’s active force.

  8. A Note on Spector's Quantifier-Free Rule of Extensionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlenbach, Ulrich

    2001-01-01

     In this note we show that the so-called weakly extensional arithmetic in all finite types, which is based on a quantifier-free rule of extensionality due to C. Spector and which is of significance in the context of Gödel’s functional interpretation, does not satisfy the deduction theorem...

  9. 3D modeling of dual wind-up extensional rheometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Kaijia; Román Marín, José Manuel; Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    2010-01-01

    Fully three-dimensional numerical simulations of a dual wind-up drum rheometer of the Sentmanat Extensional Rheometer (SER; Sentmanat, 2004 [1]) or the Extensional Viscosity Fixture (EVF; Garritano and Berting, 2006 [2]) type have been performed. In the SER and EVF a strip of rectangular shape is...

  10. Study on the oasis corridor landscape in the arid regions based on RS and GIS methods--application of Jinta Oasis, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The study on the oasis corridor landscape is a new hotspot in the ecological environment research in the arid regions.In oasis, maincorridor landscape types include river, ditch, shelterbelt and road.This paper introduces the basic ecological effects of the corridor landscapeon the transporting mass and energy and obstructing desert landscape expansion and incursion.Using Geographic Information System(GIS), wehave researched the corridor distribution and its spatial relationship with other landscape types in the Jinta Oasis.Based on the dynamicallymonitoring on the landscape pattern change of the Jinta Oasis during the latter 10 years by using Remote Sensing(RS) and GIS, the drivingfunctions of the corridors on this change have been analyzed in detail.The analysis results showed that all kinds of corridors' characteristics canbe quantified by the indexes such as length and width, ratio of perimeter and area, density and non-heterogeneity.The total corridor length ofJinta Oasis is 1838.5 km and its density is 2.1 km/km2 .The corridor density of the irrigation land, forest and resident area is maximal, whichshows that affection degree of the oasis corridors on them is the most.The improvement of the corridors quality is one of the important drivingfactors on the irrigation land and so on.The organic combination of the RS and GIS technologies and landscape research methods would be aneffective means for the corridor landscape research on arid region oasis.

  11. 78 FR 77550 - Integrated Corridor Management Deployment Planning Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... Federal Highway Administration Integrated Corridor Management Deployment Planning Grants AGENCY: Federal... is extending the application period for the Integrated Corridor Management Deployment Planning Grants... Integrated Corridor Management Deployment Planning Grants. The purpose of this notice was to invite States...

  12. Corridor connecting giant panda habitats from north to south in the Min Mountains, Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kaipu; Xie, Yan; Wu, Ning

    2006-12-01

    The giant panda faces severe threats from habitat fragmentation and isolation. Currently, giant panda populations have been fragmented into 30 habitat patches. The disappearance of isolated small populations and studies on the genetic diversity of various populations have shown that small isolated panda populations are at a high risk of dying out completely. Habitat fragmentation has seriously impaired the ability of the giant panda to resist climate changes and other natural disasters, such as large-scale, synchronous bamboo blooming. The Min Mountains have the largest population of pandas in China, numbering 581 individuals and accounting for 52% of the total (1114) in China. Geographic isolation means that giant pandas in the Min Mountains are divided into two populations (population A in the north and population B in the south). Population B, which had only 42 individuals in 1989, is severely threatened by high-density human populations and the loss of genetic diversity. However, we have identified an important corridor connecting the two populations. This paper explains the importance and the feasibility of reestablishing this corridor. Due to the special geographic locations of these two populations (two rivers block the migration of giant pandas between south and north), the corridor is the only passage for giant pandas in the region. Recent studies have also shown an increase of giant panda activity in the area of the corridor. However, vegetation in the corridor has been severely degraded. Bamboo forest must be restored in this area to provide food for the pandas during migration. The effects of human activities must be reduced in order to maintain panda habitat. We believe that a restored corridor will be of great benefit to the survival of giant pandas in the Min Mountains, especially for population B. Successful re-establishment of a corridor will be a valuable model for corridor construction in the future.

  13. Extremely Shallow Extensional Faulting Near Geothermal Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudnut, K. W.; Wei, S.; Donnellan, A.; Fielding, E. J.; Graves, R. W.; Helmberger, D. V.; Liu, Z.; Parker, J. W.; Treiman, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Surface faulting has been discovered in association with a shallow extensional M 4.9 earthquake, the source properties of which have also been studied by modeling of broadband seismic data and geodetic imagery. This M 4.9 and also a M 4.6 shallow normal event occurred late in the Brawley Swarm of August 2012, a dominantly strike-slip sequence with events up to M 5.5 (Hauksson et al., SRL 2013 and Wei et al., GRL 2013). The point source waveform inversions reveal normal mechanisms and centroid depths of ~2.5 km for both events, while the modeling of the geodetic data indicates a compatible depth of ~2.0 km. The M 4.9 event had unusually large (~40 cm) and sudden (~1.0 - 1.5 km/sec) slip, considering its extremely shallow depth. The earlier and larger strike-slip events during the Aug. 2012 swarm were on a left-lateral SW-NE oriented vertical planar cross-fault, whereas the M 4.6 and M 4.9 occurred on a SSW-NNE oriented, west-dipping plane. Airborne imagery obtained using Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) revealed a surface fault rupture that was subsequently confirmed and documented in the field in May 2013. A pre-existing but previously un-mapped fault sustained west-down surface slip of up to 18 × 2 cm along breaks extending ~3.5 km along a NNE orientation, and ruptured beneath and under a railroad track and pipeline (without breaking them). UAVSAR and seismological data were used jointly to image the source properties of the M 4.9 earthquake in detail. Typically, the uppermost few kms of right-lateral faults in the Salton Trough exhibit creep, especially after larger earthquakes, as in 1979 and 1987. On this basis, general models of stable sliding within the uppermost few kms have been developed. In this case, however, the joint inversion indicates that seismic energy was radiated by slip of up to 40 cm on a fault plane extending from the surface to a depth of only ~3 km, extending ~4 km along-strike, and dipping ~45° west, with west

  14. Long Island Smart Energy Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mui, Ming [Long Island Power Authority, Uniondale, NY (United States)

    2015-02-04

    The Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) has teamed with Stony Brook University (Stony Brook or SBU) and Farmingdale State College (Farmingdale or FSC), two branches of the State University of New York (SUNY), to create a “Smart Energy Corridor.” The project, located along the Route 110 business corridor on Long Island, New York, demonstrated the integration of a suite of Smart Grid technologies from substations to end-use loads. The Smart Energy Corridor Project included the following key features: -TECHNOLOGY: Demonstrated a full range of smart energy technologies, including substations and distribution feeder automation, fiber and radio communications backbone, advanced metering infrastructure (AM”), meter data management (MDM) system (which LIPA implemented outside of this project), field tools automation, customer-level energy management including automated energy management systems, and integration with distributed generation and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. -MARKETING: A rigorous market test that identified customer response to an alternative time-of-use pricing plan and varying levels of information and analytical support. -CYBER SECURITY: Tested cyber security vulnerabilities in Smart Grid hardware, network, and application layers. Developed recommendations for policies, procedures, and technical controls to prevent or foil cyber-attacks and to harden the Smart Grid infrastructure. -RELIABILITY: Leveraged new Smart Grid-enabled data to increase system efficiency and reliability. Developed enhanced load forecasting, phase balancing, and voltage control techniques designed to work hand-in-hand with the Smart Grid technologies. -OUTREACH: Implemented public outreach and educational initiatives that were linked directly to the demonstration of Smart Grid technologies, tools, techniques, and system configurations. This included creation of full-scale operating models demonstrating application of Smart Grid technologies in business and residential

  15. Potential negative ecological effects of corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Nick M; Brudvig, Lars A; Damschen, Ellen I; Evans, Daniel M; Johnson, Brenda L; Levey, Douglas J; Orrock, John L; Resasco, Julian; Sullivan, Lauren L; Tewksbury, Josh J; Wagner, Stephanie A; Weldon, Aimee J

    2014-10-01

    Despite many studies showing that landscape corridors increase dispersal and species richness for disparate taxa, concerns persist that corridors can have unintended negative effects. In particular, some of the same mechanisms that underlie positive effects of corridors on species of conservation interest may also increase the spread and impact of antagonistic species (e.g., predators and pathogens), foster negative effects of edges, increase invasion by exotic species, increase the spread of unwanted disturbances such as fire, or increase population synchrony and thus reduce persistence. We conducted a literature review and meta-analysis to evaluate the prevalence of each of these negative effects. We found no evidence that corridors increase unwanted disturbance or non-native species invasion; however, these have not been well-studied concerns (1 and 6 studies, respectively). Other effects of corridors were more often studied and yielded inconsistent results; mean effect sizes were indistinguishable from zero. The effect of edges on abundances of target species was as likely to be positive as negative. Corridors were as likely to have no effect on antagonists or population synchrony as they were to increase those negative effects. We found 3 deficiencies in the literature. First, despite studies on how corridors affect predators, there are few studies of related consequences for prey population size and persistence. Second, properly designed studies of negative corridor effects are needed in natural corridors at scales larger than those achievable in experimental systems. Third, studies are needed to test more targeted hypotheses about when corridor-mediated effects on invasive species or disturbance may be negative for species of management concern. Overall, we found no overarching support for concerns that construction and maintenance of habitat corridors may result in unintended negative consequences. Negative edge effects may be mitigated by widening

  16. Factors That Influence the Extensional Rheological Property of Saliva

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay, Amrita; Inui, Taichi; Dodds, Michael; Proctor, Gordon; Carpenter, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The spinnbarkeit of saliva reflects the ability of saliva to adhere to surfaces within the mouth, thereby serving as a protective role and aiding in lubrication. Therefore, alterations in the extensional rheology of saliva may result in the loss in adhesiveness or the ability to bind onto surfaces. Mucin glycoproteins and their structures are known to be important factors for the extensional rheological properties of saliva. The conformation of mucin depends on factors such as pH and ionic st...

  17. 2009 Oregon Parks and Recreation Department Lidar: Columbia River

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set represents the lidar elevations along the Columbia River corridor in Oregon, including portions of the following counties: Gilliam, Hood River,...

  18. 2009 Oregon Parks and Recreation Department Lidar: Columbia River

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set represents the lidar elevations along the Columbia River corridor in Oregon, including portions of the following counties: Gilliam, Hood River,...

  19. "FluvialCorridor": A new ArcGIS toolbox package for multiscale riverscape exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Clément; Alber, Adrien; Bertrand, Mélanie; Vaudor, Lise; Piégay, Hervé

    2015-08-01

    Both for scientists and river basin managers, development of automated geographic information system (GIS) tools is essential today to characterize riverscapes and explore biogeomorphologic processes over large channel networks. Since the 1990s, GIS toolboxes and add-in programs have been used to characterize catchments. However, there is currently no equivalent to a planimetric and longitudinal characterization of fluvial corridor networks at multiple scales. This paper describes FluvialCorridor, a new GIS toolbox. This package allows the user: (i) to extract a large set of riverscape features such as the main components of fluvial corridors from DEM and vector layers (e.g. stream network or valley bottom), and (ii) to aggregate spatial features into homogeneous segments and metrics characterizing each of them. The methodological frameworks involved have been previously described by Alber and Piégay (2011), Leviandier et al. (2012) and Bertrand et al. (2013) and this contribution focuses on the GIS tools allowing the user to automatically operate them. A case study on the Drôme River (France) is provided to illustrate the potential of the package both for geomorphologic understanding and target management actions. FluvialCorridor has been developed for ArcGIS with the related native Python library named ArcPy and tested on ArcGIS 10.0 and 10.1. Obviously, each component of the package can be used separately; however, it also provides a complete workflow for fluvial corridor characterization, even as the toolbox is continually under development and revision. Case study database, FluvialCorridor package and guidelines are available online at http://umrevs-isig.fr.

  20. Siliguri: A Geopolitical Manoeuvre Corridor in the Eastern Himalayan Region for China and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Yaser Malik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Siliguri Corridor being part of Indian West Bengal is a diplomatic manoeuvre place located between Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, India’s Seven Sister States and Chumbi Hills in the Eastern Himalayan Region. Being located at the crossroads and centrally situated between all the neighbouring countries the landlocked Siliguri has an especially economic and political value for the regional countries. The corridor being in close proximity to China and India’s Seven Sister States has added to the diplomatic mosaic of the Eastern Himalayan Region. The region consists of beautiful landscape, mountains and rivers which not only add to topographical diversity but also demographic mixture. Despite its geopolitical significance the area could not advance for not only being a northeastern border region but also for being a gateway to the Seven Sister States. Peripheral development of Siliguri Corridor is one of the reasons for illegal practices like smuggling and terrorism. In year 2002 Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh discussed a proposal to form a free trade corridor to simplify the goods transportation through Siliguri Corridor but no such pact could be concluded that would have avoided the activities like smuggling and terrorism mainly through economic and diplomatic ventures.

  1. VT Electric Transmission Line Corridors - substation points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The ELTRN layer depicts electric transmission line corridors in Vermont. Various methods have been used to digitize features. The data layer...

  2. Regional Ecological Corridors - MLCCS derived 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Identification of potential ecological corridors between the MLCCS derived ecological patches (ear_eco08py3). This was generated using cost / distance analysis,...

  3. On the regional cooperation mechanism of Huaihe River Eco-economic Corridor%构建淮河生态经济走廊区域合作机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡相峰; 余英杰; 尚正永

    2015-01-01

    目前,苏皖豫3省在携手谋划和积极实施“淮河生态经济走廊”发展战略,并力争将此战略上升为国家战略。重点研究了淮河生态经济走廊区域合作机制及协同发展的理论和现实意义。在此基础上,分析了国内外区域合作机制的类型、案例与经验,提出了建立区域合作的超前诱导机制、目标原则机制、发展动力机制、政府协同机制、对话沟通机制、利益分享机制和生态补偿机制,并提出相应的政策建议。%At present,Jiangsu,Anhui and Henan Provinces are working together to plan the Huaihe Eco-economic Corridor development strategy,and actively promote this strategy as a national strategy.In this paper,the theoreti-cal and practical significance for the regional cooperation mechanism and the coordinated development of that are re-searched implemented.Based on this,it is analyzed the types,cases and experiences of regional cooperation mecha-nism in China and abroad.Then,some mechanisms are proposed such as leading induced mechanism,goal principle mechanism,dynamic mechanism of the development,government collaborative dialogue mechanism,communication mechanism,interests sharing mechanism and ecological compensation mechanism.At last,the corresponding policy recommendations are put forward.

  4. China-Pakistan Economic Corridor.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, Tucker [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    International trade and related economic activities in Central and South Asia are increasing as developing economies, particularly India and Pakistan, grow. China continues to emerge as a major regional and global power and has embarked upon numerous regional economic and political initiatives . A major development is the China - Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), a host of infrastructure and trade projects worth over 40 billion American dollars . This report analyzes CPEC a nd its potential regional effects, including the trade security implications of the port and land infrastructure developments . As trade increase s in the reg ion and the major CPEC infrastructure projects are completed, there will be numerous implications on trade security and geopolitics within South Asia. CPEC projects uniquely intersect numerous regional situations, including territorial disputes in Kashmir, the Afghanistan/Pakistan border, and Chinese foreign policy a mbitions. A nuanced understanding of these effects can influence future policy adjustments in this region . The views expressed in this report are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the position of Sandia National Laboratories or the author's current and past institutions.

  5. A portable and affordable extensional rheometer for field testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmark, Bart; Bryan, Matthew; Bosson, Ed; Butler, Simon; Hoier, Tom; Magens, Ole; Pistre, Nicolas; Pratt, Lee; Ward, Betsy-Ann; Wibberley, Sam; Wilson, D. Ian

    2016-12-01

    Extensional shear testing is often needed to characterise the behaviour of complex fluids found in industry and nature. Traditional extensional rheometers are typically expensive, fragile and heavy and are only suited to making measurements in a laboratory environment. For some applications, it is necessary to make in situ rheological measurements where, for example, fluid properties change rapidly over time or where laboratory facilities are unavailable. This paper reports the development and validation of an inexpensive, lightweight and robust ‘open source’ extensional rheometer, Seymour II. Validation was carried out experimentally and computationally. Measurements on a Newtonian fluid (492 mPa s Brookfield silicone oil) yielded results of 510  ±  51 mPa s; these are comfortably within the range of  ±10% which other authors have quoted for extensional techniques using laboratory rheometers. Comparison of the observed filament thinning dynamics to those obtained using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) gave good qualitative agreement. Use of Seymour II at the University of Cambridge Botanic Gardens revealed that the mucilage of the ‘crane flower’, Strelitzia reginae, was a viscoelastic fluid whose extensional response could be described by a two-mode Giesekus equation. Engineering drawings and image analysis code for Seymour II are available for download at the project website, www.seymourII.org/.

  6. Forest edges associated with power-line corridors and implications for corridor siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luken, J.O.; Hinton, A.C.; Baker, D.G. (Northern Kentucky Univ., Highland Heights, KY (USA))

    1991-07-01

    In addition to the effects of power-lines on the visual perceptions of urban landscapes, planners and designers need to consider ecological factors and long-term maintenance costs when siting new corridors in forested areas. A survey of 20 corridors in the forests of Northern Kentucky revealed higher mean density and basal area of tree seedlings and saplings in forest edges adjacent to power-line corridors. Some edges also showed distinct community shifts entailing increased importance of shade intolerant tree species. In forests already fragmented by development activities, the presence of a single power-line corridor may render forest patches unsuitable for plant and animal species requiring large forest interior habitats. To avoid this, corridors can be sited in non-forested areas, along existing corridors, along the edges of existing forest patches, or in forest patches that at present lack viable interiors. Applying these recommendations to new corridor projects will stop further forest fragmentation and minimize long-term line maintenance costs, but may also degrade visual perceptions of urban landscapes. Where visual perception is a common facet of land use, corridors may be camouflaged or hidden in forests to reduce visual impact. 5 figs., 2 tabs., 27 refs.

  7. Large-Scale Habitat Corridors for Biodiversity Conservation: A Forest Corridor in Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanjona Ramiadantsoa

    Full Text Available In biodiversity conservation, habitat corridors are assumed to increase landscape-level connectivity and to enhance the viability of otherwise isolated populations. While the role of corridors is supported by empirical evidence, studies have typically been conducted at small spatial scales. Here, we assess the quality and the functionality of a large 95-km long forest corridor connecting two large national parks (416 and 311 km2 in the southeastern escarpment of Madagascar. We analyze the occurrence of 300 species in 5 taxonomic groups in the parks and in the corridor, and combine high-resolution forest cover data with a simulation model to examine various scenarios of corridor destruction. At present, the corridor contains essentially the same communities as the national parks, reflecting its breadth which on average matches that of the parks. In the simulation model, we consider three types of dispersers: passive dispersers, which settle randomly around the source population; active dispersers, which settle only in favorable habitat; and gap-avoiding active dispersers, which avoid dispersing across non-habitat. Our results suggest that long-distance passive dispersers are most sensitive to ongoing degradation of the corridor, because increasing numbers of propagules are lost outside the forest habitat. For a wide range of dispersal parameters, the national parks are large enough to sustain stable populations until the corridor becomes severely broken, which will happen around 2065 if the current rate of forest loss continues. A significant decrease in gene flow along the corridor is expected after 2040, and this will exacerbate the adverse consequences of isolation. Our results demonstrate that simulation studies assessing the role of habitat corridors should pay close attention to the mode of dispersal and the effects of regional stochasticity.

  8. The role of extensional viscosity in frog tongue projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Alexis; Wagner, Caroline; McKinley, Gareth; Mendelson, Joe; Hu, David

    2014-11-01

    Frogs and other amphibians capture insects through high-speed tongue projection, some achieving tongue accelerations of over fifty times gravity. In this experimental study, we investigate how a frog's sticky saliva enables high-speed prey capture. At the Atlanta zoo, we used high-speed video to film the trajectory of frog tongues during prey capture. We have also designed and built a portable extensional rheometer; by following the capillary-driven thinning in the diameter of a thread of saliva we characterize the relaxation time and extensional viscosity and so infer the adhesive force between the frog tongue and prey.

  9. Transient Overshoot Extensional Rheology: Experimental and Numerical Comparisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoyle, David; Huang, Qian; Auhl, Dietmar

    rheometer (FSR) and the cross-slot extensional rheometer (CSER). The first two are uni-axial stretching rheometers and the third is a planar extensional rheometer. The FSR and CSER are capable of achieving steady state flows, although in different strain-rate regimes. The SER has been a widely adopted tool....... Although we are comparing uni-axial to planar flow, these flows produce the same polymer deformation and hence stress in the strain hardening regime. The techniques show a good quantitative agreement where the two experimental windows overlap. In comparing the FSR to the CSER we are able to explain...

  10. Late Proterozoic extensional collapse in the Arabian-Nubian Shield

    OpenAIRE

    Blasband, B.B.; White, S H; Brooijmans, P.; Boorder, H. de; Visser, W.

    2000-01-01

    A structural and petrological study of the Late Proterozoic rocks in the Wadi Kid area, Sinai, Egypt indicates the presence of an extensional metamorphic core complex in the northern Arabian–Nubian Shield. Gneissic domes throughout the Arabian–Nubian Shield resemble the core complex of the Wadi Kid area and as a result, they are interpreted as extensional metamorphic core complexes. The presence of a widespread phase of extension at the end of the Pan-African period in the Arabian–Nubian Shie...

  11. 78 FR 65751 - Integrated Corridor Management Deployment Planning Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... Federal Highway Administration Integrated Corridor Management Deployment Planning Grants AGENCY: Federal... States, Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPO), and local governments that intend to initiate or continue Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) development with their partners, such as arterial management...

  12. Factors That Influence the Extensional Rheological Property of Saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Amrita; Inui, Taichi; Dodds, Michael; Proctor, Gordon; Carpenter, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The spinnbarkeit of saliva reflects the ability of saliva to adhere to surfaces within the mouth, thereby serving as a protective role and aiding in lubrication. Therefore, alterations in the extensional rheology of saliva may result in the loss in adhesiveness or the ability to bind onto surfaces. Mucin glycoproteins and their structures are known to be important factors for the extensional rheological properties of saliva. The conformation of mucin depends on factors such as pH and ionic strength. Chewing is one of the main stimuli for salivary secretion but creates significant sheer stress on the salivary film which could influence mouthfeel perceptions. The current study investigates the possible factors which affect the extensional rheological properties of saliva by comparing submandibular/sublingual saliva with different oral stimuli within the same group of subjects. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva (chew, smell and taste) salivas were collected primarily from submandibular/sublingual glands. The saliva samples were measured for Spinnbarkeit followed by the measuring mucin, total protein, total calcium and bicarbonate concentrations. The results indicated correlations between rheological properties and mucin/ion concentrations. However, chewing stimulated submandibular/sublingual saliva is shown to have significantly lower Spinnbarkeit, but factors such as mucin, protein and calcium concentrations did not account for this variation. Analysis of the concentration of bicarbonate and pH appears to suggest that it has a prominent effect on extensional rheology of saliva.

  13. Late Proterozoic extensional collapse in the Arabian-Nubian Shield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasband, B.B.; White, S.H.; Brooijmans, P.; Boorder, H. de; Visser, W.

    2000-01-01

    A structural and petrological study of the Late Proterozoic rocks in the Wadi Kid area, Sinai, Egypt indicates the presence of an extensional metamorphic core complex in the northern Arabian–Nubian Shield. Gneissic domes throughout the Arabian–Nubian Shield resemble the core complex of the Wadi Kid

  14. Factors That Influence the Extensional Rheological Property of Saliva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Vijay

    Full Text Available The spinnbarkeit of saliva reflects the ability of saliva to adhere to surfaces within the mouth, thereby serving as a protective role and aiding in lubrication. Therefore, alterations in the extensional rheology of saliva may result in the loss in adhesiveness or the ability to bind onto surfaces. Mucin glycoproteins and their structures are known to be important factors for the extensional rheological properties of saliva. The conformation of mucin depends on factors such as pH and ionic strength. Chewing is one of the main stimuli for salivary secretion but creates significant sheer stress on the salivary film which could influence mouthfeel perceptions. The current study investigates the possible factors which affect the extensional rheological properties of saliva by comparing submandibular/sublingual saliva with different oral stimuli within the same group of subjects. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva (chew, smell and taste salivas were collected primarily from submandibular/sublingual glands. The saliva samples were measured for Spinnbarkeit followed by the measuring mucin, total protein, total calcium and bicarbonate concentrations. The results indicated correlations between rheological properties and mucin/ion concentrations. However, chewing stimulated submandibular/sublingual saliva is shown to have significantly lower Spinnbarkeit, but factors such as mucin, protein and calcium concentrations did not account for this variation. Analysis of the concentration of bicarbonate and pH appears to suggest that it has a prominent effect on extensional rheology of saliva.

  15. Factors That Influence the Extensional Rheological Property of Saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Amrita; Inui, Taichi; Dodds, Michael; Proctor, Gordon; Carpenter, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The spinnbarkeit of saliva reflects the ability of saliva to adhere to surfaces within the mouth, thereby serving as a protective role and aiding in lubrication. Therefore, alterations in the extensional rheology of saliva may result in the loss in adhesiveness or the ability to bind onto surfaces. Mucin glycoproteins and their structures are known to be important factors for the extensional rheological properties of saliva. The conformation of mucin depends on factors such as pH and ionic strength. Chewing is one of the main stimuli for salivary secretion but creates significant sheer stress on the salivary film which could influence mouthfeel perceptions. The current study investigates the possible factors which affect the extensional rheological properties of saliva by comparing submandibular/sublingual saliva with different oral stimuli within the same group of subjects. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva (chew, smell and taste) salivas were collected primarily from submandibular/sublingual glands. The saliva samples were measured for Spinnbarkeit followed by the measuring mucin, total protein, total calcium and bicarbonate concentrations. The results indicated correlations between rheological properties and mucin/ion concentrations. However, chewing stimulated submandibular/sublingual saliva is shown to have significantly lower Spinnbarkeit, but factors such as mucin, protein and calcium concentrations did not account for this variation. Analysis of the concentration of bicarbonate and pH appears to suggest that it has a prominent effect on extensional rheology of saliva. PMID:26305698

  16. Hacia directrices y conceptos de diseño de vialidad sustentable: el caso del corredor fluvial del río Mapocho ─sección occidental─ y su entorno. / Guidelines and concepts to design sustainable transportation: the western section of the corridor of the Mapocho River and its environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Patricia Henríquez Orellana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se explora un polígono donde existe un potencial de desarrollo sostenible conteniendo el tramo poniente del río Mapocho, posible de constituirse en un corredor fluvial recreacional y de transporte como uno de los elementos estructuradores metropolitanos. Se trata del uso del espacio corredor del río Mapocho y su entorno inmediato para la integración urbana-regional. La investigación FONDECYT 1090199 – 2009/2010 planteó que resolver la conformación de éste corredor requiere un fortalecimiento integral de la vialidad que mejore la accesibilidad, conectividad y conexidad del corredor, potenciando un sistema vial asociado al río, pero no perturbador del río; diversificado y articulador de actividades pertinentes junto y eventualmente sobre el territorio de la movilidad fluvial; que conecte los asentamientos de borde, contribuya a la producción de espacio público para la recreación y esparcimiento tranquilo de los habitantes, y conjuntamente en las áreas rurales facilite la coexistencia con la actividad agraria y campesina. Esto permitiría la integración plena del río a la vida metropolitana y periurbana de Santiago. Dicha acción requiere ser abordada desde un ordenamiento territorial ambientalmente sustentable y no sólo desde la ingeniería./The western section of the Mapocho river is an especial area for a future sustainable development. The author essay the possibility of this section as a recreational and transportation corridor that could be also a integration node for de city and the region.

  17. Fragmentation of Araucaria Forests in the Chapecó Ecological Corridor, Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Garcia Alarcon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, only 2% of the Araucaria forest remains, and less than 1% of this forest is protected (as conservation units. In Santa Catarina, the Chapecó River sub-basin was evaluated for the creation of a state ecological corridor. Studies were developed within the Microbacias 2 Project between 2007 and 2009. Landscape metrics provided important data for evaluating the conservation status of the forest remnants for the zoning of the corridor. The Chapecó Ecological Corridor encompasses around 5,000km²; 50.5% of this area comprises remnants of natural ecosystems and 42.7% is used by agricultural activities. Fifteen fragments, which are each larger than 500ha, are Araucaria forests that contain elements of Floresta Estacional Decidual. Of the 83 watersheds studied in permanent preservation areas, 20.5% has more than 60% vegetation cover and 57.5% has between 10% and 30% vegetation cover. It is estimated that the sub-basin has 111,000km2 of forest on private properties, along with remnants in three conservation units and three indigenous areas. The forests of the Chapecó Ecological Corridor represent the last fragments of continuous Araucaria forest in western Santa Catarina.

  18. Main water disasters and hydrogeological mechanism in Kunlun mountain- Qingshui river section of Qinghai -Tibet engineering corridor%青藏工程走廊昆仑山口-清水河段主要水害问题及水文地质机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范基姣; 李胜涛; 张森琦; 王秀明; 李戎

    2012-01-01

    通过野外实地调查发现,青藏工程走廊昆仑山口-清水河段发育的主要水害包括:地表水及地下水受人工拦挡,当排水措施不畅时产生路基积水,由于水的热交换作用使基底附近地下冰融化,导致路基下沉引起的水害;密集上升泉使冻胀-融陷地质作用强烈,冻土融沉及冻胀引起路基塌陷变形及翻浆冒泥引发病害;修筑公路取土坑密布地段,路基一侧或两侧地面积水引起水害;地下水强径流带与地下水浅藏带由于水位变化引起水害;河流冲刷、岸坡侵蚀导致的岸坡后退水害。%Through the field survey, it is found that the main water disasters in Kunlun mountain-Qingshui river section of Qinghai-Tibet engineering corridor include: The surface water and groundwater are artificially obstructed, when the drainage measures are inappropriate the ponding in the road bed occurs, then the underground ice thaws because of the water heat change effect which causes the roadbed subsidence. At the places where the ascending springs are dense and the frost heaving-thawing settlement is intense, the permafrost thaw causes the roadbed subsidence and deformation and the frost heaving causes the road boiling. At the places where the pits locate along the road densely, the ponding at one side or both sides of the embankment occurs. Water disasters caused by water levels change in the areas with the strong groundwater runoff and the shallow groundwater. The river water scour and the bank erosion cause the bank recession.

  19. Consistency and axiomatization of a natural extensional combinatory logic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋颖

    1996-01-01

    In the light of a question of J. L. Krivine about the consistency of an extensional λ-theory,an extensional combinatory logic ECL+U(G)+RU_∞+ is established, with its consistency model provedtheoretically and it is shown the it is not equivalent to any system of universal axioms. It is expressed bythe theory in first order logic that, for every given group G of order n, there simultaneously exist infinitelymany universal retractions and a surjective n-tuple notion, such that each element of G acts as a permutationof the components of the n-tuple, and as an Ap-automorphism of the model; further each of the universalretractions is invarian under the action of the Ap-automorphisms induced by G The difference between thetheory and that of Krivine is the G need not be a symmetric group.

  20. Identifying ecological corridors for Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) and Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquelle, Dale G; Rozhnov, Vyachaslav V; Ermoshin, Victor; Murzin, Andre A; Nikolaev, Igor G; Hernandez-Blanco, Jose A; Naidenko, Sergie V

    2015-07-01

    The rapid explosion of human populations and the associated development of human-dominated landscapes have drastically reduced and fragmented habitat for tigers (Panthera tigris) and leopards (Panthera pardus) across Asia, resulting in multiple small populations. However, Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) habitat in Russia has remained largely interconnected, except for a break between tigers in southwest Primorye and the southern Sikhote-Alin Mountains. This habitat patch in southwest Primorye also retains the last population of Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis). Genetic differentiation of tigers in southwest Primorye and the Sikhote-Alin Mountains along with survey data suggest that habitat fragmentation is limiting movement of tigers and leopards across the Razdolnaya River basin. We looked at historical and recent survey data on tigers and leopards and mapped existing cover types to examine land-use patterns of both large felids and humans in the development strip along the Razdolnaya River. We then used least-cost distance analyses to identify the most effective potential corridor to retain connectivity for large felids between Land of the Leopard National Park and Ussuriskii Zapovednik (Reserve). We identified a single potential corridor that still exists with a total distance of 62.5 km from Land of the Leopard National Park to Ussuriskii Zapovednik, mostly (93%) through forested habitat. We recommend formal recognition of a Razdolnaya ecological corridor and provide specific recommendations for each of 3 proposed management sections.

  1. Development and modeling of novel extensional ionic polymer transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akle, Barbar; Wallmersperger, Thomas; Leo, Donald

    2007-04-01

    Ionic polymer transducers (IPT), sometimes referred to as artificial muscles, are known to generate a large bending strain and a moderate stress at low applied voltages. Bending actuators have limited engineering applications due to the low forcing capabilities and the need for complicated external devices to convert the bending action into rotating or linear motion desired in most devices. Recently Akle and Leo (2006) reported extensional actuation in ionic polymer transducers. Model prediction indicates that such actuators can produce strain up to 10% and a blocked stress up to 20MPa under a +/- 2V applied electric potential. Compared to other smart materials, IPT is a flexible membrane and it has a reliability of over one million cycles. In this work novel extensional IPT actuators are developed for the purpose of increasing the overall displacement of the actuator. The electromechanical coupling is measured and a correlation of the experimental data with the active areas model by Akle and Leo (2006) and the numerical electromechanical model by Wallmersperger and Leo (2004) are presented. The coupling between each test case with the model parameters enables further understanding of the physical actuation phenomena as the role of diffusion of ions and diluents and the electrostatic forces between the charged species. In this study the displacement of an extensional ionic polymer transducer is measured and compared to the bending of the same IPT actuator. The bending strain is measured to be approximately 2.5%, while the extensional strain for the same ionomer is in the order of 17.5%. Finally an interesting behavior, reported for the first time is the steady expansion of the IPT sample due to the application of a symmetrical sine wave. This indicates that charge accumulation is occurring at the electrode.

  2. Tumbling of a Brownian particle in an extensional flow

    CERN Document Server

    Plan, Emmanuel Lance Christopher VI Medillo

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of tumbling of microscopic objects is commonly associated with shear flows. We address the question of whether tumbling can also occur in stretching-dominated flows. To answer this, we study the dynamics of a semi-flexible trumbbell in a planar extensional velocity field. We show that the trumbbell undergoes a random tumbling-through-folding motion. The probability distribution of long tumbling times is exponential with a time scale exponentially increasing with the Weissenberg number.

  3. A Geophysical Characterization & Monitoring Strategy for Determining Hydrologic Processes in the Hyporheic Corridor at the Hanford 300-Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slater, Lee; Day-Lewis, Frederick; Lane, John; Versteeg, Roelof; Ward, Anderson; Binley, Andrew; Johnson, Timothy; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios

    2011-08-31

    The primary objective of this research was to advance the prediction of solute transport between the Uranium contaminated Hanford aquifer and the Columbia River at the Hanford 300 Area by improving understanding of how fluctuations in river stage, combined with subsurface heterogeneity, impart spatiotemporal complexity to solute exchange along the Columbia River corridor. Our work explored the use of continuous waterborne electrical imaging (CWEI), in conjunction with fiber-optic distributed temperature sensor (FO-DTS) and time-lapse resistivity monitoring, to improve the conceptual model for how groundwater/surface water exchange regulates uranium transport. We also investigated how resistivity and induced polarization can be used to generate spatially rich estimates of the variation in depth to the Hanford-Ringold (H-R) contact between the river and the 300 Area Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site. Inversion of the CWEI datasets (a data rich survey containing {approx}60,000 measurements) provided predictions of the distributions of electrical resistivity and polarizability, from which the spatial complexity of the primary hydrogeologic units along the river corridor was reconstructed. Variation in the depth to the interface between the overlying coarse-grained, high permeability Hanford Formation and the underlying finer-grained, less permeable Ringold Formation, an important contact that limits vertical migration of contaminants, has been resolved along {approx}3 km of the river corridor centered on the IFRC site in the Hanford 300 Area. Spatial variability in the thickness of the Hanford Formation captured in the CWEI datasets indicates that previous studies based on borehole projections and drive-point and multi-level sampling likely overestimate the contributing area for uranium exchange within the Columbia River at the Hanford 300 Area. Resistivity and induced polarization imaging between the river and the 300 Area IFRC further imaged spatial

  4. Complexity Analysis of Traffic in Corridors-in-the-Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Min; Zelinski, Shannon Jean

    2010-01-01

    The corridors-in-the-sky concept imitates the highway system in ground transportation. The benefit expected from a corridor relies on its capability of handling high density traffic with negligible controller workload, the acceptance of extra fuel or distance, and the complexity reduction in underlying sectors. This work evaluates a selected corridor from these perspectives through simulations. To examine traffic inside the corridor, a corridor traffic simulation tool that can resolve conflicts is developed using C language. Prescribed conflict resolution maneuvers mimic corridor users behaviors and conflict resolution counts measure complexity. Different lane options and operational policies are proposed to examine their impacts on complexity. Fuel consumption is calculated and compared for corridor traffic. On the other hand, to investigate the complexity of non-corridor traffic in underlying sectors, the existing Airspace Concept Evaluation System tool is utilized along with the Automated Airspace Concept tool. The number of conflict resolutions is examined and treated as the complexity measurement. The results show heavy traffic can be managed with low complexity for a historical traffic schedule simulated with appropriate operational policies and lane options. For instance, with 608 flights and peak aircraft count of 100, only 84 actions need to be taken in a 24-hour period to resolve the conflicts for an 8-lane corridor. Compared with the fuel consumptions with great circle trajectories, the simulation of corridor traffic shows that the total extra fuel for corridor flights is 26,373 gallons, or 2.76%, which is 0.38% less than flying filed flight plans. Without taking climb and descent portions of corridor traffic, the complexity of underlying sectors is reduced by 17.71%. However the climb and descent portions will eliminate the reduction and the overall complexity of sectors is actually increased by 9.14%.

  5. KPI Building Blocks For Successful Green Transport Corridor Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prause Gunnar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The green transport corridor concept represents a cornerstone in the development of integrated and sustainable transport solutions. Important properties of green corridors are their transnational character and their high involvement of large numbers of public and private stakeholders, including political level, requiring sophisticated approaches for implementation, management and governance. The current scientific discussion focusses on Key Performance Indicators (KPI for monitoring and management of green transport corridor performance emphasizing the operational aspects.

  6. Extensional Collapse Situations I: non-termination and unrecoverable errors

    CERN Document Server

    Bucciarelli, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    We consider a simple model of higher order, functional computation over the booleans. Then, we enrich the model in order to encompass non-termination and unrecoverable errors, taken separately or jointly. We show that the models so defined form a lattice when ordered by the extensional collapse situation relation, introduced in order to compare models with respect to the amount of "intensional information" that they provide on computation. The proofs are carried out by exhibiting suitable applied {\\lambda}-calculi, and by exploiting the fundamental lemma of logical relations.

  7. 2005 River Corridor Cleanup Contractor Revegetation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. L. Johnson

    2005-09-12

    This report contains a compilation of the results of vegetation monitoring data that were collected in the spring and summer of 2005 for the Environmental Restoration Contractor's revegetation and mitigation areas on the Hanford Site.

  8. 2009 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. T. Lindsey; K. A. Gano; R. D. Teel

    2009-09-30

    This document details the results of revegetation and mitigation monitoring conducted in 2009, including 25 revegetation/restoration projects, one revegetation/mitigation project, and three bat mitigation projects.

  9. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Presence in the Columbia River Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. M. Hermann

    2007-09-06

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) is required by Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 regulations to develop a conceptual understanding of potential contaminant releases from the Hanford Site based on an evaluation of existing data and known historical practices. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one environmental contaminant potentially released through leaks, spills, or disposal. This document presents a summary of selected relevant existing information, including environmental studies and Hanford Site analytical data.

  10. 2008 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. T. Lindsey; K. A. Gano

    2008-09-30

    The purpose of this report is to document the status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts that have been conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. This report documents the results of revegetation and mitigation monitoring conducted in 2008 and includes 22 revegetation/restoration projects, one revegetation/mitigation project, and two bat habitat mitigation projects.

  11. 2006 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. L. Johnson; K. A. Gano

    2006-10-03

    The purpose of this report is to document the status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts that have been conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. One of the objectives of restoration is the revegetation of remediated waste sites to stabilize the soil and restore the land to native vegetation. The report documents the results of revegetation and mitigation monitoring conducted in 2006 and includes 11 revegetation/restoration projects, one revegetation/mitigation project, and 2 bat habitat mitigation projects.

  12. 2007 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. A. Gano; C. T. Lindsey

    2007-09-27

    The purpose of this report is to document the status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts that have been conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. This report documents the results of revegetation and mitigation monitoring conducted in 2007 and includes 11 revegetation/restoration projects, one revegetation/mitigation project, and 3 bat habitat mitigation projects.

  13. A new look at extensional rheology of low-density polyethylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Qian; Mangnus, Marc; Alvarez, Nicolas J.

    2016-01-01

    The nonlinear rheology of three selected commercial low-density polyethylenes (LDPE) is measured in uniaxial extensional flow. The measurements are performed using three different devices including an extensional viscosity fixture (EVF), a homemade filament stretching rheometer (DTU-FSR) and a co......The nonlinear rheology of three selected commercial low-density polyethylenes (LDPE) is measured in uniaxial extensional flow. The measurements are performed using three different devices including an extensional viscosity fixture (EVF), a homemade filament stretching rheometer (DTU....... With the capability of the filament stretching rheometers, we show that LDPEs with quite different linear viscoelastic properties can have very similar steady extensional viscosity. This points to the potential for independently controlling shear and extensional rheology in certain rate ranges....

  14. River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morel Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The OECD report “Boosting Resilience through Innovative Risk Governance” examines the efforts of OECD countries to prevent or reduce future disaster impacts, and highlights several key areas where improvements can be made. International collaboration is insufficiently utilised to address shocks that have increasingly global consequences. Institutional design plays a significant role in facilitating or hampering the engagement and investments of governmental and non-governmental stakeholders in disaster risk prevention and mitigation. To inform the design of “better” institutions, the OECD proposes the application of a diagnostic framework that helps governments identify institutional shortcomings and take actions to improve them. The goal of the case study on the Rhone River is to conduct an analysis of the progress, achievements and existing challenges in designing and implementing disaster risk reduction strategies through the Rhone Plan from a comparative perspective across a set of selected countries of this study, like Austria and Switzerland, will inform how to improve institutional frameworks governing risk prevention and mitigation. The case study will be used to identify examples of successful practice taking into account their specific country contexts, and analyse their potential for policy transfer.

  15. Effects of vegetation, corridor width and regional land use on early successional birds on powerline corridors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Askins

    Full Text Available Powerline rights-of-way (ROWs often provide habitat for early successional bird species that have suffered long-term population declines in eastern North America. To determine how the abundance of shrubland birds varies with habitat within ROW corridors and with land use patterns surrounding corridors, we ran Poisson regression models on data from 93 plots on ROWs and compared regression coefficients. We also determined nest success rates on a 1-km stretch of ROW. Seven species of shrubland birds were common in powerline corridors. However, the nest success rates for prairie warbler (Dendroica discolor and field sparrow (Spizella pusilla were <21%, which is too low to compensate for estimated annual mortality. Some shrubland bird species were more abundant on narrower ROWs or at sites with lower vegetation or particular types of vegetation, indicating that vegetation management could be refined to favor species of high conservation priority. Also, several species were more abundant in ROWs traversing unfragmented forest than those near residential areas or farmland, indicating that corridors in heavily forested regions may provide better habitat for these species. In the area where we monitored nests, brood parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater occurred more frequently close to a residential area. Although ROWs support dense populations of shrubland birds, those in more heavily developed landscapes may constitute sink habitat. ROWs in extensive forests may contribute more to sustaining populations of early successional birds, and thus may be the best targets for habitat management.

