WorldWideScience

Sample records for river corridor transition

  1. River Corridors (Jan 2, 2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — River corridors are delineated to provide for the least erosive meandering and floodplain geometry toward which a river will evolve over time. River corridor maps...

  2. HANFORD SITE RIVER CORRIDOR CLEANUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BAZZELL, K.D.

    2006-02-01

    In 2005, the US Department of Energy (DOE) launched the third generation of closure contracts, including the River Corridor Closure (RCC) Contract at Hanford. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made on cleaning up the river shore that bordes Hanford. However, the most important cleanup challenges lie ahead. In March 2005, DOE awarded the Hanford River Corridor Closure Contract to Washington Closure Hanford (WCH), a limited liability company owned by Washington Group International, Bechtel National and CH2M HILL. It is a single-purpose company whose goal is to safely and efficiently accelerate cleanup in the 544 km{sup 2} Hanford river corridor and reduce or eliminate future obligations to DOE for maintaining long-term stewardship over the site. The RCC Contract is a cost-plus-incentive-fee closure contract, which incentivizes the contractor to reduce cost and accelerate the schedule. At $1.9 billion and seven years, WCH has accelerated cleaning up Hanford's river corridor significantly compared to the $3.2 billion and 10 years originally estimated by the US Army Corps of Engineers. Predictable funding is one of the key features of the new contract, with funding set by contract at $183 million in fiscal year (FY) 2006 and peaking at $387 million in FY2012. Another feature of the contract allows for Washington Closure to perform up to 40% of the value of the contract and subcontract the balance. One of the major challenges in the next few years will be to identify and qualify sufficient subcontractors to meet the goal.

  3. Variable input parameter influence on river corridor prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zerfu, T.; Beevers, L.; Crosato, A.; Wright, N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the erodible river corridor, which is the area in which the main river channel is free to migrate over a period of time. Due to growing anthropogenic pressure, predicting the corridor width has become increasingly important for the planning of development along rivers. Several a

  4. RIVER CORRIDOR BUILDINGS 324 & 327 CLEANUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BAZZELL, K.D.; SMITH, B.A.

    2006-02-09

    A major challenge in the recently awarded River Corridor Closure (RCC) Contract at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site is decontaminating and demolishing (D&D) facilities in the 300 Area. Located along the banks of the Columbia River about one mile north of Richland, Washington, the 2.5 km{sup 2} (1 mi{sup 2})300 Area comprises only a small part of the 1517 km{sup 2} (586 mi{sup 2}) Hanford Site. However, with more than 300 facilities ranging from clean to highly contaminated, D&D of those facilities represents a major challenge for Washington Closure Hanford (WCH), which manages the new RCC Project for DOE's Richland Operations Office (RL). A complicating factor for this work is the continued use of nearly a dozen facilities by the DOE's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Most of the buildings will not be released to WCH until at least 2009--four years into the seven-year, $1.9 billion RCC Contract. The challenge will be to deactivate, decommission, decontaminate and demolish (D4) highly contaminated buildings, such as 324 and 327, without interrupting PNNL's operations in adjacent facilities. This paper focuses on the challenges associated with the D4 of the 324 Building and the 327 Building.

  5. 75 FR 17756 - Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Office of the Secretary Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting... the John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission will be held on... integrated resource management plan for those lands and waters within the Corridor. The meeting will...

  6. 2010 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. T. Lindsey, A. L. Johnson

    2010-09-30

    This report documents eh status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with CERLA cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. This report contains vegetation monitoring data that were collected in the spring and summer of 2010 from the River Corridor Closure Contract’s revegetation and mitigation areas on the Hanford Site.

  7. 2011 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, W. J.; Lucas, J. G.; Gano, K. A.

    2011-11-14

    This report documents the status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. This report contains the vegetation monitoring data that was collected in the spring and summer of 2011 from the River Corridor Closure Contractor’s revegetation and mitigation areas on the Hanford Site.

  8. Louisiana Speaks Regional Vision Transit Corridors, UTM Zone 15N NAD 83, Louisiana Recovery Authority (2007), [louisiana_speaks_vision_transit_corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS shapefile data illustrates the primary and secondary transit corridors included in the Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan Vision. This network accommodates a...

  9. Louisiana Speaks Transportation Option B Transit Corridors, UTM Zone 15N NAD 83, Louisiana Recovery Authority (2007), [louisiana_speaks_transportation_option_b_transit_corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS shapefile data illustrates the regional, subregional, and local transit corridors included in the Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan community growth option of...

  10. Louisiana Speaks Transportation Option C Transit Corridors, UTM Zone 15N NAD 83, Louisiana Recovery Authority (2007), [louisiana_speaks_transportation_option_c_transit_corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS shapefile data illustrates the regional, subregional, and local transit corridors included in the Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan community growth option of...

  11. Identifying transit corridors for elephant using a long time-series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pittiglio, C.; Skidmore, A.K.; Gils, van H.A.M.J.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2012-01-01

    The role of corridors in mitigating the effects of landscape fragmentation on biodiversity is controversial. Recent studies have highlighted the need for new approaches in corridor design using long-term datasets. We present a method to identify transit corridors for elephant at a population scale o

  12. Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Iowa River Corridor Project [Land Status Map: Sheet 3 of 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Iowa River Corridor Project. It was generated from...

  13. Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Iowa River Corridor Project [Land Status Map: Sheet 2 of 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Iowa River Corridor Project. It was generated from...

  14. Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Iowa River Corridor Project [Land Status Map: Sheet 1 of 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Iowa River Corridor Project. It was generated from...

  15. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Lower Neches River Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Lower Neches River Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  16. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Lower Neches River Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Lower Neches River Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  17. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Lower Neches River Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Lower Neches River Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  18. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Lower Neches River Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Lower Neches River Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  19. Carbon dynamics of river corridors and the effects of human alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen; Hall, Robert O.; Lininger, Katherine B; Sutfin, Nicholas A.; Walters, David

    2017-01-01

    Research in stream metabolism, gas exchange, and sediment dynamics indicates that rivers are an active component of the global carbon cycle and that river form and process can influence partitioning of terrestrially derived carbon among the atmosphere, geosphere, and ocean. Here we develop a conceptual model of carbon dynamics (inputs, outputs, and storage of organic carbon) within a river corridor, which includes the active channel and the riparian zone. The exchange of carbon from the channel to the riparian zone represents potential for storage of transported carbon not included in the “active pipe” model of organic carbon (OC) dynamics in freshwater systems. The active pipe model recognizes that river processes influence carbon dynamics, but focuses on CO2 emissions from the channel and eventual delivery to the ocean. We also review how human activities directly and indirectly alter carbon dynamics within river corridors. We propose that dams create the most significant alteration of carbon dynamics within a channel, but that alteration of riparian zones, including the reduction of lateral connectivity between the channel and riparian zone, constitutes the most substantial change of carbon dynamics in river corridors. We argue that the morphology and processes of a river corridor regulate the ability to store, transform, and transport OC, and that people are pervasive modifiers of river morphology and processes. The net effect of most human activities, with the notable exception of reservoir construction, appears to be that of reducing the ability of river corridors to store OC within biota and sediment, which effectively converts river corridors to OC sources rather than OC sinks. We conclude by summarizing knowledge gaps in OC dynamics and the implications of our findings for managing OC dynamics within river corridors.

  20. From mountains to the ocean: quantifying connectivity along the river corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Velez, J. D.; Harvey, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    Rivers are the landscape's arteries; they convey water, solutes, energy, and living organisms from the hillslopes, floodplains, aquifers, and atmosphere to the oceans. As water moves along this complex circulatory system, it is continuously exchanged with the surrounding alluvial aquifer, termed hyporheic exchange, which strongly conditions and constrains the biogeochemical evolution of water at the local scale with basin-scale consequences. Over the last two decades, considerable efforts have focused on the use of detailed mathematical models to explore the hydrodynamics and biogeochemical effect of hyporheic exchange at the scale of individual channel morphologies. While these efforts are essential to gain mechanistic understanding, their computational demand makes them impractical for basin applications. In this talk, a parsimonious but physically based model of hyporheic flow for application in large river basins is presented: Networks with EXchange and Subsurface Storage (NEXSS). At the core of NEXSS are the up-scaling of detailed mathematical models and a characterization of the channel geometry, geomorphic features, and related hydraulic drivers based on scaling equations from the literature and readily accessible information such as river discharge, width, grain size, sinuosity, channel slope, and regional groundwater gradients. As a proof-of-concept, we use NEXSS to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of hyporheic exchange and denitrification potential along the Mississippi River basin. This modeling approach allows us to map the location of critical hot spots for biogeochemical transformation, their geomorphic drivers, and cumulative effect. Finally, we discuss new avenues to incorporate exchange with floodplains and ponded waters, which also play a key role in water quality along the river corridor. This new modeling approach is critical to transition from purely empirical continental models of water quality to hybrid approaches that

  1. The Bug river - Corridor in the Pan European

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zingstra, H.L.; Simeonova, V.; Kitnaes, K.

    2009-01-01

    This is the final report of the BBI/Matra project 2006/015 “Protection and Management of the Bug as an Ecological Corridor in the Pan European Ecological Network” and is based on “status reports” written for each of the three riparian countries. The purpose of the project was to investigate the

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associations of vascular plants confined to river valleys: towards understanding the river corridor plant distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobis, Agnieszka; Błaszkowski, Janusz; Zubek, Szymon

    2015-01-01

    The group of river corridor plants (RCP) includes vascular plant species which grow mainly or exclusively in the valleys of large rivers. Despite the long recognized fact that some plant species display a corridor-like distribution pattern in Central Europe, there is still no exhaustive explanation of the mechanisms generating this peculiar distribution. The main goal of this study was therefore to investigate whether arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and fungal root endophytes influence the RCP distribution. Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) were observed in 19 out of 33 studied RCP. Dark septate endophytes (DSE) and Olpidium spp. were recorded with low abundance in 15 and 10 plant species, respectively. The spores of AMF were found only in 32% of trap cultures established from the soils collected in the river corridor habitats. In total, six widespread AMF species were identified. Because the percentage of non-mycorrhizal species in the group of RCP is significant and the sites in river corridors are characterized by low AMF species diversity, RCP can be outcompeted outside river valleys by the widespread species that are able to benefit from AM associations in more stable plant-AMF communities in non-river habitats.

  3. Upper Kenai Corridor Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Upper Kenai Corridor study describes and evaluates the Upper Kenai River and the land which embraces it. It also places the river corridor in its regional...

  4. The relative influence of catchment, riparian corridor, and reach-scale anthropogenic pressures on fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages in French rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marzin, A.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Pont, D.

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the relative influences of physiography and anthropogenic pressures on river biota at catchment, riparian corridor, and reach scales. Environmental data, catchment and riparian corridor land use, anthropogenic modifications and biological data were compiled for 301 French sites

  5. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Canyonlands and Upper Neches River Corridor Units, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Canyonlands and Upper Neches River Corridor Units of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was...

  6. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Canyonlands and Upper Neches River Corridor Units, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Canyonlands and Upper Neches River Corridor Units of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was...

  7. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Canyonlands and Upper Neches River Corridor Units, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Canyonlands and Upper Neches River Corridor Units of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was...

  8. Hydrologic Connectivity Estimated throughout the Nation's River Corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J. W.; Gomez-Velez, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrologic connectivity is a key concept that integrates longitudinal transport in rivers with vertical and lateral exchanges between rivers and hyporheic zones, riparian wetlands, floodplains, and ponded aquatic ecosystems. Desirable levels of connectivity are thought to be associated with rivers that are well-connected longitudinally while also being well connected vertically and laterally with marginal waters where carbon and nutrients are efficiently transformed, and where aquatic organisms feed, or are reared, or take refuge during floods. But what is the proper balance between longitudinal and vertical and lateral connectivity? We took a step towards quantifying hydrologic connectivity using the model NEXSS (Gomez-Velez and Harvey, 2014, GRL) applied throughout the nation's rivers. NEXSS simulates vertical and lateral connectivity and compares it with longitudinal transport along the river's main axis. It uses as inputs measured network topology for first to eighth order channels, river hydraulic geometry, sediment grain size, bedform types and sizes, estimated hydraulic conductivity of sediments, and estimates of reaction rates such as denitrification. Results indicate that hyporheic flow is large enough to exchange a river's entire volume many times within a river network, which increases biogeochemical opportunities for nutrient processing and attenuation of contaminants. Also, the analysis demonstrated why and where (i.e., in which physiographic regions of the nation) are hyporheic flow and solute reactions the greatest. The cumulative influence of hydrologic connectivity on water quality is expressed by a dimensionless index of reaction significance. Our quantification of hydrologic connectivity adds a physical basis that supports water quality modeling, and also supports scientifically based prioritization of management actions (e.g. stream restoration) and may support other types of actions (e.g. legislative actions) to help conserve healthy functional

  9. Drainage evolution of the Heihe River in western Hexi Corridor, China, derived from sedimentary and magnetostratigraphic results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Baotian; Chen, Dianbao; Hu, Xiaofei; Cao, Xilin; Chen, Jinjun; Mao, Junwei

    2016-10-01

    The uplifting of the Tibetan Plateau has significantly changed the environment in surrounding areas by delivering abundant water and sediment. The Heihe River draining the Qilian Shan in the NE Tibetan Plateau acts as a dominant sediment routing system from the uplifted NE Tibetan Plateau to the Hexi Corridor as well as the Badain Jaran Desert. Reconstructing the evolution of the Heihe River could provide evidence for the birth of the Badain Jaran Desert and enhance the understanding of sedimentary basin fill and the relationship between tectonism, drainage evolution and environmental changes. With this aim, two parallel cores (DWJ and XKJD with depths of 140 and 68.2 m, respectively) were drilled in the floodplain of the Heihe River. The facies analysis of the sedimentary sequences from the drilling cores showed that the sedimentary environment changed from the lake system to a delta system and finally to a fluvial system at the depths of ∼133.3 and ∼68 m, respectively. The magnetostratigraphic results revealed ages of approximately 1.75 and 1.12 Ma for the DWJ and XKJD cores, respectively, and an age of approximately 1.1 Ma for the transition from delta to fluvial environment in both the cores. The change of the sedimentary environment at approximately 1.1 Ma was caused by the formation of the integrated Heihe River. The integrated Heihe River may have developed via mechanisms such as river capture and river diversion due to the uplifting of the North Qilian Shan and the Longshou Shan. The present study suggested that the formation of large inland rivers, such as the Heihe River and the Shiyang River in NW China, played an important role in the evolution of the deserts and the Loess Plateau.

  10. 2007 Weather and Aeolian Sand-Transport Data from the Colorado River Corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draut, Amy E.; Andrews, Timothy; Fairley, Helen C.; Brown, Christopher R.

    2009-01-01

    Weather data constitute an integral part of ecosystem monitoring in the Colorado River corridor and are particularly valuable for understanding processes of landscape change that contribute to the stability of archeological sites. Data collected in 2007 are reported from nine weather stations in the Colorado River corridor through Grand Canyon, Ariz. The stations were deployed in February and March 2007 to measure wind speed and direction, rainfall, air temperature, relative humidity, and barometric pressure. Sand traps near each weather station collect windblown sand, from which daily aeolian sand-transport rates are calculated. The data reported here were collected as part of an ongoing study to test and evaluate methods for quantifying processes that affect the physical integrity of archeological sites along the river corridor; as such, these data can be used to identify rainfall events capable of causing gully incision and to predict likely transport pathways for aeolian sand, two landscape processes integral to the preservation of archeological sites. Weather data also have widespread applications to other studies of physical, cultural, and biological resources in Grand Canyon. Aeolian sand-transport data reported here, collected in the year before the March 2008 High-Flow Experiment (HFE) at Glen Canyon Dam, represent baseline data against which the effects of the 2008 HFE on windblown sand will be compared in future reports.

  11. Hydrologic indicators of hot spots and hot moments of mercury methylation potential along river corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Michael B.; Harrison, Lee R.; Donovan, Patrick M.; Blum, Joel D.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of metals and other contaminants in river-floodplain corridors is controlled by microbial activity responding to dynamic redox conditions. Riverine flooding thus has the potential to affect speciation of redox-sensitive metals such as mercury (Hg). Therefore, inundation history over a period of decades potentially holds information on past production of bioavailable Hg. We investigate this within a Northern California river system with a legacy of landscape-scale 19th century hydraulic gold mining. We combine hydraulic modeling, Hg measurements in sediment and biota, and first-order calculations of mercury transformation to assess the potential role of river floodplains in producing monomethylmercury (MMHg), a neurotoxin which accumulates in local and migratory food webs. We identify frequently inundated floodplain areas, as well as floodplain areas inundated for long periods. We quantify the probability of MMHg production potential (MPP) associated with hydrology in each sector of the river system as a function of the spatial patterns of overbank inundation and drainage, which affect long-term redox history of contaminated sediments. Our findings identify river floodplains as periodic, temporary, yet potentially important, loci of biogeochemical transformation in which contaminants may undergo change during limited periods of the hydrologic record. We suggest that inundation is an important driver of MPP in river corridors and that the entire flow history must be analyzed retrospectively in terms of inundation magnitude and frequency in order to accurately assess biogeochemical risks, rather than merely highlighting the largest floods or low-flow periods. MMHg bioaccumulation within the aquatic food web in this system may pose a major risk to humans and waterfowl that eat migratory salmonids, which are being encouraged to come up these rivers to spawn. There is a long-term pattern of MPP under the current flow regime that is likely to be

  12. Hydrologic indicators of hot spots and hot moments of mercury methylation potential along river corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Michael Bliss; Harrison, Lee R; Donovan, Patrick M; Blum, Joel D; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark

    2016-10-15

    The biogeochemical cycling of metals and other contaminants in river-floodplain corridors is controlled by microbial activity responding to dynamic redox conditions. Riverine flooding thus has the potential to affect speciation of redox-sensitive metals such as mercury (Hg). Therefore, inundation history over a period of decades potentially holds information on past production of bioavailable Hg. We investigate this within a Northern California river system with a legacy of landscape-scale 19th century hydraulic gold mining. We combine hydraulic modeling, Hg measurements in sediment and biota, and first-order calculations of mercury transformation to assess the potential role of river floodplains in producing monomethylmercury (MMHg), a neurotoxin which accumulates in local and migratory food webs. We identify frequently inundated floodplain areas, as well as floodplain areas inundated for long periods. We quantify the probability of MMHg production potential (MPP) associated with hydrology in each sector of the river system as a function of the spatial patterns of overbank inundation and drainage, which affect long-term redox history of contaminated sediments. Our findings identify river floodplains as periodic, temporary, yet potentially important, loci of biogeochemical transformation in which contaminants may undergo change during limited periods of the hydrologic record. We suggest that inundation is an important driver of MPP in river corridors and that the entire flow history must be analyzed retrospectively in terms of inundation magnitude and frequency in order to accurately assess biogeochemical risks, rather than merely highlighting the largest floods or low-flow periods. MMHg bioaccumulation within the aquatic food web in this system may pose a major risk to humans and waterfowl that eat migratory salmonids, which are being encouraged to come up these rivers to spawn. There is a long-term pattern of MPP under the current flow regime that is likely to be

  13. Hydrologic indicators of hot spots and hot moments of mercury methylation along river corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Michael; Harrison, Lee; Donovan, Patrick; Blum, Joel; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark

    2016-04-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of metals and other contaminants river-floodplain corridors is controlled by microbial activity is often affected by dynamic redox conditions. Riverine flooding thus has the potential to affect speciation of redox-sensitive metals such as mercury (Hg). Therefore, flow history over a period of decades potentially holds information on past production of bioavailable Hg. We investigate this process within a Northern California river system that has a legacy of industrial-scale 19th century hydraulic gold mining. In the first known application of this methodology, we combine hydraulic modeling, measurements of Hg species in sediment and biota, and first-order calculations to assess the role of river floodplains in producing monomethylmercury (MMHg), which accumulates in local and migratory biota. We identify areas that represent 'hot spots' (frequently inundated areas of floodplains) and 'hot moments' (floodplain areas inundated for consecutive long periods). We show that the probability of MMHg production in each sector of the river system is dependent on the spatial patterns of overbank flow and drainage, which affect its long-term redox history. MMHg bioaccumulation within the aquatic food web may pose a major risk to humans and waterfowl that eat migratory salmonids, which are being encouraged to come up these rivers to spawn, and there appears to be no end to MMHg production under a regime of increasingly common large floods with extended duration. These findings identify river floodplains as periodic, temporary, yet important, loci of biogeochemical transformation in which contaminants may undergo change during limited periods of the historical hydrologic record. We suggest that inundation is the primary driver of MMHg production in river corridors and that the entire flow history must be analyzed in terms of magnitude and frequency of inundation in order to accurately assess biogeochemical risks, rather than merely highlighting the

  14. Walk the line: station context, corridor type and bus rapid transit walk access in Jinan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yang; Mehndiratta, Shomik; Zegras, P. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines BRT station walk access patterns in rapidly urbanizing China and the relationship between bus rapid transit (BRT) station context and corridor type and the distance people will walk to access the system (i.e., catchment area). We hypothesize that certain contextual built environment features and station and right-of-way configurations will increase the walk-access catchment area; that is, that urban design influences users’ willingness to walk to BRT. We base our analysis ...

  15. Slovenian and European legal stipulations concerning protection and rehabilitation of river corridors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Mikoš

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the state of hydromorphological preservation of river corridors in the Slovenian hydrographic network and because of demands imposed by domestic and European legislature concerning water resource management and environmental protection, certain sections of rivers and streams that were for various reasons regulated in the past, will have to be rehabilitated. Permanent solutions to such issues demand careful planning of rehabilitation on suitable sections of rivers and streams, adequate positioning within physical planning acts, as well as streamlined administrative procedures and devised maintenance of rehabilitation areas. Because the process demands the return of formerly taken water surfaces into the domain of water ecosystems and dynamics of hydromorphological processes, and consequentially maintenance of regained surfaces, the public becomes an important factor, which is a position, granted by domestic and European laws. Last, but not least, successful execution of rehabilitation of water corridors, besides planning, administration and consistent public participation, demands knowledge about good practices of project management, as well as technical execution of such projects.

  16. Value and Resilience in the Case of 'Invasive' Tamarix in the Colorado River Riparian Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, P. A.; Gerlach, S.; Zamora, F.

    2009-12-01

    A common premise of science for conservation and sustainability is an assumption that despite any human definitions of value, there are ecological first principles, e.g., resilience, which must be understood if sustainability is to be possible. As I show here, however, pursuits such as restoration, conservation, and sustainability remain tangled in (and sometimes at odds with one another regarding) many value-laden decisions regarding the equity, justice, and morality of human-environment interactions. These include such important decisions as: what should be restored or sustained and for whom, how and by whom, and at what cost. This paper uses examples from the lower Colorado River Riparian Corridor, in particular the issue of the so-called ‘invasive’ saltcedar (Tamarix spp.), to illustrate some of the implicit value judgments common to the practice of managing ecosystems. There are many possible perspectives to be taken on a matter like Tamarix, each implicitly or explicitly representing different worldviews and agendas for the ecosystems in question. Resilience theory provides one such perspective, but as I show here, it proves incapable of producing recommendations for managing the corridor that are free of subjective valuations. I end with a case study of habitat and Tamarix management practices in the Mexican portion of the Colorado River Delta, highlighting the proven potential when up-front values are explicitly coupled to the practice of sustainability science, rather than left as details for 'good governance,' a realm presently imagined as separate from science, to sort out. Map of the Colorado River Delta. The Sonoran Institute manages projects in the Mexican portion of the Colorado River Delta region, along the Rio Hardy, the mainstem of the Colorado River in Baja California, MX and in the Cienega de Santa Clara wetlands, Sonora, MX. Map courtesy of Water Education Foundation. www.watereducation.org

  17. A water balance model to estimate flow through the Old and Middle River corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Stephen W.; Gross, Edward S.; Hutton, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    We applied a water balance model to predict tidally averaged (subtidal) flows through the Old River and Middle River corridor in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta. We reviewed the dynamics that govern subtidal flows and water levels and adopted a simplified representation. In this water balance approach, we estimated ungaged flows as linear functions of known (or specified) flows. We assumed that subtidal storage within the control volume varies because of fortnightly variation in subtidal water level, Delta inflow, and barometric pressure. The water balance model effectively predicts subtidal flows and approaches the accuracy of a 1–D Delta hydrodynamic model. We explore the potential to improve the approach by representing more complex dynamics and identify possible future improvements.

  18. Simulation approach to define sustainable balance between automobile traffic and bus rapid transit (BRT) in urban corridors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddique, A.J.; Khan, A. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2007-07-01

    One of the key challenges facing Central Business Districts (CBD) of medium size urban areas in North America is how to minimize the dependence on automobiles while providing efficient transit service. Underground facilities, exclusive bus/rail corridor or elevated roadways may not be practical due to high cost, aesthetics, noise and adverse land use effects. Because of its compatibility with land use and infrastructure, bus rapid transit (BRT) is receiving more attention. Existing roadway infrastructure, when used as a shared facility, may support rapid transit service besides providing a sustainable level of automobile traffic. A microscopic simulation approach is required in order to assess design changes and throughput levels of shared corridors. The purpose of this paper was to advance the concept of a sustainable balance between public transit and automobile traffic in the CBD, and demonstrate the role of microsimulation as a tool to analyze policies and designs. Limitations of the existing planning methodology were explained and a description of how microscopic simulation approach could be used to overcome methodological gaps was presented. In addition, selected results of a research study conducted using microscopic simulation approach for BRT corridors in Ottawa were shown. It was concluded that BRT operations under favourable conditions in downtown corridors can potentially serve over 28,000 passengers per hour and that removing on-street parking from bus transit corridor expedites bus movement. 12 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  19. 75 FR 59323 - Early Scoping for the Alternatives Analysis of the North Corridor Transit Project in Metropolitan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... Project in Metropolitan Seattle AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration, DOT. ACTION: Early Scoping Notice... meetings and the range of alternatives currently identified to address the project's purpose are described....soundtransit.org/NorthHCT . ADDRESSES: Roger Iwata, North Corridor Project, Sound Transit, 401 S. Jackson...

  20. River Networks As Ecological Corridors for Species, Populations and Pathogens of Water-Borne Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldo, A.

    2014-12-01

    River basins are a natural laboratory for the study of the integration of hydrological, ecological and geomorphological processes. Moving from morphological and functional analyses of dendritic geometries observed in Nature over a wide range of scales, this Lecture addresses essential ecological processes that take place along dendritic structures, hydrology-driven and controlled, like e.g.: population migrations and human settlements, that historically proceeded along river networks to follow water supply routes; riparian ecosystems composition that owing to their positioning along streams play crucial roles in their watersheds and in the loss of biodiversity proceeding at unprecedented rates; waterborne disease spreading, like epidemic cholera that exhibits epidemic patterns that mirror those of watercourses and of human mobility and resurgences upon heavy rainfall. Moreover, the regional incidence of Schistosomiasis, a parasitic waterborne disease, and water resources developments prove tightly related, and proliferative kidney disease in fish thrives differently in pristine and engineered watercourses: can we establish quantitatively the critical linkages with hydrologic drivers and controls? How does connectivity within a river network affect community composition or the spreading mechanisms? Does the river basin act as a template for biodiversity or for species' persistence? Are there hydrologic controls on epidemics of water-borne disease? Here, I shall focus on the noteworthy scientific perspectives provided by spatially explicit eco-hydrological studies centered on river networks viewed as ecological corridors for species, populations and pathogens of waterborne disease. A notable methodological coherence is granted by the mathematical description of river networks as the support for reactive transport. The Lecture overviews a number of topics idiosyncratically related to my own research work but ideally aimed at a coherent body of materials and methods. A

  1. Melampyrum Cristatum L. – A Rare River Corridor Plant in Wielkopolska and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stachnowicz Wojciech

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Melampyrum cristatum is an extremely rare, native, hemi-parasitic, vascular plant, recently considered to be extinct in Poland. The article presents data concerning new localities of the species recorded in 2007-2012 in the valley of the River Warta (Wielkopolska, Poland. Local distribution of M. cristatum in the Natura 2000 sites: PLH300012 - Rogalińska Dolina Warty (ca. 147.5 sq. km and PLH300053 - Lasy Żerkowsko-Czeszewskie (ca. 71.6 sq. km, as well as its updated regional (in Wielkopolska and national (Poland ranges are shown on maps and interpreted on the background of the geomorphic diversity of occupied habitats. The results suggest that in Poland the species is distributed mainly along valleys of large, lowland rivers, which corresponds with its ‘River Corridor Plant’ status in Central Europe. The species rarity is discussed considering its outline phytocoenological scale (comprising various plant communities within 6 syntaxonomical classes, the riverine distribution pattern and chosen biological features. Natural habitat heterogeneity along with changeable water regime in floodplains, as well as potential limitations of myrmecochoric seed dispersal, may constitute potential reasons for the species low frequency

  2. Corridor effect of the spatial changes of landscape patterns in arid areas: A case study of the river corridor areas in the middle and lower reaches of Tarim River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Huarong; XIAO Duning; ZHOU Kefa

    2006-01-01

    The river corridor areas in the middle and lower reaches of the Tarim River are dominated by the traditional green corridors along the river section from the Qara Reservoir in Yuli County to the Taitema Lake in Ruoqiang County, which plays an important role in the social and economic development in the Tarim River Watershed with a extremely significant ecological functions. The buffer zones perpendicular to the watercourse were defined along both riversides at a 5-km interval beginning from the watercourse (10 km wider) using the method of the buffer zone analysis. The landscape pattern indexes of each buffer zone were calculated, and the indexes of the main landscape patterns were analyzed so as to reveal the radiative effect and the characteristics of the river corridors on landscape and patch levels.The results show that the radiative width is generally 30 km in the study area, and can be up to 50-70 km in sub- region FG1 because the study area is located in two drainage basins, with an ecological interstitial zone between them. The landscapes of woodlands and wetlands are generally distributed within the 10km buffer zone (it means that the buffer zone is 5 km away from the watercourse; the same hereafter)along both riversides. Moreover, the closer the buffer zone is to the watercourse, the higher the patch density and the largest patch index are. In the ecological and environmental regeneration for the study area,the extent of ecological effect of the river corridors 82must be fully considered, and the projects must be scientifically and rationally planned and designed.

  3. Conditions and processes affecting sand resources at archeological sites in the Colorado River corridor below Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Amy E.; Collins, Brian D.; Sankey, Joel B.; Corbett, Skye C.; Fairley, Helen C.; Caster, Joshua

    2016-05-17

    This study examined links among fluvial, aeolian, and hillslope geomorphic processes that affect archeological sites and surrounding landscapes in the Colorado River corridor downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona. We assessed the potential for Colorado River sediment to enhance the preservation of river-corridor archeological resources through aeolian sand deposition or mitigation of gully erosion. By identifying locally prevailing wind directions, locations of modern sandbars, and likely aeolian-transport barriers, we determined that relatively few archeological sites are now ideally situated to receive aeolian sand supply from sandbars deposited by recent controlled floods. Whereas three-fourths of the 358 river-corridor archeological sites we examined include Colorado River sediment as an integral component of their geomorphic context, only 32 sites currently appear to have a high degree of connectivity (coupled interactions) between modern fluvial sandbars and sand-dominated landscapes downwind. This represents a substantial decrease from past decades, as determined by aerial-photograph analysis. Thus, we infer that recent controlled floods have had a limited, and declining, influence on archeological-site preservation.

  4. Self-potential investigations of a gravel bar in a restored river corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, N.; Doetsch, J.; Jougnot, D.; Genoni, O.; Durst, Y.; Minsley, Burke J.; Vogt, T.; Pasquale, N.; Luster, J.

    2011-01-01

     Self-potentials (SP) are sensitive to water fluxes and concentration gradients in both saturated and unsaturated geological media, but quantitative interpretations of SP field data may often be hindered by the superposition of different source contributions and time-varying electrode potentials. Self-potential mapping and close to two months of SP monitoring on a gravel bar were performed to investigate the origins of SP signals at a restored river section of the Thur River in northeastern Switzerland. The SP mapping and subsequent inversion of the data indicate that the SP sources are mainly located in the upper few meters in regions of soil cover rather than bare gravel. Wavelet analyses of the time-series indicate a strong, but non-linear influence of water table and water content variations, as well as rainfall intensity on the recorded SP signals. Modeling of the SP response with respect to an increase in the water table elevation and precipitation indicate that the distribution of soil properties in the vadose zone has a very strong influence. We conclude that the observed SP responses on the gravel bar are more complicated than previously proposed semi-empiric relationships between SP signals and hydraulic head or the thickness of the vadose zone. We suggest that future SP monitoring in restored river corridors should either focus on quantifying vadose zone processes by installing vertical profiles of closely spaced SP electrodes or by installing the electrodes within the river to avoid signals arising from vadose zone processes and time-varying electrochemical conditions in the vicinity of the electrodes.

  5. Self-potential investigations of a gravel bar in a restored river corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Linde

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-potentials (SP are sensitive to water fluxes and concentration gradients in both saturated and unsaturated geological media, but quantitative interpretations of SP field data may often be hindered by the superposition of different source contributions and time-varying electrode potentials. Self-potential mapping and close to two months of SP monitoring on a gravel bar were performed to investigate the origins of SP signals at a restored river section of the Thur River in northeastern Switzerland. The SP mapping and subsequent inversion of the data indicate that the SP sources are mainly located in the upper few meters in regions of soil cover rather than bare gravel. Wavelet analyses of the time-series indicate a strong, but non-linear influence of water table and water content variations, as well as rainfall intensity on the recorded SP signals. Modeling of the SP response with respect to an increase in the water table elevation and precipitation indicate that the distribution of soil properties in the vadose zone has a very strong influence. We conclude that the observed SP responses on the gravel bar are more complicated than previously proposed semi-empiric relationships between SP signals and hydraulic head or the thickness of the vadose zone. We suggest that future SP monitoring in restored river corridors should either focus on quantifying vadose zone processes by installing vertical profiles of closely spaced SP electrodes or by installing the electrodes within the river to avoid signals arising from vadose zone processes and time-varying electrochemical conditions in the vicinity of the electrodes.

  6. First steps toward automatic patterns recognition from sequences of a restored river corridor photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouta, S.; Perona, P.; Schneider, P.; Wombacher, A.; Burlando, P.

    2009-04-01

    Obtaining information about river morphology and riparian vegetation patterns by means of photographic techniques is a challenging task with promising applications in the field of river hydraulic engineering and restoration. For instance, such a tool would speed up the post- processing phase of aerial images that is needed to calibrate both hydraulics and ecosystem models. Recognizing patterns automatically is relatively easy in the presence of well-defined objects and contrasting background colors, but this operation becomes rather difficult for open air or environmental photographs (e.g. of river corridors) where a multitude of colors, shadows, reflections and changing light conditions typically characterize the images. In this work an attempt is made in this direction and we begin with the already challenging task of recognizing water and non-water classes from digital photographs under changing light and surface albedo. Such conditions are typically due to either diurnal variability or bad weather conditions (e.g., like fog or snow). We use aerial photographs of the restored corridor of River Thur at Niederneunforn (Switzerland), which is currently monitored with high-resolution digital cameras as a task of the research project RECORD. Images of the river reach are taken from the top of two observation towers installed on the river levee and shots are frequency-dependent on current flow conditions. The approach we present here consists of masking the images by ignoring the irrelevant parts like mountains and sky, for instance. Next, features are defined which describe properties of the image or the image content, like e.g. color values, gradients of neighboring pixels, or application specific information like a probability distribution of a pixel being water derived from the digital elevation model. The investigated features can be classified according to two orthogonal dimensions: i) Pixel based features and features derived from a group of pixels and ii) Time

  7. Introduction to corridor selection & assessment for Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS in Hyderabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanu Kireeti Chanda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bus rapid transit system is an innovation and it is up gradation to the present transport system. BRT is affordable, adaptable and cost effective. The term of rapid transit system means a form of high speed urban passenger transportation. Here, the mode of transportation is bus hence it is called as bus rapid transit system (BRTS. Transportation facilities and the system will be different form different countries. Especially for the developing countries, transportation is a problem and BRT is the best way to overcome it. If a country gets richer the development will be seen in different aspects like education, industry, science and technology etc., except transport which will get worse. There are many ways to get rid of these traffic issues and transport problems. What attracted the countries to install BRT is the bus way concept as that it can cover whole city and is cheaper than the rail. BRT is a high speed rapid transit system using high capacity vehicles, physically separated bus ways, modern station with electronic fare collection, rapid boarding and high service frequency which result more passengers and less congestion. This paper presents an overview of BRTS and corridor selection & assessment for it in Hyderabad through surveys etc.

  8. Modern comprehensive approach to monitor the morphodynamic evolution of restored river corridors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Pasquale

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available River restoration has become a common measure to repair anthropogenically-induced alteration of fluvial ecosystems. The inherent complexity of ecohydrologic systems, leads to limitations in understanding the response of such systems to restoration over time. Up to now a lot of effort has therefore been dedicated worldwide to document the efficiency of restoration actions and to produce new effective guidelines that may help overcoming our deficiencies. At the same time very few attentions focused on illustrating the reasons and the use of certain monitoring and experimental techniques in spite of others, or in relation to the specific ecohydrologic process being investigated. The purpose of this paper is to enrich efforts in this direction by discussing the experimental setup that we designed and installed in order to accomplish some of the research tasks of the multidisciplinary scientific project RECORD (Restored Corridor Dynamics. Therein, we study the morphodynamic evolution of the restored reaches of River Thur near Niederneunforn (Switzerland, also in relation to the role of pioneer vegetation roots in stabilizing the alluvial sediment. In this work we describe and motivate the methodology chosen for monitoring the river morphodynamics, the dynamics of riparian and of in-bed vegetation and their mutual interactions, as well as the need of complementing such observations with experiments and with the hydraulic modeling of the site. We also discuss how the designed installation and the experiments integrate with the needs of other research groups within the project, in particular providing data for a number of investigations ranging from surface water to groundwater, soil moisture and vegetation dynamics.

  9. Modern comprehensive approach to monitor the morphodynamic evolution of a restored river corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Pasquale

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available River restoration has become a common measure to repair anthropogenically-induced alteration of fluvial ecosystems. The inherent complexity of ecohydrologic systems leads to limitations in understanding the response of such systems to restoration over time. Therefore, a significant effort has been dedicated in the recent years worldwide to document the efficiency of restoration actions and to produce new effective guidelines that may help overcoming existing deficiencies. At the same time little attention was paid to illustrate the reasons and the use of certain monitoring and experimental techniques in spite of others, or in relation to the specific ecohydrologic process being investigated. The purpose of this paper is to enrich efforts in this direction by presenting the framework of experimental activities and the related experimental setup that we designed and installed in order to accomplish some of the research tasks of the multidisciplinary scientific project RECORD (Restored Corridor Dynamics. Therein, we studied the morphodynamic evolution of the restored reach of the River Thur near Niederneunforn (Switzerland, also in relation to the role of pioneer vegetation roots in stabilizing the alluvial sediment. In this work we describe the methodology chosen for monitoring the river morphodynamics, the dynamics of riparian and of in-bed vegetation and their mutual interactions, as well as the need of complementing such observations with experiments and with the hydraulic modeling of the site. We also discuss how the designed installation and the experiments integrate with the needs of other research groups within the project, in particular providing data for a number of investigations thereby including surface water and groundwater interactions, soil moisture and vegetation dynamics.

  10. Towards improved instrumentation for assessing river-groundwater interactions in a restored river corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Schneider

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available River restoration projects have been launched over the last two decades to improve the ecological status and water quality of regulated rivers. As most restored rivers are not monitored at all, it is difficult to predict consequences of restoration projects or analyze why restorations fail or are successful. It is thus necessary to implement efficient field assessment strategies, for example by employing sensor networks that continuously measure physical parameters at high spatial and temporal resolution. This paper focuses on the design and implementation of an instrumentation strategy for monitoring changes in bank filtration, hydrological connectivity, groundwater travel time and quality due to river restoration. We specifically designed and instrumented a network of monitoring wells at the Thur River (NE Switzerland, which is partly restored and mainly channelized since more than 100 years. Our results show that bank filtration – especially in a restored section with alternating riverbed morphology – is variable in time and space. Consequently, our monitoring network sensing physical and sampling chemical water quality parameters was adapted in response to that variability. Although not available at our test site, we consider long-term measurements – ideally initialized before and continued after restoration – as a fundamental step, towards predicting consequences of river restoration for groundwater quality. As a result, process-based models could be adapted and evaluated using these types of high-resolution data sets.