  16. Dynamics of Star Polymers in Fast Extensional Flow and Stress Relaxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Qian; Agostini, Serena; Hengeller, Ludovica;

    2016-01-01

    We confirm the observation from Ianniruberto and Marrucci [ Macromolecules 2013, 46, 267-275 ] that entangled melts of branched polystyrenes behave like linear polystyrenes in the steady state of fast extensional flow, by measuring a linear, an asymmetric star, and a symmetric star polystyrene...... with the same span molecular weight (180 kg/mol). We show that all three melts reach the same extensional steady-state viscosity in fast extensional flow (faster than the inverse Rouse time). We further measure stress relaxation following steady extensional flow for the three melts. We show that initially...

  17. Maputo development corridor: Evaluation of first phase

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schutte, IC

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available undertaken within the southern African region since 1995, following the peace agreement in Mozambique and the first non-racial elections in South Africa in 1994. Coming at a time of substantial political change and growing co-operation within the region... and proximity to the corridor. As regards the Mozambican section of the MDC, the 1996/97 official unemployment rate (formal wage-earning employment) was estimated at around 69 per cent. This figure is almost equivalent to the total number of people added...

  18. Evaluating landscape options for corridor restoration between giant panda reserves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    Full Text Available The establishment of corridors can offset the negative effects of habitat fragmentation by connecting isolated habitat patches. However, the practical value of corridor planning is minimal if corridor identification is not based on reliable quantitative information about species-environment relationships. An example of this need for quantitative information is planning for giant panda conservation. Although the species has been the focus of intense conservation efforts for decades, most corridor projects remain hypothetical due to the lack of reliable quantitative researches at an appropriate spatial scale. In this paper, we evaluated a framework for giant panda forest corridor planning. We linked our field survey data with satellite imagery, and conducted species occupancy modelling to examine the habitat use of giant panda within the potential corridor area. We then conducted least-cost and circuit models to identify potential paths of dispersal across the landscape, and compared the predicted cost under current conditions and alternative conservation management options considered during corridor planning. We found that due to giant panda's association with areas of low elevation and flat terrain, human infrastructures in the same area have resulted in corridor fragmentation. We then identified areas with high potential to function as movement corridors, and our analysis of alternative conservation scenarios showed that both forest/bamboo restoration and automobile tunnel construction would significantly improve the effectiveness of corridor, while residence relocation would not significantly improve corridor effectiveness in comparison with the current condition. The framework has general value in any conservation activities that anticipate improving habitat connectivity in human modified landscapes. Specifically, our study suggested that, in this landscape, automobile tunnels are the best means to remove current barriers to giant panda

  19. Evaluating landscape options for corridor restoration between giant panda reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; McShea, William J; Wang, Dajun; Li, Sheng; Zhao, Qing; Wang, Hao; Lu, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of corridors can offset the negative effects of habitat fragmentation by connecting isolated habitat patches. However, the practical value of corridor planning is minimal if corridor identification is not based on reliable quantitative information about species-environment relationships. An example of this need for quantitative information is planning for giant panda conservation. Although the species has been the focus of intense conservation efforts for decades, most corridor projects remain hypothetical due to the lack of reliable quantitative researches at an appropriate spatial scale. In this paper, we evaluated a framework for giant panda forest corridor planning. We linked our field survey data with satellite imagery, and conducted species occupancy modelling to examine the habitat use of giant panda within the potential corridor area. We then conducted least-cost and circuit models to identify potential paths of dispersal across the landscape, and compared the predicted cost under current conditions and alternative conservation management options considered during corridor planning. We found that due to giant panda's association with areas of low elevation and flat terrain, human infrastructures in the same area have resulted in corridor fragmentation. We then identified areas with high potential to function as movement corridors, and our analysis of alternative conservation scenarios showed that both forest/bamboo restoration and automobile tunnel construction would significantly improve the effectiveness of corridor, while residence relocation would not significantly improve corridor effectiveness in comparison with the current condition. The framework has general value in any conservation activities that anticipate improving habitat connectivity in human modified landscapes. Specifically, our study suggested that, in this landscape, automobile tunnels are the best means to remove current barriers to giant panda movements caused by

  20. Small mammal populations in a restored stream corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.

    2000-03-13

    An opportunity to study the response of a small mammal community to restoration of a riparian wetland was provided by the Pen Branch project at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Live trapping of small mammals was conducted on six transects at Pen Branch in 1996 and 1998 and at three transects at Meyer's Branch, an unimpacted stream at SRS, in 1997 and 1998. Distributions of rates of capture of the four most common species were both spatially and temporally uneven. Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance found no significant differences in the relationship of capture rates between species and between treatment and both the within-stream control and Meyers Branch. Habitat use and movement within stream corridors appears to be dependent primarily on species, with age and sex perhaps contributing to preference and distance moved. The lack of differences in capture rates related to transect or treatment may be due to the close proximity of sample transects relative to the movement potential of the species sampled.

  1. Variations in fault-slip data and cooling history reveal corridor of heterogeneous backarc extension in the eastern Aegean Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Uwe; Gessner, Klaus; Thomson, Stuart

    2017-03-01

    We report fault-slip data across the boundary between the highly extended and largely submerged crust underlying the Aegean Sea from Samos in the north to eastern Crete in the south, and the much less extended and emergent crust of western Anatolia. We identify three brittle deformation increments, a late Miocene (mainly Pliocene) to Recent crustal stretching increment, an intermittent early to late Miocene shortening increment concurrent with extension and magmatism, and a Miocene extensional event. The youngest increment documents late Miocene to Recent NNE extension over large areas, but can locally also be oriented SE (Amorgos and Astipalea Islands), and ESE (eastern Crete) suggesting overall oblate strain geometry. The intermittent Miocene ( 24-5 Ma) fault-slip records suggest overall prolate strain geometry, where NNE stretching is accompanied by E-W shortening. The older extension event is mainly NNE directed but on Samos Island extension is E-W, probably reflecting local extension in a sinistral wrench corridor in the early/mid Miocene. Overall it seems that since the early Miocene NNE-trending extension is the dominant regime in the eastern Aegean with an intermittent component of short-lived E-W shortening. The existence of a corridor of heterogeneous crustal deformation - which is spatially associated with uncharacteristically old fission track ages - and the apparent change in strain geometry in time challenge concepts that propose that the eastern Aegean Sea and western Anatolia have been deformed as a continuous tectonic domain since the Miocene. We propose that the regional variation in extensional strain geometry resulted from a sinistral wrench component that was superimposed on the regional 'background' NNE extension by translation across a diffuse plate boundary. We conclude that the eastern shoreline of the Aegean Sea is controlled by a Miocene to Recent sinistral wrench corridor that accommodated movement between different lithospheric domains.

  2. Palaeohydrological corridors for hominin dispersals in the Middle East ∼250-70,000 years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, Paul S.; Groucutt, Huw S.; Drake, Nick A.; White, Tom S.; Jennings, Richard P.; Petraglia, Michael D.

    2016-07-01

    The timing and extent of palaeoenvironmental connections between northeast Africa, the Levant and the Arabian Peninsula during the Middle and Late Pleistocene are critical to debates surrounding dispersals of hominins, including movements of Homo sapiens out of Africa. Although there is evidence that synchronous episodes of climatic amelioration during the late Middle and Late Pleistocene may have allowed connections to form between northern Africa and western Asia, a number of palaeoclimate models indicate the continued existence of an arid barrier between northern Arabia and the Levant. Here we evaluate the palaeoenvironmental setting for hominin dispersals between, and within, northeast Africa and southwest Asia during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 7-5 using reconstructions of surface freshwater availability as an environmental proxy. We use remotely sensed data to map palaeohydrological features (lakes, wetlands and rivers) across the presently hyper-arid areas of northern Arabia and surrounding regions, integrating these results with palaeoclimate models, palaeoenvironmental proxy data and absolute dating to determine when these features were active. Our analyses suggest limited potential for dispersals during MIS 7 and 6, but indicate the formation of a palaeohydrological corridor (the 'Tabuk Corridor') between the Levant and the Arabian interior during the MIS 6-5e glacial-interglacial transition and during MIS 5e. A recurrence of this corridor, following a slightly different route, also occurred during MIS 5a. These palaeohydrological and terrestrial data can be used to establish when proposed routes for hominin dispersals became viable. Furthermore, the distribution of Arabian archaeological sites with affinities to Levantine assemblages, some of which are associated with Homo sapiens fossils, and the relative density of Middle Palaeolithic assemblages within the Tabuk Corridor, are consistent with it being utilised for dispersals at various times.

  3. Attractive Mobile Corridors - The Power of Light Rail Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette; Lassen, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Light rail is a popular tool in urban development strategies in many European cities. One argument for choosing a rail-based solution is that it signals stability to investors and will attract development and investments in the corridor. The choice of corridor in the various light rail cities...

  4. Planning of transport corridors by use of GIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronbak, Jacob; Moshøj, Claus Rehfeld; Grevy, Bo

    1998-01-01

    The paper adresses principles for the application of geographical information systems (GIS) as a tool in the planning of transport corridors. Specifically, the paper describes the COPE (corridor planning and evaluation) model that has been developed within the EU 4th FP Strategic Transport projects...

  5. HISTORICAL DESERTIFICATION PROCESS IN HEXI CORRIDOR, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Nai-ang; ZHANG Chun-hui; LI Gang; CHENG Hong-yi

    2005-01-01

    Over the last 2000 years, approximately 38 ancient cities were abandoned through desertification in Hexi Corridor, Northwest China. Among them, 21.05% were abandonedduring the Northern and Southern Dynasties, 21.05% during the end of the Tang Dynasty andthe Five Dynasties, and 57.9% during the Ming and Qing dynas ties. At the same time, main lakes were shrinking rapidly from the 5th Century to the 6th Century and the end of the Qing Dynasty. The climate in these periods was relatively arid and cold with frequent dusts. The phase of these changes indicated that there were three periods of desertification enlargement in the northern China. They were Northern and Southern Dynasties, the end of Tang Dynasty and Five Dynasties, the Ming and Qing dynasties. The macro-process of desertification in the study area was controlled mainly by the climatic changes. But from the facts that the population density in the middle of Qing Dynasty had exceeded the critical index of population pressure in arid area and the usage rate of water resources had exceeded 40% in Hexi Corridor, this paper also suggests that human activities have played an important role in desertification processes of the study area mainly during the recent 300 years.

  6. How to measure capabilities within corridors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas MACOUN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional methods of measuring the capacities of infrastructures are usually based on indicators like passenger car units (PCU. It is quite clear that these methods of capacity evaluation (categories of roads, calculation procedures, capacity limits, e.g. defined in the HCM – Highway Capacity Manual cannot be used to picture the intermodality of the traffic system. The first step has to include the intermodality (modal split in the cross section of a road (pedestrians, bicycles, public transport, private vehicles, and in a further step it is necessary to account for all alternatives within the corridor, like parallel routed railways or public transport lines, to reach an intermodal point of view. Finally it is also necessary to include the effects on the settlement structure. Beside intermodality, any new method also has to consider cost effectiveness, a comprehensive consideration of feedbacks in the traffic system, as well as compatibility to CBA. As a result it is necessary to find new indicators (instead of car units to define passenger and freight flows. There are guidelines in progress auditing transport operations and infrastructure conditions of roadways. A revision of these guidelines aims to integrate different modes of transport by changing the key-indicators (e.g. incline, curviness, roadway width, capacity utilisation and to use a system approach which includes indicators like modal split, car occupancy or utilised capacity of lorries. The procedure presented in this paper can be seen as one building block to meet the demands of future assessments within corridors.

  7. An experimental test of whether habitat corridors affect pollen transfer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, Patricia A.; Levey, Douglas J.

    2005-02-01

    Abstract. Negative effects of habitat fragmentation are thought to be diminished when habitat patches are joined by a corridor. A key assumption is that corridors facilitate exchange rates of organisms between otherwise isolated patches. If the organisms are pollinators, corridors may be important for maintaining genetically viable populations of the plants that they pollinate. We tested the hypothesis that corridors increase the movement of insect pollinators into patches of habitat and thereby increase pollen transfer for two species of plants, one pollinated by butterflies (Lantana camara) and the other by bees and wasps (Rudbeckia hirta). We worked in an experimental landscape consisting of 40 greater than or equal to 1-ha patches of early-successional habitat in a matrix of forest. Within each of eight experimental units, two patches were connected by a corridor (150 X 25 m), and three were not. Patch shape varied to control for the area added by the presence of a corridor. Differences in patch shape also allowed us to test alternative hypotheses of how corridors might function. The Traditional Corridor Hypothesis posits that corridors increase immigration and emigration by functioning as movement conduits between patches. The Drift Fence Hypothesis posits that corridors function by ‘‘capturing’’ organisms dispersing through the matrix, redirecting them into associated habitat patches. Using fluorescent powder to track pollen, we found that pollen transfer by butterflies between patches connected by a corridor was significantly higher than between unconnected patches (all values mean plus or minus 1 SE: 59% plus or minus 9.2% vs. 25% plus or minus 5.2% of flowers receiving pollen). Likewise, pollen transfer by bees and wasps was significantly higher between connected patches than between unconnected patches (30% plus or minus 4.2% vs. 14.5% plus or minus 2.2%). These results support the Traditional Corridor Hypothesis. There was little support, however

  8. The actual relevance of ecological corridors in nature conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćurčić Nina B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers theoretical and applied foundations of the concept of the ecological corridors in nature conservation. Their relevance comes from recent ecological phenomenon of habitat fragmentation which is rapidly increasing during last decades. Habitat fragmentation is one of the main threats to richness and diversity of wildlife. Ecological corridors can mitigate the loss and fragmentation of habitat. Corridors perform as “bridges” between habitats for species and they provide a flow of the natural or even anthropogenic caused disturbances. In this paper we will present the meaning and significance of ecological corridors in nature conservation, as well as types of ecological corridors and their ecological benefits. Methodological and practical approaches in nature protection system in Serbia are included. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47007 i br. 176008

  9. Extensional unroofing of the Veliki Jastrebac dome (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marović Milun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the basic structural elements of the dome of Veliki Jastrebac, as well as the chronology and mechanisms of the deformational events responsible for its formation. It was determined that the dome of Veliki Jastrebac consists of two large sequences which are, in the vertical section, in the inverse position. The lower part is made of Late Cretaceous and Cretaceous-Palaeogene low-grade to medium-grade metamorphic rocks, which are intruded by Paleogene granitoid (probably the Vardar Zone, which are covered with a large overthrust consisting metamorphics of the Serbian-Macedonian Mass. The low-grade to medium-grade metamorphosed complex of Veliki Jastrebac, with the granitoid, represents a metamorphic core complex, exhumed by mechanisms of extensional tectonics in the Paleogene.

  10. Modifying the pom-pom model for extensional viscosity overshoots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawke, L. D. G.; Huang, Qian; Hassager, Ole;

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a variant of the pom-pom model that qualitatively describes two surprising features recently observed in filament stretching rheometer experiments of uniaxial extensional flow of industrial branched polymer resins: (i) Overshoots of the transient stress during steady flow and (ii......) strongly accelerated stress relaxation upon cessation of the flow beyond the overshoot. Within the context of our model, these overshoots originate from entanglement stripping (ES) during the processes of normal chain retraction and branch point withdrawal. We demonstrate that, for a single mode...... a reasonable, but not perfect, fit to the data. With regard the stress relaxation after (kinematically) steady flow, we demonstrate that the differential version of tube orientation dynamics in the original pom-pom model performs anomalously. We discuss the reasons for this and suggest a suitable alternative....

  11. Microfluidic converging/diverging channels optimised for homogeneous extensional deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zografos, K.; Oliveira, M. S. N.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we optimise microfluidic converging/diverging geometries in order to produce constant strain-rates along the centreline of the flow, for performing studies under homogeneous extension. The design is examined for both two-dimensional and three-dimensional flows where the effects of aspect ratio and dimensionless contraction length are investigated. Initially, pressure driven flows of Newtonian fluids under creeping flow conditions are considered, which is a reasonable approximation in microfluidics, and the limits of the applicability of the design in terms of Reynolds numbers are investigated. The optimised geometry is then used for studying the flow of viscoelastic fluids and the practical limitations in terms of Weissenberg number are reported. Furthermore, the optimisation strategy is also applied for electro-osmotic driven flows, where the development of a plug-like velocity profile allows for a wider region of homogeneous extensional deformation in the flow field. PMID:27478523

  12. Shear and Extensional Rheology of Polystyrene Melts and Solutions with the Same Number of Entanglements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costanzo, Salvatore; Huang, Qian; Ianniruberto, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the nonlinear shear and uniaxial extensional rheology of entangled polystyrene (PS) melts and solutions having the same number Z of entanglements, hence identical linear viscoelasticity. While experiments in extensional flows confirm that PS melts and solutions with the same Z behave...

  13. Sandbox Modeling of the Fault-increment Pattern in Extensional Basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geng Changbo; Tong Hengmao; He Yudan; Wei Chunguang

    2007-01-01

    Three series of sandbox modeling experiments were performed to study the fault-increment pattern in extensional basins.Experimental results showed that the tectonic action mode of boundaries and the shape of major boundary faults control the formation and evolution of faults in extensional basins.In the process of extensional deformation,the increase in the number and length of faults was episodic,and every 'episode' experienced three periods,strain-accumulation period,quick fault-increment period and strain-adjustment period.The more complex the shape of the boundary fault,the higher the strain increment each 'episode' experienced.Different extensional modes resulted in different fault-increment patterns.The horizontal detachment extensional mode has the 'linear' style of fault-increment pattern,while the extensional mode controlled by a listric fault has the 'stepwise' style of fault-increment pattern,and the extensional mode controlled by a ramp-flat boundary fault has the 'stepwise-linear' style of fault-increment pattern.These fault-increment patterns given above could provide a theoretical method of fault interpretation and fracture prediction in extensional basins.

  14. National Borders and Transport corridors in Europe: Evidence of linkages in the Dublin-Belfast corridor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrov, Laura Oana; Williams, Brendan; Shahumyan, Harutyun;

    2012-01-01

    . The growth of urban areas is associated with acces-sibility to transportation routes, and has become the most important factor in landscape and land use change throughout Europe. Apart from providing links between cities, transport corridors are also exten-sions of cities' functionality which allow...... Member States (MS) where a new phase of urbanization is un-derway, dramatically changing land use patterns. The aim of the present work is to reflect on the European perspective concerning spatial development strategies, particularly cross-border transport corridors; to assess the role......Europe’s urban life focuses around a major network of cities, which exchange population, goods, and services of every kind both within regions and across borders. By their very nature, urban questions thus have a transnational dimension, and constitute a fruitful area of Euro-pean cooperation...

  15. Extensional Relaxation Times and Pinch-off Dynamics of Dilute Polymer Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinic, Jelena; Zhang, Yiran; Jimenez, Leidy; Sharma, Vivek

    2015-11-01

    We show that visualization and analysis of capillary-driven thinning and pinch-off dynamics of the columnar neck in an asymmetric liquid bridge created by dripping-onto-substrate can be used for characterizing the extensional rheology of complex fluids. Using a particular example of dilute, aqueous PEO solutions, we show the measurement of both the extensional relaxation time and extensional viscosity of weakly elastic, polymeric complex fluids with low shear viscosity ηsessile drop to a nozzle is detected optically, and the extensional response for viscoelastic fluids is characterized by analyzing their elastocapillary self-thinning, we refer to this technique as optically-detected elastocapillary self-thinning dripping-onto-substrate (ODES-DOS) extensional rheometry.

  16. Western Energy Corridor -- Energy Resource Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie Roberts; Michael Hagood

    2011-06-01

    The world is facing significant growth in energy demand over the next several decades. Strategic in meeting this demand are the world-class energy resources concentrated along the Rocky Mountains and northern plains in Canada and the U.S., informally referred to as the Western Energy Corridor (WEC). The fossil energy resources in this region are rivaled only in a very few places in the world, and the proven uranium reserves are among the world's largest. Also concentrated in this region are renewable resources contributing to wind power, hydro power, bioenergy, geothermal energy, and solar energy. Substantial existing and planned energy infrastructure, including refineries, pipelines, electrical transmission lines, and rail lines provide access to these resources.

  17. Requirements Definition for ORNL Trusted Corridors Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Randy M [ORNL; Hill, David E [ORNL; Smith, Cyrus M [ORNL; DeNap, Frank A [ORNL; White, James D [ORNL; Gross, Ian G [ORNL; Gorman, Bryan L [ORNL; Hively, Lee M [ORNL; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL

    2008-02-01

    The ORNL Trusted Corridors Project has several other names: SensorNet Transportation Pilot; Identification and Monitoring of Radiation (in commerce) Shipments (IMR(ic)S); and Southeastern Transportation Corridor Pilot (SETCP). The project involves acquisition and analysis of transportation data at two mobile and three fixed inspection stations in five states (Kentucky, Mississippi, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Washington DC). Collaborators include the State Police organizations that are responsible for highway safety, law enforcement, and incident response. The three states with fixed weigh-station deployments (KY, SC, TN) are interested in coordination of this effort for highway safety, law enforcement, and sorting/targeting/interdiction of potentially non-compliant vehicles/persons/cargo. The Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) in the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is interested in these deployments, as a Pilot test (SETCP) to identify Improvised Nuclear Devices (INDs) in highway transport. However, the level of DNDO integration among these state deployments is presently uncertain. Moreover, DHS issues are considered secondary by the states, which perceive this work as an opportunity to leverage these (new) dual-use technologies for state needs. In addition, present experience shows that radiation detectors alone cannot detect DHS-identified IND threats. Continued SETCP success depends on the level of integration of current state/local police operations with the new DHS task of detecting IND threats, in addition to emergency preparedness and homeland security. This document describes the enabling components for continued SETCP development and success, including: sensors and their use at existing deployments (Section 1); personnel training (Section 2); concept of operations (Section 3); knowledge discovery from the copious data (Section 4); smart data collection, integration and database development, advanced algorithms for multiple sensors, and

  18. Corridors and some ecological and evolutionary consequences of connectivity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrock, John L

    2004-07-01

    Abstract - By connecting disjunct patches, corridors may offset the effects of fragmentation by promoting gene flow and population persistence. However, the ultimate effect of corridors on a focal species may hinge upon two considerations: how corridors may affect ecological interactions that impinge upon that species, and how corridors might affect the fixation of novel alleles that ultimately determine fitness and persistence. Using an experimental landscape, I show that corridor-mediated changes in patch shape change seed predation in connected and unconnected patches, and shift the behavior, abundance, and distribution of seed predators. Rodent seed predators removed more seeds in connected patches, arthropod seed predators removed more seeds in rectangular patches, and avian seed predation did not differ due to patch type. Rodent foraging was greater in the interior of connected patches because changes in patch shape influenced risk perceived by rodents while foraging. Ant communities were also affected by changes in patch shape caused by corridors, rather than corridor effects per se. The distribution and abundance of ants differed among edge-rich areas (corridors and wings), edges, and the patch interior. In rectangular patches, fire ants (Solenopsis spp.) had negative impacts on other ant species. By changing the activity of rodents, and the composition of ant communities, corridors may have important impacts on seeds. Bird-dispersed seeds may benefit from increased dispersal among connected patches, but connected patches also have greater predation risk. Using a simulation model, I demonstrate that gene flow between a stable population and a population that experiences local extinction or a reduction in size (e.g. due to natural or anthropogenic disturbance) can dramatically affect fixation of alleles in the stable population. Alone or in concert, frequent disturbance, high rates of movement, and low habitat quality make it more likely that connectivity

  19. THE BALANCE BETWEEN SUPPLY AND DEMAND OF WATER RESOURCES AND THE WATER-SAVING POTENTIAL FOR AGRICULTURE IN THE HEXI CORRIDOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Hexi Corridor is an important base of agriculture development in Northwest China. According to re-cent statistics, there are 65.94 × 108m3 of water resources available in the Hexi Corridor. At present, net consumption indevelopment and utilization is 43.33 x 108m3. Water supply and demand reach a balance on the recent level of produc-tion, but loss of evaporation and evapotranspiration is as much as 25.69 × 108m3. So net use efficiency of water resourcesis 59%. Based on analyzing balance between water and land considering ecological environment at present, there existsthe serious water shortage in the Shiyang River system where irrigation lands have overloaded. There is a comparative bal-ance between supply and demand of water resource in the Heihe River system; and the Sule River system has some sur-plus water to extend irrigation land. Use of agriculture water accounts for 83.3% and ecological forest and grass for6. 9%. The Hexi Corridor still has a great potential for water saving in agriculture production. Water-saving efficiency ofirrigation is about 10% by using such traditional technologies as furrow and border-dike irrigation and small check irriga-tion, and water-saving with plastic film cover and techniques of advanced sprinkler and drip/micro irrigation etc. cansave more than 60% of irrigated water. Incremental irrigation area for water-saving potential in the Hexi Corridor hasbeen estimated as 56% - 197% to original irrigation area. So the second water sources can be developed from water sav-ing agriculture in the Hexi Corridor under Development of the Western Part of China in large scale. This potential can berealized step by step through developing the water-saving measures, improving the ecological condition of oasis agricul-ture, and optimizing allocation of water resources in three river systems.

  20. Hydrodynamic extensional stress during the bubble bursting process for bioreactor system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thanh Tinh; Lee, Eun Gyo; Lee, In Su; Woo, Nam Sub; Han, Sang Mok; Kim, Young Ju; Hwang, Wook Ryol

    2016-11-01

    Cell damage, one of critical issues in the bioreactor design for animal cell culture, is caused mainly from the bubble bursting at the free surface subjected to strong extensional flows. In this work, extensive computational studies are performed to investigate bubble bursting process in great details. Extensive numerical simulations are performed for a wide range of bubble diameters (from 0.5 to 6 mm) and the surface tension values (from 0.03 to 0.072 N/m), with which effects of the bubble size and surfactant (PF68) concentration on the hydrodynamic stress are investigated. For all the cases, the maximum extensional stress appears at the instance when receding films impact each other at the bottom of the bubble. A model equation based on numerical simulations is presented to predict the maximum extensional stress as a function of the bubble diameter and the surface tension. The bubble diameter has turned out to contribute significantly the maximum hydrodynamic extensional stress. In addition, the bubble collapsed time and the affected volume around a bubble subjected to the critical extensional stress are investigated. The extensional stress estimation is reported as a function of the bubble size and the surface tension. The influence of the bubble size on the maximum stress dominates and extensional stress reaches up to the order of 104 Pa for bubble size of 0.5 mm.

  1. Smallholder farms as stepping stone corridors for crop-raiding elephant in northern Tanzania: integration of Bayesian expert system and network simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittiglio, Claudia; Skidmore, Andrew K; van Gils, Hein A M J; McCall, Michael K; Prins, Herbert H T

    2014-03-01

    Crop-raiding elephants affect local livelihoods, undermining conservation efforts. Yet, crop-raiding patterns are poorly understood, making prediction and protection difficult. We hypothesized that raiding elephants use corridors between daytime refuges and farmland. Elephant counts, crop-raiding records, household surveys, Bayesian expert system, and least-cost path simulation were used to predict four alternative categories of daily corridors: (1) footpaths, (2) dry river beds, (3) stepping stones along scattered small farms, and (4) trajectories of shortest distance to refuges. The corridor alignments were compared in terms of their minimum cumulative resistance to elephant movement and related to crop-raiding zones quantified by a kernel density function. The "stepping stone" corridors predicted the crop-raiding patterns. Elephant presence was confirmed along these corridors, demonstrating that small farms located between refuges and contiguous farmland increase habitat connectivity for elephant. Our analysis successfully predicted elephant occurrence in farmland where daytime counts failed to detect nocturnal presence. These results have conservation management implications.

  2. 76 FR 13171 - Leaf River Energy Center LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... certificate of public convenience and necessity issued in Docket No. CP08-8-000 to authorize Leaf River to... associated cavern piping corridors, access roads and related facilities, all as more fully detailed in...

  3. Comparative use of riparian corridors and oases by migrating birds in southeast Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagen, S.K.; Melcher, C.P.; Howe, W.H.; Knopf, F.L.

    1998-01-01

    The relative importance of cottonwood-willow riparian corridors and isolated oases to land birds migrating across southeastern Arizona was evaluated during four spring migrations, 1989 to 1994, based on patterns of species richness, relative abundance, density, and body condition of birds. We surveyed birds in 13 study sites ranging in size and connectivity from small isolated patches to extensive riparian forest, sampled vegetation and insects, and captured birds in mistnets. The continuous band of riparian vegetation along the San Pedro River does not appear to be functioning as a corridor for many migrating species, although it may for a few, namely Yellow-breasted Chats (Icteria virens), Summer Tanagers (Piranga rubra), and Northern Rough-winged Swallows (Steldigopteryx serripennis), which account for fewer than 10% of the individuals migrating through the area. Small, isolated oases hosted more avian species than the corridor sites, and the relative abundances of most migrating birds did not differ between sites relative to size-connectivity. There were few differences in between-year variability in the relative abundances of migrating birds between corridor and oasis sites. Between-year variability decreased with overall abundance of species and was greater for species with breeding ranges that centered north of 50??N latitude. Body condition of birds did not differ relative to the size-connectivity of the capture site, but individuals of species with more northerly breeding ranges had more body fat than species that breed nearby. Peak migration densities of several bird species far exceeded breeding densities reported for the San Pedro River, suggesting that large components of these species were en route migrants. Peak densities of Yellow Warblers (Dendroica petechia) reached 48.0 birds/ha, of Wilson's Warblers (Wilsonia pusilla) 33.7 birds/ha, and of Yellow-rumped Warblers (D. coronata) 30.1 birds/ha. Riparian vegetation is limited in extent in the

  4. 76 FR 65561 - Multistate Corridor Operations and Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... Federal Highway Administration Multistate Corridor Operations and Management Program AGENCY: Federal... Operations and Management (MCOM) Program authorized by the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient... transportation challenges facing the efficient and effective operation and management of...

  5. Maximum currents in the Northeast Corridor Reserve during November 2013.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2D numerical model, CMS-Flow, was implemented for the Northeast Corridor Reserve (NECR) using a telescoping grid. Tide and wind forcing was provided to the model...

  6. Conservation Lands and Preserves, Private - Volusia County Conservation Corridor

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Volusia Conservation Corridor (VCC) is a mosaic of contiguous parcels of land, approximately 55,000 acres in size, which sits essentially in the middle of the...

  7. 46 CFR 393.3 - Marine Highway Corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., landside infrastructure maintenance savings, improved safety, and added system resiliency. Additional... and performance. (3) Involved Parties. Provide the organizational structure of the parties... infrastructure maintenance costs, safety and system resiliency. Specify if the Marine Highway Corridor represents...

  8. Conservation Lands and Preserves, Private - Volusia County Conservation Corridor

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — The Volusia Conservation Corridor (VCC) is a mosaic of contiguous parcels of land, approximately 55,000 acres in size, which sits essentially in the middle of the...

  9. 76 FR 3695 - Environmental Impact Statement: Interstate 64 Corridor, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Interstate 64 Corridor, Virginia AGENCY... Administration is issuing this notice to advise the public of its intent to prepare an Environmental Impact..., Senior Environmental Specialist, Federal Highway Administration, Post Office Box 10249, Richmond...

  10. Student housing unit in a floor area without corridors

    OpenAIRE

    Cekić Nikola; Vasov Miomir; Bjelić Igor

    2013-01-01

    This paper treats the issues of position and urbarchitectonic-functional organization of a housing unit in a floor area without corridors in a student hostel. The authors advocate a new, more rational and functional concept in which the student room is not in direct contact with the corridor communication, but belongs to the housing unit, student apartment for 4-6 users. In a more rational organized volume, the living of the students is more comfortable and has a different character. Th...

  11. Road and Street Centerlines, h143 corridor - Hwy 143 corridor, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'h143 corridor - Hwy 143 corridor'. The...

  12. Dumbbell formation for elastic capsules in nonlinear extensional Stokes flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakopoulos, P.

    2017-06-01

    Cross-slot and four-roll-mill microdevices are commonly used for particle manipulation and characterization owing to the stagnation-point flow at the device center. Because of the solid boundaries, these devices may generate extensional Stokes flows where the velocity is a nonlinear function of position associated with a decreased pressure at the particle edges and an increased pressure at the particle middle. Our computational investigation shows that in this class of Stokes flows, an elastic capsule made of a strain-hardening membrane develops two distinct steady-state conformations at strong flows, i.e., an elongated weak dumbbell shape with rounded edges at low flow nonlinearity and a laterally extended dumbbell shape at high flow nonlinearity. These effects are more pronounced for the less strain-hardening capsules which develop a flat extended middle where the two sides of the membrane approach each other. The strong stability properties of the strain-hardening capsules (owing to the development of strong membrane tensions) contrast significantly with the behavior of droplets in these nonlinear flows which are unable to achieve highly deformed steady-state dumbbell shapes owing to their constant surface tension.

  13. Extensional Tectonic Regime of Garut Basin based on Magnetotelluric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Handayani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i3.162Garut Basin are is part of Bandung-Garut Greater Basin (Bandung Zone characterized by a large basin surrounded by mountain ranges. Active volcanoes had distributed their material as pyroclastic deposits around the outer border of the zone and as lava flow deposit separating the two basins. Bouguer gravity anomaly data had also indicated the presence of several low anomaly closures at about the area of Bandung and Garut Basins that were surrounded by high gravity anomaly zones. Two magnetotelluric surveys were completed to acquire the subsurface model that might explain the tectonic evolution of studied area. The first stage was characterized sby the presence of horst - graben structures that might imply an extensional regime of the area. The next stage of evolutionwas indicated by the horizontal layering correlated to the relative non-active tectonic. In addition, a most recent structure that appeared near the surface might suggest a possible extension force as the current stage.

  14. Peeling flexible beams in viscous fluids: Rigidity and extensional compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhong, Charles; Fréchette, Joëlle

    2017-01-01

    We describe small angle peeling measurements in completely submerged environments to study the coupling between viscous forces and the mechanical properties of the plates being peeled. During the experiments, the plates resist motion because of lubrication forces while van der Waals forces between the plates and the static surface are negligible. In particular, we study the role played by flexural rigidity in the force-displacement curves and in the energy release rate. We show that the coupling between the viscous forces and the flexural rigidity of the plates dictates the shape and magnitude of the force-displacement curves. We develop simple scaling relationships that combine the lubrication forces with an Euler-Bernoulli beam to extract how the peak force and energy release rates depend on the ratio between rigidity and viscosity, and show good agreement between the predictions and experimental results. We also show that increasing the extensional compliance leads to a decrease in both the force-displacement curve and in the energy release rate. We then demonstrate that this reduction can be interpreted in terms of a stress decay length.

  15. An evaluation of the evolution of the latest miocene to earliest pliocene bouse lake system in the lower Colorado river valley, southwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, J.E.; Pearthree, P.A.; House, P.K.

    2008-01-01

    The upper Miocene to lower Pliocene Bouse Formation in the lower Colorado River trough of the American Southwest was deposited in three basins - from north to south, the Mohave, Havasu, and Blythe Basins - that were formed by extensional fault ing in the early to middle Miocene. Fossils of marine, brackish, and freshwater organ isms in the Bouse Formation have been interpreted to indicate an estuarine environment associated with early opening of the nearby Gulf of California. Regional uplift since 5 Ma is required to position the estuarine Bouse Formation at present elevations as high as 555 m, where greater uplift is required in the north. We present a compilation of Bouse Formation elevations that is consistent with Bouse deposition in lakes, with an abrupt 225 m northward increase in maximum Bouse elevations at Topock gorge north of Lake Havasu. Within Blythe and Havasu Basins, maximum Bouse elevations are 330 m above sea level in three widely spaced areas and reveal no evidence of regional tilting. To the north in Mohave Basin, numerous Bouse outcrops above 480 m elevation include three widely spaced sites where the Bouse Formation is exposed at 536-555 m. Numerical simulations of initial Colorado River inflow to a sequence of closed basins along the lower Colorado River corridor model a history of lake filling, spilling, evaporation and salt concentration, and outflow-channel incision. The simulations support the plausibility of evaporative concentration of Colorado River water to seawater-level salinities in Blythe Basin and indicate that such salinities could have remained stable for as long as 20-30 k.y. We infer that fossil marine organ isms in the Bouse Formation, restricted to the southern (Blythe) basin, reflect coloniza tion of a salty lake by a small number of species that were transported by birds.

  16. FINAL PROJECT REPORT: A Geophysical Characterization & Monitoring Strategy for Determining Hydrologic Processes in the Hyporheic Corridor at the Hanford 300-Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Slater

    2011-08-15

    The primary objective of this research was to advance the prediction of solute transport between the Uranium contaminated Hanford aquifer and the Columbia River at the Hanford 300 Area by improving understanding of how fluctuations in river stage, combined with subsurface heterogeneity, impart spatiotemporal complexity to solute exchange along the Columbia River corridor. Our work explored the use of continuous waterborne electrical imaging (CWEI), in conjunction with fiber-optic distributed temperature sensor (FO-DTS) and time-lapse resistivity monitoring, to improve the conceptual model for how groundwater/surface water exchange regulates uranium transport. We also investigated how resistivity and induced polarization can be used to generate spatially rich estimates of the variation in depth to the Hanford-Ringold (H-R) contact between the river and the 300 Area Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site. Inversion of the CWEI datasets (a data rich survey containing ~60,000 measurements) provided predictions of the distributions of electrical resistivity and polarizability, from which the spatial complexity of the primary hydrogeologic units along the river corridor was reconstructed. Variation in the depth to the interface between the overlying coarse-grained, high permeability Hanford Formation and the underlying finer-grained, less permeable Ringold Formation, an important contact that limits vertical migration of contaminants, has been resolved along ~3 km of the river corridor centered on the IFRC site in the Hanford 300 Area. Spatial variability in the thickness of the Hanford Formation captured in the CWEI datasets indicates that previous studies based on borehole projections and drive-point and multi-level sampling likely overestimate the contributing area for uranium exchange within the Columbia River at the Hanford 300 Area. Resistivity and induced polarization imaging between the river and the 300 Area IFRC further imaged spatial variability in

  17. Physical-scale models of engineered log jams in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stream restoration and river engineering projects are employing engineered log jams increasingly for stabilization and in-stream improvements. To further advance the design of these structures and their morphodynamic effects on corridors, the basis for physical-scale models of rivers with engineere...

  18. A new look at extensional rheology of low-density polyethylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Qian; Mangnus, Marc; Alvarez, Nicolas J.

    2016-01-01

    The nonlinear rheology of three selected commercial low-density polyethylenes (LDPE) is measured in uniaxial extensional flow. The measurements are performed using three different devices including an extensional viscosity fixture (EVF), a homemade filament stretching rheometer (DTU-FSR) and a co......The nonlinear rheology of three selected commercial low-density polyethylenes (LDPE) is measured in uniaxial extensional flow. The measurements are performed using three different devices including an extensional viscosity fixture (EVF), a homemade filament stretching rheometer (DTU......-FSR) and a commercial filament stretching rheometer (VADER-1000). We show that the measurements from the EVF are limited by a maximum Hencky strain of 4, while the two filament stretching rheometers are able to probe the nonlinear behavior at larger Hencky strain values where the steady state is reached...

  19. Shear History Extensional Rheology Experiment II (SHERE II) Microgravity Rheology with Non-Newtonian Polymeric Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaishankar, Aditya; Haward, Simon; Hall, Nancy Rabel; Magee, Kevin; McKinley, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of SHERE II is to study the effect of torsional preshear on the subsequent extensional behavior of filled viscoelastic suspensions. Microgravity environment eliminates gravitational sagging that makes Earth-based experiments of extensional rheology challenging. Experiments may serve as an idealized model system to study the properties of lunar regolith-polymeric binder based construction materials. Filled polymeric suspensions are ubiquitous in foods, cosmetics, detergents, biomedical materials, etc.

  20. Facies composition and scaling relationships of extensional faults in carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastesen, Eivind; Braathen, Alvar

    2010-05-01

    Fault seal evaluations in carbonates are challenged by limited input data. Our analysis of 100 extensional faults in shallow-buried layered carbonate rocks aims to improve forecasting of fault core characteristics in these rocks. We have analyzed the spatial distribution of fault core elements described using a Fault Facies classification scheme; a method specifically developed for 3D fault description and quantification, with application in reservoir modelling. In modelling, the fault envelope is populated with fault facies originating from the host rock, the properties of which (e.g. dimensions, geometry, internal structure, petrophysical properties, and spatial distribution of structural elements) are defined by outcrop data. Empirical data sets were collected from outcrops of extensional faults in fine grained, micro-porosity carbonates from western Sinai (Egypt), Central Spitsbergen (Arctic Norway), and Central Oman (Adam Foothills) which all have experienced maximum burial of 2-3 kilometres and exhibit displacements ranging from 4 centimetres to 400 meters. Key observations include fault core thickness, intrinsic composition and geometry. The studied fault cores display several distinct fault facies and facies associations. Based on geometry, fault cores can be categorised as distributed or localized. Each can be further sub-divided according to the presence of shale smear, carbonate fault rocks and cement/secondary calcite layers. Fault core thickness in carbonate rocks may be controlled by several mechanisms: (1) Mechanical breakdown: Irregularities such as breached relays and asperities are broken down by progressive faulting and fracturing to eventually form a thicker fault rock layer. (2) Layer shearing: Accumulations of shale smear along the fault core. (3) Diagenesis; pressure solution, karstification and precipitation of secondary calcite in the core. Observed fault core thicknesses scatter over three orders of magnitude, with a D/T range of 1:1 to 1

  1. Corridor X in Serbia: Approach to spatial planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijić Saša

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available For the infrastructural corridor's area, of the national importance, is predicted making spatial plans of area of special use, as the most complex instruments for the developing and arranging management of these areas. These plans should have an integrative and problem-oriented approach towards development planning and arrangement of such an area, and it is obliged to include: a complex evaluation of state and function of infrastructural system in the corridor; an analysis of infrastructural corridor influence on the development of the planning area and its surrounding; an alternative conception of long-term protection, improvement, organization and use of the planning area; a choice of the priorities and assumption of the realization phases; instructions for the implementation of the plan etc. The approach in making of this category of plans, as well as, experiences in planning, arrangement and use of multimodal corridors, have been considered on the example of Spatial plan of the infrastructural corridor E-75 section Belgrade-Nis area.

  2. Use of Individual Flight Corridors to Avoid Vortex Wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossow, Vernon J.

    2001-01-01

    Vortex wakes of aircraft pose a hazard to following aircraft until the energetic parts of their flow fields have decayed to a harmless level. It is suggested here that in-trail spacings between aircraft can be significantly and safely reduced by designing an individual, vortex-free flight corridor for each aircraft. Because each aircraft will then have its own flight corridor, which is free of vortex wakes while in use by the assigned aircraft, the time intervals between aircraft operations can be safely reduced to the order of seconds. The productivity of airports can then be substantially increased. How large the offset distances between operational corridors need to be to have them vortex free, and how airports need to be changed to accommodate an individual flight-corridor process for landing and takeoff operations, are explored. Estimates are then made of the productivity of an individual flight-corridor system as a function of the in-trail time interval between operations for various values of wake decay time, runway width, and the velocity of a sidewind. The results confirm the need for short time intervals between aircraft operations if smaller offset distances and increased productivity are to be achieved.

  3. Relationships among floodplain water levels, instream dissolved oxygen conditions, and streamflow in the Lower Roanoke River, 1997-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The lower Roanoke River corridor in North Carolina contains a floodplain of national significance. Data from a network of 1 streamflow-measurement site, 13...

  4. Attractive Mobile Corridors - The Power of Light Rail Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette; Lassen, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Light rail is a popular tool in urban development strategies in many European cities. One argument for choosing a rail-based solution is that it signals stability to investors and will attract development and investments in the corridor. The choice of corridor in the various light rail cities...... are based on different rationalities: generating urban growth by investments in new housing and businesses, regeneration of urban space, facilitation for a car-free urban lifestyle etc. The main argument of this paper is that light rail corridors are not only providing access, but also gentrifies...... and redistributes urban space. Furthermore light rail is not only a physical infrastructure but also an infrastructure of power that is carefully planned and designed creating both mental and physical patterns of mobilities and immobilities. Hence it is important to underline that mobility systems, such as light...

  5. Effects of landscape corridors on seed dispersal by birds.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levey, Douglas, J.; Bolker, Benjamin M.; Tewksbury, Joshua J.; Sargent, Sarah; Haddad, Nick M.