  11. Towards improved instrumentation for assessing river-groundwater interactions in a restored river corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Schneider

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available River restoration projects have been launched over the last two decades to improve the ecological status and water quality of regulated rivers. As most restored rivers are not monitored at all, it is difficult to predict consequences of restoration projects or analyze why restorations fail or are successful. It is thus necessary to implement efficient field assessment strategies, for example by employing sensor networks that continuously measure physical parameters at high spatial and temporal resolution. This paper focuses on the design and implementation of an instrumentation strategy for monitoring changes in bank filtration, hydrological connectivity, groundwater travel time and quality due to river restoration. We specifically designed and instrumented a network of monitoring wells at the Thur River (NE Switzerland, which is partly restored and has been mainly channelized for more than 100 years. Our results show that bank filtration – especially in a restored section with alternating riverbed morphology – is variable in time and space. Consequently, our monitoring network has been adapted in response to that variability. Although not available at our test site, we consider long-term measurements – ideally initiated before and continued after restoration – as a fundamental step towards predicting consequences of river restoration for groundwater quality. As a result, process-based models could be adapted and evaluated using these types of high-resolution data sets.

  12. Riparian vegetation dynamics and evapotranspiration in the riparian corridor in the delta of the Colorado River, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Pamela L; Glenn, Edward P; Hinojosa-Huerta, Osvel; Zamora, Francisco; Howard, Keith

    2008-09-01

    Like other great desert rivers, the Colorado River in the United States and Mexico is highly regulated to provide water for human use. No water is officially allotted to support the natural ecosystems in the delta of the river in Mexico. However, precipitation is inherently variable in this watershed, and from 1981-2004, 15% of the mean annual flow of the Lower Colorado River has entered the riparian corridor below the last diversion point for water in Mexico. These flows include flood releases from US dams and much smaller administrative spills released back to the river from irrigators in the US and Mexico. These flows have germinated new cohorts of native cottonwood and willow trees and have established an active aquatic ecosystem in the riparian corridor in Mexico. We used ground and remote-sensing methods to determine the composition and fractional cover of the vegetation in the riparian corridor, its annual water consumption, and the sources of water that support the ecosystem. The study covered the period 2000-2004, a flood year followed by 4 dry years. The riparian corridor occupies 30,000 ha between flood control levees in Mexico. Annual evapotranspiration (ET), estimated by Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) satellite imagery calibrated against moisture flux tower data, was about 1.1 m yr(-1) and was fairly constant throughout the study period despite a paucity of surface flows 2001-2004. Total ET averaged 3.4 x 10(8)m(3)yr(-1), about 15% of Colorado River water entering Mexico from the US Surface flows could have played only a small part in supporting these high ET losses. We conclude that the riparian ET is supported mainly by the shallow regional aquifer, derived from agricultural return flows, that approaches the surface in the riparian zone. Nevertheless, surface flows are important in germinating cohorts of native trees, in washing salts from the soil and aquifer, and in providing aquatic habitat, thereby enriching the habitat value of

  13. How to comprehensively evaluate river corridor conditions? A comparison of different biotic and morphological indices in northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golfieri, Bruno; Surian, Nicola; Hardersen, Sönke; Maiolini, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    The assessment of river conditions is crucial for planning appropriate management actions. The European Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC (WFD) requires the assessment of biological, physical-chemical and hydromorphological elements to define the ecological status of rivers. The WFD suggests the use of different bioindicators (i.e. benthic macroinvertebrates, diatoms, aquatic macrophytes and fish), the so called "biological quality elements" (BQEs). However, recent studies showed that BQEs-based indices have two main limitations: (i) their standard application is limited to flowing channels and (ii) they are not sensitive to hydromorphological alteration. Hydromorphological conditions are usually evaluated applying methods for physical habitat assessment (i.e. the River Habitat Survey or derived methods) that consist in site-scale inventories of river forms and anthropic structures. The lack of consideration of wider spatial (i.e. reach or catchment scale) and temporal scales (e.g. channel evolution over the last 50-100 years) make such methods inadequate for a sound diagnosis of morphological alterations. The Morphological Quality Index (MQI) and the dragonfly-based Odonate River Index (ORI) were developed in the recent years to overcome the above-mentioned limitations and to assess the condition of the whole river corridor (i.e. the channel and its adjacent floodplain) at reach scale. In this study we correlated the assessments of MQI, ORI and two BQEs-based biotic indices (i.e. STAR_ICMi for benthic macroinvertebrates and ICMi for diatoms) in 15 lowland river reaches in northern Italy. The selected reaches are characterized by a wide range of morphological degradation. MQI and ORI were highly correlated, probably because both methods work at reach scale and consider the integrity of the whole river corridor, either in terms of morphology or considering ecological aspects. In contrast, no significant relationships were found between MQI and ORI and the BQEs

  14. The Casiquiare river acts as a corridor between the Amazonas and Orinoco river basins: biogeographic analysis of the genus Cichla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, S C; Nunes, M; Montaña, C G; Farias, I P; Ortí, G; Lovejoy, N R

    2010-03-01

    The Casiquiare River is a unique biogeographic corridor between the Orinoco and Amazonas basins. We investigated the importance of this connection for Neotropical fishes using peacock cichlids (Cichla spp.) as a model system. We tested whether the Casiquiare provides a conduit for gene flow between contemporary populations, and investigated the origin of biogeographic distributions that span the Casiquiare. Using sequences from the mitochondrial control region of three focal species (C. temensis, C. monoculus, and C. orinocensis) whose distributions include the Amazonas, Orinoco, and Casiquiare, we constructed maximum likelihood phylograms of haplotypes and analyzed the populations under an isolation-with-migration coalescent model. Our analyses suggest that populations of all three species have experienced some degree of gene flow via the Casiquiare. We also generated a mitochondrial genealogy of all Cichla species using >2000 bp and performed a dispersal-vicariance analysis (DIVA) to reconstruct the historical biogeography of the genus. This analysis, when combined with the intraspecific results, supports two instances of dispersal from the Amazonas to the Orinoco. Thus, our results support the idea that the Casiquiare connection is important across temporal scales, facilitating both gene flow and the dispersal and range expansion of species.

  15. Sedimentology and stratigraphy of the Palisades, Lower Comanche, and Arroyo Grande areas of the Colorado River Corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draut, Amy E.; Rubin, David M.; Dierker, Jennifer L.; Fairley, Helen C.; Griffiths, Ronald E.; Hazel, Joseph E.; Hunter, Ralph E.; Kohl, Keith; Leap, Lisa M.; Nials, Fred L.; Topping, David J.; Yeatts, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This report analyzes various depositional environments in three archaeologically significant areas of the Colorado River corridor in Grand Canyon. Archaeological features are built on and buried by fluvial, aeolian, and locally derived sediment, representing a complex interaction between geologic and cultural history. These analyses provide a basis for determining the potential influence of Glen Canyon Dam operations on selected archaeological sites and thus for guiding dam operations in order to facilitate preservation of cultural resources. This report presents initial results of a joint effort between geologists and archaeologists to evaluate the significance of various depositional processes and environments in the prehistoric formation and modern preservation of archaeological sites along the Colorado River corridor in Grand Canyon National Park. Stratigraphic investigations of the Palisades, Lower Comanche, and Arroyo Grande areas of Grand Canyon yield detailed information regarding the sedimentary history at these locations. Reconstruction of past depositional settings is critical to a thorough understanding of the geomorphic and stratigraphic evolution of these three archaeologically significant areas. This examination of past sedimentary environments allows the relative significance of fluvial, aeolian, debris-fan, and slope-wash sedimentary deposits to be identified at each site. In general the proportion of fluvial sediment (number and thickness of flood deposits) is shown to decrease away from the river, and locally derived sediment becomes more significant. Flood sequences often occur as 'couplets' that contain a fluvial deposit overlain by an interflood unit that reflects reworking of fluvial sediment at the land surface by wind and local runoff. Archaeological features are built on and buried by sediment of various depositional environments, implying a complex interaction between geologic and cultural history. Such field analysis, which combines

  16. LJUBLJANICA CONNECTS - Restoration of the Ljubljanica River corridor and improvement of the river's flow regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabret, Katarina; Sapač, Klaudija; Šraj, Mojca; Bezak, Nejc; Sečnik, Matej; Vidmar, Andrej; Brilly, Mitja

    2016-04-01

    The project Ljubljanica connects is focused on improving connectivity and living conditions in Ljubljanica River which flows through capital city of Slovenia, Ljubljana. It represents living environment for endangered and Natura 2000 targeted fish species Danube Salmon (Hucho hucho), Danube Roach (Rutilus pigus) and Striped Chub (Leuciscus souffia). The project consists of four sets of activities: concrete restoration actions including improvement of two fish passes, monitoring of fish migration, monitoring of eco-hydrological parameters, and raising of public awareness. To improve living conditions the concrete restoration measures were performed. The reconstructions of sill and two fish passes on the Ljubljanica River have been implemented and barrier's lifting system on the weir was modernized. Above the sill in Zalog there is an oxbow which was disconnected with main river channel during the low flows. Interrupted inflow of fresh water caused very poor living conditions for animals in the oxbow. The raise of the sill helped to improve this situation. One of the fish passes included in the project is more than 100 years old whereas both are protected as cultural and technical heritage. None was working properly and due to the protection no visible nor drastic measures were allowed. With smaller improvements we managed to re-establish their operation. A lifting system of the barrier at the Ambrožev trg gate was outdated and did not allow precise regulation of the water level. Too fast raising of the barrier instantly caused deterioration of eco-hydrological conditions downstream. With modernization of the electromechanical equipment the situation is improved. The fish monitoring helps us to evaluate success of concrete restoration actions. The fish population status is monitored with marking the fish with Visible Implant Elastomer (VIE) tags. Regarding the location of catch we implant tags beneath transparent or translucent tissue combining different tag

  17. Integrated modelling for Sustainability Appraisal of urban river corridors: going beyond compartmentalised thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vikas; Rouquette, J R; Lerner, David N

    2013-12-15

    Sustainability Appraisal (SA) is a complex task that involves integration of social, environmental and economic considerations and often requires trade-offs between multiple stakeholders that may not easily be brought to consensus. Classical SA, often compartmentalised in the rigid boundary of disciplines, can facilitate discussion, but can only partially inform decision makers as many important aspects of sustainability remain abstract and not interlinked. A fully integrated model can overcome compartmentality in the assessment process and provides opportunity for a better integrative exploratory planning process. The objective of this paper is to explore the benefit of an integrated modelling approach to SA and how a structured integrated model can be used to provide a coherent, consistent and deliberative platform to assess policy or planning proposals. The paper discusses a participative and integrative modelling approach to urban river corridor development, incorporating the principal of sustainability. The paper uses a case study site in Sheffield, UK, with three alternative development scenarios, incorporating a number of possible riverside design features. An integrated SA model is used to develop better design by optimising different design elements and delivering a more sustainable (re)-development plan. We conclude that participatory integrated modelling has strong potential for supporting the SA processes. A high degree of integration provides the opportunity for more inclusive and informed decision-making regarding issues of urban development. It also provides the opportunity to reflect on their long-term dynamics, and to gain insights on the interrelationships underlying persistent sustainability problems. Thus the ability to address economic, social and environmental interdependencies within policies, plans, and legislations is enhanced. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 2008 Weather and Aeolian Sand-Transport Data from the Colorado River Corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draut, Amy E.; Sondossi, Hoda A.; Hazel, Joseph E.; Andrews, Timothy; Fairley, Helen C.; Brown, Christopher R.; Vanaman, Karen M.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents measurements of weather parameters and aeolian (windblown) sand transport made in 2008 near selected archaeological sites in the Colorado River corridor through Grand Canyon, Ariz. The quantitative methods and data discussed here form a basis for monitoring ecosystem processes that affect archeological-site stability. Combined with forthcoming work to evaluate landscape evolution at nearby archaeological sites, these data can be used to document the relationship between physical processes, including weather and aeolian sand transport, and their effects on the physical integrity of archaeological sites. Data collected in 2008 reveal event- and seasonal-scale variations in rainfall, wind, temperature, humidity, and barometric pressure. Broad seasonal changes in aeolian sediment flux are also apparent at most study sites. The continuation of monitoring that began in 2007, and installation of equipment at several new sites in early 2008, allowed evaluation of the effects of the March 2008 high-flow experiment (HFE) on aeolian sand transport. At two of the nine sites studied, spring and summer winds reworked 2008 HFE sandbars to form new aeolian dunes, at which sand moved inland toward larger, well-established dune fields. At the other seven study sites, neither dune formation nor enhanced sand transport after the HFE were observed. At several of those sites, dominant wind directions in spring 2008 were not oriented such that much HFE sand would have moved inland; at other sites, lack of increased inland sand flux is attributable to lack of sandbar enlargement near the study sites or to inhibition of sand movement by vegetation or local topography.

  19. Colonisation trends of the invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera, along river corridors: some preliminary findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Phil; Kuhn, Brigitte; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2016-04-01

    -density, finer grain-size characteristics, and possibly higher total phosphorous (TP) content, when compared against soils from nearby uncontaminated areas. Approximately 250 pairs of (contaminated and uncontaminated) soil samples were obtained from nine different sub-catchments located in four different European countries; namely, France, Germany, Switzerland and the UK. Sample pairs were sub-divided into contaminated & uncontaminated soils and each variable was subjected to a pair-wise statistical test; firstly for all catchments combined, and then on a catchment-by-catchment basis, to determine whether differences were significant. In addition to the above analyses, further evidence of spatial and topographic colonisation tendencies was sought from digital imagery captured using a remotely-controlled drone (quadcopter) flown along a ca. 1.0 km section of contaminated river corridor. Images were georeferenced, displayed together in a Geographic Information System (GIS) and used to construct a 3-dimensional digital elevation model (DEM). The DEM was interrogated to determine the presence / absence of colonisation trends (i.e. a tendency to colonise low-lying areas). This communication reports preliminary findings from this ongoing work and discusses key implications and possible future directions.

  20. Restored river corridors: first results on the effects of flow variability on vegetation cuttings survival rate and related root architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquale, N.; Perona, P.; Jiang, Z.; Burlando, P.

    2009-04-01

    Understanding and predicting the evolution of river alluvial bed forms toward a vegetated or a non-vegetated morphology have important implications for restored river corridors and the related ecosystem functioning (see also Schäppi et al, this session). Vegetation recruitment and growth on non-cohesive material of river corridors, such as gravel bars and islands of braided river, depend on the ability of roots to develop and anchor efficiently such to resist against flow erosion. In this work, we study the interannual morphological evolution of a gravel bar island, the survival rate and the growth of a number of plots with different density and orientation of transplanted cuttings (Salix Alba), the space and time dynamics of which depend on erosion and deposition processes due to floods. Our purpose is to identify island locations where the hydrodynamic conditions are more suitable for plants germination, growth and survival in relation to the river hydrograph statistics. This information is a first step to build a stochastic model able to predict the future evolution and progress of the restoration action of the investigated river reach. We focus at the main island of River Thur at Niederneunforn (Canton Thurgau, Switzerland), the restoration success of which is investigated from a mechanistic viewpoint in the research project "REstored CORridor Dynamics" (www.record.ethz.ch). Accordingly, we analyze two recent Digital Elevation Models (1 year difference), which were first corrected to account for the river bathymetry, and then we compare them in order to extract relevant interannual morphological changes. Using a two dimensional numerical hydrodynamic model we simulate several flow conditions ranging from the minimum recorded flow up to the one that completely inundates the island. Hence, we build inundation maps of the island that we associate to the frequency and the submergence duration of every area. We then correlate such results to the observed survival

  1. A Feeder-Bus Dispatch Planning Model for Emergency Evacuation in Urban Rail Transit Corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Yan, Xuedong; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Wenyi

    2016-01-01

    The mobility of modern metropolises strongly relies on urban rail transit (URT) systems, and such a heavy dependence causes that even minor service interruptions would make the URT systems unsustainable. This study aims at optimally dispatching the ground feeder-bus to coordinate with the urban rails’ operation for eliminating the effect of unexpected service interruptions in URT corridors. A feeder-bus dispatch planning model was proposed for the collaborative optimization of URT and feeder-bus cooperation under emergency situations and minimizing the total evacuation cost of the feeder-buses. To solve the model, a concept of dummy feeder-bus system is proposed to transform the non-linear model into traditional linear programming (ILP) model, i.e., traditional transportation problem. The case study of Line #2 of Nanjing URT in China was adopted to illustrate the model application and sensitivity analyses of the key variables. The modeling results show that as the evacuation time window increases, the total evacuation cost as well as the number of dispatched feeder-buses decrease, and the dispatched feeder-buses need operate for more times along the feeder-bus line. The number of dispatched feeder-buses does not show an obvious change with the increase of parking spot capacity and time window, indicating that simply increasing the parking spot capacity would cause huge waste for the emergent bus utilization. When the unbalanced evacuation demand exists between stations, the more feeder-buses are needed. The method of this study will contribute to improving transportation emergency management and resource allocation for URT systems. PMID:27676179

  2. A Feeder-Bus Dispatch Planning Model for Emergency Evacuation in Urban Rail Transit Corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Yan, Xuedong; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Wenyi

    The mobility of modern metropolises strongly relies on urban rail transit (URT) systems, and such a heavy dependence causes that even minor service interruptions would make the URT systems unsustainable. This study aims at optimally dispatching the ground feeder-bus to coordinate with the urban rails' operation for eliminating the effect of unexpected service interruptions in URT corridors. A feeder-bus dispatch planning model was proposed for the collaborative optimization of URT and feeder-bus cooperation under emergency situations and minimizing the total evacuation cost of the feeder-buses. To solve the model, a concept of dummy feeder-bus system is proposed to transform the non-linear model into traditional linear programming (ILP) model, i.e., traditional transportation problem. The case study of Line #2 of Nanjing URT in China was adopted to illustrate the model application and sensitivity analyses of the key variables. The modeling results show that as the evacuation time window increases, the total evacuation cost as well as the number of dispatched feeder-buses decrease, and the dispatched feeder-buses need operate for more times along the feeder-bus line. The number of dispatched feeder-buses does not show an obvious change with the increase of parking spot capacity and time window, indicating that simply increasing the parking spot capacity would cause huge waste for the emergent bus utilization. When the unbalanced evacuation demand exists between stations, the more feeder-buses are needed. The method of this study will contribute to improving transportation emergency management and resource allocation for URT systems.

  3. River Floodplains as Habitat and Bio-Corridors for Distribution of Land Snails: Their Past and Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horáčková Jitka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available River floodplains of Czech rivers serve as refugia to woodland or hydrophilous gastropods, in current intensively agriculturally utilised, urbanised and largely fragmented landscape. This habitat often form one of the last refuge and replace the natural habitat of these species. River floodplains also represent linear bio-corridors in landscape and allow gastropods to spread through the landscape in both directions, up and down the stream. We showed based on available fossil mollusc successions that development of the floodplain mollusc fauna took place quite different way in various river floodplains, depending on their specifics and geographical location, because especially the ones situated in the chernozem area of the Czech Republic had very different history in comparison with those in higher altitudes. The species richness and composition of recent floodplain malacofauna arises from historical development of particular area/site and depends also on environmental factors such as an elevation, humidity gradient, vegetation type and its biomass, light conditions of the site and soil reaction. Recently, the invasive plants represent a serious problem for current floodplain ecosystems; species richness and abundances of terrestrial mollusc floodplain assemblages are changing due to their effect. The impact on gastropods is species-specific and was described for the following species: Impatiens glandulifera, Fallopia japonica subsp. japonica, F. sachalinensis, F. ×bohemica.

  4. Proposal of Environmental Zoning for the María Aguilar River Inter-city Wildlife Corridor, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Solano-Monge

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife corridors are recognized for their importance as connectors of elements and ecological functions. Those located in urban areas are crucial for the environmental, social and economic functioning in their influence area; however, they have important challenges in their consolidation and management as they are frequently exposed to stress and human disturbance. In this article, the geographic analysis combines urban, biogeographical, hydrological and territorial planning perspectives in order to develop an environmental zoning to be applied to the María Aguilar River Inter-city Wildlife Corridor, in Costa Rica. A mixed analysis methodology was implemented; besides the search of databases, records, and secondary sources, it considers the application of a statistical method of analytical hierarchies proposed by Thomas Saaty. After satisfactorily accomplishing the ordered pairs procedure, the area could be divided in intervention levels from very high to very low ones, allowing to more effectively manage the area of influence. A set of recommendations is provided with the framework of the National Development Plan 2015–2018, and the National Act on Territorial Planning.

  5. Common raven occurrence in relation to energy transmission line corridors transiting human-altered sagebrush steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Howe, Kristy B.; Casazza, Michael L.; Delehanty, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Energy-related infrastructure and other human enterprises within sagebrush steppe of the American West often results in changes that promote common raven (Corvus corax; hereafter, raven) populations. Ravens, a generalist predator capable of behavioral innovation, present a threat to many species of conservation concern. We evaluate the effects of detailed features of an altered landscape on the probability of raven occurrence using extensive raven survey (n= 1045) and mapping data from southern Idaho, USA. We found nonlinear relationships between raven occurrence and distances to transmission lines, roads, and facilities. Most importantly, raven occurrence was greater with presence of transmission lines up to 2.2 km from the corridor.We further explain variation in raven occurrence along anthropogenic features based on the amount of non-native vegetation and cover type edge, such that ravens select fragmented sagebrush stands with patchy, exotic vegetative introgression. Raven occurrence also increased with greater length of edge formed by the contact of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentate spp.) with non-native vegetation cover types. In consideration of increasing alteration of sagebrush steppe, these findings will be useful for planning energy transmission corridor placement and other management activities where conservation of sagebrush obligate species is a priority.

  6. Water classification of the Colorado River Corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona, 2013—Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data area classified maps of water in the Colorado River at a discharge of approximately 227 meters squared/second in Grand Canyon from Glen Canyon Dam to...

  7. Riparian vegetation classification of the Colorado River Corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona, 2013—Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are classification maps of total riparian vegetation along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon from Glen Canyon Dam to Pearce Ferry in Arizona. The data...

  8. Estuary fish data - Juvenile salmon in migratory corridors of lower Columbia River estuary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sampling juvenile salmon and associated fishes in open waters of the lower Columbia River estuary. Field work includes bi-weekly sampling during the spring...

  9. 77 FR 61631 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for Stehekin River Corridor Implementation Plan, Lake Chelan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... prioritizing potential exchange/ acquisition lands, including scenic resources and threats within debris flow..., maintenance yard) in response to increased flooding and erosion issues in the lower Stehekin River watershed... erosion threats to NPS facilities and are impacting natural resources within Lake Chelan NRA. The...

  10. Introduction to corridor selection & assessment for Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) in Hyderabad

    OpenAIRE

    Bhanu Kireeti Chanda; Maddali Sai Satya Goutham

    2014-01-01

    Bus rapid transit system is an innovation and it is up gradation to the present transport system. BRT is affordable, adaptable and cost effective. The term of rapid transit system means a form of high speed urban passenger transportation. Here, the mode of transportation is bus hence it is called as bus rapid transit system (BRTS). Transportation facilities and the system will be different form different countries. Especially for the developing countries, transportation is a problem and BR...

  11. Understanding the Ecology of Blue Elderberry to Inform Landscape Restoration in Semiarid River Corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaghti, Mehrey G.; Holyoak, Marcel; Williams, Amy; Talley, Theresa S.; Fremier, Alexander K.; Greco, Steven E.

    2009-01-01

    Societal constraints often limit full process restoration in large river systems, making local rehabilitation activities valuable for regeneration of riparian vegetation. A target of much mitigation and restoration is the federally threatened Valley elderberry longhorn beetle and its sole host plant, blue elderberry, in upper riparian floodplain environments. However, blue elderberry ecology is not well understood and restoration attempts typically have low success rates. We determined broad-scale habitat characteristics of elderberry in altered systems and examined associated plant species composition in remnant habitat. We quantified vegetation community composition in 139 remnant riparian forest patches along the Sacramento River and elderberry stem diameters along this and four adjacent rivers. The greatest proportion of plots containing elderberry was located on higher and older floodplain surfaces and in riparian woodlands dominated by black walnut. Blue elderberry saplings and shrubs with stems light, water, or other resources. Such lack of recruitment places increased importance on horticultural restoration for the survival of an imperiled species. These findings further indicate a need to ascertain whether intervention is necessary to maintain functional and diverse riparian woodlands, and a need to monitor vegetative species composition over time, especially in relation to flow regulation.

  12. Tightening the River Meander-Belt: Application of a Topographic Erodible Corridor Concept Using DEM Raster Analysis. A Case Study of Highland Creek, Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R. T.

    2009-05-01

    Planimetric river hazard assessments, typically delineated as meander-belts, are complicated in southern Ontario by rivers which are incised into thick glacial sediments. Active and relic floodplain surfaces are topographically diverse, with river terraces commonly observed in the valleys due to deglacial and Holocene incision. Consequently, channels are often in contact with a mixed boundary of alluvial and glaciogenic sediments. Accepted meander-belt delineation procedures and protocols vary between intra-national and international jurisdictions; however, a focus on planimetric mapping and historical techniques is common place. In the southern Ontario context, this type of reach-scale river hazard assessment is important for protection of upland property, erosion risks to valley bottom infrastructure, and delineation of new development limits. Given the ecological and public safety benefits, there is growing acceptance and expectation that river bank erosion processes should be preserved within an erodible corridor, with a decreased emphasis on channel intervention and engineering approaches where possible. However, the use of planimetric meander- belt delineation techniques for incised valley settings frequently meets both practical and conceptual challenges. This study explores the potential for a Topographic Erodible Corridor Concept (TECC) as an improved representation of river evolution compared to the traditional planimetric techniques, particularly in previously glaciated regions. Such a concept would account for differences in erodible volumes of sediment associated with topographic variations within incised river valleys. Application of this concept is investigated using raster analysis of a high resolution digital elevation model (DEM), within widely available GIS software. Initial results from a case study on Highland Creek (Ontario) confirm that the corridor alignment and diverse topography of the incised valley morphology are well represented by a

  13. Inference of Eco-geomorphic Processes Using Integrated Historical Data for a Rapidly Changing Mediterranean-climate River Corridor: Lower Santa Clara River, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, E. E.; Grossinger, R. M.; Downs, P. W.; Orr, B. K.

    2010-12-01

    Environmental conservation demands reach-specific data as the basis for place-based restoration and management measures. However, areas such as the lower Santa Clara River valley have been subject to intensive modification since the at least the nineteenth century, but without regular hydrogeomorphic or ecological monitoring (e.g., flow gauging, repeat topographic surveys, vegetation mapping) until the mid-twentieth century. This gap has limited data on former river corridor form and understanding of historical eco-geomorphic processes. The result is a lack of consensus about the range of potential riparian and aquatic habitats to consider as restoration targets, their appropriate relative distribution, and the relationship between such ecological targets and physical processes on the river, past and present. To address this data gap on the lower Santa Clara River, we initiated an effort to extend the documentation of river characteristics beyond readily available early data sets (such as aerial photography from 1927) by integrating historical cartographic, textual, and visual accounts to create a heterogeneous but substantial dataset describing hydrologic, geomorphic, and riparian characteristics back to 1769 - the date of the first non-native exploration of the region. We collected over 1,000 documents, including General Land Office survey data, early maps from the county surveyor, and traveler’s accounts of the region, evaluating each source for its accuracy and reliability. These data were synthesized to evaluate the location and composition of riparian areas that persisted despite substantial flood events and impacts of rapidly changing land use, and to determine aspects of the former hydrology of the river affecting riparian pattern that are still relevant today. The data also indicate the general resilience of mainstem channel form in response to these events in contrast to the present-day eco-geomorphic system, which is far more sensitive to change. Used

  14. Hydrogeological modeling of water exchange between a river valley aquifer and the Colorado River at a riparian corridor of the Colorado River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Gonzalez, D.; Ramirez-Hernandez, J.; Zamora, F.

    2008-05-01

    , it is a zone of transition in which the CR receives water from the aquifer during the time period of greater agricultural irrigation and it loses water during the non-irrigation period. In the third section, at the southern portion of the zone of study area, the CR contributes water to the aquifer all the year. During the period of of low irrigation, the river bed does not conduct water. Nevertheless, the depth of the FL is lower than 3 m in the southern portion allowing the supply of water to the riparian vegetation even in the periods of low water irrigation. It is concluded that the depth of the FL in the riparian zone is the most important factor to maintain the riparian vegetation.

  15. Advancing the Food-Energy-Water Nexus: Closing Nutrient Loops in Arid River Corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Jacob G; González-Pinzón, Ricardo; Dahm, Clifford N; Wang, Jingjing; Zeglin, Lydia H; Van Horn, David J

    2016-08-16

    Closing nutrient loops in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems is integral to achieve resource security in the food-energy-water (FEW) nexus. We performed multiyear (2005-2008), monthly sampling of instream dissolved inorganic nutrient concentrations (NH4-N, NO3-N, soluble reactive phosphorus-SRP) along a ∼ 300-km arid-land river (Rio Grande, NM) and generated nutrient budgets to investigate how the net source/sink behavior of wastewater and irrigated agriculture can be holistically managed to improve water quality and close nutrient loops. Treated wastewater on average contributed over 90% of the instream dissolved inorganic nutrients (101 kg/day NH4-N, 1097 kg/day NO3-N, 656 kg/day SRP). During growing seasons, the irrigation network downstream of wastewater outfalls retained on average 37% of NO3-N and 45% of SRP inputs, with maximum retention exceeding 60% and 80% of NO3-N and SRP inputs, respectively. Accurate quantification of NH4-N retention was hindered by low loading and high variability. Nutrient retention in the irrigation network and instream processes together limited downstream export during growing seasons, with total retention of 33-99% of NO3-N inputs and 45-99% of SRP inputs. From our synoptic analysis, we identify trade-offs associated with wastewater reuse for agriculture within the scope of the FEW nexus and propose strategies for closing nutrient loops in arid-land rivers.

  16. Fish assemblages of the Casiquiare River, a corridor and zoogeographical filter for dispersal between the Orinoco and Amazon basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winemiller, K.O.; Lopez-Fernandez, H.; Taphorn, D.C.; Nico, L.G.; Duque, A.B.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine whether the Casiquiare River functions as a free dispersal corridor or as a partial barrier (i.e. filter) for the interchange of fish species of the Orinoco and Negro/Amazon basins using species assemblage patterns according to geographical location and environmental features. Location: The Casiquiare, Upper Orinoco and Upper Negro rivers in southern Venezuela, South America. Methods: Our study was based on an analysis of species presence/absence data and environmental information (11 habitat characteristics) collected by the authors and colleagues between the years 1984 and 1999. The data set consisted of 269 sampled sites and 452 fish species (> 50,000 specimens). A wide range of habitat types was included in the samples, and the collection sites were located at various points along the entire length of the Casiquiare main channel, at multiple sites on its tributary streams, as well as at various nearby sites outside the Casiquiare drainage, within the Upper Orinoco and Upper Rio Negro river systems. Most specimens and field data used in this analysis are archived in the Museo de Ciencias Naturales in Guanare, Venezuela. We performed canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) based on species presence/absence using two versions of the data set: one that eliminated sites having < 5 species and species occurring at < 5 sites; and another that eliminated sites having < 10 species and species occurring at < 10 sites. Cluster analysis was performed on sites based on species assemblage similarity, and a separate analysis was performed on species based on CCA loadings. Results: The CCA results for the two versions of the data set were qualitatively the same. The dominant environmental axis contrasted assemblages and sites associated with blackwater vs. clearwater conditions. Longitudinal position on the Casiquiare River was correlated (r2 = 0.33) with CCA axis-1 scores, reflecting clearwater conditions nearer to its origin

  17. Denitrification capacity and greenhouse gas emissions of soils in channelized and restored reaches along an Alpine river corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Juna; Niklaus, Pascal; Samaritani, Emanuela; Frossard, Emmanuel; Tockner, Klement; Luster, Jörg

    2010-05-01

    In order to assess the effects of river restoration on water and air quality, the biogeochemical functions of channelized and restored river reaches have to be quantified. The objective of this study was to compare denitrification potential and greenhouse gas emissions of functional processing zones (FPZ) in a channelized and a recently restored reach of the alpine river Thur in north-eastern Switzerland. The study was part of the project cluster RECORD of the ETH domain, Switzerland, which was initiated to increase the mechanistic understanding of coupled hydrological and ecological processes in river corridors. The denitrification potential represents an important aspect of the soil filter function related to water quality. Besides, it also contributes to the emission of greenhouse gases. Extensively used pasture growing on a sandy loam is the characteristic FPZ of the channelized section. The restored section encompasses five FPZ: (i) bare gravel bars sparsely colonized by plants, (ii) gravel bars densely colonized by grass (mainly canary reed grass with up to 80 cm sandy deposits), (iii) mixed forest dominated by ash and maple, (iv) riparian forest dominated by willow (Salix alba), (v) older overbank sediments stabilized during restoration with young willows separating the forests from the river-gravel bar system (willow bush). The FPZ were sampled in January, April, August and October 2009. In addition, in June and July 2009 two flood events were monitored in the restored section with more frequent samplings. At each date, topsoil samples were collected in each FPZ (four replicates per samples) and analyzed for denitrifier enzyme activity (DEA). In addition, gas samples were taken in-situ using the closed chamber technique to measure soil respiration as well as N2O and CH4 fluxes. In all FPZ, the denitrification potential was mainly governed by soil moisture. It was highest in the willow forest exhibiting low spatial variability. The DEA in pasture, grass zone

  18. 76 FR 60587 - Environmental Impact Statement; North Corridor Transit Project, Seattle (WA) Metropolitan Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... economic vitality and preserves a healthy environment; and 4. Supporting the long-range vision, goals, and... regional transit investment that supports economic vitality, preserves the environment, preserves... environment. Areas of investigation include, but are not limited to, transportation, land use,...

  19. Safe Shores and Resilient Transit Corridors: Using Science, Design, and Stakeholder Partnerships to Address Connecticut's Coastal Vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, R. A.; Felson, A. J.; Kirmmse, E.; Hagemann, K.

    2015-12-01

    Connecticut's densely developed coastline is highly vulnerable to sea level rise and coastal storms. 95% of the state's entire population lives within 50 miles of the shore. Connecticut has more than $542 billion in insured assets in harms way, only Florida has a greater exposure. As part of the state of Connecticut Phase 1 application for the HUD National Disaster Resilience Competition, the Connecticut Institute for Resilience and Climate Adaptation (CIRCA) at the University of Connecticut undertook an assessment of coastal vulnerabilities, including the impacts of sea level rise on the frequency of flooding, socioeconomic factors, critical infrastructure, and housing using data collected from federal, state, and municipal sources. Connecticut's unique geology, characterized by a glaciated coastline with highly erodible former deltas and elevated ridgelines extending out to rocky headlands, became the basis of the climate adaptation approach. Together with a nine state agency workgroup, municipal and regional government, and non-profit and industry representatives, CIRCA and the Yale UED lab developed a long-term urban redevelopment solution of resilient access and egress corridors layered over ridgelines and resilient zones of transit oriented economic development linked to shoreline communities. This concept can be applied in both Connecticut's coastal cities like New Haven and its smaller towns. The process demonstrated the effective partnership between the universities and state agencies in bringing the science of flood modeling and mapping together with innovative design to create solutions for climate adaptation. However, it also revealed significant gaps in data availability to analyze the economic and social drivers for adopting different adaptation strategies. Furthermore, the accuracy of current flood mapping tools needs to be improved to predict future flooding at the municipal project scale. As Connecticut and other states move forward with resilience

  20. Albania – as the Bridge of Routes and Transport Corridors between the Adriatic Sea and Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan Mazrekaj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Republic of Albania is located in the Western Balkans. Its location in the midst of crossroads for major transit corridors in Europe places Albania in a strategic geographic position. Albania links the western Mediterranean countries with the Balkans and Asia. Its biggest valleys situated in Drin, Shkumbin and Vjose rivers, facilitate the connection of the Balkans with the Adriatic Sea. In the Balkan territory are situated some of the most important Pan - European transport corridors, consisting of: Pan - European Corridor IV, V, VII, VIII, IX and X. Main objective of this paper is the analysis of the development of transport routes and corridors in the Balkans in the context of Pan-European corridors; evaluation of national policy, priorities of Transport, directions of Albania’s main road and their compatibility with the needs of Pan - European connectivity.

  1. Ecological function regionalization of fluvial corridor landscapes and measures for ecological regeneration in the middle and lower reaches of the Tarim River,Xinjiang of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The middle and lower reaches of the Tarim River are currently one of the main regions of ecological restoration in the arid areas of western China.Using the principles and method of landscape ecology,this study has chosen the fluvial corridor landscape in the middle and lower reaches of the Tarim River,and discusses the region’s ecologically functional regionalization system and issues related to its practical classification.On this basis the corresponding regionalizing principles and standards were developed which were used to qualitatively divide the three main landscapes as the ecologically functional areas in the drainage basin.The paper has also analyzed the characteristic of the study areas,and has put forward the measures for its ecological restoration.

  2. Modern landscape processes affecting archaeological sites along the Colorado River corridor downstream of Glen Canyon Dam, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Amy E.; Sankey, Joel B.; Fairley, Helen C.; Caster, Joshua J.; Kasprak, Alan

    2017-08-29

    The landscape of the Colorado River through Glen Canyon National Recreation Area formed over many thousands of years and was modified substantially after the completion of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963. Changes to river flow, sediment supply, channel base level, lateral extent of sedimentary terraces, and vegetation in the post-dam era have modified the river-corridor landscape and have altered the effects of geologic processes that continue to shape the landscape and its cultural resources. The Glen Canyon reach of the Colorado River downstream of Glen Canyon Dam hosts many archaeological sites that are prone to erosion in this changing landscape. This study uses field evaluations from 2016 and aerial photographs from 1952, 1973, 1984, and 1996 to characterize changes in potential windblown sand supply and drainage configuration that have occurred over more than six decades at 54 archaeological sites in Glen Canyon and uppermost Marble Canyon. To assess landscape change at these sites, we use two complementary geomorphic classification systems. The first evaluates the potential for aeolian (windblown) transport of river-derived sand from the active river channel to higher elevation archaeological sites. The second identifies whether rills, gullies, or arroyos (that is, overland drainages that erode the ground surface) exist at the archaeological sites as well as the geomorphic surface, and therefore the relative base level, to which those flow paths drain. Results of these assessments are intended to aid in the management of irreplaceable archaeological resources by the National Park Service and stakeholders of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program.

  3. The natural and social history of the indigenous lands and protected areas corridor of the Xingu River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzman, Stephan; Boas, André Villas; Ono, Katia Yukari; Fonseca, Marisa Gesteira; Doblas, Juan; Zimmerman, Barbara; Junqueira, Paulo; Jerozolimski, Adriano; Salazar, Marcelo; Junqueira, Rodrigo Prates; Torres, Maurício

    2013-06-05

    The 280,000 km² Xingu indigenous lands and protected areas (ILPAs) corridor, inhabited by 24 indigenous peoples and about 215 riverine (ribeirinho) families, lies across active agriculture frontiers in some of the historically highest-deforestation regions of the Amazon. Much of the Xingu is anthropogenic landscape, densely inhabited and managed by indigenous populations over the past millennium. Indigenous and riverine peoples' historical management and use of these landscapes have enabled their long-term occupation and ultimately their protection. The corridor vividly demonstrates how ILPAs halt deforestation and why they may account for a large part of the 70 per cent reduction in Amazon deforestation below the 1996-2005 average since 2005. However, ongoing and planned dams, road paving, logging and mining, together with increasing demand for agricultural commodities, continued degradation of upper headwaters outside ILPA borders and climate change impacts may render these gains ephemeral. Local peoples will need new, bottom-up, forms of governance to gain recognition for the high social and biological diversity of these territories in development policy and planning, and finance commensurate with the value of their ecosystem services. Indigenous groups' reports of changing fire and rainfall regimes may themselves evidence climate change impacts, a new and serious threat.

  4. Mapping the river landscape "before and after": the utility of pre-existing digital data for floodplain definition and the documentation and analysis of human impacts along river corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, P. M.

    2009-12-01

    Critical to the analysis of the impacts of human activities on floodplain form and function are: 1) establishing the extent of the floodplain prior to human intervention, and 2) establishing the current extent of the functional floodplain surface as limited by human land use changes. In this study, I critically examine data, methods and concepts used in the definition and analysis of floodplain landscapes. I focus on data that are readily available, free of charge, and on techniques that may be quickly, easily, and inexpensively implemented. These topics are explored in a case study of the extent and ecological impact of floodplain disconnection caused by transportation infrastructure in three river corridors in Washington State. Specifically, I compare the utility of pre-existing digital data sets and different metrics for 1) floodplain delineation, and 2) analysis of the spatial extent and environmental impact of disconnection caused by transportation infrastructure across a variety of valley settings in the Chehalis and Upper and Lower Yakima basins. Pre-existing digital soil and geologic data, along with elevation data are useful for quickly delineating the extent of potential floodplain surface prior to human alteration, and have utility for many types of floodplain analysis. Valley confinement is likewise readily calculated from existing data, and provides a useful index for predicting channel and floodplain behavior, and its response to land use changes. Remotely sensed and GIS data are useful for mapping floodplain alteration at the river corridor scale, and assessing its ecological impact, particularly on the riparian zone. Lastly, the case study illustrates the utility of corridor-scale analysis as a methodological linkage between mapping and descriptive approaches used to assess basin-scale patterns and processes, and mechanistic and process-based approaches used to quantify reach scale impacts on channel and riparian habitat.

  5. Natural-color and color-infrared image mosaics of the Colorado River corridor in Arizona derived from the May 2009 airborne image collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) periodically collects airborne image data for the Colorado River corridor within Arizona (fig. 1) to allow scientists to study the impacts of Glen Canyon Dam water release on the corridor’s natural and cultural resources. These data are collected from just above Glen Canyon Dam (in Lake Powell) down to the entrance of Lake Mead, for a total distance of 450 kilometers (km) and within a 500-meter (m) swath centered on the river’s mainstem and its seven main tributaries (fig. 1). The most recent airborne data collection in 2009 acquired image data in four wavelength bands (blue, green, red, and near infrared) at a spatial resolution of 20 centimeters (cm). The image collection used the latest model of the Leica ADS40 airborne digital sensor (the SH52), which uses a single optic for all four bands and collects and stores band radiance in 12-bits. Davis (2012) reported on the performance of the SH52 sensor and on the processing steps required to produce the nearly flawless four-band image mosaic (sectioned into map tiles) for the river corridor. The final image mosaic has a total of only 3 km of surface defects in addition to some areas of cloud shadow because of persistent inclement weather during data collection. The 2009 four-band image mosaic is perhaps the best image dataset that exists for the entire Arizona part of the Colorado River. Some analyses of these image mosaics do not require the full 12-bit dynamic range or all four bands of the calibrated image database, in which atmospheric scattering (or haze) had not been removed from the four bands. To provide scientists and the general public with image products that are more useful for visual interpretation, the 12-bit image data were converted to 8-bit natural-color and color-infrared images, which also removed atmospheric scattering within each wavelength-band image. The conversion required an evaluation of the

  6. Interannual kinetics (2010-2013) of large wood in a river corridor exposed to a 50-year flood event and fluvial ice dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Maxime; Buffin-Bélanger, Thomas; Piégay, Hervé

    2017-02-01

    Semi-alluvial rivers of the Gaspé Peninsula, Québec, are prone to produce and transport vast quantities of large wood (LW). The high rate of lateral erosion owing to high energy flows and noncohesive banks is the main process leading to the recruitment of large wood, which in turn initiates complex patterns of wood accumulation and reentrainment within the active channel. The delta of the Saint-Jean River (SJR) has accumulated large annual wood fluxes since 1960 that culminated in a wood raft of > 3-km in length in 2014. To document the kinetics of large wood on the main channel of SJR, four annual surveys were carried out from 2010 to 2013 to locate and describe > 1000 large wood jams (LWJ) and 2000 large wood individuals (LWI) along a 60-km river section. Airborne and ground photo/video images were used to estimate the wood volume introduced by lateral erosion and to identify local geomorphic conditions that control wood mobility and deposits. Video camera analysis allowed the examination of transport rates from three hydrometeorological events for specific river sections. Results indicate that the volume of LW recruited between 2010 and 2013 represents 57% of the total LW production over the 2004-2013 period. Volumes of wood deposited along the 60-km section were four times higher in 2013 than in 2010. Increases in wood amount occurred mainly in upper alluvial sections of the river, whereas decreases were observed in the semi-alluvial middle sections. Observations suggest that the 50-year flood event of 2010 produced large amounts of LW that were only partly exported out of the basin so that a significant amount was still available for subsequent floods. Large wood storage continued after this flood until a similar flood or an ice-breakup event could remobilise these LW accumulations into the river corridor. Ice-jam floods transport large amounts of wood during events with fairly low flow but do not contribute significantly to recruitment rates (ca. 10 to 30

  7. Simulated Effects of Year 2030 Water-Use and Land-Use Changes on Streamflow near the Interstate-495 Corridor, Assabet and Upper Charles River Basins, Eastern Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Carl S.; DeSimone, Leslie A.; Weiskel, Peter K.

    2008-01-01

    Continued population growth and land development for commercial, industrial, and residential uses have created concerns regarding the future supply of potable water and the quantity of ground water discharging to streams in the area of Interstate 495 in eastern Massachusetts. Two ground-water models developed in 2002-2004 for the Assabet and Upper Charles River Basins were used to simulate water supply and land-use scenarios relevant for the entire Interstate-495 corridor. Future population growth, water demands, and commercial and residential growth were projected for year 2030 by the Metropolitan Area Planning Council. To assess the effects of future development on subbasin streamflows, seven scenarios were simulated by using existing computer-based ground-water-flow models with the data projected for year 2030. The scenarios incorporate three categories of projected 2030 water- and land-use data: (1) 2030 water use, (2) 2030 land use, and (3) a combination of 2030 water use and 2030 land use. Hydrologic, land-use, and water-use data from 1997 through 2001 for the Assabet River Basin study and 1989 through 1998 for the Upper Charles River Basin study were used to represent current conditions - referred to as 'basecase' conditions - in each basin to which each 2030 scenario was compared. The effects of projected 2030 land- and water-use change on streamflows in the Assabet River Basin depended upon the time of year, the hydrologic position of the subbasin in the larger basin, and the relative areas of new commercial and residential development projected for a subbasin. Effects of water use and land use on streamflow were evaluated by comparing average monthly nonstorm streamflow (base flow) for March and September simulated by using the models. The greatest decreases in streamflow (up to 76 percent in one subbasin), compared to the basecase, occurred in September, when streamflows are naturally at their lowest level. By contrast, simulated March streamflows

  8. The Role of Eolian Sediment in the Preservation of Archeologic Sites Along the Colorado River Corridor in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draut, Amy E.; Rubin, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Since the closure of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963, the natural hydrologic and sedimentary systems along the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon reach have changed substantially (see, for example, Andrews, 1986; Johnson and Carothers, 1987; Webb and others, 1999b; Rubin and others, 2002; Topping and others, 2003; Wright and others, 2005; Hazel and others, 2006b). The dam has reduced the fluvial sediment supply at the upstream boundary of Grand Canyon National Park by about 95 percent. Regulation of river discharge by dam operations has important implications for the storage and redistribution of sediment in the Colorado River corridor. In the absence of floods, sediment is not deposited at elevations that regularly received sediment before dam closure. Riparian vegetation has colonized areas at lower elevations than in predam time when annual floods removed young vegetation (Turner and Karpiscak, 1980). Together, these factors have caused a systemwide decrease in the size and number of subaerially exposed fluvial sand deposits since the 1960s, punctuated by episodic aggradation during the exceptional high-flow intervals in 1983-84, 1996, and 2004 and by sediment input from occasional tributary floods (Beus and others, 1985; Schmidt and Graf, 1987; Kearsley and others, 1994; Hazel and others, 1999; Schmidt and others, 2004; Wright and others, 2005). When the Bureau of Reclamation sponsored the creation of the Glen Canyon Environmental Studies (GCES) research initiative in 1982, research objectives included physical and biologic resources, whereas the effects of dam operations on cultural resources were not addressed (Fairley and others, 1994; Fairley, 2003). In the early 1980s, it was widely believed that because few archeologic sites were preserved within the river's annual-flood zone, cultural features would not be greatly affected by dam operations. Recent studies, however, indicate that alterations in the flow and sediment load of the Colorado River by Glen Canyon Dam

  9. Natural-color and color-infrared image mosaics of the Colorado River corridor in Arizona derived from the May 2009 airborne image collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) periodically collects airborne image data for the Colorado River corridor within Arizona (fig. 1) to allow scientists to study the impacts of Glen Canyon Dam water release on the corridor’s natural and cultural resources. These data are collected from just above Glen Canyon Dam (in Lake Powell) down to the entrance of Lake Mead, for a total distance of 450 kilometers (km) and within a 500-meter (m) swath centered on the river’s mainstem and its seven main tributaries (fig. 1). The most recent airborne data collection in 2009 acquired image data in four wavelength bands (blue, green, red, and near infrared) at a spatial resolution of 20 centimeters (cm). The image collection used the latest model of the Leica ADS40 airborne digital sensor (the SH52), which uses a single optic for all four bands and collects and stores band radiance in 12-bits. Davis (2012) reported on the performance of the SH52 sensor and on the processing steps required to produce the nearly flawless four-band image mosaic (sectioned into map tiles) for the river corridor. The final image mosaic has a total of only 3 km of surface defects in addition to some areas of cloud shadow because of persistent inclement weather during data collection. The 2009 four-band image mosaic is perhaps the best image dataset that exists for the entire Arizona part of the Colorado River. Some analyses of these image mosaics do not require the full 12-bit dynamic range or all four bands of the calibrated image database, in which atmospheric scattering (or haze) had not been removed from the four bands. To provide scientists and the general public with image products that are more useful for visual interpretation, the 12-bit image data were converted to 8-bit natural-color and color-infrared images, which also removed atmospheric scattering within each wavelength-band image. The conversion required an evaluation of the

  10. Gully annealing by aeolian sediment: field and remote-sensing investigation of aeolian-hillslope-fluvial interactions, Colorado River corridor, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Joel B.; Draut, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    Processes contributing to development of ephemeral gully channels are of great importance to landscapes worldwide, and particularly in dryland regions where soil loss and land degradation from gully erosion pose long-term land-management problems. Whereas gully formation has been relatively well studied, much less is known of the processes that anneal gullies and impede their growth. This study of gully annealing by aeolian sediment, spanning 95 km along the Colorado River corridor in Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA, employed field and remote sensing observations, including digital topographic modelling. Results indicate that aeolian sediment activity can be locally effective at counteracting gully erosion. Gullies are less prevalent in areas where surficial sediment undergoes active aeolian transport, and have a greater tendency to terminate in active aeolian sand. Although not common, examples exist in the record of historical imagery of gullies that underwent infilling by aeolian sediment in past decades and evidently were effectively annealed. We thus provide new evidence for a potentially important interaction of aeolian–hillslope–fluvial processes, which could affect dryland regions substantially in ways not widely recognized. Moreover, because the biologic soil crust plays an important role in determining aeolian sand activity, and so in turn the extent of gully development, this study highlights a critical role of geomorphic–ecologic interactions in determining arid-landscape evolution.

  11. 陕南汉江走廊区域旅游协作研究%Research on Regional Tourism Cooperation in Southern Shaanxi along Hanjiang River Corridor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何红

    2013-01-01

    Regional tourism cooperation is an effective way of developing tourism economy and improving competitiveness of peripheral regions. Southern Shaanxi along Hanjiang River corridor is a typical peripheral tourism area and a state key ecological function region, for which regional tourism cooperation is of great significance. The main measures for the achievement of regional tourism cooperation are as follows: dominance by government, guidance of policies, coordination mechanism, benefit sharing, scientific construction plan, investment environment, brand image based on regional features, and tourism industrial clusters.%区域旅游协作是实现边缘地区旅游经济突破发展和提升区域旅游竞争力的有效途径.陕南汉江走廊是典型的旅游边缘地区和国家重点生态功能区,区域旅游协作意义重大.实现区域旅游协作的具体举措包括:坚持政府主导,加强政策引导;完善协调机制,坚持利益共享;编制协作规划,凸显三大效益;改善投资环境,坚持多元投入;立足地域特色,共塑品牌形象;培育区域中心,构建产业集群.

  12. Savannah River Site prioritization of transition activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, R.H.

    1993-11-01

    Effective management of SRS conversion from primarily a production facility to other missions (or Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D)) requires a systematic and consistent method of prioritizing the transition activities. This report discusses the design of a prioritizing method developed to achieve systematic and consistent methods of prioritizing these activities.

  13. Airborne digital-image data for monitoring the Colorado River corridor below Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, 2009 - Image-mosaic production and comparison with 2002 and 2005 image mosaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    Airborne digital-image data were collected for the Arizona part of the Colorado River ecosystem below Glen Canyon Dam in 2009. These four-band image data are similar in wavelength band (blue, green, red, and near infrared) and spatial resolution (20 centimeters) to image collections of the river corridor in 2002 and 2005. These periodic image collections are used by the Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) of the U.S. Geological Survey to monitor the effects of Glen Canyon Dam operations on the downstream ecosystem. The 2009 collection used the latest model of the Leica ADS40 airborne digital sensor (the SH52), which uses a single optic for all four bands and collects and stores band radiance in 12-bits, unlike the image sensors that GCMRC used in 2002 and 2005. This study examined the performance of the SH52 sensor, on the basis of the collected image data, and determined that the SH52 sensor provided superior data relative to the previously employed sensors (that is, an early ADS40 model and Zeiss Imaging's Digital Mapping Camera) in terms of band-image registration, dynamic range, saturation, linearity to ground reflectance, and noise level. The 2009 image data were provided as orthorectified segments of each flightline to constrain the size of the image files; each river segment was covered by 5 to 6 overlapping, linear flightlines. Most flightline images for each river segment had some surface-smear defects and some river segments had cloud shadows, but these two conditions did not generally coincide in the majority of the overlapping flightlines for a particular river segment. Therefore, the final image mosaic for the 450-kilometer (km)-long river corridor required careful selection and editing of numerous flightline segments (a total of 513 segments, each 3.2 km long) to minimize surface defects and cloud shadows. The final image mosaic has a total of only 3 km of surface defects. The final image mosaic for the western end of the corridor has

  14. Development of a high-resolution binational vegetation map of the Santa Cruz River riparian corridor and surrounding watershed, southern Arizona and northern Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Villarreal, Miguel L.; Norman, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the development of a binational vegetation map developed for the Santa Cruz Watershed, which straddles the southern border of Arizona and the northern border of Sonora, Mexico. The map was created as an environmental input to the Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SCWEPM) that is being created by the U.S. Geological Survey for the watershed. The SCWEPM is a map-based multicriteria evaluation tool that allows stakeholders to explore tradeoffs between valued ecosystem services at multiple scales within a participatory decision-making process. Maps related to vegetation type and are needed for use in modeling wildlife habitat and other ecosystem services. Although detailed vegetation maps existed for the U.S. side of the border, there was a lack of consistent data for the Santa Cruz Watershed in Mexico. We produced a binational vegetation classification of the Santa Cruz River riparian habitat and watershed vegetation based on NatureServe Terrestrial Ecological Systems (TES) units using Classification And Regression Tree (CART) modeling. Environmental layers used as predictor data were derived from a seasonal set of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images (spring, summer, and fall) and from a 30-meter digital-elevation-model (DEM) grid. Because both sources of environmental data are seamless across the international border, they are particularly suited to this binational modeling effort. Training data were compiled from existing field data for the riparian corridor and data collected by the NM-GAP (New Mexico Gap Analysis Project) team for the original Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project (SWReGAP) modeling effort. Additional training data were collected from core areas of the SWReGAP classification itself, allowing the extrapolation of the SWReGAP mapping into the Mexican portion of the watershed without collecting additional training data.

  15. A Topological Phase Transition in Models of River Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, Jacob; Magnasco, Marcelo

    2012-02-01

    The classical Scheidegger model of river network formation and evolution is investigated on non-Euclidean geometries, which model the effects of regions of convergent and divergent flows - as seen around lakes and drainage off mountains, respectively. These new models may be differentiated by the number of basins formed. Using the divergence as an order parameter, we see a phase transition in the number of distinct basins at the point of a flat landscape. This is a surprising property of the statistics of river networks and suggests significantly different properties for riverine networks in uneven topography and vascular networks of arteries versus those of veins among others.

  16. VT Electric Transmission Line Corridors - corridor lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The ELTRN layer depicts electric transmission line corridors in Vermont. Various methods have been used to digitize features. The data layer...

  17. The effects of management and environmental variation on population stage structure in three river-corridor violets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, R. Lutz; Danihelka, Jiří; Hölzel, Norbert; Otte, Annette

    2004-03-01

    Population stage structure of plants, i.e., the density and frequency of individuals in different stages of the life cycle, is a crucial aspect of population viability that depends on a variety of factors. In this paper, we evaluated the effects of (i) management and year, (ii) location (population) and time (year) and (iii) of local habitat quality and population factors on population stage structure of three morphologically similar, closely related violets from floodplains, Viola elatior, V. pumila and V. stagnina. We hypothesised that owing to similar life cycles there should be no significant differences in population stage structure among species. We analysed population stage structure in managed vs. abandoned populations to test whether a proposed effect of management acts through the creation of regeneration niches. We further tried to identify which habitat factors are responsible for possible management effects. We established permanent plots (0.25 m 2) in 27 populations of the species in two different regions (Rhine floodplains, Germany; Dyje River floodplains, Czech Republic) and recorded frequency and density of seedlings, small and large vegetative plants and small and large flowering plants during 2 years. There were significant differences among species, indicating that the species have different life histories. Furthermore, there was a significant effect of management on population stage structure in two of the species. Management significantly increased the proportion of seedlings, over and above possible differences between regions. In our data set, the effects of spatial variation among populations were generally larger than the effects of temporal variation. The only factor that affected the density of life-cycle stages was the cover of bryophytes, while the cover of higher plants, litter or soil (local habitat quality), or isolation and population size (population factors) had no effects.

  18. Green corridors basics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to introduce the concept of ‘green corridors’ as a means to develop integrated, efficient and environmentally friendly transportation of freight between major hubs and by relative long distances. The basis of this material is work conducted in the context of the EU...... SuperGreen project, which aimed at advancing the green corridor concept through a benchmarking exercise involving Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). The chapter discusses the available definitions of green corridors and identifies the characteristics that distinguish a green corridor from any other...... efficient surface transportation corridor. After providing examples of green corridor projects in Europe, it focuses on the KPIs that have been proposed by various projects for monitoring the performance of a freight corridor. Emphasis is given to the SuperGreen KPIs, covering the economic, technical...

  19. Relations between rainfall–runoff-induced erosion and aeolian deposition at archaeological sites in a semi-arid dam-controlled river corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brian; Bedford, David; Corbett, Skye; Fairley, Helen; Cronkite-Ratcliff, Collin

    2016-01-01

    Process dynamics in fluvial-based dryland environments are highly complex with fluvial, aeolian, and alluvial processes all contributing to landscape change. When anthropogenic activities such as dam-building affect fluvial processes, the complexity in local response can be further increased by flood- and sediment-limiting flows. Understanding these complexities is key to predicting landscape behavior in drylands and has important scientific and management implications, including for studies related to paleoclimatology, landscape ecology evolution, and archaeological site context and preservation. Here we use multi-temporal LiDAR surveys, local weather data, and geomorphological observations to identify trends in site change throughout the 446-km-long semi-arid Colorado River corridor in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA, where archaeological site degradation related to the effects of upstream dam operation is a concern. Using several site case studies, we show the range of landscape responses that might be expected from concomitant occurrence of dam-controlled fluvial sand bar deposition, aeolian sand transport, and rainfall-induced erosion. Empirical rainfall-erosion threshold analyses coupled with a numerical rainfall–runoff–soil erosion model indicate that infiltration-excess overland flow and gullying govern large-scale (centimeter- to decimeter-scale) landscape changes, but that aeolian deposition can in some cases mitigate gully erosion. Whereas threshold analyses identify the normalized rainfall intensity (defined as the ratio of rainfall intensity to hydraulic conductivity) as the primary factor governing hydrologic-driven erosion, assessment of false positives and false negatives in the dataset highlight topographic slope as the next most important parameter governing site response. Analysis of 4+ years of high resolution (four-minute) weather data and 75+ years of low resolution (daily) climate records indicates that dryland erosion is dependent on short

  20. Corridors promote fire via connectivity and edge effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudvig, Lars A; Wagner, Stephanie A; Damschen, Ellen I

    2012-04-01

    Landscape corridors, strips of habitat that connect otherwise isolated habitat patches, are commonly employed during management of fragmented landscapes. To date, most reported effects of corridors have been positive; however, there are long-standing concerns that corridors may have unintended consequences. Here, we address concerns over whether corridors promote propagation of disturbances such as fire. We collected data during prescribed fires in the world's largest and best replicated corridor experiment (Savannah River Site, South Carolina, USA), six -50-ha landscapes of open (shrubby/herbaceous) habitat within a pine plantation matrix, to test several mechanisms for how corridors might influence fire. Corridors altered patterns of fire temperature through a direct connectivity effect and an indirect edge effect. The connectivity effect was independent of fuel levels and was consistent with a hypothesized wind-driven "bellows effect." Edges, a consequence of corridor implementation, elevated leaf litter (fuel) input from matrix pine trees, which in turn increased fire temperatures. We found no evidence for corridors or edges impacting patterns of fire spread: plots across all landscape positions burned with similar probability. Impacts of edges and connectivity on fire temperature led to changes in vegetation: hotter-burning plots supported higher bunch grass cover during the field season after burning, suggesting implications for woody/herbaceous species coexistence. To our knowledge, this represents the first experimental evidence that corridors can modify landscape-scale patterns of fire intensity. Corridor impacts on fire should be carefully considered during landscape management, both in the context of how corridors connect or break distributions of fuels and the desired role of fire as a disturbance, which may range from a management tool to an agent to be suppressed. In our focal ecosystem, longleaf pine woodland, corridors might provide a previously

  1. From corridor to region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne; Jespersen, Per Homann

    2006-01-01

    The corridor between Oslo and Berlin is by the politicians of the regional authorities in the Scandinavian part of the corridor seen a region with unique qualities and a large innovation and growth potential. In order to explore and develop this potential an In-terreg project has been launched. E...... this task by applying principles of participative planning and with action research methodology are involving stakeholders in the process of defining, developing and disseminating the idea of the Corridor of Innovation and Cooperation - COINCO.......The corridor between Oslo and Berlin is by the politicians of the regional authorities in the Scandinavian part of the corridor seen a region with unique qualities and a large innovation and growth potential. In order to explore and develop this potential an In-terreg project has been launched...

  2. Topological phase transition in the Scheidegger model of river networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, Jacob N.; Magnasco, Marcelo O.

    2012-08-01

    Transport networks are found at the heart of myriad natural systems, yet are poorly understood, except for the case of river networks. The Scheidegger model, in which rivers are convergent random walks, has been studied only in the case of flat topography, ignoring the variety of curved geometries found in nature. Embedding this model on a cone, we find a convergent and a divergent phase, corresponding to few, long basins and many, short basins, respectively, separated by a singularity, indicating a phase transition. Quantifying basin shape using Hacks law l˜ah gives distinct values for h, providing a method of testing our hypotheses. The generality of our model suggests implications for vascular morphology, in particular, differing number and shapes of arterial and venous trees.

  3. From corridor to region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne; Jespersen, Per Homann

    2006-01-01

    The corridor between Oslo and Berlin is by the politicians of the regional authorities in the Scandinavian part of the corridor seen a region with unique qualities and a large innovation and growth potential. In order to explore and develop this potential an In-terreg project has been launched. E...... this task by applying principles of participative planning and with action research methodology are involving stakeholders in the process of defining, developing and disseminating the idea of the Corridor of Innovation and Cooperation - COINCO....

  4. Metro Conservation Corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Metro Conservation Corridors (MeCC) grow out of the natural resource analysis work done by the DNR in the late '90's, documented in the Metro Greenprint...

  5. The Corridor Chronicles. Integrated perspectives on European transport corridor development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation aims to clarify the added value of an integrated perspective on corridor development in Europe. For many years, knowledge on corridors has been developed in a sectoral, technocratic manner, despite a growing call for an integrated analysis of corridor issues. The integration argume

  6. Sediment dynamics in the lower Mekong River: Transition from tidal river to estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacki, Daniel J.; Ogston, Andrea S.; Nittrouer, Charles A.; Fricke, Aaron T.; Van, Pham Dang Tri

    2015-09-01

    A better understanding of flow and sediment dynamics in the lowermost portions of large-tropical rivers is essential to constraining estimates of worldwide sediment delivery to the ocean. Flow velocity, salinity, and suspended-sediment concentration were measured for 25 h at three cross sections in the tidal Song Hau distributary of the Mekong River, Vietnam. Two campaigns took place during comparatively high-seasonal and low-seasonal discharge, and estuarine conditions varied dramatically between them. The system transitioned from a tidal river with ephemeral presence of a salt wedge during high flow to a partially mixed estuary during low flow. The changing freshwater input, sediment sources, and estuarine characteristics resulted in seaward sediment export during high flow and landward import during low flow. The Dinh An channel of the Song Hau distributary exported sediment to the coast at a rate of about 1 t s-1 during high flow and imported sediment in a spatially varying manner at approximately 0.3 t s-1 during low flow. Scaling these values results in a yearly Mekong sediment discharge estimate about 65% smaller than a generally accepted estimate of 110 Mt yr-1, although the limited temporal and spatial nature of this study implies a relatively high degree of uncertainty for the new estimate. Fluvial advection of sediment was primarily responsible for the high-flow sediment export. Exchange-flow and tidal processes, including local resuspension, were principally responsible for the low-flow import. The resulting bed-sediment grain size was coarser and more variable during high flow and finer during low, and the residual flow patterns support the maintenance of mid-channel islands. This article was corrected on 7 OCT 2015. See the end of the full text for details.

  7. Birds of the riparian corridors of Potchefstroom, South Africa / Rindert Wyma

    OpenAIRE

    Wyma, Rindert

    2012-01-01

    A riparian ecosystem is the area between the aquatic and terrestrial setting of a stream, and serves as a corridor and habitat for birds. Several riparian ecosystems are located in urban environments, and three main riparian corridors are located in Potchefstroom. They are the Mooi River, Wasgoed Spruit, and Spitskop Spruit, which encompass a wide range of different vegetation types and anthropogenic factors. Therefore, different habitat types for birds occur along the riparian corridors of P...

  8. EVOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF GUANGZHOU-HONG KONG CORRIDOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ping; CAO Xiao-shu

    2005-01-01

    With its rapid development in the past two decades, the Pearl River Delta has become one of the most developed regions in China. During this period, an important corridor between Hong Kong and Guangzhou has emerged and shaped the spatial structure of the region. The growth of this region has been greatly marched with the twin poles of Guangzhou and Hong Kong, and the economic and social development h. as taken place in a corridor between these two metropolises. This paper provides an analysis of the significance of this corridor in terms of its infrastructure, population, land use, and economic development. Massive infrastructure construction in the corridor has played an important role in its development. The corridor has high-frequent transport, and each transport mode has contributed in a different way to the process of development of the corridor, With high land use intensity and high population density, it is developing the characteristics of a megalopolis. As a pathway of connection between Guangzhou and Hong Kong, the corridor includes not only physical infrastructure, such as roads, railways and airports, but also logistics operations, human resources, information and capital, which plays important roles in accelerating business development. It demonstrates how this Main Street has become one of the most important factors in regional development.

  9. Modeling river dune development and dune transition to upper stage plane bed

    OpenAIRE

    Naqshband, S.; Duin, van, W.E.; Ribberink, J.S.; Hulscher, S.J.M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Large asymmetric bedforms known as dunes commonly dominate the bed of sand rivers. Due to the turbulence generation over their stoss and lee sides, dunes are of central importance in predicting hydraulic roughness and water levels. During floods in steep alluvial rivers, dunes are observed to grow rapidly as flow strength increases, undergoing an unstable transition regime, after which they are washed out in what is called upper stage plane bed. This transition of dunes to upper stage plane b...

  10. 新疆车尔臣河绿色走廊河湖湿地变化及原因分析%Change and Causes of the River-lake Marshes along the Green Corridor at the Lower Reaches of the Qarqan River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽; 曾庆伟; 周会珍; 汪爱华; 刘畅; 迟耀斌; 王智勇

    2012-01-01

    River green corridor is a narrow barrier region along an inland river in arid region,it has two remarkable characteristics,one is that the soil moisture content in the corridor is higher than that in surrounding desert,and the other is that the landscape types are quite different from those in around environment.As an important landscape type in river green corridor in arid region in northwest China,marsh plays an important role in climatic regulation,water conservation and purification,maintenance of biological diversity,etc.The Qarqan River has the highest annual runoff volume in the southeast Tarim Basin and maintains the entironment of the green corridors in the east Taklimakan Desert and along the Tarim River.Because of its dramatic change,the river-lake marsh change in the green corridor along the Qarqan River attracts more and more attentions in recent years.So we monitored the dynamic change of the river-lake marshes using multispectral RS images from different satellites,such as Beijing-1,HJ,CBERS-2 and Landsat TM during the period from 2000 to 2010.The results show that the area of the river-lake marshes was enlarged at first,then it was reduced and followed by enlargement again since the year of 2000,and the monthly variation was also distinct in 2010.The monitoring area was 141 km2 in the year of 2005,and it was enlarged to 393 km2 in the year of 2010.Moreover,the meteorological,social and economic data,such as annual temperature,annual precipitation,annual cultivated land area and annual GDP in Ruoqiang County and Qiemo County in recent 50 years,were analyzed,and the correlations among the annual runoff volume of the Qarqan River and these factors were computed using quantitative analysis.The quantitative analysis was combined with the statistic data of glacier change in the Muztag Mountain during the period from 2000 to 2010 after analyzing the RS data and the water conservancy policy of Xinjiang government at all levels.The main causes resulting in

  11. 76 FR 63346 - Environmental Impact Statement, Tappan Zee Bridge/I-287 Corridor Project (Rockland and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... Administration Environmental Impact Statement, Tappan Zee Bridge/I-287 Corridor Project (Rockland and Westchester... preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the proposed Tappan Zee Bridge/I-287 Corridor project... Port Chester, Westchester County, New York including the Tappan Zee Bridge over the Hudson River....

  12. 成都市沙河廊道植物群落结构特征分析%Analysis of Plant Community Structure for the Shahe River Corridor in Chengdu City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳丽; 孟长来; 徐嘉; 李智勇; 费世民

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,based on the requirement for studying the structure techniques of urban forest corridor,researches were conducted on the community structure characteristics of forest corridor in the Shahe river of Chengdu city.The result showed that it was a simple community structure with a single tree species composition,but had a good ornamentation,which could be related to the recreation function.The trees were mainly media and small diameter classes,with the proportion of the big diameter class being less,and their height was relatively low,which could be mainly affected by the cultivated time.Abundance indice of arbor,shrub and grass respectively were 6.02,9.78 and 9.63,and total amounts were obviously controlled by shrub and grass layers.Diversity of community was between 3 and 4,relatively lower compared to evergreen broad-leaved forest,which was related to small species kinds and uneven distribution.Bigger three dimensional green quantity had a bigger leaf index and bigger leaf area index should be considered in tree species selection.From techniques,it was suggested to adopt the rare and endangered tree species,allocate the multiplied structure,add the forest zone size and increase the degree of near nature forest when the optimized establishment and management of river forest corridor were conducted.%基于城市森林廊道构建技术研究需要,本文研究了成都市沙河森林廊道的群落结构特征,群落组成简单,树种单一,但观赏性强,可能与游憩功能有关;树木多以中小径级为主,大径级比例较小,高度偏低,主要受培育时间的影响。乔木的丰富度指数为6.02,灌木为9.78,草本为9.63,总体数量明显受到灌草层影响较为明显。群落多样性在3~4之间,与种类少,分布不均有关。较大的三维绿量有较大的叶面积指数,树种选择需要考虑高叶面积指数树种。在技术上,建议河流森林廊道建设优化与管护时,多采用珍稀濒危种类,且配置

  13. Green corridors and network design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to investigate the relation between the Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T) and the green corridor concept. First, the need is established for a corridor governance structure that enables the close cooperation among the numerous stakeholders from both the public...... and private sectors engaged in all corridor related issues ranging from network design to the provision of integrated logistical solutions. The governance scheme of the recently introduced TEN-T core network corridors seems to fulfil this requirement. Following a brief history of TEN-T development, the 2013...... major overhaul of the EU transportation infrastructure policy is outlined and the basic differences with the past are pinpointed. The provisions of the new TEN-T Guidelines are scrutinized so as to check whether the TEN-T core network corridors exhibit the characteristics of a green corridor...

  14. Distinguishing the Transition Reach between Torrent and River Using Longitudinal and Cross-Sectional Morphology in River Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, F. Y.; Chen, S. C.; An, H. P.

    2015-12-01

    To distinguish a transition reach between river and torrent, this study designed a method to quantify the morphology of channel cross-section. The 5m DEM, which administered by central government, was used to obtain cross-sections from third and fourth order river of 10 main drainages in Taiwan with an interval of 140 to 150 m. We designed a Cross-Sectional Complex-Index (Ics) to determine the morphological complexity and quantify the degrees of wide-shallow for each sections. This index can be applied to define the location of notch, because it can be knew form river regime that a notch is defined as a narrow-deep cross-section and narrow-deep and relatively large slope to adjacent reach. Therefore, this study defined notch index (Inotch) as the gradient divided by cross-sectional complex-index, and applied it to present the distribution of notch-type sections in study drainages, and the results of field investigation in 22 site showed that a section can be defined as notch while Inotch is lager then 60. The distribution of notch in a drainage shown that the notch which conform our quantitative definitions almost concentrated into several reaches intersecting with some broad-shallow section, and the gradient of these reaches are between 2% to 3%. Therefore, we can define that these reaches are the transition reaches between river and torrent. There are 54 sites of transition reach in our study drainages, 80% of the sites had a watershed area within a range of 2000 to 6000 ha. It proof that our method can define transition reach effectively and consistently. In addition, because of the type of disaster is collapse and debris flow in torrent and flood damages in river. It can be found that type of disaster are derived from the river morphology. Therefore, our method and result can be applied to determine the disaster type and strategic planning of disaster prevention as a reference.

  15. Palaeohydrological corridors for hominin dispersals in the Middle East ∼250-70,000 years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, Paul S.; Groucutt, Huw S.; Drake, Nick A.; White, Tom S.; Jennings, Richard P.; Petraglia, Michael D.

    2016-07-01

    The timing and extent of palaeoenvironmental connections between northeast Africa, the Levant and the Arabian Peninsula during the Middle and Late Pleistocene are critical to debates surrounding dispersals of hominins, including movements of Homo sapiens out of Africa. Although there is evidence that synchronous episodes of climatic amelioration during the late Middle and Late Pleistocene may have allowed connections to form between northern Africa and western Asia, a number of palaeoclimate models indicate the continued existence of an arid barrier between northern Arabia and the Levant. Here we evaluate the palaeoenvironmental setting for hominin dispersals between, and within, northeast Africa and southwest Asia during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 7-5 using reconstructions of surface freshwater availability as an environmental proxy. We use remotely sensed data to map palaeohydrological features (lakes, wetlands and rivers) across the presently hyper-arid areas of northern Arabia and surrounding regions, integrating these results with palaeoclimate models, palaeoenvironmental proxy data and absolute dating to determine when these features were active. Our analyses suggest limited potential for dispersals during MIS 7 and 6, but indicate the formation of a palaeohydrological corridor (the 'Tabuk Corridor') between the Levant and the Arabian interior during the MIS 6-5e glacial-interglacial transition and during MIS 5e. A recurrence of this corridor, following a slightly different route, also occurred during MIS 5a. These palaeohydrological and terrestrial data can be used to establish when proposed routes for hominin dispersals became viable. Furthermore, the distribution of Arabian archaeological sites with affinities to Levantine assemblages, some of which are associated with Homo sapiens fossils, and the relative density of Middle Palaeolithic assemblages within the Tabuk Corridor, are consistent with it being utilised for dispersals at various times.

  16. Corridor use by diverse taxa.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Nick, M.; Browne, David, R.; Cunningham, Alan; Danielson, Brent, J.; Levey, Douglas, J.; Sargent, Sarah; Spira, Tim

    2003-01-01

    Haddad, N.M., D.R. Browne, A. Cunningham, B.J. Danielson, D.J. Levey, S. Sargent, and T. Spira. 2003. Corridor use by diverse taxa. Ecology, 84(3):609-615. One of the most popular approaches for maintaining populations and conserving biodiversity in fragmented landscapes is to retain or create corridors that connect otherwise isolated habitat patches. Working in large-scale, experimental landscapes in which open-habitat patches and corridors were created by harvesting pine forest, we showed that corridors direct movements of different types of species, including butterflies, small mammals, and bird dispersed plants, causing higher movement between connected than between unconnected patches. Corridors directed the movement of all 10 species studied, with all corridor effect sizes >68%. However, this corridor effect was significant for five species, not significant for one species, and inconclusive for four species because of small sample sizes. Although we found no evidence that corridors increase emigration from a patch, our results show that movements of disparate taxa with broadly different life histories and functional roles are directed by corridors.

  17. Temporal and spatial change detecting (1998-2003) and predicting of land use and land cover in core corridor of Pearl River Delta (China) by using TM and ETM+ images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fenglei; Wang, Yunpeng; Wang, Zhishi

    2008-02-01

    Land use/land cover (LULC) has a profound impact on economy, society and environment, especially in rapid developing areas. Rapid and prompt monitoring and predicting of LULC's change are crucial and significant. Currently, integration of Geographical Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) methods is one of the most important methods for detecting LULC's change, which includes image processing (such as geometrical-rectifying, supervised-classification, etc.), change detection (post-classification), GIS-based spatial analysis, Markov chain and a Cellular Automata (CA) models, etc. The core corridor of Pearl River Delta was selected for studying LULC's change in this paper by using the above methods for the reason that the area contributed 78.31% (1998)-81.4% (2003) of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) to the whole Pearl River Delta (PRD). The temporal and spatial LULC's changes from 1998 to 2003 were detected by RS data. At the same time, urban expansion levels in the next 5 and 10 years were predicted temporally and spatially by using Markov chain and a simple Cellular Automata model respectively. Finally, urban expansion and farmland loss were discussed against the background of China's urban expansion and cropland loss during 1990-2000. The result showed: (1) the rate of urban expansion was up to 8.91% during 1998-2003 from 169,078.32 to 184,146.48 ha; (2) the rate of farmland loss was 5.94% from 312,069.06 to 293,539.95 ha; (3) a lot of farmland converted to urban or development area, and more forest and grass field converted to farmland accordingly; (4) the spatial predicting result of urban expansion showed that urban area was enlarged ulteriorly compared with the previous results, and the directions of expansion is along the existing urban area and transportation lines.

  18. HISTORICAL TRANSITION OF RIVER TRAINING WORKS AND INUNDATION CHARACTERISTICS IN SAPPORO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Shimizu, Yasuyuki; Kimura, Ichiro; Iwasaki, Toshiki

    The urbanization in Sapporo was started about only 140 years ago. Before the urbanization, the topography of most part of Sapporo was wetland and not suitable for living and cultivation. Intensive river training works have changed this area dramatically for relatively short period, and made Sapporo as one of the biggest cities in Japan with a population of 1.9 million. In this study, the history of river training works and the transition of inundation characteristics in Sapporo are investigated through old literatures and numerical simulations. First, the historical process of river training constructions was clarified by inspecting old documents and found out some key works. Then numerical simulations of flood were performed in three cases, namely, original topography, after construction of Toyohira-River- Bank and after construction of new Toyohira River Channel. The comparison of simulation results elucidated the relation between river training works and change of inundation behavior.

  19. Green corridors in freight logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George

    The subject of this thesis is ‘green corridors,’ a European concept denoting a concentration of freight traffic between major hubs and by relatively long distances. Since their inception in 2007, green corridors have gained popularity as a policy tool that enhances the overall environmental susta...

  20. The continent-ocean transition of the Pearl River margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameselle, A. L.; Ranero, C. R.; Franke, D.; Barckhausen, U.