    2005-07-01

    Levey, Douglas, J., Benjamin M. Bolker, Joshua J. Tewksbury, Sarah Sargent, and Nick M. Haddad. 2005. Effects of landscape corridors on seed dispersal by birds. Science 309:146-148. Abstract: Habitat fragmentation threatens biodiversity by disrupting dispersal. The mechanisms and consequences of this disruption are controversial, primarily because most organisms are difficult to track. We examined the effect of habitat corridors on long-distance dispersal of seeds by birds, and tested whether small-scale (G20 meters) movements of birds could be scaled up to predict dispersal of seeds across hundreds of meters in eight experimentally fragmented landscapes. A simulation model accurately predicted the observed pattern of seed rain and revealed that corridors functioned through edge following behavior of birds. Our study shows how models based on easily observed behaviors can be scaled up to predict landscape-level processes.

  6. FIXED-WING MICRO AERIAL VEHICLE FOR ACCURATE CORRIDOR MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rehak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present a Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV equipped with precise position and attitude sensors that together with a pre-calibrated camera enables accurate corridor mapping. The design of the platform is based on widely available model components to which we integrate an open-source autopilot, customized mass-market camera and navigation sensors. We adapt the concepts of system calibration from larger mapping platforms to MAV and evaluate them practically for their achievable accuracy. We present case studies for accurate mapping without ground control points: first for a block configuration, later for a narrow corridor. We evaluate the mapping accuracy with respect to checkpoints and digital terrain model. We show that while it is possible to achieve pixel (3-5 cm mapping accuracy in both cases, precise aerial position control is sufficient for block configuration, the precise position and attitude control is required for corridor mapping.

  7. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Management Question D1: What is the distribution of movement corridors?

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This map shows least-cost corridors and large natural habitat blocks. These blocks and corridors may provide an essential network for various species to disperse...

  8. TRANSPORT CORRIDOR "URAL INDUSTRIAL – URAL POLAR": PROBLEMS, EVOLUTION PATHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Tabakov

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the theoretic and methodological questions regarding the formation of a transport corridor "Urals industrial – Urals Polar". Analyzed are the main factors that affect the formation of the transport infrastructure. A big effect is centered around the world-view problem, which has to do with the occupation of a human, and the effect of it on nature. Put forth is the possibility to look upon the question of the formation of ma transport corridor "Urals industrial – Urals Polar" in the frame of the forming of the Ural-West-Siberian TPK, taking into account the global transport web.

  9. Deformation and Stress Response of Carbon Nanotubes/UHMWPE Composites under Extensional-Shear Coupling Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junxia; Cao, Changlin; Yu, Dingshan; Chen, Xudong

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the effect of varying extensional-shear couple loading on deformation and stress response of Carbon Nanotubes/ ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (CNTs/UHMWPE) composites was investigated using finite element numerical simulation, with expect to improve the manufacturing process of UHMWPE-based composites with reduced stress and lower distortion. When applying pure extensional loading and pure X-Y shear loading, it was found that the risk of a structural breakage greatly rises. For identifying the coupling between extensional and shear loading, distinct generations of force loading were defined by adjusting the magnitude of extensional loading and X-Y shear loading. It was shown that with the decrement of X-Y shear loading the deformation decreases obviously where the maximal Mises stress in Z-direction at 0.45 m distance is in the range from 24 to 10 MPa and the maximal shear stress at 0.61 m distance is within the range from 0.9 to 0.3 MPa. In addition, all the stresses determined were clearly below the yield strength of CNTs/UHMWPE composites under extensional-shear couple loading.

  10. An ecological basis for future fish habitat restoration efforts in the Huron-Erie Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondorp, Darryl W.; Roseman, Edward F.; Manny, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    This perspective describes the major natural and anthropogenic forces driving change in the abundance and quality of fish habitats in the Huron-Erie Corridor (HEC), the Great Lakes connecting channel comprised of the St. Clair River, the Lake St. Clair, and the Detroit River. Channels connecting the Laurentian Great Lakes discharge large volumes of water equal to or greater than most other large rivers in the world that is of consistent high quality and volume, all year. Owing to creation of the St. Lawrence Seaway through the Great Lakes, the connecting channels have been modified by dredging over 200 km of deep-draft shipping lanes with a maintained depth of no less than 8.2 m. Combined with modification of their shorelines for housing and industries, use of the connecting channels for discharges of industrial and municipal wastes and shipping has resulted in numerous beneficial use impairments, such as restrictions on fish and wildlife consumption, degradation of fish and wildlife populations, and losses of fish and wildlife habitat. Various options for remediation of native fish populations and their habitats in the Great Lakes connecting channels, including construction of spawning habitat for threatened and high-value food fishes, such as lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), walleye (Sander vitreus), and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), have been implemented successfully in two of the channels, and form the basis for further recommended research described in this article.

  11. New Constraints on Extensional Environments through Analysis of Teleseisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilon, Zachary Cohen

    We apply a variety of teleseismic methodologies to investigate the upper mantle structure in extensional environments. Using a body wave dataset collected from a regional deployment in the Woodlark Rift, Papua New Guinea, we image anisotropic velocity structure of a rapidly extending rift on the cusp of continental breakup. In the process, we develop a technique for azimuthal anisotropy tomography that is generally applicable to regions of relatively simple anisotropic structure. The Cascadia Initiative ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) deployment provides coverage of an entire oceanic plate in unprecedented detail; we measure attenuation and velocities of teleseisms to characterize the temperature and melt structure from ridge to trench. Our study of shear wave splitting reveals strong azimuthal anisotropy within the Woodlark Rift with fairly uniform fast directions parallel to extension. This observation differs markedly from other continental rifts and resembles the pattern seen at mid-ocean ridges. This phenomenon is best explained by extension-related strain causing preferential alignment of mantle olivine. We develop a simple relationship that links total extension to predicted splitting, and show that it explains the apparent dichotomy in rifts' anisotropy. Finite frequency tomography using a dataset of teleseismic P- and S-wave differential travel times reveals the upper mantle velocity structure of the Woodlark Rift. A well developed slow rift axis extending >250 km along strike from the adjacent seafloor spreading centers demonstrates the removal of mantle lithosphere prior to complete crustal breakup. We argue that the majority of this rift is melt-poor, in agreement with geochemical results. A large temperature gradient arises from the juxtaposition of upwelled axial asthenosphere with a previously unidentified cold structure north of the rift that hosts well located intermediate depth earthquakes. Localization of upper mantle extension is apparent from

  12. Identifying transit corridors for elephant using a long time-series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pittiglio, C.; Skidmore, A.K.; Gils, van H.A.M.J.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2012-01-01

    The role of corridors in mitigating the effects of landscape fragmentation on biodiversity is controversial. Recent studies have highlighted the need for new approaches in corridor design using long-term datasets. We present a method to identify transit corridors for elephant at a population scale o

  13. Capillary break-up, gelation and extensional rheology of hydrophobically modified cellulose ethers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vivek; Haward, Simon; Pessinet, Olivia; Soderlund, Asa; Threlfall-Holmes, Phil; McKinley, Gareth

    2012-02-01

    Cellulose derivatives containing associating hydrophobic groups along their hydrophilic polysaccharide backbone are used extensively in the formulations for inks, water-borne paints, food, nasal sprays, cosmetics, insecticides, fertilizers and bio-assays to control the rheology and processing behavior of multi-component dispersions. These complex dispersions are processed and used over a broad range of shear and extensional rates. The presence of hydrophobic stickers influences the linear and nonlinear rheology of cellulose ether solutions. In this talk, we systematically contrast the difference in the shear and extensional rheology of a cellulose ether: ethy-hydroxyethyl-cellulose (EHEC) and its hydrophobically-modified analog (HMEHEC) using microfluidic shear rheometry at deformation rates up to 10^6 inverse seconds, cross-slot flow extensional rheometry and capillary break-up during jetting as a rheometric technique. Additionally, we provide a constitutive model based on fractional calculus to describe the physical gelation in HMEHEC solutions.

  14. Corridors of barchan dunes: Stability and size selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hersen, P.; Andersen, Ken Haste; Elbelrhiti, H.;

    2004-01-01

    Barchans are crescentic dunes propagating on a solid ground. They form dune fields in the shape of elongated corridors in which the size and spacing between dunes are rather well selected. We show that even very realistic models for solitary dunes do not reproduce these corridors. Instead, two in...... for these instabilities to develop are derived and discussed. They turn out to be much smaller than the dune field length. As a conclusion, there should exist further, yet unknown, mechanisms regulating and selecting the size of dunes.......Barchans are crescentic dunes propagating on a solid ground. They form dune fields in the shape of elongated corridors in which the size and spacing between dunes are rather well selected. We show that even very realistic models for solitary dunes do not reproduce these corridors. Instead, two...... instabilities take place. First, barchans receive a sand flux at their back proportional to their width while the sand escapes only from their horns. Large dunes proportionally capture more sand than they lose, while the situation is reversed for small ones: therefore, solitary dunes cannot remain in a steady...

  15. Impressions of Serbia: Tourists on cruises along Corridor 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragin Aleksandra S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with cruises along Corridor 7 and the tourist offer of Serbia. The purpose of the paper has been to establish how international tourists see our country during their travels across Serbia on cruises along Corridor 7. The research has been based on the interviews with international tourists who participated in land tours while cruising through Serbia. The interviews, together with the structured questionnaire, were conducted from March to November 2007 with the objectives to establish the following: the structure of the respondents according to the country of origin, gender and age structure, as well as the social and economic structure; what their motives are for cruising along Corridor 7; what is their perception of the value obtained through the tourist product and services during the Corridor 7 cruises and during their stay in Serbia (what they liked best in Serbia; if they were dissatisfied with anything in terms of the tourist offer of Serbia; to what extent their visit complemented or influenced their personal impressions of this country - what their impressions were before and after the visit. The importance of this paper, above all, is in broadening our knowledge about the adequacy of the tourist offer in Serbia in the tourism segment which is the subject of study of the paper.

  16. Safe corridors for K-wiring in phalangeal fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Rex

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: K-wiring through the safe corridor has proved to yield the best clinical results because of least tethering of soft tissues as evidenced by performing "on-table active finger movement test" at the time of surgery. We strongly recommend K-wiring through safe portals in all phalangeal fractures.

  17. Pedestrian visual recommendation in Kertanegara - Semeru corridor in Malang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosalia, V. B.

    2017-06-01

    Streetscape could be the first impression to see an urban area. One of the streerscape that should be attended to it is corridor of Jl. Kertanegara - Semeru since at that corridor is the road corridor having the strong caracter also as the one of the main axes in Malang city. This research is aim knowing the visual quality also the exact structuring rcommendation for Jl. Kertanegara - Semeru based on pedestrian’s visual. The methode used to this research is Scenic Beauty Estimation (SBE) and used historic study. There is several variables used, they are scale space, visual flexibility, beauty, emphasis, balance and dominant. Based on those variable the pedestrians as a respondent doing the assessment. Based on the result of SBE have been done, it is showed that the visual quality in Corridor Kertanegara Semeru is well enough since the result showed that there are 10 photos in low visual quality in Jl. Semeru and 14 photos in high visual quality in Jl. Kertanegara, Jl. Tugu dan Jl. Kahuripan. By the historic study and based on high visual quality reference doing the structuring recommendation in part of landscape having the low visual quality.

  18. Malaysia's Multimedia Super Corridor and Roles of Information Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Edna

    In Malaysia, the government is supporting the diffusion of the Internet and is spearheading a project to bring Malaysia into the information age, by helping to design a smart city called the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC). The MSC is being planned as a high-technology center where world-class multimedia companies can develop state-of-the-art…

  19. THE BALANCE BETWEEN SUPPLY AND DEMAND OF WATER RESOURCES AND THE WATER—SAVING POTENTIAL FOR AGRICULTURE IN THE HEXI CORRIDOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAOQian-zhao; DUHu-lin; 等

    2002-01-01

    The Hexi Corridor is an important base of agriculture development in Northwest China.According to recent statistics,there are 65.94×108 m3 of water resource available in the Hexi Corridor.At present,net consumption in development and utilization is 43.33×108m3.Water supply and demand reach a balance on the recent level of production ,but loss of evaporation and evapotranspiration is as much as 25.69×108m3.So net use efficiency of water resources is 59%.Based on analyzing balance between water and land considering ecological environment at present,there exists the serious water shortage in the Shiyang River system where irrigation land considering ecological environment at present,there exists the serious water shortage in the Shiyang River system where irrigation lands have overloaded.These is a comparative balance between supply and demand of water resource in the Heibe River system.and the Sule River system has some surplus water to extend irrigation land.Use of agriculture water accounts for 83.3% and ecological forest and grass for 6.9%.The Hexi Corridor still has a great potential for water saving in agriculture production.Water-saving efficiency of irrigation is about 10% by using such traditiona technologies as furrow and border-dike irrigation and small check irrigation,and water-saving wigh plastic film cover and techniques of advanced sprinkler and drip/micro irrigation ete.can save more than 60% of irrigated water.Incremental irrigation area for water-saving potential in the Hexi Corridor has been estimated as 56%-197% to original irrigation area.So the second water sources can be developed from water saving agriculture in the Hexi Corridor under Development of the Western Part of China in large scale .This potential can be realized step by step through developing the water-saving measures,improving the ecological condition of oasis agriculture,and optimizing allocation of water resources in there river systems.

  20. Improving Urban Corridor that Respect to Public Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahrah, W.; Rahmadhani, N.; Nasution, A. D.; Pane, I. F.

    2017-03-01

    The urban corridor is more than just a linear space to circulation. It is a place for community activities. Since the urban area in Indonesia functionates without guidelines, it is necessary to analyze how this space being used by the community. The objective of the research is to explore the problems in utilization of public space in Dr. Mansur corridor in Medan and to propose some recommendation to improve it. The survey was started by mapping the physical situation that based on urban design aspects and the activities occur. Based on the data, the study identified the problems of the public space utilization. Next, study selected several buildings that significant in generating public life. The study interviewed the building’s owners and users/customers to get their opinion and perception about the using of urban public space utilization in the corridor in relation to their private function. The study analyzed the problems and opportunity to redesign the buildings that respect to public space. Then, the design ideas were presented to the buildings owners to get their response. The result of the observation shows that the fundamental problem in the corridor is the intervention of the private interest to the street as public space. The study indicates that the majority of the buildings owner was not aware that their buildings had distracted the urban public space. However, they gave a positive respond to the design recommendation. The design offered the solution that provided individual needs without intervention to the public realm. The study can contribute to improving urban corridor by educating the community with architecture and urban design.

  1. Louisiana Speaks Regional Vision Transit Corridors, UTM Zone 15N NAD 83, Louisiana Recovery Authority (2007), [louisiana_speaks_vision_transit_corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS shapefile data illustrates the primary and secondary transit corridors included in the Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan Vision. This network accommodates a...

  2. Louisiana Speaks Transportation Option B Transit Corridors, UTM Zone 15N NAD 83, Louisiana Recovery Authority (2007), [louisiana_speaks_transportation_option_b_transit_corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS shapefile data illustrates the regional, subregional, and local transit corridors included in the Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan community growth option of...

  3. Louisiana Speaks Transportation Option C Transit Corridors, UTM Zone 15N NAD 83, Louisiana Recovery Authority (2007), [louisiana_speaks_transportation_option_c_transit_corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS shapefile data illustrates the regional, subregional, and local transit corridors included in the Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan community growth option of...

  4. Shear and extensional properties of bread doughs affected by their minor components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouillé, J.; Valle, Della G.; Lefebvre, J.; Sliwinski, E.L.; Vliet, van T.

    2005-01-01

    The importance of the soluble fraction in flour in determining the rheological properties of dough subjected to large deformations and its possible consequence for breadmaking performance was investigated by measuring shear and extensional viscosities of native wheat flour and reconstituted doughs

  5. Bridging the Gap between Polymer Melts and Solutions in Extensional Rheology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Qian; Hengeller, Ludovica; Alvarez, Nicolas J.

    2015-01-01

    and polymer melts. We compare the nonlinear extensional rheology of a series of polystyrene solutions with wide concentration range between 10% and 100% (melt) in order to determine the key missing physics that can account for dilution effects. All the solutions studied have the same number of entanglements...

  6. Extensional rheology of entangled polystyrene solutions suggests importance of nematic interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Qian; Javier Alvarez, Nicolas; Matsumiya, Yumi

    polymer solutions in extensional flow. We prepared three polystyrene (PS) solutions with identical concentrations of the same PS sample (with the molecular weight M = 545k), but diluted with three different solvents, oligomeric styrene (OS) with M = 1k, 2k, and 4k. The three solutions have exactly...

  7. The dynamics of cylindrical samples in dual wind-up extensional rheometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Kaijia; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Marín, Jose Manuel Román

    2011-01-01

    Numerical computations of the extension of circular cylindrical shaped samples in a dual wind-up drum rheometer of Sentmanat extensional rheometer type M. L. Sentmanat, Rheol. Acta 43, 657 (2004); R. Garritano and H. Berting, US Patent No. 7,096,728 (08/29/2006) are presented. These time-dependen...

  8. Interchain tube pressure effect in extensional flows of oligomer diluted nearly monodisperse polystyrene melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Huang, Qian

    2014-01-01

    We have derived a constitutive equation to explain the extensional dynamics of oligomer-diluted monodisperse polymers, if the length of the diluent has at least two Kuhn steps. These polymer systems have a flow dynamics which distinguish from pure monodisperse melts and solutions thereof, if the ...

  9. Monitoring the hydration of DNA self-assembled monolayers using an extensional nanomechanical resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cagliani, Alberto; Kosaka, Priscila; Tamayo, Javier;

    2012-01-01

    We have fabricated an ultrasensitive nanomechanical resonator based on the extensional vibration mode to weigh the adsorbed water on self-assembled monolayers of DNA as a function of the relative humidity. The water adsorption isotherms provide the number of adsorbed water molecules per nucleotid...

  10. Shear and Extensional Flow-Induced Particle Orientation in Polypropylene/Clay Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghardt, Wesley; McCready, Erica

    2013-03-01

    Synchrotron-based in situ x-ray scattering is used to monitor the orientation of dispersed particles in molten polypropylene/clay nanocomposite melts during flow. Nanocomposite samples were prepared via twin screw extrusion processing, and the degree of clay exfoliation assessed in terms of the magnitude of the low frequency enhancement in viscoelasticity. In shear flow, an annular cone and plate flow cell is used which allows measurement of the degree and direction of particle orientation in the flow-gradient (1-2) plane. Samples were also studied in extensional flow, using an SER extensional flow fixture installed in a custom-built convection oven that provides x-ray access. In both shear and extensional flow, only a moderate degree of particle orientation is observed. Extensional flow studies are complicated by (i) the tendency of samples to fail at moderate Hency strain, and (ii) a heterogeneous initial distribution of particle orientation in the SER specimens, prepared by compression molding of extruded pellets of the nanocomposite.

  11. The missing link between the extensional dynamics of polymer melts and solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Huang, Qian

    2014-01-01

    Based on extensional viscosities measured on narrow molecular weight distributed (NMMD) polystyrenes and polystyrene oligomer dilutions thereof, we discuss the relation between the flow physics of polymer solutions and melts. A polymer solution is here characterized as a dilution where the diluen...

  12. Freight corridor performance measurement system: A framework for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. Havenga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: On a national level, South Africa’s freight logistics industry is inefficient. The country ranks 36th out of 40 countries in terms of transport productivity (tonne kilometres as a ratio of gross domestic product, or GDP; the ratio of freight logistics costs to GDP measured 11.1% in 2013, compared to that of developed regions which measures in the order of 9%; and rail tonne-km market share on the two most dense long-distance corridors, namely, GautengDurban and Gauteng-Cape Town, is only 12.8% and 4.4%, respectively, whereas rail is globally acknowledged as a more efficient provider of long-distance freight solutions, given appropriate investments and service commitments.Objectives: A cornerstone of improved national freight logistics performance is the availability of reliable indicators to quantify the efficiency and capacity of the logistics network over the intermediate and long term, thereby enabling an evidence-based policy and investment environment. The objective of this article is to describe the foundation framework (i.e. phase 1 for South Africa’s freight corridor performance measurement system (CPMS. Once populated, the CPMS will be a key generator of indicators to facilitate the systemic management of corridors as a national production factor and thereby contributing to South Africa’s competitiveness.Method: The design of South Africa’s CPMS was informed by desktop research and refined through an extensive stakeholder consultation process. A distinction was made between South Africa’s dedicated bulk corridors and the multi-modal corridors.Results: Facilitating both stakeholder involvement and agreement on key indicators, as well as the eventual development of a system supporting the population, aggregation and dissemination of the CPMS are critical outcomes for the management of corridors as a national production factor. Three overarching corridor indicators were defined, relating to increased throughput, lower

  13. How green are the TEN-T core network corridors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    "Green corridors‟ is a concept introduced by the European Commission to enhance the provision of sustainable freight transport logistics services by concentrating freight traffic between major hubs and by relatively long distances. SuperGreen, a Coordination and Support Action aiming at further...... defining this concept, identified the characteristics that distinguish a green corridor from an otherwise efficient one. The main thesis of this paper is that the „core network corridors‟ of the new TEN-T guidelines exhibit all these qualities and the vision of a green corridor network in Europe is close...... to reality. To support this thesis, and in continuation of the work of SuperGreen, the paper examines the proposed new „guidelines‟ for the development of the TEN-T after presenting a brief history of transport network development in Europe....

  14. Bison phylogeography constrains dispersal and viability of the Ice Free Corridor in western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintzman, Peter D; Froese, Duane; Ives, John W; Soares, André E R; Zazula, Grant D; Letts, Brandon; Andrews, Thomas D; Driver, Jonathan C; Hall, Elizabeth; Hare, P Gregory; Jass, Christopher N; MacKay, Glen; Southon, John R; Stiller, Mathias; Woywitka, Robin; Suchard, Marc A; Shapiro, Beth

    2016-07-19

    The Ice Free Corridor has been invoked as a route for Pleistocene human and animal dispersals between eastern Beringia and more southerly areas of North America. Despite the significance of the corridor, there are limited data for when and how this corridor was used. Hypothetical uses of the corridor include: the first expansion of humans from Beringia into the Americas, northward postglacial expansions of fluted point technologies into Beringia, and continued use of the corridor as a contact route between the north and south. Here, we use radiocarbon dates and ancient mitochondrial DNA from late Pleistocene bison fossils to determine the chronology for when the corridor was open and viable for biotic dispersals. The corridor was closed after ∼23,000 until 13,400 calendar years ago (cal y BP), after which we find the first evidence, to our knowledge, that bison used this route to disperse from the south, and by 13,000 y from the north. Our chronology supports a habitable and traversable corridor by at least 13,000 cal y BP, just before the first appearance of Clovis technology in interior North America, and indicates that the corridor would not have been available for significantly earlier southward human dispersal. Following the opening of the corridor, multiple dispersals of human groups between Beringia and interior North America may have continued throughout the latest Pleistocene and early Holocene. Our results highlight the utility of phylogeographic analyses to test hypotheses about paleoecological history and the viability of dispersal routes over time.

  15. Modelling Fine Scale Movement Corridors for the Tricarinate Hill Turtle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, I.; Kumar, R. S.; Habib, B.; Talukdar, G.

    2016-06-01

    Habitat loss and the destruction of habitat connectivity can lead to species extinction by isolation of population. Identifying important habitat corridors to enhance habitat connectivity is imperative for species conservation by preserving dispersal pattern to maintain genetic diversity. Circuit theory is a novel tool to model habitat connectivity as it considers habitat as an electronic circuit board and species movement as a certain amount of current moving around through different resistors in the circuit. Most studies involving circuit theory have been carried out at small scales on large ranging animals like wolves or pumas, and more recently on tigers. This calls for a study that tests circuit theory at a large scale to model micro-scale habitat connectivity. The present study on a small South-Asian geoemydid, the Tricarinate Hill-turtle (Melanochelys tricarinata), focuses on habitat connectivity at a very fine scale. The Tricarinate has a small body size (carapace length: 127-175 mm) and home range (8000-15000 m2), with very specific habitat requirements and movement patterns. We used very high resolution Worldview satellite data and extensive field observations to derive a model of landscape permeability at 1 : 2,000 scale to suit the target species. Circuit theory was applied to model potential corridors between core habitat patches for the Tricarinate Hill-turtle. The modelled corridors were validated by extensive ground tracking data collected using thread spool technique and found to be functional. Therefore, circuit theory is a promising tool for accurately identifying corridors, to aid in habitat studies of small species.

  16. Comparing the efficiency of transport routes and corridors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Gabriel GHIŢULEASA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the broader context of the importance granted to accessibility by the European spatial planning policies, comparing the efficiency of European and national transportation routes and corridors constitutes an issue of particular relevance for Romania. In order to resolve it, this paper proposes a methodology based on potential accessibility, determined by the total population served, and the efficiency of the path, by analogy with the least squares method. Both approaches were applied to internal and European routes.

  17. Mobile Robot Navigation in a Corridor Using Visual Odometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayramoglu, Enis; Andersen, Nils Axel; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad;

    2009-01-01

    Incorporation of computer vision into mobile robot localization is studied in this work. It includes the generation of localization information from raw images and its fusion with the odometric pose estimation. The technique is then implemented on a small mobile robot operating at a corridor envi...... Kalman filter as a parameter estimator is also applied to estimate odometry parameters. Experimental results are included. The robustness and the precision of the entire system is illustrated by performing simple navigation tasks....

  18. Sacroiliac secure corridor: analysis for safe insertion of iliosacral screws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Alves Cruz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Posterior pelvic lesions, especially of the sacral-iliac joint, have high mortality and morbidity risks. Definitive fixation is necessary for the joint stabilization, and one option is the sacral percutaneous pinning with screws. Proximity to important structures to this region brings risks to the fixation procedure; therefore, it is important to know the tridimensional anatomy of the pelvis posterior region. Deviations of the surgeon's hand of four degrees may target the screws to those structures; dimorphisms of the upper sacrum and a poor lesion reduction may redound in a screw malpositioning. This study is aimed to evaluate the dimensions of a safe surgical corridor for safe sacroiliac screw insertion and relations with age and sex of the patients. METHOD: One hundred randomly selected pelvis CTs of patients with no pelvic diseases, seen at a tertiary care teaching Hospital. Measurements were made by computer and the safest area for screw insertion was calculated by two methods. The results were expressed in mm (not in degrees, in order to be a further surgical reference. RESULTS: There was a significant size difference in the analyzed sacral vertebra, differing on a wider size in men than in women. There was no significant statistical difference between vertebral size and age. By both methods, a safe area for screw insertion could be defined. CONCLUSION: Age does not influence the width of the surgical corridor. The surgeon has a safe corridor considered narrower when inserting screws in a female pelvis than when in a male one. However, as the smallest vertebra found (feminine was considered for statics, it was concluded that this corridor is 20 mm wide in any direction, taking as a reference the centrum of the vertebra.

  19. Evaluating Connectivity for two mid-sized mammals Across Riparian Corridors using Wildlife Crossing Monitoring and Species Distribution Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, S.

    2016-12-01

    The movement of wildlife can be constrained by river renovation projects owing to the presence of artificial structures. This study evaluates lateral connectivity, the ability to cross from habitat on one side of the river, through riparian vegetation, embankments, and the river to the other, of two mammal species, the leopard cat (Felis bengalensis euptilura) and water deer (Hydropotes inermis). We used 34 months of monitoring on 250 m stream segments on the Seom river, in South Korea to model the lateral connectivity of the stream between suitable habitats on either side of the steam. Habitat suitability within the landscape was determined using species distribution modelingand was used to determine where we thought the animals would want to pass across the river. We compared the predicted crossing locations to observed crossings.We assessed lateral connectivity suitability with maximum entropy and logistic regression models, and species' presences detected from snow tracking, heat sensor cameras, and scat or other signs, as well as landscape variables. Leopard cats prefer upland forest, while water deer prefer the forest edge and riparian corridor. For both target species, the best riparian habitats were characterized by the presence of vegetation cover on the embankment and by at least one side of an embankment being adjacent to farmland or forest cover. The lateral connectivity for the two target species showed different requirements. Water deer cross through large culverts with an openness ratio of 0.7 or under bridges, whereas leopard cats utilized drainage pipes and culvert boxes with a much smaller openness ratio. Stream reaches located close to a river tributary had the highest connectivity values, and areas modeled as good habitat for both species thatlink watershed and riparian habitats showed high connectivity values. Artifacts such as steep banks, concrete embankments, and adjacent roads were found to degrade the lateral connectivity of wildlife

  20. Modeling signalized intersection safety with corridor-level spatial correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feng; Wang, Xuesong; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed A

    2010-01-01

    Intersections in close spatial proximity along a corridor should be considered as correlated due to interacted traffic flows as well as similar road design and environmental characteristics. It is critical to incorporate this spatial correlation for assessing the true safety impacts of risk factors. In this paper, several Bayesian models were developed to model the crash data from 170 signalized intersections in the state of Florida. The safety impacts of risk factors such as geometric design features, traffic control, and traffic flow characteristics were evaluated. The Poisson and Negative Binomial Bayesian models with non-informative priors were fitted but the focus is to incorporate spatial correlations among intersections. Two alternative models were proposed to capture this correlation: (1) a mixed effect model in which the corridor-level correlation is incorporated through a corridor-specific random effect and (2) a conditional autoregressive model in which the magnitude of correlations is determined by spatial distances among intersections. The models were compared using the Deviance Information Criterion. The results indicate that the Poisson spatial model provides the best model fitting. Analysis of the posterior distributions of model parameters indicated that the size of intersection, the traffic conditions by turning movement, and the coordination of signal phase have significant impacts on intersection safety.

  1. Analysis of Potential Energy Corridors Proposed by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, James A.; Cantwell, Brian J.; Hlava, Kevin J.; Moore, H Robert; Orr, Andrew B.; Zvolanek, Emily A.

    2014-02-24

    This report, Analysis of Potential Energy Corridors Proposed by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), was prepared by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). The intent of WECC’s work was to identify planning-level energy corridors that the Department of Energy (DOE) and its affiliates could study in greater detail. Argonne was tasked by DOE to analyze the WECC Proposed Energy Corridors in five topic areas for use in reviewing and revising existing corridors, as well as designating additional energy corridors in the 11 western states. In compliance with Section 368 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct), the Secretaries of Energy, Agriculture, and the Interior (Secretaries) published a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement in 2008 to address the proposed designation of energy transport corridors on federal lands in the 11 western states. Subsequently, Records of Decision designating the corridors were issued in 2009 by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the U.S. Forest Service (USFS). The 2012 settlement of a lawsuit, brought by The Wilderness Society and others against the United States, which identified environmental concerns for many of the corridors requires, among other things, periodic reviews of the corridors to assess the need for revisions, deletions, or additions. A 2013 Presidential Memorandum requires the Secretaries to undertake a continuing effort to identify and designate energy corridors. The WECC Proposed Energy Corridors and their analyses in this report provide key information for reviewing and revising existing corridors, as well as designating additional energy corridors in the 11 western states. Load centers and generation hubs identified in the WECC analysis, particularly as they reflect renewable energy development, would be useful in reviewing and potentially updating the designated Section 368 corridor network. Argonne used Geographic Information System (GIS) technology to

  2. A double-cycle lake basin formed in extensional to transtensional setting: The Paleogene Nanpu Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianguo; Jiang, Zaixing; Gierlowski-Kordesch, Elizabeth; Xian, Benzhong; Li, Zhenpeng; Wang, Siqi; Wang, Xiabin

    2017-03-01

    It has been known that both extensional and transtensional tectonics commonly trigger a one-cycle evolution of lake sediments, but lake-cycle development co-controlled by extensional and transtensional tectonics still need identification. Here we report a double-cycle of lake sediments formed in extensional to transtensional phases in the Paleogene Nanpu Sag of the Bohai Bay Basin, China. The sag successively experienced five phases of lake-type evolution, characterized by: 1) overfilled, 2) balanced-fill, 3) overfilled, 4) balanced-fill, and 5) overfilled. Extensional tectonics was responsible for the opening of the basin and the initial creation of accommodation (1st through 3rd phase). Next, subsidence increased again through transtensional tectonics resulting in the creation of new accommodation (4th-5th phases). Investigations show this double-cycle lake-type evolution is also present in other lake-basins with similar tectonic settings (e.g., both extensional and transtensional tectonics). A different exploration and exploitation strategy should be devoted to the double-cycle evolution of lake basins controlled by extensional to transtensional tectonics in comparison to the single-cycle evolution in extensional or transtensional lake basins.

  3. Landscape corridors can increase invasion by an exotic species and reduce diversity of native species.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resasco, Julian [University of Florida; et al,

    2014-04-01

    Abstract. Landscape corridors are commonly used to mitigate negative effects of habitat fragmentation, but concerns persist that they may facilitate the spread of invasive species. In a replicated landscape experiment of open habitat, we measured effects of corridors on the invasive fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, and native ants. Fire ants have two social forms: polygyne, which tend to disperse poorly but establish at high densities, and monogyne, which disperse widely but establish at lower densities. In landscapes dominated by polygyne fire ants, fire ant abundance was higher and native ant diversity was lower in habitat patches connected by corridors than in unconnected patches. Conversely, in landscapes dominated by monogyne fire ants, connectivity had no influence on fire ant abundance and native ant diversity. Polygyne fire ants dominated recently created landscapes, suggesting that these corridor effects may be transient. Our results suggest that corridors can facilitate invasion and they highlight the importance of considering species’ traits when assessing corridor utility.

  4. El corredor fluvial del Mapocho como recurso multifacético de Santiago: avances y retrocesos en las concepciones y acciones de un siglo./ The corridor of the Mapocho River as a Opportunity to Santiago: a century of progress and setbacks in its projects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Pávez Reyes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se revisa en términos generales los avances y retrocesos en las concepciones y acciones sobre el río Mapocho, durante el siglo XX y comienzos del siglo XXI, en la perspectiva de considerar el corredor fluvial como un recurso estructurante mayor y multifacético de la Región Metropolitana de Santiago de Chile./ This article reviews the history of the plans for the Mapocho river in the last century. The process varies between making of it a structural element in the planning of the Region Metropolitana or don't.

  5. Long thickness-extensional waves in thin film bulk acoustic wave filters affected by interdigital electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Du, Jianke; Wang, Ji; Yang, Jiashi

    2017-03-01

    We studied free vibrations of thin-film bulk acoustic wave filters with interdigital electrodes theoretically using the scalar differential equations by Tiersten and Stevens. The filters are made from AlN or ZnO films on Si substrates with ground and driving electrodes. They operate with thickness-extensional modes. The basic vibration characteristics including resonant frequencies and mode shapes were obtained. Their dependence on various geometric parameters was examined. It was found that for properly design filters there exist trapped modes whose vibrations are strong in regions with a driving electrode and decay away from the electrode edges. These trapped modes are essentially long plate thickness-extensional modes modulated by the electrode fingers. The number of trapped modes is sensitive to the geometric parameters.

  6. Prediction of cryogenic cavitation around hydrofoil by an extensional Schnerr-Sauer cavitation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, T. Z.; Wei, Y. J.; Wang, C.

    2015-12-01

    Developing a robust computational strategy to address the rich physics characteristic involved in the thermodynamic effects on the cryogenic cavitation remains a challenging problem. The objective of this present study is to model the numerical methodology to simulate the cryogenic cavitation by implanting the thermodynamic effects to the Schnerr-Sauer cavitation model, and coupling the energy equation considered the latent heat. For this purpose, cavitating flows are investigated over a three dimensional hydrofoil in liquid hydrogen and nitrogen. Experimental measurements of pressure and temperature are utilized to validate the extensional Schnerr-Sauer cavitation model. Specifically, the further analysis of the cavitation solution with respect to the thermodynamic term is conducted. The results show that the extensional Schnerr-Sauer cavitation model predicts better accuracy to the quasi-steady cavitation over hydrofoil in the two cryogenic fluids.

  7. Argali Sheep (Ovis ammon Movement Corridors Between Critical Resources in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Murdoch

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how animals move through a landscape can reveal corridors or narrow paths of movement that connect discrete parts of a landscape. Identifying corridors can be important for planning conservation activities, especially for threatened species. We synthesized information on the ranging behavior and distribution of argali sheep to quantify linkages and potential pinch points of movement between critical resources in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia. We used a cost-weighted distance approach to quantify the relative cost of movement between water sources (springs, which represent critical resources. We used values to map a corridor of movement and examined movement fl ow through the corridor using a circuit theory approach. We identifi ed a corridor connecting all springs that covered 50.6 km2 . Most of the corridor overlapped the reserve (77% and reserve’s core area (62%. A least-cost path between the furthest separated springs (18 km was 26.4 km. Most movement fl ow through the corridor concentrated around springs, especially those in the southern and central portions of the corridor. The analysis also revealed several pinch points that represent a conservation concern. We recommend prioritizing activities at pinch points and extending protected area boundaries to encompass all springs to eff ectively protect the entire corridor.

  8. The evaluation of the development of the Danube-Morava corridor traffic network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vemić Mirčeta R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic has the primary influence on the development of the Danube-Morava Corridor as a specific natural, geographically determined and stochastic-functional territorial system. The traffic network of roads railway lines and waterways along this corridor is at the very core of the Trans-European Transport Corridor 10, representing its most dynamic, most congested and highest-traffic section. The influence, namely the creative power of traffic, largely depends on the degree of development modernization and maintenance of the network. This work presents the assessment of the development of the Danube-Morava Corridor traffic network.

  9. Aeolian process of the dried-up riverbeds of the Hexi Corridor, China: a wind tunnel experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Caixia; Wang, Xunming; Dong, Zhibao; Hua, Ting

    2017-08-01

    Wind tunnel studies, which remain limited, are an important tool to understand the aeolian processes of dried-up riverbeds. The particle size, chemical composition, and the mineral contents of sediments arising from the dried river beds are poorly understood. Dried-up riverbeds cover a wide area in the Hexi Corridor, China, and comprise a complex synthesis of different land surfaces, including aeolian deposits, pavement surfaces, and Takyr crust. The results of the present wind tunnel experiment suggest that aeolian transport from the dried-up riverbeds of the Hexi Corridor ranges from 0 to 177.04 g/m(2)/min and that dry riverbeds could be one of the main sources of dust emissions in this region. As soon as the wind velocity reaches 16 m/s and assuming that there are abundant source materials available, aeolian transport intensity increases rapidly. The dried-up riverbed sediment and the associated aeolian transported material were composed mainly of fine and medium sands. However, the transported samples were coarser than the bed samples, because of the sorting effect of the aeolian processes on the sediment. The aeolian processes also led to regional elemental migration and mineral composition variations.

  10. A review of Gobiid expansion along the Danube-Rhine corridor – geopolitical change as a driver for invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roche K.F.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Five Gobiid fish species have recently increased their ranges along the Danube/Rhine river corridor. Studies to date, however, have tended to be local, site specific and reactive, examining just one or few species. As such, overall range has tended to be assumed based on a summary of patchy, and sometimes contradictory, data. This study provides an up-to-date literature review of first records of occurrence for all five species along their expansion route. In addition, available shipping data are examined to identify possible proximal causes of introduction. Three main discontinuous population centres were identified; all at or near important container ports: Vienna, Duisburg and Rotterdam. Shipping is confirmed as an important factor in the rapid national and international expansion of Ponto-Caspian Gobiids, with downstream drift, rip-rap and heavy boat traffic contributing to rapid spread on the Rhine. Geopolitical factors, however, such as the fall of communism and the Balkan conflict, have been key in influencing where, when, and by which route gobies first appear. Rapid expansion of Gobiids in the Rhine raises the possibility of establishment throughout mainland Europe via two new potential invasion corridors across Germany/Poland and France.

  11. Induction of mammalian cell death by simple shear and extensional flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzeglock, Timm; Soos, Miroslav; Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2009-10-01

    In this work we investigated whether the type of shear flow, to which cells are exposed, influences the initiation of cell death. It is shown that mammalian cells, indeed, distinguish between discrete types of flow and respond differently. Two flow devices were employed to impose accurate hydrodynamic flow fields: uniform steady simple shear flow and oscillating extensional flow. To distinguish between necrotic and apoptotic cell death, fluorescence activated cell sorting and the release of DNA in the culture supernatant was used. Results show that Chinese Hamster Ovaries and Human Embryonic Kidney cells will enter the apoptotic pathway when subjected to low levels of hydrodynamic stress (around 2.0 Pa) in oscillating, extensional flow. In contrast, necrotic death prevails when the cells are exposed to hydrodynamic stresses around 1.0 Pa in simple shear flow or around 500 Pa in extensional flow. These threshold values at which cells enter the respective death pathway should be avoided when culturing cells for recombinant protein production to enhance culture longevity and productivity.

  12. Extensional Tectonic Framework of Post High and Ultrahigh Pressure Metamorphism in Dabieshan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The most prominent feature of the extensional tectonic framework of post high-pressure (HP) and ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphism in Dabieshan is the development of the multi-layered extension detachment zones surrounding the core of the Luotian dome, and the separation of the UHP, HP and epidote blueschist units by the detachment zones, which form the vertically stacking sheet-like slices of the HP and UHP metamorphic rocks. From the core outwards, exist the HP and UHP rock-barren Dabie complex, UHP unit, HP unit and epidote blueschist unit. The extension tectonics of post HP and UHP metamorphic event constrain the distribution and present configuration of the HP and UHP metamorphic rocks, and the extensional tectonic framework bears some similarities to the Cordillera metamorphic core complex. It is suggested that partial melting happened in the Dabie gneiss complex (DGC) and UHP unit contemporaneously with the extrusion of UHP metamorphic rocks into the lower-middle crust. The formation and emplacement of the migmatite and granites are the response to the change in thermal state, facilitating the transfer from the compressive regime to extensional regime in the crust. The large-scale crustal extension and uplift and the accompanying anatexis in Dabieshan are probably related to the delamination and magmatic underplating in the mantle and the lower crust.

  13. A humid corridor across the Sahara for the migration of early modern humans out of Africa 120,000 years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Anne H; Vance, Derek; Rohling, Eelco J; Barton, Nick; Rogerson, Mike; Fello, Nuri

    2008-10-28

    It is widely accepted that modern humans originated in sub-Saharan Africa approximately 150-200 thousand years ago (ka), but their route of dispersal across the currently hyperarid Sahara remains controversial. Given that the first modern humans north of the Sahara are found in the Levant approximately 120-90 ka, northward dispersal likely occurred during a humid episode in the Sahara within Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e (130-117 ka). The obvious dispersal route, the Nile, may be ruled out by notable differences between archaeological finds in the Nile Valley and the Levant at the critical time. Further west, space-born radar images reveal networks of-now buried-fossil river channels that extend across the desert to the Mediterranean coast, which represent alternative dispersal corridors. These corridors would explain scattered findings at desert oases of Middle Stone Age Aterian lithic industries with bifacial and tanged points that can be linked with industries further to the east and as far north as the Mediterranean coast. Here we present geochemical data that demonstrate that water in these fossil systems derived from the south during wet episodes in general, and penetrated all of the way to the Mediterranean during MIS 5e in particular. This proves the existence of an uninterrupted freshwater corridor across a currently hyperarid region of the Sahara at a key time for early modern human migrations to the north and out of Africa.

  14. Thick-skinned tectonics closing the Rifian Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capella, Walter; Matenco, Liviu; Dmitrieva, Evelina; Roest, Wilmer M. J.; Hessels, Suzanne; Hssain, Mohamed; Chakor-Alami, Abdelwahid; Sierro, Francisco J.; Krijgsman, Wout

    2017-07-01

    Tectonic processes in the Gibraltar region are associated with Africa-Iberia convergence and the formation of the Betic-Rif orogenic system. The Late Miocene shortening recorded in the Rif orogen resulted in gradual shallowing and eventual closure of the Rifian Corridor, a narrow marine gateway connecting the Atlantic Ocean with the Mediterranean Sea. This closure is associated with paleoenvironmental changes that ultimately led to the Mediterranean Messinian Salinity Crisis. Here we present a structural analysis based on a combination of field kinematic data and interpretation of reflection seismic lines acquired for petroleum exploration to understand the deformational phases associated with the closure of the Rifian Corridor. We show the succession of three Late Miocene to present day events, an initial thin-skinned nappe thrusting, followed by regional subsidence and continued by thick-skinned contraction. The transition from in sequence thin-skinned tectonics during subduction to thick-skinned contraction during continental collision resulted in significant acceleration of tectonic uplift and associated exhumation. This is related to a change in the regional deformation linked to plate convergence, but possibly also coupled with deep lithospheric or dynamic topography processes. Such a mechanism is also common for other Mediterranean orogens during late stages of slab retreat, where accelerated tectonics resulted in rapid sedimentation and associated basins evolution. We conclude that the thick-skinned contraction in the Rif orogeny initiated in the late Tortonian, has created a cumulative uplift in the order of 1 km, and provided high enough uplift rates to close the Rifian Corridor.

  15. Two-stage partial melting during the Variscan extensional tectonics (Montagne Noire, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poujol, Marc; Pitra, Pavel; Van Den Driessche, Jean; Tartèse, Romain; Ruffet, Gilles; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Poilvet, Jean-Charles

    2017-03-01

    One of the striking features that characterise the late stages of the Variscan orogeny is the development of gneiss and migmatite domes, as well as extensional Late Carboniferous and Permian sedimentary basins. It remains a matter of debate whether the formation of domes was related to the well-documented late orogenic extension or to the contractional tectonics that preceded. Migmatization and magmatism are expected to predate extension if the domes are compression-related regional anticlines, but they must both precede and be contemporaneous with extension if they are extensional core complexes. In the Montagne Noire area (southern French Massif Central), where migmatization, magmatism and the deformation framework are well documented, the age of the extensional event was unequivocally constrained to 300-290 Ma. Therefore, dating migmatization in this area is a key point for discriminating between the two hypotheses and understanding the Late Palaeozoic evolution of this part of the Variscan belt. For this purpose, a migmatite and an associated anatectic granite from the Montagne Noire dome were dated by LA-ICP-MS (U-Th-Pb on zircon and monazite) and laser probe 40Ar-39Ar (K-Ar on muscovite). Although zircon did not record any Variscan age unequivocally related to compression (380-330 Ma), two age groups were identified from the monazite crystals. A first event, at ca. 319 Ma (U-Th-Pb on monazite), is interpreted as a first stage of migmatization and as the emplacement age of the granite, respectively. A second event at ca. 298-295 Ma, recorded by monazite (U-Th-Pb) and by the muscovite 40Ar-39Ar system in the migmatite and in the granite, could be interpreted as a fluid-induced event, probably related to a second melting event identified through the syn-extensional emplacement of the nearby Montalet leucogranite ca. 295 Ma ago. The ages of these two events post-date the Variscan compression and agree with an overall extensional context for the development of the

  16. Risk of shear failure and extensional failure around over-stressed excavations in brittle rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Barton

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigate the failure modes surrounding over-stressed tunnels in rock. Three lines of investigation are employed: failure in over-stressed three-dimensional (3D models of tunnels bored under 3D stress, failure modes in two-dimensional (2D numerical simulations of 1000 m and 2000 m deep tunnels using FRACOD, both in intact rock and in rock masses with one or two joint sets, and finally, observations in TBM (tunnel boring machine tunnels in hard and medium hard massive rocks. The reason for ‘stress-induced’ failure to initiate, when the assumed maximum tangential stress is approximately (0.4–0.5σc (UCS, uniaxial compressive strength in massive rock, is now known to be due to exceedance of a critical extensional strain which is generated by a Poisson's ratio effect. However, because similar ‘stress/strength’ failure limits are found in mining, nuclear waste research excavations, and deep road tunnels in Norway, one is easily misled into thinking of compressive stress induced failure. Because of this, the empirical SRF (stress reduction factor in the Q-system is set to accelerate as the estimated ratio σθmax/σc >> 0.4. In mining, similar ‘stress/strength’ ratios are used to suggest depth of break-out. The reality behind the fracture initiation stress/strength ratio of ‘0.4’ is actually because of combinations of familiar tensile and compressive strength ratios (such as 10 with Poisson's ratio (say 0.25. We exceed the extensional strain limits and start to see acoustic emission (AE when tangential stress σθ ≈ 0.4σc, due to simple arithmetic. The combination of 2D theoretical FRACOD models and actual tunnelling suggests frequent initiation of failure by ‘stable’ extensional strain fracturing, but propagation in ‘unstable’ and therefore dynamic shearing. In the case of very deep tunnels (and 3D physical simulations, compressive stresses may be too high for extensional strain fracturing, and

  17. Eocene extensional exhumation of basement and arc rocks along southwesternmost Peru, Central Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noury, Mélanie; Bernet, Matthias; Sempéré, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    The overthickened crust of the current Central Andes is commonly viewed as the result of tectonic shortening. However, in the present-day terrestrial forearc and arc of southwesternmost Peru, crustal thickness increases from 30 km along the coastline to >60 km below the active arc, whereas the upper crust exhibits little to no evidence of crustal shortening and, in constrast, many extensional features. How (and when) crustal overthickness was acquired in this region is thus little understood. Because crustal overthickening often results in extensional collapse and/or significant erosion, here we address this issue through a regional-scale study of exhumation using fission-track thermochronology. The limited fission-track data previously available in the area suggested that exhumation began during the Mesozoic. In this study, we present new apatite and zircon fission-track data obtained along the current terrestrial forearc of southwesternmost Peru. This relatively restricted area presents the interest of providing extensive outcrops of Precambrian to Ordovician basement and Early Jurassic to Late Cretaceous arc plutons. In order to compare the chronology of exhumation of these units, we performed extensive sampling for fission-track dating, as well as structural mapping. Our results indicate that the basement rocks and Jurassic plutons that crop out in the Arequipa region, where the crust is now >50 km-thick, experienced a rapid cooling through the 240-110°C temperature range between ~65 and ~35 Ma. This period of rapid exhumation coincided in time with the accumulation of terrestrial forearc deposits (the Lower Moquegua Group), that exhibit many syn-sedimentary extensional features and are bounded by conspicuous normal faults, specifically along the region where intense activity of the main arc between ~90 and ~60 Ma had led to voluminous magma emplacement. This close succession of (1) intense magmatic activity and (2) regional-scale exhumation associated with

  18. Die Auswirkungen des China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC)

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    "Der China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) stellt eine der bislang größten chinesischen Auslandinvestitionen im Rahmen der "One Belt, One Road"-Initiative dar. Im Zuge der Ausgaben in Höhe von rund 46 Milliarden US-Dollar, die in den nächsten Jahren geplant sind, werden sich die chinesisch-pakistanischen Beziehungen weiter vertiefen. Zugleich wird Pakistan für die chinesische Außenpolitik an Bedeutung gewinnen. Der CPEC betrifft aber auch die indisch-pakistanischen Beziehungen. Der Transpor...

  19. Potential corridors and barriers for plague spread in central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Plague (Yersinia pestis infection) is a vector-borne disease which caused millions of human deaths in the Middle Ages. The hosts of plague are mostly rodents, and the disease is spread by the fleas that feed on them. Currently, the disease still circulates amongst sylvatic rodent populations all over the world, including great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus) populations in Central Asia. Great gerbils are social desert rodents that live in family groups in burrows, which are visible on satellite images. In great gerbil populations an abundance threshold exists, above which plague can spread causing epizootics. The spatial distribution of the host species is thought to influence the plague dynamics, such as the direction of plague spread, however no detailed analysis exists on the possible functional or structural corridors and barriers that are present in this population and landscape. This study aims to fill that gap. Methods Three 20 by 20 km areas with known great gerbil burrow distributions were used to analyse the spatial distribution of the burrows. Object-based image analysis was used to map the landscape at several scales, and was linked to the burrow maps. A novel object-based method was developed – the mean neighbour absolute burrow density difference (MNABDD) – to identify the optimal scale and evaluate the efficacy of using landscape objects as opposed to square cells. Multiple regression using raster maps was used to identify the landscape-ecological variables that explain burrow density best. Functional corridors and barriers were mapped using burrow density thresholds. Cumulative resistance of the burrow distribution to potential disease spread was evaluated using cost distance analysis. A 46-year plague surveillance dataset was used to evaluate whether plague spread was radially symmetric. Results The burrow distribution was found to be non-random and negatively correlated with Greenness, especially in the floodplain areas. Corridors and

  20. Potential corridors and barriers for plague spread in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilschut, Liesbeth I; Addink, Elisabeth A; Heesterbeek, Hans; Heier, Lise; Laudisoit, Anne; Begon, Mike; Davis, Stephen; Dubyanskiy, Vladimir M; Burdelov, Leonid A; de Jong, Steven M

    2013-10-31

    Plague (Yersinia pestis infection) is a vector-borne disease which caused millions of human deaths in the Middle Ages. The hosts of plague are mostly rodents, and the disease is spread by the fleas that feed on them. Currently, the disease still circulates amongst sylvatic rodent populations all over the world, including great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus) populations in Central Asia. Great gerbils are social desert rodents that live in family groups in burrows, which are visible on satellite images. In great gerbil populations an abundance threshold exists, above which plague can spread causing epizootics. The spatial distribution of the host species is thought to influence the plague dynamics, such as the direction of plague spread, however no detailed analysis exists on the possible functional or structural corridors and barriers that are present in this population and landscape. This study aims to fill that gap. Three 20 by 20 km areas with known great gerbil burrow distributions were used to analyse the spatial distribution of the burrows. Object-based image analysis was used to map the landscape at several scales, and was linked to the burrow maps. A novel object-based method was developed - the mean neighbour absolute burrow density difference (MNABDD) - to identify the optimal scale and evaluate the efficacy of using landscape objects as opposed to square cells. Multiple regression using raster maps was used to identify the landscape-ecological variables that explain burrow density best. Functional corridors and barriers were mapped using burrow density thresholds. Cumulative resistance of the burrow distribution to potential disease spread was evaluated using cost distance analysis. A 46-year plague surveillance dataset was used to evaluate whether plague spread was radially symmetric. The burrow distribution was found to be non-random and negatively correlated with Greenness, especially in the floodplain areas. Corridors and barriers showed a mostly NWSE

  1. Winter Responses of Forest Birds to Habitat Corridors and Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Cassady St. Clair

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Forest fragmentation and habitat loss may disrupt the movement or dispersal of forest-dwelling birds. Despite much interest in the severity of these effects and ways of mitigating them, little is known about actual movement patterns in different habitat types. We studied the movement of wintering resident birds, lured by playbacks of mobbing calls, to compare the willingness of forest birds to travel various distances in continuous forest, along narrow corridors (fencerows, and across gaps in forest cover. We also quantified the willingness of Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus to cross gaps when alternative forested detour routes were available. All species were less likely to respond to the calls as distance increased to 200 m, although White-breasted Nuthatches (Sitta carolinensis and Hairy Woodpeckers (Picoides villosus were generally less likely to respond than chickadees and Downy Woodpeckers (P. pubescens. Chickadees were as likely to travel in corridors as in continuous forest, but were less likely to cross gaps as the gap distance increased. The other species were less willing to travel in corridors and gaps relative to forest, and the differences among habitats also increased with distance. For chickadees, gap-crossing decisions in the presence of forested detours varied over the range of distances that we tested, and were primarily influenced by detour efficiency (the length of the shortcut relative to the available detour. Over short distances, birds used forested detours, regardless of their efficiency. As absolute distances increased, birds tended to employ larger shortcuts in the open when detour efficiency was low or initial distance in the open was high, but they limited their distance from the nearest forest edge to 25 m. Thus, chickadees were unwilling to cross gaps of > 50 m when they had forested alternatives, yet they sometimes crossed gaps as large as 200 m when no such choice existed. Our results suggest that

  2. Trade-offs and efficiencies in optimal budget-constrained multispecies corridor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilkina, Bistra; Houtman, Rachel; Gomes, Carla P.; Montgomery, Claire A.; McKelvey, Kevin; Kendall, Katherine; Graves, Tabitha A.; Bernstein, Richard; Schwartz, Michael K.

    2017-01-01

    Conservation biologists recognize that a system of isolated protected areas will be necessary but insufficient to meet biodiversity objectives. Current approaches to connecting core conservation areas through corridors consider optimal corridor placement based on a single optimization goal: commonly, maximizing the movement for a target species across a network of protected areas. We show that designing corridors for single species based on purely ecological criteria leads to extremely expensive linkages that are suboptimal for multispecies connectivity objectives. Similarly, acquiring the least-expensive linkages leads to ecologically poor solutions. We developed algorithms for optimizing corridors for multispecies use given a specific budget. We applied our approach in western Montana to demonstrate how the solutions may be used to evaluate trade-offs in connectivity for 2 species with different habitat requirements, different core areas, and different conservation values under different budgets. We evaluated corridors that were optimal for each species individually and for both species jointly. Incorporating a budget constraint and jointly optimizing for both species resulted in corridors that were close to the individual species movement-potential optima but with substantial cost savings. Our approach produced corridors that were within 14% and 11% of the best possible corridor connectivity for grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and wolverines (Gulo gulo), respectively, and saved 75% of the cost. Similarly, joint optimization under a combined budget resulted in improved connectivity for both species relative to splitting the budget in 2 to optimize for each species individually. Our results demonstrate economies of scale and complementarities conservation planners can achieve by optimizing corridor designs for financial costs and for multiple species connectivity jointly. We believe that our approach will facilitate corridor conservation by reducing acquisition costs

  3. Protect Anadromous Salmonids in the Mainstem Corridor, Monitoring and Evaluation, Annual Report 200-2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigg, Steven; Johnson, John

    2002-02-01

    In this annual Monitoring & Evaluation (M&E) report to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), we summarize significant activities and performance measures resultant from enhanced protection by Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fisheries Enforcement (CRITFE) in the mainstem corridor (BPA Project 2000-056). This report covers the Fiscal Year (FY) 2000 performance period -- May 15, 2000 to May 14, 2001. Quarterly progress reports have previously been submitted to BPA and are posted on the M&E Web site (www.Eco-Law.net) -- for the time period April-December 2000 (Vigg 2000b,c,d) and for the period January-June 2001 (Vigg 2001a,b). We also present comprehensive data representing the first quarter of year 2000 in this report for a pre-project comparison. In addition, we have analyzed specific annual enforcement statistics to evaluate trends during the baseline period 1996-2000. Additional statistics and more years of comprehensive baseline data are now being summarized, and will be presented in future M&E annual reports--to provide a longer time series for evaluation of trends in input, output and outcome performance standards.

  4. PRECIPITATION, A PRESENT-DAY MODELLING FACTOR IN THE ORĂŞTIE CORRIDOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CĂTĂLINA MĂRCULEŢ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This Corridor, which extends between the confluence of the Mureş River and its tributaries Sebeş and the Strei, is subjected to vast modelling processes (rain-induced weathering, surface erosion, gullying, torrential activity and landsliding, triggered largely by precipitation. Annual mean values are over 500 mm; however, maximum precipitation/24 hrs of up to 75 mm have the greatest impact. Slope processes are enhanced with precipitation of over 10 mm / day, more frequently occurring from June through to September. The analysis of the Fournier Index (an indicator of rain-induced erosion has revealed that maximum values were recorded by the Sebeş and Deva weather station in June and July. Large quantities of torrential and lasting precipitation are a frequent occurrence also during transitional seasons, having the same detrimental effects, mostly in spring when harvested soils are already moist from snowmelt. Whenever heavy rains fall after long periods of dryness, the soil is severely impaired by raininduced denudation, especially on slopes cultivated with hoeing plants.

  5. Quantifying forest vertical structure to determine bird habitat quality in the Greenbelt Corridor, Denton, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Shiho

    This study presents the integration of light detection and range (LiDAR) and hyperspectral remote sensing to create a three-dimensional bird habitat map in the Greenbelt Corridor of the Elm Fork of the Trinity River. This map permits to examine the relationship between forest stand structure, landscape heterogeneity, and bird community composition. A biannual bird census was conducted at this site during the breeding seasons of 2009 and 2010. Census data combined with the three-dimensional map suggest that local breeding bird abundance, community structure, and spatial distribution patterns are highly influenced by vertical heterogeneity of vegetation surface. For local breeding birds, vertical heterogeneity of canopy surface within stands, connectivity to adjacent forest patches, largest forest patch index, and habitat (vegetation) types proved to be the most influential factors to determine bird community assemblages. Results also highlight the critical role of secondary forests to increase functional connectivity of forest patches. Overall, three-dimensional habitat descriptions derived from integrated LiDAR and hyperspectral data serve as a powerful bird conservation tool that shows how the distribution of bird species relates to forest composition and structure at various scales.

  6. Occurrence, local extinction and conservation of Primates in the corridor of the Upper Paraná River, with notes on other mammals Ocorrência, extinção local e conservação dos primatas do corredor do Alto Rio Paraná, com notas sobre outros mamíferos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas M. Aguiar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The region of Porto Rico, on the Upper Paraná River, is a contact zone between the Atlantic Rainforest and the Cerrado, with elements of the Pantanal wetlands. During surveys from September 2003 to September to 2005, we recorded the presence of non-volant mammals on 14 islands and the adjacent riverbanks. Surveys were by foot and by boat, and we also interviewed local people about the mammals of the region. Sightings of three primate species - Cebus nigritus (Goldfuss, 1809 (left margin of the river, C. libidinosus Spix, 1823 (right margin and Alouatta caraya (Humboldt, 1812 (both margins and 12 islands - were plotted on a satellite image. Alouatta clamitans Cabrera, 1940 was not recorded. However, interviews indicated that this species has occurred in this region in the past. The survey of mammals revealed the occurrence of 32 native species, a native genus with one or more unidentified species, and two introduced species [Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778 and Sus scrofa (Linnaeus, 1758]. The study discusses the permeability of the Paraná River to dispersal, as well as its potential as a geographical barrier to some species. Hypothesis on the local extinction of A. clamitans is also addressed. This study provides information that can be useful for promoting the conservation of this region.A região de Porto Rico, Alto Rio Paraná, é zona de contato entre a Mata Atlântica e o Cerrado, com influências do Pantanal. Este estudo levantou as espécies de primatas da região para a confecção de um mapa de ocorrências. Listou-se as ocorrências de mamíferos não-voadores, discriminando os registros entre os ambientes de ilhas e margens opostas. Para tanto, além do auxílio de entrevistas, as matas de 14 ilhas e das margens foram percorridas por terra e de barco durante setembro de 2003 a setembro de 2005. Pontos de avistamento dos primatas foram plotados em imagem de satélite. Três espécies de primatas foram registradas: Cebus nigritus somente

  7. 78 FR 73559 - Moose-Wilson Corridor Comprehensive Management Plan, Environmental Impact Statement, Grand Teton...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... National Park Service Moose-Wilson Corridor Comprehensive Management Plan, Environmental Impact Statement... the Moose-Wilson Corridor, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming. DATES: The National Park Service will...://parkplanning.nps.gov/MooseWilson , at the Grand Teton National Park Headquarters Building, 1 Teton Park...

  8. 14 CFR 93.305 - Flight-free zones and flight corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight-free zones and flight corridors. 93... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.305 Flight-free zones and flight corridors. Except in...

  9. 76 FR 41929 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors and Risk Adjustment; Proposed Rule #0... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Part 153 RIN 0938-AR07 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act... corridors, and risk adjustment consistent with title I of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act...

  10. 78 FR 16036 - Service Level Environmental Impact Statement for the Texas Oklahoma Passenger Rail Study Corridor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... Passenger Rail Study Corridor, South Texas to Oklahoma City AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA... Transportation (TxDOT) to study potential new and/or improved high- speed intercity passenger rail service along... Rail Study (Study) also includes preparation of a service development plan for the corridor for each...

  11. Barchan dune corridors: Field characterization and investigation of control parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbelrhiti, H.; Andreotti, B.; Claudin, P.

    2008-06-01

    The structure of the barchan field located between Tarfaya and Laayoune (Atlantic Sahara, Morocco) is quantitatively investigated and compared to that in La Pampa de la Joya (Arequipa, Peru). On the basis of field measurements, we show how the volume, the velocity, and the output sand flux of a dune can be computed from the value of its body and horn widths. The dune size distribution is obtained from the analysis of aerial photographs. It shows that these fields are in a statistically homogeneous state along the wind direction and present a "corridor" structure in the transverse direction, in which the dunes have a rather well selected size. Investigating the possible external parameters controlling these corridors, we demonstrate that none among topography, granulometry, wind, and sand flux is relevant. We finally discuss the dynamical processes at work in these fields (collisions and wind fluctuations) and investigate the way they could regulate the size of the dunes. Furthermore, we show that the overall sand flux transported by a dune field is smaller than the maximum transport that could be reached in the absence of dunes, i.e., in saltation over the solid ground.

  12. Influence of buccal corridor dimension on smile esthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Cunha Nascimento

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of buccal corridor width on smile esthetics of male and female, Caucasian and Afro-descendant subjects by means of digitally manipulated photographs, as well as compare assessments of full-face view (FFV and close-up view of the mouth (CUVM images. METHODS: Facial photographs were taken of four adults' smile, two Caucasians and two Afro-descendants of both genders. The resulting images were digitally manipulated with the aim of rendering - from each original smile - three other smiles simulating three different buccal corridor widths, namely, narrow, medium width and wide. The rendered images, 12 of which portraying FFVs and 12 providing CUVMs, were assessed by 60 examiners who rated the attractiveness of each smile by means of a visual analog scale (VAS. The data were treated with ANOVA and Tukey's post test to compare the different buccal corridors, and Student's t test to compare the two image views (FFV and CUVM. RESULTS: Medium width buccal corridors were considered the most attractive in the four individuals investigated, both in the assessment of FFVs and CUVMs (p 0.05. Furthermore, no statistically significant difference was found between the analyses of FFVs and CUVMs (p > 0.05. CONCLUSION: The buccal corridor exercised a remarkable influence on smile esthetics, with the medium width group being rated as the most attractive. No influence was exerted by the individuals' face, ethnicity or gender.OBJETIVO: avaliar a influência do corredor bucal na estética de sorrisos femininos e masculinos, de leucodermas e melanodermas, por meio de fotografias manipuladas, bem como comparar essa avaliação numa vista facial completa e numa vista aproximada da boca. MÉTODOS: foram realizadas fotografias faciais do sorriso de quatro indivíduos adultos, sendo dois leucodermas e dois melanodermas, de ambos os sexos. As imagens geradas foram manipuladas a fim de produzir, a partir de cada sorriso original, três outros

  13. Fruit Plants Species along Corridor in Kopendukuh Village as a Resource for Rural Tourism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Kristiyanti Putri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to identify fruit plants species which is potential for tourism attraction, spatially describes fruit plants distribution and identify local people’s response for fruit plants as tourims attraction in Kopendukuh village, Banyuwangi. Survey was done along the villages corridors. The fruit plant species along corridors was identified and mapped using GPS. Furthermore, semi-structural interview was used to gain informations of local people response about fruit plants as tourism attraction. There were about 18 species and 162 individuals were found along corridor of Kopendukuh village. Fruit plants always found in local home gardens along rural corridor. Local peoples argue that fruit planst s important for numerous purposes. Local people support tourism development in rural area which based on the fruit plants richness (i.e. agrotourism. Keywords: fruit plants, mapping, corridor, rural tourism.

  14. Predicting which species will benefit from corridors in fragmented landscapes from population growth models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgens, Brian R; Haddad, Nick M

    2003-05-01

    Connecting isolated patches of habitat in fragmented landscapes with corridors is a popular conservation strategy. This strategy is also controversial in large part because of uncertainty about what characteristics of a species and its environment promote corridor use. In this article we address the question, For what types of species will populations benefit from corridors? We asked this question using a model of two logistically growing populations connected by migration in which both emigration and migration success were determined by the presence or absence of a corridor. We found that in the short run (e.g., during recovery from disaster), corridors are most effective for species with fast-growing populations that have low survivorship when dispersing through unsuitable (matrix) habitat. We also found that emigration rates and habitat-specific mortality rates are key determinants of the effects of corridors on population size. In the long term, corridors are most likely to benefit species with slow-growing populations that have low survivorship when dispersing through matrix habitat. Our results confirm the major conclusions from previous empirical studies of corridor benefits. However, most studies fail to consider the most appropriate questions to determine the potential benefits of habitat corridors. First, what is the time scale of the conservation goal? Corridors have positive effects on different suites of species in the short and long term. Second, is the major threat of local extinction due to sustained population decline or boom-bust cycles? Third, what is the migration rate through the matrix? Fourth, what fraction of migrants dispersing through the matrix successfully immigrate to another patch?

  15. 78 FR 43226 - Going-to-the-Sun Road Corridor Management Plan, Environmental Impact Statement, Glacier National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... National Park Service Going-to-the-Sun Road Corridor Management Plan, Environmental Impact Statement... Environmental Impact Statement for the Going-to-the-Sun Road Corridor Management Plan for Glacier National Park...-to-the Sun Road (GTSR) corridor. DATES: The National Park Service will accept comments from...

  16. Probing hydrogen bond interactions in a shear thickening polysaccharide using nonlinear shear and extensional rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaishankar, Aditya; Wee, May; Matia-Merino, Lara; Goh, Kelvin K T; McKinley, Gareth H

    2015-06-05

    Mamaku gum is a polysaccharide extracted from the fronds of the black tree fern found in New Zealand. The cooked pith has traditionally been used for various medicinal purposes and as a food source by the Maori people of New Zealand. It has potential applications as a thickener in the food industry and as a palliative for patients with dysphagia. Studies on the shear rheology of Mamaku gum have revealed that the gum exhibits shear thickening at a critical shear rate due to a transition from intra- to inter-molecular chain interactions upon shear-induced chain elongation. In this paper, we demonstrate that these interactions are primarily due to hydrogen bonding. We perform extensional rheology on mixtures of Mamaku gum and urea (a known disruptor of hydrogen bonds) to quantify the nature of these interactions. Capillary Breakup Extensional Rheometry (CaBER) performed on the pure Mamaku gum solutions yield plateau values of the Trouton ratio as high as ∼10(4), showing that the viscoelasticity of the gum in uniaxial elongation is much higher than in shear. For all Mamaku concentrations tested, the extensional viscosity decreases upon increasing urea concentration. Furthermore, the relaxation time decreases exponentially with increasing urea concentration. This exponential relationship is independent of the Mamaku concentration, and is identical to the relationships between urea concentration and characteristic timescales measured in nonlinear shear rheology. We show using the sticky reptation model for polymers with multiple sticker groups along the backbone how such a relationship is consistent with a linear decrease in the free energy for hydrogen bond dissociation. We then demonstrate that a time-concentration superposition principle can be used to collapse the viscoelastic properties of the Mamaku-gum/urea mixtures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Origin and role of fluids involved in the seismic cycle of extensional faults in carbonate rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeraglia, Luca; Berra, Fabrizio; Billi, Andrea; Boschi, Chiara; Carminati, Eugenio; Doglioni, Carlo

    2016-09-01

    We examine the potentially-seismic right-lateral transtensional-extensional Tre Monti Fault (central Apennines, Italy) with structural and geochemical methods and develop a conceptual evolutionary model of extensional faulting with fluid involvement in shallow (≤3 km depth) faults in carbonate rocks. In the analysed fault zone, multiscale fault rock structures include injection veins, fluidized ultracataclasite layers, and crackle breccias, suggesting that the fault slipped seismically. We reconstructed the relative chronology of these structures through cross-cutting relationship and cathodoluminescence analyses. We then used C- and O-isotope data from different generations of fault-related mineralizations to show a shift from connate (marine-derived) to meteoric fluid circulation during exhumation from 3 to ≤1 km depths and concurrent fluid cooling from ∼68 to hydrological system, where prevalently connate fluids circulated within the fault zone at temperatures between 60° and 75 °C. During fault zone exhumation, at depths ≤1 km and temperatures hydrological circulation became open and meteoric-derived fluids progressively infiltrated and circulated within the fault zone. The role of these fluids during syn-exhumation seismic cycles of the Tre Monti Fault has been substantially passive along the whole fault zone, the fluids being passively redistributed at hydrostatic pressure following co-seismic dilatancy. Only the principal fault has been characterized, locally and transiently, by fluid overpressures. The presence of low-permeability clayey layers in the sedimentary sequence contributed to control the type of fluids infiltrating into the fault zone and possibly their transient overpressures. These results can foster the comprehension of seismic faulting at shallow depths in carbonate rocks of other fold-thrust belts involved in post-collisional seismogenic extensional tectonics.

  18. Extensional and Flexural Waves in a Thin-Walled Graphite/Epoxy Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, William H.; Gorman, Michael R.; Dorighi, John

    1992-01-01

    Simulated acoustic emission signals were induced in a thin-walled graphite/epoxy tube by means of lead breaks (Hsu-Neilsen source). The tube is of similar material and layup to be used by NASA in fabricating the struts of Space Station Freedom. The resulting waveforms were detected by broad band ultrasonic transducers and digitized. Measurements of the velocities of the extensional and flexural modes were made for propagation directions along the tube axis (0 degrees), around the tube circumference (90 degrees) and at an angle of 45 degrees. These velocities were found to be in agreement with classical plate theory.

  19. Paleoproterozoic Extensional Structure and Its Controlling on Mineralization in the East of Liaoning Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Zhongzhu; Chen Shuliang; Li Xiandong; Wang Zhongjiang; Qu Hongxiang; Gang Jiang

    2001-01-01

    The palaeoproterozoic extensional structure in the east of Liaoning Province underwent sub - bedding ductile shear flowing deformation with metamorphism and magmatic emplacement. The reversal structure following the processes constructed the present framework of palaeoproterozoic orogenic belt. As a result of the ductile shearing along the layers, the gold in the Liaohe group was activated, migrated upward to the interface between the Dashiqiao rock formation, which was lower green schist facies and the Gaixian rock formation, so the gold deposit was formed in the space of brittle - ductile shear zone as ductile - shear - zone - typed stratabound gold deposit.

  20. An Extensional Characterization of Lambda-Lifting and Lambda-Dropping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1999-01-01

    Lambda-lifting and lambda-dropping respectively transform a block-structured functional program into recursive equations and vice versa. Lambda-lifting was developed in the early 80’s, whereas lambda-dropping is more recent. Both are split into an analysis and a transformation. Published work......, however, has only concentrated on the analysis parts. We focus here on the transformation parts and more precisely on their correctness, which appears never to have been proven. To this end, we define extensional versions of lambda-lifting and lambda-dropping and establish their correctness with respect...

  1. An Extensional Characterization of Lambda-Lifting and Lambda-Dropping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Lambda-lifting and lambda-dropping respectively transform a block-structured functional program into recursive equations and vice versa. Lambda-lifting was developed in the early 80’s, whereas lambda-dropping is more recent. Both are split into an analysis and a transformation. Published work......, however, has only concentrated on the analysis parts. We focus here on the transformation parts and more precisely on their correctness, which appears never to have been proven. To this end, we define extensional versions of lambda-lifting and lambda-dropping and establish their correctness with respect...

  2. Extensional basin evolution in the presence of small-scale convection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kenni Dinesen; Nielsen, S.B.; Clausen, O.R.

    2011-01-01

    The plate model of Parsons & Sclater provides a generally accepted, quantitative framework for the thermal subsidence-evolution in extensional basins. It predicts an asymptotic evolution of the geotherm towards a steady state, featuring a constant lithospheric thickness and ceased subsidence...... a two-dimensional, numerical, thermo-mechanical model of the lithosphere and upper mantle to asses the effects of small-scale convection. Given a particular mantle rheology, our model features such convection, and, over time, the horizontally averaged geotherm converges towards a self-consistent, quasi...

  3. Tectono-stratigraphic evolution of an inverted extensional basin: the Cameros Basin (north of Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omodeo Salè, Silvia; Guimerà, Joan; Mas, Ramón; Arribas, José

    2014-09-01

    The Cameros Basin is a part of the Mesozoic Iberian Rift. It is an extensional basin formed during the late Jurassic and early Cretaceous, in the Mesozoic Iberian Rift context, and it was inverted in the Cenozoic as a result of the Alpine contraction. This work aims to reconstruct the tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the basin during the Mesozoic, using new and revised field, geophysical and subsurface data. The construction of a basin-wide balanced section with partial restorations herein offers new insights into the geometry of the syn-rift deposits. Field data, seismic lines and oil well data were used to identify the main structures of the basin and the basin-forming mechanisms. Mapping and cross-sectional data indicate the marked thickness variation of the depositional sequences across the basin, suggesting that the extension of the depositional area varied during the syn-rift stage and that the depocentres migrated towards the north. From field observation and seismic line interpretation, an onlap of the depositional sequences to the north, over the marine Jurassic substratum, can be deduced. In the last few decades, the structure and geometry of the basin have been strongly debated. The structure and geometry of the basin infill reconstructed herein strongly support the interpretation of the Cameros Basin as an extensional-ramp synclinal basin formed on a blind south-dipping extensional ramp. The gradual hanging-wall displacement to the south shifted the depocentres to the north over time, thus increasing the basin in size northwards, with onlap geometry on the pre-rift substratum. The basin was inverted by means of a main thrust located in a detachment located in the Upper Triassic beds (Keuper), which branched in depth with the Mesozoic extensional fault flat. The reconstruction of the tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the Cameros Basin proposed herein represents a synthesis and an integration of previous studies of the structure and geometry of the

  4. Dynamics of Star Polymers in Fast Extensional Flow and Stress Relaxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Qian; Agostini, Serena; Hengeller, Ludovica

    2016-01-01

    We confirm the observation from Ianniruberto and Marrucci [ Macromolecules 2013, 46, 267-275 ] that entangled melts of branched polystyrenes behave like linear polystyrenes in the steady state of fast extensional flow, by measuring a linear, an asymmetric star, and a symmetric star polystyrene wi...... they relax in a similar way, most likely via arm retraction, at short time, but behave differently at long time due to both the length of the arm and the branch point. The terminal relaxation is described by a Doi and Edwards based model, i.e., considering pure orientational relaxation....

  5. ORNL Trusted Corridors Project: Watts Bar Dam Inland Waterway Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Randy M [ORNL; Gross, Ian G [ORNL; Smith, Cyrus M [ORNL; Hill, David E [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    Radiation has existed everywhere in the environment since the Earth's formation - in rocks, soil, water, and plants. The mining and processing of naturally occurring radioactive materials for use in medicine, power generation, consumer products, and industry inevitably generate emissions and waste. Radiological measuring devices have been used by industry for years to measure for radiation in undesired locations or simply identify radioactive materials. Since the terrorist attacks on the United States on 9-11-01 these radiation measuring devices have proliferated in many places in our nation's commerce system. DOE, TVA, the Army Corps and ORNL collaborated to test the usefulness of these devices in our nation's waterway system on this project. The purpose of the Watts Bar Dam ORNL Trusted Corridors project was to investigate the security, safety and enforcement needs of local, state and federal government entities for state-of-the-art sensor monitoring in regards to illegal cargo including utilization of the existing infrastructure. TVA's inland waterways lock system is a recognized and accepted infrastructure by the commercial carrier industry. Safety Monitoring activities included tow boat operators, commercial barges and vessels, recreational watercraft and their cargo, identification of unsafe vessels and carriers, and, monitoring of domestic and foreign commercial vessels and cargo identification. Safety Enforcement activities included cargo safety, tracking, identification of hazardous materials, waterway safety regulations, and hazardous materials regulations. Homeland Security and Law Enforcement Applications included Radiological Dispersive Devices (RDD) identification, identification of unsafe or illicit transport of hazardous materials including chemicals and radiological materials, and screening for shipments of illicit drugs. In the Fall of 2005 the SensorNet funding for the project expired. After several unsuccessful attempts to

  6. Strategy for the Identification of an INL Comprehensive Utility Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Reisenauer

    2011-05-01

    This report documents the strategy developed to identify a comprehensive utility corridor (CUC) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site. The strategy established the process for which the Campus Development Office will evaluate land management issues. It is a process that uses geographical information system geospatial technology to layer critical INL mission information in a way that thorough evaluations can be conducted and strategies developed. The objective of the CUC Project was to develop a process that could be implemented to identify potential utility corridor options for consideration. The process had to take into account all the missions occurring on the INL and other land-related issues. The process for developing a CUC strategy consists of the following four basic elements using geographical information system capabilities: 1. Development of an INL base layer map; this base layer map geospatially references all stationary geographical features on INL and sitewide information. 2. Development of current and future mission land-use need maps; this involved working with each directorate to identify current mission land use needs and future land use needs that project 30 years into the future. 3. Development of restricted and potential constraint maps; this included geospatially mapping areas such as wells, contaminated areas, firing ranges, cultural areas, ecological areas, hunting areas, easement, and grazing areas. 4. Development of state highway and power line rights of way map; this included geospatially mapping rights-of-way along existing state highways and power lines running through the INL that support INL operations. It was determined after completing and evaluating the geospatial information that the area with the least impact to INL missions was around the perimeter of the INL Site. Option 1, in this document, identifies this perimeter; however, it does not mean the entire perimeter is viable. Many places along the perimeter corridor cannot

  7. Ecological and Recreational Corridor Bogotá Mountain Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Wiesner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bogotá the capital of the Republic of Colombia is a tropical highland city located at 2650 m above sea level, the 25th largest city of the world and among the large, one of the highest. A proposal for integration of components of ecological networks in the Oriental Hills of Bogotá, along a gradient from wild to built nature. Name as The Bogotá Ecological and Recreational Corridor (C.E.R. is based on three strategies: first a social being the largest border agreement with 53 km, along the entire eastern limit of the city. Second the biophysical which involves restoration of ecosystem, and third the socio-spatial which includes infrastructure for making an open air museum for integration and urban limit. The ultimate aim of the approach is to contribute as a pilot proposal in biodiversity managment and cultural transformation in ecological issues for the inhabitants.

  8. The role of green corridors for wildlife conservation in urban landscape: A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, H. A.; Rasidi, M. H.

    2014-02-01

    Green corridors are an attempt to mitigate negative effects of the built environment of cities and towns. The corridors act as conservation for rapidly extreme intervention and development of the urban environment. Most importantly, it enables dispersal movement of animals within city areas. Issues relate to wildlife conservation in urban areas has been studied for many years and thus, the research makes a review for how the green corridors contribute to the conservation of urban wildlife. This study reviews groups of articles in disciplines of urban landscape planning and biology conservation to discuss the relationship between elements of green corridors and urban wildlife dispersal movement behaviour in Malaysian context. Accordingly, this research is purposely studied to give understanding on how green corridors contribute to the animals' ability of moving and dispersing within the built-up areas. In advance, it is found that there are three factors contribute to the capability of colonization among urban wildlife which are individual, physical and social factor. Green corridor has been defined as one of the physical factor that influence urban wildlife behaviour movement. Consequently, safety area indicating to animals species for traversing in any time such as at night can be defined as the primary potential corridor.

  9. Carbon stock corridors to mitigate climate change and promote biodiversity in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantz, Patrick; Goetz, Scott; Laporte, Nadine

    2014-02-01

    A key issue in global conservation is how biodiversity co-benefits can be incorporated into land use and climate change mitigation activities, particularly those being negotiated under the United Nations to reduce emissions from tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Protected areas have been the dominant strategy for tropical forest conservation and they have increased substantially in recent decades. Avoiding deforestation by preserving carbon stored in vegetation between protected areas provides an opportunity to mitigate the effects of land use and climate change on biodiversity by maintaining habitat connectivity across landscapes. Here we use a high-resolution data set of vegetation carbon stock to map corridors traversing areas of highest biomass between protected areas in the tropics. The derived corridors contain 15% of the total unprotected aboveground carbon in the tropical region. A large number of corridors have carbon densities that approach or exceed those of the protected areas they connect, suggesting these are suitable areas for achieving both habitat connectivity and climate change mitigation benefits. To further illustrate how economic and biological information can be used for corridor prioritization on a regional scale, we conducted a multicriteria analysis of corridors in the Legal Amazon, identifying corridors with high carbon, high species richness and endemism, and low economic opportunity costs. We also assessed the vulnerability of corridors to future deforestation threat.

  10. Northeast Asian Energy Corridor Initiative for Regional Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paik Hoon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For historical and political reasons, South Korea (hereafter Korea, Japan and China have not achieved much progress in regional energy cooperation for decades. However, the rising importance of Northeast Asia (NEA in the world energy sphere, especially in the global oil market, is providing an opportunity to create an integrated oil market in the region. This study suggests the Northeast Asian Energy Corridor (NEAEC Initiative as an effective conduit for raising the possibility of the Northeast Asian oil hub project. The NEAEC Initiative combines the model of Europe's Amsterdam-Rotterdam-Antwerp (ARA with Singapore's AsiaClear as a form of financial collaboration. The study suggests that an elFor historical and political reasons, South Korea (hereafter Korea, Japan and China have not achieved much progress in regional energy cooperation for decades. However, the rising importance of Northeast Asia (NEA in the world energy sphere, especially in the global oil market, is providing an opportunity to create an integrated oil market in the region. This study suggests the Northeast Asian Energy Corridor (NEAEC Initiative as an effective conduit for raising the possibility of the Northeast Asian oil hub project. The NEAEC Initiative combines the model of Europe's Amsterdam-Rotterdam-Antwerp (ARA with Singapore’s AsiaClear as a form of financial collaboration. The study suggests that an electronically integrated Over-the-Counter (OTC market clearing mechanism accompanied by other key financial instruments among Korea, Japan and China can be an effective means for promoting financial collaboration in the region.

  11. Transient overshoot extensional rheology of long-chain branched polyethylenes: Experimental and numerical comparisons between filament stretching and cross-slot flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoyle, D.M.; Huang, Qian; Auhl, D.

    2013-01-01

    This work analyses the high-strain extensional behavior of long-chain branched polyethylenes, employing two novel extensional rheometer devices, the filament stretching rheometer and the cross-slot extensional rheometer. The filament stretching rheometer uses an active feedback loop to control...... the outflow centre line (named W-cusps). Using constitutive modeling of the observed transient overshoot in extension seen in the filament stretching rheometer and using finite element simulations we show that the overshoot explains the W-cusps seen in the cross-slot extensional rheometer, further confirming...

  12. Transient extensional viscosity of polymer melts in the filament stretching rheometer. A. Bach, H. Bastian, M.H. Wagner, H.K. Rasmussen and O. Hassager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Bach, Anders; Bastian, Heike

    2002-01-01

    In many polymer processing operations, the polymer molecules becomes highly elongated and the extensional viscosity becomes an inportant parameter in estimating properties during and after the process....

  13. Transient extensional viscosity of polymer melts in the filament stretching rheometer. A. Bach, H. Bastian, M.H. Wagner, H.K. Rasmussen and O. Hassager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Bach, Anders; Bastian, Heike

    2002-01-01

    In many polymer processing operations, the polymer molecules becomes highly elongated and the extensional viscosity becomes an inportant parameter in estimating properties during and after the process....

  14. Avalanches of coalescence events and local extensional flows--stabilisation or destabilisation due to surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunes, Deniz Z; Clain, Xavier; Breton, Olivier; Mayor, Guy; Burbidge, Adam S

    2010-03-01

    From two-drop collision experiments, it is known that local extensional flow favors coalescence. Recently, Bremond et al. used microfluidic methods to evidence this point. Similarly, we used specific microfluidic geometries to impose sudden extensional flow, following drop collision under controlled conditions, and coalescence events were recorded with a high-speed camera. In this study we focus on the effect of surfactant on the coalescence, or stabilisation against it, between drops flowing apart due to either imposed external flow or capillary forces related to drop shape relaxation. Coalescence can be induced even when drops are initially separated by an intersticial lubricating film by far thicker than the critical thickness for rupturing under the action of Van der Waals forces. This is particularly relevant to avalanches of coalescence events, in flowing or even quiescent emulsions or foams. When non-ionic surfactant was used, it was observed that small concentrations apparently enhance coalescence in extension. But at higher concentrations it provides stabilisation through a specific mechanism of thread formation and rupture; the stabilisation mechanism can be complex.