    2013-12-01

    Rifted continental margins form by lithospheric extension and break-up. The continent to ocean transition (COT) architecture depends on the interplay between tectonic and magmatic processes, and thus, to study the COT variability of different systems is key to understand rifting. We use MCS data and magnetic lineations across the Pearl River margin (PRM) of South China Sea to investigate a previously poorly defined COT. The structure of the PRM presents different amounts of extension allowing the study of conjugate pairs of continental margins and their COT in a relative small region. We reprocessed about 2250 km of MCS data along 4 regional, crustal-scale lines and found that 3 of them possibly display the COT. The time-migrated seismic sections show differences in internal reflectivity, faulting style, fault-block geometry, the seismic character of the top of the basement, in the geometry of sediment deposits, and Moho reflections, that we interpret to represent clear continental and oceanic domains. The continental domain is characterized by arrays of normal faults and associated tilted blocks overlaid by syn-rift sedimentary units. The Moho is imaged as sub-horizontal reflections that define a fairly continuous boundary typically at 8-10 s TWT. Estimation of the thickness of the continental crust using 6 km/s average velocity indicates a ~22 km-thick continental crust under the uppermost slope passing abruptly to ~9-6 km under the lower slope. Comparatively the oceanic crust has a highly reflective top of basement, little-faulting, not discernible syn-tectonic strata, and fairly constant thickness (4-8 km) defined by usually clear Moho reflections. The COT occurs across a ~5-10 km narrow zone. Rifting resulted in asymmetric conjugate margins. The PRM shows arrays of tilted fault blocks covered by abundant syn-rift sediment, whereas the conjugate Macclesfield Bank margin displays abrupt thinning and little faulting. Seismic profiles also show a change in the

  1. Geology of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park and Potomac River Corridor, District of Columbia, Maryland, West Virginia, and Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southworth, Scott; Brezinski, David K.; Orndorff, Randall C.; Repetski, John E.; Denenny, Danielle M.

    2008-01-01

    The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park is 184.5 mi long and extends from Washington, D.C., to Cumberland, Md. The canal passes through three physiographic provinces including the Piedmont, Valley and Ridge, and the Blue Ridge; the map area also includes rocks of the Coastal Plain and Appalachian Plateaus provinces. Each province contains unique packages of rocks that influenced the character of the canal and towpath. The ages of the bedrock encountered along the length of the park range from Mesoproterozoic to Jurassic and represent a variety of tectonic and depositional environments. The different rock types and surficial deposits dictated the various construction methods for the canal, which was excavated in Quaternary flood-plain deposits as well as through bedrock. The ancient course of the Potomac River and the deposits it left behind also influenced the location of the canal and towpath. The engineers made good use of the many rock types to construct the locks, dams, aqueducts, and culverts that guided water from the Potomac River into the canal and maintained the water level as canal boats traveled between higher elevations in western Maryland to sea level in Washington, D.C. The canal and towpath provide a unique transect across the central Appalachian region for examining the rich geologic diversity and history.

  2. Four-band image mosaic of the Colorado River corridor downstream of Glen Canyon Dam in Arizona, derived from the May 2013 airborne image acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durning, Laura E.; Sankey, Joel B.; Davis, Philip A.; Sankey, Temuulen T.

    2016-12-14

    In May 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey’s Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center acquired airborne multispectral high-resolution data for the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, Arizona. The image data, which consist of four color bands (blue, green, red, and near-infrared) with a ground resolution of 20 centimeters, are available to the public as 16-bit geotiff files at http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7TX3CHS. The images are projected in the State Plane map projection, using the central Arizona zone (202) and the North American Datum of 1983. The assessed accuracy for these data is based on 91 ground-control points and is reported at the 95-percent confidence level as 0.64 meter (m) and a root mean square error of 0.36 m. The primary intended uses of this dataset are for maps to support field data collection and simple river navigation; high-spatial-resolution change detection of sandbars, other geomorphic landforms, riparian vegetation, and backwater and nearshore habitats; and other ecosystem-wide mapping.

  3. Water quality and quantity of selected springs and seeps along the Colorado River corridor, Utah and Arizona: Arches National Park, Canyonlands National Park, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, and Grand Canyon National Park, 1997-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Howard E.; Spence, John R.; Antweiler, Ronald C.; Berghoff, Kevin; Plowman, Terry I.; Peart, Dale B.; Roth, David A.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service conducted an intensive assessment of selected springs along the Colorado River Corridor in Arches National Park, Canyonlands National Park, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, and Grand Canyon National Park in 1997 and 1998, for the purpose of measuring and evaluating the water quality and quantity of the resource. This study was conducted to establish baseline data for the future evaluation of possible effects from recreational use and climate change. Selected springs and seeps were visited over a study period from 1997 to 1998, during which, discharge and on-site chemical measurements were made at selected springs and seeps, and samples were collected for subsequent chemical laboratory analysis. This interdisciplinary study also includes simultaneous studies of flora and fauna, measured and sampled coincidently at the same sites. Samples collected during this study were transported to U.S. Geological Survey laboratories in Boulder, Colorado, where analyses were performed using state-of-the-art laboratory technology. The location of the selected springs and seeps, elevation, geology, aspect, and onsite measurements including temperature, discharge, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance, were recorded. Laboratory analyses include determinations for alkalinity, aluminum, ammonium (nitrogen), antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, bismuth, boron, bromide, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chloride, chromium, cobalt, copper, dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, dysprosium, erbium, europium, fluoride, gadolinium, holmium, iodine, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, lutetium, magnesium, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, neodymium, nickel, nitrate (nitrogen), nitrite (nitrogen), phosphate, phosphorus, potassium, praseodymium, rhenium, rubidium, samarium, selenium, silica, silver, sodium, strontium, sulfate, tellurium, terbium, thallium, thorium, thulium, tin, titanium, tungsten

  4. A Green Corridor Balanced Scorecard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prause Gunnar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Green transport corridors represent trans-shipment routes with a concentration of freight traffic between major hubs and long distances of transport marked by reduced environmental and climate impact. Important characteristics of green corridors are their network structures, their transnational character and their high involvement of public and private stakeholders, including political level requiring new governance models. Network-oriented controlling of green transport corridors require new concepts and instruments concentrating on multi-dimensional evaluation of collective strategies and processes in an international environment with a focus on cross-company aspects.

  5. Savannah River Region: Transition between the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zullo, V.A.; Harris, W.B.; Price, V. [eds.

    1990-12-31

    The focus of the this conference of Coastal Plains geologists was on the Savannah River region of Georgia and South Carolina, and particularly on the geology of the US Department of Energy`s 300 square mile Savannah River Site (SRS) in western South Carolina. Current geological studies indicate that the Mesozoic-Cenozoic section in the Savannah River region is transitional between that of the Gulf Coastal Plain to the southwest and that of the Atlantic Coastal Plain to the northeast. With the transitional aspect of the region as its theme, the first session was devoted to overviews of Cretaceous and Paleogene geology in the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains. Succeeding presentations and resulting discussions dealt with more specific problems in structural, lithostratigraphic, hydrological, biostratigraphic, and cyclostratigraphic analysis, and of correlation to standard stratigraphic frameworks. For these conference proceedings, individual papers have been processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  6. 西安地区“泾渭水系”生态廊道建构理念与方法研究%Study on the Conception and Methods of Constructing Ecological Corridors of "Jing-Wei River System" in Xi'an Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张定青; 曹象明; 张崇

    2012-01-01

    Jing-Wei river system is the basic frame of the geographical environment in Xi'an area, which played an important role in urban construction and development in history. In the process of accelerated urbanization, the river system's ecological environment has been greatly damaged, which seriously constrains the sustainable development of local area. Aiming at improving regional landscape pattern and urban ecological development, this paper puts forward the conception of constructing Jing-Wei river system ecological corridors in Xi'an area, analyzes its concept and features, proposes the basic principles in construction. The methods of constructing ecological corridors are discussed from macro-view, middle-view and micro-view, and the function and structure of typical corridors are illustrated.%泾渭水系形成西安地区自然地理环境的基本构架,在历代城镇建设与发展中发挥了巨大作用.当代快速城镇化进程中,河流生态系统破坏严重,极大制约了城镇可持续发展.从优化区域景观格局.促进城镇生态化建设出发,提出依托泾渭水系建构生态廊道的理念,分析了泾渭水系生态廊道的基本特征及内涵,提出其建构原则,从宏观、中观及微观3个层面论述了廊道系统结构的建构方法,并对典型廊道功能与结构进行了具体解析.

  7. Evacuation from smoke filled corridors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, E.W.; Leur, P.H.E. van de; Oerle, N.J. van

    1998-01-01

    underpinning compartmentation requirements in the Dutch regulations is that people can and will go through 30 m of smoke filled space. The hypothesis leads to the requirement that corridors are divided in compartments with a maximum length of 30 meters.

  8. Miocene extension and extensional folding in an anticlinal segment of the Black Mountains accommodation zone, Colorado River extensional corridor, southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Robert J.; Faulds, James E.; Snee, Lawrence W.; Harlan, Stephen S.; Bettison-Varga, Lori

    2004-02-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that rifts are characterized by linked tilt domains, each containing a consistent polarity of normal faults and stratal tilt directions, and that the transition between domains is typically through formation of accommodation zones and generally not through production of throughgoing transfer faults. The mid-Miocene Black Mountains accommodation zone of southern Nevada and western Arizona is a well-exposed example of an accommodation zone linking two regionally extensive and opposing tilt domains. In the southeastern part of this zone near Kingman, Arizona, east dipping normal faults of the Whipple tilt domain and west dipping normal faults of the Lake Mead domain coalesce across a relatively narrow region characterized by a series of linked, extensional folds. The geometry of these folds in this strike-parallel portion of the accommodation zone is dictated by the geometry of the interdigitating normal faults of opposed polarity. Synclines formed where normal faults of opposite polarity face away from each other whereas anticlines formed where the opposed normal faults face each other. Opposed normal faults with small overlaps produced short folds with axial trends at significant angles to regional strike directions, whereas large fault overlaps produce elongate folds parallel to faults. Analysis of faults shows that the folds are purely extensional and result from east/northeast stretching and fault-related tilting. The structural geometry of this portion of the accommodation zone mirrors that of the Black Mountains accommodation zone more regionally, with both transverse and strike-parallel antithetic segments. Normal faults of both tilt domains lose displacement and terminate within the accommodation zone northwest of Kingman, Arizona. However, isotopic dating of growth sequences and crosscutting relationships show that the initiation of the two fault systems in this area was not entirely synchronous and that west dipping faults of the

  9. Corridor use by Asian elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wenjing; Lin, Liu; Luo, Aidong; Zhang, Li

    2009-06-01

    There are 18 km of Kunming-Bangkok Highway passing through the Mengyang Nature Reserve of Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve in Yunnan Province, China. From September 2005 to September 2006 the impact of this highway on movement of wild Asian elephants between the eastern and western part of the nature reserve was studied using track transecting, rural surveys and direct monitoring. Our results showed that the number of crossroad corridors used by Asian elephants diminished from 28 to 23 following the construction of the highway. In some areas, the elephant activity diminished or even disappeared, which indicated a change in their home ranges. The utilization rate of artificial corridors was 44%. We also found that elephants preferred artificial corridors that were placed along their original corridors. During the research, wild elephants revealed their adaptation to the highway. They were found walking across the highway road surface many times and for different reasons. We suggest that the highway management bureau should revise their management strategies to mitigate the potential risks caused by elephants on the road for the safety of the public and to protect this endangered species from harm. It is also very important to protect and maintain current Asian elephants corridors in this region.

  10. [Ecological and economic harmony evaluation and spatial evolution of the Hexi corridor, northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-long; Shi, Pei-ji; Li, Sheng-mei; Tong, Hua-li; Nie, Xiao-ying; Wei, Wei

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between economic development and environment and the evolution characteristics of spatial pattern in Hexi Corridor of Northwest China were analyzed based on Landsat images in 1985, 1995, 2000 and 2011 with twenty counties in Hexi Corridor chosen as the basic research units. The ecological economic harmony during 1985-2011 was estimated according to ESV (ecosystem services value) and EEH (ecological and economic harmony) index with the ecosystem services value estimation methods. The results showed that the land type of the study area dramatically changed during the study period, the grassland decreased badly, and the construction land and cultivated land increased quickly. The ESV showed an overall downward trend, especially in the Shiyang River basin and the middle of Heihe River. The ESV in the Shule River basin in this period. After 2000, the economic growth speeded up visibly in the study area. The economic development concentrated in the resource-based cities and regional central cities, and declined from the center of corridor to the both sides. The ecological-economic relation in Hexi Corridor experienced a transformation of "preliminary deterioration--further deterioration--low grade coordination". The EEH had large changes in the Shiyang River basin and the middle of Heihe River, which experienced a transformation of "conflict--more conflicts--less conflicts", however, there was little change in Shule River basin. The development mode and the comprehensive reclamation of Shiyang River basin and Heihe River basin had a significant influence on the regional ecological and economic harmony.

  11. Investigating Atmospheric Rivers using GPS PW from Ocean Transits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanza, V.; Foster, J. H.; Businger, S.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric Rivers (AR) can be described as a long narrow feature within a warm conveyor belt where anomalous precipitable water (PW) is transported from low to high latitudes. Close monitoring of ARs is heavily reliant on satellites, which are limited both in space and time, to capture the fluctuations PW particularly over the ocean. Ship-based Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers have been successful in obtaining millimeter PW accuracy within 100 km from the nearest ground-based reference receiver at a 30 second sampling rate. We extended this capability with a field experiment using ship-based GPS PW on board a cargo ship to traverse over the Eastern Pacific Ocean. In one 14-day cruise cycle, between the periods of February 3-16, 2014, the ship-based GPS captured PW spikes >50 mm during the early development of two ARs, which lead to moderate to heavy rainfall events for Hawaii and flood conditions along the West Coast of the United States. Comparisons between PW solutions processed using different GPS reference sites at distances 100-2000 km provided an internal validation for the ship-based GPS PW with errors typically less than 5 mm. Land-based observations provided an external validation and are in good agreement with ship-based GPS PW at distances GPS receivers offer an extremely cost-effective approach for acquiring continuous meteorological observations over the oceans, which can provide important calibration/validation data for satellite retrieval algorithms. Ship-based systems could be particularly useful for augmenting our meteorological observing networks to improve weather prediction and nowcasting, which in turn provide critical support for hazard response and mitigation efforts in coastal regions.

  12. Effects of the Different Structures of Green Belts on the Temperature and Humidity in River Corridors%河流廊道绿带结构的温湿效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪鹏; 朱春阳; 李树华

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand scientific basis for constructing green belts in river corridors, the effects of the different structures (internal constitution, canopy closure density) of green belts on the temperature and humidity were analyzed by the small-scale quantitative measurement. In this paper, four-green belts with different internal constitutions including tree-shrub-herbage mixture, tree-herbage mixture, shrub-herbage mixture and lawn and five-green belts with different canopy closure densities including 0 - 0.20, 0. 20 - 0.40, 0.40 - 0.60, 0. 60 - 0. 80 and 0. 80 - 1.00 along the Qinghe river in Beijing were investigated in July of 2010 . The air temperature and relative humidity in the green belts were measured in two hour interval from 8: 00 to 18: 00 for continuous seven days. The results showed: 1 ) the effects of different belts on the temperature and humidity were ranked in an order of tree-shrub-herbage > tree-herbage > shrub-herbage > lawn. The green belt with internal constitution of lawn had no significant effect on temperature and humidity. The shrub-herbage green belt had a moderate effect on temperature reduction and humidity increase, and an obvious and stable effect was found with the green belts of tree-herbage and tree-shrub-herbage. Based on Duncans Post Hoc Tests (P = 0.05) , it was concluded that the tree-herbage and tree-shrub herbage of urban green belts had obvious effects on the temperature decrease and humidity increase (width of green belt must be about 45 m). 2) The temperature and relative humidity benefits increased with the canopy density of the green belt. The green belt with canopy density of 0.20 -0.40 had a slight effect on the temperature decrease and humidity increase; The density of over0. 40 had an obvious effect, and an extremely obvious and stable effect was found with canopy density of over 0. 60.%选择北京北五环清河两侧不同结构类型(内部构成、郁闭度)的绿地作为研究对象,利用小尺度

  13. Capitalizing on spatiality in European transport corridors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, P.A.; van Oort, F.G.; Wiegmans, B.; Spit, T.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    After half a century of corridor development in Europe, the corridor concept is well-established in the academic discourse on transportation. Transport corridors have also been common practice in European transport policy since the creation of a borderless Europe in the 1990s. What is largely lackin

  14. Flow and suspended sediment transport through the gravel-sand transition in the Fraser River, British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The Fraser River, British Columbia is a large alluvial channel that features an abrupt gravel-sand transition that occurs due to a dramatic slope change and the ocean base-level control. There have been no previous observations of the sediment dynamics through transitions in rivers of this scale. I examine the spatial and temporal changes in flow and the suspended sediment transport regime through the transition using hydro-acoustics in an attempt to test the hypothesis that sand in the grave...

  15. Transitional properties of droughts and related impacts of climate indices in the Pearl River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Mingzhong; Zhang, Qiang; Singh, Vijay P.; Liu, Lin

    2016-03-01

    Drought is the natural hazard poorly understood so far due to various mechanisms behind. Moreover, disastrous effects of drought on human society necessitate accurate forecasting of drought behaviors. In this case, to improve forecasting of drought in the Pearl River basin, a trivariate copula model has been developed and used to include the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) into model structure of Markov chain. The Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) has been used to monitor the drought in this study. Comparison with the preliminary correlation analysis between each month climate index and SPEI series indicated that the trivariate copula performs satisfactorily well in evaluation of influences of climate indices on the transition probabilities of drought. It is considered that the region with the negative vertical velocity is dominated by more precipitation and vice versa. Moreover, field patterns of 500 hPa vertical velocity anomalies related to each climate index have further corroborated the influences of climate indices on the drought behaviors. Besides, the mean extreme drought durations under different conditions of each climate index have also been investigated in this study. Results indicated that the mean extreme drought duration tends to be longer in the western part of the Pearl River basin during positive phase of ENSO while tends to be shorter during the positive phase of NAO and vice versa; in the central part of the Pearl River basin, the mean extreme drought duration tends to be shorter during the positive phase of ENSO, NAO and PDO while tends to be longer during the positive episode of IOD, and vice versa; in the eastern part of the Pearl River basin, the mean extreme drought duration tends to be shorter during the positive episode of ENSO and PDO, and vice versa. This study sheds new light on transitional behaviors of

  16. Exploration on City Rivers's Function Returning from "Edge Line"to "Public Link"——A Case Study of Ecological Green Corridor Planning of Chuan Yang River%城市河流从“边缘界线”回归“公共纽带”的探索——以川杨河生态绿廊建设规划研究为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑德福

    2012-01-01

    City rivers that carrying the urban's prosperity and decline was the important dependency to urban development.However,now in many cities,city rivers are neglected gradually in the urban planning,especially the main rivers with regional significance,are treated as "edge line" that no one cares about,and become closed and negative corridor space.In case of the construction study on ecological green corridor of Chuan Yang River,the paper not only analyzes the deep reason that urban rivers are being marginalized,from the role evolution and current status of city rivers,but also explores planning practice about city rivers function reviving and returning to city life from the perspective of "public link".%城市河流曾是城市发展的重要依赖,承载着城市的兴衰使命。而当前许多城市中,城市河流在规划中逐渐被忽视,尤其是具有区域性意义的主干河流,成为无人问津的"边缘界线",沦为封闭而消极的廊道空间。以川杨河生态绿廊的建设研究为例,从城市河流的角色演变和现状问题出发,分析城市河流被边缘化的深层原因,并从"公共纽带"的视角来探讨城市河流功能复兴和回归城市生活的规划实践。

  17. A Conceptual Framework and Classification for the Fluvial-Backwater-Marine Transition in Coastal Rivers Globally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, N. C.; Georgiou, I. Y.; Hughes, Z. J.; Wolinsky, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Channels in fluvio-deltaic and coastal plain settings undergo a progressive series of downstream transitions in hydrodynamics and sediment transport, which is consequently reflected in their morphology and stratigraphic architecture. Conditions progress from uniform fluvial flow to backwater conditions with non-uniform flow, and finally to bi-directional tidal flow or estuarine circulation at the ocean boundary. While significant attention has been given to geomorphic scaling relationships in purely fluvial settings, there have been far fewer studies on the backwater and tidal reaches, and no systematic comparisons. Our study addresses these gaps by analyzing geometric scaling relationships independently in each of the above hydrodynamic regimes and establishes a comparison. To accomplish this goal we have constructed a database of planform geometries including more than 150 channels. In terms of hydrodynamics studies, much of the work on backwater dynamics has concentrated on the Mississippi River, which has very limited tidal influence. We will extend this analysis to include systems with appreciable offshore tidal range, using a numerical hydrodynamic model to study the interaction between backwater dynamics and tides. The database is comprised of systems with a wide range of tectonic, climatic, and oceanic forcings. The scale of these systems, as measured by bankfull width, ranges over three orders of magnitude from the Amazon River in Brazil to the Palix River in Washington. Channel centerlines are extracted from processed imagery, enabling continuous planform measurements of bankfull width, meander wavelength, and sinuosity. Digital terrain and surface models are used to estimate floodplain slopes. Downstream tidal boundary conditions are obtained from the TOPEX 7.1 global tidal model, while upstream boundary conditions such as basin area, relief, and discharge are obtained by linking the databases of Milliman and Meade (2011) and Syvitski (2005). Backwater

  18. THE ROLE OF THE HYDROLOGICAL FACTOR IN HABITAT DYNAMICS WITHIN THE FLUVIAL CORRIDOR OF DANUBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GH. CLOŢĂ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of the hydrological factor in habitat dynamics within the fluvial corridor of Danube. This paper had explored the connections between river hydrology with its changes and habitat dynamics. The fluvial corridor integrates spatially the channel and parts of its floodplain affected by periodical flooding and could be considered as an ecological corridor because of the size of the hydrosystem. The river and its ecosystems depend on geomorphogenetic and biological function and, thus creating a inter-dependence transposed into a concept, namely the fluvial hydrosystem, proposed firstly by Roux 1982, Amoros 1987. The hydrosystem is an ecological complex system constituted of biotopes and specific biocenoses of stream waters, stagnant water bodies, semi-aquatic, terrestrial ecosystems localized in the space of floodplain modeled directly and indirectly by river’s active force.

  19. Study on the oasis corridor landscape in the arid regions based on RS and GIS methods--application of Jinta Oasis, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The study on the oasis corridor landscape is a new hotspot in the ecological environment research in the arid regions.In oasis, maincorridor landscape types include river, ditch, shelterbelt and road.This paper introduces the basic ecological effects of the corridor landscapeon the transporting mass and energy and obstructing desert landscape expansion and incursion.Using Geographic Information System(GIS), wehave researched the corridor distribution and its spatial relationship with other landscape types in the Jinta Oasis.Based on the dynamicallymonitoring on the landscape pattern change of the Jinta Oasis during the latter 10 years by using Remote Sensing(RS) and GIS, the drivingfunctions of the corridors on this change have been analyzed in detail.The analysis results showed that all kinds of corridors' characteristics canbe quantified by the indexes such as length and width, ratio of perimeter and area, density and non-heterogeneity.The total corridor length ofJinta Oasis is 1838.5 km and its density is 2.1 km/km2 .The corridor density of the irrigation land, forest and resident area is maximal, whichshows that affection degree of the oasis corridors on them is the most.The improvement of the corridors quality is one of the important drivingfactors on the irrigation land and so on.The organic combination of the RS and GIS technologies and landscape research methods would be aneffective means for the corridor landscape research on arid region oasis.

  20. Mean Transit Time as a Predictor of Groundwater Discharge Response in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solder, J. E.; Heilweil, V. M.; Stolp, B. J.; Susong, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Colorado River and its tributaries support 40 million municipal water users and 5.5 million acres of agriculture in the south western United States (U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, 2012). Recent estimates by Rumsey et al. (2015) suggest that a significant portion (about 50 percent) of surface water flow in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) is sustained by groundwater discharge to streams. Predicted climate variation (Cook et al., 2015) and increased water demand (U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, 2012) within the UCRB suggest future decreases in groundwater discharge, however transient groundwater responses are not well understood. In this study we calculate groundwater mean transit time (MTT) and transit time distribution (TTD) as predictors of the pattern and timing of groundwater response to hydraulic stress. Samples from nineteen large springs within the UCRB were analyzed for environmental tracers to determine MTT and TTD. The predictive value of the MTT is examined by a statistical analysis of MTT, historical spring discharge records, and the Palmer Hydrological Drought Index. MTTs of the 19 springs range from 10 to 15,000 years with a flow-weighted average of 1,650 years. The composite TTD of the 19 springs suggest that flowpaths representing 45 percent of their combined discharge have transit times greater than 100 years. However, spring discharge records indicate that flow responds to drought on much shorter (0.5 - 6 year) time scales, indicative of a hydraulic pressure response. Springs with shorter MTTs ( 100) also show a hydraulic pressure response. While not fully representative of the UCRB, results from the 19 springs indicate that groundwater discharge responds to climate variation and water-demand imbalances over a relatively short time period of years.

  1. 78 FR 77550 - Integrated Corridor Management Deployment Planning Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... Federal Highway Administration Integrated Corridor Management Deployment Planning Grants AGENCY: Federal... is extending the application period for the Integrated Corridor Management Deployment Planning Grants... Integrated Corridor Management Deployment Planning Grants. The purpose of this notice was to invite States...

  2. Corridor connecting giant panda habitats from north to south in the Min Mountains, Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kaipu; Xie, Yan; Wu, Ning

    2006-12-01

    The giant panda faces severe threats from habitat fragmentation and isolation. Currently, giant panda populations have been fragmented into 30 habitat patches. The disappearance of isolated small populations and studies on the genetic diversity of various populations have shown that small isolated panda populations are at a high risk of dying out completely. Habitat fragmentation has seriously impaired the ability of the giant panda to resist climate changes and other natural disasters, such as large-scale, synchronous bamboo blooming. The Min Mountains have the largest population of pandas in China, numbering 581 individuals and accounting for 52% of the total (1114) in China. Geographic isolation means that giant pandas in the Min Mountains are divided into two populations (population A in the north and population B in the south). Population B, which had only 42 individuals in 1989, is severely threatened by high-density human populations and the loss of genetic diversity. However, we have identified an important corridor connecting the two populations. This paper explains the importance and the feasibility of reestablishing this corridor. Due to the special geographic locations of these two populations (two rivers block the migration of giant pandas between south and north), the corridor is the only passage for giant pandas in the region. Recent studies have also shown an increase of giant panda activity in the area of the corridor. However, vegetation in the corridor has been severely degraded. Bamboo forest must be restored in this area to provide food for the pandas during migration. The effects of human activities must be reduced in order to maintain panda habitat. We believe that a restored corridor will be of great benefit to the survival of giant pandas in the Min Mountains, especially for population B. Successful re-establishment of a corridor will be a valuable model for corridor construction in the future.

  3. Estimating subsurface water volumes and transit times in Hokkaido river catchments, Japan, using high-accuracy tritium analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusyev, Maksym; Yamazaki, Yusuke; Morgenstern, Uwe; Stewart, Mike; Kashiwaya, Kazuhisa; Hirai, Yasuyuki; Kuribayashi, Daisuke; Sawano, Hisaya

    2015-04-01

    The goal of this study is to estimate subsurface water transit times and volumes in headwater catchments of Hokkaido, Japan, using the New Zealand high-accuracy tritium analysis technique. Transit time provides insights into the subsurface water storage and therefore provides a robust and quick approach to quantifying the subsurface groundwater volume. Our method is based on tritium measurements in river water. Tritium is a component of meteoric water, decays with a half-life of 12.32 years, and is inert in the subsurface after the water enters the groundwater system. Therefore, tritium is ideally suited for characterization of the catchment's responses and can provide information on mean water transit times up to 200 years. Only in recent years has it become possible to use tritium for dating of stream and river water, due to the fading impact of the bomb-tritium from thermo-nuclear weapons testing, and due to improved measurement accuracy for the extremely low natural tritium concentrations. Transit time of the water discharge is one of the most crucial parameters for understanding the response of catchments and estimating subsurface water volume. While many tritium transit time studies have been conducted in New Zealand, only a limited number of tritium studies have been conducted in Japan. In addition, the meteorological, orographic and geological conditions of Hokkaido Island are similar to those in parts of New Zealand, allowing for comparison between these regions. In 2014, three field trips were conducted in Hokkaido in June, July and October to sample river water at river gauging stations operated by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT). These stations have altitudes between 36 m and 860 m MSL and drainage areas between 45 and 377 km2. Each sampled point is located upstream of MLIT dams, with hourly measurements of precipitation and river water levels enabling us to distinguish between the snow melt and baseflow contributions

  4. Long Island Smart Energy Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mui, Ming [Long Island Power Authority, Uniondale, NY (United States)

    2015-02-04

    The Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) has teamed with Stony Brook University (Stony Brook or SBU) and Farmingdale State College (Farmingdale or FSC), two branches of the State University of New York (SUNY), to create a “Smart Energy Corridor.” The project, located along the Route 110 business corridor on Long Island, New York, demonstrated the integration of a suite of Smart Grid technologies from substations to end-use loads. The Smart Energy Corridor Project included the following key features: -TECHNOLOGY: Demonstrated a full range of smart energy technologies, including substations and distribution feeder automation, fiber and radio communications backbone, advanced metering infrastructure (AM”), meter data management (MDM) system (which LIPA implemented outside of this project), field tools automation, customer-level energy management including automated energy management systems, and integration with distributed generation and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. -MARKETING: A rigorous market test that identified customer response to an alternative time-of-use pricing plan and varying levels of information and analytical support. -CYBER SECURITY: Tested cyber security vulnerabilities in Smart Grid hardware, network, and application layers. Developed recommendations for policies, procedures, and technical controls to prevent or foil cyber-attacks and to harden the Smart Grid infrastructure. -RELIABILITY: Leveraged new Smart Grid-enabled data to increase system efficiency and reliability. Developed enhanced load forecasting, phase balancing, and voltage control techniques designed to work hand-in-hand with the Smart Grid technologies. -OUTREACH: Implemented public outreach and educational initiatives that were linked directly to the demonstration of Smart Grid technologies, tools, techniques, and system configurations. This included creation of full-scale operating models demonstrating application of Smart Grid technologies in business and residential

  5. River stage influences on uranium transport in a hydrologically dynamic groundwater-surface water transition zone: U TRANSPORT IN A GROUNDWATER-SURFACE WATER TRANSITION ZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachara, John M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Chen, Xingyuan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Murray, Chris [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Hammond, Glenn [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque New Mexico USA

    2016-03-01

    A tightly spaced well-field within a groundwater uranium (U) plume in the groundwater-surface water transition zone was monitored for a three year period for groundwater elevation and dissolved solutes. The plume discharges to the Columbia River, which displays a dramatic spring stage surge resulting from mountain snowmelt. Groundwater exhibits a low hydrologic gradient and chemical differences with river water. River water intrudes the site in spring. Specific aims were to assess the impacts of river intrusion on dissolved uranium (Uaq), specific conductance (SpC), and other solutes, and to discriminate between transport, geochemical, and source term heterogeneity effects. Time series trends for Uaq and SpC were complex and displayed large temporal well-to well variability as a result of water table elevation fluctuations, river water intrusion, and changes in groundwater flow directions. The wells were clustered into subsets exhibiting common temporal behaviors resulting from the intrusion dynamics of river water and the location of source terms. Concentration hot spots were observed in groundwater that varied in location with increasing water table elevation. Heuristic reactive transport modeling with PFLOTRAN demonstrated that mobilized U was transported between wells and source terms in complex trajectories, and was diluted as river water entered and exited the groundwater system. While uranium time-series concentration trends varied significantly from year to year as a result of climate-caused differences in the spring hydrograph, common and partly predictable response patterns were observed that were driven by water table elevation, and the extent and duration of the river water intrusion event.

  6. Potential negative ecological effects of corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Nick M; Brudvig, Lars A; Damschen, Ellen I; Evans, Daniel M; Johnson, Brenda L; Levey, Douglas J; Orrock, John L; Resasco, Julian; Sullivan, Lauren L; Tewksbury, Josh J; Wagner, Stephanie A; Weldon, Aimee J

    2014-10-01

    Despite many studies showing that landscape corridors increase dispersal and species richness for disparate taxa, concerns persist that corridors can have unintended negative effects. In particular, some of the same mechanisms that underlie positive effects of corridors on species of conservation interest may also increase the spread and impact of antagonistic species (e.g., predators and pathogens), foster negative effects of edges, increase invasion by exotic species, increase the spread of unwanted disturbances such as fire, or increase population synchrony and thus reduce persistence. We conducted a literature review and meta-analysis to evaluate the prevalence of each of these negative effects. We found no evidence that corridors increase unwanted disturbance or non-native species invasion; however, these have not been well-studied concerns (1 and 6 studies, respectively). Other effects of corridors were more often studied and yielded inconsistent results; mean effect sizes were indistinguishable from zero. The effect of edges on abundances of target species was as likely to be positive as negative. Corridors were as likely to have no effect on antagonists or population synchrony as they were to increase those negative effects. We found 3 deficiencies in the literature. First, despite studies on how corridors affect predators, there are few studies of related consequences for prey population size and persistence. Second, properly designed studies of negative corridor effects are needed in natural corridors at scales larger than those achievable in experimental systems. Third, studies are needed to test more targeted hypotheses about when corridor-mediated effects on invasive species or disturbance may be negative for species of management concern. Overall, we found no overarching support for concerns that construction and maintenance of habitat corridors may result in unintended negative consequences. Negative edge effects may be mitigated by widening

  7. Environmental Risk of Metal Mining Contaminated River Bank Sediment at Redox-Transitional Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah F. L. Lynch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse metal pollution from mining impacted sediment is widely recognised as a potential source of contamination to river systems and may significantly hinder the achievement of European Union Water Framework Directive objectives. Redox-transitional zones that form along metal contaminated river banks as a result of flood and drought cycles could cause biogeochemical changes that alter the behaviour of polyvalent metals iron and manganese and anions such as sulphur. Trace metals are often partitioned with iron, manganese and sulphur minerals in mining-contaminated sediment, therefore the dissolution and precipitation of these minerals may influence the mobility of potentially toxic trace metals. Research indicates that freshly precipitated metal oxides and sulphides may be more “reactive” (more adsorbent and prone to dissolution when conditions change than older crystalline forms. Fluctuations at the oxic-anoxic interface brought about through changes in the frequency and duration of flood and drought episodes may therefore influence the reactivity of secondary minerals that form in the sediment and the flux of dissolved trace metal release. UK climate change models predict longer dry periods for some regions, interspersed with higher magnitude flood events. If we are to fully comprehend the future environmental risk these climate change events pose to mining impacted river systems it is recommended that research efforts focus on identifying the primary controls on trace metal release at the oxic-anoxic interface for flood and drought cycles of different duration and frequency. This paper critically reviews the literature regarding biogeochemical processes that occur at different temporal scales during oxic, reducing and dry periods and focuses on how iron and sulphur based minerals may alter in form and reactivity and influence the mobility of trace metal contaminants. It is clear that changes in redox potential can alter the composition

  8. Estimation of Catchment Transit Time in Fuji River Basin by using an improved Tank model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenchao, M.; Yamanaka, T.; Wakiyama, Y.; Wang, P.

    2013-12-01

    As an important parameter that reflects the characteristics of catchments, the catchment transit time (CTT) has been given much more widely attentions especially in recent years. The CTT is defined as the time water spends travelling through a catchment to the stream network [1], and it describes how catchments retain and release water and solutes and thus control geochemical and biogeochemical cycling and contamination persistence [2]. The objectives of the present study are to develop a new approach for estimating CTT without prior information on such TTD functions and to apply it to the Fuji River basin in the Central Japan Alps Region. In this study, an improved Tank model was used to compute mean CTT and TTD functions simultaneously. It involved water fluxes and isotope mass balance. Water storage capacity in the catchment, which strongly affects CTT, is reflected in isotope mass balance more sensitively than in water fluxes. A model calibrated with observed discharge and isotope data is used for virtual age tracer computation to estimate CTT. This model does not only consider the hydrological data and physical process of the research area but also reflects the actual TTD with considering the geological condition, land use and the other catchment-hydrological conditions. For the calibration of the model, we used river discharge record obtained by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transportation, and are collecting isotope data of precipitation and river waters monthly or semi-weekly. Three sub-catchments (SC1~SC3) in the Fuji River basin was selected to test the model with five layers: the surface layer, upper-soil layer, lower-soil layer, groundwater aquifer layer and bedrock layer (Layer 1- Layer 5). The evaluation of the model output was assessed using Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), root mean square error-observations standard deviation ratio (RSR), and percent bias (PBIAS). Using long time-series of discharge records for calibration, the simulated

  9. Use of glacier river-fed estuary channels by juvenile coho salmon: transitional or rearing habitats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoem Neher, Tammy D.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Walker, Coowe M.; Baird, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Estuaries are among the most productive ecosystems in the world and provide important rearing environments for a variety of fish species. Though generally considered important transitional habitats for smolting salmon, little is known about the role that estuaries serve for rearing and the environmental conditions important for salmon. We illustrate how juvenile coho salmonOncorhynchus kisutch use a glacial river-fed estuary based on examination of spatial and seasonal variability in patterns of abundance, fish size, age structure, condition, and local habitat use. Fish abundance was greater in deeper channels with cooler and less variable temperatures, and these habitats were consistently occupied throughout the season. Variability in channel depth and water temperature was negatively associated with fish abundance. Fish size was negatively related to site distance from the upper extent of the tidal influence, while fish condition did not relate to channel location within the estuary ecotone. Our work demonstrates the potential this glacially-fed estuary serves as both transitional and rearing habitat for juvenile coho salmon during smolt emigration to the ocean, and patterns of fish distribution within the estuary correspond to environmental conditions.

  10. 2009 Oregon Parks and Recreation Department Lidar: Columbia River

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set represents the lidar elevations along the Columbia River corridor in Oregon, including portions of the following counties: Gilliam, Hood River,...

  11. 2009 Oregon Parks and Recreation Department Lidar: Columbia River

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set represents the lidar elevations along the Columbia River corridor in Oregon, including portions of the following counties: Gilliam, Hood River,...

  12. "FluvialCorridor": A new ArcGIS toolbox package for multiscale riverscape exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Clément; Alber, Adrien; Bertrand, Mélanie; Vaudor, Lise; Piégay, Hervé

    2015-08-01

    Both for scientists and river basin managers, development of automated geographic information system (GIS) tools is essential today to characterize riverscapes and explore biogeomorphologic processes over large channel networks. Since the 1990s, GIS toolboxes and add-in programs have been used to characterize catchments. However, there is currently no equivalent to a planimetric and longitudinal characterization of fluvial corridor networks at multiple scales. This paper describes FluvialCorridor, a new GIS toolbox. This package allows the user: (i) to extract a large set of riverscape features such as the main components of fluvial corridors from DEM and vector layers (e.g. stream network or valley bottom), and (ii) to aggregate spatial features into homogeneous segments and metrics characterizing each of them. The methodological frameworks involved have been previously described by Alber and Piégay (2011), Leviandier et al. (2012) and Bertrand et al. (2013) and this contribution focuses on the GIS tools allowing the user to automatically operate them. A case study on the Drôme River (France) is provided to illustrate the potential of the package both for geomorphologic understanding and target management actions. FluvialCorridor has been developed for ArcGIS with the related native Python library named ArcPy and tested on ArcGIS 10.0 and 10.1. Obviously, each component of the package can be used separately; however, it also provides a complete workflow for fluvial corridor characterization, even as the toolbox is continually under development and revision. Case study database, FluvialCorridor package and guidelines are available online at http://umrevs-isig.fr.

  13. Siliguri: A Geopolitical Manoeuvre Corridor in the Eastern Himalayan Region for China and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Yaser Malik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Siliguri Corridor being part of Indian West Bengal is a diplomatic manoeuvre place located between Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, India’s Seven Sister States and Chumbi Hills in the Eastern Himalayan Region. Being located at the crossroads and centrally situated between all the neighbouring countries the landlocked Siliguri has an especially economic and political value for the regional countries. The corridor being in close proximity to China and India’s Seven Sister States has added to the diplomatic mosaic of the Eastern Himalayan Region. The region consists of beautiful landscape, mountains and rivers which not only add to topographical diversity but also demographic mixture. Despite its geopolitical significance the area could not advance for not only being a northeastern border region but also for being a gateway to the Seven Sister States. Peripheral development of Siliguri Corridor is one of the reasons for illegal practices like smuggling and terrorism. In year 2002 Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh discussed a proposal to form a free trade corridor to simplify the goods transportation through Siliguri Corridor but no such pact could be concluded that would have avoided the activities like smuggling and terrorism mainly through economic and diplomatic ventures.

  14. VT Electric Transmission Line Corridors - substation points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The ELTRN layer depicts electric transmission line corridors in Vermont. Various methods have been used to digitize features. The data layer...

  15. Regional Ecological Corridors - MLCCS derived 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Identification of potential ecological corridors between the MLCCS derived ecological patches (ear_eco08py3). This was generated using cost / distance analysis,...