  15. Deformation and breakup of micro- and nanoparticle stabilized droplets in microfluidic extensional flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Molly K; Rothstein, Jonathan P

    2011-08-16

    Using a microfluidic flow-focusing device, monodisperse water droplets in oil were generated and their interface populated by either 1 μm or 500 nm amine modified silica particles suspended in the water phase. The deformation and breakup of these Pickering droplets were studied in both pure extensional flow and combined extensional and shear flow at various capillary numbers using a microfluidic hyperbolic contraction. The shear resulted from droplet confinement and increased with droplet size and position along the hyperbolic contraction. Droplet deformation was found to increase with increasing confinement and capillary number. At low confinements and low capillary numbers, the droplet deformation followed the predictions of theory. For fully confined droplets, where the interface was populated by 1 μm silica particles, the droplet deformation increased precipitously and two tails were observed to form at the rear of the droplet. These tails were similar to those seen for surfactant covered droplets. At a critical capillary number, daughter droplets were observed to stream from these tails. Due to the elasticity of the particle-laden interface, these drops did not return to a spherical shape, but were observed to buckle. Although increases in droplet deformation were observed, no tail streaming occurred for the 500 nm silica particle covered droplets over the range of capillary numbers studied.

  16. Extensional Rheology Experiment Developed to Investigate the Rheology of Dilute Polymer Solutions in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logsdon, Kirk A.

    2001-01-01

    A fundamental characteristic of fluid is viscosity; that is, the fluid resists forces that cause it to flow. This characteristic, or parameter, is used by manufacturers and end-users to describe the physical properties of a specific material so that they know what to expect when a material, such as a polymer, is processed through an extruder, a film blower, or a fiber-spinning apparatus. Normally, researchers will report a shear viscosity that depends on the rate of an imposed shearing flow. Although this type of characterization is sufficient for some processes, simple shearing experiments do not provide a complete picture of what a processor may expect for all materials. Extensional stretching flows are common in many polymer-processing operations such as extrusion, blow molding, and fiber spinning. Therefore, knowledge of the complete rheological (ability to flow and be deformed) properties of the polymeric fluid being processed is required to accurately predict and account for the flow behavior. In addition, if numerical simulations are ever able to serve as a priori design tools for optimizing polymer processing operations such as those described above, an accurate knowledge of the extensional viscosity of a polymer system and its variation with temperature, concentration, molecular weight, and strain rate is critical.

  17. Dynamic Finite Element Analysis of Extensional-Torsional Coupled Vibration in Nonuniform Composite Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Seyed M.; Roach, Andrew

    2011-12-01

    The application of a Dynamic Finite Element (DFE) technique to the extensional-torsional free vibration analysis of nonuniform composite beams, in the absence of flexural coupling, is presented. The proposed method is a fusion of the Galerkin weighted residual formulation and the Dynamic Stiffness Matrix (DSM) method, where the basis functions of approximation space are assumed to be the closed form solutions of the differential equations governing uncoupled extensional and torsional vibrations of the beam. The use of resulting dynamic trigonometric interpolation (shape) functions leads to a frequency dependent stiffness matrix, representing both mass and stiffness properties of the beam element. Assembly of the element matrices and the application of the boundary conditions then leads to a frequency dependent nonlinear eigenproblem, which is solved to evaluate the system natural frequencies and modes. Two illustrative examples of uniform and tapered cantilevered, Circumferentially Uniform Stiffness ( CUS), hollow, composite beams are presented. The influence of ply fibre-angle on the natural frequencies is also studied. The correctness of the theory and the superiority of the proposed DFE over the contrasting DSM and conventional FEM methods are confirmed by the published results and numerical checks. The discussion of results is followed by some concluding remarks.

  18. Reflection of drill-string extensional waves at the bit-rock contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletto, Flavio; Malusa, Massimo

    2002-06-01

    Downward propagating extensional waves are partially reflected at the bit-rock contact. The evaluation of the reflection coefficient is important to obtain while drilling information about the acoustic properties of the formations. The scope of this work is to estimate the bit-rock reflection coefficient, assuming a flat drill bit in perfect contact with the formation. Using the low-frequency approximation, which holds when the wavelength is much larger than the lateral dimensions of the borehole, the drill-string is assumed to be a laterally free rod, and the formation an homogeneous and isotropic medium. This work shows that the reflection coefficient of the extensional waves depends, along with the elastic properties of the formation, on the ratio of the cross sections of the drill-string and borehole. The impedance of the drilled rock can be calculated from the measured reflection coefficient, which is related to the amplitude of waves produced in the string and in the formation by a working drill-bit.

  19. The importance of flow history in mixed shear and extensional flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Caroline; McKinley, Gareth

    2015-11-01

    Many complex fluid flows of experimental and academic interest exhibit mixed kinematics with regions of shear and elongation. Examples include flows through planar hyperbolic contractions in microfluidic devices and through porous media or geometric arrays. Through the introduction of a ``flow-type parameter'' α which varies between 0 in pure shear and 1 in pure elongation, the local velocity fields of all such mixed flows can be concisely characterized. It is tempting to then consider the local stress field and interpret the local state of stress in a complex fluid in terms of shearing or extensional material functions. However, the material response of such fluids exhibit a fading memory of the entire deformation history. We consider a dilute solution of Hookean dumbbells and solve the Oldroyd-B model to obtain analytic expressions for the entire stress field in any arbitrary mixed flow of constant strain rate and flow-type parameter α. We then consider a more complex flow for which the shear rate is constant but the flow-type parameter α varies periodically in time (reminiscent of flow through a periodic array or through repeated contractions and expansions). We show that the flow history and kinematic sequencing (in terms of whether the flow was initialized as shearing or extensional) is extremely important in determining the ensuing stress field and rate of dissipated energy in the flow, and can only be ignored in the limit of infinitely slow flow variations.

  20. Supply Chain Strategies for the International Interoceanic Mazatlan-Houston Logistic Corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. de la O

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Describe the interoceanic Mazatlan-Houston Logistic Corridor (MHLC as an alternative route to create sustainable competitive advantages for Mexican, USA, and international firms competing in an international marketplace. Taking into account the competitive advantages of utilizing this corridor for international trade, we analyze supply chain strategies for Mexican and international companies demanding economical logistic solutions in this region. It was found that the MHLC benefits efficient industry segments with demand well known in advance. It was also found that the potential of both inbound and outbound container traffic to the Asia-Pacific marketplace along this international commerce corridor fluctuates between 39,000 and 761,000 TEU's.

  1. Design of integrated and co-ordinated multimodal transport systems – North Sea – Mediterranean corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil MORTIMER

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the North Sea – Mediterranean corridor, part of the Trans-European transport network. A brief discussion on the aspects of multimodality and the possible modes of transport involved in transporting inland freight is presented followed by an introduction to main IT systems that can be implemented to increase the efficiency of freight transport. Presented also is a description on the envisaged investments in freight corridors in Europe. An assessment of information flows is also offered. The study concludes that the concept of a freight corridor should be extended to a network in order for more global benefits to be experienced.

  2. Evolution of an Interbasin Mountain-Block Extensional Accommodation Zone Within the Central Colorado Rio Grande Rift, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, S. A.; Caine, J. S.; Fridrich, C.; Hudson, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    Our understanding of extensional strain transfer and accommodation in continental rifts has grown considerably, but few studied transfer zones exhibit high internal topographic and structural relief. In the Rio Grande rift of Colorado the WNW-trending northern tip of the Sangre de Cristo Range separates the opposite-tilted Upper Arkansas River (UAR) and San Luis half grabens. We have investigated the development and role of faults flanking this "Poncha" intrarift mountain block in transferring extension between rift basins, mountain block surface uplift, and landscape evolution. The topographically rugged Poncha block consists of Proterozoic metamorphic and plutonic rocks overlain on its west and southwest flanks by 34.5-33-Ma volcanic rocks and alluvial deposits of the Mio-Pliocene Dry Union Formation. Similar Dry Union sediments underlie a moderately elevated, strongly dissected older piedmont along the northern front of the mountain block. All of these units are tilted 10-35º to the W and SW. A WNW-trending, right-stepping fault system > 25 km in length separates the piedmont and UAR basin from the steep northern Poncha mountain front. Slip measurements along this fault system, cutting deposits as young as ~200 ka, indicate dextral-normal oblique movement. The NNW-striking, down-to-E southern Sawatch range-front fault system forms the western terminus of the Poncha block where it juxtaposes Dry Union deposits against Sawatch Proterozoic basement rocks. Gently tilted proximal diamicton and alluvial deposits on the downthrown blocks of both range-front faults likely mark Plio-Pleistocene(?) mountain block uplift. Arrays of NNW- to WNW-striking faults cutting volcanic and Dry Union units on the flanks of the Poncha block commonly have normal-oblique slip, with greater tendency for dextral strike-slip components on WNW-striking faults. Preliminary paleomagnetic data from the volcanic rocks detect no significant vertical-axis rotation that accompanied oblique

  3. A description of the nearshore fish communities in the Huron-Erie Corridor using multiple gear types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, James T.; Chiotti, Justin A.; Boase, James C.; Thomas, Mike V.; Manny, Bruce A.; Roseman, Edward F.

    2013-01-01

    Great Lakes coastal wetlands provide a critical habitat for many fish species throughout their life cycles. Once home to one of the largest wetland complexes in the Great Lakes, coastal wetlands in the Huron–Erie Corridor (HEC) have decreased dramatically since the early 1900s. We characterized the nearshore fish communities at three different wetland complexes in the HEC using electrofishing, seines, and fyke nets. Species richness was highest in the Detroit River (63), followed by the St. Clair Delta (56), and Western Lake Erie (47). The nearshore fish communities in the Detroit River and St. Clair Delta consisted primarily of shiners, bluntnose minnow, centrarchids, and brook silverside, while the Western Lake Erie sites consisted of high proportions of non-native taxa including common carp, gizzard shad, goldfish, and white perch. Species richness estimates using individual-based rarefaction curves were higher when using electrofishing data compared to fyke nets or seine hauls at each wetland. Twelve fish species were captured exclusively during electrofishing assessments, while one species was captured exclusively in fyke nets, and none exclusively during seine hauls. Western Lake Erie wetlands were more indicative of degraded systems with lower species richness, lower proportion of turbidity intolerant species, and increased abundance of non-native taxa. This work highlights the importance of coastal wetlands in the HEC by capturing 69 different fish species utilizing these wetlands to fulfill life history requirements and provides insight when selecting gears to sample nearshore littoral areas.

  4. Hot Spots and Hot Times: Wildlife Road Mortality in a Regional Conservation Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrah, Evelyn; Danby, Ryan K.; Eberhardt, Ewen; Cunnington, Glenn M.; Mitchell, Scott

    2015-10-01

    Strategies to reduce wildlife road mortality have become a significant component of many conservation efforts. However, their success depends on knowledge of the temporal and spatial patterns of mortality. We studied these patterns along the 1000 Islands Parkway in Ontario, Canada, a 37 km road that runs adjacent to the St. Lawrence River and bisects the Algonquin-to-Adirondacks international conservation corridor. Characteristics of all vertebrate road kill were recorded during 209 bicycle surveys conducted from 2008 to 2011. We estimate that over 16,700 vertebrates are killed on the road from April to October each year; most are amphibians, but high numbers of birds, mammals, and reptiles were also found, including six reptiles considered at-risk in Canada. Regression tree analysis was used to assess the importance of seasonality, weather, and traffic on road kill magnitude. All taxa except mammals exhibited distinct temporal peaks corresponding to phases in annual life cycles. Variations in weather and traffic were only important outside these peak times. Getis-Ord analysis was used to identify spatial clusters of mortality. Hot spots were found in all years for all taxa, but locations varied annually. A significant spatial association was found between multiyear hot spots and wetlands. The results underscore the notion that multi-species conservation efforts must account for differences in the seasonality of road mortality among species and that multiple years of data are necessary to identify locations where the greatest conservation good can be achieved. This information can be used to inform mitigation strategies with implications for conservation at regional scales.

  5. Post-fire Thermokarst Development Along a Planned Road Corridor in Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B. M.; Grosse, G.; Larsen, C. F.; Hayes, D. J.; Arp, C. D.; Liu, L.; Miller, E.

    2015-12-01

    Wildfire disturbance in northern high latitude regions is an important factor contributing to ecosystem and landscape change. In permafrost influenced terrain, fire may initiate thermokarst development which impacts hydrology, vegetation, wildlife, carbon storage and infrastructure. In this study we differenced two airborne LiDAR datasets that were acquired in the aftermath of the large and severe Anaktuvuk River tundra fire, which in 2007 burned across a proposed road corridor in Arctic Alaska. The 2009 LiDAR dataset was acquired by the Alaska Department of Transportation in preparation for construction of a gravel road that would connect the Dalton Highway with the logistical camp of Umiat. The 2014 LiDAR dataset was acquired by the USGS to quantify potential post-fire thermokarst development over the first seven years following the tundra fire event. By differencing the two 1 m resolution digital terrain models, we measured permafrost thaw subsidence across 34% of the burned tundra area studied, and observed less than 1% in similar, undisturbed tundra terrain units. Ice-rich, yedoma upland terrain was most susceptible to thermokarst development following the disturbance, accounting for 50% of the areal and volumetric change detected, with some locations subsiding more than six meters over the study period. Calculation of rugosity, or surface roughness, in the two datasets showed a doubling in microtopography on average across the burned portion of the study area, with a 340% increase in yedoma upland terrain. An additional LiDAR dataset was acquired in April 2015 to document the role of thermokarst development on enhanced snow accumulation and subsequent snowmelt runoff within the burn area. Our findings will enable future vulnerability assessments of ice-rich permafrost terrain as a result of shifting disturbance regimes. Such assessments are needed to address questions focused on the impact of permafrost degradation on physical, ecological, and socio

  6. Hot Spots and Hot Times: Wildlife Road Mortality in a Regional Conservation Corridor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrah, Evelyn; Danby, Ryan K; Eberhardt, Ewen; Cunnington, Glenn M; Mitchell, Scott

    2015-10-01

    Strategies to reduce wildlife road mortality have become a significant component of many conservation efforts. However, their success depends on knowledge of the temporal and spatial patterns of mortality. We studied these patterns along the 1000 Islands Parkway in Ontario, Canada, a 37 km road that runs adjacent to the St. Lawrence River and bisects the Algonquin-to-Adirondacks international conservation corridor. Characteristics of all vertebrate road kill were recorded during 209 bicycle surveys conducted from 2008 to 2011. We estimate that over 16,700 vertebrates are killed on the road from April to October each year; most are amphibians, but high numbers of birds, mammals, and reptiles were also found, including six reptiles considered at-risk in Canada. Regression tree analysis was used to assess the importance of seasonality, weather, and traffic on road kill magnitude. All taxa except mammals exhibited distinct temporal peaks corresponding to phases in annual life cycles. Variations in weather and traffic were only important outside these peak times. Getis-Ord analysis was used to identify spatial clusters of mortality. Hot spots were found in all years for all taxa, but locations varied annually. A significant spatial association was found between multiyear hot spots and wetlands. The results underscore the notion that multi-species conservation efforts must account for differences in the seasonality of road mortality among species and that multiple years of data are necessary to identify locations where the greatest conservation good can be achieved. This information can be used to inform mitigation strategies with implications for conservation at regional scales.

  7. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Menard Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Menard Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from remotely...

  8. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) - Iowa Corridor Project Area (Port Louisa NWR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) Summary Report for Iowa Corridor Project Area describes current hydrologic information, provides an assessment of...

  9. Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric, UtilityCorridor, Published in 2008, Millard County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'UtilityCorridor'. Data by...

  10. Taos Smart Growth Implementation Assistance: Concepts for the Paseo del Pueblo Sur Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes a technical assistance project with Taos, NM, to help make development along State Highway 68, the Paseo del Pueblo Sur commercial corridor, economically stronger and more attractive.

  11. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  12. Sensitivity of Occupant Response Subject to Prescribed Corridors for Impact Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Crandall

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A technology to study the sensitivity of impact responses to prescribed test conditions is presented. Motor vehicle impacts are used to illustrate the principles of this sensitivity technology. Impact conditions are regulated by specifying either a corridor for the acceleration time history or other test parameters such as velocity change, static crush distance, and pulse duration. By combining a time domain constrained optimization method and a multirigid body dynamics simulator, the upper and lower bounds of occupant responses subject to the regulated corridors were obtained. It was found that these prescribed corridors may be either so wide as to allow extreme variations in occupant response or so narrow that they are physically unrealizable in the laboratory test environment. A new corridor based on specifications for the test parameters of acceleration, velocity. crush distance, and duration for frontal vehicle impacts is given.

  13. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  14. A Simulation Testbed for Dynamic Air Corridors within the Next Generation Air Transportation System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The key innovation in this effort is the development of a simulation testbed for identifying dynamic air corridors that can increase aircraft throughput in and...

  15. The importance and potentials of X corridor in the European traffic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Branislav P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the network of multimodular corridors, but also in the European traffic system on the whole, corridor X has a very important role more in respect of its position and potentials and less regarding the degree of it valuation. It is particularly so since it represents a section of the intercontinental (land link between Europe and Near and Middle East. At the same time, this corridor is also a dominant axis of development in the majority of SE European countries, as well as a major component of complex spatial-functional transformations that occur within them. That, inter alias, means that the pace of overall development of these parts will depend both on the pace of the overall valuation of potentials this corridors has (and represents, as well as the strengthening of its role as a major element of intra- and inter-regional linking of this part of European continent.

  16. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Village Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Village Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from remotely...

  17. 2006 Multibeam Mapping of along-shelf corridor, between Madison-Swanson and Steamboat Lumps Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This disk or set of disks contain high-resolution multibeam and backscatter maps of a long thin corridor at the shelf edge near he 74-m isobath spanning from...

  18. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Menard Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Menard Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from remotely...

  19. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Menard Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Menard Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from remotely...

  20. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  1. Time-averaged currents in the Northeast Corridor Reserve during November 2013.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2D numerical model, CMS-Flow, was implemented for the Northeast Corridor Reserve (NECR) using a telescoping grid. Tide and wind forcing was provided to the model...

  2. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - MDC_TargetUrbanAreaCorridor

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A polygon feature class of Miami-Dade County, Targeted Urban Area Corridors. This coverage was created for the Office of Community & Economic Development (OCED)...

  3. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Menard Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Menard Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from remotely...

  4. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  5. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Village Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Village Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  6. Roles of a forest corridor between Marojejy, Anjana- haribe-Sud and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    southwestern part of the provisionally protected rainforest corri- dor between .... The climate in COMATSA is tropical and humid with about ..... Lemurs in a complex landscape: mapping spe- ... Are corridors, fragment size and forest structure.

  7. Wild felid species richness affected by a corridor in the Lacandona forest, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil–Fernández, M.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Wild felids are one of the most vulnerable species due to habitat loss caused by fragmentation of ecosystems. We analyzed the effect of a structural corridor, defined as a strip of vegetation connecting two habitat patches, on the richness and habitat occupancy of felids on three sites in Marqués de Comillas, Chiapas, one with two isolated forest patches, the second with a structural corridor, and the third inside the Montes Azules Biosphere Reserve. We found only two species (L. pardalis and H. yagouaroundi in the isolated forest patches, five species in the structural corridor, and four species inside the Reserve. The corridor did not significantly affect occupancy, but due to the low detection rates, further investigation is needed to rule out differences. Our results highlight the need to manage habitat connectivity in the remaining forests in order to preserve the felid community of Marqués de Comillas, Chiapas, México.

  8. The significance of the Danube ecological corridor in the proceedings of implementing ecological networks in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Dejan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the modern processes for exploiting land people have altered the original appearance of areas and created cultural environments. The remaining natural environments, whether protected or not, take up a relatively small portion of space and represent isolated islands which in itself can not be sufficient for the preservation of biodiversity or for the fulfillment of national, regional or international goals and commitments related to their preservation. In order to secure the preservation of biodiversity, the strengthening of integrity and the natural processes, such as animal migrations, succession of vegetation and evolution processes, the communication between natural habitats is imperative. Ecological corridors, as integral elements of ecological networks, ensure the preservation of vital ecological interactions by providing a connection between different habitats or areas. Depending on a range of factors, from the fulfillment of demands of different species to the connecting of regions, corridors of local, sub-regional, regional and international importance are identified. The Danube ecological corridor is one of the most significant corridors of international importance which encompasses a large number of habitats which are part of the natural watercourse of the corridor. There are numerous protected areas in the Danube coastal area on Serbia's territory which present themselves as central areas for forming the ecological network, such as: Gornje Podunavlje, Karađorđevo, Fruška Gora, Titelski Breg hill, Kovalski rit marsh, Dunavski loess bluffs, the Sava mouth, Labudovo okno, Deliblato sands, Đerdap and Mala Vrbica. The diverse and mosaic vegetation of the floodplain, as well as the consistency of the protected areas within the Danube corridor have a direct influence on the quality and functionality of this corridor. The goal of this paper is to show the significance of the Danube ecological corridor in the process of implementing

  9. A Simultaneous Confidence Corridor for Varying Coefficient Regression with Sparse Functional Data

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Lijie; Li WANG; Härdle, Wolfgang Karl; Yang, Lijian

    2014-01-01

    We consider a varying coefficient regression model for sparse functional data, with time varying response variable depending linearly on some time independent covariates with coefficients as functions of time dependent covariates. Based on spline smoothing, we propose data driven simultaneous confidence corridors for the coefficient functions with asymptotically correct confidence level. Such confidence corridors are useful benchmarks for statistical inference on the global shapes of coeffici...

  10. The effects of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor on India-Pakistan relations

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) constitutes one of the largest foreign investments China has made in the framework of the "One Belt, One Road" initiative. The expenditures planned for the coming years in the amount of approximately $46 billion will further intensify relations between China and Pakistan. At the same time, Pakistan will assume a more prominent role in China's foreign policy. But CPEC also affects relations between India and Pakistan. The transport corridor between P...

  11. Rise of Regional Logistics Hubs in Global Trade : Role of Arctic Corridor in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Buyle, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The proposed research concerns the engagement of the Finnish transport network into national, regional, European and global supply chains. The author was interested in studying the role of new transport corridors in trade reactivity and changes in market trends. The main target of the thesis is to understand the role of the Arctic Corridor on the implementation of Finnish development strategies. The mineral industry in Finnish Lapland and the extraction of natural resources in the Barent...

  12. Extensional flow of nematic liquid crystal with an applied electric field

    KAUST Repository

    CUMMINGS, L. J.

    2013-10-17

    Systematic asymptotic methods are used to formulate a model for the extensional flow of a thin sheet of nematic liquid crystal. With no external body forces applied, the model is found to be equivalent to the so-called Trouton model for Newtonian sheets (and fibres), albeit with a modified \\'Trouton ratio\\'. However, with a symmetry-breaking electric field gradient applied, behaviour deviates from the Newtonian case, and the sheet can undergo finite-time breakup if a suitable destabilizing field is applied. Some simple exact solutions are presented to illustrate the results in certain idealized limits, as well as sample numerical results to the full model equations. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2013.

  13. Monitoring the hydration of DNA self-assembled monolayers using an extensional nanomechanical resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagliani, Alberto; Kosaka, Priscila; Tamayo, Javier; Davis, Zachary James

    2012-05-08

    We have fabricated an ultrasensitive nanomechanical resonator based on the extensional vibration mode to weigh the adsorbed water on self-assembled monolayers of DNA as a function of the relative humidity. The water adsorption isotherms provide the number of adsorbed water molecules per nucleotide for monolayers of single stranded (ss) DNA and after hybridization with the complementary DNA strand. Our results differ from previous data obtained with bulk samples, showing the genuine behavior of these self-assembled monolayers. The hybridization cannot be inferred from the water adsorption isotherms due to the low hybridization efficiency of these highly packed monolayers. Strikingly, we efficiently detect the hybridization by measuring the thermal desorption of water at constant relativity humidity. This finding adds a new nanomechanical tool for developing a label-free nucleic acid sensor based on the interaction between water and self-assembled monolayers of nucleic acids.

  14. Genetic model of hanging wall syncline and central dome in extensional fault

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘德来; 丁贵明; 鲁兵

    2002-01-01

    Hanging wall syncline and central dome are special extension structures, developing over the hanging wall in an extensional ramp-flat fault. Under the condition that the flat is sub-horizontal, the hanging wall syncline is separated from the half graben by the central dome. And on the dome forms an erosional surface. Both sediments in the half graben and erosional surface on the top of the central dome extended over the dome and entered into the hanging wall syncline with extension going on. Meanwhile, those having entered were overlapped by new sedimentary layers in the hanging wall syncline, so that there is a together-threaded, diachronic unconformity to form in the same epoch stratum. The layers in the hanging wall syncline also have an attribute of migrating laterally and getting tilted with extension. There is no sedimentation on the central dome. But sediments, which came from the half graben, got thicker over the dome in extension.

  15. Mapping mountain torrent hazards in the Hexi Corridor using an evidential reasoning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Youhua; Liu, Jinpeng; Tian, Feng; Wang, Dekai

    2017-02-01

    The Hexi Corridor is an important part of the Silk Road Economic Belt and a crucial channel for westward development in China. Many important national engineering projects pass through the corridor, such as highways, railways, and the West-to-East Gas Pipeline. The frequent torrent disasters greatly impact the security of infrastructure and human safety. In this study, an evidential reasoning approach based on Dempster-Shafer theory is proposed for mapping mountain torrent hazards in the Hexi Corridor. A torrent hazard map for the Hexi Corridor was generated by integrating the driving factors of mountain torrent disasters including precipitation, terrain, flow concentration processes, and the vegetation fraction. The results show that the capability of the proposed method is satisfactory. The torrent hazard map shows that there is high potential torrent hazard in the central and southeastern Hexi Corridor. The results are useful for engineering planning support and resource protection in the Hexi Corridor. Further efforts are discussed for improving torrent hazard mapping and prediction.

  16. Factors affecting buccal corridor space in Angle′s Class II Division 1 malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Buccal corridor space has been thought of primarily in terms of maxillary width, but there is also evidence that they are heavily influenced by the antero-posterior position of maxilla. The present study was undertaken with an aim of evaluating and comparing the dental and skeletal factors related to buccal corridor space in individuals having Class I and Class II Division 1 malocclusions. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects of which 40 were males and 40 were females in the age group of 20-30 years were selected as per inclusion criteria and were grouped as Group I having Class I malocclusion and as Group II having Class II malocclusions based on angle ANB. 12 linear and 2 angular cephalometric measurements and 4 study cast measurements were used to correlate with the buccal corridor linear ratio (BCLR, calculated on smile photograph using the Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software (Adobe Systems Inc., San Jose, California, USA. The data obtained was statistically evaluated using independent t-test and multiple linear regression analysis. Result: Buccal corridor space is larger in individuals with Class II Division 1 malocclusion when compared with individuals with Class I malocclusions. There exists a significant difference in buccal corridor space between males and females. Conclusion: The present study helps in establishing the correlation between certain factors and the amount of buccal corridor space in individuals having skeletal Class II pattern.

  17. Transpressive inversion of a Mesozoic extensional forced fold system with an intermediate décollement level in the Basque-Cantabrian Basin (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavani, Stefano; Carola, Eloi; Granado, Pablo; Quintã, Anna; MuñOz, Josep Anton

    2013-03-01

    In the Basque-Cantabrian Basin (Spain), normal faulting and associated folding occurred during Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous rifting. Cenozoic Pyrenean thick-skinned transpressive inversion in the western parts of the basin preserved the first-order extensional architecture. Integration of geological maps and seismic profiles has permitted to fully constrain the style of extensional deformation and subsequent inversion in the western portion of the Basque-Cantabrian Basin. Extensional faults offset the Paleozoic basement up to Lower Triassic rocks. The presence of an efficient décollement level represented by Triassic evaporites produced the decoupling between basement rocks and the Upper Triassic to Middle Jurassic prerift cover sequence. Extensional forced folding occurred in the cover, driven by basement faulting and the migration of evaporites toward the hanging wall of the extensional faults, with salt welds developing away from them. Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous syn-rift sediments deposited synchronously with forced folding, which led to the development of extensional growth geometries associated with both master faults and nearly-transverse faults. Syn-rift growth sequences are characterized by downlap and onlap relationships with the underlying prerift units, interpreted as the result of along-strike variations of master fault extensional displacement rate. Cenozoic Pyrenean contraction generated the right-lateral transpressive inversion of basement master faults and the almost dip-slip reactivation of transverse extensional faults.

  18. Carbonate sedimentation in an extensional active margin: Cretaceous history of the Haymana region, Pontides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okay, Aral I.; Altiner, Demir

    2016-10-01

    The Haymana region in Central Anatolia is located in the southern part of the Pontides close to the İzmir-Ankara suture. During the Cretaceous, the region formed part of the south-facing active margin of the Eurasia. The area preserves a nearly complete record of the Cretaceous system. Shallow marine carbonates of earliest Cretaceous age are overlain by a 700-m-thick Cretaceous sequence, dominated by deep marine limestones. Three unconformity-bounded pelagic carbonate sequences of Berriasian, Albian-Cenomanian and Turonian-Santonian ages are recognized: Each depositional sequence is preceded by a period of tilting and submarine erosion during the Berriasian, early Albian and late Cenomanian, which corresponds to phases of local extension in the active continental margin. Carbonate breccias mark the base of the sequences and each carbonate sequence steps down on older units. The deep marine carbonate deposition ended in the late Santonian followed by tilting, erosion and folding during the Campanian. Deposition of thick siliciclastic turbidites started in the late Campanian and continued into the Tertiary. Unlike most forearc basins, the Haymana region was a site of deep marine carbonate deposition until the Campanian. This was because the Pontide arc was extensional and the volcanic detritus was trapped in the intra-arc basins and did not reach the forearc or the trench. The extensional nature of the arc is also shown by the opening of the Black Sea as a backarc basin in the Turonian-Santonian. The carbonate sedimentation in an active margin is characterized by synsedimentary vertical displacements, which results in submarine erosion, carbonate breccias and in the lateral discontinuity of the sequences, and differs from blanket like carbonate deposition in the passive margins.

  19. Extensional Seismogenic Stress and Tectonic Movement on the Central Region of the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiren Xu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Various earthquake fault types, mechanism solutions and stress fields, as well as GPS and geothermal data are analyzed for the study of the crustal movements on the Tibetan plateau and their tectonic implications. The results show that a lot of the normal faulting type-event concentrated at altitudes greater than 4000 m on the central Tibetan plateau. The altitudes concentrating normal faulting type-events can be zoned two parts: the western part, the Lhasa block, and the eastern part, the Qiangtang-Changdu region. The azimuths of T-axes are in a general E-W direction in the Lhasa block and NW-SE or NNW-SSE in the Qiangtang-Changdu region at the altitudes of the Tibetan plateau. The tensional stresses in E-W direction and NW-SE direction predominate normal faulting earthquake occurrence in the Lhasa block and the Qiangtang-Changdu region, respectively. The slipping displacements of the normal-faulting-type events have great components in near E-W direction and NW-SE direction in the Lhasa block and the Qiangtang-Changdu region, respectively. The extensions are probably an eastward or southeastward extensional motion, being mainly tectonic activity phenomena in the plateau altitudes. The extensional motions due to normal-fault earthquakes are important tectonic activity regimes on the high altitudes of the plateau. The easterly crustal extensions on the plateau are attributable to the gravitational collapse of the high plateau and eastward extrusion of hotter mantle materials beneath the eastern boundary of the plateau. Numbers of thrust-fault and strike-slip-fault earthquakes with strong compressive stress in a general NNE-SSW direction occur on the edges of the plateau.

  20. Analysis Method for Predicting Strain in Interior Beds and Sub-Resolution Faults from Area Balance Theory in Extensional Basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Extensional basins include mainly grabens and half grabens displaced along a lower detachment. Based on area balance theory, there is a linear relationship between a height of regional and the lower detachment h on the outside of the basin and "lost area S" from the regional in the basin. The pre-growth beds above lower detachment are of the same extensional displacement so that an "S-h diagram" can be used to determine the depth to lower detachment and to calculate the total extensional displacement of the beds above the lower detachment. The extensional displacement is dominated by the heave of various scale normal faults. The displacement of obvious faults can be immediately figured out from the measured bed-length. The requisite extension calculated by area balance is the layer-parallel strain, which could be accommodated by displacement on sub-resolution faults. Accordingly, the layer-parallel strain can help us predict the magnitude and distribution of sub-resolution faults on the basis of analysis of the structural style and rheological behavior.

  1. Discrete element modeling of Martian pit crater formation in response to extensional fracturing and dilational normal faulting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Kevin J.; Wyrick, Danielle Y.; Ferrill, David A.

    2011-04-01

    Pit craters, circular to elliptical depressions that lack a raised rim or ejecta deposits, are common on the surface of Mars. Similar structures are also found on Earth, Venus, the Moon, and smaller planetary bodies, including some asteroids. While it is generally accepted that these pits form in response to material drainage into a subsurface void space, the primary mechanism(s) responsible for creating the void is a subject of debate. Previously proposed mechanisms include collapse into lave tubes, dike injection, extensional fracturing, and dilational normal faulting. In this study, we employ two-dimensional discrete element models to assess both extensional fracturing and dilational normal faulting as mechanisms for forming pit craters. We also examine the effect of mechanical stratigraphy (alternating strong and weak layers) and variation in regolith thickness on pit morphology. Our simulations indicate that both extensional fracturing and dilational normal faulting are viable mechanisms. Both mechanisms lead to generally convex (steepening downward) slope profiles; extensional fracturing results in generally symmetric pits, whereas dilational normal faulting produces strongly asymmetric geometries. Pit width is established early, whereas pit depth increases later in the deformation history. Inclusion of mechanical stratigraphy results in wider and deeper pits, particularly for the dilational normal faulting, and the presence of strong near-surface layers leads to pits with distinct edges as observed on Mars. The modeling results suggest that a thicker regolith leads to wider but shallower pits that are less distinct and may be more difficult to detect in areas of thick regolith.

  2. Monitoring vegetation water uptake in a semiarid riparian corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J.; Ochoa, C. G.; Leonard, J.

    2015-12-01

    With a changing global climate and growing demand for water throughout the world, responsible and sustainable land and water resource management practices are becoming increasingly important. Accounting for the amount of water used by riparian vegetation is a critical element for better managing water resources in arid and semiarid environments. The objective of this study was to determine water uptake by selected riparian vegetative species in a semiarid riparian corridor in North-Central Oregon. Exo-skin sap flow sensors (Dynamax, Houston, TX, U.S.A.) were used to measure sap flux in red alder (Alnus rubra) trees, the dominant overstory vegetation at the field site. Xylem sap flow data was collected from selected trees at the field site and in a greenhouse setting. Transpiration rates were determined based on an energy balance method, which makes it possible to estimate the mass flow of sap by measuring the velocity of electrical heat pulses through the plant stem. Preliminary field results indicate that red alder tree branches of about 1 inch diameter transpire between 2 and 6 kg of water/day. Higher transpiration rates of up to 7.3 kg of water/day were observed under greenhouse conditions. Streamflow and stream water temperature, vegetation characteristics, and meteorological data were analyzed in conjunction with transpiration data. Results of this study provide insight on riparian vegetation water consumption in water scarce ecosystems. This study is part of an overarching project focused on climate-vegetation interactions and ecohydrologic processes in arid and semiarid landscapes.

  3. Renewable Energy Zones for the Africa Clean Energy Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Grace C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Deshmukh, Ranjit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Ndhlukula, Kudakwashe [International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Radojicic, Tijana [International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Reilly, Jessica [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Multi-criteria Analysis for Planning Renewable Energy (MapRE) is a study approach developed by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with the support of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). The approach combines geospatial, statistical, energy engineering, and economic methods to comprehensively identify and value high-quality wind, solar PV, and solar CSP resources for grid integration based on techno-economic criteria, generation profiles (for wind), and socio-environmental impacts. The Renewable Energy Zones for the Africa Clean Energy Corridor study sought to identify and comprehensively value high-quality wind, solar photovoltaic (PV), and concentrating solar power (CSP) resources in 21 countries in the East and Southern Africa Power Pools to support the prioritization of areas for development through a multi-criteria planning process. These countries include Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Djibouti, Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Libya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The study includes the methodology and the key results including renewable energy potential for each region.

  4. 1956-2000年云南红河流域径流的时空分布%Spatial and temporal variation of runoff of Red River Basin in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李运刚; 何大明; 叶长青

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the variation of runoff of Red River Basin and discusses the influence of "corridor-barrier" functions of valleys and mountains on variation of runoff by using GIS and statistic methods based on the monthly precipitation, temperature and evaporation data from 1960 to 2000 at 32 meteorological stations in Red River Basin, and the annual runoff data of Yuanjiang River, Lixian River and Panlong River from 1956 to 2000. The results show out: (1) Under the effect of "corridor-barrier" functions of valleys and mountains in Red River Basin, the patterns of annual precipitation and runoff depth distribution in spatial change a NW-SE direction, which is similar with the trend of the Red River valley and Ailao mountains. (2) In the long temporal scale averaged over years, the most obvious effects of the "corridor-barrier" functions is on runoff variation, and the second is on the precipitation, but not obvious on the temperature. (3) Under the superposed effect of climate changes and the "corridor-barrier" functions of valleys and mountains in Red River Basin, the difference of runoff variation is obvious in the east-west direction: the runoff variation of Yuanjiang River along the Red River Fault present an ascending trend, but the Lixian River on the west side of the Fault and the Panlong River on the east present a descending trend; the annual runoff in Yuanjiang River and Panlong River had a quasi-5a periods, and Panlong River had a quasi-8a periods; the runoff variation are quite inconsistent in different periods among the three river basins.

  5. 75 FR 2885 - Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ..., Woonsocket, RI for the following reasons: 1. Approval of Minutes 2. Chairman's Report 3. Executive Director's Report 4. Financial Budget 5. Public Input It is anticipated that about thirty people will be able to... presentations to the Commission or file written statements. Such requests should be made prior to the meeting...

  6. 75 FR 54378 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement; Stehekin River Corridor Implementation Plan; Lake Chelan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... Summary: Pursuant to Sec. 102(2)(C) of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, the National Park... on how to reduce flooding. While the COE failed to secure funds to do a detailed five-year study, its... flooding. The high monetary and environmental costs of bank protection and flood mitigation measures...

  7. Four Band Multispectral High Resolution Image Mosaic of the Colorado River Corridor, Arizona - Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In May 2013, the Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) of the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Southwest Biological Science Center (SBSC) acquired...

  8. Evaluation of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage for disturbance zonation in urban rivers using multivariate analysis: Implications for river management

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ram Devi Tachamo Shah; Deep Narayan Shah

    2013-08-01

    River pollution has tremendously increased in the major cities of South Asia, where the rivers have become a repository for domestic, agricultural, municipal and industrial wastes. This study presents the evaluation of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage as a means of assessing ecological status, determining different disturbance zones and identifying environmental variables and stressors that deteriorate the river ecosystem. In total, 20 sites in 36-km stretch of the main stem of the Bagmati River and 7 sites on its tributaries were selected for sampling in the post-monsoon and pre-monsoon seasons during the time period 2008–2010. The Ganga River System Biotic Score (GRSbios) index was applied to determine the ecological status. The ecological status of the different Bagmati River stretches ranged from reference, class 1 to class 5 (extremely polluted). We identified three types of disturbance zones along the river, ranging from minimally polluted to extremely polluted. A river corridor survey was conducted to identify any river stressing factors, revealing a sharp deterioration of the river from upstream to downstream with increasing concentrations of chloride and ortho-phosphate phosphorus. Effluents and Activities and Facilities were found to be the major stressing factors to the river ecosystem. The information gained should help water managers find the most time-efficient and cost-effective measures to address river degradation.

  9. Integrating occupancy modeling and interview data for corridor identification: A case study for jaguars in Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, K.A.; Nijhawan, S.; Salom-Perez, R.; Potosme, S.H.; Hines, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Corridors are critical elements in the long-term conservation of wide-ranging species like the jaguar (Panthera onca). Jaguar corridors across the range of the species were initially identified using a GIS-based least-cost corridor model. However, due to inherent errors in remotely sensed data and model uncertainties, these corridors warrant field verification before conservation efforts can begin. We developed a novel corridor assessment protocol based on interview data and site occupancy modeling. We divided our pilot study area, in southeastern Nicaragua, into 71, 6. ??. 6 km sampling units and conducted 160 structured interviews with local residents. Interviews were designed to collect data on jaguar and seven prey species so that detection/non-detection matrices could be constructed for each sampling unit. Jaguars were reportedly detected in 57% of the sampling units and had a detection probability of 28%. With the exception of white-lipped peccary, prey species were reportedly detected in 82-100% of the sampling units. Though the use of interview data may violate some assumptions of the occupancy modeling approach for determining 'proportion of area occupied', we countered these shortcomings through study design and interpreting the occupancy parameter, psi, as 'probability of habitat used'. Probability of habitat use was modeled for each target species using single state or multistate models. A combination of the estimated probabilities of habitat use for jaguar and prey was selected to identify the final jaguar corridor. This protocol provides an efficient field methodology for identifying corridors for easily-identifiable species, across large study areas comprised of unprotected, private lands. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. A biomimetic vision-based hovercraft accounts for bees' complex behaviour in various corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubieu, Frédéric L; Serres, Julien R; Colonnier, Fabien; Franceschini, Nicolas; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck

    2014-09-01

    Here we present the first systematic comparison between the visual guidance behaviour of a biomimetic robot and those of honeybees flying in similar environments. We built a miniature hovercraft which can travel safely along corridors with various configurations. For the first time, we implemented on a real physical robot the 'lateral optic flow regulation autopilot', which we previously studied computer simulations. This autopilot inspired by the results of experiments on various species of hymenoptera consists of two intertwined feedback loops, the speed and lateral control loops, each of which has its own optic flow (OF) set-point. A heading-lock system makes the robot move straight ahead as fast as 69 cm s(-1) with a clearance from one wall as small as 31 cm, giving an unusually high translational OF value (125° s(-1)). Our biomimetic robot was found to navigate safely along straight, tapered and bent corridors, and to react appropriately to perturbations such as the lack of texture on one wall, the presence of a tapering or non-stationary section of the corridor and even a sloping terrain equivalent to a wind disturbance. The front end of the visual system consists of only two local motion sensors (LMS), one on each side. This minimalistic visual system measuring the lateral OF suffices to control both the robot's forward speed and its clearance from the walls without ever measuring any speeds or distances. We added two additional LMSs oriented at +/-45° to improve the robot's performances in stiffly tapered corridors. The simple control system accounts for worker bees' ability to navigate safely in six challenging environments: straight corridors, single walls, tapered corridors, straight corridors with part of one wall moving or missing, as well as in the presence of wind.

  11. River restoration: morphological, hydrological, biogeochemical and ecological changes and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schirmer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available River restoration is essential as a means to enhance river dynamics, environmental heterogeneity and biodiversity. The underlying processes governing the dynamic changes need to be understood thoroughly to ensure that restoration projects meet their goals. In particular, we need to understand quantitatively how hydromorphological variability relates to ecosystem functioning and services, biodiversity and (groundwater quality in restored river corridors. Here, we provide a short overview on the literature and present a study of a restored river corridor in Switzerland combining physical, chemical, and biological observations with modeling. The results show complex spatial patterns of bank infiltration, habitat-type, biotic communities and biogeochemical processes. In particular, we found an increase in taxonomic and functional diversity for earthworms, testate amoebae and bacteria in the restored part of the river. This complexity is driven by river hydrology and morphodynamics, which are in turn actively coupled to riparian vegetation processes. Given this complexity and the multiple constraints on the uses and management of floodplains, a multi-disciplinary approach is needed to monitor the success of restoration measures and to make recommendations for future restoration projects.