  16. On the regional cooperation mechanism of Huaihe River Eco-economic Corridor%构建淮河生态经济走廊区域合作机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡相峰; 余英杰; 尚正永

    2015-01-01

    目前,苏皖豫3省在携手谋划和积极实施“淮河生态经济走廊”发展战略,并力争将此战略上升为国家战略。重点研究了淮河生态经济走廊区域合作机制及协同发展的理论和现实意义。在此基础上,分析了国内外区域合作机制的类型、案例与经验,提出了建立区域合作的超前诱导机制、目标原则机制、发展动力机制、政府协同机制、对话沟通机制、利益分享机制和生态补偿机制,并提出相应的政策建议。%At present,Jiangsu,Anhui and Henan Provinces are working together to plan the Huaihe Eco-economic Corridor development strategy,and actively promote this strategy as a national strategy.In this paper,the theoreti-cal and practical significance for the regional cooperation mechanism and the coordinated development of that are re-searched implemented.Based on this,it is analyzed the types,cases and experiences of regional cooperation mecha-nism in China and abroad.Then,some mechanisms are proposed such as leading induced mechanism,goal principle mechanism,dynamic mechanism of the development,government collaborative dialogue mechanism,communication mechanism,interests sharing mechanism and ecological compensation mechanism.At last,the corresponding policy recommendations are put forward.

  17. PRECIPITATION, A PRESENT-DAY MODELLING FACTOR IN THE ORĂŞTIE CORRIDOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CĂTĂLINA MĂRCULEŢ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This Corridor, which extends between the confluence of the Mureş River and its tributaries Sebeş and the Strei, is subjected to vast modelling processes (rain-induced weathering, surface erosion, gullying, torrential activity and landsliding, triggered largely by precipitation. Annual mean values are over 500 mm; however, maximum precipitation/24 hrs of up to 75 mm have the greatest impact. Slope processes are enhanced with precipitation of over 10 mm / day, more frequently occurring from June through to September. The analysis of the Fournier Index (an indicator of rain-induced erosion has revealed that maximum values were recorded by the Sebeş and Deva weather station in June and July. Large quantities of torrential and lasting precipitation are a frequent occurrence also during transitional seasons, having the same detrimental effects, mostly in spring when harvested soils are already moist from snowmelt. Whenever heavy rains fall after long periods of dryness, the soil is severely impaired by raininduced denudation, especially on slopes cultivated with hoeing plants.

  18. China-Pakistan Economic Corridor.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, Tucker [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    International trade and related economic activities in Central and South Asia are increasing as developing economies, particularly India and Pakistan, grow. China continues to emerge as a major regional and global power and has embarked upon numerous regional economic and political initiatives . A major development is the China - Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), a host of infrastructure and trade projects worth over 40 billion American dollars . This report analyzes CPEC a nd its potential regional effects, including the trade security implications of the port and land infrastructure developments . As trade increase s in the reg ion and the major CPEC infrastructure projects are completed, there will be numerous implications on trade security and geopolitics within South Asia. CPEC projects uniquely intersect numerous regional situations, including territorial disputes in Kashmir, the Afghanistan/Pakistan border, and Chinese foreign policy a mbitions. A nuanced understanding of these effects can influence future policy adjustments in this region . The views expressed in this report are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the position of Sandia National Laboratories or the author's current and past institutions.

  19. Forest edges associated with power-line corridors and implications for corridor siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luken, J.O.; Hinton, A.C.; Baker, D.G. (Northern Kentucky Univ., Highland Heights, KY (USA))

    1991-07-01

    In addition to the effects of power-lines on the visual perceptions of urban landscapes, planners and designers need to consider ecological factors and long-term maintenance costs when siting new corridors in forested areas. A survey of 20 corridors in the forests of Northern Kentucky revealed higher mean density and basal area of tree seedlings and saplings in forest edges adjacent to power-line corridors. Some edges also showed distinct community shifts entailing increased importance of shade intolerant tree species. In forests already fragmented by development activities, the presence of a single power-line corridor may render forest patches unsuitable for plant and animal species requiring large forest interior habitats. To avoid this, corridors can be sited in non-forested areas, along existing corridors, along the edges of existing forest patches, or in forest patches that at present lack viable interiors. Applying these recommendations to new corridor projects will stop further forest fragmentation and minimize long-term line maintenance costs, but may also degrade visual perceptions of urban landscapes. Where visual perception is a common facet of land use, corridors may be camouflaged or hidden in forests to reduce visual impact. 5 figs., 2 tabs., 27 refs.

  20. A comparison of particle-tracking and solute transport methods for simulation of tritium concentrations and groundwater transit times in river water

    OpenAIRE

    Gusyev, M. A.; D. Abrams; Toews, M. W.; U. Morgenstern; M. K. Stewart

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to simulate tritium concentrations and groundwater transit times in river water with particle-tracking (MODPATH) and compare them to solute transport (MT3DMS) simulations. Tritium measurements in river water are valuable for the calibration of particle-tracking and solute transport models as well as for understanding of watershed storage dynamics. In a previous study, we simulated tritium concentrations in river water of the western Lake Taupo...

  1. Large-Scale Habitat Corridors for Biodiversity Conservation: A Forest Corridor in Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanjona Ramiadantsoa

    Full Text Available In biodiversity conservation, habitat corridors are assumed to increase landscape-level connectivity and to enhance the viability of otherwise isolated populations. While the role of corridors is supported by empirical evidence, studies have typically been conducted at small spatial scales. Here, we assess the quality and the functionality of a large 95-km long forest corridor connecting two large national parks (416 and 311 km2 in the southeastern escarpment of Madagascar. We analyze the occurrence of 300 species in 5 taxonomic groups in the parks and in the corridor, and combine high-resolution forest cover data with a simulation model to examine various scenarios of corridor destruction. At present, the corridor contains essentially the same communities as the national parks, reflecting its breadth which on average matches that of the parks. In the simulation model, we consider three types of dispersers: passive dispersers, which settle randomly around the source population; active dispersers, which settle only in favorable habitat; and gap-avoiding active dispersers, which avoid dispersing across non-habitat. Our results suggest that long-distance passive dispersers are most sensitive to ongoing degradation of the corridor, because increasing numbers of propagules are lost outside the forest habitat. For a wide range of dispersal parameters, the national parks are large enough to sustain stable populations until the corridor becomes severely broken, which will happen around 2065 if the current rate of forest loss continues. A significant decrease in gene flow along the corridor is expected after 2040, and this will exacerbate the adverse consequences of isolation. Our results demonstrate that simulation studies assessing the role of habitat corridors should pay close attention to the mode of dispersal and the effects of regional stochasticity.

  2. Thick-skinned tectonics closing the Rifian Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capella, Walter; Matenco, Liviu; Dmitrieva, Evelina; Roest, Wilmer M. J.; Hessels, Suzanne; Hssain, Mohamed; Chakor-Alami, Abdelwahid; Sierro, Francisco J.; Krijgsman, Wout

    2017-07-01

    Tectonic processes in the Gibraltar region are associated with Africa-Iberia convergence and the formation of the Betic-Rif orogenic system. The Late Miocene shortening recorded in the Rif orogen resulted in gradual shallowing and eventual closure of the Rifian Corridor, a narrow marine gateway connecting the Atlantic Ocean with the Mediterranean Sea. This closure is associated with paleoenvironmental changes that ultimately led to the Mediterranean Messinian Salinity Crisis. Here we present a structural analysis based on a combination of field kinematic data and interpretation of reflection seismic lines acquired for petroleum exploration to understand the deformational phases associated with the closure of the Rifian Corridor. We show the succession of three Late Miocene to present day events, an initial thin-skinned nappe thrusting, followed by regional subsidence and continued by thick-skinned contraction. The transition from in sequence thin-skinned tectonics during subduction to thick-skinned contraction during continental collision resulted in significant acceleration of tectonic uplift and associated exhumation. This is related to a change in the regional deformation linked to plate convergence, but possibly also coupled with deep lithospheric or dynamic topography processes. Such a mechanism is also common for other Mediterranean orogens during late stages of slab retreat, where accelerated tectonics resulted in rapid sedimentation and associated basins evolution. We conclude that the thick-skinned contraction in the Rif orogeny initiated in the late Tortonian, has created a cumulative uplift in the order of 1 km, and provided high enough uplift rates to close the Rifian Corridor.

  3. Modeling river dune development and dune transition to upper stage plane bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naqshband, S.; Duin, van O.J.M.; Ribberink, J.S.; Hulscher, S.J.M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Large asymmetric bedforms known as dunes commonly dominate the bed of sand rivers. Due to the turbulence generation over their stoss and lee sides, dunes are of central importance in predicting hydraulic roughness and water levels. During floods in steep alluvial rivers, dunes are observed to grow r

  4. 78 FR 65751 - Integrated Corridor Management Deployment Planning Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... Federal Highway Administration Integrated Corridor Management Deployment Planning Grants AGENCY: Federal... States, Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPO), and local governments that intend to initiate or continue Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) development with their partners, such as arterial management...

  5. Hacia directrices y conceptos de diseño de vialidad sustentable: el caso del corredor fluvial del río Mapocho ─sección occidental─ y su entorno. / Guidelines and concepts to design sustainable transportation: the western section of the corridor of the Mapocho River and its environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Patricia Henríquez Orellana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se explora un polígono donde existe un potencial de desarrollo sostenible conteniendo el tramo poniente del río Mapocho, posible de constituirse en un corredor fluvial recreacional y de transporte como uno de los elementos estructuradores metropolitanos. Se trata del uso del espacio corredor del río Mapocho y su entorno inmediato para la integración urbana-regional. La investigación FONDECYT 1090199 – 2009/2010 planteó que resolver la conformación de éste corredor requiere un fortalecimiento integral de la vialidad que mejore la accesibilidad, conectividad y conexidad del corredor, potenciando un sistema vial asociado al río, pero no perturbador del río; diversificado y articulador de actividades pertinentes junto y eventualmente sobre el territorio de la movilidad fluvial; que conecte los asentamientos de borde, contribuya a la producción de espacio público para la recreación y esparcimiento tranquilo de los habitantes, y conjuntamente en las áreas rurales facilite la coexistencia con la actividad agraria y campesina. Esto permitiría la integración plena del río a la vida metropolitana y periurbana de Santiago. Dicha acción requiere ser abordada desde un ordenamiento territorial ambientalmente sustentable y no sólo desde la ingeniería./The western section of the Mapocho river is an especial area for a future sustainable development. The author essay the possibility of this section as a recreational and transportation corridor that could be also a integration node for de city and the region.

  6. Corridor of Jilin Province to the Sea and Its Development Strategy%吉林省“出海”通道及其开发战略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁四保

    2000-01-01

    Jilin Province is a hinterland province. The distance to the sea port is a cost of the province economy.In fact, some years ago there was a terrible barrier on the corridor to the sea ports of Liaoning and Hebeiprovinces. The province had to find border cross, such as Turen River (Hunchun) and the inland-river, cross(Daan Port). Much investment has been inputted, but the cargo flow of export is fewer and fewer. The reasonis the volume of export is fewer and fewer. The reason is the volume of export corn produced in the province hasbeen limited. So we can see a contradictory between the economic (productive) structure and the demand of de-velopment of foreign trade of the province. It correctly views that the corridor to the sea is a very important issueof “open to outside” and the territorial structure of economy of province as Jilin. The paper pointed out anotherissues about the industry structure of the province, Showed the current situation of corridor and the transit costsbetween vary lines has been comparied, the paper presented the conclusion and analysed what elements under-mined and discussed the strategy mentioned industry development and construction or improvement of transportcorridor of Jilin Province.%出海”通道对于吉林省来说是经济对外开放和经济地域布局的重要因素。文章描述了“出海”通道的现状,对不同通道做了运输成本的比较分析,提出通道“闲置”的结论并阐述了其深层次原因,在此基础上讨论了通道与省区产业开发的战略。

  7. Fragmentation of Araucaria Forests in the Chapecó Ecological Corridor, Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Garcia Alarcon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, only 2% of the Araucaria forest remains, and less than 1% of this forest is protected (as conservation units. In Santa Catarina, the Chapecó River sub-basin was evaluated for the creation of a state ecological corridor. Studies were developed within the Microbacias 2 Project between 2007 and 2009. Landscape metrics provided important data for evaluating the conservation status of the forest remnants for the zoning of the corridor. The Chapecó Ecological Corridor encompasses around 5,000km²; 50.5% of this area comprises remnants of natural ecosystems and 42.7% is used by agricultural activities. Fifteen fragments, which are each larger than 500ha, are Araucaria forests that contain elements of Floresta Estacional Decidual. Of the 83 watersheds studied in permanent preservation areas, 20.5% has more than 60% vegetation cover and 57.5% has between 10% and 30% vegetation cover. It is estimated that the sub-basin has 111,000km2 of forest on private properties, along with remnants in three conservation units and three indigenous areas. The forests of the Chapecó Ecological Corridor represent the last fragments of continuous Araucaria forest in western Santa Catarina.

  8. Main water disasters and hydrogeological mechanism in Kunlun mountain- Qingshui river section of Qinghai -Tibet engineering corridor%青藏工程走廊昆仑山口-清水河段主要水害问题及水文地质机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范基姣; 李胜涛; 张森琦; 王秀明; 李戎

    2012-01-01

    通过野外实地调查发现,青藏工程走廊昆仑山口-清水河段发育的主要水害包括:地表水及地下水受人工拦挡,当排水措施不畅时产生路基积水,由于水的热交换作用使基底附近地下冰融化,导致路基下沉引起的水害;密集上升泉使冻胀-融陷地质作用强烈,冻土融沉及冻胀引起路基塌陷变形及翻浆冒泥引发病害;修筑公路取土坑密布地段,路基一侧或两侧地面积水引起水害;地下水强径流带与地下水浅藏带由于水位变化引起水害;河流冲刷、岸坡侵蚀导致的岸坡后退水害。%Through the field survey, it is found that the main water disasters in Kunlun mountain-Qingshui river section of Qinghai-Tibet engineering corridor include: The surface water and groundwater are artificially obstructed, when the drainage measures are inappropriate the ponding in the road bed occurs, then the underground ice thaws because of the water heat change effect which causes the roadbed subsidence. At the places where the ascending springs are dense and the frost heaving-thawing settlement is intense, the permafrost thaw causes the roadbed subsidence and deformation and the frost heaving causes the road boiling. At the places where the pits locate along the road densely, the ponding at one side or both sides of the embankment occurs. Water disasters caused by water levels change in the areas with the strong groundwater runoff and the shallow groundwater. The river water scour and the bank erosion cause the bank recession.

  9. Mineralization pathways of organic matter deposited in a river-lake transition of the Rhone River Delta, Lake Geneva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randlett, Marie-Eve; Sollberger, Sebastien; Del Sontro, Tonya; Müller, Beat; Corella, Juan Pablo; Wehrli, Bernhard; Schubert, Carsten J

    2015-02-01

    During the éLEMO endeavour (a research project in which the Russian MIR submersibles were used for studying Lake Geneva) four sediment cores were retrieved on a transect from the delta of the Rhone River towards the profundal part of the lake. The degradation pathways of organic material (OM) were investigated considering different electron acceptors. Essentially, OM at the delta sites had a higher fraction of terrestrial material than the lake sites indicated by higher C/N ratios, and higher long-chain n-alkane and alcohol concentrations. The concentrations of chlorins were higher at the distant sites indicating more easily degradable OM in the sediments. However, the chlorin index that was used to determine the degradation state of the OM material indicated that pigment derived OM of deltaic sediments was less degraded than that of the profundal sediments. The fluxes of reduced species from the sediments decreased from the delta to the profundal for CH4 (from 2.3 to 0.5 mmol m(-2) d(-1)) and NH4(+) (from 0.31 to 0.13 mmol m(-2) d(-1)). Fluxes of Fe(ii) and Mn(ii), however, increased although they were generally very low (between 9 × 10(-5) and 7.6 × 10(-3) mmol m(-2) d(-1)). Oxygen concentration profiles in the pore waters revealed lower fluxes close to the river inflow with 4.3 and 4.1 mmol m(-2) d(-1) compared to two times higher fluxes at the profundal sites (8.8 and 8.2 mmol m(-2) d(-1)). The rates for totally mineralized OM (Rtotal) at the shallower sites (4.7 mmol C m(-2) d(-1)) were only half of those of the deeper sites (9.7 mmol C m(-2) d(-1)). Accordingly, not only the rates but also the mineralization pathways differed between the shallow and profundal sites. Whereas only 0-6% of the OM was mineralized aerobically at the shallow sites (since almost all O2 was used to oxidize the large flux of CH4 from below) the situation was reversed at the deeper sites and the fraction of aerobically degraded OM was 72-78%. We found a better efficiency in CH4

  10. Identifying ecological corridors for Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) and Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquelle, Dale G; Rozhnov, Vyachaslav V; Ermoshin, Victor; Murzin, Andre A; Nikolaev, Igor G; Hernandez-Blanco, Jose A; Naidenko, Sergie V

    2015-07-01

    The rapid explosion of human populations and the associated development of human-dominated landscapes have drastically reduced and fragmented habitat for tigers (Panthera tigris) and leopards (Panthera pardus) across Asia, resulting in multiple small populations. However, Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) habitat in Russia has remained largely interconnected, except for a break between tigers in southwest Primorye and the southern Sikhote-Alin Mountains. This habitat patch in southwest Primorye also retains the last population of Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis). Genetic differentiation of tigers in southwest Primorye and the Sikhote-Alin Mountains along with survey data suggest that habitat fragmentation is limiting movement of tigers and leopards across the Razdolnaya River basin. We looked at historical and recent survey data on tigers and leopards and mapped existing cover types to examine land-use patterns of both large felids and humans in the development strip along the Razdolnaya River. We then used least-cost distance analyses to identify the most effective potential corridor to retain connectivity for large felids between Land of the Leopard National Park and Ussuriskii Zapovednik (Reserve). We identified a single potential corridor that still exists with a total distance of 62.5 km from Land of the Leopard National Park to Ussuriskii Zapovednik, mostly (93%) through forested habitat. We recommend formal recognition of a Razdolnaya ecological corridor and provide specific recommendations for each of 3 proposed management sections.

  11. Modeling flow and sediment transport dynamics in the lowermost Mississippi River, Louisiana, USA, with an upstream alluvial-bedrock transition and a downstream bedrock-alluvial transition: Implications for land building using engineered diversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viparelli, Enrica; Nittrouer, Jeffrey A.; Parker, Gary

    2015-03-01

    The lowermost Mississippi River, defined herein as the river segment downstream of the Old River Control Structure and hydrodynamically influenced by the Gulf of Mexico, extends for approximately 500 km. This segment includes a bedrock (or more precisely, mixed bedrock-alluvial) reach that is bounded by an upstream alluvial-bedrock transition and a downstream bedrock-alluvial transition. Here we present a one-dimensional mathematical formulation for the long-term evolution of lowland rivers that is able to reproduce the morphodynamics of both the alluvial-bedrock and the bedrock-alluvial transitions. Model results show that the magnitude of the alluvial equilibrium bed slope relative to the bedrock surface slope and the depth of bedrock surface relative to the water surface base level strongly influence the mobile bed equilibrium of low-sloping river channels. Using data from the lowermost Mississippi River, the model is zeroed and validated at field scale by comparing the numerical results with field measurements. The model is then applied to predict the influence on the stability of channel bed elevation in response to delta restoration projects. In particular, the response of the river bed to the implementation of two examples of land-building diversions to extract water and sediment from the main channel is studied. In this regard, our model results show that engineered land-building diversions along the lowermost Mississippi River are capable of producing equilibrated bed profiles with only modest shoaling or erosion, and therefore, such diversions are a sustainable strategy for mitigating land loss within the Mississippi River Delta.

  12. A Geophysical Characterization & Monitoring Strategy for Determining Hydrologic Processes in the Hyporheic Corridor at the Hanford 300-Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slater, Lee; Day-Lewis, Frederick; Lane, John; Versteeg, Roelof; Ward, Anderson; Binley, Andrew; Johnson, Timothy; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios

    2011-08-31

    The primary objective of this research was to advance the prediction of solute transport between the Uranium contaminated Hanford aquifer and the Columbia River at the Hanford 300 Area by improving understanding of how fluctuations in river stage, combined with subsurface heterogeneity, impart spatiotemporal complexity to solute exchange along the Columbia River corridor. Our work explored the use of continuous waterborne electrical imaging (CWEI), in conjunction with fiber-optic distributed temperature sensor (FO-DTS) and time-lapse resistivity monitoring, to improve the conceptual model for how groundwater/surface water exchange regulates uranium transport. We also investigated how resistivity and induced polarization can be used to generate spatially rich estimates of the variation in depth to the Hanford-Ringold (H-R) contact between the river and the 300 Area Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site. Inversion of the CWEI datasets (a data rich survey containing {approx}60,000 measurements) provided predictions of the distributions of electrical resistivity and polarizability, from which the spatial complexity of the primary hydrogeologic units along the river corridor was reconstructed. Variation in the depth to the interface between the overlying coarse-grained, high permeability Hanford Formation and the underlying finer-grained, less permeable Ringold Formation, an important contact that limits vertical migration of contaminants, has been resolved along {approx}3 km of the river corridor centered on the IFRC site in the Hanford 300 Area. Spatial variability in the thickness of the Hanford Formation captured in the CWEI datasets indicates that previous studies based on borehole projections and drive-point and multi-level sampling likely overestimate the contributing area for uranium exchange within the Columbia River at the Hanford 300 Area. Resistivity and induced polarization imaging between the river and the 300 Area IFRC further imaged spatial

  13. Isotopic evidence for the spatial heterogeneity of the planktonic food webs in the transition zone between river and lake ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Hideyuki; Zuykova, Elena I; Shikano, Shuichi; Kikuchi, Eisuke; Ota, Hiroshi; Yurlova, Natalia I; Yadrenkina, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Resources and organisms in food webs are distributed patchily. The spatial structure of food webs is important and critical to understanding their overall structure. However, there is little available information about the small-scale spatial structure of food webs. We investigated the spatial structure of food webs in a lake ecosystem at the littoral transition zone between an inflowing river and a lake. We measured the carbon isotope ratios of zooplankton and particulate organic matter (POM; predominantly phytoplankton) in the littoral zone of a saline lake. Parallel changes in the δ (13)C values of zooplankton and their respective POMs indicated that there is spatial heterogeneity of the food web in this study area. Lake ecosystems are usually classified at the landscape level as either pelagic or littoral habitats. However, we showed small-scale spatial heterogeneity among planktonic food webs along an environmental gradient. Stable isotope data is useful for detecting spatial heterogeneity of habitats, populations, communities, and ecosystems.

  14. Complexity Analysis of Traffic in Corridors-in-the-Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Min; Zelinski, Shannon Jean

    2010-01-01

    The corridors-in-the-sky concept imitates the highway system in ground transportation. The benefit expected from a corridor relies on its capability of handling high density traffic with negligible controller workload, the acceptance of extra fuel or distance, and the complexity reduction in underlying sectors. This work evaluates a selected corridor from these perspectives through simulations. To examine traffic inside the corridor, a corridor traffic simulation tool that can resolve conflicts is developed using C language. Prescribed conflict resolution maneuvers mimic corridor users behaviors and conflict resolution counts measure complexity. Different lane options and operational policies are proposed to examine their impacts on complexity. Fuel consumption is calculated and compared for corridor traffic. On the other hand, to investigate the complexity of non-corridor traffic in underlying sectors, the existing Airspace Concept Evaluation System tool is utilized along with the Automated Airspace Concept tool. The number of conflict resolutions is examined and treated as the complexity measurement. The results show heavy traffic can be managed with low complexity for a historical traffic schedule simulated with appropriate operational policies and lane options. For instance, with 608 flights and peak aircraft count of 100, only 84 actions need to be taken in a 24-hour period to resolve the conflicts for an 8-lane corridor. Compared with the fuel consumptions with great circle trajectories, the simulation of corridor traffic shows that the total extra fuel for corridor flights is 26,373 gallons, or 2.76%, which is 0.38% less than flying filed flight plans. Without taking climb and descent portions of corridor traffic, the complexity of underlying sectors is reduced by 17.71%. However the climb and descent portions will eliminate the reduction and the overall complexity of sectors is actually increased by 9.14%.

  15. KPI Building Blocks For Successful Green Transport Corridor Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prause Gunnar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The green transport corridor concept represents a cornerstone in the development of integrated and sustainable transport solutions. Important properties of green corridors are their transnational character and their high involvement of large numbers of public and private stakeholders, including political level, requiring sophisticated approaches for implementation, management and governance. The current scientific discussion focusses on Key Performance Indicators (KPI for monitoring and management of green transport corridor performance emphasizing the operational aspects.

  16. 2005 River Corridor Cleanup Contractor Revegetation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. L. Johnson

    2005-09-12

    This report contains a compilation of the results of vegetation monitoring data that were collected in the spring and summer of 2005 for the Environmental Restoration Contractor's revegetation and mitigation areas on the Hanford Site.

  17. 2009 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. T. Lindsey; K. A. Gano; R. D. Teel

    2009-09-30

    This document details the results of revegetation and mitigation monitoring conducted in 2009, including 25 revegetation/restoration projects, one revegetation/mitigation project, and three bat mitigation projects.

  18. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Presence in the Columbia River Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. M. Hermann

    2007-09-06

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) is required by Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 regulations to develop a conceptual understanding of potential contaminant releases from the Hanford Site based on an evaluation of existing data and known historical practices. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one environmental contaminant potentially released through leaks, spills, or disposal. This document presents a summary of selected relevant existing information, including environmental studies and Hanford Site analytical data.

  19. 2008 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. T. Lindsey; K. A. Gano

    2008-09-30

    The purpose of this report is to document the status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts that have been conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. This report documents the results of revegetation and mitigation monitoring conducted in 2008 and includes 22 revegetation/restoration projects, one revegetation/mitigation project, and two bat habitat mitigation projects.

  20. 2006 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. L. Johnson; K. A. Gano

    2006-10-03

    The purpose of this report is to document the status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts that have been conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. One of the objectives of restoration is the revegetation of remediated waste sites to stabilize the soil and restore the land to native vegetation. The report documents the results of revegetation and mitigation monitoring conducted in 2006 and includes 11 revegetation/restoration projects, one revegetation/mitigation project, and 2 bat habitat mitigation projects.

  1. 2007 River Corridor Closure Contractor Revegetation and Mitigation Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. A. Gano; C. T. Lindsey

    2007-09-27

    The purpose of this report is to document the status of revegetation projects and natural resources mitigation efforts that have been conducted for remediated waste sites and other activities associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) cleanup of National Priorities List waste sites at Hanford. This report documents the results of revegetation and mitigation monitoring conducted in 2007 and includes 11 revegetation/restoration projects, one revegetation/mitigation project, and 3 bat habitat mitigation projects.

  2. A comparison of particle-tracking and solute transport methods for simulation of tritium concentrations and groundwater transit times in river water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusyev, M. A.; Abrams, D.; Toews, M. W.; Morgenstern, U.; Stewart, M. K.

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to simulate tritium concentrations and groundwater transit times in river water with particle-tracking (MODPATH) and compare them to solute transport (MT3DMS) simulations. Tritium measurements in river water are valuable for the calibration of particle-tracking and solute transport models as well as for understanding of watershed storage dynamics. In a previous study, we simulated tritium concentrations in river water of the western Lake Taupo catchment (WLTC) using a MODFLOW-MT3DMS model (Gusyev et al., 2013). The model was calibrated to measured tritium in river water at baseflows of the Waihaha, Whanganui, Whareroa, Kuratau, and Omori river catchments of the WLTC. Following from that work we now utilized the same MODFLOW model for the WLTC to calculate the pathways of groundwater particles (and their corresponding tritium concentrations) using steady-state particle tracking MODPATH model. In order to simulate baseflow tritium concentrations with MODPATH, transit time distributions (TTDs) are necessary to understand the lag time between the entry and discharge points of a tracer and are generated for the river networks of the five WLTC outflows. TTDs are used in the convolution integral with an input tritium concentration time series obtained from the precipitation measurements. The resulting MODPATH tritium concentrations yield a very good match to measured tritium concentrations and are similar to the MT3DMS-simulated tritium concentrations, with the greatest variation occurring around the bomb peak. MODPATH and MT3DMS also yield similar mean transit times (MTTs) of groundwater contribution to river baseflows, but the actual shape of the TTDs is strikingly different. While both distributions provide valuable information, the methodologies used to derive the TTDs are fundamentally different and hence must be interpreted differently. With the current MT3DMS model settings, only the methodology used with MODPATH provides the true TTD

  3. River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morel Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The OECD report “Boosting Resilience through Innovative Risk Governance” examines the efforts of OECD countries to prevent or reduce future disaster impacts, and highlights several key areas where improvements can be made. International collaboration is insufficiently utilised to address shocks that have increasingly global consequences. Institutional design plays a significant role in facilitating or hampering the engagement and investments of governmental and non-governmental stakeholders in disaster risk prevention and mitigation. To inform the design of “better” institutions, the OECD proposes the application of a diagnostic framework that helps governments identify institutional shortcomings and take actions to improve them. The goal of the case study on the Rhone River is to conduct an analysis of the progress, achievements and existing challenges in designing and implementing disaster risk reduction strategies through the Rhone Plan from a comparative perspective across a set of selected countries of this study, like Austria and Switzerland, will inform how to improve institutional frameworks governing risk prevention and mitigation. The case study will be used to identify examples of successful practice taking into account their specific country contexts, and analyse their potential for policy transfer.

  4. Occurrence of priority organic pollutants in Strymon river catchment, Greece: inland, transitional, and coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litskas, V D; Dosis, I G; Karamanlis, X N; Kamarianos, A P

    2012-09-01

    Twenty-five sampling stations were selected in order to monitor persistent organic pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine (OC) pesticides and total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)) in surface water from Kerkini Lake, the Strymon River, its main tributaries and estuary in N. Aegean Sea during January to July, 2008, according to recent European Union (EU) guidelines. The data were divided among the high (January to April) and the low flow season (May to July). Generally, the values for organic pollutants were within the range reported worldwide for surface water. Elevated PAHs concentrations were observed compared with other places in Greece. Anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene exceeded maximum allowable concentration (MAC) of the relative EU guideline. Also, concentrations above MAC were observed for OCs, γ-HCH, and a-endosulfan. Despite the fact that it is banned since 1972, Aldrin was detected during the monitoring season (from limit of detection (LOD) to 15 ng L(-1)). Total PCB concentrations ranged from LOD to 162 ng L(-1). In addition, the load of organic pollutants was estimated in April (high flow) and June (low flow) in selected sampling stations. According to this estimation, napthalene, anthracene, and fluoranthene (PAHs), total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), aldrin, and total PCBs had the highest load. Taking into account the relative EU guidelines concerning the pollutants studied, the water quality in the Strymon River catchment could be characterized as poor, which can lead to negative impacts to its biota.

  5. Effects of vegetation, corridor width and regional land use on early successional birds on powerline corridors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Askins

    Full Text Available Powerline rights-of-way (ROWs often provide habitat for early successional bird species that have suffered long-term population declines in eastern North America. To determine how the abundance of shrubland birds varies with habitat within ROW corridors and with land use patterns surrounding corridors, we ran Poisson regression models on data from 93 plots on ROWs and compared regression coefficients. We also determined nest success rates on a 1-km stretch of ROW. Seven species of shrubland birds were common in powerline corridors. However, the nest success rates for prairie warbler (Dendroica discolor and field sparrow (Spizella pusilla were <21%, which is too low to compensate for estimated annual mortality. Some shrubland bird species were more abundant on narrower ROWs or at sites with lower vegetation or particular types of vegetation, indicating that vegetation management could be refined to favor species of high conservation priority. Also, several species were more abundant in ROWs traversing unfragmented forest than those near residential areas or farmland, indicating that corridors in heavily forested regions may provide better habitat for these species. In the area where we monitored nests, brood parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater occurred more frequently close to a residential area. Although ROWs support dense populations of shrubland birds, those in more heavily developed landscapes may constitute sink habitat. ROWs in extensive forests may contribute more to sustaining populations of early successional birds, and thus may be the best targets for habitat management.

  6. Maputo development corridor: Evaluation of first phase

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schutte, IC

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available undertaken within the southern African region since 1995, following the peace agreement in Mozambique and the first non-racial elections in South Africa in 1994. Coming at a time of substantial political change and growing co-operation within the region... and proximity to the corridor. As regards the Mozambican section of the MDC, the 1996/97 official unemployment rate (formal wage-earning employment) was estimated at around 69 per cent. This figure is almost equivalent to the total number of people added...

  7. Spatiotemporal Variability and Trends of Extreme Precipitation in the Huaihe River Basin, a Climatic Transitional Zone in East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengwe Ye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Precipitation data from 30 stations in the Huaihe River basin (HRB, a climatic transitional zone in east China, were used to investigate the spatiotemporal variability and trends of extreme precipitation on multitimescales for the period 1961–2010. Results indicated that (1 the spatial pattern of the annual precipitation, rainy days, extreme precipitation, and maximum daily precipitations shows a clear transitional change from the south (high to the north (low in the HR; it confirmed the conclusion that the HRB is located in the transitional zone of the 800 mm precipitation contour in China, where the 800 mm precipitation contour is considered as the geographical boundary of the south and the north. (2 Higher value of the extreme precipitation intensity mainly occurs in the middle of the east and the central part of the basin; it reveals a relatively distinct west-east spatial disparity, and this is not in line with the spatial pattern of the extreme precipitation total, the sum of the precipitation in 95th precipitation days. (3 Annual precipitation of 22 stations exhibits increasing trend, and these 22 stations are located from the central to the northern part. There is no significant trend detected for the seasonal precipitation. The summer precipitation exhibits a larger change range; this might cause the variation of the flood and drought in the HBR. However, the increasing trend in winter precipitation may be beneficial to the relief of winter agricultural drought. Rainy days in 12 stations, mostly located in and around the central northeastern part, experienced significant decreasing trend. Extreme precipitation days and precipitation intensity have increasing trends, but no station with significant change trend is detected for the maximum precipitation of the basin. (4 The spatiotemporal variability in the HRB is mainly caused by the geographic differences and is largely influenced by the interdecadal variations of East Asian

  8. Evaluating landscape options for corridor restoration between giant panda reserves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    Full Text Available The establishment of corridors can offset the negative effects of habitat fragmentation by connecting isolated habitat patches. However, the practical value of corridor planning is minimal if corridor identification is not based on reliable quantitative information about species-environment relationships. An example of this need for quantitative information is planning for giant panda conservation. Although the species has been the focus of intense conservation efforts for decades, most corridor projects remain hypothetical due to the lack of reliable quantitative researches at an appropriate spatial scale. In this paper, we evaluated a framework for giant panda forest corridor planning. We linked our field survey data with satellite imagery, and conducted species occupancy modelling to examine the habitat use of giant panda within the potential corridor area. We then conducted least-cost and circuit models to identify potential paths of dispersal across the landscape, and compared the predicted cost under current conditions and alternative conservation management options considered during corridor planning. We found that due to giant panda's association with areas of low elevation and flat terrain, human infrastructures in the same area have resulted in corridor fragmentation. We then identified areas with high potential to function as movement corridors, and our analysis of alternative conservation scenarios showed that both forest/bamboo restoration and automobile tunnel construction would significantly improve the effectiveness of corridor, while residence relocation would not significantly improve corridor effectiveness in comparison with the current condition. The framework has general value in any conservation activities that anticipate improving habitat connectivity in human modified landscapes. Specifically, our study suggested that, in this landscape, automobile tunnels are the best means to remove current barriers to giant panda

  9. Evaluating landscape options for corridor restoration between giant panda reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; McShea, William J; Wang, Dajun; Li, Sheng; Zhao, Qing; Wang, Hao; Lu, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of corridors can offset the negative effects of habitat fragmentation by connecting isolated habitat patches. However, the practical value of corridor planning is minimal if corridor identification is not based on reliable quantitative information about species-environment relationships. An example of this need for quantitative information is planning for giant panda conservation. Although the species has been the focus of intense conservation efforts for decades, most corridor projects remain hypothetical due to the lack of reliable quantitative researches at an appropriate spatial scale. In this paper, we evaluated a framework for giant panda forest corridor planning. We linked our field survey data with satellite imagery, and conducted species occupancy modelling to examine the habitat use of giant panda within the potential corridor area. We then conducted least-cost and circuit models to identify potential paths of dispersal across the landscape, and compared the predicted cost under current conditions and alternative conservation management options considered during corridor planning. We found that due to giant panda's association with areas of low elevation and flat terrain, human infrastructures in the same area have resulted in corridor fragmentation. We then identified areas with high potential to function as movement corridors, and our analysis of alternative conservation scenarios showed that both forest/bamboo restoration and automobile tunnel construction would significantly improve the effectiveness of corridor, while residence relocation would not significantly improve corridor effectiveness in comparison with the current condition. The framework has general value in any conservation activities that anticipate improving habitat connectivity in human modified landscapes. Specifically, our study suggested that, in this landscape, automobile tunnels are the best means to remove current barriers to giant panda movements caused by

  10. Small mammal populations in a restored stream corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.

    2000-03-13

    An opportunity to study the response of a small mammal community to restoration of a riparian wetland was provided by the Pen Branch project at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Live trapping of small mammals was conducted on six transects at Pen Branch in 1996 and 1998 and at three transects at Meyer's Branch, an unimpacted stream at SRS, in 1997 and 1998. Distributions of rates of capture of the four most common species were both spatially and temporally uneven. Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance found no significant differences in the relationship of capture rates between species and between treatment and both the within-stream control and Meyers Branch. Habitat use and movement within stream corridors appears to be dependent primarily on species, with age and sex perhaps contributing to preference and distance moved. The lack of differences in capture rates related to transect or treatment may be due to the close proximity of sample transects relative to the movement potential of the species sampled.

  11. Attractive Mobile Corridors - The Power of Light Rail Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette; Lassen, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Light rail is a popular tool in urban development strategies in many European cities. One argument for choosing a rail-based solution is that it signals stability to investors and will attract development and investments in the corridor. The choice of corridor in the various light rail cities...

  12. Planning of transport corridors by use of GIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronbak, Jacob; Moshøj, Claus Rehfeld; Grevy, Bo

    1998-01-01

    The paper adresses principles for the application of geographical information systems (GIS) as a tool in the planning of transport corridors. Specifically, the paper describes the COPE (corridor planning and evaluation) model that has been developed within the EU 4th FP Strategic Transport projects...

  13. HISTORICAL DESERTIFICATION PROCESS IN HEXI CORRIDOR, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Nai-ang; ZHANG Chun-hui; LI Gang; CHENG Hong-yi

    2005-01-01

    Over the last 2000 years, approximately 38 ancient cities were abandoned through desertification in Hexi Corridor, Northwest China. Among them, 21.05% were abandonedduring the Northern and Southern Dynasties, 21.05% during the end of the Tang Dynasty andthe Five Dynasties, and 57.9% during the Ming and Qing dynas ties. At the same time, main lakes were shrinking rapidly from the 5th Century to the 6th Century and the end of the Qing Dynasty. The climate in these periods was relatively arid and cold with frequent dusts. The phase of these changes indicated that there were three periods of desertification enlargement in the northern China. They were Northern and Southern Dynasties, the end of Tang Dynasty and Five Dynasties, the Ming and Qing dynasties. The macro-process of desertification in the study area was controlled mainly by the climatic changes. But from the facts that the population density in the middle of Qing Dynasty had exceeded the critical index of population pressure in arid area and the usage rate of water resources had exceeded 40% in Hexi Corridor, this paper also suggests that human activities have played an important role in desertification processes of the study area mainly during the recent 300 years.

  14. How to measure capabilities within corridors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas MACOUN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional methods of measuring the capacities of infrastructures are usually based on indicators like passenger car units (PCU. It is quite clear that these methods of capacity evaluation (categories of roads, calculation procedures, capacity limits, e.g. defined in the HCM – Highway Capacity Manual cannot be used to picture the intermodality of the traffic system. The first step has to include the intermodality (modal split in the cross section of a road (pedestrians, bicycles, public transport, private vehicles, and in a further step it is necessary to account for all alternatives within the corridor, like parallel routed railways or public transport lines, to reach an intermodal point of view. Finally it is also necessary to include the effects on the settlement structure. Beside intermodality, any new method also has to consider cost effectiveness, a comprehensive consideration of feedbacks in the traffic system, as well as compatibility to CBA. As a result it is necessary to find new indicators (instead of car units to define passenger and freight flows. There are guidelines in progress auditing transport operations and infrastructure conditions of roadways. A revision of these guidelines aims to integrate different modes of transport by changing the key-indicators (e.g. incline, curviness, roadway width, capacity utilisation and to use a system approach which includes indicators like modal split, car occupancy or utilised capacity of lorries. The procedure presented in this paper can be seen as one building block to meet the demands of future assessments within corridors.

  15. An experimental test of whether habitat corridors affect pollen transfer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, Patricia A.; Levey, Douglas J.

    2005-02-01

    Abstract. Negative effects of habitat fragmentation are thought to be diminished when habitat patches are joined by a corridor. A key assumption is that corridors facilitate exchange rates of organisms between otherwise isolated patches. If the organisms are pollinators, corridors may be important for maintaining genetically viable populations of the plants that they pollinate. We tested the hypothesis that corridors increase the movement of insect pollinators into patches of habitat and thereby increase pollen transfer for two species of plants, one pollinated by butterflies (Lantana camara) and the other by bees and wasps (Rudbeckia hirta). We worked in an experimental landscape consisting of 40 greater than or equal to 1-ha patches of early-successional habitat in a matrix of forest. Within each of eight experimental units, two patches were connected by a corridor (150 X 25 m), and three were not. Patch shape varied to control for the area added by the presence of a corridor. Differences in patch shape also allowed us to test alternative hypotheses of how corridors might function. The Traditional Corridor Hypothesis posits that corridors increase immigration and emigration by functioning as movement conduits between patches. The Drift Fence Hypothesis posits that corridors function by ‘‘capturing’’ organisms dispersing through the matrix, redirecting them into associated habitat patches. Using fluorescent powder to track pollen, we found that pollen transfer by butterflies between patches connected by a corridor was significantly higher than between unconnected patches (all values mean plus or minus 1 SE: 59% plus or minus 9.2% vs. 25% plus or minus 5.2% of flowers receiving pollen). Likewise, pollen transfer by bees and wasps was significantly higher between connected patches than between unconnected patches (30% plus or minus 4.2% vs. 14.5% plus or minus 2.2%). These results support the Traditional Corridor Hypothesis. There was little support, however

  16. The actual relevance of ecological corridors in nature conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćurčić Nina B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers theoretical and applied foundations of the concept of the ecological corridors in nature conservation. Their relevance comes from recent ecological phenomenon of habitat fragmentation which is rapidly increasing during last decades. Habitat fragmentation is one of the main threats to richness and diversity of wildlife. Ecological corridors can mitigate the loss and fragmentation of habitat. Corridors perform as “bridges” between habitats for species and they provide a flow of the natural or even anthropogenic caused disturbances. In this paper we will present the meaning and significance of ecological corridors in nature conservation, as well as types of ecological corridors and their ecological benefits. Methodological and practical approaches in nature protection system in Serbia are included. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47007 i br. 176008

  17. Tectonics, topography, and river system transition in East Tibet: Insights from the sedimentary record in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Qing; Yan, Yi; Huang, Chi-Yue; Clift, Peter D.; Li, Xuejie; Chen, Wenhuang; Zhang, Xingchang; Yu, Mengming

    2014-09-01

    Cenozoic in East Asia is marked by major changes in tectonics, landscapes, and river systems, although the timing and nature of such changes remains disputed. We investigate the geochemistry and neodymium isotope character of Cenozoic mudstones spanning the breakup unconformity in the Western Foothills of Taiwan in order to constrain erosion and drainage development in southern China during the opening of the South China Sea. The La/Lu, Eu/Eu*, Th/Sc, Th/La, Cr/Th, and ɛNd values in these rocks show an abrupt change between ˜31 and 25 Ma. Generally the higher ɛNd values in sediments deposited prior to 31 Ma indicate erosion from Phanerozoic granitic sources exposed in coastal South China, whereas the lower ɛNd values suggest that the main sources had evolved to inland southern China by ˜25 Ma. The SHRIMP U-Pb ages of zircons from a tuff, together with biostratigraphy data constrain the breakup unconformity to be between ˜39 and 33 Ma, suggesting that the seafloor spreading in the South China Sea commenced before ˜33 Ma. This is significantly older than most of the oceanic crust preserved in the deeper part of the basin. Diachronous westward younging of the breakup unconformities and provenance changes of basins are consistent with seafloor spreading propagating from east to west. Initial spreading of the South China Sea prior to ˜33 Ma corresponds to tectonic adjustment in East Asia, including extrusion of the Indochina block and the rotation and eastward retreat of the subducting Pacific Plate.

  18. National Borders and Transport corridors in Europe: Evidence of linkages in the Dublin-Belfast corridor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrov, Laura Oana; Williams, Brendan; Shahumyan, Harutyun;

    2012-01-01

    . The growth of urban areas is associated with acces-sibility to transportation routes, and has become the most important factor in landscape and land use change throughout Europe. Apart from providing links between cities, transport corridors are also exten-sions of cities' functionality which allow...... Member States (MS) where a new phase of urbanization is un-derway, dramatically changing land use patterns. The aim of the present work is to reflect on the European perspective concerning spatial development strategies, particularly cross-border transport corridors; to assess the role......Europe’s urban life focuses around a major network of cities, which exchange population, goods, and services of every kind both within regions and across borders. By their very nature, urban questions thus have a transnational dimension, and constitute a fruitful area of Euro-pean cooperation...

  19. Western Energy Corridor -- Energy Resource Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie Roberts; Michael Hagood

    2011-06-01

    The world is facing significant growth in energy demand over the next several decades. Strategic in meeting this demand are the world-class energy resources concentrated along the Rocky Mountains and northern plains in Canada and the U.S., informally referred to as the Western Energy Corridor (WEC). The fossil energy resources in this region are rivaled only in a very few places in the world, and the proven uranium reserves are among the world's largest. Also concentrated in this region are renewable resources contributing to wind power, hydro power, bioenergy, geothermal energy, and solar energy. Substantial existing and planned energy infrastructure, including refineries, pipelines, electrical transmission lines, and rail lines provide access to these resources.

  20. Requirements Definition for ORNL Trusted Corridors Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Randy M [ORNL; Hill, David E [ORNL; Smith, Cyrus M [ORNL; DeNap, Frank A [ORNL; White, James D [ORNL; Gross, Ian G [ORNL; Gorman, Bryan L [ORNL; Hively, Lee M [ORNL; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL

    2008-02-01

    The ORNL Trusted Corridors Project has several other names: SensorNet Transportation Pilot; Identification and Monitoring of Radiation (in commerce) Shipments (IMR(ic)S); and Southeastern Transportation Corridor Pilot (SETCP). The project involves acquisition and analysis of transportation data at two mobile and three fixed inspection stations in five states (Kentucky, Mississippi, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Washington DC). Collaborators include the State Police organizations that are responsible for highway safety, law enforcement, and incident response. The three states with fixed weigh-station deployments (KY, SC, TN) are interested in coordination of this effort for highway safety, law enforcement, and sorting/targeting/interdiction of potentially non-compliant vehicles/persons/cargo. The Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) in the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is interested in these deployments, as a Pilot test (SETCP) to identify Improvised Nuclear Devices (INDs) in highway transport. However, the level of DNDO integration among these state deployments is presently uncertain. Moreover, DHS issues are considered secondary by the states, which perceive this work as an opportunity to leverage these (new) dual-use technologies for state needs. In addition, present experience shows that radiation detectors alone cannot detect DHS-identified IND threats. Continued SETCP success depends on the level of integration of current state/local police operations with the new DHS task of detecting IND threats, in addition to emergency preparedness and homeland security. This document describes the enabling components for continued SETCP development and success, including: sensors and their use at existing deployments (Section 1); personnel training (Section 2); concept of operations (Section 3); knowledge discovery from the copious data (Section 4); smart data collection, integration and database development, advanced algorithms for multiple sensors, and

  1. Corridors and some ecological and evolutionary consequences of connectivity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrock, John L

    2004-07-01

    Abstract - By connecting disjunct patches, corridors may offset the effects of fragmentation by promoting gene flow and population persistence. However, the ultimate effect of corridors on a focal species may hinge upon two considerations: how corridors may affect ecological interactions that impinge upon that species, and how corridors might affect the fixation of novel alleles that ultimately determine fitness and persistence. Using an experimental landscape, I show that corridor-mediated changes in patch shape change seed predation in connected and unconnected patches, and shift the behavior, abundance, and distribution of seed predators. Rodent seed predators removed more seeds in connected patches, arthropod seed predators removed more seeds in rectangular patches, and avian seed predation did not differ due to patch type. Rodent foraging was greater in the interior of connected patches because changes in patch shape influenced risk perceived by rodents while foraging. Ant communities were also affected by changes in patch shape caused by corridors, rather than corridor effects per se. The distribution and abundance of ants differed among edge-rich areas (corridors and wings), edges, and the patch interior. In rectangular patches, fire ants (Solenopsis spp.) had negative impacts on other ant species. By changing the activity of rodents, and the composition of ant communities, corridors may have important impacts on seeds. Bird-dispersed seeds may benefit from increased dispersal among connected patches, but connected patches also have greater predation risk. Using a simulation model, I demonstrate that gene flow between a stable population and a population that experiences local extinction or a reduction in size (e.g. due to natural or anthropogenic disturbance) can dramatically affect fixation of alleles in the stable population. Alone or in concert, frequent disturbance, high rates of movement, and low habitat quality make it more likely that connectivity

  2. THE BALANCE BETWEEN SUPPLY AND DEMAND OF WATER RESOURCES AND THE WATER-SAVING POTENTIAL FOR AGRICULTURE IN THE HEXI CORRIDOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Hexi Corridor is an important base of agriculture development in Northwest China. According to re-cent statistics, there are 65.94 × 108m3 of water resources available in the Hexi Corridor. At present, net consumption indevelopment and utilization is 43.33 x 108m3. Water supply and demand reach a balance on the recent level of produc-tion, but loss of evaporation and evapotranspiration is as much as 25.69 × 108m3. So net use efficiency of water resourcesis 59%. Based on analyzing balance between water and land considering ecological environment at present, there existsthe serious water shortage in the Shiyang River system where irrigation lands have overloaded. There is a comparative bal-ance between supply and demand of water resource in the Heihe River system; and the Sule River system has some sur-plus water to extend irrigation land. Use of agriculture water accounts for 83.3% and ecological forest and grass for6. 9%. The Hexi Corridor still has a great potential for water saving in agriculture production. Water-saving efficiency ofirrigation is about 10% by using such traditional technologies as furrow and border-dike irrigation and small check irriga-tion, and water-saving with plastic film cover and techniques of advanced sprinkler and drip/micro irrigation etc. cansave more than 60% of irrigated water. Incremental irrigation area for water-saving potential in the Hexi Corridor hasbeen estimated as 56% - 197% to original irrigation area. So the second water sources can be developed from water sav-ing agriculture in the Hexi Corridor under Development of the Western Part of China in large scale. This potential can berealized step by step through developing the water-saving measures, improving the ecological condition of oasis agricul-ture, and optimizing allocation of water resources in three river systems.

  3. EIA BASED COMPARATIVE URBAN TRAFFIC NOISE ANALYSIS BETWEEN OPERATIONAL AND UNDER CONSTRUCTION PHASE PUBLIC TRANSPORT CORRIDOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar Mishra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Delhi has a population of 16.75 million and is increasing at a rapid rate. This increase in population has enhanced the need for public transport. In Delhi, this need for public transport is served mainly by buses, auto rickshaws, a rapid transit system, taxis and suburban railways. Delhi has one of the highest road densities in India. Buses are the most popular means of transport catering to about 60% of the total demand. In order to meet the transport demand in Delhi, the State and the Union government started the construction of a mass rapid transit system, including the Delhi Metro. By the application of various data and public response, the paper accentuates the qualitative discussion on impacts of mass rapid transit system (MRTS corridor on land use and social aspects of lives of residents and road users. It also proposes certain mitigating measures for that meticulous condition. The analysis and survey outcome explain about the exceeded level of noise level as compared to CPCB standards. The share of public transport in total noise pollution is smaller than private but still exceeds the standards. Such problem demands the design of noise barrier along the corridor to curb the noise pollution.

  4. Smallholder farms as stepping stone corridors for crop-raiding elephant in northern Tanzania: integration of Bayesian expert system and network simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittiglio, Claudia; Skidmore, Andrew K; van Gils, Hein A M J; McCall, Michael K; Prins, Herbert H T

    2014-03-01

    Crop-raiding elephants affect local livelihoods, undermining conservation efforts. Yet, crop-raiding patterns are poorly understood, making prediction and protection difficult. We hypothesized that raiding elephants use corridors between daytime refuges and farmland. Elephant counts, crop-raiding records, household surveys, Bayesian expert system, and least-cost path simulation were used to predict four alternative categories of daily corridors: (1) footpaths, (2) dry river beds, (3) stepping stones along scattered small farms, and (4) trajectories of shortest distance to refuges. The corridor alignments were compared in terms of their minimum cumulative resistance to elephant movement and related to crop-raiding zones quantified by a kernel density function. The "stepping stone" corridors predicted the crop-raiding patterns. Elephant presence was confirmed along these corridors, demonstrating that small farms located between refuges and contiguous farmland increase habitat connectivity for elephant. Our analysis successfully predicted elephant occurrence in farmland where daytime counts failed to detect nocturnal presence. These results have conservation management implications.

  5. 76 FR 13171 - Leaf River Energy Center LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... certificate of public convenience and necessity issued in Docket No. CP08-8-000 to authorize Leaf River to... associated cavern piping corridors, access roads and related facilities, all as more fully detailed in...

  6. Comparative use of riparian corridors and oases by migrating birds in southeast Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagen, S.K.; Melcher, C.P.; Howe, W.H.; Knopf, F.L.

    1998-01-01

    The relative importance of cottonwood-willow riparian corridors and isolated oases to land birds migrating across southeastern Arizona was evaluated during four spring migrations, 1989 to 1994, based on patterns of species richness, relative abundance, density, and body condition of birds. We surveyed birds in 13 study sites ranging in size and connectivity from small isolated patches to extensive riparian forest, sampled vegetation and insects, and captured birds in mistnets. The continuous band of riparian vegetation along the San Pedro River does not appear to be functioning as a corridor for many migrating species, although it may for a few, namely Yellow-breasted Chats (Icteria virens), Summer Tanagers (Piranga rubra), and Northern Rough-winged Swallows (Steldigopteryx serripennis), which account for fewer than 10% of the individuals migrating through the area. Small, isolated oases hosted more avian species than the corridor sites, and the relative abundances of most migrating birds did not differ between sites relative to size-connectivity. There were few differences in between-year variability in the relative abundances of migrating birds between corridor and oasis sites. Between-year variability decreased with overall abundance of species and was greater for species with breeding ranges that centered north of 50??N latitude. Body condition of birds did not differ relative to the size-connectivity of the capture site, but individuals of species with more northerly breeding ranges had more body fat than species that breed nearby. Peak migration densities of several bird species far exceeded breeding densities reported for the San Pedro River, suggesting that large components of these species were en route migrants. Peak densities of Yellow Warblers (Dendroica petechia) reached 48.0 birds/ha, of Wilson's Warblers (Wilsonia pusilla) 33.7 birds/ha, and of Yellow-rumped Warblers (D. coronata) 30.1 birds/ha. Riparian vegetation is limited in extent in the

  7. 76 FR 65561 - Multistate Corridor Operations and Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... Federal Highway Administration Multistate Corridor Operations and Management Program AGENCY: Federal... Operations and Management (MCOM) Program authorized by the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient... transportation challenges facing the efficient and effective operation and management of...

  8. Maximum currents in the Northeast Corridor Reserve during November 2013.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2D numerical model, CMS-Flow, was implemented for the Northeast Corridor Reserve (NECR) using a telescoping grid. Tide and wind forcing was provided to the model...

  9. Conservation Lands and Preserves, Private - Volusia County Conservation Corridor

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Volusia Conservation Corridor (VCC) is a mosaic of contiguous parcels of land, approximately 55,000 acres in size, which sits essentially in the middle of the...

  10. 46 CFR 393.3 - Marine Highway Corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., landside infrastructure maintenance savings, improved safety, and added system resiliency. Additional... and performance. (3) Involved Parties. Provide the organizational structure of the parties... infrastructure maintenance costs, safety and system resiliency. Specify if the Marine Highway Corridor represents...

  11. Conservation Lands and Preserves, Private - Volusia County Conservation Corridor

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — The Volusia Conservation Corridor (VCC) is a mosaic of contiguous parcels of land, approximately 55,000 acres in size, which sits essentially in the middle of the...

  12. 76 FR 3695 - Environmental Impact Statement: Interstate 64 Corridor, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Interstate 64 Corridor, Virginia AGENCY... Administration is issuing this notice to advise the public of its intent to prepare an Environmental Impact..., Senior Environmental Specialist, Federal Highway Administration, Post Office Box 10249, Richmond...

  13. Student housing unit in a floor area without corridors

    OpenAIRE

    Cekić Nikola; Vasov Miomir; Bjelić Igor

    2013-01-01

    This paper treats the issues of position and urbarchitectonic-functional organization of a housing unit in a floor area without corridors in a student hostel. The authors advocate a new, more rational and functional concept in which the student room is not in direct contact with the corridor communication, but belongs to the housing unit, student apartment for 4-6 users. In a more rational organized volume, the living of the students is more comfortable and has a different character. Th...

  14. Response of Polish rivers (Vistula, Oder) to reduced pressure from point sources and agriculture during the transition period (1988-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastuszak, Marianna; Stålnacke, Per; Pawlikowski, Krzysztof; Witek, Zbigniew

    2012-06-01

    The Vistula and Oder Rivers, two out of the seven largest rivers in the Baltic drainage basin, were responsible for 25% of total riverine nitrogen (TN) and 37% of total riverine phosphorus (TP) input to the Baltic Sea in 2000. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the response of these two rivers to changes that took place in Polish economy during the transition period (1988-2008). The economic changes encompassed: construction of nearly 900 waste water treatment plants in 1999-2008, modernization or closure of obsolete factories, economizing in water consumption, closure or change of ownership of State-owned farms, a drop in fertilizer application, and a decline in livestock stocking. More intensive agriculture and higher point source emissions in the Oder than in the Vistula basin resulted in higher concentrations of TN, nitrate (NO3-N), and TP in the Oder waters in the entire period of our studies. In both rivers, nutrient concentrations and loads showed significant declining trends in the period 1988-2008. TN loads decreased by ca. 20% and 25% in the Vistula and Oder; TP loads dropped by ca. 15% and 65% in the Vistula and Oder. The reduction in phosphorus loads was particularly pronounced in the Oder basin, which was characterized by efficient management systems aiming at mitigation of nutrient emission from the point sources and greater extent of structural changes in agricultural sector during the transition period. The trends in riverine loads are discussed in the paper in relation to socio-economical changes during the transition period, and with respect to physiographic features.

  15. Road and Street Centerlines, h143 corridor - Hwy 143 corridor, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'h143 corridor - Hwy 143 corridor'. The...

  16. FINAL PROJECT REPORT: A Geophysical Characterization & Monitoring Strategy for Determining Hydrologic Processes in the Hyporheic Corridor at the Hanford 300-Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Slater

    2011-08-15

    The primary objective of this research was to advance the prediction of solute transport between the Uranium contaminated Hanford aquifer and the Columbia River at the Hanford 300 Area by improving understanding of how fluctuations in river stage, combined with subsurface heterogeneity, impart spatiotemporal complexity to solute exchange along the Columbia River corridor. Our work explored the use of continuous waterborne electrical imaging (CWEI), in conjunction with fiber-optic distributed temperature sensor (FO-DTS) and time-lapse resistivity monitoring, to improve the conceptual model for how groundwater/surface water exchange regulates uranium transport. We also investigated how resistivity and induced polarization can be used to generate spatially rich estimates of the variation in depth to the Hanford-Ringold (H-R) contact between the river and the 300 Area Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site. Inversion of the CWEI datasets (a data rich survey containing ~60,000 measurements) provided predictions of the distributions of electrical resistivity and polarizability, from which the spatial complexity of the primary hydrogeologic units along the river corridor was reconstructed. Variation in the depth to the interface between the overlying coarse-grained, high permeability Hanford Formation and the underlying finer-grained, less permeable Ringold Formation, an important contact that limits vertical migration of contaminants, has been resolved along ~3 km of the river corridor centered on the IFRC site in the Hanford 300 Area. Spatial variability in the thickness of the Hanford Formation captured in the CWEI datasets indicates that previous studies based on borehole projections and drive-point and multi-level sampling likely overestimate the contributing area for uranium exchange within the Columbia River at the Hanford 300 Area. Resistivity and induced polarization imaging between the river and the 300 Area IFRC further imaged spatial variability in

  17. Physical-scale models of engineered log jams in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stream restoration and river engineering projects are employing engineered log jams increasingly for stabilization and in-stream improvements. To further advance the design of these structures and their morphodynamic effects on corridors, the basis for physical-scale models of rivers with engineere...

  18. Corridor X in Serbia: Approach to spatial planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijić Saša

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available For the infrastructural corridor's area, of the national importance, is predicted making spatial plans of area of special use, as the most complex instruments for the developing and arranging management of these areas. These plans should have an integrative and problem-oriented approach towards development planning and arrangement of such an area, and it is obliged to include: a complex evaluation of state and function of infrastructural system in the corridor; an analysis of infrastructural corridor influence on the development of the planning area and its surrounding; an alternative conception of long-term protection, improvement, organization and use of the planning area; a choice of the priorities and assumption of the realization phases; instructions for the implementation of the plan etc. The approach in making of this category of plans, as well as, experiences in planning, arrangement and use of multimodal corridors, have been considered on the example of Spatial plan of the infrastructural corridor E-75 section Belgrade-Nis area.

  19. Use of Individual Flight Corridors to Avoid Vortex Wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossow, Vernon J.

    2001-01-01

    Vortex wakes of aircraft pose a hazard to following aircraft until the energetic parts of their flow fields have decayed to a harmless level. It is suggested here that in-trail spacings between aircraft can be significantly and safely reduced by designing an individual, vortex-free flight corridor for each aircraft. Because each aircraft will then have its own flight corridor, which is free of vortex wakes while in use by the assigned aircraft, the time intervals between aircraft operations can be safely reduced to the order of seconds. The productivity of airports can then be substantially increased. How large the offset distances between operational corridors need to be to have them vortex free, and how airports need to be changed to accommodate an individual flight-corridor process for landing and takeoff operations, are explored. Estimates are then made of the productivity of an individual flight-corridor system as a function of the in-trail time interval between operations for various values of wake decay time, runway width, and the velocity of a sidewind. The results confirm the need for short time intervals between aircraft operations if smaller offset distances and increased productivity are to be achieved.

  20. Relationships among floodplain water levels, instream dissolved oxygen conditions, and streamflow in the Lower Roanoke River, 1997-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The lower Roanoke River corridor in North Carolina contains a floodplain of national significance. Data from a network of 1 streamflow-measurement site, 13...

  1. Plant community characteristics and their relationships with climate in the Hexi Corridor region of northwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peixi SU; Hongbin CHEN; Qiaodi YAN

    2008-01-01

    Species, coverage, density, appearance, important values and above ground biomass of desert plant communities in the Hexi Corridor region in north-western China were investigated. Data on the meteoro-logical factors at the investigation sites were collected. Their relationships were statistically analyzed. The results show that the composition of plant species and total den-sity in the Hexi Corridor region are positively correlated with elevation and longitude, but negatively with latitude. The relation decreases from the southeast to the northwest in this region. In the desert regions with an accumulated temperature of >10℃ greater than 3200℃, the shrubs, including semi-shrubs, occupy dominant positions in the communities. Their importance values reach 100. When the accumulated temperature is about 3000℃, the com-munities are often in some type of transition, either with herbage being the dominant species, with some semi-shrubs or shrubs as companion species, or the dominant species being semi-shrubs with some perennial herbage as companion species. In desert communities with an annual precipitation of over 110 mm, the main life forms of plants are semi-shrubs or perennial herbs. When precip-itation is less than 110 mm, the main life forms of the vegetation are dwarf shrub or annual herbs. In the extreme arid regions with annual precipitation of around 50 mm in the northwestern part of the Hexi Corridor, barely some annual herbage come to life during the rainy season. Desert ecosystems consist of sparse vegetation with small biomass. They change with climate factors and are especially sensitive to precipitation, which is par-ticularly important for their conservation.

  2. Attractive Mobile Corridors - The Power of Light Rail Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette; Lassen, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Light rail is a popular tool in urban development strategies in many European cities. One argument for choosing a rail-based solution is that it signals stability to investors and will attract development and investments in the corridor. The choice of corridor in the various light rail cities...... are based on different rationalities: generating urban growth by investments in new housing and businesses, regeneration of urban space, facilitation for a car-free urban lifestyle etc. The main argument of this paper is that light rail corridors are not only providing access, but also gentrifies...... and redistributes urban space. Furthermore light rail is not only a physical infrastructure but also an infrastructure of power that is carefully planned and designed creating both mental and physical patterns of mobilities and immobilities. Hence it is important to underline that mobility systems, such as light...

  3. Effects of landscape corridors on seed dispersal by birds.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levey, Douglas, J.; Bolker, Benjamin M.; Tewksbury, Joshua J.; Sargent, Sarah; Haddad, Nick M.

    2005-07-01

    Levey, Douglas, J., Benjamin M. Bolker, Joshua J. Tewksbury, Sarah Sargent, and Nick M. Haddad. 2005. Effects of landscape corridors on seed dispersal by birds. Science 309:146-148. Abstract: Habitat fragmentation threatens biodiversity by disrupting dispersal. The mechanisms and consequences of this disruption are controversial, primarily because most organisms are difficult to track. We examined the effect of habitat corridors on long-distance dispersal of seeds by birds, and tested whether small-scale (G20 meters) movements of birds could be scaled up to predict dispersal of seeds across hundreds of meters in eight experimentally fragmented landscapes. A simulation model accurately predicted the observed pattern of seed rain and revealed that corridors functioned through edge following behavior of birds. Our study shows how models based on easily observed behaviors can be scaled up to predict landscape-level processes.

  4. FIXED-WING MICRO AERIAL VEHICLE FOR ACCURATE CORRIDOR MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rehak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present a Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV equipped with precise position and attitude sensors that together with a pre-calibrated camera enables accurate corridor mapping. The design of the platform is based on widely available model components to which we integrate an open-source autopilot, customized mass-market camera and navigation sensors. We adapt the concepts of system calibration from larger mapping platforms to MAV and evaluate them practically for their achievable accuracy. We present case studies for accurate mapping without ground control points: first for a block configuration, later for a narrow corridor. We evaluate the mapping accuracy with respect to checkpoints and digital terrain model. We show that while it is possible to achieve pixel (3-5 cm mapping accuracy in both cases, precise aerial position control is sufficient for block configuration, the precise position and attitude control is required for corridor mapping.

  5. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Management Question D1: What is the distribution of movement corridors?

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This map shows least-cost corridors and large natural habitat blocks. These blocks and corridors may provide an essential network for various species to disperse...

  6. TRANSPORT CORRIDOR "URAL INDUSTRIAL – URAL POLAR": PROBLEMS, EVOLUTION PATHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Tabakov

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the theoretic and methodological questions regarding the formation of a transport corridor "Urals industrial – Urals Polar". Analyzed are the main factors that affect the formation of the transport infrastructure. A big effect is centered around the world-view problem, which has to do with the occupation of a human, and the effect of it on nature. Put forth is the possibility to look upon the question of the formation of ma transport corridor "Urals industrial – Urals Polar" in the frame of the forming of the Ural-West-Siberian TPK, taking into account the global transport web.

  7. An ecological basis for future fish habitat restoration efforts in the Huron-Erie Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondorp, Darryl W.; Roseman, Edward F.; Manny, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    This perspective describes the major natural and anthropogenic forces driving change in the abundance and quality of fish habitats in the Huron-Erie Corridor (HEC), the Great Lakes connecting channel comprised of the St. Clair River, the Lake St. Clair, and the Detroit River. Channels connecting the Laurentian Great Lakes discharge large volumes of water equal to or greater than most other large rivers in the world that is of consistent high quality and volume, all year. Owing to creation of the St. Lawrence Seaway through the Great Lakes, the connecting channels have been modified by dredging over 200 km of deep-draft shipping lanes with a maintained depth of no less than 8.2 m. Combined with modification of their shorelines for housing and industries, use of the connecting channels for discharges of industrial and municipal wastes and shipping has resulted in numerous beneficial use impairments, such as restrictions on fish and wildlife consumption, degradation of fish and wildlife populations, and losses of fish and wildlife habitat. Various options for remediation of native fish populations and their habitats in the Great Lakes connecting channels, including construction of spawning habitat for threatened and high-value food fishes, such as lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), walleye (Sander vitreus), and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), have been implemented successfully in two of the channels, and form the basis for further recommended research described in this article.

  8. Simple physics-based predictor for the number of river bars and the transition between meandering and braiding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crosato, A.; Mosselman, E.

    2009-01-01

    The number of bars that form in an alluvial channel cross section can be determined from a physics-based linear model for alluvial bed topography. The classical approach defines separators between ranges in which river planform styles with certain numbers of bars are linearly stable and linearly uns

  9. Corridors of barchan dunes: Stability and size selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hersen, P.; Andersen, Ken Haste; Elbelrhiti, H.;

    2004-01-01

    Barchans are crescentic dunes propagating on a solid ground. They form dune fields in the shape of elongated corridors in which the size and spacing between dunes are rather well selected. We show that even very realistic models for solitary dunes do not reproduce these corridors. Instead, two in...... for these instabilities to develop are derived and discussed. They turn out to be much smaller than the dune field length. As a conclusion, there should exist further, yet unknown, mechanisms regulating and selecting the size of dunes.......Barchans are crescentic dunes propagating on a solid ground. They form dune fields in the shape of elongated corridors in which the size and spacing between dunes are rather well selected. We show that even very realistic models for solitary dunes do not reproduce these corridors. Instead, two...... instabilities take place. First, barchans receive a sand flux at their back proportional to their width while the sand escapes only from their horns. Large dunes proportionally capture more sand than they lose, while the situation is reversed for small ones: therefore, solitary dunes cannot remain in a steady...

  10. Impressions of Serbia: Tourists on cruises along Corridor 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragin Aleksandra S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with cruises along Corridor 7 and the tourist offer of Serbia. The purpose of the paper has been to establish how international tourists see our country during their travels across Serbia on cruises along Corridor 7. The research has been based on the interviews with international tourists who participated in land tours while cruising through Serbia. The interviews, together with the structured questionnaire, were conducted from March to November 2007 with the objectives to establish the following: the structure of the respondents according to the country of origin, gender and age structure, as well as the social and economic structure; what their motives are for cruising along Corridor 7; what is their perception of the value obtained through the tourist product and services during the Corridor 7 cruises and during their stay in Serbia (what they liked best in Serbia; if they were dissatisfied with anything in terms of the tourist offer of Serbia; to what extent their visit complemented or influenced their personal impressions of this country - what their impressions were before and after the visit. The importance of this paper, above all, is in broadening our knowledge about the adequacy of the tourist offer in Serbia in the tourism segment which is the subject of study of the paper.

  11. Safe corridors for K-wiring in phalangeal fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Rex

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: K-wiring through the safe corridor has proved to yield the best clinical results because of least tethering of soft tissues as evidenced by performing "on-table active finger movement test" at the time of surgery. We strongly recommend K-wiring through safe portals in all phalangeal fractures.

  12. Pedestrian visual recommendation in Kertanegara - Semeru corridor in Malang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosalia, V. B.

    2017-06-01

    Streetscape could be the first impression to see an urban area. One of the streerscape that should be attended to it is corridor of Jl. Kertanegara - Semeru since at that corridor is the road corridor having the strong caracter also as the one of the main axes in Malang city. This research is aim knowing the visual quality also the exact structuring rcommendation for Jl. Kertanegara - Semeru based on pedestrian’s visual. The methode used to this research is Scenic Beauty Estimation (SBE) and used historic study. There is several variables used, they are scale space, visual flexibility, beauty, emphasis, balance and dominant. Based on those variable the pedestrians as a respondent doing the assessment. Based on the result of SBE have been done, it is showed that the visual quality in Corridor Kertanegara Semeru is well enough since the result showed that there are 10 photos in low visual quality in Jl. Semeru and 14 photos in high visual quality in Jl. Kertanegara, Jl. Tugu dan Jl. Kahuripan. By the historic study and based on high visual quality reference doing the structuring recommendation in part of landscape having the low visual quality.

  13. Malaysia's Multimedia Super Corridor and Roles of Information Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Edna

    In Malaysia, the government is supporting the diffusion of the Internet and is spearheading a project to bring Malaysia into the information age, by helping to design a smart city called the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC). The MSC is being planned as a high-technology center where world-class multimedia companies can develop state-of-the-art…

  14. THE BALANCE BETWEEN SUPPLY AND DEMAND OF WATER RESOURCES AND THE WATER—SAVING POTENTIAL FOR AGRICULTURE IN THE HEXI CORRIDOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAOQian-zhao; DUHu-lin; 等

    2002-01-01

    The Hexi Corridor is an important base of agriculture development in Northwest China.According to recent statistics,there are 65.94×108 m3 of water resource available in the Hexi Corridor.At present,net consumption in development and utilization is 43.33×108m3.Water supply and demand reach a balance on the recent level of production ,but loss of evaporation and evapotranspiration is as much as 25.69×108m3.So net use efficiency of water resources is 59%.Based on analyzing balance between water and land considering ecological environment at present,there exists the serious water shortage in the Shiyang River system where irrigation land considering ecological environment at present,there exists the serious water shortage in the Shiyang River system where irrigation lands have overloaded.These is a comparative balance between supply and demand of water resource in the Heibe River system.and the Sule River system has some surplus water to extend irrigation land.Use of agriculture water accounts for 83.3% and ecological forest and grass for 6.9%.The Hexi Corridor still has a great potential for water saving in agriculture production.Water-saving efficiency of irrigation is about 10% by using such traditiona technologies as furrow and border-dike irrigation and small check irrigation,and water-saving wigh plastic film cover and techniques of advanced sprinkler and drip/micro irrigation ete.can save more than 60% of irrigated water.Incremental irrigation area for water-saving potential in the Hexi Corridor has been estimated as 56%-197% to original irrigation area.So the second water sources can be developed from water saving agriculture in the Hexi Corridor under Development of the Western Part of China in large scale .This potential can be realized step by step through developing the water-saving measures,improving the ecological condition of oasis agriculture,and optimizing allocation of water resources in there river systems.

  15. Influence of the Amazon River on the Nd isotope composition of deep water in the western equatorial Atlantic during the Oligocene-Miocene transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Joseph A.; Gutjahr, Marcus; James, Rachael H.; Anand, Pallavi; Wilson, Paul A.

    2016-11-01

    Dissolved and particulate neodymium (Nd) are mainly supplied to the oceans via rivers, dust, and release from marine sediments along continental margins. This process, together with the short oceanic residence time of Nd, gives rise to pronounced spatial gradients in oceanic 143Nd/144Nd ratios (εNd). However, we do not yet have a good understanding of the extent to which the influence of riverine point-source Nd supply can be distinguished from changes in mixing between different water masses in the marine geological record. This gap in knowledge is important to fill because there is growing awareness that major global climate transitions may be associated not only with changes in large-scale ocean water mass mixing, but also with important changes in continental hydroclimate and weathering. Here we present εNd data for fossilised fish teeth, planktonic foraminifera, and the Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide and detrital fractions of sediments recovered from Ocean Drilling Project (ODP) Site 926 on Ceara Rise, situated approximately 800 km from the mouth of the River Amazon. Our records span the Mi-1 glaciation event during the Oligocene-Miocene transition (OMT; ∼23 Ma). We compare our εNd records with data for ambient deep Atlantic northern and southern component waters to assess the influence of particulate input from the Amazon River on Nd in ancient deep waters at this site. εNd values for all of our fish teeth, foraminifera, and Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide samples are extremely unradiogenic (εNd ≈ - 15); much lower than the εNd for deep waters of modern or Oligocene-Miocene age from the North Atlantic (εNd ≈ - 10) and South Atlantic (εNd ≈ - 8). This finding suggests that partial dissolution of detrital particulate material from the Amazon (εNd ≈ - 18) strongly influences the εNd values of deep waters at Ceara Rise across the OMT. We conclude that terrestrially derived inputs of Nd can affect εNd values of deep water many hundreds of kilometres from source. Our

  16. Improving Urban Corridor that Respect to Public Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahrah, W.; Rahmadhani, N.; Nasution, A. D.; Pane, I. F.

    2017-03-01

    The urban corridor is more than just a linear space to circulation. It is a place for community activities. Since the urban area in Indonesia functionates without guidelines, it is necessary to analyze how this space being used by the community. The objective of the research is to explore the problems in utilization of public space in Dr. Mansur corridor in Medan and to propose some recommendation to improve it. The survey was started by mapping the physical situation that based on urban design aspects and the activities occur. Based on the data, the study identified the problems of the public space utilization. Next, study selected several buildings that significant in generating public life. The study interviewed the building’s owners and users/customers to get their opinion and perception about the using of urban public space utilization in the corridor in relation to their private function. The study analyzed the problems and opportunity to redesign the buildings that respect to public space. Then, the design ideas were presented to the buildings owners to get their response. The result of the observation shows that the fundamental problem in the corridor is the intervention of the private interest to the street as public space. The study indicates that the majority of the buildings owner was not aware that their buildings had distracted the urban public space. However, they gave a positive respond to the design recommendation. The design offered the solution that provided individual needs without intervention to the public realm. The study can contribute to improving urban corridor by educating the community with architecture and urban design.

  17. Investment-centred transitioning from agrarian-tourism economy to manufacturing in cross river state, south-eastern/south-south, Nigeria: A theoretical perspective and background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingwe Richard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Embattled by ministries, departments and agencies of Nigeria’s federal government, that worked together with neighbouring (Akwa Ibom State government to remove Cross River State from the country’s oil-producing states entitled to receipt of larger statutory allocations compared to their counterparts, Cross River State Government’s policy of promoting regional development through attraction of foreign direct investment (FDI since 2009 is receiving praises. This article presents contexts, core-periphery theoretical perspectives, and comments elucidating intricacies of FDI-centred sub-national regional development strategizing in the context of phenomenal globalization of neoliberal capitalism. It is argued that the core-periphery theory’s current status promises ‘depressed’ sub-national regions the development strategies they require for transiting from backwardness to growth. This assertion derives from the theory’s encouragement of Nigeria’s ‘depressed’ sub-national regions to aspire towards applying innovative policies/instruments capable of reversing undesirable circumstances that sometimes surpass standards previously/currently attained by counterparts placed higher on the development ladder.

  18. Insights on the opening of the Galerian mammal migration pathway from magnetostratigraphy of the Pleistocene marine-continental transition in the Arda River section (northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monesi, Edoardo; Muttoni, Giovanni; Scardia, Giancarlo; Felletti, Fabrizio; Bona, Fabio; Sala, Benedetto; Tremolada, Fabrizio; Francou, Carlo; Raineri, Gianluca

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the magnetostratigraphy of the Arda River section (northern Italy) where the transition from marine to continental sedimentation occurring in the Po River basin during the Pleistocene is registered. Four magnetic polarity reversals were used to construct an age model of sedimentation aided by marine biostratigraphy and tied to a standard δ18O curve from the literature. The section spans from the Olduvai subchron (1.94-1.78 Ma) across the Jaramillo subchron (1.07-0.99 Ma) up to the Brunhes-Matuyama boundary (0.78 Ma). The onset of continental deposition occurred during marine isotope stage (MIS) 30 at ˜1.04 Ma. An association of Villafranchian and Early Galerian mammals, including Sus strozzii and Ursus dolinensis, has been found in the continental sediments dated to MIS 29-27 (˜0.99 Ma). Above follows a prominent fluvial conglomerate attributed to the first major lowstand of the Pleistocene culminating with MIS 22 at ˜0.9 Ma during the late Early Pleistocene climate turnover (EPT). These and other data from the literature are used to reconstruct the onset of continental deposition in the greater Po basin and shed light on the opening of the migration pathway that brought far-traveled Galerian mammal immigrants to enter Europe for the first time during the EPT.