  12. Remote sensing methods for power line corridor surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matikainen, Leena; Lehtomäki, Matti; Ahokas, Eero; Hyyppä, Juha; Karjalainen, Mika; Jaakkola, Anttoni; Kukko, Antero; Heinonen, Tero

    2016-09-01

    To secure uninterrupted distribution of electricity, effective monitoring and maintenance of power lines are needed. This literature review article aims to give a wide overview of the possibilities provided by modern remote sensing sensors in power line corridor surveys and to discuss the potential and limitations of different approaches. Monitoring of both power line components and vegetation around them is included. Remotely sensed data sources discussed in the review include synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, optical satellite and aerial images, thermal images, airborne laser scanner (ALS) data, land-based mobile mapping data, and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) data. The review shows that most previous studies have concentrated on the mapping and analysis of network components. In particular, automated extraction of power line conductors has achieved much attention, and promising results have been reported. For example, accuracy levels above 90% have been presented for the extraction of conductors from ALS data or aerial images. However, in many studies datasets have been small and numerical quality analyses have been omitted. Mapping of vegetation near power lines has been a less common research topic than mapping of the components, but several studies have also been carried out in this field, especially using optical aerial and satellite images. Based on the review we conclude that in future research more attention should be given to an integrated use of various data sources to benefit from the various techniques in an optimal way. Knowledge in related fields, such as vegetation monitoring from ALS, SAR and optical image data should be better exploited to develop useful monitoring approaches. Special attention should be given to rapidly developing remote sensing techniques such as UAVs and laser scanning from airborne and land-based platforms. To demonstrate and verify the capabilities of automated monitoring approaches, large tests in various environments

  13. Particulate Matter Concentrations in East Oakland's High Street Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, P.; Jackson, J.; Lewis, R.; Marigny, A.; Mitchell, J. D.; Nguyen, R.; Philips, B.; Randle, D.; Romero, D.; Spears, D.; Telles, C.; Weissman, D.

    2012-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture of small solid pieces and/or liquid droplets in the air. High concentrations of PM can pose a serious health hazard because inhalation can result in breathing problems and/or aggravate asthma. Long term exposure can increase the likelihood of respiratory problems like asthma and emphysema as well as cancer. The smaller the particles, the deeper they can get into the respiratory system. For this reason, the smallest particles, those smaller than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5), are the most dangerous. PM2.5 is largely emitted from motor vehicles burning fuels that don't break down fully. Our research team investigated the levels of PM2.5 as well as particles smaller than 10 micrometers (PM10) and total suspended particulate (TSP) along the northeast-southwest trending High Street Corridor, near Fremont High School in East Oakland, California. Using the Aerocet 531 mass particle counter, team members walked through neighborhoods and along major roads within a 1 mile radius of Fremont High School. The Aerocet 531 recorded two minute average measurements of all the relevant PM sizes, which are reported in mg/m3. Measurements were consistently taken in the morning, between 8:30 and 11:30 am. Preliminary results indicate maximum readings of all PM sizes at sites that are in close proximity to a major freeway (Interstate-880). These results support our initial hypothesis that proximity to major roads and freeways, especially those with high diesel-fuel burning truck traffic, would be the primary factor affecting PM concentration levels. Preliminary median and maximum readings all suggest particulate matter levels below what the EPA would consider unhealthy or risky.

  14. Small mammal populations in a restored stream corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn D. Wike; F. Douglas Martin; Hugh G. Hanlin; Linda S. Paddock

    2000-01-01

    An opportunity to study the response of a small mammal community to restoration of a riparian wetland was provided by the Pen branch project at the Savannah river site (SRS). Live trapping of small mammals was conducted on six transects at Pen branch in 1996 and 1998 and at three transects at Meyers branch, an unimpacted stream at SRS, in 1997 and 1998. Distributions...

  15. Corridors for LIFE; ecological network analysis for Cheshire County (UK)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der T.; Bunce, R.G.H.; Kuipers, H.; Dirksen, J.

    2003-01-01

    This report gives the result of an analysis of the ecological network, designed for the agricultural plains of Cheshire. Five ecosystem types were selected: meres and mosses, heathland, wetland and rivers, woodland, and grassland,. Species were selected which can be considered representative for the

  16. Death Valley turtlebacks: Mesozoic contractional structures overprinted by Cenozoic extension and metamorphism beneath syn-extensional plutons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlis, T. L.; Miller, M.; Serpa, L.

    2008-07-01

    The term turtleback was first coined to describe the curvilinear fault surfaces that produced a distinctive geomorphic form in the Black Mountains east of Death Valley, and although it was decades before their full significance was appreciated, they remain one of the most distinctive features of the extensional structure of the Death Valley region. Historically the interpretation of the features has varied markedly, and misconceptions about their character continue to abound, including descriptions in popular field guides for the area. It the 1990's, however, the full history of the systems began to be apparent from several key data: 1) the dating of the plutonic assemblage associated with the turtlebacks demonstrated that late Miocene, syn-extensional plutonism was fundamental to their formation; 2) the plutonic assemblage forms an intrusive sheet structurally above the turtlebacks, indicating a tie between much of the high grade metamorphism and Cenozoic plutonism; 3) a modern analog for the syn-extensional plutonism in the Black Mountains was recognized beneath Death Valley with the imaging of a mid-crustal magma body; 4) the Neogene structural history was worked out in the turtlebacks showing that folding of early-formed shear zones formed the turtleback anticlinoria but overprinting by brittle faults produced the final form as they cut obliquely across the older structure; and 5) the pre-extensional structural history was clarified, demonstrating that Mesozoic basement-involved thrust systems are present within the turtlebacks, but have been overprinted by the extensional system. An unresolved issue is the significance of Eocene U-Pb dates for pegmatites within the region, but presumably these relate somehow to the pre-extensional history. Miller and Pavlis (2005; E. Sci. Rev.) reviewed many features of the turtlebacks, and our working model for the region is that the turtlebacks originated as mid-crustal ductile-thrust systems within the Cordilleran fold

  17. Droplet Deformation in an Extensional Flow: The Role of Surfactant Physical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebe, Kathleen J.

    1996-01-01

    Surfactant-induced Marangoni effects strongly alter the stresses exerted along fluid particle interfaces. In low gravity processes, these stresses can dictate the system behavior. The dependence of Marangoni effects on surfactant physical chemistry is not understood, severely impacting our ability to predict and control fluid particle flows. A droplet in an extensional flow allows the controlled study of stretching and deforming interfaces. The deformations of the drop allow both Marangoni stresses, which resist tangential shear, and Marangoni elasticities, which resist surface dilatation, to develop. This flow presents an ideal model system for studying these effects. Prior surfactant-related work in this flow considered a linear dependence of the surface tension on the surface concentration, valid only at dilute surface concentrations, or a non-linear framework at concentrations sufficiently dilute that the linear approximation was valid. The linear framework becomes inadequate for several reasons. The finite dimensions of surfactant molecules must be taken into account with a model that includes surfaces saturation. Nonideal interactions between adsorbed surfactant molecules alter the partitioning of surfactant between the bulk and the interface, the dynamics of surfactant adsorptive/desorptive exchange, and the sensitivity of the surface tension to adsorbed surfactant. For example, cohesion between hydrocarbon chains favors strong adsorption. Cohesion also slows the rate of desorption from interfaces, and decreases the sensitivity of the surface tension to adsorbed surfactant. Strong cohesive interactions result in first order surface phase changes with a plateau in the surface tension vs surface concentration. Within this surface concentration range, the surface tension is decoupled from surface concentration gradients. We are engaged in the study of the role of surfactant physical chemistry in determining the Marangoni stresses on a drop in an extensional

  18. Extensional crustal tectonics and crust-mantle coupling, a view from the geological record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolivet, Laurent; Menant, Armel; Clerc, Camille; Sternai, Pietro; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Leroy, Sylvie; Faccenna, Claudio; Gorini, Christian

    2017-04-01

    In passive margins or back-arc regions, extensional deformation is often asymmetric, i.e. normal faults or extensional ductile shear zones dip in the same direction over large distances. We examine a number of geological examples in convergent or divergent contexts suggesting that this asymmetry results from a coupling between asthenospheric flow and crustal deformation. This is the case of the Mediterranean back-arc basins, such as the Aegean Sea, the northern Tyrrhenian Sea, the Alboran domain or the Gulf of Lion passive margin. Similar types of observation can be made on some of the Atlantic volcanic passive margins and the Afar region, which were all formed above a mantle plume. We discuss these contexts and search for the main controlling parameters for this asymmetric distributed deformation that imply a simple shear component at the scale of the lithosphere. The different geodynamic settings and tectonic histories of these different examples provide natural case-studies of the different controlling parameters, including a pre-existing heterogeneity of the crust and lithosphere (tectonic heritage) and the possible contribution of the underlying asthenospheric flow through basal drag or basal push. We show that mantle flow can induce deformation in the overlying crust in case of high heat flow and thin lithosphere. In back-arc regions, the cause of asymmetry resides in the relative motion between the asthenosphere below the overriding plate and the crust. When convergence and slab retreat work concurrently the asthenosphere flows faster than the crust toward the trench and the sense of shear is toward the upper plate. When slab retreat is the only cause of subduction, the sense of shear is opposite. In both cases, mantle flow is mostly the consequence of slab retreat and convergence. Mantle flow can however result also from larger-scale convection, controlling rifting dynamics prior to the formation of oceanic crust. In volcanic passive margins, in most cases

  19. Corridors restore animal-mediated pollination in fragmented tropical forest landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormann, Urs; Scherber, Christoph; Tscharntke, Teja; Klein, Nadja; Larbig, Manuel; Valente, Jonathon J; Hadley, Adam S; Betts, Matthew G

    2016-01-27

    Tropical biodiversity and associated ecosystem functions have become heavily eroded through habitat loss. Animal-mediated pollination is required in more than 94% of higher tropical plant species and 75% of the world's leading food crops, but it remains unclear if corridors avert deforestation-driven pollination breakdown in fragmented tropical landscapes. Here, we used manipulative resource experiments and field observations to show that corridors functionally connect neotropical forest fragments for forest-associated hummingbirds and increase pollen transfer. Further, corridors boosted forest-associated pollinator availability in fragments by 14.3 times compared with unconnected equivalents, increasing overall pollination success. Plants in patches without corridors showed pollination rates equal to bagged control flowers, indicating pollination failure in isolated fragments. This indicates, for the first time, that corridors benefit tropical forest ecosystems beyond boosting local species richness, by functionally connecting mutualistic network partners. We conclude that small-scale adjustments to landscape configuration safeguard native pollinators and associated pollination services in tropical forest landscapes. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. Engineering monitoring of rockfall hazards along transportation corridors: using mobile terrestrial LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lato

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Geotechnical hazards along linear transportation corridors are challenging to identify and often require constant monitoring. Inspecting corridors using traditional, manual methods requires the engineer to be unnecessarily exposed to the hazard. It also requires closure of the corridor to ensure safety of the worker from passing vehicles. This paper identifies the use of mobile terrestrial LiDAR data as a compliment to traditional field methods. Mobile terrestrial LiDAR is an emerging remote data collection technique capable of generating accurate fully three-dimensional virtual models while driving at speeds up to 100 km/h. Data is collected from a truck that causes no delays to active traffic nor does it impede corridor use. These resultant georeferenced data can be used for geomechanical structural feature identification and kinematic analysis, rockfall path identification and differential monitoring of rock movement or failure over time. Comparisons between mobile terrestrial and static LiDAR data collection and analysis are presented. As well, detailed discussions on workflow procedures for possible implementation are discussed. Future use of mobile terrestrial LiDAR data for corridor analysis will focus on repeated surveys and developing dynamic four-dimensional models, higher resolution data collection. As well, computationally advanced, spatially accurate, geomechanically controlled three-dimensional rockfall simulations should be investigated.

  1. Palaeoenvironments of insular Southeast Asia during the Last Glacial Period: a savanna corridor in Sundaland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Michael I.; Taylor, David; Hunt, Chris

    2005-11-01

    Consideration of a range of evidence from geomorphology, palynology, biogeography and vegetation/climate modelling suggests that a north-south 'savanna corridor' did exist through the continent of Sundaland (modern insular Indonesia and Malaysia) through the Last Glacial Period (LGP) at times of lowered sea-level, as originally proposed by Heaney [1991. Climatic Change 19, 53-61]. A minimal interpretation of the size of this corridor requires a narrow but continuous zone of open 'savanna' vegetation 50-150 km wide, running along the sand-covered divide between the modern South China and Java Seas. This area formed a land bridge between the Malaysian Peninsula and the major islands of Sumatra, Java and Borneo. The savanna corridor connected similar open vegetation types north and south of the equator, and served as a barrier to the dispersal of rainforest-dependent species between Sumatra and Borneo. A maximal interpretation of the available evidence is compatible with the existence of a broad savanna corridor, with forest restricted to refugia primarily in Sumatra, Borneo and the continental shelf beneath the modern South China Sea. This savanna corridor may have provided a convenient route for the rapid early dispersal of modern humans through the region and on into Australasia.

  2. Influence of Smile Arc and Buccal Corridors on Facial Attractiveness: A Cross-sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Shashank; Vaz, Anna C; Singh, Baldeep; Taneja, Lavina; Vinod, KS; Verma, Prateek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Two aspects of the smile: the Smile Arc (SA) and Buccal Corridors (BC) have been the interest of the orthodontist in recent years. Aim The present study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of the smile arc and buccal corridors on facial attractiveness as evaluated by orthodontists, general dentists and laymen. Materials and Methods Two subjects (one male & one female) were selected from the regional population fulfilling the criteria of an ideal smile arc and ideal buccal corridors. Frontal smile view photographs of these subjects were taken and modified by using adobe photoshop 7.0 to create combination of three smile arc variance and three buccal corridors variations respectively which were shown to 25 orthodontists, 25 general dentists & 25 laymen, to rate the facial attractiveness of each image on a rating scale. Results All the three groups (laypersons, dentists and orthodontists) showed significant difference in ratings, indicating that they had different perceptions on the facial attractiveness. Conclusion Orthodontists were more precise in discerning the smile arc and buccal corridors compared to dentists and laypersons. PMID:27790573

  3. Collision risk-capacity tradeoff analysis of an en-route corridor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Bojia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Flow corridors are a new class of trajectory-based airspace which derives from the next generation air transportation system concept of operations. Reducing the airspace complexity and increasing the capacity are the main purposes of the en-route corridor. This paper analyzes the collision risk-capacity tradeoff using a combined discrete–continuous simulation method. A basic two-dimensional en-route flow corridor with performance rules is designed as the operational environment. A second-order system is established by combining the point mass model and the proportional derivative controller together to simulate the self-separation operations of the aircrafts in the corridor and the operation performance parameters from the User Manual for the Base of Aircraft Data are used in this research in order to improve the reliability. Simulation results indicate that the aircrafts can self-separate from each other efficiently by adjusting their velocities, and rationally setting the values of some variables can improve the rate and stability of the corridor with low risks of loss of separation.

  4. Atmospheric pollution in the Tula Industrial Corridor studied using a bio monitor and nuclear analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez C, M. A.; Solis, C.; Andrade, E. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Beltran H, R. I. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, 42184 Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Issac O, K. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Medicina, Paseo Tollocan s/n, esq. Jesus Carranza, 50120 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lucho C, C. A. [Universidad Politecnica de Pachuca, Carretera Pachuca-Cd. Sahagun Km. 20, Hidalgo (Mexico); Lopez R, M. C.; Longoria, L. C. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-02-15

    This study deals with the application of nuclear analytical techniques to analyze trace elements in the biological monitor Tillandsia usneoides. Biological monitors provides an alternative advantageous way of particulate matter sampling in air pollution studies, since there is no need of special sampling devices, accumulation time can be as long as desired. T. usneoides, which occurs naturally throughout Mexico, was used to monitor air quality of Tula-Vito-Apasco (TVA) industrial corridor at central Mexico. This area is considered one of the critical zones of the country because of atmospheric contaminants high concentration. Particulate matter is regulated by Mexican norms, but its chemical composition is not. Plants were transplanted from a clean environment to four sites at the TVA corridor, and exposed for 12 weeks from February to April 2008. Trace element accumulation of plants was determined by particle induced X-ray emission and neutron activation analysis. Results reveal differences in trace elements distribution among sites in the TVA corridor. Furthermore, anthropogenic elements (S, V) and crustal elements (Ca) in T. usneoides exhibit high levels. Highly toxic elements such as Hg, As and Cr although present at trace levels, showed un enrichment relative to the initial values, when transplanted to the TVA corridor. Results show that monitoring with T. usneoides allows a first approximation of air sources to provide insights of the atmospheric pollution in the TVA corridor. (Author)

  5. Climate change and plant dispersal along corridors in fragmented landscapes of Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbach, Pablo A; Locatelli, Bruno; Molina, Luis G; Ciais, Philippe; Leadley, Paul W

    2013-09-01

    Climate change is a threat to biodiversity, and adaptation measures should be considered in biodiversity conservation planning. Protected areas (PA) are expected to be impacted by climate change and improving their connectivity with biological corridors (BC) has been proposed as a potential adaptation measure, although assessing its effectiveness remains a challenge. In Mesoamerica, efforts to preserve the biodiversity have led to the creation of a regional network of PA and, more recently, BC. This study evaluates the role of BC for facilitating plant dispersal between PA under climate change in Mesoamerica. A spatially explicit dynamic model (cellular automaton) was developed to simulate species dispersal under different climate and conservation policy scenarios. Plant functional types (PFT) were defined based on a range of dispersal rates and vegetation types to represent the diversity of species in the region. The impacts of climate change on PA and the role of BC for dispersal were assessed spatially. Results show that most impacted PA are those with low altitudinal range in hot, dry, or high latitude areas. PA with low altitudinal range in high cool areas benefit the most from corridors. The most important corridors cover larger areas and have high altitude gradients. Only the fastest PFT can keep up with the expected change in climate and benefit from corridors for dispersal. We conclude that the spatial assessment of the vulnerability of PA and the role of corridors in facilitating dispersal can help conservation planning under a changing climate.

  6. California air transportation study: A transportation system for the California Corridor of the year 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    To define and solve the problems of transportation in the California Corrider in the year 2010, the 1989 California Polytechnic State University Aeronautical Engineering Senior Design class determined future corridor transportation needs and developed a system to meet the requirements. A market study, which included interpreting travel demand and gauging the future of regional and national air travel in and out of the corridor, allowed the goals of the project to be accurately refined. Comprehensive trade-off studies of several proposed transporation systems were conducted to determine which components would form the final proposed system. Preliminary design and further analysis were performed for each resulting component. The proposed system consists of three vehicles and a special hub or mode mixer, the Corridor Access Port (CAP). The vehicles are: (1) an electric powered aircraft to serve secondary airports and the CAP; (2) a high speed magnetic levitation train running through the CAP and the high population density areas of the corridor; and (3) a vertical takeoff and landing tilt rotor aircraft to serve both intercity and intrametropolitan travelers from the CAP and city vertiports. The CAP is a combination and an extension of the hub, mode mixer, and Wayport concepts. The CAP is an integrated part of the system which meets the travel demands in the corridor, and interfaces with interstate and international travel.

  7. 液晶高分子流体在拉伸流动中拉伸粘度的解析计算研究%Computational Analytical Approach to Extensional Viscosity of Liquid Crystalline Polymer in Extensional Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付强

    2008-01-01

    The shearing extension is a main factor in the extrusion process of LC polymer melt. Using the constitutive equation of LCP-B for LC polymer melts and solutions, the influence of orientational motion on extensional viscosity is studied. The change curves of dimensionless extensional viscosity with relaxation time and shear rate have been obtained.%在液晶高分子熔液挤出过程中,剪切拉伸是主要考虑因素.用液晶高分子B模型本构方程,并考虑取向运动的影响得到拉伸粘度随松驰时间与拉伸率之间的变化关系和曲线.

  8. Denitrification in the Mississippi River network controlled by flow through river bedforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Velez, Jesus D.; Harvey, Judson W.; Cardenas, M. Bayani; Kiel, Brian

    2015-12-01

    Increasing nitrogen concentrations in the world's major rivers have led to over-fertilization of sensitive downstream waters. Flow through channel bed and bank sediments acts to remove riverine nitrogen through microbe-mediated denitrification reactions. However, little is understood about where in the channel network this biophysical process is most efficient, why certain channels are more effective nitrogen reactors, and how management practices can enhance the removal of nitrogen in regions where water circulates through sediment and mixes with groundwater--hyporheic zones. Here we present numerical simulations of hyporheic flow and denitrification throughout the Mississippi River network using a hydrogeomorphic model. We find that vertical exchange with sediments beneath the riverbed in hyporheic zones, driven by submerged bedforms, has denitrification potential that far exceeds lateral hyporheic exchange with sediments alongside river channels, driven by river bars and meandering banks. We propose that geomorphic differences along river corridors can explain why denitrification efficiency varies between basins in the Mississippi River network. Our findings suggest that promoting the development of permeable bedforms at the streambed--and thus vertical hyporheic exchange--would be more effective at enhancing river denitrification in large river basins than promoting lateral exchange through induced channel meandering.

  9. It takes more than water: Restoring the Colorado River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Jennifer; Kendy, Eloise; Schlatter, Karen; Hinojosa-Huertaf, Osvel; Flessa, Karl W.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Ramirez-Hernandez, Jorge; Nagler, Pamela L.; Glenn, Edward P.

    2017-01-01

    Environmental flows have become important tools for restoring rivers and associated riparian ecosystems (Arthington, 2012; Glenn et al., 2017). In March 2014, the United States and Mexico initiated a bold effort in restoration, delivering from Morelos Dam a “pulse flow” of water into the Colorado River in its delta for the purpose of learning about its environmental effects (Flessa et al., 2013; Bark et al., 2016). Specifically, scientists evaluated whether the pulse flow, albeit miniscule compared to historical floods, could provide the ecological functions needed to establish native, flood-dependent vegetation to restore natural habitat along the riparian corridor.

  10. Buckling of thin viscous sheets with inhomogenous viscosity under extensional flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Siddarth; Wei, Zhiyan; Mahadevan, L.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the dynamics, shape and stability of a thin viscous sheet subjected to an extensional flow under an imposed non-uniform temperature field. Using finite element simulations, we first solve for the stretching flow to determine the pre-buckling sheet thickness and in-plane flow velocities. Next, we use this solution as the base state and solve the linearized partial differential equation governing the out-of-plane deformation of the mid-surface as a function of two dimensionless operating parameters: the normalized stretching ratio α and a dimensionless width of the heating zone β. We show the sheet can become unstable via a buckling instability driven by the development of localized compressive stresses, and determine the global shape and growth rates of the most unstable mode. The growth rate is shown to exhibit a transition from stationary to oscillatory modes in region upstream of the heating zone. Finally, we investigate the effect of surface tension and present an operating diagram that indicates regions of the parameter space that minimizes or entirely suppresses the instability while achieving desired outlet sheet thickness. Therefore, our work is directly relevant to various industrial processes including the glass redraw & float-glass method.

  11. Mechanical Models of Bed-Perpendicular Fractures in Layered Rocks Subjected to Extensional Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, P.; Pollard, D. D.; Borja, R. I.

    2010-12-01

    Natural fractures (joints) enhance permeability and therefore are important for the economical production of low-permeability hydrocarbon reservoirs and aquifers. In this work we investigate the formation of bed-perpendicular joints during extension in a stiff brittle layer surrounded by thick softer layers. The quasi-static finite element models consist of three elasto-plastic layers with frictional bedding interfaces and the middle layer contains layer-perpendicular fractures that can accommodate opening at the bedding surface accompanied by interface sliding. The upper and lower boundaries are subject to normal tractions appropriate for the depth of burial. Lateral boundaries are displaced horizontally to represent the extensional tectonic regime. We use an interface model that captures the most important mechanical features during sliding of bedding interfaces and opening of joints: unilateral contact, elastic and plastic relative deformation, tensile strength, cohesion, frictional sliding, and non-associative plastic flow. The constitutive law extends the Coulomb slip criterion to the tensile regime to capture opening of fractures in a quasi-brittle manner. The finite element implementation employs a penalty scheme to impose the contact constraints along the interfaces. The numerical simulations show the effects of mechanical properties of layers and interfaces in the development and spacing of bed-perpendicular joints. We evaluate the concepts of fracture saturation and sequential infilling, and the relationship between joint spacing and layer thickness in the context of the new modeling capabilities.

  12. Extensional extrusion: Insights into south-eastward expansion of Tibetan Plateau from magnetotelluric array data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hao; Wei, Wenbo; Jin, Sheng; Ye, Gaofeng; Zhang, Letian; Jing, Jian'en; Yin, Yaotian; Xie, Chengliang; Jones, Alan G.

    2016-11-01

    Despite extensive effort over many decades to understand the tectonic evolution of the Tibetan Plateau, the geodynamic processes creating the iconic south-eastward expansion of the plateau at the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis (EHS) are still unclear and are hotly debated. Two popular (but not necessarily exclusive) geodynamic models, namely crustal flow at mid-to-lower crustal depths and coherent deformation between the crust and lithospheric mantle, are commonly invoked to explain the expansion mechanism. However, neither of these is able to reconcile all of the abundant geological and geophysical data. Here we present a three-dimensional (3D) geo-electrical model, derived from new SINOPROBE magnetotelluric (MT) array data, that reveals the geo-electrical, and by inference rheological, structure of southeast Tibet. Instead of NW-SE conductive channels proposed in prior two-dimensional (2D) MT studies, distinct NNE-SSW directed quasi-linear conductive anomalies are identified in the mid-to-lower crust, which are separated by a large-scale electrically resistive structure that extends from the crust to the upper mantle. This argues against the prior proposed model of south-eastward conductive anomalies, and hence against the southeast lower crust flow of material. To interpret our observations and resultant model, a new mechanism of "extensional extrusion" is proposed to address the lithospheric deformation of the south-eastward expansion of Tibetan Plateau.

  13. A constitutive analysis of the extensional flows of nearly monodisperse polyisoprene melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    2016-01-01

    Here two particular formulations [M.H. Wagner, S. Kheirandish, O. Hassager, Journal of Rheology 49 (6) (2005) 1317–1327; H.K. Rasmussen, Q. Huang, Rheologica Acta 53 (3) (2014) 199–208; G. Marrucci, G. Ianniruberto, Macromolecules 37 (10) (2004) 3934–3942] of the ‘interchain pressure’ [39......], incorporated into the molecular stress function method [M.H. Wagner, S. Kheirandish, O. Hassager, Journal of Rheology 49 (6) (2005) 1317–1327], are used to assess the extensional [J.K. Nielsen, O. Hassager, H.K Rasmussen, G.H. McKinley, Journal of Rheology 53 (6) (2009) 1327–1346; G. Liu, H. Sun, S. Rangou, K....... Ntetsikas, A. Avgeropoulos, S.-Q. Wang, Journal of Rheology 57 (1) (2013) 89–104] and shear viscosities [D. Auhl, J. Ramirez, A.E. Likhtman, P. Chambon, C. Fernyhough, Journal of Rheology 52 (3) (2008) 801–835] of narrow molecular weight distributed (NMMD) polyisoprene melts. These two formulations...

  14. Marangoni Effects of a Drop in an Extensional Flow: The Role of Surfactant Physical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebe, Kathleen J.; Balasubramaniam, R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    While the changes in stresses caused by surfactant adsorption on non-deforming interfaces have been fairly well established, prior to this work, there were few studies addressing how surfactants alter stresses on strongly deforming interfaces. We chose the model problem of a drop in a uniaxial extensional flow to study these stress conditions To model surfactant effects at fluid interfaces, a proper description of the dependence of the surface tension on surface concentration, the surface equation of state, is required. We have adopted a surface equation of state that accounts for the maximum coverage limit; that is, because surfactants have a finite cross sectional area, there is an upper bound to the amount of surfactant that can adsorb in a monolayer. The surface tension reduces strongly only when this maximum coverage is approached. Since the Marangoni stresses go as the derivative of the surface equation of state times the surface concentration gradient, the non-linear equation of state determines both the effect of surfactants in the normal stress jump, (which is balanced by the product of the mean curvature of the interface times the surface tension), and the tangential stress jump, which is balanced by Marangoni stresses. First, the effects of surface coverage and intermolecular interactions among surfactants which drive aggregation of surfactants in the interface were studied. (see Pawar and Stebe, Physics of Fluids).

  15. What do we learn from extensional tectonics in the Western Alps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, C.; Champagnac, J.-D.

    2009-04-01

    The Western Alps' active tectonics are characterized by ongoing widespread extension in the highest parts of the belt and transpressive/compressive tectonics along its borders (Sue et al., 1999; Delacou et al., 2004). We examine these contrasting tectonic regimes, as well as the role of erosional processes, using a multidisciplinary approach including seismotectonics, numerical modelling, GPS, morphotectonics, fieldwork, and brittle deformation analysis. Extension appears to be the dominant process in the present-day tectonic activity in the Western Alps, affecting its internal areas all along the arc. Shortening, in contrast, is limited to small areas located along at the outer borders of the chain. Strike-slip is observed throughout the Alpine realm and in the foreland. The stress-orientation pattern is radial for σ3 in the inner, extensional zones, and for σ1 in the outer, transcurrent/tranpressional ones. Extensional areas can be correlated with the parts of the belt with the thickest crust. Quantification of seismic strain in tectonically homogeneous areas shows that only 10 to 20% of the geodesy-documented deformation can be explained by the Alpine seismicity. We show that Alpine active tectonics are ruled by buoyancy forces rather than ongoing shortening along the Alpine Europe/Adria collision zone. Numerical modeling corroborates this interpretation. The Neogene extensional structures in the Alps formed under increasingly brittle conditions. A synthesis of paleostress tensors for the internal parts of the West-Alpine arc documents major orogen-parallel extension with a continuous change in σ3 directions from ENE-WSW in the Simplon area, to N-S in the Vanoise area and to NNW-SSE in the Briançon area (Champagnac et al., 2006). Minor orogen-perpendicular extension increases from N to S. This second signal correlates with present-day geodynamics as revealed by focal-plane mechanisms analysis. The orogen-parallel extension could be related to the opening of

  16. Salt diapirs in the Dead Sea basin and their relationship to Quaternary extensional tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zoubi, A.; ten Brink, U.S.

    2001-01-01

    Regional extension of a brittle overburden and underlying salt causes differential loading that is thought to initiate the rise of reactive diapirs below and through regions of thin overburden. We present a modern example of a large salt diapir in the Dead Sea pull-apart basin, the Lisan diapir, which we believe was formed during the Quaternary due to basin transtension and subsidence. Using newly released seismic data that are correlated to several deep wells, we determine the size of the diapir to be 13 x 10 km. its maximum depth 7.2 km. and its roof 125 m below the surface. From seismic stratigraphy, we infer that the diapir started rising during the early to middle Pleistocene as this section of the basin underwater rapid subsidence and significant extension of the overburden. During the middle to late Pleistocene, the diapir pierced through the extensionally thinned overburden, as indicated by rim synclines, which attest to rapid salt withdrawal from the surrounding regions. Slight positive topography above the diapir and shallow folded horizons indicate that it is still rising intermittently. The smaller Sedom diapir, exposed along the western bounding fault of the basin is presently rising and forms a 200 m-high ridge. Its initiation is explained by localized E-W extension due monoclinal draping over the edge of a rapidly subsiding basin during the early to middle Pleistocene, and its continued rise by lateral squeezing due to continued rotation of the Amazyahu diagonal fault. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Constraints for timing of extensional tectonics in the western margin of the Red Sea in Eritrea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebreab, Woldai; Carter, Andrew; Hurford, Anthony J.; Talbot, Christopher J.

    2002-06-01

    Recent work on asthenosphere-lithosphere coupling reinforces past observations that active and passive rifting models do not adequately describe real rifts. There remains insufficient knowledge of fundamental controls on rift architecture. In the actively extending Red Sea margin of eastern Eritrea, which lies at the Red Sea/Danakil-Gulf of Aden and the East African rift triple junction zone, the geometry and kinematics of extension are complex and poorly defined due to large data gaps. Extension and sea-floor spreading in both the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden have influenced the Neogene tectonic development of Eritrea but many of the structures have Pan-African origins and do not follow normal plate opening geometries. To constrain the rifting history in eastern Eritrea, apatite fission-track thermochronologic data were measured for 22 Pan-African rock samples. Results identify late Oligocene-early Miocene cooling coincident with extension and erosion along the conjugate margin in Yemen. A younger age group, confined to Mt Ghedem, relates to an episode of fault reactivation and dyke injection that began ˜10 Ma coincident with rotation of the nearby Danakil block. Initially this was driven by onset of sea-floor spreading in the Gulf of Aden and later, in the Pliocene, aided by northward rifting in the Afar depression concomitant with spreading in the Red Sea. These different processes highlight the complex linkage between different extensional events and rift architecture.

  18. Nonlinear flap-lag-extensional vibrations of rotating, pretwisted, preconed beams including Coriolis effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, K. B.; Kaza, K. R. V.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of pretwist, precone, setting angle, Coriolis forces and second degree geometric nonlinearities on the natural frequencies, steady state deflections and mode shapes of rotating, torsionally rigid, cantilevered beams were studied. The governing coupled equations of flap lag extensional motion are derived including the effects of large precone and retaining geometric nonlinearities up to second degree. The Galerkin method, with nonrotating normal modes, is used for the solution of both steady state nonlinear equations and linear perturbation equations. Parametric indicating the individual and collective effects of pretwist, precone, Coriolis forces and second degree geometric nonlinearities on the steady state deflection, natural frequencies and mode shapes of rotating blades are presented. It is indicated that the second degree geometric nonlinear terms, which vanish for zero precone, can produce frequency changes of engineering significance. Further confirmation of the validity of including those generated by MSC NASTRAN. It is indicated that the linear and nonlinear Coriolis effects must be included in analyzing thick blades. The Coriolis effects are significant on the first flatwise and the first edgewise modes.

  19. A New Accumulation Model of Coal Seams in France Extensional Basins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper, based on the sedimentary features of the coal seams in the typical extensional (faulted) coal basins between two inland mountainous areas of the Central Massif (France) deals with the accumulation mechanism and the corresponding sedimentary-tectonic conditions of these thick coalbeds, and proposes a new coal accumulation model for the inland lacustrine-basin thick coalbeds. The presence of a great number of gravity-flow sediments such as detrital flow, diluted slurry flow or turbidity-current sediments in the coal seams, and that of the contemporaneous gravity slump and deformation structure in the coal seam itself bath indicate that thelacustrine environment in the accumulation of the thick coalbeds was characterized by the relatively deep flood and violent sedimentation. This model can not only interpret reasonably the accumulation mecha nism of the thick coalbeds developed in the fault basins in the Central Massif, France, but also show its features distinctively from those of the accumulation model of the traditional thick coalbeds.

  20. River engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, M.

    1993-01-01

    One dimension models - basic eauations, analytical models, numberical models. One dimensional models -suspended load, roughness and resistance of river beds. Solving river problems - tools, flood mitigation, bank protection.

  1. An Optimal Deployment of Wireless Charging Lane for Electric Vehicles on Highway Corridors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yongxi [Clemson University

    2016-01-01

    We propose an integrated modeling framework to optimally locate wireless charging facilities along a highway corridor to provide sufficient in-motion charging. The integrated model consists of a master, Infrastructure Planning Model that determines best locations with integrated two sub-models that explicitly capture energy consumption and charging and the interactions between electric vehicle and wireless charging technologies, geometrics of highway corridors, speed, and auxiliary system. The model is implemented in an illustrative case study of a highway corridor of Interstate 5 in Oregon. We found that the cost of establishing the charging lane is sensitive and increases with the speed to achieve. Through sensitivity analyses, we gain better understanding on the extent of impacts of geometric characteristics of highways and battery capacity on the charging lane design.

  2. Transport corridors as a factor of integration in South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grčić Mirko

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of opening the state borders with the stress on its integration function through the constitution of cross-border regions cannot be achieved without a synchronized transport development. For South Eastern European countries, the top priority project would be the formation of pan-European transport corridors defined on Crete in 1994 and amended later on in Helsinki in 1997. Six of ten corridors pass through the territory of South Eastern Europe. Due to their transport and geographical locations, the capitals of the region should represent the key nodes on the main transport directions. Corridor X with its technical, economic and functional characteristics represents the axis of the entire transport network in SE Europe. Formation of this network has as its ultimate goal the functional inter-regional integration with simplified and accelerated transport lines. This also means the open barriers but at the same time, improved and harmonized transport infrastructures and services.

  3. The role of river drainages in shaping the genetic structure of capybara populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, María Soledad; Quintana, Rubén Darío; Bolkovic, María Luisa; Cassini, Marcelo H; Túnez, Juan Ignacio

    2015-12-01

    The capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, is an herbivorous rodent widely distributed throughout most of South American wetlands that lives closely associated with aquatic environments. In this work, we studied the genetic structure of the capybara throughout part of its geographic range in Argentina using a DNA fragment of the mitochondrial control region. Haplotypes obtained were compared with those available for populations from Paraguay and Venezuela. We found 22 haplotypes in 303 individuals. Hierarchical AMOVAs were performed to evaluate the role of river drainages in shaping the genetic structure of capybara populations at the regional and basin scales. In addition, two landscape genetic models, isolation by distance and isolation by resistance, were used to test whether genetic distance was associated with Euclidean distance (i.e. isolation by distance) or river corridor distance (i.e. isolation by resistance) at the basin scale. At the regional scale, the results of the AMOVA grouping populations by mayor river basins showed significant differences between them. At the basin scale, we also found significant differences between sub-basins in Paraguay, together with a significant correlation between genetic and river corridor distance. For Argentina and Venezuela, results were not significant. These results suggest that in Paraguay, the current genetic structure of capybaras is associated with the lack of dispersion corridors through permanent rivers. In contrast, limited structuring in Argentina and Venezuela is likely the result of periodic flooding facilitating dispersion.

  4. Hydroclimatological Processes in the Central American Dry Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, H. G.; Duran-Quesada, A. M.; Amador, J. A.; Alfaro, E. J.; Mora, G.

    2015-12-01

    This work studies the hydroclimatological variability and the climatic precursors of drought in the Central American Dry Corridor (CADC), a subregion located in the Pacific coast of Southern Mexico and Central America. Droughts are frequent in the CADC, which is featured by a higher climatological aridity compared to the highlands and Caribbean coast of Central America. The CADC region presents large social vulnerability to hydroclimatological impacts originated from dry conditions, as there is a large part of population that depends on subsistance agriculture. The influence of large-scale climatic precursors such as ENSO, the Caribbean Low-Level Jet (CLLJ), low frequency signals from the Pacific and Caribbean and some intra-seasonal signals such as the MJO are evaluated. Previous work by the authors identified a connection between the CLLJ and CADC precipitation. This connection is more complex than a simple rain-shadow effect, and instead it was suggested that convection at the exit of the jet in the Costa-Rica and Nicaragua Caribbean coasts and consequent subsidence in the Pacific could be playing a role in this connection. During summer, when the CLLJ is stronger than normal, the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (located mainly in the Pacific) displaces to a more southern position, and vice-versa, suggesting a connection between these two processes that has not been fully explained yet. The role of the Western Hemisphere Warm Pool also needs more research. All this is important, as it suggest a working hypothesis that during summer, the effect of the Caribbean wind strength may be responsible for the dry climate of the CADC. Another previous analysis by the authors was based on downscaled precipitation and temperature from GCMs and the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. The data was later used in a hydrological model. Results showed a negative trend in reanalysis' runoff for 1980-2012 in San José (Costa Rica) and Tegucigalpa (Honduras). This highly significant drying trend

  5. Biogeomorphic feedbacks within riparian corridors: the role of positive interactions between riparian plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corenblit, Dov; Steiger, Johannes; Till-Bottraud, Irène

    2017-04-01

    Riparian vegetation affects hydrogeomorphic processes and leads to the construction of wooded fluvial landforms within riparian corridors. Multiple plants form dense multi- and mono-specific stands that enhance plant resistance as grouped plants are less prone to be uprooted than free-standing individuals. Riparian plants which grow in dense stands also enhance their role as ecosystem engineers through the trapping of sediment, organic matter and nutrients. The wooded biogeomorphic landforms which originate from the effect of vegetation on geomorphology lead in return to an improved capacity of the plants to survive, exploit resources, and reach sexual maturity in the intervals between destructive floods. Thus, these vegetated biogeomorphic landforms likely represent a positive niche construction of riparian plants. The nature and intensity of biotic interactions between riparian plants of different species (inter-specific) or the same species (intra-specific) which form dense stands and construct together the niche remain unclear. We strongly suspect that indirect inter-specific positive interactions (facilitation) occur between plants but that more direct intra-specific interactions, such as cooperation and altruism, also operate during the niche construction process. Our aim is to propose an original theoretical framework of inter and intra-specific positive interactions between riparian plants. We suggest that positive interactions between riparian plants are maximized in river reaches with an intermediate level of hydrogeomorphic disturbance. During establishment, plants that grow within dense stands improve their survival and growth because individuals protect each other from shear stress. In addition to the improved capacity to trap mineral and organic matter, individuals which constitute the dense stand can cooperate to mutually support a mycorrhizal fungi network that will connect plants, soil and ground water and influence nutrient transfer, cycling and

  6. Normative segment-specific axial and coronal angulation corridors of subaxial cervical column in axial rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Stemper, Brian D; Pintar, Frank A; Baisden, Jamie L; Shender, Barry S; Paskoff, Glenn

    2008-03-01

    In contrast to clinical studies wherein loading magnitudes are indeterminate, experiments permit controlled and quantifiable moment applications, record kinematics in multiple planes, and allow derivation of moment-angulation corridors. Axial and coronal moment-angulation corridors were determined at every level of the subaxial cervical spine, expressed as logarithmic functions, and level-specificity of range of motion and neutral zones were evaluated. segmental primary axial and coupled coronal motions do not vary by level. Although it is known that cervical spine responses are coupled, segment-specific corridors of axial and coronal kinematics under axial twisting moments from healthy normal spines are not reported. Ten human cadaver columns (23-44 years, mean: 34 +/- 6.8) were fixed at the ends and targets were inserted to each vertebra to obtain kinematics in axial and coronal planes. The columns were subjected to pure axial twisting moments. Range of motion and neutral zone for primary-axial and coupled-coronal rotation components were determined at each spinal level. Data were analyzed using factorial analysis of variance. Moment-rotation angulations were expressed using logarithmic functions, and mean +/-1 standard deviation corridors were derived at each level for both components. Moment-angulations responses were nonlinear. Each segmental curve for both components was well represented by a logarithmic function (r2 > 0.95). Factorial analysis of variance indicated that the biomechanical metrics are spinal level-specific (P specific responses. The presentation of moment-angulation corridors for both metrics forms a dataset for the normal population. These segment-specific nonlinear corridors may help clinicians assess dysfunction or instability. These data will assist mathematical models of the spine in improved validation and lead to efficacious design of stabilizing systems.

  7. Urban Power Line Corridors as Novel Habitats for Grassland and Alien Plant Species in South-Western Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampinen, Jussi; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Huhta, Ari-Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Regularly managed electric power line corridors may provide habitats for both early-successional grassland plant species and disturbance-dependent alien plant species. These habitats are especially important in urban areas, where they can help conserve native grassland species and communities in urban greenspace. However, they can also provide further footholds for potentially invasive alien species that already characterize urban areas. In order to implement power line corridors into urban conservation, it is important to understand which environmental conditions in the corridors favor grassland species and which alien species. Likewise it is important to know whether similar environmental factors in the corridors control the species composition of the two groups. We conducted a vegetation study in a 43 kilometer long urban power line corridor network in south-western Finland, and used generalized linear models and distance-based redundancy analysis to determine which environmental factors best predict the occurrence and composition of grassland and alien plant species in the corridors. The results imply that old corridors on dry soils and steep slopes characterized by a history as open areas and pastures are especially suitable for grassland species. Corridors suitable for alien species, in turn, are characterized by productive soils and abundant light and are surrounded by a dense urban fabric. Factors controlling species composition in the two groups are somewhat correlated, with the most important factors including light abundance, soil moisture, soil calcium concentration and soil productivity. The results have implications for grassland conservation and invasive alien species control in urban areas.

  8. 76 FR 3624 - Milford Wind Corridor Phase II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Milford Wind Corridor Phase II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding Milford Wind Corridor Phase II, LLC's application for...

  9. 76 FR 78641 - Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC, Milford Wind Corridor Phase I, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC, Milford Wind Corridor Phase I, LLC; Notice of...'s (Commission) June 16, 2011 Order.\\1\\ \\1\\ Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC and Milford Wind Corridor...