  19. Control On Fluid Flow Properties In Sandstone: Interactions Between Diagenesis Processes And Fracture Corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossennec, Claire; Géraud, Yves; Moretti, Isabelle; Mattioni, Luca

    2016-04-01

    During the development of a fault zone, processes occur at different scales: secondary faults and fractures development in the damage zone while "diagenetic" processes, i.e: fluid rock interaction at the grains size scale, contribute to modify the matrix features. Spatial distribution of these processes is clearly controlled by microstructural transformations induced by fractured corridors and their location. Understanding flowing properties in the associated damage zone contributes to the better modeling of the fluid flow in faulted and fractured reservoirs which could be oil, gas or water bearing. The Lower Triassic Buntsandstein sandstones outcrop of Cleebourg is located in the Hochwald Horst affected by a major NNE-SSW striking fault, and the structure globally dips with 30° toward Rhenish Fault (Upper Rhine Graben main western border fault). The study of the outcrop aims to decipher the fluid-flow scheme and interactions between fracture network and diagenetic features distribution in the damage zone of a fault, located close to major faulted areas, through field and laboratories petrophysical measurements (permeability, thermic conductivity), and samples microstructural and diagenetical descriptions. The outcrop is structurally divided into a 14 meters thick fault core, surrounded by 5 meters thick transition zones, and damage zone of minimum thickness of 40 meters (total thickness unknown, due to the limits of the outcrop). Damage zone includes three fractured corridors, perpendicular to bedding and from 2 to 5 meters thick. Results presented here were acquired in 2 different layers with similar lithology but only on damage zone samples. In entire damage zone, porosity results and thin section description allow to distinguish two different facies: • Fa1 Intermediate porous (porosity of 12%) sandstone with major illite cement and clay content up to 20% (detrital and diagenetic); • Fa2 High porous (porosity >15%) sandstone with quartz feeding

  20. Freight corridor performance measurement system: A framework for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. Havenga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: On a national level, South Africa’s freight logistics industry is inefficient. The country ranks 36th out of 40 countries in terms of transport productivity (tonne kilometres as a ratio of gross domestic product, or GDP; the ratio of freight logistics costs to GDP measured 11.1% in 2013, compared to that of developed regions which measures in the order of 9%; and rail tonne-km market share on the two most dense long-distance corridors, namely, GautengDurban and Gauteng-Cape Town, is only 12.8% and 4.4%, respectively, whereas rail is globally acknowledged as a more efficient provider of long-distance freight solutions, given appropriate investments and service commitments.Objectives: A cornerstone of improved national freight logistics performance is the availability of reliable indicators to quantify the efficiency and capacity of the logistics network over the intermediate and long term, thereby enabling an evidence-based policy and investment environment. The objective of this article is to describe the foundation framework (i.e. phase 1 for South Africa’s freight corridor performance measurement system (CPMS. Once populated, the CPMS will be a key generator of indicators to facilitate the systemic management of corridors as a national production factor and thereby contributing to South Africa’s competitiveness.Method: The design of South Africa’s CPMS was informed by desktop research and refined through an extensive stakeholder consultation process. A distinction was made between South Africa’s dedicated bulk corridors and the multi-modal corridors.Results: Facilitating both stakeholder involvement and agreement on key indicators, as well as the eventual development of a system supporting the population, aggregation and dissemination of the CPMS are critical outcomes for the management of corridors as a national production factor. Three overarching corridor indicators were defined, relating to increased throughput, lower

  1. How green are the TEN-T core network corridors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    "Green corridors‟ is a concept introduced by the European Commission to enhance the provision of sustainable freight transport logistics services by concentrating freight traffic between major hubs and by relatively long distances. SuperGreen, a Coordination and Support Action aiming at further...... defining this concept, identified the characteristics that distinguish a green corridor from an otherwise efficient one. The main thesis of this paper is that the „core network corridors‟ of the new TEN-T guidelines exhibit all these qualities and the vision of a green corridor network in Europe is close...... to reality. To support this thesis, and in continuation of the work of SuperGreen, the paper examines the proposed new „guidelines‟ for the development of the TEN-T after presenting a brief history of transport network development in Europe....

  2. Characterization of mean transit time at large springs in the Upper Colorado River Basin, USA: a tool for assessing groundwater discharge vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solder, John E.; Stolp, Bernard J.; Heilweil, Victor M.; Susong, David D.

    2016-12-01

    Environmental tracers (noble gases, tritium, industrial gases, stable isotopes, and radio-carbon) and hydrogeology were interpreted to determine groundwater transit-time distribution and calculate mean transit time (MTT) with lumped parameter modeling at 19 large springs distributed throughout the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB), USA. The predictive value of the MTT to evaluate the pattern and timing of groundwater response to hydraulic stress (i.e., vulnerability) is examined by a statistical analysis of MTT, historical spring discharge records, and the Palmer Hydrological Drought Index. MTTs of the springs range from 10 to 15,000 years and 90 % of the cumulative discharge-weighted travel-time distribution falls within the range of 2-10,000 years. Historical variability in discharge was assessed as the ratio of 10-90 % flow-exceedance ( R 10/90%) and ranged from 2.8 to 1.1 for select springs with available discharge data. The lag-time (i.e., delay in discharge response to drought conditions) was determined by cross-correlation analysis and ranged from 0.5 to 6 years for the same select springs. Springs with shorter MTTs (groundwater response. Results indicate that groundwater discharge to streams in the UCRB will likely respond on the order of years to climate variation and increasing groundwater withdrawals.

  3. Characterization of mean transit time at large springs in the Upper Colorado River Basin, USA: a tool for assessing groundwater discharge vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solder, John E.; Stolp, Bernard J.; Heilweil, Victor M.; Susong, David D.

    2016-07-01

    Environmental tracers (noble gases, tritium, industrial gases, stable isotopes, and radio-carbon) and hydrogeology were interpreted to determine groundwater transit-time distribution and calculate mean transit time (MTT) with lumped parameter modeling at 19 large springs distributed throughout the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB), USA. The predictive value of the MTT to evaluate the pattern and timing of groundwater response to hydraulic stress (i.e., vulnerability) is examined by a statistical analysis of MTT, historical spring discharge records, and the Palmer Hydrological Drought Index. MTTs of the springs range from 10 to 15,000 years and 90 % of the cumulative discharge-weighted travel-time distribution falls within the range of 2-10,000 years. Historical variability in discharge was assessed as the ratio of 10-90 % flow-exceedance (R 10/90%) and ranged from 2.8 to 1.1 for select springs with available discharge data. The lag-time (i.e., delay in discharge response to drought conditions) was determined by cross-correlation analysis and ranged from 0.5 to 6 years for the same select springs. Springs with shorter MTTs (<80 years) statistically correlate with larger discharge variations and faster responses to drought, indicating MTT can be used for estimating the relative magnitude and timing of groundwater response. Results indicate that groundwater discharge to streams in the UCRB will likely respond on the order of years to climate variation and increasing groundwater withdrawals.

  4. Bison phylogeography constrains dispersal and viability of the Ice Free Corridor in western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintzman, Peter D; Froese, Duane; Ives, John W; Soares, André E R; Zazula, Grant D; Letts, Brandon; Andrews, Thomas D; Driver, Jonathan C; Hall, Elizabeth; Hare, P Gregory; Jass, Christopher N; MacKay, Glen; Southon, John R; Stiller, Mathias; Woywitka, Robin; Suchard, Marc A; Shapiro, Beth

    2016-07-19

    The Ice Free Corridor has been invoked as a route for Pleistocene human and animal dispersals between eastern Beringia and more southerly areas of North America. Despite the significance of the corridor, there are limited data for when and how this corridor was used. Hypothetical uses of the corridor include: the first expansion of humans from Beringia into the Americas, northward postglacial expansions of fluted point technologies into Beringia, and continued use of the corridor as a contact route between the north and south. Here, we use radiocarbon dates and ancient mitochondrial DNA from late Pleistocene bison fossils to determine the chronology for when the corridor was open and viable for biotic dispersals. The corridor was closed after ∼23,000 until 13,400 calendar years ago (cal y BP), after which we find the first evidence, to our knowledge, that bison used this route to disperse from the south, and by 13,000 y from the north. Our chronology supports a habitable and traversable corridor by at least 13,000 cal y BP, just before the first appearance of Clovis technology in interior North America, and indicates that the corridor would not have been available for significantly earlier southward human dispersal. Following the opening of the corridor, multiple dispersals of human groups between Beringia and interior North America may have continued throughout the latest Pleistocene and early Holocene. Our results highlight the utility of phylogeographic analyses to test hypotheses about paleoecological history and the viability of dispersal routes over time.

  5. Modelling Fine Scale Movement Corridors for the Tricarinate Hill Turtle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, I.; Kumar, R. S.; Habib, B.; Talukdar, G.

    2016-06-01

    Habitat loss and the destruction of habitat connectivity can lead to species extinction by isolation of population. Identifying important habitat corridors to enhance habitat connectivity is imperative for species conservation by preserving dispersal pattern to maintain genetic diversity. Circuit theory is a novel tool to model habitat connectivity as it considers habitat as an electronic circuit board and species movement as a certain amount of current moving around through different resistors in the circuit. Most studies involving circuit theory have been carried out at small scales on large ranging animals like wolves or pumas, and more recently on tigers. This calls for a study that tests circuit theory at a large scale to model micro-scale habitat connectivity. The present study on a small South-Asian geoemydid, the Tricarinate Hill-turtle (Melanochelys tricarinata), focuses on habitat connectivity at a very fine scale. The Tricarinate has a small body size (carapace length: 127-175 mm) and home range (8000-15000 m2), with very specific habitat requirements and movement patterns. We used very high resolution Worldview satellite data and extensive field observations to derive a model of landscape permeability at 1 : 2,000 scale to suit the target species. Circuit theory was applied to model potential corridors between core habitat patches for the Tricarinate Hill-turtle. The modelled corridors were validated by extensive ground tracking data collected using thread spool technique and found to be functional. Therefore, circuit theory is a promising tool for accurately identifying corridors, to aid in habitat studies of small species.

  6. Comparing the efficiency of transport routes and corridors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Gabriel GHIŢULEASA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the broader context of the importance granted to accessibility by the European spatial planning policies, comparing the efficiency of European and national transportation routes and corridors constitutes an issue of particular relevance for Romania. In order to resolve it, this paper proposes a methodology based on potential accessibility, determined by the total population served, and the efficiency of the path, by analogy with the least squares method. Both approaches were applied to internal and European routes.

  7. Mobile Robot Navigation in a Corridor Using Visual Odometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayramoglu, Enis; Andersen, Nils Axel; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad;

    2009-01-01

    Incorporation of computer vision into mobile robot localization is studied in this work. It includes the generation of localization information from raw images and its fusion with the odometric pose estimation. The technique is then implemented on a small mobile robot operating at a corridor envi...... Kalman filter as a parameter estimator is also applied to estimate odometry parameters. Experimental results are included. The robustness and the precision of the entire system is illustrated by performing simple navigation tasks....

  8. Sacroiliac secure corridor: analysis for safe insertion of iliosacral screws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Alves Cruz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Posterior pelvic lesions, especially of the sacral-iliac joint, have high mortality and morbidity risks. Definitive fixation is necessary for the joint stabilization, and one option is the sacral percutaneous pinning with screws. Proximity to important structures to this region brings risks to the fixation procedure; therefore, it is important to know the tridimensional anatomy of the pelvis posterior region. Deviations of the surgeon's hand of four degrees may target the screws to those structures; dimorphisms of the upper sacrum and a poor lesion reduction may redound in a screw malpositioning. This study is aimed to evaluate the dimensions of a safe surgical corridor for safe sacroiliac screw insertion and relations with age and sex of the patients. METHOD: One hundred randomly selected pelvis CTs of patients with no pelvic diseases, seen at a tertiary care teaching Hospital. Measurements were made by computer and the safest area for screw insertion was calculated by two methods. The results were expressed in mm (not in degrees, in order to be a further surgical reference. RESULTS: There was a significant size difference in the analyzed sacral vertebra, differing on a wider size in men than in women. There was no significant statistical difference between vertebral size and age. By both methods, a safe area for screw insertion could be defined. CONCLUSION: Age does not influence the width of the surgical corridor. The surgeon has a safe corridor considered narrower when inserting screws in a female pelvis than when in a male one. However, as the smallest vertebra found (feminine was considered for statics, it was concluded that this corridor is 20 mm wide in any direction, taking as a reference the centrum of the vertebra.

  9. Evaluating Connectivity for two mid-sized mammals Across Riparian Corridors using Wildlife Crossing Monitoring and Species Distribution Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, S.

    2016-12-01

    The movement of wildlife can be constrained by river renovation projects owing to the presence of artificial structures. This study evaluates lateral connectivity, the ability to cross from habitat on one side of the river, through riparian vegetation, embankments, and the river to the other, of two mammal species, the leopard cat (Felis bengalensis euptilura) and water deer (Hydropotes inermis). We used 34 months of monitoring on 250 m stream segments on the Seom river, in South Korea to model the lateral connectivity of the stream between suitable habitats on either side of the steam. Habitat suitability within the landscape was determined using species distribution modelingand was used to determine where we thought the animals would want to pass across the river. We compared the predicted crossing locations to observed crossings.We assessed lateral connectivity suitability with maximum entropy and logistic regression models, and species' presences detected from snow tracking, heat sensor cameras, and scat or other signs, as well as landscape variables. Leopard cats prefer upland forest, while water deer prefer the forest edge and riparian corridor. For both target species, the best riparian habitats were characterized by the presence of vegetation cover on the embankment and by at least one side of an embankment being adjacent to farmland or forest cover. The lateral connectivity for the two target species showed different requirements. Water deer cross through large culverts with an openness ratio of 0.7 or under bridges, whereas leopard cats utilized drainage pipes and culvert boxes with a much smaller openness ratio. Stream reaches located close to a river tributary had the highest connectivity values, and areas modeled as good habitat for both species thatlink watershed and riparian habitats showed high connectivity values. Artifacts such as steep banks, concrete embankments, and adjacent roads were found to degrade the lateral connectivity of wildlife

  10. Modeling signalized intersection safety with corridor-level spatial correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feng; Wang, Xuesong; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed A

    2010-01-01

    Intersections in close spatial proximity along a corridor should be considered as correlated due to interacted traffic flows as well as similar road design and environmental characteristics. It is critical to incorporate this spatial correlation for assessing the true safety impacts of risk factors. In this paper, several Bayesian models were developed to model the crash data from 170 signalized intersections in the state of Florida. The safety impacts of risk factors such as geometric design features, traffic control, and traffic flow characteristics were evaluated. The Poisson and Negative Binomial Bayesian models with non-informative priors were fitted but the focus is to incorporate spatial correlations among intersections. Two alternative models were proposed to capture this correlation: (1) a mixed effect model in which the corridor-level correlation is incorporated through a corridor-specific random effect and (2) a conditional autoregressive model in which the magnitude of correlations is determined by spatial distances among intersections. The models were compared using the Deviance Information Criterion. The results indicate that the Poisson spatial model provides the best model fitting. Analysis of the posterior distributions of model parameters indicated that the size of intersection, the traffic conditions by turning movement, and the coordination of signal phase have significant impacts on intersection safety.

  11. Analysis of Potential Energy Corridors Proposed by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, James A.; Cantwell, Brian J.; Hlava, Kevin J.; Moore, H Robert; Orr, Andrew B.; Zvolanek, Emily A.

    2014-02-24

    This report, Analysis of Potential Energy Corridors Proposed by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), was prepared by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). The intent of WECC’s work was to identify planning-level energy corridors that the Department of Energy (DOE) and its affiliates could study in greater detail. Argonne was tasked by DOE to analyze the WECC Proposed Energy Corridors in five topic areas for use in reviewing and revising existing corridors, as well as designating additional energy corridors in the 11 western states. In compliance with Section 368 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct), the Secretaries of Energy, Agriculture, and the Interior (Secretaries) published a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement in 2008 to address the proposed designation of energy transport corridors on federal lands in the 11 western states. Subsequently, Records of Decision designating the corridors were issued in 2009 by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the U.S. Forest Service (USFS). The 2012 settlement of a lawsuit, brought by The Wilderness Society and others against the United States, which identified environmental concerns for many of the corridors requires, among other things, periodic reviews of the corridors to assess the need for revisions, deletions, or additions. A 2013 Presidential Memorandum requires the Secretaries to undertake a continuing effort to identify and designate energy corridors. The WECC Proposed Energy Corridors and their analyses in this report provide key information for reviewing and revising existing corridors, as well as designating additional energy corridors in the 11 western states. Load centers and generation hubs identified in the WECC analysis, particularly as they reflect renewable energy development, would be useful in reviewing and potentially updating the designated Section 368 corridor network. Argonne used Geographic Information System (GIS) technology to

  12. Does water level affect benthic macro-invertebrates of a marginal lake in a tropical river-reservoir transition zone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerlin, R A; Henry, R

    2014-05-01

    Benthic macro-invertebrates are important components of freshwater ecosystems which are involved in ecological processes such as energy transfer between detritus and consumers and organic matter recycling. The aim of this work was to investigate the variation in organism richness, diversity and density of benthic fauna during the annual cycle in Camargo Lake, a lake marginal to Paranapanema River, southeast Brazil. The correlation of environmental factors with community attributes of the macro-benthic fauna was assessed. Since Camargo Lake is connected to the river, we tested the hypothesis that water level variation is the main regulating factor of environmental variables and of the composition and abundance of benthic macro-invertebrates. The results indicated that lake depth varied with rainfall, being the highest at the end of the rising water period and the lowest at the beginning of this period. The sediment granulometry was more heterogeneous at the bottom of the lake by the end of the high water period. The benthic macro-invertebrate fauna was composed by 15 taxa. The Diptera order was represented by seven taxa and had greater richness in relation to other taxa. This group was responsible for 60% of the total abundance of organisms, followed by Ephemeroptera (22%) and Anellida (16%). Significant differences were observed over time in total richness and, in density of Narapa bonettoi, Chaoborus, Ablabesmyia gr. annulata, Chironomus gigas, Larsia fittkau, and Procladius sp. 2. Total taxa richness correlated negatively with water pH, transparency, conductivity, and bottom water oxygen. Higher positive correlations were found between the densities of some taxa and bottom water oxygen, conductivity and very fine sand, silt + clay of sediment, while negative correlations were recorded with organic matter, and fine, medium and coarse sand, bottom water temperature, mean temperature and rainfall. The significant temporal difference in water level was associated

  13. Landscape corridors can increase invasion by an exotic species and reduce diversity of native species.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resasco, Julian [University of Florida; et al,

    2014-04-01

    Abstract. Landscape corridors are commonly used to mitigate negative effects of habitat fragmentation, but concerns persist that they may facilitate the spread of invasive species. In a replicated landscape experiment of open habitat, we measured effects of corridors on the invasive fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, and native ants. Fire ants have two social forms: polygyne, which tend to disperse poorly but establish at high densities, and monogyne, which disperse widely but establish at lower densities. In landscapes dominated by polygyne fire ants, fire ant abundance was higher and native ant diversity was lower in habitat patches connected by corridors than in unconnected patches. Conversely, in landscapes dominated by monogyne fire ants, connectivity had no influence on fire ant abundance and native ant diversity. Polygyne fire ants dominated recently created landscapes, suggesting that these corridor effects may be transient. Our results suggest that corridors can facilitate invasion and they highlight the importance of considering species’ traits when assessing corridor utility.

  14. The Inter-city Rail Transit Planning Scheme for Jiangsu Cities Complex along Yangtze River%江苏省沿江城市群城际轨道交通线网规划方案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓振林

    2012-01-01

    城际轨道交通的规划建设是城市群发展的必然要求,江苏沿江城市群是我国城市化进程过程中重点发展的区域。根据沿江地区城市群的特征,把沿江地区城际轨道交通线网分为主骨架城际网和都市圈城际网两个层次进行规划,重点研究沿江地区都市圈内部中心城市之间以及中心城市与中小城市之间的城际轨道交通通勤线网。%Plan and construction of intercity rail transit is an inevitable demand for the development of urban complexes to meet the requirements of increasing demand of passengers and freight traffic.Jiangsu cities complex along Yangtze River is a key concern during the process of China’s urbanization process.Based on the economic characteristics of cities complex along Yangtze River,the urban rain transit network planning along Yangtze River is classified into two levels: backbone inter-city network and metropolitan area inter-city network,key research is carried out on the intercity rail way network among the center cities and between the central city and medium and small city of the metropolitan area along Yangtze River.This paper is designed to put forward a more reasonable network planning of inter-city rail transit for Jiangsu cities complex along Yangtze River,but also provides some reference for the inter-city rail transit network planning of other urban agglomerations,which has a positive theoretical and practical significance.

  15. El corredor fluvial del Mapocho como recurso multifacético de Santiago: avances y retrocesos en las concepciones y acciones de un siglo./ The corridor of the Mapocho River as a Opportunity to Santiago: a century of progress and setbacks in its projects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Pávez Reyes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se revisa en términos generales los avances y retrocesos en las concepciones y acciones sobre el río Mapocho, durante el siglo XX y comienzos del siglo XXI, en la perspectiva de considerar el corredor fluvial como un recurso estructurante mayor y multifacético de la Región Metropolitana de Santiago de Chile./ This article reviews the history of the plans for the Mapocho river in the last century. The process varies between making of it a structural element in the planning of the Region Metropolitana or don't.

  16. SECURITY RISKS, MYTHS IN A TRANSITIONING SUB-NATIONAL REGIONAL ECONOMY (CROSS RIVER STATE AND IMAGINATIVE GEOGRAPHIES OF NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. UKWAYI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of an “international community” through accumulation of perceived risks that contrasts with those risks (of considerably lower levels of seriousness compared to those perceived constitutes one of the interesting (or intriguing subjects of risks and disaster studies surrounding the 9/11 era. The constructions of “imaginative geographies”, have frequently been biased in the practices that underlie the mapping of the foreign places tend to put-down the affected regions in their “paintings” for the global community. The latter are subsequently “demonized” in their ratings of competence for participating in world trade, tourism, travel, among other social/cultural, and economic and political activities. The objective of this article is to highlight how the exaggeration of risks (contrasted to actually existing/lived risks, practices that are frequently associated with such adverse “imaginative geographies” poses sub-national regional development dilemma in Nigeria’s Niger Delta. We trace the roots of adverse “imaginative geographies” of Nigeria to the Abacha dictatorship (1993-1997. Then we highlight the mixed characteristics of the Niger Delta conditions during the “return of positive image recapture” by Nigeria’s federal government (re-democratisation of the Fourth Republic, 1999-present, re-branding campaigns; as well as adverse conditions present. Most significantly, we show that despite these adversities, a combination of favorable geographical size, differentiation, sub-national regional security programme formulation and management taking aims at diversification have created “large oases” of peace and security in Cross River State, a part of the Niger Delta that has been completely unscathed by insurgencies of the nearby sub-national region and further away national origin. Apart from identifying sub-national regions qualifying for delisting from “adverse imaginative geographies” due to

  17. Large woody debris mobility and accumulation by an extreme flood - an example from the Dyje River, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macka, Zdenek; Krejci, Lukas

    2010-05-01

    . Distinctive groups of jams exists along the river course, the largest concentration of jams being in the downstream quarter of the surveyed river reach. Spatial distribution of jams does not seem to be very sensitive to the valley pattern. There is not a significant difference between the number of jams at meander apexes, inflections or intermediate positions. Most of the jams are deposited in the riparian zone or at the terrestrial/aquatic transition and only minor proportion of them are situated within the river channel. Transport rate of LWD is strongly conditioned by the ratio between wood length and channel width. The bankfull channel width varies between 40 and 60 m, whilst the typical LWD length is between 3 and 6 m; thus, river system is strongly transport susceptible. On the other hand, the LWD transport is inhibited by the trapping of wood on riparian trees, large boulders and large immobile fallen trees (key members). Most jams were deposited due to the blockage of transport by standing trees within the riparian zone (74 %). Intensive LWD transport is rather episodic in nature, which comes from the flow regulation by upstream water reservoir. Smaller floods are eliminated, thus large quantities of LWD gradually accumulate in the riparian zone. Rare, large magnitude floods than mobilize and redeposit large volumes of LWD which become aggregated into jams. Input processes - wind throws, diseases, parasites, bank erosion - deliver trees rather randomly to the river corridor. On the other hand, floods increase the degree of LWD spatial organisation. The research was supported by Czech Science Foundation, grant no. 205/08/0926.

  18. Argali Sheep (Ovis ammon Movement Corridors Between Critical Resources in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Murdoch

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how animals move through a landscape can reveal corridors or narrow paths of movement that connect discrete parts of a landscape. Identifying corridors can be important for planning conservation activities, especially for threatened species. We synthesized information on the ranging behavior and distribution of argali sheep to quantify linkages and potential pinch points of movement between critical resources in Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, Mongolia. We used a cost-weighted distance approach to quantify the relative cost of movement between water sources (springs, which represent critical resources. We used values to map a corridor of movement and examined movement fl ow through the corridor using a circuit theory approach. We identifi ed a corridor connecting all springs that covered 50.6 km2 . Most of the corridor overlapped the reserve (77% and reserve’s core area (62%. A least-cost path between the furthest separated springs (18 km was 26.4 km. Most movement fl ow through the corridor concentrated around springs, especially those in the southern and central portions of the corridor. The analysis also revealed several pinch points that represent a conservation concern. We recommend prioritizing activities at pinch points and extending protected area boundaries to encompass all springs to eff ectively protect the entire corridor.

  19. The evaluation of the development of the Danube-Morava corridor traffic network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vemić Mirčeta R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic has the primary influence on the development of the Danube-Morava Corridor as a specific natural, geographically determined and stochastic-functional territorial system. The traffic network of roads railway lines and waterways along this corridor is at the very core of the Trans-European Transport Corridor 10, representing its most dynamic, most congested and highest-traffic section. The influence, namely the creative power of traffic, largely depends on the degree of development modernization and maintenance of the network. This work presents the assessment of the development of the Danube-Morava Corridor traffic network.

  20. Transition of fertilizer application and agricultural pollution loads: a case study in the Nhue-Day River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, P H; Harada, H; Fujii, S; Lien, N P H; Hai, H T; Anh, P N; Tanaka, S

    2015-01-01

    Rapid socio-economic development in suburban areas of developing countries has induced changes in agricultural waste and nutrient management, resulting in water pollution. The study aimed at estimating agricultural nutrient cycles and their contribution to the water environment. A material flow model of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) was developed focusing on agricultural activities from 1980 to 2010 in Trai hamlet, an agricultural watershed in Nhue-Day River basin, Vietnam. The model focused on the change in household management of human excreta and livestock excreta, and chemical fertilizer consumption. The results showed that the proportion of nutrients from compost/manure applied to paddy fields decreased from 85 to 41% for both N and P between 1980 and 2010. The nutrient inputs derived from chemical fertilizer decreased 6% between 1980 and 2000 for both N and P. Then, these nutrients increased 1.4 times for N and 1.2 times for P from 2000 to 2010. As of 2010, the total inputs to paddy fields have amounted to 435 kg-N/ha/year and 90 kg-P/ha/year. Of these nutrient inputs, 40% of N and 65% of P were derived from chemical fertilizer. Thirty per cent (30%) of total N input was discharged to the water bodies through agricultural runoff and 47% of total P input accumulated in soil.

  1. Aeolian process of the dried-up riverbeds of the Hexi Corridor, China: a wind tunnel experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Caixia; Wang, Xunming; Dong, Zhibao; Hua, Ting

    2017-08-01

    Wind tunnel studies, which remain limited, are an important tool to understand the aeolian processes of dried-up riverbeds. The particle size, chemical composition, and the mineral contents of sediments arising from the dried river beds are poorly understood. Dried-up riverbeds cover a wide area in the Hexi Corridor, China, and comprise a complex synthesis of different land surfaces, including aeolian deposits, pavement surfaces, and Takyr crust. The results of the present wind tunnel experiment suggest that aeolian transport from the dried-up riverbeds of the Hexi Corridor ranges from 0 to 177.04 g/m(2)/min and that dry riverbeds could be one of the main sources of dust emissions in this region. As soon as the wind velocity reaches 16 m/s and assuming that there are abundant source materials available, aeolian transport intensity increases rapidly. The dried-up riverbed sediment and the associated aeolian transported material were composed mainly of fine and medium sands. However, the transported samples were coarser than the bed samples, because of the sorting effect of the aeolian processes on the sediment. The aeolian processes also led to regional elemental migration and mineral composition variations.

  2. A review of Gobiid expansion along the Danube-Rhine corridor – geopolitical change as a driver for invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roche K.F.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Five Gobiid fish species have recently increased their ranges along the Danube/Rhine river corridor. Studies to date, however, have tended to be local, site specific and reactive, examining just one or few species. As such, overall range has tended to be assumed based on a summary of patchy, and sometimes contradictory, data. This study provides an up-to-date literature review of first records of occurrence for all five species along their expansion route. In addition, available shipping data are examined to identify possible proximal causes of introduction. Three main discontinuous population centres were identified; all at or near important container ports: Vienna, Duisburg and Rotterdam. Shipping is confirmed as an important factor in the rapid national and international expansion of Ponto-Caspian Gobiids, with downstream drift, rip-rap and heavy boat traffic contributing to rapid spread on the Rhine. Geopolitical factors, however, such as the fall of communism and the Balkan conflict, have been key in influencing where, when, and by which route gobies first appear. Rapid expansion of Gobiids in the Rhine raises the possibility of establishment throughout mainland Europe via two new potential invasion corridors across Germany/Poland and France.

  3. On the intensity and type transition of land use at the basin scale using RS/GIS: a case study of the Hanjiang River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guangming; Zeng, Qun; Yang, Shan; Hu, Limei; Lin, Xiaowei; Che, Yi; Zheng, Yuge

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the land use intensity and land use change type at the basin scale in the middle and lower reaches of the Hanjiang River Basin (in Hubei Province, China) by combining the Landsat TM images in 1995 and 2000 with the land use database (in scale 1:10,000) and relative data. In this study, the basic data is acquired from the interpretation of remote sensing (RS) images. The intensity of land use and the rate of change in double-directions of land use dynamics are calculated with the support of software ARC/INFO. The intensity of land use is indicated by the intensity coefficient of land use, and the transition of land use types is quantified as the rate of change in double-direction of land use types and also expressed as the transition matrix of land use types. The results are expressed in space by Geographic Information System (GIS) software. Results of this study show that (1) the intensity of land use is high in the study region, the intensity coefficients of land use in 1995 and 2000 are 260.025 and 290.526, respectively, and the intensity of development and utilization of land is trend to increscent; and (2) the rate of land use change in double directions in the whole study region is 0.52 with great spatial variation and the differentiation of land use types. In the differentiation of land use types, the unutilized land (with the rate to 4.391) is developed fast, the grassland (with 2.836) and water area (with 1.664) are disturbed severely, and these changes will influence the eco-environment in the Hanjiang River Basin and all the Yangtze Basin. The rates of the farmland and the woodland are 0.424 and 0.344, respectively, meaning that the fundamentals of regional human-environmental system are relative stable. With this study, we can conclude that (1) the patterns of land use are increasingly changing in the study region, the environmental impacts are escalated on this stage, and the further outcomes are destined to

  4. Understanding transitions in rice paddy extent and management in the Vietnamese Mekong River Delta using Landsat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontgis, C. P.; Schneider, A.; Ozdogan, M.

    2014-12-01

    Rice is a staple food crop for the majority of the world's population, yet paddy fields are threatened by urban expansion, climate change, and degraded agricultural land. For example, Vietnam, the second largest exporter of rice globally, grows most of its rice in the Mekong River Delta at the country's southern tip, yet this low-lying and heavily populated area is proving susceptible to land cover changes in the area. To properly monitor and manage the rice crops in this region, remote sensing of satellite imagery has been particularly useful; however, most efforts to map regional paddy area utilize coarse resolution MODIS or AVHRR data since the high temporal resolution of these datasets can overcome missing data issues due to clouds. Here, we aim to map the landscape using finer-scale Landsat data by generating dense time stacks over multiple growing seasons. First, we exploit dense stacks of data for circa 2000 and circa 2010 to classify rice using vegetation trajectories (EVI and NDWI). Next, these pixel-based rice maps are combined with image-based segments (generated using the open-source Mean-shift region-growing segmentation algorithm, which has been proven to optimally identify clusters within an image) to generate a polygon-based rice map using the majority rule. Results show that this method can map rice paddy agriculture with over 90% accuracy at a much finer spatial resolution than has ever been produced. Finally, this work also aims to differentiate between double- and triple-cropped rice paddies in the region, again by exploiting EVI trajectories, in an effort to determine how management practices have changed over the decade-long study period. Increasing the number of annual cropping cycles over the area can lead to soil degradation and lower yields per harvest, albeit larger total annual yields, so monitoring these practices is vital to understanding the sustainability of these agricultural systems.

  5. Infrastructure sufficiency in meeting water demand under climate-induced socio-hydrological transition in the urbanizing Capibaribe River Basin - Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Neto, A.; Scott, C. A.; Lima, E. A.; Montenegro, S. M. G. L.; Cirilo, J. A.

    2014-03-01

    Water availability for a range of human uses will increasingly be affected by climate change especially in the arid and semi-arid tropics. This paper aims to evaluate the ability of reservoirs and related infrastructure to meet targets for water supply in the Capibaribe River Basin (CRB), in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The basin has experienced spatial and sectoral (agriculture-urban) reconfiguration of water demands. Human settlements that were once dispersed, relying on intermittent sources of surface water, are now increasingly experiencing water-scarcity effects. As a result, rural populations in the CRB are concentrating around infrastructural water supplies in a socio-hydrological transition process that results from (a) hydroclimatic variability, (b) investment and assistance programs that may enhance but can also supplant local adaptive capacity, and (c) demographic trends driving urbanization of the state capital, Recife, which mirror urban growth across Brazil. In the CRB, demands are currently composed of 69.1% urban potable water, 14.3% industrial, 16.6% irrigation (with ecosystem-service demands met by residual flow). Based on the application of linked hydrologic and water-resources models using precipitation and temperature projections of the IPCC SRES A1B scenario, a reduction in rainfall of 31.8% translated to streamflow reduction of 67.4% under present reservoir operations rules. The increasing demand due to population was also taken into account. This would entail severe water supply reductions for human consumption (-45.3%) and irrigation (-78.0%) by the end of the 21st century. This study demonstrates the vulnerabilities of the infrastructure system during socio-hydrological transition in response to hydroclimatic and demand variabilities in the CRB and also indicates the differential spatial impacts and vulnerability of multiple uses of water to changes over time. The paper concludes with a discussion of the broader implications of climate

  6. Characterization of mean transit time at large springs in the Upper Colorado River Basin, USA: A tool for assessing groundwater discharge vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solder, John; Stolp, Bernard J.; Heilweil, Victor M.; Susong, David D.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental tracers (noble gases, tritium, industrial gases, stable isotopes, and radio-carbon) and hydrogeology were interpreted to determine groundwater transit-time distribution and calculate mean transit time (MTT) with lumped parameter modeling at 19 large springs distributed throughout the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB), USA. The predictive value of the MTT to evaluate the pattern and timing of groundwater response to hydraulic stress (i.e., vulnerability) is examined by a statistical analysis of MTT, historical spring discharge records, and the Palmer Hydrological Drought Index. MTTs of the springs range from 10 to 15,000 years and 90 % of the cumulative discharge-weighted travel-time distribution falls within the range of 2−10,000 years. Historical variability in discharge was assessed as the ratio of 10–90 % flow-exceedance (R 10/90%) and ranged from 2.8 to 1.1 for select springs with available discharge data. The lag-time (i.e., delay in discharge response to drought conditions) was determined by cross-correlation analysis and ranged from 0.5 to 6 years for the same select springs. Springs with shorter MTTs (<80 years) statistically correlate with larger discharge variations and faster responses to drought, indicating MTT can be used for estimating the relative magnitude and timing of groundwater response. Results indicate that groundwater discharge to streams in the UCRB will likely respond on the order of years to climate variation and increasing groundwater withdrawals.

  7. A humid corridor across the Sahara for the migration of early modern humans out of Africa 120,000 years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Anne H; Vance, Derek; Rohling, Eelco J; Barton, Nick; Rogerson, Mike; Fello, Nuri

    2008-10-28

    It is widely accepted that modern humans originated in sub-Saharan Africa approximately 150-200 thousand years ago (ka), but their route of dispersal across the currently hyperarid Sahara remains controversial. Given that the first modern humans north of the Sahara are found in the Levant approximately 120-90 ka, northward dispersal likely occurred during a humid episode in the Sahara within Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e (130-117 ka). The obvious dispersal route, the Nile, may be ruled out by notable differences between archaeological finds in the Nile Valley and the Levant at the critical time. Further west, space-born radar images reveal networks of-now buried-fossil river channels that extend across the desert to the Mediterranean coast, which represent alternative dispersal corridors. These corridors would explain scattered findings at desert oases of Middle Stone Age Aterian lithic industries with bifacial and tanged points that can be linked with industries further to the east and as far north as the Mediterranean coast. Here we present geochemical data that demonstrate that water in these fossil systems derived from the south during wet episodes in general, and penetrated all of the way to the Mediterranean during MIS 5e in particular. This proves the existence of an uninterrupted freshwater corridor across a currently hyperarid region of the Sahara at a key time for early modern human migrations to the north and out of Africa.

  8. Die Auswirkungen des China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC)

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    "Der China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) stellt eine der bislang größten chinesischen Auslandinvestitionen im Rahmen der "One Belt, One Road"-Initiative dar. Im Zuge der Ausgaben in Höhe von rund 46 Milliarden US-Dollar, die in den nächsten Jahren geplant sind, werden sich die chinesisch-pakistanischen Beziehungen weiter vertiefen. Zugleich wird Pakistan für die chinesische Außenpolitik an Bedeutung gewinnen. Der CPEC betrifft aber auch die indisch-pakistanischen Beziehungen. Der Transpor...

  9. Potential corridors and barriers for plague spread in central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Plague (Yersinia pestis infection) is a vector-borne disease which caused millions of human deaths in the Middle Ages. The hosts of plague are mostly rodents, and the disease is spread by the fleas that feed on them. Currently, the disease still circulates amongst sylvatic rodent populations all over the world, including great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus) populations in Central Asia. Great gerbils are social desert rodents that live in family groups in burrows, which are visible on satellite images. In great gerbil populations an abundance threshold exists, above which plague can spread causing epizootics. The spatial distribution of the host species is thought to influence the plague dynamics, such as the direction of plague spread, however no detailed analysis exists on the possible functional or structural corridors and barriers that are present in this population and landscape. This study aims to fill that gap. Methods Three 20 by 20 km areas with known great gerbil burrow distributions were used to analyse the spatial distribution of the burrows. Object-based image analysis was used to map the landscape at several scales, and was linked to the burrow maps. A novel object-based method was developed – the mean neighbour absolute burrow density difference (MNABDD) – to identify the optimal scale and evaluate the efficacy of using landscape objects as opposed to square cells. Multiple regression using raster maps was used to identify the landscape-ecological variables that explain burrow density best. Functional corridors and barriers were mapped using burrow density thresholds. Cumulative resistance of the burrow distribution to potential disease spread was evaluated using cost distance analysis. A 46-year plague surveillance dataset was used to evaluate whether plague spread was radially symmetric. Results The burrow distribution was found to be non-random and negatively correlated with Greenness, especially in the floodplain areas. Corridors and

  10. Potential corridors and barriers for plague spread in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilschut, Liesbeth I; Addink, Elisabeth A; Heesterbeek, Hans; Heier, Lise; Laudisoit, Anne; Begon, Mike; Davis, Stephen; Dubyanskiy, Vladimir M; Burdelov, Leonid A; de Jong, Steven M

    2013-10-31

    Plague (Yersinia pestis infection) is a vector-borne disease which caused millions of human deaths in the Middle Ages. The hosts of plague are mostly rodents, and the disease is spread by the fleas that feed on them. Currently, the disease still circulates amongst sylvatic rodent populations all over the world, including great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus) populations in Central Asia. Great gerbils are social desert rodents that live in family groups in burrows, which are visible on satellite images. In great gerbil populations an abundance threshold exists, above which plague can spread causing epizootics. The spatial distribution of the host species is thought to influence the plague dynamics, such as the direction of plague spread, however no detailed analysis exists on the possible functional or structural corridors and barriers that are present in this population and landscape. This study aims to fill that gap. Three 20 by 20 km areas with known great gerbil burrow distributions were used to analyse the spatial distribution of the burrows. Object-based image analysis was used to map the landscape at several scales, and was linked to the burrow maps. A novel object-based method was developed - the mean neighbour absolute burrow density difference (MNABDD) - to identify the optimal scale and evaluate the efficacy of using landscape objects as opposed to square cells. Multiple regression using raster maps was used to identify the landscape-ecological variables that explain burrow density best. Functional corridors and barriers were mapped using burrow density thresholds. Cumulative resistance of the burrow distribution to potential disease spread was evaluated using cost distance analysis. A 46-year plague surveillance dataset was used to evaluate whether plague spread was radially symmetric. The burrow distribution was found to be non-random and negatively correlated with Greenness, especially in the floodplain areas. Corridors and barriers showed a mostly NWSE

  11. Winter Responses of Forest Birds to Habitat Corridors and Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Cassady St. Clair

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Forest fragmentation and habitat loss may disrupt the movement or dispersal of forest-dwelling birds. Despite much interest in the severity of these effects and ways of mitigating them, little is known about actual movement patterns in different habitat types. We studied the movement of wintering resident birds, lured by playbacks of mobbing calls, to compare the willingness of forest birds to travel various distances in continuous forest, along narrow corridors (fencerows, and across gaps in forest cover. We also quantified the willingness of Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus to cross gaps when alternative forested detour routes were available. All species were less likely to respond to the calls as distance increased to 200 m, although White-breasted Nuthatches (Sitta carolinensis and Hairy Woodpeckers (Picoides villosus were generally less likely to respond than chickadees and Downy Woodpeckers (P. pubescens. Chickadees were as likely to travel in corridors as in continuous forest, but were less likely to cross gaps as the gap distance increased. The other species were less willing to travel in corridors and gaps relative to forest, and the differences among habitats also increased with distance. For chickadees, gap-crossing decisions in the presence of forested detours varied over the range of distances that we tested, and were primarily influenced by detour efficiency (the length of the shortcut relative to the available detour. Over short distances, birds used forested detours, regardless of their efficiency. As absolute distances increased, birds tended to employ larger shortcuts in the open when detour efficiency was low or initial distance in the open was high, but they limited their distance from the nearest forest edge to 25 m. Thus, chickadees were unwilling to cross gaps of > 50 m when they had forested alternatives, yet they sometimes crossed gaps as large as 200 m when no such choice existed. Our results suggest that

  12. Travel modal choice analysis for traffic corridors based on decision-theoretic approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭伟; 张毅; 尤佳轩; 胡坚明; 裴欣

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development of multimodal transportation system prompts travellers to choose multiple transportation modes, such as private vehicles or taxi, transit (subways or buses), or park-and-ride combinations for urban trips. Traffic corridor is a major scenario that supports travellers to commute from suburban residential areas to central working areas. Studying their modal choice behaviour is receiving more and more interests. On one hand, it will guide the travellers to rationally choose their most economic and beneficial mode for urban trips. On the other hand, it will help traffic operators to make more appropriate policies to enhance the share of public transit in order to alleviate the traffic congestion and produce more economic and social benefits. To analyze the travel modal choice, a generalized cost model for three typical modes is first established to evaluate each different travel alternative. Then, random utility theory (RUT) and decision field theory (DFT) are introduced to describe the decision-making process how travellers make their mode choices. Further, some important factors that may influence the modal choice behaviour are discussed as well. To test the feasibility of the proposed model, a field test in Beijing was conducted to collect the real-time data and estimate the model parameters. The improvements in the test results and analysis show new advances in the development of travel mode choice on multimodal transportation networks.