  10. Composition and abundance of small mammal communities in forest fragments and vegetation corridors in Southern Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa O. Mesquita

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation leads to isolation and reduce habitat areas, in addition to a series of negative effects on natural populations, affecting richness, abundance and distribution of animal species. In such a text, habitat corridors serve as an alternative for connectivity in fragmented landscapes, minimizing the effects of structural isolation of different habitat areas. This study evaluated the richness, composition and abundance of small mammal communities in forest fragments and in the relevant vegetation corridors that connect these fragments, located in Southern Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. Ten sites were sampled (five forest fragments and five vegetation corridors using the capture-mark-recapture method, from April 2007-March 2008. A total sampling effort of 6 300 trapnights resulted in 656 captures of 249 individuals. Across the 10 sites sampled, 11 small mammal species were recorded. Multidimensional scaling (MDS ordinations and ANOSIM based on the composition of small mammal communities within the corridor and fragment revealed a qualitative difference between the two environments. Regarding abundance, there was no significant difference between corridors and fragments. In comparing mean values of abundance per species in each environment, only Cerradomys subflavus showed a significant difference, being more abundant in the corridor environment. Results suggest that the presence of several small mammal species in the corridor environment, in relatively high abundances, could indicate corridors use as habitat, though they might also facilitate and/or allow the movement of individuals using different habitat patches (fragments.

  11. Green corridors and their possible impact on the European supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.; Holte, Even Ambros

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to present the concept of green corridors and analyse their possible impact on the supply chain. The basis of this material is work conducted in the context of the EU SuperGreen project and therefore the geographical setting of the chapter is Europe. The general...... however that the quality of transport and logistics services is also affected by passenger transport competing for route capacity. Aviation is outside the scope of our analysis, as is the use of pipelines for liquid cargoes. In addition, the chapter provides examples of the corridor development approaches...

  12. On sustainable development of agriculture in oasis: a case study of Hexi Corridor, Gansu, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Limin

    2007-01-01

    Hexi Corridor is one of the most potential areas in the China's Western Development in 21s' century.However,the problems - the sustainable development of oasis agriculture,the ecosystem of the oasis edge,the landscape structure,the population density in oasis,water resources and land resources in oasis are deteriorating and have restricted the sustainable development of society and economy in this area.This paper summarizes the problems at present,and puts forward the concept of protecting and constructing the oasis environment and sustainable development for the sustainable development of the oasis agriculture in the Hexi Corridor.

  13. Territoriality by conservation in the Selous-Niassa corridor in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bluwstein, Jevgeniy; Lund, Jens Friis

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we argue that historically emerging frontiers of conservation pave the way for continuous territorialization. Drawing on a concrete case in the Selous-Niassa Corridor in Southern Tanzania, we show how a frontier emerged in form of community-based conservation and decades of consecut......In this paper we argue that historically emerging frontiers of conservation pave the way for continuous territorialization. Drawing on a concrete case in the Selous-Niassa Corridor in Southern Tanzania, we show how a frontier emerged in form of community-based conservation and decades...

  14. The rift architecture and extensional tectonics of the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameselle, Alejandra L.; Ranero, César R.; Barckhausen, Udo; Franke, Dieter

    2016-04-01

    Non-volcanic rifted continental margins are classically described as the product of lithospheric stretching and breakup leading to mantle exhumation, and subsequent seafloor spreading. However, recent studies question this model and indicate a wider range of structural evolutions, that challenge the existing model (e.g. Australia-Antarctic Rift System (Direen et al. 2007, 2011); the Tyrrhenian basin (Prada et al., 2014) or the South China Sea (Cameselle et al. 2015)). Rifting in the South China Sea developed from a series of extensional events, from early Eocene to Late Oligocene, resulting in a V-shape oceanic basin affected by the occurrence of several spreading centers, ridges, transform faults and post-spreading volcanism. In recent years, this marginal basin - the largest in East Asia - has increasingly become one of the key sites for the study of rifting and continental break-up. Its relative small size - compared to many classic, Atlantic-type continental margin settings - allows to easily match conjugated rifted margins and its relative youth promotes the preservation of its original nature. To examine the rifting evolution of the South China Sea, we have reprocessed with modern algorithms multichannel seismic profiles acquired during Sonne49 and BGR84 cruises across the three major subbasins: NW, SW and East subbasins. State-of-the-art of processing techniques have been used to increase the signal to noise ratio, including Tau-P and Wiener predictive deconvolution, multiple attenuation by both radon filtering and wave-equation-based surface-related multiple elimination (SRME) and time migration. To complement seismic interpretation, available vintage multichannel seismic data have been reprocessed with a post-stack flow, including Wiener deconvolution, FK-filtering, space and time variant band-pass filter and time migration. The improving quality of the seismic images shows a range of features including post-rift and syn-rift sediments, the structure of

  15. Analysis of Neogene deformation between Beaver, Utah and Barstow, California: Suggestions for altering the extensional paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. Ernest; Beard, Sue; Mankinen, Edward A.; Hillhouse, John W.

    2013-01-01

    For more than two decades, the paradigm of large-magnitude (~250 km), northwest-directed (~N70°W) Neogene extensional lengthening between the Colorado Plateau and Sierra Nevada at the approximate latitude of Las Vegas has remained largely unchallenged, as has the notion that the strain integrates with coeval strains in adjacent regions and with plate-boundary strain. The paradigm depends on poorly constrained interconnectedness of extreme-case lengthening estimated at scattered localities within the region. Here we evaluate the soundness of the inferred strain interconnectedness over an area reaching 600 km southwest from Beaver, Utah, to Barstow, California, and conclude that lengthening is overestimated in most areas and, even if the estimates are valid, lengthening is not interconnected in a way that allows for published versions of province-wide summations.We summarize Neogene strike slip in 13 areas distributed from central Utah to Lake Mead. In general, left-sense shear and associated structures define a broad zone of translation approximately parallel to the eastern boundary of the Basin and Range against the Colorado Plateau, a zone we refer to as the Hingeline shear zone. Areas of steep-axis rotation (ranging to 2500 km2) record N-S shortening rather than unevenly distributed lengthening. In most cases, the rotational shortening and extension-parallel folds and thrusts are coupled to, or absorb, strike slip, thus providing valuable insight into how the discontinuous strike-slip faults are simply parts of a broad zone of continuous strain. The discontinuous nature of strike slip and the complex mixture of extensional, contractional, and steep-axis rotational structures in the Hingeline shear zone are similar to those in the Walker Lane belt in the west part of the Basin and Range, and, together, the two record southward displacement of the central and northern Basin and Range relative to the adjacent Colorado Plateau. Understanding this province

  16. 33 CFR 334.770 - Gulf of Mexico and St. Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted.... Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla... referred to as the “Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor.” (b) The regulations. (1) Military usage of areas...

  17. Hydrothermal dolomitization of basinal deposits controlled by a synsedimentary fault system in Triassic extensional setting, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hips, Kinga; Haas, János; Győri, Orsolya

    2016-06-01

    Dolomitization of relatively thick carbonate successions occurs via an effective fluid circulation mechanism, since the replacement process requires a large amount of Mg-rich fluid interacting with the CaCO3 precursor. In the western end of the Neotethys, fault-controlled extensional basins developed during the Late Triassic spreading stage. In the Buda Hills and Danube-East blocks, distinct parts of silica and organic matter-rich slope and basinal deposits are dolomitized. Petrographic, geochemical, and fluid inclusion data distinguished two dolomite types: (1) finely to medium crystalline and (2) medium to coarsely crystalline. They commonly co-occur and show a gradual transition. Both exhibit breccia fabric under microscope. Dolomite texture reveals that the breccia fabric is not inherited from the precursor carbonates but was formed during the dolomitization process and under the influence of repeated seismic shocks. Dolomitization within the slope and basinal succession as well as within the breccia zones of the underlying basement block is interpreted as being related to fluid originated from the detachment zone and channelled along synsedimentary normal faults. The proposed conceptual model of dolomitization suggests that pervasive dolomitization occurred not only within and near the fault zones. Permeable beds have channelled the fluid towards the basin centre where the fluid was capable of partial dolomitization. The fluid inclusion data, compared with vitrinite reflectance and maturation data of organic matter, suggest that the ascending fluid was likely hydrothermal which cooled down via mixing with marine-derived pore fluid. Thermal gradient is considered as a potential driving force for fluid flow.

  18. Experimental characterization of breakage rate of colloidal aggregates in axisymmetric extensional flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Debashish; Soos, Miroslav; Lüthi, Beat; Holzner, Markus; Liberzon, Alex; Babler, Matthaus U; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang

    2014-12-09

    Aggregates prepared under fully destabilized conditions by the action of Brownian motion were exposed to an extensional flow generated at the entrance of a sudden contraction. Two noninvasive techniques were used to monitor their breakup process [i.e. light scattering and three-dimensional (3D) particle tracking velocimetry (3D-PTV)]. While the first one can be used to measure the size and the morphology of formed fragments after the breakage event, the latter is capable of resolving trajectories of individual aggregates up to the breakage point as well as the trajectories of formed fragments. Furthermore, measured velocity gradients were used to determine the local hydrodynamic conditions at the breakage point. All this information was combined to experimentally determine for the first time the breakage rate of individual aggregates, given in the form of a size reduction rate K(R), as a function of the applied strain rate, as well as the properties of the formed fragments (i.e., the number of formed fragments and the size ratio between the largest fragment and the original aggregate). It was found that K(R) scales with the applied strain rate according to a power law with the slope being dependent on the initial fractal dimension only, while the obtained data indicates a linear dependency of K(R) with the initial aggregate size. Furthermore, the probability distribution function (PDF) of the number of formed fragments and the PDF of the size ratio between the largest fragment and the original aggregate indicate that breakage will result with high probability (75%) in the formation of two to three fragments with a rather asymmetric ratio of sizes of about 0.8. The obtained results are well in agreement with the results from the numerical simulations published in the literature.

  19. Tectonic and gravity extensional collapses in overpressured cohesive and frictional wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, X. P.; Leroy, Y. M.; Maillot, B.

    2015-03-01

    Two modes of extensional collapse in a cohesive and frictional wedge of arbitrary topography, finite extent, and resting on an inclined weak décollement are examined by analytical means. The first mode consists of the gravitational collapse by the action of a half-graben, rooting on the décollement and pushing seaward the frontal part of the wedge. The second mode results from the tectonics extension at the back wall with a similar half-graben kinematics and the landward sliding of the rear part of the wedge. The predictions of the maximum strength theorem, equivalent to the kinematic approach of limit analysis and based on these two collapse mechanisms, not only match exactly the solutions of the critical Coulomb wedge theory, once properly amended, but generalizes them in several aspects: wedge of finite size, composed of cohesive material and of arbitrary topography. This generalization is advantageous to progress in our understanding of many laboratory experiments and field cases. For example, it is claimed from analytical results validated by experiments that the stability transition for a cohesive, triangular wedge occurs with the activation of the maximum length of the décollement. It is shown that the details of the topography, for the particular example of the Mejillones peninsula (North Chile) is, however, responsible for the selection of a short length-scale, dynamic instability corresponding to a frontal gravitational instability. A reasonable amount of cohesion is sufficient for the pressures proposed in the literature to correspond to a stability transition and not with a dynamically unstable state.

  20. Extensional Tectonics Evidenced in Recent Sediments of Lake Van, Eastern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengul, M. Alper; Koral, Hayrettin; Elmas, M. Ali

    2016-04-01

    The Lake Van region is characterized by NE-SW trending faults with a left-lateral normal-slip component, NW-SE trending faults with a right-lateral normal-slip component and E-W trending reverse/thrust-slip faults, suggesting a N-S trending compressional stress orientation. Tectonic effects in the region continue to be manifested by recent seismicity as in the earthquake of October 23, 2011 (Mw=7.1). Although this earthquake has not produced many earthquake-related surface deformation, evidences of recent tectonics are rather extensive in the Quaternary sediments surrounding the lake. Therefore ages of sediments are important in determining the timing of tectonic activity. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) method was used to determine the age of lake sediments to the north of the lake. Also, shells of gastropods available in the sediments are dated by C14. Ages suggest that to the NE of Lake Van youngest activity on the NW-SE trending Erciş Fault with right-lateral normal-slip component is to be 34 ka. Activity on other normal faults in the same area is dated between 10-14 ka and 20 ka. Also, samewhat to the south of this region in vicinity of the Canik area, reverse faulting is dated to be younger than 40 ka. All ages indicate the region has been affected during the Pleistocene locally by an extensional regime contemporaneously with the contractional regime. The evidence of a one meter dip-slip displacement measured on a fault plane in a quarry supports the view of local extension in the NE sector of the lake. Key Words: Lake Van, OSL dating, neotectonics, active tectonics

  1. War and wildlife: a post-conflict assessment of Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mishra, C.; Fitzherbert, A.

    2004-01-01

    Prior to the last two decades of conflict, Afghanistan¿s Wakhan Corridor was considered an important area for conservation of the wildlife of high altitudes. We conducted an assessment of the status of large mammals in Wakhan after 22 years of conflict, and also made a preliminary assessment of wild

  2. Lessons Learned during Creation of the I-65 Biofuels Corridor (White Paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-06-01

    A team of Clean Cities coalitions and state agencies worked together to create a biofuels corridor along I-65 between Indiana and Alabama. The team built relationships with stakeholders and learned the value of strong partnerships, good communication, marketing, and preparation.

  3. Weakest link or strongest node? Prospects for inland port development in transnational European corridors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, P.A.; Wiegmans, Bart

    2015-01-01

    In a context of increasing global freight transportation and transnational corridor development, inland ports are becoming more important in enhancing hinterland accessibility of deep-sea ports. At the same time, however, when considering the ‘weakest link’ principle, the increasing reliance on inla

  4. POTENTIAL AREAS FOR THE FORMATION OF ECOLOGICAL CORRIDORS BETWEEN REMNANTS OF ATLANTIC FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Flávio Costa dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In Brazil, the remaining areas of Atlantic Forest are intensely fragmented. The connection of forest fragments through ecological corridors is an important step in biodiversity conservation. Certain areas are more resilient, and in those areas, natural forest regeneration, for example, can be encouraged. The aim of this study was to identify areas of greater resilience in order to support the connection of Atlantic Forest fragments with ecological corridors. Forest fragments in the municipality of Paraíba do Sul, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, were mapped using the supervised maximum likelihood classification of an Operational Land Imager (OLI/Landsat-8 sensor image. Next, we analyzed the influence of terrain attributes (aspect, incident solar radiation, slope, and curvature profile on natural regeneration. The areas with the greatest potential to achieve natural regeneration and to form ecological corridors were indicated through fuzzy membership functions. Within Paraíba do Sul, 31% of the territory is covered by vegetation in different stages of regeneration. Recordings were made of 1,251 forest fragments in a middle or advanced stage of regeneration. These fragments are usually situated in the southeast, south, and southwest aspects, in areas that receive the least amount of global solar radiation (Wh·m-2 per year, and on slopes with an angle of inclination greater than 20%. The adjustment of fuzzy functions identified 17,327.5 ha with a tendency to recover, and which are therefore strategic areas in the development of ecological corridors.

  5. War and wildlife: a post-conflict assessment of Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mishra, C.; Fitzherbert, A.

    2004-01-01

    Prior to the last two decades of conflict, Afghanistan¿s Wakhan Corridor was considered an important area for conservation of the wildlife of high altitudes. We conducted an assessment of the status of large mammals in Wakhan after 22 years of conflict, and also made a preliminary assessment of wild

  6. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 420 - Method for Defining a Flight Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... method, a semi-automated method, or a fully-automated method to plot a flight corridor on maps. A source... Administration, National Ocean Service. (i) Projections for mechanical plotting method. An applicant shall use a... plotting method. An applicant shall use cylindrical, conic, or plane projections for...

  7. Strategic Mobility 21: Smart and Secure E Corridor Stakeholder Evaluation - Savannah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-07

    Global Business Center Mr. Bill Dobbs, GA Dept. of Economic Development Executable Smart Corridor ‘Use Cases’ Information Domain Physical Domain...Investment: Recent Research Trends and Emerging Issues Kent Hindes, Cushman Wakefield Presentation Georgia: A Global Business Center Mr. Bill

  8. 77 FR 29235 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Part 153 RIN 0938-AR07 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards... ] entitled, ``Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors... section 553(b) of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA) (5 U.S.C. 553(b)). However, we can waive...

  9. 75 FR 10332 - In the Matter of: Corridor Communications Corp., International Cosmetics Marketing Co., PNV, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... Communications Corp., International Cosmetics Marketing Co., PNV, Inc., Questron Technology, Inc. (n/k/a Quti... securities of Corridor Communications Corp. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period... current and accurate information concerning the securities of International Cosmetics Marketing...

  10. Customer Satisfaction Perceptions of Dislocated Workers Served by WIN Job Centers in the Mississippi Corridor Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Dava Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions of satisfaction of dislocated workers served by WIN Job Centers in the Mississippi Corridor Consortium. Four WIN Job Centers participated in this study: Northeast Mississippi Community College WIN Job Center in Corinth, Northwest Mississippi Community College WIN Job Center in Oxford,…

  11. Evidence of a southward eddy corridor in the South-West Indian ocean

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ansorge, IJ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available of this eddy corridor appears to be restricted to the deep channel separating the Conrad Rise from the Del Cano and Crozet Plateau. However, while the fate of eddies formed at the SWIR has been widely investigated and the frontal character of this eastward...

  12. Thermal Comfort At The Street Corridor Around Public Places, Case Study Alun-Alun Malang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Winansih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malang as the second largest city in East Java province become crowded recently. The congestion almost happens everyday. The scenery of the street corridor is full of iron stacks. It is said that Malang city is less comfortable and less walkable. The decrease of this environment encourages to conduct the study (Q.S. 16:90, Q.S. 96:1-5, Q.S. 30:41. The study aimed to analyze the thermal comfort at pedestrian ways around Malang city squares, the street corridor of Merdeka Alun-Alun (MAA and the Tugu Alun-Alun (TAA. The temperature and relative humidity were measured by multinorm instrument. The THI (Temperature Humidity Index method was used to analyze the thermal comfort. The results showed that the THI average at TAA (27 were more comfortable than at MAA (27,5. The south side of the MAA corridor became the most comfortable with the THI value of 26,4, which the side covered by trees canopy (Q.S. 7:58. It needs to conduct next research (Q.S. 13:11, because of the change of the activities at these street corridors.

  13. Model-based corridor performance analysis – An application to a European case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2017-01-01

    , to the extent covered by the GreCOR application, the proposed methodology can effectively assess the performance of a freight transport corridor. Combining the model-based approach for the sample construction with the study-based approach for the estimation of chain-level indicators exploits the strengths...

  14. Model-based corridor performance analysis – An application to a European case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2017-01-01

    , to the extent covered by the GreCOR application, the proposed methodology can effectively assess the performance of a freight transport corridor. Combining the model-based approach for the sample construction and the study-based approach for the estimation of chain-level indicators exploits the strengths...

  15. The Corridor Principle and the Near Failure Syndrome: Two Generic Concepts with Practical Value for Entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronstadt, Robert

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author defines the Corridor Principle, which explains how entrepreneurs are able to use knowledge and insight from earlier ventures to see new venture opportunities that they could not have seen and/or pursued had they not started an earlier venture. He discusses its importance to practitioners in allowing them to anticipate…

  16. Working on rail freigt corridors : a trade union manual anticipate - take action - work together

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudswaard, A.; Torre, W. van der; Verbiest, S.

    2013-01-01

    The European Transport Workers Federation (ETF) put in place in 2013 the project “WOC – Working On Rail Freight Corridors” with the objective to on the one hand raise awareness among ETF affiliates about the developments of the European freight corridors and on the other hand to give the tools to an

  17. Customer Satisfaction Perceptions of Dislocated Workers Served by WIN Job Centers in the Mississippi Corridor Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Dava Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions of satisfaction of dislocated workers served by WIN Job Centers in the Mississippi Corridor Consortium. Four WIN Job Centers participated in this study: Northeast Mississippi Community College WIN Job Center in Corinth, Northwest Mississippi Community College WIN Job Center in Oxford,…

  18. Developing infrastructure for electric passenger-cars in the corridor between Southern Scandinavia and Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guasco, Clement; Jespersen, Per Homann; Lohse, Sandrina

    2012-01-01

    and academic institutions. A strategy for the development of infrastructure for electric passenger-cars in the corridor was formed using the “Future Creating” methodology. The workshop was part of the SCANDRIA Action Programme and pointed towards ways for e-mobility in the region. The workshop also provided...

  19. Small mammal distributions relative to corridor edges within intensively managed southern pine plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole L. Constantine; Tyler A. Campbell; William M. Baughman; Timothy B. Harrington; Brian R. Chapman; Karl V. Miller

    2005-01-01

    We characterized small mammal communities in three loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands in the Lower Coastal Plain of South Carolina during June 1998-Aug. 2000 to investigate influence of corridor edges on small mammal distribution. We live-trapped small mammals in three regenerating stands following clearcutting. Harvested stands were bisected by...

  20. Environmental Assessment for Proposed Utility Corridors at Edwards Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Edwards Air Force Base, California CNPS California Native Plant Society CO Carbon monoxide CO2 Carbon dioxide CO2e Carbon dioxide equivalent mass ...corridors include existing easements, north-south and east-west traversing the Base and take into consideration current easements, communication ...73 3.7.3 Wildlife Communities

  1. Restoring habitat corridors in fragmented landscapes using optimization and percolation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin C. Williams; Stephanie A. Snyder

    2005-01-01

    Landscape fragmentation and habitat loss are significant threats to the conservation of biological diversity. Creating and restoring corridors between isolated habitat patches can help mitigate or reverse the impacts of fragmentation. It is important that restoration and protection efforts be undertaken in the most efficient and effective way possible because...

  2. Tracing overhead transmission line corridors with regard to environmental and spatial qualities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Cof

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with possibilities for running the proposed overhead transmission line Okroglo-Italian border. The Slovene and Italian methods are shown as methods enabling consideration of environmental and spatial impact within the process of planning overhead transmission line corridors. The Slovene method consists of analyses of attractiveness and vulnerability, whereby the first considers those functional and economic factors that affect spatial attractiveness for overhead transmission lines. Thus we can assess the level of economic and functional suitability of alternative routes of the proposed 400 kilovolt overhead transmission line from transformation station Okroglo (Slovenia to Srednje, Golo Brdo and Vrtojba, three potential contact points on the Slovene–Italian border. In accordance with stipulations of the Law on spatial management vulnerability models were prepared, which were used to simulate the development’s potential negative environmental effects and to analyse suitability, which implies harmonisation of development and protection demands. Their result is a possible corridor that can be developed without significant conflicts. The Italian procedure was developed to trace the transmission line corridor from the Slovenian border to the transformation station in Udine. It was also applied on the Slovenian side. Three groups of factors were considered in the procedure: exclusion, repulsion, and attraction. The much simpler procedure enables comparisons, since it uses the same or at least similar spatial data. In conclusion a short commentary is added about the corridor concept as a planning tool.

  3. Corridor of Jilin Province to the Sea and Its Development Strategy%吉林省“出海”通道及其开发战略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁四保

    2000-01-01

    Jilin Province is a hinterland province. The distance to the sea port is a cost of the province economy.In fact, some years ago there was a terrible barrier on the corridor to the sea ports of Liaoning and Hebeiprovinces. The province had to find border cross, such as Turen River (Hunchun) and the inland-river, cross(Daan Port). Much investment has been inputted, but the cargo flow of export is fewer and fewer. The reasonis the volume of export is fewer and fewer. The reason is the volume of export corn produced in the province hasbeen limited. So we can see a contradictory between the economic (productive) structure and the demand of de-velopment of foreign trade of the province. It correctly views that the corridor to the sea is a very important issueof “open to outside” and the territorial structure of economy of province as Jilin. The paper pointed out anotherissues about the industry structure of the province, Showed the current situation of corridor and the transit costsbetween vary lines has been comparied, the paper presented the conclusion and analysed what elements under-mined and discussed the strategy mentioned industry development and construction or improvement of transportcorridor of Jilin Province.%出海”通道对于吉林省来说是经济对外开放和经济地域布局的重要因素。文章描述了“出海”通道的现状,对不同通道做了运输成本的比较分析,提出通道“闲置”的结论并阐述了其深层次原因,在此基础上讨论了通道与省区产业开发的战略。

  4. Identification of priority conservation areas and potential corridors for jaguars in the Caatinga biome, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Gonçalves Morato

    Full Text Available The jaguar, Panthera onca, is a top predator with the extant population found within the Brazilian Caatinga biome now known to be on the brink of extinction. Designing new conservation units and potential corridors are therefore crucial for the long-term survival of the species within the Caatinga biome. Thus, our aims were: 1 to recognize suitable areas for jaguar occurrence, 2 to delineate areas for jaguar conservation (PJCUs, 3 to design corridors among priority areas, and 4 to prioritize PJCUs. A total of 62 points records of jaguar occurrence and 10 potential predictors were analyzed in a GIS environment. A predictive distributional map was obtained using Species Distribution Modeling (SDM as performed by the Maximum Entropy (Maxent algorithm. Areas equal to or higher than the median suitability value of 0.595 were selected as of high suitability for jaguar occurrence and named as Priority Jaguar Conservation Units (PJCU. Ten PJCUs with sizes varying from 23.6 km2 to 4,311.0 km2 were identified. Afterwards, we combined the response curve, as generated by SDM, and expert opinions to create a permeability matrix and to identify least cost corridors and buffer zones between each PJCU pair. Connectivity corridors and buffer zone for jaguar movement included an area of 8.884,26 km2 and the total corridor length is about 160.94 km. Prioritizing criteria indicated the PJCU representing c.a. 68.61% of the total PJCU area (PJCU # 1 as of high priority for conservation and connectivity with others PJCUs (PJCUs # 4, 5 and 7 desirable for the long term survival of the species. In conclusion, by using the jaguar as a focal species and combining SDM and expert opinion we were able to create a valid framework for practical conservation actions at the Caatinga biome. The same approach could be used for the conservation of other carnivores.

  5. Buccal Corridors: A Fact or a Myth in the Eyes of Laymen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhiny, Omnia A.; Harhash, Asmaa Y.

    2016-01-01

    AIM: This study aimed to investigate laymen knowledge of the existence of the buccal corridor and whether it was an important factor for them in judging smile attractiveness and the effect of introducing the knowledge to them on their further judgment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine subjects were randomly selected with variable buccal corridor percentages. They were coached to smile in a posed fashion and full face smile photographs were taken from a standardised distance. The photographs were randomly arranged in a power point presentation and displayed to a panel of thirty-nine randomly selected laymen judges. The judges made their beauty judgment on a visual analogue scale (VAS) and filled a questionnaire. After their education about the buccal corridor, they were asked to make a second judgment on a second sheet with VAS and with a different random sequence of the photographs. RESULTS: Intra-class correlation agreement for all the judges between the first and second scores was 0.713. The Spearman’s rho Correlation coefficient indicated a positive correlation for all the photos. For the male judges, the agreement between the ratings was 0.839, and the correlation was positive for all the photos. For the female judges, the agreement between the ratings was 0.510, and the correlation was positive for all the photographs. Hundred percent of the judges were not familiar with the buccal corridor. Eighty percent of the female judges and 44.4% of the male judges mentioned that it would affect their further judgment. CONCLUSION: Laymen build their esthetic judgments on what we teach them, and modifying treatment plans to include corrections of buccal corridors for esthetic reasons only is a myth. PMID:28028418

  6. Identification of priority conservation areas and potential corridors for jaguars in the Caatinga biome, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morato, Ronaldo Gonçalves; Ferraz, Katia Maria Paschoaletto Micchi de Barros; de Paula, Rogério Cunha; de Campos, Cláudia Bueno

    2014-01-01

    The jaguar, Panthera onca, is a top predator with the extant population found within the Brazilian Caatinga biome now known to be on the brink of extinction. Designing new conservation units and potential corridors are therefore crucial for the long-term survival of the species within the Caatinga biome. Thus, our aims were: 1) to recognize suitable areas for jaguar occurrence, 2) to delineate areas for jaguar conservation (PJCUs), 3) to design corridors among priority areas, and 4) to prioritize PJCUs. A total of 62 points records of jaguar occurrence and 10 potential predictors were analyzed in a GIS environment. A predictive distributional map was obtained using Species Distribution Modeling (SDM) as performed by the Maximum Entropy (Maxent) algorithm. Areas equal to or higher than the median suitability value of 0.595 were selected as of high suitability for jaguar occurrence and named as Priority Jaguar Conservation Units (PJCU). Ten PJCUs with sizes varying from 23.6 km2 to 4,311.0 km2 were identified. Afterwards, we combined the response curve, as generated by SDM, and expert opinions to create a permeability matrix and to identify least cost corridors and buffer zones between each PJCU pair. Connectivity corridors and buffer zone for jaguar movement included an area of 8.884,26 km2 and the total corridor length is about 160.94 km. Prioritizing criteria indicated the PJCU representing c.a. 68.61% of the total PJCU area (PJCU # 1) as of high priority for conservation and connectivity with others PJCUs (PJCUs # 4, 5 and 7) desirable for the long term survival of the species. In conclusion, by using the jaguar as a focal species and combining SDM and expert opinion we were able to create a valid framework for practical conservation actions at the Caatinga biome. The same approach could be used for the conservation of other carnivores.

  7. Comparative landscape genetics of two frugivorous bats in a biological corridor undergoing agricultural intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Katherine A; Waits, Lisette P; Finegan, Bryan

    2017-07-03

    Agricultural intensification in tropical landscapes poses a new threat to the ability of biological corridors to maintain functional connectivity for native species. We use a landscape genetics approach to evaluate impacts of expanding pineapple plantations on two widespread and abundant frugivorous bats in a biological corridor in Costa Rica. We hypothesize that the larger, more mobile Artibeus jamaicensis will be less impacted by pineapple than the smaller Carollia castanea. In 2012 and 2013, we sampled 735 bats in 26 remnant forest patches surrounded by different proportions of forest, pasture, crops and pineapple. We used 10 microsatellite loci for A. jamaicensis and 16 microsatellite loci for C. castanea to estimate genetic diversity and gene flow. Canonical correspondence analyses indicate that land cover type surrounding patches has no impact on genetic diversity of A. jamaicensis. However, for C. castanea, both percentage forest and pineapple surrounding patches explained a significant proportion of the variation in genetic diversity. Least-cost transect analyses (LCTA) and pairwise G″st suggest that for A. jamaicensis, pineapple is more permeable to gene flow than expected, while as expected, forest is the most permeable land cover for gene flow of C. castanea. For both species, LCTA indicate that development may play a role in inhibiting gene flow. The current study answers the call for landscape genetic research focused on tropical and agricultural landscapes, highlights the value of comparative landscape genetics in biological corridor design and management and is one of the few studies of biological corridors in any ecosystem to implement a genetic approach to test corridor efficacy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Crustal shortening followed by extensional collapse of the Cordilleran orogenic belt in northwestern Montana: Evidence from vintage seismic reflection profiles acquired in the Swan Range and Swan Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, B. S.; Speece, M. A.; Stickney, M. C.; Mosolf, J. G.

    2013-12-01

    Reprocessing of one 24-fold (96 channel) and four 30-fold (120 channel) 2D seismic reflection profiles have revealed crustal scale reflections in the Swan Range and adjacent Swan River Valley of northwestern Montana. The five reprocessed profiles constitute 142.6 of the 303.3 linear km acquired in 1983-84 by Techo of Denver, Colorado. The four 30-fold profiles used helicopter-assisted dynamite shooting (Poulter method) and the 24-fold profile used the Vibroseis method. Acquisition parameters were state of the art for the time. The Swan Range lies east of the Rocky Mountain Trench and is part of the Cordilleran foreland thrust belt where the Lewis thrust system emplaced a thick slab of Proterozoic Belt Supergroup strata eastward and over Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks during the Late Cretaceous to early Paleocene Laramide orogeny. Deeply drilled borehole data are absent within the study area; however, we generated a synthetic seismogram from the Arco-Marathon 1 Paul Gibbs well (total depth=5418 m), located approximately 70 km west of the reprocessed profiles, and correlated the well data to surface seismic profiles. Large impedance contrasts in the log data are interpreted to be tholeiitic Moyie sills within the Prichard Formation argillite (Lower Belt), which produce strong reflection events in regional seismic sections and result in highly reflective, east-dipping events in the reprocessed profiles. We estimate a depth of 10 km (3 to 3.5 seconds) to the basal detachment of the Lewis thrust sheet. The décollement lies within Belt Supergroup strata to the west of the Swan River Valley before contacting unreflective, west-dipping crystalline basement beneath the Swan Range--a geometry that results in a wedge of eastward-thinning, autochthonous Belt rocks. Distinct fault-plane signatures from the west-dipping, range-bounding Swan fault--produced by extensional collapse of the over-thickened Cordillera--are not successfully imaged. However, reflections from Cenozoic

  9. Landuse/landcover changes in Zhangye oasis of Hexi Corridor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENGJijun; WUXiuqin; LIZhengguo

    2003-01-01

    Taking two false color composite Landsat 5 TM(Thematic Mapper)images of band 4,3,2taken in 1995 and 2000 as data resources,this paper carried out study on LUCC of Zhanye oasis in recent five years by interpretation according to land resources classification system of 1∶00,000 Resources and Environmental Database of the Chinese Academy of sciences.The results show that great changes have taken place in landuse/landcover in Zhangye oasis since 1995:(1)Changes of landuse structure show that cropland and land for urban construction and built-up area increased,on the contrary,water area and grassland decreased.These changes reflect the deterionration of arrangement of water and land resources between the upper and lower reaches of the Heihe River.(2)Regional differences of landuse/landcover are evident,characterized by following aspects:in Sunan County located in Qilian Mountain area,unused land and grassland decreased,but cropland and land for urban construction and built-up area inreased.In Minle and Shandan counties located in foothills,unused land,warer area and cropland decreased,but grassland and land for urban construction and built-up area increased.In Zhangye City,Linze County and Gaotai County located in plain area of the middle reaches of the Heihe River,unused land,warer area and grassland decreased,while woodland,cropland and land for urban construction and buile-up area increased.

  10. Perceptions of brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial individuals with regard to the buccal corridor in different facial types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Melo PITHON

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluate the esthetic perception and attractiveness of the smile with regard to the buccal corridor in different facial types by brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial individuals. Material and Methods: The image of a smiling individual with a mesofacial type of face was changed to create three different facial types with five different buccal corridors (2%, 10%, 15%, 22% and 28%. To achieve this effect, a photo editing software was used (Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Systems Inc, San Francisco, CA, EUA. The images were submitted to evaluators with brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces, who evaluated the degree of esthetic perception and attractiveness by means of a visual analog scale measuring 70 mm. The differences between evaluators were verified by the Mann-Whitney test. All statistics were performed with a confidence level of 95%. Results: Brachyfacial individuals perceived mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces with buccal corridor of 2% as more attractive. Mesofacial individuals perceived mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces with buccal corridor of 2%, 10% and 15% as more attractive. Dolichofacial individuals perceived the mesofacial type of face with buccal corridor of 2% as more attractive. Evaluators of the female sex generally attributed higher scores than the male evaluators. Conclusion: To achieve an enhanced esthetic smile it is necessary to observe the patient’s facial type. The preference for narrow buccal corridors is an esthetic characteristic preferred by men and women, and wide buccal corridors are less attractive.

  11. Restoring Alternate Bar Sequences in Large Rivers: Flow, Sediment, and Elbow Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trush, W. J.; McBain, S. M.

    2006-12-01

    Large river management must rely on crucial premises that the river channel is a product of its watershed's hydrology and the space within which it moves, and that native plant and animal species have evolved with, and still depend on, the natural annual hydrograph. While interesting academically, these premises may appear to offer very limited utility as management tools, given few large rivers in the Pacific Northwest and elsewhere have escaped major hydrologic and geomorphic change. The opposite, however, is likely true. Without reconstructing and incorporating an historical perspective, large river restoration will fail. Healthy river ecosystems can be achieved without completely restoring the natural unregulated hydrology, sediment supply regime, and original migration corridor. Usually there is little choice. An historical perspective identifies crucial threshold streamflow, sediment, and corridor processes driving a healthy river ecosystem. Alternating point bar sequences are the building blocks of alluvial rivers that also function as the physical template for creating abundant, high quality habitat for fish, amphibians, and riparian plant. While alternating bars can be created with bulldozers, their evolution, longevity, and quality will endure only if key geomorphic and biological threshold processes are provided by naturally variable annual hydrographs. An historical perspective therefore must identify how unregulated annual hydrographs once created and fostered dynamic alternating bar sequences. Restoration practitioners must then devise ways to restore these processes while purposefully cheating Mother Nature of some of her flow, sediment, and corridor width (elbow room). Two commonly prescribed high flow releases, flushing flows and the bankfull discharge, address several geomorphic requirements yet neither, or the two combined, can restore and maintain alternating bar sequences. Higher flood peak magnitudes from winter floods and spring snowmelt

  12. The tectonic evolution of Southeast Asia through accretionary and extensional episodes since the Cretaceous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seton, M.; Zahirovic, S.; Müller, R.

    2012-12-01

    Although a number of tectonic reconstructions exist that document the development of the present-day complex assemblage of exotic terranes in Southeast Asia, very few describe the continuously evolving plate boundaries and the geodynamic driving forces in the region. We propose a plate motion model that attempts to reconcile evidence from both surface geology and the subsurface mantle structure, and implement continuously closing plate polygons using our open-source plate reconstruction software, GPlates, for the eastern Asian margin and eastern Tethyan domain since the Cretaceous. We link the change from a compressional to an extensional regime along eastern Asia in the Late Cretaceous as the likely opening of the Proto South China Sea in a back-arc setting to account for obducted ophiolite sections on Palawan that are Cretaceous in age, with a likely Miocene emplacement resulting from subduction of the Proto South China Sea crust. Such an interpretation is also consistent with the timing of accretionary episodes along northern Borneo and the upper mantle slab visible in P-wave seismic tomography models. The development of Sundaland is also intricately linked to the opening of the Proto South China Sea and the accretion of Gondwana-derived micro-continental blocks, including East Java and West Sulawesi, in the Cretaceous. Whether Sundaland behaved as a rigid cohesive block, or whether Borneo rotated and moved relative to Sundaland has been a matter of debate due to inconsistencies between paleomagnetic and structural data. Paleomagnetic results indicate significant rotations of Borneo that are accommodated by oroclinal bending without the need for bounding transform faults, which are not obvious in both seismic and potential field data. In the absence of preserved seafloor, we use geological evidence such as ophiolite emplacements, magmatic episodes, paleomagnetic constraints, structural reactivation and deformation as proxies to build a self-consistent plate

  13. Ductile strain rate recorded in the Symvolon syn-extensional plutonic body (Rhodope core complex, Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirrincione, Rosolino; Fazio, Eugenio; Ortolano, Gaetano; Fiannacca, Patrizia; Kern, Hartmut; Mengel, Kurt; Pezzino, Antonino; Punturo, Rosalda

    2016-04-01

    Sciences, 90 (1), 77-87. • Punturo, R., Cirrincione, R., Fazio, E., Fiannacca, P., Kern, H., Mengel, K., Ortolano G., and Pezzino, A. (2014). Microstructural, compositional and petrophysical properties of mylonitic granodiorites from an extensional shear zone (Rhodope Core complex, Greece). Geological Magazine, 151 (6), 1051-1071.

  14. Inter-rifting Deformation in an Extensional Rift Segment; the Northern Volcanic Zone, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, R.; Masterlark, T.; Sigmundsson, F.; Arnadottir, T.; Feigl, K. L.

    2006-12-01

    The Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ) in Iceland is an extensional rift segment, forming a sub-aerial exposure of a part of the Mid-Atlantic ridge. The NVZ is bounded to the south by the Icelandic mantle plume, currently beneath the Vatnajökull ice cap, and to the north by the Tjörnes Fracture zone, a transform zone connecting the offset on- and offshore rift segments of the Mid-Atlantic ridge. Based on geologic and tectonic mapping, the NVZ has been divided into five partly overlapping en-echelon fissure swarms, each with a central main volcanic production area. The two fissure swarms with known activity in historic time are, based on geodetic and seismic data, interpreted to have associated shallow crustal magma chambers. These central volcanoes are furthermore the only with caldera collapses associated, reflecting on the maturity of the systems. A series of newly formed InSAR images of the NVZ, spanning the interval from 1993-2006, have been formed, revealing a complex interplay of several tectonic and magmatic processes. Deformation from two subsiding shallow sources appear at the sites of the known crustal magma chambers. Furthermore, subsidence is occurring at varying degrees within the associated relatively narrow fissure swarms (15-20 km). However, the horizontal plate spreading signal is not confined to the fissure systems, and appears to be distributed over a much wider zone (about 100 km). This wide zone of horizontal spreading has previously been measured with campaign GPS surveys. A broad area of uplift situated about 18 km to the north of one of the subsidence centres (Krafla) suggests a deep seated pressurization source near the crust mantle boundary. Movements on previously unrecognized faults are apparent in the data, correlating well with the location of earthquake epicentres from minor seismic activity. Finally, utilization of geothermal resources in the Krafla area affects the deformation fields created by magmatic and tectonic processes, further

  15. Sedimentary response to tectonism in the extensional Chihuahua trough, Cretaceous of Southern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhathoki, P.; Langford, R. P.; Pavlis, T. L.

    2009-12-01

    During the Jurassic and Cretaceous, the Chihuahua Trough formed an extensional basin, extending from the Gulf of Mexico to Southern Arizona, along the Present Border of the United States and Mexico. West of the Big Bend of Texas, Jurassic and Cretaceous sediments are less than 150 m thick, and in many areas are absent. The sedimentary package thickens to over 3km within the trough. The Albian Cox Sandstone is one of the most areally extensive formations and consists of interbedded fluvial coastal and shallow marine sandstones and shales. In this study area, shales (10-70 m) are thicker more than sandstone beds (2-10 m). This unit is overlain by Finlay formation, a fine crystalline gray limestone and underlain by Bluff Mesa formation, a fossiliferous shallow marine limestone. Cross-bedded, brown, fine to medium grained sandstone, interbedded with siltstone, shale and limestone are characteristic lithology of the Cox. The Indio Mountains of Trans-Pecos Texas offer an ideal location to study how this package accommodates the deformation associated with the subsiding Chihuahua trough. A continuous outcrop extends over 30 km oblique to the basin margin and thickens from approximately 375 m on the northern side to 437 m on the southern side of the 10 km section studied so far. One important mechanism is rotation of the strata into the basin, followed by truncation along sequence boundaries. The lower two sequence in the southern Indio mountains are rotated down to the basin relative to Finlay. The lowest sequences thicken from an erosional pinch out towards the South. Shale beds thicken within the rotated strata and accommodate some of the tilting. For example, Thickness of the shale bed varies from 18 m to 70 m within a 2 km distance. However, erosional truncation of the tilted strata accounts for most of the increases in thickness within sequences. The base of the formation has been rotated about 6 degrees south relative to the top of the formation. Another observed

  16. Kinematics and dynamics of the Mesozoic orogeny and late-orogenic extensional collapse in the Sino-Mongolian border areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG; Yadong

    2005-01-01

    The Sino-Mongolian border areas underwent two important tectonic events during Mesozoic time after late Paleozoic orogeny: a late Triassic to earlier Jurassic contractional event that resulted in a large-scale south-vergent thrust during the orogeny and a late Jurassic-earlier Cretaceous extensional event in a north-south direction that formed a metamorphic core complex. The kinematic and dynamic analyses show that the thrust sheet moved southwards with a kinematic vorticity number of ca. -0.10 and sub-horizontal maximum compressive stress axis that belongs to a contraction-thickening shear. The upper plate of the late-orogenic detachment relatively moved in a 165°direction. The average kinematic vorticity in its earlier stage was 0.74 that belongs to simple shear dominated shearing and related to the maximum compressive stress axes dipping at ~66°, while the later average kinematic vorticity was ~0.55°that belongs to pure shear dominated shearing with sub-vertical maximum compressive stress axes. This suggests that the thrusting led to the crust thickened and the lower plate rocks that were originally located in the upper crust depressed through a brittle-ductile transition zone into the lower crust and became warmer. The heated rocks trended to uplift since their increasing volume and decreasing density while the loading of the upper-plate rocks increased due to the structural thickening. Under the combined effect of the loading and the thermal-uplifting, the ductile shear zone in between increased in its component of vertical pure shear. Once its pure-shear component exceeded its simple-shear one the ductile shear zone became an extension-thinned shear zone. This progressive transitional process reflects internal and essential temporal and spatial relationships: the extensional factor nucleated during the crust thickening by thrusting and increase of the extensional factor finally led to late-orogenic collapse.

  17. Extensional vs contractional Cenozoic deformation in Ibiza (Balearic Promontory, Spain): Integration in the West Mediterranean back-arc setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etheve, Nathalie; Frizon de Lamotte, Dominique; Mohn, Geoffroy; Martos, Raquel; Roca, Eduard; Blanpied, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Based on field work and seismic reflection data, we investigate the Cenozoic tectono-sedimentary evolution offshore and onshore Ibiza allowing the proposal of a new tectonic agenda for the region and its integration in the geodynamic history of the West Mediterranean. The late Oligocene-early Miocene rifting event, which characterizes the Valencia Trough and the Algerian Basin, located north and south of the study area respectively, is also present in Ibiza and particularly well-expressed in the northern part of the island. Among these two rifted basins initiated in the frame of the European Cenozoic Rift System, the Valencia Trough failed rapidly while the Algerian Basin evolved after as a back-arc basin related to the subduction of the Alpine-Maghrebian Tethys. The subsequent middle Miocene compressional deformation was localized by the previous extensional faults, which were either inverted or passively translated depending on their initial orientation. Despite the lateral continuity between the External Betics and the Balearic Promontory, it appears from restored maps that this tectonic event cannot be directly related to the Betic orogen, but results from compressive stresses transmitted through the Algerian Basin. A still active back-arc asthenospheric rise likely explains the stiff behavior of this basin, which has remained poorly deformed up to recent time. During the late Miocene a new extensional episode reworked the southern part of the Balearic Promontory. It is suggested that this extensional deformation developed in a trans-tensional context related to the westward translation of the Alboran Domain and the coeval right-lateral strike-slip movement along the Emile Baudot Escarpment bounding the Algerian Basin to the north.

  18. Extensional and compressional regime driven left-lateral shear in southwestern Anatolia (eastern Mediterranean): The Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitez, İrem; Yaltırak, Cenk; Aktuğ, Bahadır

    2016-10-01

    The tectonic framework of the eastern Mediterranean presented in this paper is based on an active subduction and small underwater hills/mountains on the oceanic crust moving toward the north. The Hellenic Arc, the Anaximander Mountains, the Rhodes and Finike basins, the compressional southern regions of the Western Taurides, and the extensional western Anatolian graben are the main interrelated tectonic structures that are shaped by the complex tectonic regimes. There are still heated debates regarding the structural properties and tectonic evolution of the southwestern Anatolia. GPS velocities and focal mechanisms of earthquakes demonstrate the absence of a single transform fault across the Burdur-Fethiye region; however, hundreds of small faults showing normal and left-lateral oblique slip indicate the presence of a regionally extensive shear zone in southwestern Turkey, which plays an important role in the eastern Mediterranean tectonics. The 300-km-long, 75-90-km-wide NE-SW-trending Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone developed during the formation of Aegean back-arc extensional system and the thrusting of Western Taurides. Today, the left-lateral differential motion across the Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone varies from 3 to 4 mm/yr in the north to 8-10 mm/yr in the south. This finding could be attributed to the fact that while the subduction of the African Plate is relatively fast beneath the western Anatolia at the Hellenic Trench, it is slow or locked beneath the Western Taurides. Therefore, the GPS vectors and their distributions on land indicate remarkable velocity differences and enable us to determine the left-lateral shear zone located between the extensional and compressional blocks. Furthermore, this active tectonic regime creates differences in topography. This study also demonstrates how deep structures, such as the continuation of the subduction transform edge propagator (STEP) fault between the Hellenic and Cyprus arcs in the continental area, can come into play

  19. Hydrologic and land-use change influence landscape diversity in the Ebro River (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, A.; Comin, F. A.; Begueria, S.; Trabucchi, M.

    2008-09-01

    The landscape dynamics (1927 2003) of one reach at the Middle Ebro River (NE Spain) was examined using aerial pictures and GIS techniques. Moreover, changes in the natural flow regime and anthropic activities within the river-floodplain system were investigated. Our results indicate that hydrological and landscape patterns have been dramatically changed during the last century as a consequence of human alteration of the fluvial dynamics within the studied reach, as well as the overall basin. The magnitude and variability of river discharge events have decreased, especially since 1981, and flood protection structures have disrupted the river floodplain connectivity. As a result, the succesional pathways of riparian ecotopes have been heavily modified because natural rejuvenation no longer takes place, resulting in decreased landscape diversity. It is apparent from these data that floodplain restoration must be incorporated as a significant factor into river management plans if a more natural functioning wants to be retrieved. The ecotope structure and dynamics of the 1927 1957 should be adopted as the guiding image, whereas hydrologic and landscape (dykes, raised surfaces) patters should be considered. Under the current socio-economic context, the more realistic option seems to create a dynamic river corridor reallocating dykes and lowering floodplain heights. The extent of this river corridor should adapt to the restored flow regime, although periodic economic investments could be an option if the desired self-sustained dynamism is not reached.

  20. EVALUACIÓN DE LOS SISTEMAS DE ADMINISTRACIÓN DE BASES DE DATOS CON EXTENSIONES ESPACIALES

    OpenAIRE

    Malinowski Gadja, Elzbieta

    2014-01-01

    La práctica común para la creación de repositorios de datos espaciales es el uso de archivos shape, los cuales no proporcionan características necesarias para el control de consistencia de los datos, la redundancia o el acceso concurrente, entre otros. Por otra parte, las extensiones espaciales de los sistemas de administración de bases de datos (SABD) facilitan el uso de los mecanismos de controles declarativos o dinámicos (disparadores), aplicados a datos convencionales y espaciales. Sin em...

  1. Tectónica extensional cretácica en la subcuenca de Oliete (Cordillera Ibérica central)

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    The control of the extensional tectonics on the geometry of the Oliete Subbasin during Early Barremian-Basal Aptian (Early Cretaceous) is examinated. Both, the main NW-SE trending of the basin, its asymetrical geometry and the location of the depocenters was controlled by the reactivation of NW-SE and NE-SW Late Variscan faults, and the formation of new faults. We propose that the general geometry of the basin is controlled by a flexion in the cover, with some associated minor normal faults. ...

  2. Extensional flow behavior of aqueous guar gum derivative solutions by capillary breakup elongational rheometry (CaBER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szopinski, Daniel; Handge, Ulrich A; Kulicke, Werner-Michael; Abetz, Volker; Luinstra, Gerrit A

    2016-01-20

    The extensional rheological properties of aqueous ionic carboxymethyl hydroxypropyl guar gum (CMHPG) and non-ionic hydroxypropyl guar gum (HPG) solutions between the semi-dilute solution state and the concentrated network solution state were investigated by capillary breakup elongational rheometry (CaBER). Carboxymethylated guar gum derivatives show an instable filament formation in deionized water. The ratio of elongational relaxation time λE over the shear relaxation time λS follows a power law of λE/λS∼(c · [η])(-2). The difference of the relaxation times in shear and elongation can be related to the loss of entanglements and superstructures in elongational flows at higher strains.

  3. A humid corridor across the Sahara for the migration "Out of Africa" of early modern humans 120,000 years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, A. H.; Vance, D.; Rohling, E. J.; Barton, N.; Rogerson, M.; Fello, N.

    2008-12-01

    The climatic history of the Sahara in the Quaternary is likely to have been a key control on the history of human migrations out of Africa. For example, it is widely accepted that modern humans originated in sub- Saharan Africa around 150-200 thousand years ago (ka), but their route of dispersal across the currently hyper-arid Sahara remains controversial. Given that the first modern humans north of the Sahara are found in the Levant around 120-90 ka, northward dispersal likely occurred during the humid episode in the Sahara within Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e (130-117 ka). The obvious dispersal route, the Nile, may be ruled out by notable differences between archaeological finds in the Nile Valley and the Levant at the critical time. Further west, space-born radar images reveal networks of - now buried - fossil river channels that extend across the desert to the Mediterranean coast, which represent alternative dispersal corridors. This would explain scattered findings at desert oases of Middle Stone Age (MSA) Aterian lithic industries with bifacial and tanged points that can be linked with industries further to the east and as far north as the Mediterranean coast. We have previously used neodymium and oxygen isotope data to suggest that there was enhanced Nile outflow to the Levantine Sea during Saharan humid periods in Stage 5e and the Holocene1. Here, however, we present further geochemical data which suggest that the freshwater signal from Africa was much stronger further west in the Ionian Sea. Furthermore, analyses of shell samples retrieved from the Libyan fossil river channels traces the geochemical signature found in the Ionian Sea to the Tibesti Mountains in the southern Sahara. These data demonstrate that water in the fossil river systems of the Sahara derived from the south during wet episodes in general, and penetrated all the way to the Mediterranean during MIS 5e in particular, confirming the existence of an uninterrupted freshwater corridor across

  4. Contested Rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm Hansen, Louise Lyngfeldt

    explores translocal connections through ethnographic fieldwork at a global water conference and preliminary fieldwork at chosen locations on China's Nu River. The Nu River is one of the last undammed rivers in Asia and runs through China close to the Chinese-Burmese border, then flows into the Andaman Sea...

  5. THE ASSESSMENT OF HYDROMORPHOLOGICAL STATUS OF ROMANIAN RIVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TECUCI I.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality protection and improvement of the aquatic ecosystems and achievement of "good status" for all water bodies until 2015, involved integration of key ecosystem principles into water policies and a series of new management elements. Thus, the "health" status of aquatic ecosystems is a new objective for European water policy which is reflected in the structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems, being defined by the biological, morphological and physico-chemical quality components as well as the presence of specific pollutants (synthetic and non-synthetic. In order to achieve good ecological status / good ecological potential for all water bodies (rivers of Romania, the paper presents an innovative approach regarding monitoring of hydromorphological quality component and its integration in the assessment of ecological status of water bodies. In this approach the river system is seen in the context of stream corridor as a complex of ecosystems which includes not only the river, but also the riparian zone with the species of plants and animals that inhabit this space. The river corridor is responsible for shaping the river bad, retaining the water and sediments, and also constitutes the support for creating a variety of habitats / microhabitats for communities of aquatic organisms underlying the assessment of ecological status of rivers. In this context, the paper presents hydromorphological indicators set identified in accordance with the requirements of the WFD and a hydromorphological classification system of rivers in five quality classes which should represent a scientific basis for the water monitoring and evaluation system and assists in a judicious way the decision makers to improve water quality in Romania.

  6. THE APPLICATION OF THE RIVER HABITAT SURVEY METHOD TO THE ASSESSMENT OF THE QUALITY OF THE RIVER WARDYNKA (NORTH-WESTERN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Spieczyński

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the classification of the ecological condition of Wardynka river according to the River Habitat Survey method. The research has been carried out within the project entitled Carrying out the assessment of the condition of natural resources of the reception basin of the river Ina within the project LIFE+: “Building of the blue corridor along the valley of the Ina river and its tributaries” financed from the funds of the European Community financial instrument LIFE+ and the National Fund of Environmental Protection and Water Management. The obtained data facilitated the calculation of two synthetic hydro-morphological indices HQA (Habitat Quality Assessment and HMS (Habitat Modification Score, which constitute the result of many singular basic parameters. The calculated numerical values of the indices HQA amounting to 48 and HMS amounting to 3 proved that the waters of the Wardynka river correspond with the fourth class, which means a moderate environmental condition.

  7. Ecology of invasive Melilotus albus on Alaskan glacial river floodplains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Jeff S.; Werdin-Pfisterer, Nancy R.; Beattie, Katherine L.; Densmore, Roseann V.

    2011-01-01

    Melilotus albus (white sweetclover) has invaded Alaskan glacial river floodplains. We measured cover and density of plant species and environmental variables along transects perpendicular to the Nenana, Matanuska, and Stikine Rivers to study interactions between M. albus and other plant species and to characterize the environment where it establishes. Melilotus albus was a pioneer species on recently disturbed sites and did not persist into closed canopy forests. The relationships between M. albus cover and density and other species were site-specific.Melilotus albus was negatively correlated with native species Elaeagnus commutata at the Nenana River, but not at the Matanuska River. Melilotus albus was positively correlated with the exotic species Crepis tectorumand Taraxacum officinale at the Matanuska River and T. officinale on the upper Stikine River. However, the high density of M. albus at a lower Stikine River site was negatively correlated with T. officinale and several native species including Lathyrus japonicus var. maritimus and Salix alaxensis. Glacial river floodplains in Alaska are highly disturbed and are corridors for exotic plant species movement. Melilotus albus at moderate to low densities may facilitate establishment of exotic species, but at high densities can reduce the cover and density of both exotic and native species.

  8. Recent sea experience in South Africa and national principles: Learning from national scale SEAs for renewable energy and power corridors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lochner, Paul A

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs) for the development of wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) energy and powerline corridors have recently been completed in South Africa, leading to a decision by the South African Cabinet in February 2016...

  9. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced...

  10. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Village Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Village Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  11. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced...

  12. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced...

  13. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced...

  14. The role of partial melting and extensional strain rates in the development of metamorphic core complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, P. F.; Teyssier, C.; Whitney, D. L.

    2009-11-01

    geothermal gradient (35 to 65 °C km - 1 ); material remains partially molten in the dome during ascent. At low strain rate (mm yr - 1 in the core complex region), the partially molten crust crystallizes at high pressure; this material is subsequently deformed in the solid-state along a cooler geothermal gradient (20 to 35 °C km - 1 ) during ascent. Therefore, the models predict distinct crystallization versus exhumation histories of migmatite cores as a function of extensional strain rates. The Shuswap metamorphic core complex (British Columbia, Canada) exemplifies a metamorphic core complex in which an asymmetric, detachment-controlled migmatite dome records rapid exhumation and cooling likely related to faster rates of extension. In contrast the Ruby Mountain-East Humboldt Ranges (Nevada, U.S.A.) exhibits characteristics associated with slower metamorphic core complexes.

  15. 3-D palinspastic restoration of normal faults in the Inner Moray Firth: implications for extensional basin development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, David

    1985-10-01

    Balanced cross-section techniques, and the construction of a restored section, permit 2-dimensional palinspastic restorations to be made in both compressional and extensional terraines. In 3 dimensions, an equivalent restoration can be made by assuming conservation of bedding-plane area and considering the volume of a stratigraphic interval rather than its cross-sectional area. Extensional basins displaying upper crustal listric normal faulting are particularly amenable to this approach. Computerised 3-D restorations have been made of the Inner Moray Firth basin, offshore Scotland. This basin is not isostatically compensated, and was produced by 7-8% post-Triassic extension, of which 2.5-3% is post-Jurassic, above a detachment surface at 20-25 km depth, close to the base of the crust. Limited lower crustal thinning (and lithospheric stretching) has affected the eastern part of the basin, but this can account for no more than half of the measured upper crustal extension. Some of this shallow extension is probably coupled by low-angle faults or shear zones into major zones of lithospheric stretching such as the North Sea grabens, where it may help account for discrepancies between estimates of lithospheric thinning and upper crustal extension.

  16. Time interval between volcanism and burial metamorphism and rate of basin subsidence in a Cretaceous Andean extensional setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, L.; Féraud, G.; Morata, D.; Vergara, M.; Robinson, D.

    1999-11-01

    40Ar/ 39Ar ages were obtained from basaltic flows belonging to a 9-km-thick sequence generated in an extensional ensialic setting of an arc/back-arc basin type during the Early Cretaceous and presently exposed along the Coastal Range of central Chile. The basalts have been affected by very low- to low-grade burial metamorphism, mostly under prehnite-pumpellyite facies. Age values obtained from primary (volcanic) and secondary (metamorphic) minerals permit to quantify the time interval between volcanism and burial metamorphism. A plateau age of 119±1.2 Ma from primary plagioclase represents the best estimation of the age of the volcanism, whereas adularia, in low-variance assemblages contained in amygdules, gave a plateau age of 93.1±0.3 Ma which is interpreted as the age of the metamorphism. Considering the P- T conditions estimated for this metamorphic event, the c. 25 Ma time interval between volcanic emplacement and prehnite-pumpellyite facies metamorphism, the rate of basin subsidence in this extensional geodynamic setting would be comprised in the interval 150-180 m/Ma.

  17. Relation between ore-forming hydrothermal systems and extensional deformation in the Solea graben spreading center, Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettison-Varga, Lori; Varga, Robert J.; Schiffman, Peter

    1992-11-01

    Field relations indicate that high-temperature hydrothermal circulation and accumulation of massive sulfide deposits within the Solea graben of the Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus, followed extreme crustal attenuation. Zones of pervasive, massive epidosite strike parallel to the axis of the Solea graben and to the strike of extensional normal faults. Initial fluid flow, evidenced by preferential epidotization in weakly altered areas surrounding massively altered regions, was focused along joints, microfractures, and (now) low-angle normal-fault zones related to graben formation. Permeability within the sheeted-dike section was enhanced by brittle deformation related to extensional structures as well as through volume reduction inherent in the diabase to epidosite mineralogic phase transformations. Intrusion of high-level gabbros into epidosite zones occurred both before and after significant amagmatic tectonic extension. Structural control on epidotization suggests that intrusion of late stocks into attenuated and highly deformed crust is necessary to drive the vigorous hydrothermal circulation that produced the epidosites and ore bodies of the Solea graben. A similar sequence of events is more likely to occur in the modern oceans along ridge crests with ephemeral magmatism, especially at intermediate- to slow-spreading ridges near transform faults.

  18. Non-standard coupled extensional and bending bias tests for planar pantographic lattices. Part II: comparison with experimental evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Emilio; Barcz, Katarzyna; Rizzi, Nicola Luigi

    2016-10-01

    In dell'Isola et al. (Zeitschrift für Angewandte Math und Physik 66(6):3473-3498, 2015, Proc R Soc Lond A Math Phys Eng Sci 472(2185):1-23, 2016) pantographic sheets are proposed as a basic constituent for a novel metamaterial. In Part I, see Turco et al. (Zeitschrift für Angewandte Math und Physik, doi: 10.1007/s00033-016-0713-4, 2016), two different numerical models are applied in order to design an experimental setup aimed to prove the effectiveness of introduced concept. The aim of this paper is to prove that the Hencky-type model introduced for planar pantographic sheets allows for the correct prediction, in a large range of imposed displacements, of the experimental measurements concerning specimens undergoing coupled bending and extensional deformations. The four-parameter numerical model introduced is shown to have a large range of applicability: Indeed without changing the values of the material parameters previously attributed in simple extensional tests to a specific specimen by a best-fit procedure, it is possible to forecast its behavior in all the considered type of imposed deformations. The measurements performed include the determination of reactive forces exerted by used hard devices, and the numerical modeling is able to predict very carefully quantitatively and qualitatively also this complex aspect of phenomenology, where previously attempted models seem to have failed.

  19. The Pinto shear zone; a Laramide synconvergent extensional shear zone in the Mojave Desert region of the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Michael L.; Beyene, Mengesha A.; Spell, Terry L.; Kula, Joseph L.; Miller, David M.; Zanetti, Kathleen A.

    2005-09-01

    The Pinto shear zone is one of several Late Cretaceous shear zones within the eastern fringe of the Mesozoic magmatic arc of the southwest Cordilleran orogen that developed synchronous with continued plate convergence and backarc shortening. We demonstrate an extensional origin for the shear zone by describing the shear-zone geometry and kinematics, hanging wall deformation style, progressive changes in deformation temperature, and differences in hanging wall and footwall thermal histories. Deformation is constrained between ˜74 and 68 Ma by 40Ar/ 39Ar thermochronology of the exhumed footwall, including multi-diffusion domain modeling of K-feldspar. We discount the interpretations, applied in other areas of the Mojave Desert region, that widespread Late Cretaceous cooling results from refrigeration due to subduction of a shallowly dipping Laramide slab or to erosional denudation, and suggest alternatively that post-intrusion cooling and exhumation by extensional structures are recorded. Widespread crustal melting and magmatism followed by extension and cooling in the Late Cretaceous are most consistent with production of a low-viscosity lower crust during anatexis and/or delamination of mantle lithosphere at the onset of Laramide shallow subduction.

  20. Non-standard coupled extensional and bending bias tests for planar pantographic lattices. Part I: numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Emilio; Barcz, Katarzyna; Pawlikowski, Marek; Rizzi, Nicola Luigi

    2016-10-01

    In dell'Isola et al. (Zeitschrift für Angewandte Math und Physik 66(6):3473-3498, 2015, Proc R Soc Lond A Math Phys Eng Sci 472(2185), 2016), the concept of pantographic sheet is proposed. The aim is to design a metamaterial showing: (i) a large range of elastic response; (ii) an extreme toughness in extensional deformation; (iii) a convenient ratio between toughness and weight. However, these required properties must coexist with non-detrimental mechanical characteristics in the presence of other kinds of imposed displacements. The aim of this paper is to prove via numerical simulations that pantographic sheets may effectively resist to coupled bending and extensional deformations. The four-parameter model introduced shows its versatility as it is able to encompass all the considered types of (large) deformations. The numerical integration scheme which we use is based on the same concepts exploited in Turco et al. (Zeitschrift für Angewandte Math und Physik 67(4):1-28, 2016): They prove that the Hencky-type discretization is very efficient also in nonlinear large deformations and large displacements regimes. In Part II of this paper, we will show that the used models are very effective to describe experimental evidence.

  1. Landscape elements and river chemistry as affected by river regulation – a 3-D perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Smedberg

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis whether individual land classes within a river catchment contribute equally to river loading with dissolved constituents or whether some land classes act as "hot spots" to river loading and if so, are these land classes especially affected by hydrological alterations. The amount of land covered by forests and wetlands and the average soil depth of a river catchment explain 58–93% of the variability in total organic carbon (TOC and dissolved silicate (DSi concentrations for 22 river catchments in Northern Sweden. Whereas only 3% of the headwater areas of the Luleälven have been inundated by the creation of reservoirs, some 10% of the soils and aggregated forest and wetland areas have been lost due to damming and further hydrological alteration such as bypassing entire sub-catchments by headrace tunnels. However, looking at individual forest classes, our estimates indicate that some 37% of the deciduous forests have been inundated by the four major reservoirs built in the Luleälven headwaters. These deciduous forest and wetlands formerly growing on top of alluvial deposits along the river corridors forming the riparian zone play a vital role in loading river water with dissolved constituents, especially DSi. A digital elevation model draped with land classes and soil depths which highlights that topography of various land classes acting as hot spots is critical in determining water residence time in soils and biogeochemical fluxes. Thus, headwater areas of the Luleälven appear to be most sensitive to hydrological alterations due to the thin soil cover (on average 2.7–4.5 m and only patchy appearance of forest and wetlands that were significantly perturbed. Moreover, since these headwater areas are characterized often by high specific discharge, this relatively minor change in the landscape when compared to the entire river catchment may indeed explain the significant lower fluxes at the river mouth.

  2. A small mammal community in a forest fragment, vegetation corridor and coffee matrix system in the Brazilian Atlantic forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Ferreira Rocha

    Full Text Available The objective of our work was to verify the value of the vegetation corridor in the conservation of small mammals in fragmented tropical landscapes, using a model system in the southeastern Minas Gerais. We evaluated and compared the composition and structure of small mammals in a vegetation corridor, forest fragments and a coffee matrix. A total of 15 species were recorded, and the highest species richness was observed in the vegetation corridor (13 species, followed by the forest fragments (10 and the coffee matrix (6. The absolute abundance was similar between the vegetation corridor and fragments (F = 22.94; p = 0.064, and the greatest differences occurred between the vegetation corridor and the matrix (F = 22.94; p = 0.001 and the forest fragments and the matrix (F = 22.94; p = 0.007. Six species showed significant habitat preference possibly related to the sensitivity of the species to the forest disturbance. Marmosops incanus was the species most sensitive to disturbance; Akodon montensis, Cerradomys subflavus, Gracilinanus microtarsus and Rhipidomys sp. displayed little sensitivity to disturbance, with a high relative abundance in the vegetation corridor. Calomys sp. was the species least affected by habitat disturbance, displaying a high relative abundance in the coffee matrix. Although the vegetation corridors are narrow (4 m width, our results support the hypothesis in which they work as a forest extension, share most species with the forest fragment and support species richness and abundance closer to forest fragments than to the coffee matrix. Our work highlights the importance and cost-effectiveness of these corridors to biodiversity management in the fragmented Atlantic Forest landscapes and at the regional level.

  3. Valuation of travel time savings for intercity travel: The Madrid-Barcelona corridor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roman, Concepcion; Carlos Martin, Juan; Espino, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    We derive values of travel time savings (VOT) for the Madrid-Barcelona corridor, linking the two largest cities in Spain, based on the estimation of discrete choice models among the main public transport services in the corridor: air transport, high speed rail (HSR) and bus. The new HSR alternative...... to provide useful information to quantify users' benefits during the lifespan of a given project. We found, as expected, that HSR and air transport users exhibit substantially higher values for saving travel time than bus travellers. Also as expected, savings of waiting time are more valued than savings...... (which started to operate in February 2008) competes directly with one of the densest airline domestic markets in the world, and its introduction produced substantial improvements in level of service, achieving reductions in travel time of more than 50% over the conventional train. A specifically...

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmospheric dustfall from the industrial corridor in Hubei Province, Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaquan; Qu, Chengkai; Qi, Shihua; Cao, Junji; Zhan, Changlin; Xing, Xinli; Xiao, Yulun; Zheng, Jingru; Xiao, Wensheng

    2015-10-01

    Thirty atmospheric dustfall samples collected from an industrial corridor in Hubei Province, central China, were analyzed for 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to investigate their concentrations, spatial distributions, sources, and health risks. Total PAH concentrations (ΣPAHs) ranged from 1.72 to 13.17 µg/g and averaged 4.91 µg/g. High molecular weight (4-5 rings) PAHs averaged 59.67% of the ΣPAHs. Individual PAH concentrations were not significantly correlated with total organic carbon, possibly due to the semi-continuous inputs from anthropogenic sources. Source identification studies suggest that the PAHs were mainly from motor vehicles and biomass/coal combustion. The incremental lifetime cancer risks associated with exposure to PAHs in the dustfall ranged from 10(-4) to 10(-6); these indicate potentially serious carcinogenic risks for exposed populations in the industrial corridor.

  5. Recent Positioning Techniques for Efficient Port Operations and Development of Suez Canal Corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Elhattab

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current developments in positioning techniques and communication technology have great impact on both construction and operations of ports. The majority of positioning systems for marine traffic are satellite based such as GPS. Virtual Reference Station is one of the recent high precision techniques for GNSS positioning which can be used for smart and efficient port.The advantages of using virtual reference station technique in different port operation and construction have been discussed in this paper. To apply this technique in Suez Canal corridor zone, a design of Continuously Operating Reference Station network has been proposed. This network can be utilized during different construction and operations phases of Suez Canal Corridor project.  

  6. Application of Transaction Costs in Analyzing Transport Corridors Using Multi-Agent-Based Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence E. Henesey

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In analyzing the freight transportation systems, such as thetransport of intermodal containers, often direct monetary costsassociated with transportation are used to evaluate or determinethe choice of transport corridor. In forming decisions ontransport co"idor choice, this paper proposes that transactioncosts can be considered as an additional determinant in conductingtransport corridor analysis. The application of transactioncosts theory in analyzing the organizations and the transactionsthat occur, assists in indicating as to which governancestructure results in higher efficiencies. Efficiency is seen as eitherthe minimisation on costs or the maximisation of customerservice levels. The use of multi-agent based simulation for modellingthe organisational structure and mechanisms provides anovel approach in understanding the relationships in a regionaltransport co"idor.

  7. Tectonics of the Western Betics: the role of E-W strike slip fault corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasca, Gianluca; Gueydan, Frédéric; Brun, Jean-Pierre; Célérier, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    The tectonic origin of the arcuate Betic-Rif orogenic belt that surrounds the Alboran Sea at the western tip of the Mediterranean Sea remains debated. Here, we investigate the tectonic units cropping out in the Western Betics (Malaga region, Southern Spain) with the main goal of reconstructing the Oligo-Miocene evolution of the area. New structural data and geological mapping together with available data allow us to identify the main structural features of the area. Deformation is found to be extremely diffused but two E-W elongated tectonic blocks with different lithological composition are outlined by marked E-W dextral strike-slip corridors ending up in horse-tail splays. These E-W strike slip corridors are responsible for late Miocence tectonics of both the internal and external zones of the Betic Cordillera.

  8. Designing Conservation Corridors in Production Landscapes: Assessment Methods, Implementation Issues, and Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda T. Lombard

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Designing broad-scale conservation corridors has become increasingly common as a way of conducting an assessment for achieving targets for the representation and persistence of nature. However, since many of these corridors must traverse agricultural and other production landscapes, planning and implementation are not trivial tasks. Most approaches to conservation assessments in the dynamic world of production landscapes are data-intensive and analytically complex. However, in the real world, donor and other external requirements impose time and budget constraints, and dictate strong stakeholder involvement in the entire planning process. In order to accommodate this, assessments must be rapid, cheap, and the approach and products must be comprehensible and acceptable to stakeholders. Here we describe such an assessment aimed at identifying and implementing a network of conservation corridors in the Gouritz Initiative project domain of South Africa's Cape Floristic Region hotspot. We used empirical data and expert knowledge to identify a corridor network hypothesized to sustain key ecological and evolutionary processes. We also consulted experts to provide a spatially explicit assessment of the opportunity costs of conservation associated with agriculture, the predominant land use in the region. We used these products to identify categories of land requiring different actions and instruments to achieve conservation goals, thereby moving from the "where" to the "how" of conservation. This information was then fed into the collaborative strategy development process for the Gouritz Initiative. Our discussion emphasizes the lessons that we learnt from undertaking this assessment, particularly lessons regarding the implementation of the planning products. We conclude that at the outset of any planning project, a consensus on the vision must be achieved, a detailed social assessment of appropriate institutions must be undertaken, and a learning

  9. Walk the line: station context, corridor type and bus rapid transit walk access in Jinan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yang; Mehndiratta, Shomik; Zegras, P. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines BRT station walk access patterns in rapidly urbanizing China and the relationship between bus rapid transit (BRT) station context and corridor type and the distance people will walk to access the system (i.e., catchment area). We hypothesize that certain contextual built environment features and station and right-of-way configurations will increase the walk-access catchment area; that is, that urban design influences users’ willingness to walk to BRT. We base our analysis ...

  10. ON THE FORMATION OF «ECONOMIC CORRIDOR SILK ROAD»: STATUS, PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid K. Alimov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the status and prospect of Tajik-Chinese relations in the context of the initiative of the President of the PRC on establishing of an economic corridor the Silk Road. A detailed characteristic of expected challenges and benefits for countries of Central Asia and China is given. Special attention is spent on the possibilities of developing of relations between Tajikistan and China, that have risen to the level of strategic partnership.

  11. Migratory corridors of adult female Kemp’s ridley turtles in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Donna J.; Hart, Kristen M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Rubio, Cynthia; Sartain-Iverson, Autumn R.; Pena, Jaime; Gamez, Daniel Gomez; Gonzales Diaz Miron, Raul de Jesus; Burchfield, Patrick M.; Martinez, Hector J.; Ortiz, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    For many marine species, locations of migratory pathways are not well defined. We used satellite telemetry and switching state-space modeling (SSM) to define the migratory corridor used by Kemp's ridley turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) in the Gulf of Mexico. The turtles were tagged after nesting at Padre Island National Seashore, Texas, USA from 1997 to 2014 (PAIS; n = 80); Rancho Nuevo, Tamaulipas, Mexico from 2010 to 2011 (RN; n = 14); Tecolutla, Veracruz, Mexico from 2012 to 2013 (VC; n = 13); and Gulf Shores, Alabama, USA during 2012 (GS; n = 1). The migratory corridor lies in nearshore Gulf of Mexico waters in the USA and Mexico with mean water depth of 26 m and a mean distance of 20 km from the nearest mainland coast. Migration from the nesting beach is a short phenomenon that occurs from late-May through August, with a peak in June. There was spatial similarity of post-nesting migratory pathways for different turtles over a 16 year period. Thus, our results indicate that these nearshore Gulf waters represent a critical migratory habitat for this species. However, there is a gap in our understanding of the migratory pathways used by this and other species to return from foraging grounds to nesting beaches. Therefore, our results highlight the need for tracking reproductive individuals from foraging grounds to nesting beaches. Continued tracking of adult females from PAIS, RN, and VC nesting beaches will allow further study of environmental and bathymetric components of migratory habitat and threats occurring within our defined corridor. Furthermore, the existence of this migratory corridor in nearshore waters of both the USA and Mexico demonstrates that international cooperation is necessary to protect essential migratory habitat for this imperiled species.

  12. Geometric Context and Orientation Map Combination for Indoor Corridor Modeling Using a Single Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baligh Jahromi, Ali; Sohn, Gunho

    2016-06-01

    Since people spend most of their time indoors, their indoor activities and related issues in health, security and energy consumption have to be understood. Hence, gathering and representing spatial information of indoor spaces in form of 3D models become very important. Considering the available data gathering techniques with respect to the sensors cost and data processing time, single images proved to be one of the reliable sources. Many of the current single image based indoor space modeling methods are defining the scene as a single box primitive. This domain-specific knowledge is usually not applicable in various cases where multiple corridors are joined at one scene. Here, we addressed this issue by hypothesizing-verifying multiple box primitives which represents the indoor corridor layout. Middle-level perceptual organization is the foundation of the proposed method, which relies on finding corridor layout boundaries using both detected line segments and virtual rays created by orthogonal vanishing points. Due to the presence of objects, shadows and occlusions, a comprehensive interpretation of the edge relations is often concealed. This necessitates the utilization of virtual rays to create a physically valid layout hypothesis. Many of the former methods used Orientation Map or Geometric Context to evaluate their proposed layout hypotheses. Orientation map is a map that reveals the local belief of region orientations computed from line segments, and in a segmented image geometric context uses color, texture, edge, and vanishing point cues to estimate the likelihood of each possible label for all super-pixels. Here, the created layout hypotheses are evaluated by an objective function which considers the fusion of orientation map and geometric context with respect to the horizontal viewing angle at each image pixel. Finally, the best indoor corridor layout hypothesis which gets the highest score from the scoring function will be selected and converted to a 3D

  13. Codornices Creek Corridor: Land Use Regulation, Creek Restoration, and their Impacts on the Residents’ Perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Stokenberga, Aiga; Sen, Arijit

    2013-01-01

    The Codornices Creek, an ecological corridor located in the northern part of Berkeley, California, is among the most visible, publicly accessible, and socio-economically diverse creeks in the East Bay. The current study examinesthe comparative influence of individual-level socio-economic conditions, involvementin Creek restoration activities, and the existing Creek-related land useregulations on the area residents’ sense of community and perception of areaecology. Based on the data collected ...

  14. Road-corridor planning in the EIA procedure in Spain. A review of case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loro, Manuel, E-mail: manuel.loro@upm.es [Department of Urban and Regional Planning and Environment, Civil Engineering School, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Prof. Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Transport Research Centre (TRANSyT-UPM) Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, ETSI Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Prof. Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Centro de investigación del transporte, TRANSyT-UPM, ETSI Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Prof. Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Arce, Rosa M., E-mail: rosa.arce.ruiz@upm.es [Department of Urban and Regional Planning and Environment, Civil Engineering School, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Prof. Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Transport Research Centre (TRANSyT-UPM) Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, ETSI Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Prof. Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Centro de investigación del transporte, TRANSyT-UPM, ETSI Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Prof. Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ortega, Emilio, E-mail: e.ortega@upm.es [Transport Research Centre (TRANSyT-UPM) Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, ETSI Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Prof. Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Centro de investigación del transporte, TRANSyT-UPM, ETSI Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Prof. Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Department of Construction and Rural Roads, Forestry Engineering School, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); and others

    2014-01-15

    The assessment of different alternatives in road-corridor planning must be based on a number of well-defined territorial variables that serve as decision making criteria, and this requires a high-quality preliminary environmental assessment study. In Spain the formal specifications for the technical requirements stipulate the constraints that must be considered in the early stages of defining road corridors, but not how they should be analyzed and ranked. As part of the feasibility study of a new road definition, the most common methodology is to establish different levels of Territorial Carrying Capacity (TCC) in the study area in order to summarize the territorial variables on thematic maps and to ease the tracing process of road-corridor layout alternatives. This paper explores the variables used in 22 road-construction projects conducted by the Ministry of Public Works that were subject to the Spanish EIA regulation and published between 2006 and 2008. The aim was to evaluate the quality of the methods applied and the homogeneity and suitability of the variables used for defining the TCC. The variables were clustered into physical, environmental, land-use and cultural constraints for the purpose of comparing the TCC values assigned in the studies reviewed. We found the average quality of the studies to be generally acceptable in terms of the justification of the methodology, the weighting and classification of the variables, and the creation of a synthesis map. Nevertheless, the methods for assessing the TCC are not sufficiently standardized; there is a lack of uniformity in the cartographic information sources and methodologies for the TCC valuation. -- Highlights: • We explore 22 road-corridor planning studies subjected to the Spanish EIA regulation. • We analyze the variables selected for defining territorial carrying capacity. • The quality of the studies is acceptable (methodology, variable weighting, mapping). • There is heterogeneity in the

  15. Blood Parasites of Blue-winged Teal ( Anas discors ) from Two Migratory Corridors, in the Southern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvon, Jason M; Mott, Joanna B; Jacobs, Sandy Serio; Fedynich, Alan M

    2016-07-01

    We collected 180 Blue-winged Teal ( Anas discors ) in September and October 2002 from Florida, US (n=100, representing the eastern migratory corridor) and the Louisiana-Texas, US, border (n=80, representing the western migratory corridor) and examined for blood parasites using thin heart-blood smears. Leucocytozoon simondi, Haemoproteus nettionis, and microfilariae were found in 16, 23, and 27 birds, respectively. Prevalence of L. simondi and H. nettionis did not vary by migratory corridor, but the prevalence of microfilariae was higher in the western corridor (23%) than the eastern corridor (9%). No differences in prevalence of L. simondi, H. nettionis, and microfilariae were observed by host age or sex. The mean density of L. simondi and H. nettionis averaged 1.5±0.3 and 2.3±0.4 (±SE per 3,000 erythrocytes), respectively. Ranked abundance models for main and interactive effects of corridor, age, and sex were not statistically significant for L. simondi or H. nettionis. Low prevalence and abundance of hematozoa in early autumn migrants reflects the likelihood of low exposure probabilities of Blue-winged Teal on the breeding grounds, compared to their congeners.

  16. Research on extensional viscosity of liquid crystalline polymer%液晶高分子流体拉伸粘度的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付强

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between the extensional viscosity and material parameters is studied through the analytical formulas of stress and extensional viscosity derived from the constitutive equation, boundary conditions and the equation of motion of co-rotational Oldroyd fluid B model. By using software MATLAB, the differential equations are solved and the curves of extensional viscosity with other parameters are drawn, and the influence of these parameters on the rheologic behavior is shown.These results qualitatively agree with the experimental results.%利用液晶高分子共转Oldroyd流体B模型,研究了拉伸粘度的变化规律.作出了拉伸粘度随其它参数变化曲线.结论与实验结果一致.

  17. Role of the future creative universities in the triple helix of science and technology corridors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj nabipour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The science and technology corridor is a complex cluster containing universities, science parks, research centers, high-tech companies, venture capital, institutional and physical infrastructures, and human capital in a defined geography with its unique management and legal structure in association with the business space and knowledge-based products. In fact, the science and technology corridor reflects the concept of development based on the knowledge region (the especial region for science and technology. The knowledge region is clearly a triple helix phenomenon par excellence: universities, governments and businesses combine their efforts to construct a common advantage which they would not be able to offer on their own. The future creative universities in connection with the knowledge city-regions not only will deal with innovation and entrepreneurial training but also produce a competitive, vibrant environment with high indices for quality of life and full of green technologies. In this article, we will present functional interactions of the creative universities in the triple helix, particularly the missions for the Iranian universities of medical sciences. As a theoretical model, the complex interactions of Bushehr University of Medical Sciences and Health Services with Bushehr Science and Technology Corridor will be discussed.

  18. Postglacial viability and colonization in North America’s ice-free corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mikkel W.; Ruter, Anthony; Schweger, Charles; Friebe, Harvey; Staff, Richard A.; Kjeldsen, Kristian K.; Mendoza, Marie L. Z.; Beaudoin, Alwynne B.; Zutter, Cynthia; Larsen, Nicolaj K.; Potter, Ben A.; Nielsen, Rasmus; Rainville, Rebecca A.; Orlando, Ludovic; Meltzer, David J.; Kjær, Kurt H.; Willerslev, Eske

    2016-09-01

    During the Last Glacial Maximum, continental ice sheets isolated Beringia (northeast Siberia and northwest North America) from unglaciated North America. By around 15 to 14 thousand calibrated radiocarbon years before present (cal. kyr BP), glacial retreat opened an approximately 1,500-km-long corridor between the ice sheets. It remains unclear when plants and animals colonized this corridor and it became biologically viable for human migration. We obtained radiocarbon dates, pollen, macrofossils and metagenomic DNA from lake sediment cores in a bottleneck portion of the corridor. We find evidence of steppe vegetation, bison and mammoth by approximately 12.6 cal. kyr BP, followed by open forest, with evidence of moose and elk at about 11.5 cal. kyr BP, and boreal forest approximately 10 cal. kyr BP. Our findings reveal that the first Americans, whether Clovis or earlier groups in unglaciated North America before 12.6 cal. kyr BP, are unlikely to have travelled by this route into the Americas. However, later groups may have used this north-south passageway.

  19. Road network in an agrarian landscape: Potential habitat, corridor or barrier for small mammals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redon (de), Louis; Le Viol, Isabelle; Jiguet, Frédéric; Machon, Nathalie; Scher, Olivier; Kerbiriou, Christian

    2015-01-01

    If the negative effects of road networks on biodiversity are now recognized, their role as barriers, habitats or corridors remain to be clarified in human altered landscapes in which road verges often constitute the few semi-natural habitats where a part of biodiversity important for ecosystem functioning may maintain. In human-dominated landscape, their roles are crucial to precise in comparison to other habitats for small mammal species considered as major natural actors (pests (voles) or biological control agents (shrew)). We studied these roles through the comparison of small mammal abundance captured (418 individuals belonging to 8 species) using non-attractive pitfall traps (n = 813) in 176 sampled sites distributed in marginal zones of road and crop, in natural areas and in fields. We examined the effect of roadside width and isolation of sites. We found the higher small mammal abundances in roadside verges and an effect of width margins for shrews. The significant effect of the distance to the next adjacent natural habitat at the same side of the road on the relative abundance of Sorex coronatus, and the absence of a significant effect of distance to the next natural habitat at the opposite side of road, suggest that highway and road verges could be used as corridor for their dispersal, but have also a barrier effect for shrews. Our results show that in intensive agricultural landscapes roadside and highway verges may often serve as refuge, habitat and corridor for small mammals depending on species and margin characteristics.

  20. Integrated HS and ALS Remote Sensing Data Sources to Develop Green Corridors in Sopron Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    János Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The green corridors are part of the European Union rural landscapes, but the regional increase in size of agricultural parcels had a significant effect on European land use in the 20th century. This effect radically reduced the coverage of natural forest. One ecological problem with the remaining forests is the partial missing of the network connecting the parts with ecological green corridors. Another economical problem is the verifiability for the payment system of agroforestry. Remote sensing methods are currently used to supervise monitoring the arable lands, plantations, natural reserve areas, as well as to help for the European Union payment system. Nowadays the airborne hyperspectral (HS and LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging; ALS remote sensing technologies are becoming of more widespread use. They can be applied especially in spatial decision support system (SDSS, used in decisions about for nature, environment, forests, agriculture protection, conservation and monitoring, as well as for monitoring of biomass production. Our site selection model was the first step towards planning an agroforestry plantation which uses these integrated technologies to connect the parts with green corridors.