  13. Trade-offs and efficiencies in optimal budget-constrained multispecies corridor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilkina, Bistra; Houtman, Rachel; Gomes, Carla P.; Montgomery, Claire A.; McKelvey, Kevin; Kendall, Katherine; Graves, Tabitha A.; Bernstein, Richard; Schwartz, Michael K.

    2017-01-01

    Conservation biologists recognize that a system of isolated protected areas will be necessary but insufficient to meet biodiversity objectives. Current approaches to connecting core conservation areas through corridors consider optimal corridor placement based on a single optimization goal: commonly, maximizing the movement for a target species across a network of protected areas. We show that designing corridors for single species based on purely ecological criteria leads to extremely expensive linkages that are suboptimal for multispecies connectivity objectives. Similarly, acquiring the least-expensive linkages leads to ecologically poor solutions. We developed algorithms for optimizing corridors for multispecies use given a specific budget. We applied our approach in western Montana to demonstrate how the solutions may be used to evaluate trade-offs in connectivity for 2 species with different habitat requirements, different core areas, and different conservation values under different budgets. We evaluated corridors that were optimal for each species individually and for both species jointly. Incorporating a budget constraint and jointly optimizing for both species resulted in corridors that were close to the individual species movement-potential optima but with substantial cost savings. Our approach produced corridors that were within 14% and 11% of the best possible corridor connectivity for grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and wolverines (Gulo gulo), respectively, and saved 75% of the cost. Similarly, joint optimization under a combined budget resulted in improved connectivity for both species relative to splitting the budget in 2 to optimize for each species individually. Our results demonstrate economies of scale and complementarities conservation planners can achieve by optimizing corridor designs for financial costs and for multiple species connectivity jointly. We believe that our approach will facilitate corridor conservation by reducing acquisition costs

  14. POSTCLOSURE GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION AND MONITORING AT THE SANITARY LANDFILL, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE TRANSITIONING TO MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, J; Walt Kubilius, W; Thomas Kmetz, T; D Noffsinger, D; Karen M Adams, K

    2006-11-17

    Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements for hazardous waste facilities include 30 years of post-closure monitoring. The use of an objective-based monitoring strategy allows for a significant reduction in the amount of groundwater monitoring required, as the groundwater remediation transitions from an active biosparging system to monitored natural attenuation. The lifecycle of groundwater activities at the landfill has progressed from detection monitoring and plume characterization, to active groundwater remediation, and now to monitored natural attenuation and postclosure monitoring. Thus, the objectives of the groundwater monitoring have changed accordingly. Characterization monitoring evaluated what biogeochemical natural attenuation processes were occurring and determined that elevated levels of radium were naturally occurring. Process monitoring of the biosparging system required comprehensive sampling network up- and down-gradient of the horizontal wells to verify its effectiveness. Currently, the scope of monitoring and reporting can be significantly reduced as the objective is to demonstrate that the alternate concentration limits (ACL) are being met at the point of compliance wells and the maximum contaminant level (MCL) is being met at the surface water point of exposure. The proposed reduction is estimated to save about $2M over the course of the remaining 25 years of postclosure monitoring.

  15. Protect Anadromous Salmonids in the Mainstem Corridor, Monitoring and Evaluation, Annual Report 200-2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigg, Steven; Johnson, John

    2002-02-01

    In this annual Monitoring & Evaluation (M&E) report to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), we summarize significant activities and performance measures resultant from enhanced protection by Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fisheries Enforcement (CRITFE) in the mainstem corridor (BPA Project 2000-056). This report covers the Fiscal Year (FY) 2000 performance period -- May 15, 2000 to May 14, 2001. Quarterly progress reports have previously been submitted to BPA and are posted on the M&E Web site (www.Eco-Law.net) -- for the time period April-December 2000 (Vigg 2000b,c,d) and for the period January-June 2001 (Vigg 2001a,b). We also present comprehensive data representing the first quarter of year 2000 in this report for a pre-project comparison. In addition, we have analyzed specific annual enforcement statistics to evaluate trends during the baseline period 1996-2000. Additional statistics and more years of comprehensive baseline data are now being summarized, and will be presented in future M&E annual reports--to provide a longer time series for evaluation of trends in input, output and outcome performance standards.

  16. Quantifying forest vertical structure to determine bird habitat quality in the Greenbelt Corridor, Denton, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Shiho

    This study presents the integration of light detection and range (LiDAR) and hyperspectral remote sensing to create a three-dimensional bird habitat map in the Greenbelt Corridor of the Elm Fork of the Trinity River. This map permits to examine the relationship between forest stand structure, landscape heterogeneity, and bird community composition. A biannual bird census was conducted at this site during the breeding seasons of 2009 and 2010. Census data combined with the three-dimensional map suggest that local breeding bird abundance, community structure, and spatial distribution patterns are highly influenced by vertical heterogeneity of vegetation surface. For local breeding birds, vertical heterogeneity of canopy surface within stands, connectivity to adjacent forest patches, largest forest patch index, and habitat (vegetation) types proved to be the most influential factors to determine bird community assemblages. Results also highlight the critical role of secondary forests to increase functional connectivity of forest patches. Overall, three-dimensional habitat descriptions derived from integrated LiDAR and hyperspectral data serve as a powerful bird conservation tool that shows how the distribution of bird species relates to forest composition and structure at various scales.

  17. Occurrence, local extinction and conservation of Primates in the corridor of the Upper Paraná River, with notes on other mammals Ocorrência, extinção local e conservação dos primatas do corredor do Alto Rio Paraná, com notas sobre outros mamíferos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas M. Aguiar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The region of Porto Rico, on the Upper Paraná River, is a contact zone between the Atlantic Rainforest and the Cerrado, with elements of the Pantanal wetlands. During surveys from September 2003 to September to 2005, we recorded the presence of non-volant mammals on 14 islands and the adjacent riverbanks. Surveys were by foot and by boat, and we also interviewed local people about the mammals of the region. Sightings of three primate species - Cebus nigritus (Goldfuss, 1809 (left margin of the river, C. libidinosus Spix, 1823 (right margin and Alouatta caraya (Humboldt, 1812 (both margins and 12 islands - were plotted on a satellite image. Alouatta clamitans Cabrera, 1940 was not recorded. However, interviews indicated that this species has occurred in this region in the past. The survey of mammals revealed the occurrence of 32 native species, a native genus with one or more unidentified species, and two introduced species [Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778 and Sus scrofa (Linnaeus, 1758]. The study discusses the permeability of the Paraná River to dispersal, as well as its potential as a geographical barrier to some species. Hypothesis on the local extinction of A. clamitans is also addressed. This study provides information that can be useful for promoting the conservation of this region.A região de Porto Rico, Alto Rio Paraná, é zona de contato entre a Mata Atlântica e o Cerrado, com influências do Pantanal. Este estudo levantou as espécies de primatas da região para a confecção de um mapa de ocorrências. Listou-se as ocorrências de mamíferos não-voadores, discriminando os registros entre os ambientes de ilhas e margens opostas. Para tanto, além do auxílio de entrevistas, as matas de 14 ilhas e das margens foram percorridas por terra e de barco durante setembro de 2003 a setembro de 2005. Pontos de avistamento dos primatas foram plotados em imagem de satélite. Três espécies de primatas foram registradas: Cebus nigritus somente

  18. 78 FR 73559 - Moose-Wilson Corridor Comprehensive Management Plan, Environmental Impact Statement, Grand Teton...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... National Park Service Moose-Wilson Corridor Comprehensive Management Plan, Environmental Impact Statement... the Moose-Wilson Corridor, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming. DATES: The National Park Service will...://parkplanning.nps.gov/MooseWilson , at the Grand Teton National Park Headquarters Building, 1 Teton Park...

  19. 14 CFR 93.305 - Flight-free zones and flight corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight-free zones and flight corridors. 93... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.305 Flight-free zones and flight corridors. Except in...

  20. 76 FR 41929 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors and Risk Adjustment; Proposed Rule #0... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Part 153 RIN 0938-AR07 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act... corridors, and risk adjustment consistent with title I of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act...

  1. 78 FR 16036 - Service Level Environmental Impact Statement for the Texas Oklahoma Passenger Rail Study Corridor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... Passenger Rail Study Corridor, South Texas to Oklahoma City AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA... Transportation (TxDOT) to study potential new and/or improved high- speed intercity passenger rail service along... Rail Study (Study) also includes preparation of a service development plan for the corridor for each...

  2. Barchan dune corridors: Field characterization and investigation of control parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbelrhiti, H.; Andreotti, B.; Claudin, P.

    2008-06-01

    The structure of the barchan field located between Tarfaya and Laayoune (Atlantic Sahara, Morocco) is quantitatively investigated and compared to that in La Pampa de la Joya (Arequipa, Peru). On the basis of field measurements, we show how the volume, the velocity, and the output sand flux of a dune can be computed from the value of its body and horn widths. The dune size distribution is obtained from the analysis of aerial photographs. It shows that these fields are in a statistically homogeneous state along the wind direction and present a "corridor" structure in the transverse direction, in which the dunes have a rather well selected size. Investigating the possible external parameters controlling these corridors, we demonstrate that none among topography, granulometry, wind, and sand flux is relevant. We finally discuss the dynamical processes at work in these fields (collisions and wind fluctuations) and investigate the way they could regulate the size of the dunes. Furthermore, we show that the overall sand flux transported by a dune field is smaller than the maximum transport that could be reached in the absence of dunes, i.e., in saltation over the solid ground.

  3. Influence of buccal corridor dimension on smile esthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Cunha Nascimento

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of buccal corridor width on smile esthetics of male and female, Caucasian and Afro-descendant subjects by means of digitally manipulated photographs, as well as compare assessments of full-face view (FFV and close-up view of the mouth (CUVM images. METHODS: Facial photographs were taken of four adults' smile, two Caucasians and two Afro-descendants of both genders. The resulting images were digitally manipulated with the aim of rendering - from each original smile - three other smiles simulating three different buccal corridor widths, namely, narrow, medium width and wide. The rendered images, 12 of which portraying FFVs and 12 providing CUVMs, were assessed by 60 examiners who rated the attractiveness of each smile by means of a visual analog scale (VAS. The data were treated with ANOVA and Tukey's post test to compare the different buccal corridors, and Student's t test to compare the two image views (FFV and CUVM. RESULTS: Medium width buccal corridors were considered the most attractive in the four individuals investigated, both in the assessment of FFVs and CUVMs (p 0.05. Furthermore, no statistically significant difference was found between the analyses of FFVs and CUVMs (p > 0.05. CONCLUSION: The buccal corridor exercised a remarkable influence on smile esthetics, with the medium width group being rated as the most attractive. No influence was exerted by the individuals' face, ethnicity or gender.OBJETIVO: avaliar a influência do corredor bucal na estética de sorrisos femininos e masculinos, de leucodermas e melanodermas, por meio de fotografias manipuladas, bem como comparar essa avaliação numa vista facial completa e numa vista aproximada da boca. MÉTODOS: foram realizadas fotografias faciais do sorriso de quatro indivíduos adultos, sendo dois leucodermas e dois melanodermas, de ambos os sexos. As imagens geradas foram manipuladas a fim de produzir, a partir de cada sorriso original, três outros

  4. Fruit Plants Species along Corridor in Kopendukuh Village as a Resource for Rural Tourism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Kristiyanti Putri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to identify fruit plants species which is potential for tourism attraction, spatially describes fruit plants distribution and identify local people’s response for fruit plants as tourims attraction in Kopendukuh village, Banyuwangi. Survey was done along the villages corridors. The fruit plant species along corridors was identified and mapped using GPS. Furthermore, semi-structural interview was used to gain informations of local people response about fruit plants as tourism attraction. There were about 18 species and 162 individuals were found along corridor of Kopendukuh village. Fruit plants always found in local home gardens along rural corridor. Local peoples argue that fruit planst s important for numerous purposes. Local people support tourism development in rural area which based on the fruit plants richness (i.e. agrotourism. Keywords: fruit plants, mapping, corridor, rural tourism.

  5. An extensive reef system at the Amazon River mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Rodrigo L.; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M.; Moraes, Fernando C.; Brasileiro, Poliana S.; Salomon, Paulo S.; Mahiques, Michel M.; Bastos, Alex C.; Almeida, Marcelo G.; Silva, Jomar M.; Araujo, Beatriz F.; Brito, Frederico P.; Rangel, Thiago P.; Oliveira, Braulio C. V.; Bahia, Ricardo G.; Paranhos, Rodolfo P.; Dias, Rodolfo J. S.; Siegle, Eduardo; Figueiredo, Alberto G.; Pereira, Renato C.; Leal, Camille V.; Hajdu, Eduardo; Asp, Nils E.; Gregoracci, Gustavo B.; Neumann-Leitão, Sigrid; Yager, Patricia L.; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B.; Fróes, Adriana; Campeão, Mariana; Silva, Bruno S.; Moreira, Ana P. B.; Oliveira, Louisi; Soares, Ana C.; Araujo, Lais; Oliveira, Nara L.; Teixeira, João B.; Valle, Rogerio A. B.; Thompson, Cristiane C.; Rezende, Carlos E.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2016-01-01

    Large rivers create major gaps in reef distribution along tropical shelves. The Amazon River represents 20% of the global riverine discharge to the ocean, generating up to a 1.3 × 106–km2 plume, and extensive muddy bottoms in the equatorial margin of South America. As a result, a wide area of the tropical North Atlantic is heavily affected in terms of salinity, pH, light penetration, and sedimentation. Such unfavorable conditions were thought to imprint a major gap in Western Atlantic reefs. We present an extensive carbonate system off the Amazon mouth, underneath the river plume. Significant carbonate sedimentation occurred during lowstand sea level, and still occurs in the outer shelf, resulting in complex hard-bottom topography. A permanent near-bottom wedge of ocean water, together with the seasonal nature of the plume’s eastward retroflection, conditions the existence of this extensive (~9500 km2) hard-bottom mosaic. The Amazon reefs transition from accretive to erosional structures and encompass extensive rhodolith beds. Carbonate structures function as a connectivity corridor for wide depth–ranging reef-associated species, being heavily colonized by large sponges and other structure-forming filter feeders that dwell under low light and high levels of particulates. The oxycline between the plume and subplume is associated with chemoautotrophic and anaerobic microbial metabolisms. The system described here provides several insights about the responses of tropical reefs to suboptimal and marginal reef-building conditions, which are accelerating worldwide due to global changes. PMID:27152336

  6. Predicting which species will benefit from corridors in fragmented landscapes from population growth models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgens, Brian R; Haddad, Nick M

    2003-05-01

    Connecting isolated patches of habitat in fragmented landscapes with corridors is a popular conservation strategy. This strategy is also controversial in large part because of uncertainty about what characteristics of a species and its environment promote corridor use. In this article we address the question, For what types of species will populations benefit from corridors? We asked this question using a model of two logistically growing populations connected by migration in which both emigration and migration success were determined by the presence or absence of a corridor. We found that in the short run (e.g., during recovery from disaster), corridors are most effective for species with fast-growing populations that have low survivorship when dispersing through unsuitable (matrix) habitat. We also found that emigration rates and habitat-specific mortality rates are key determinants of the effects of corridors on population size. In the long term, corridors are most likely to benefit species with slow-growing populations that have low survivorship when dispersing through matrix habitat. Our results confirm the major conclusions from previous empirical studies of corridor benefits. However, most studies fail to consider the most appropriate questions to determine the potential benefits of habitat corridors. First, what is the time scale of the conservation goal? Corridors have positive effects on different suites of species in the short and long term. Second, is the major threat of local extinction due to sustained population decline or boom-bust cycles? Third, what is the migration rate through the matrix? Fourth, what fraction of migrants dispersing through the matrix successfully immigrate to another patch?

  7. 78 FR 43226 - Going-to-the-Sun Road Corridor Management Plan, Environmental Impact Statement, Glacier National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... National Park Service Going-to-the-Sun Road Corridor Management Plan, Environmental Impact Statement... Environmental Impact Statement for the Going-to-the-Sun Road Corridor Management Plan for Glacier National Park...-to-the Sun Road (GTSR) corridor. DATES: The National Park Service will accept comments from...

  8. Infrastructure sufficiency in meeting water demand under climate-induced socio-hydrological transition in the urbanizing Capibaribe River Basin – Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ribeiro Neto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Water availability for a range of human uses will increasingly be affected by climate change especially in the arid and semi-arid tropics. This paper aims to evaluate the ability of reservoirs and related infrastructure to meet targets for water supply in the Capibaribe River Basin (CRB, in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The basin has experienced spatial and sectoral (agriculture-urban reconfiguration of water demands. Human settlements that were once dispersed, relying on intermittent sources of surface water, are now increasingly experiencing water-scarcity effects. As a result, rural populations in the CRB are concentrating around infrastructural water supplies in a socio-hydrological transition process that results from (a hydroclimatic variability, (b investment and assistance programs that may enhance but can also supplant local adaptive capacity, and (c demographic trends driving urbanization of the state capital, Recife, which mirror urban growth across Brazil. In the CRB, demands are currently composed of 69.1% urban potable water, 14.3% industrial, 16.6% irrigation (with ecosystem-service demands met by residual flow. Based on the application of linked hydrologic and water-resources models using precipitation and temperature projections of the IPCC SRES A1B scenario, a reduction in rainfall of 31.8% translated to streamflow reduction of 67.4% under present reservoir operations rules. The increasing demand due to population was also taken into account. This would entail severe water supply reductions for human consumption (−45.3% and irrigation (−78.0% by the end of the 21st century. This study demonstrates the vulnerabilities of the infrastructure system during socio-hydrological transition in response to hydroclimatic and demand variabilities in the CRB and also indicates the differential spatial impacts and vulnerability of multiple uses of water to changes over time. The paper concludes with a discussion of the broader

  9. ORNL Trusted Corridors Project: Watts Bar Dam Inland Waterway Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Randy M [ORNL; Gross, Ian G [ORNL; Smith, Cyrus M [ORNL; Hill, David E [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    Radiation has existed everywhere in the environment since the Earth's formation - in rocks, soil, water, and plants. The mining and processing of naturally occurring radioactive materials for use in medicine, power generation, consumer products, and industry inevitably generate emissions and waste. Radiological measuring devices have been used by industry for years to measure for radiation in undesired locations or simply identify radioactive materials. Since the terrorist attacks on the United States on 9-11-01 these radiation measuring devices have proliferated in many places in our nation's commerce system. DOE, TVA, the Army Corps and ORNL collaborated to test the usefulness of these devices in our nation's waterway system on this project. The purpose of the Watts Bar Dam ORNL Trusted Corridors project was to investigate the security, safety and enforcement needs of local, state and federal government entities for state-of-the-art sensor monitoring in regards to illegal cargo including utilization of the existing infrastructure. TVA's inland waterways lock system is a recognized and accepted infrastructure by the commercial carrier industry. Safety Monitoring activities included tow boat operators, commercial barges and vessels, recreational watercraft and their cargo, identification of unsafe vessels and carriers, and, monitoring of domestic and foreign commercial vessels and cargo identification. Safety Enforcement activities included cargo safety, tracking, identification of hazardous materials, waterway safety regulations, and hazardous materials regulations. Homeland Security and Law Enforcement Applications included Radiological Dispersive Devices (RDD) identification, identification of unsafe or illicit transport of hazardous materials including chemicals and radiological materials, and screening for shipments of illicit drugs. In the Fall of 2005 the SensorNet funding for the project expired. After several unsuccessful attempts to

  10. Hydrothermal alteration and melting of the crust during the Columbia River Basalt-Snake River Plain transition and the origin of low-δ18O rhyolites of the central Snake River Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón, Dylan P.; Bindeman, Ilya N.; Ellis, Ben S.; Schmitt, Axel K.; Fisher, Christopher M.

    2015-05-01

    We present compelling isotopic evidence from ~15 Ma rhyolites that erupted coeval with the Columbia River Basalts in southwest Idaho's J-P Desert and the Jarbidge Mountains of northern Nevada at that suggests that the Yellowstone mantle plume caused hydrothermal alteration and remelting of diverse compositions of shallow crust in the area where they erupted. These rhyolites also constitute the earliest known Miocene volcanism in the vicinity of the Bruneau-Jarbidge and Twin Falls (BJTF) volcanic complexes, a major center of voluminous (103-104 km3) low-δ18O rhyolitic volcanism that was previously defined as being active from 13 to 6 Ma. The Jarbidge Rhyolite has above-mantle δ18O (δ18O of +7.9‰ SMOW) and extremely unradiogenic εHf (- 34.7) and εNd (- 24.0). By contrast, the J-P Desert units are lower in δ18O (+4.5 to 5.8‰), and have more moderately unradiogenic whole-rock εHf (- 20.3 to - 8.9) and εNd (- 13.4 to - 7.7). The J-P Desert rhyolites are geochemically and petrologically similar to the younger rhyolites of the BJTF center (the one exception being their high δ18O values), suggesting a common origin for J-P Desert and BJTF rhyolites. The presence of low-δ18O values and unradiogenic Nd and Hf isotopic compositions, both of which differ greatly from the composition of a mantle differentiate, indicate that some of these melts may be 50% or more melted crust by volume. Individual J-P Desert units have isotopically diverse zircons, with one lava containing zircons ranging from - 0.6‰ to + 6.5‰ in δ18O and from - 29.5 to - 2.8 in εHf. Despite this diversity, zircons all have Miocene U/Pb ages. The range of zircon compositions fingerprints the diversity of their source melts, which in turn allow us to determine the compositions of two crustal end-members which melted to form these rhyolites. These end-members are: 1) Archean basement with normal to high-δ18O and unradiogenic εHf and 2) hydrothermally altered, shallow, young crust with low

  11. Strategy for the Identification of an INL Comprehensive Utility Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Reisenauer

    2011-05-01

    This report documents the strategy developed to identify a comprehensive utility corridor (CUC) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site. The strategy established the process for which the Campus Development Office will evaluate land management issues. It is a process that uses geographical information system geospatial technology to layer critical INL mission information in a way that thorough evaluations can be conducted and strategies developed. The objective of the CUC Project was to develop a process that could be implemented to identify potential utility corridor options for consideration. The process had to take into account all the missions occurring on the INL and other land-related issues. The process for developing a CUC strategy consists of the following four basic elements using geographical information system capabilities: 1. Development of an INL base layer map; this base layer map geospatially references all stationary geographical features on INL and sitewide information. 2. Development of current and future mission land-use need maps; this involved working with each directorate to identify current mission land use needs and future land use needs that project 30 years into the future. 3. Development of restricted and potential constraint maps; this included geospatially mapping areas such as wells, contaminated areas, firing ranges, cultural areas, ecological areas, hunting areas, easement, and grazing areas. 4. Development of state highway and power line rights of way map; this included geospatially mapping rights-of-way along existing state highways and power lines running through the INL that support INL operations. It was determined after completing and evaluating the geospatial information that the area with the least impact to INL missions was around the perimeter of the INL Site. Option 1, in this document, identifies this perimeter; however, it does not mean the entire perimeter is viable. Many places along the perimeter corridor cannot

  12. Ecological and Recreational Corridor Bogotá Mountain Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Wiesner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bogotá the capital of the Republic of Colombia is a tropical highland city located at 2650 m above sea level, the 25th largest city of the world and among the large, one of the highest. A proposal for integration of components of ecological networks in the Oriental Hills of Bogotá, along a gradient from wild to built nature. Name as The Bogotá Ecological and Recreational Corridor (C.E.R. is based on three strategies: first a social being the largest border agreement with 53 km, along the entire eastern limit of the city. Second the biophysical which involves restoration of ecosystem, and third the socio-spatial which includes infrastructure for making an open air museum for integration and urban limit. The ultimate aim of the approach is to contribute as a pilot proposal in biodiversity managment and cultural transformation in ecological issues for the inhabitants.

  13. The role of green corridors for wildlife conservation in urban landscape: A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, H. A.; Rasidi, M. H.

    2014-02-01

    Green corridors are an attempt to mitigate negative effects of the built environment of cities and towns. The corridors act as conservation for rapidly extreme intervention and development of the urban environment. Most importantly, it enables dispersal movement of animals within city areas. Issues relate to wildlife conservation in urban areas has been studied for many years and thus, the research makes a review for how the green corridors contribute to the conservation of urban wildlife. This study reviews groups of articles in disciplines of urban landscape planning and biology conservation to discuss the relationship between elements of green corridors and urban wildlife dispersal movement behaviour in Malaysian context. Accordingly, this research is purposely studied to give understanding on how green corridors contribute to the animals' ability of moving and dispersing within the built-up areas. In advance, it is found that there are three factors contribute to the capability of colonization among urban wildlife which are individual, physical and social factor. Green corridor has been defined as one of the physical factor that influence urban wildlife behaviour movement. Consequently, safety area indicating to animals species for traversing in any time such as at night can be defined as the primary potential corridor.

  14. Carbon stock corridors to mitigate climate change and promote biodiversity in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantz, Patrick; Goetz, Scott; Laporte, Nadine

    2014-02-01

    A key issue in global conservation is how biodiversity co-benefits can be incorporated into land use and climate change mitigation activities, particularly those being negotiated under the United Nations to reduce emissions from tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Protected areas have been the dominant strategy for tropical forest conservation and they have increased substantially in recent decades. Avoiding deforestation by preserving carbon stored in vegetation between protected areas provides an opportunity to mitigate the effects of land use and climate change on biodiversity by maintaining habitat connectivity across landscapes. Here we use a high-resolution data set of vegetation carbon stock to map corridors traversing areas of highest biomass between protected areas in the tropics. The derived corridors contain 15% of the total unprotected aboveground carbon in the tropical region. A large number of corridors have carbon densities that approach or exceed those of the protected areas they connect, suggesting these are suitable areas for achieving both habitat connectivity and climate change mitigation benefits. To further illustrate how economic and biological information can be used for corridor prioritization on a regional scale, we conducted a multicriteria analysis of corridors in the Legal Amazon, identifying corridors with high carbon, high species richness and endemism, and low economic opportunity costs. We also assessed the vulnerability of corridors to future deforestation threat.

  15. Northeast Asian Energy Corridor Initiative for Regional Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paik Hoon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For historical and political reasons, South Korea (hereafter Korea, Japan and China have not achieved much progress in regional energy cooperation for decades. However, the rising importance of Northeast Asia (NEA in the world energy sphere, especially in the global oil market, is providing an opportunity to create an integrated oil market in the region. This study suggests the Northeast Asian Energy Corridor (NEAEC Initiative as an effective conduit for raising the possibility of the Northeast Asian oil hub project. The NEAEC Initiative combines the model of Europe's Amsterdam-Rotterdam-Antwerp (ARA with Singapore's AsiaClear as a form of financial collaboration. The study suggests that an elFor historical and political reasons, South Korea (hereafter Korea, Japan and China have not achieved much progress in regional energy cooperation for decades. However, the rising importance of Northeast Asia (NEA in the world energy sphere, especially in the global oil market, is providing an opportunity to create an integrated oil market in the region. This study suggests the Northeast Asian Energy Corridor (NEAEC Initiative as an effective conduit for raising the possibility of the Northeast Asian oil hub project. The NEAEC Initiative combines the model of Europe's Amsterdam-Rotterdam-Antwerp (ARA with Singapore’s AsiaClear as a form of financial collaboration. The study suggests that an electronically integrated Over-the-Counter (OTC market clearing mechanism accompanied by other key financial instruments among Korea, Japan and China can be an effective means for promoting financial collaboration in the region.

  16. Application of Lean Agile Resilient Green Paradigm Framework on China Pakistan Economic Corridor: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHAN RAI WAQASAZFAR

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available China has recently emerged as the technological and economic giant and an attractive place for investment for MCNs (Multi-National Companies. Many of the high ranked MNC?s have shifted their production facilities to China due to low production cost.Finished products are transported through sea routes passing through Singapore and Sri Lanka, to different Middle Eastern, European and American countries. This major transition has lead to complete transformation of the global SC (Supply Chain;which resulted into extended transportation, distances and led time,thus affecting the four paradigms of SC i.e. lean, agile, resilient and green. Effective integration of all of these paradigms poses a significant challenge for the academia and industry related to SC.The common and critical success factors among these paradigms are reduction in transportation distances and most importantly lead time. Scenario planning technique is used in this study to analyze different trade routes originating from central China. CPEC (China Pakistan Economic Corridor was identified as the most feasible and economical route owing to its reduced transportation distance and led time. CPEC route also provides us an opportunity to perform trade-offs between the four paradigms; focusing primarily on the critical success factors. These tradeoffs provide us a common ground which lead us to propose a new LARG (Lean Agile Resilient Green framework. This framework was further validated with the help of results obtained from CPEC case study using scenario planning technique

  17. Telecouplings in the East–West Economic Corridor within Borders and Across

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Leisz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the concepts of teleconnections and telecoupling have been introduced into land-use and land-cover change literature as frameworks that seek to explain connections between areas that are not in close physical proximity to each other. The conceptual frameworks of teleconnections and telecoupling seek to explicitly link land changes in one place, or in a number of places, to distant, usually non-physically connected locations. These conceptual frameworks are offered as new ways of understanding land changes; rather than viewing land-use and land-cover change through discrete land classifications that have been based on the idea of land-use as seen through rural–urban dichotomies, path dependencies and sequential land transitions, and place-based relationships. Focusing on the land-use and land-cover changes taking place along the East–West Economic Corridor that runs from Dong Ha City in Quang Tri, Vietnam, through Sepon District, Savannakhet, Lao PDR, into Thailand this paper makes use of data gathered from fieldwork and remote sensing analysis to examine telecouplings between sending, receiving and spill-over systems on both sides of the Vietnam-Lao PDR border. Findings are that the telecouplings are driving changes in rural village and urban systems on both sides of the border, and are enabled by a policy environment that has sought to facilitate the cross-border transportation of goods within the region.

  18. 低密度城市公交导向型开发模式的演进:以珀斯新轨道交通走廊为例%Evolution of the Transit-oriented Development Model for Low-density Cities: A Case Study of Perth' s New Railway Corridor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凯蕾·柯提思

    2012-01-01

    与以往依赖于小汽车的出行定位相比,珀斯对公共交通基础设施的投入不断增强。然而,为低密度城市设计一个能与小汽车抗衡的交通系统却面临着严峻挑战。珀斯最新的一条客运铁路的规划和线路设计主要以土地利用规划为基础,并积极寻求公交导向型开发的契机。它带来了不同的融合模式,包括吸引过往客流和舒缓剑拔弩张的机动车环境的公交导向型开发,以及通过西澳大利亚州的交通管理机构协调交通换乘站中的各种运输模式,从而使公交出行的吸引力最大化。本文旨在考察各种模型所带来的机遇和局限。%Perth has seen strong investment in public transport infrastructure compared with its past approach of a city designed for mobility by car. Designing a transport system to compete with the car in a low-density city has raised significant challenges. The planning and routing of Perth' s newest passenger railway has been strongly grounded in land use planning with active pursuit of opportunities for transit-oriented development (TOD). This has resulted in different models of integration from TODs designed around walk-on patronage, to TODs designed to calm hostile car-based environments, to transitransfer stations relying on state transit agency coordination between transport modes to maximize the attractiveness of the public transport travel. This paper examines the opportunities and constraints presented by each model.

  19. Supply Chain Strategies for the International Interoceanic Mazatlan-Houston Logistic Corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. de la O

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Describe the interoceanic Mazatlan-Houston Logistic Corridor (MHLC as an alternative route to create sustainable competitive advantages for Mexican, USA, and international firms competing in an international marketplace. Taking into account the competitive advantages of utilizing this corridor for international trade, we analyze supply chain strategies for Mexican and international companies demanding economical logistic solutions in this region. It was found that the MHLC benefits efficient industry segments with demand well known in advance. It was also found that the potential of both inbound and outbound container traffic to the Asia-Pacific marketplace along this international commerce corridor fluctuates between 39,000 and 761,000 TEU's.

  20. Design of integrated and co-ordinated multimodal transport systems – North Sea – Mediterranean corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil MORTIMER

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the North Sea – Mediterranean corridor, part of the Trans-European transport network. A brief discussion on the aspects of multimodality and the possible modes of transport involved in transporting inland freight is presented followed by an introduction to main IT systems that can be implemented to increase the efficiency of freight transport. Presented also is a description on the envisaged investments in freight corridors in Europe. An assessment of information flows is also offered. The study concludes that the concept of a freight corridor should be extended to a network in order for more global benefits to be experienced.

  1. Comportment of heavy goods vehicle drivers in HIV spread along settlements around Kaduna: Kano road transport corridor in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Idris

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Road transport remains the cheapest way to move goods and services across limitless boundaries in Nigeria. The collapse of the rail and water transport system, and the high cost of air transport have given rise to increasing road transport usage. This increases vulnerability to HIV/AIDS among Heavy Goods Vehicle (HGV drivers due to long absence from home and constant interaction with the commercial sex workers (CSWs. Objectives: The study was performed to determine the sexual behaviour of HGV drivers while on transit within the inter-state transport corridor of Kaduna State in northern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Marraba-Jos along the Kaduna-Kano transport corridor. A structured questionnaire was used to study age, educational status, knowledge and attitude toward HIV/AIDS, and the sexual behavior of HGV drivers. Results: Three hundred and fifty HGV drivers participated in the study, of whom 273 drivers (78.0% had excellent knowledge on HIV/AIDS preventive measures and 218 drivers (62.0% had good attitude toward prevention. Frequency of having sex while on transit varied with 84 respondents (24% having sex at any available opportunity and 49 (14% having sex on a daily basis. Three hundred and twenty-two drivers (92.0% agreed in taking some preventive measure, of which 36.8% made use of condoms. One hundred and sixty-one drivers in the study (46.0% considered themselves a high-risk group to getting infected and 140 (40.0% agreed that public discussion on HIV/AIDS will help create the necessary awareness. Conclusion: The knowledge of HIV/AIDS among HGV drivers was found to be high, attitude toward prevention was good, and there was fair appreciation of public health intervention toward combating HIV/AIDS when compared to previous studies done on road transport workers in the country.

  2. A description of the nearshore fish communities in the Huron-Erie Corridor using multiple gear types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, James T.; Chiotti, Justin A.; Boase, James C.; Thomas, Mike V.; Manny, Bruce A.; Roseman, Edward F.

    2013-01-01

    Great Lakes coastal wetlands provide a critical habitat for many fish species throughout their life cycles. Once home to one of the largest wetland complexes in the Great Lakes, coastal wetlands in the Huron–Erie Corridor (HEC) have decreased dramatically since the early 1900s. We characterized the nearshore fish communities at three different wetland complexes in the HEC using electrofishing, seines, and fyke nets. Species richness was highest in the Detroit River (63), followed by the St. Clair Delta (56), and Western Lake Erie (47). The nearshore fish communities in the Detroit River and St. Clair Delta consisted primarily of shiners, bluntnose minnow, centrarchids, and brook silverside, while the Western Lake Erie sites consisted of high proportions of non-native taxa including common carp, gizzard shad, goldfish, and white perch. Species richness estimates using individual-based rarefaction curves were higher when using electrofishing data compared to fyke nets or seine hauls at each wetland. Twelve fish species were captured exclusively during electrofishing assessments, while one species was captured exclusively in fyke nets, and none exclusively during seine hauls. Western Lake Erie wetlands were more indicative of degraded systems with lower species richness, lower proportion of turbidity intolerant species, and increased abundance of non-native taxa. This work highlights the importance of coastal wetlands in the HEC by capturing 69 different fish species utilizing these wetlands to fulfill life history requirements and provides insight when selecting gears to sample nearshore littoral areas.

  3. Update: Transitional Bilingual Instruction Program (TBIP), 2012-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagon, Helen; McCold, Paul; Nelson, Joan Johnston

    2013-01-01

    This report provides an update on the Transitional Bilingual Instruction Program (TBIP). In 2012-13, 104,025 English language learners (ELLs) received state services through the TBIP. This was an increase of just over 9% from the previous year. Most students live in urban areas along Interstate 5 corridor and in rural areas like the Yakima Valley.…

  4. Hot Spots and Hot Times: Wildlife Road Mortality in a Regional Conservation Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrah, Evelyn; Danby, Ryan K.; Eberhardt, Ewen; Cunnington, Glenn M.; Mitchell, Scott

    2015-10-01

    Strategies to reduce wildlife road mortality have become a significant component of many conservation efforts. However, their success depends on knowledge of the temporal and spatial patterns of mortality. We studied these patterns along the 1000 Islands Parkway in Ontario, Canada, a 37 km road that runs adjacent to the St. Lawrence River and bisects the Algonquin-to-Adirondacks international conservation corridor. Characteristics of all vertebrate road kill were recorded during 209 bicycle surveys conducted from 2008 to 2011. We estimate that over 16,700 vertebrates are killed on the road from April to October each year; most are amphibians, but high numbers of birds, mammals, and reptiles were also found, including six reptiles considered at-risk in Canada. Regression tree analysis was used to assess the importance of seasonality, weather, and traffic on road kill magnitude. All taxa except mammals exhibited distinct temporal peaks corresponding to phases in annual life cycles. Variations in weather and traffic were only important outside these peak times. Getis-Ord analysis was used to identify spatial clusters of mortality. Hot spots were found in all years for all taxa, but locations varied annually. A significant spatial association was found between multiyear hot spots and wetlands. The results underscore the notion that multi-species conservation efforts must account for differences in the seasonality of road mortality among species and that multiple years of data are necessary to identify locations where the greatest conservation good can be achieved. This information can be used to inform mitigation strategies with implications for conservation at regional scales.

  5. Post-fire Thermokarst Development Along a Planned Road Corridor in Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B. M.; Grosse, G.; Larsen, C. F.; Hayes, D. J.; Arp, C. D.; Liu, L.; Miller, E.

    2015-12-01

    Wildfire disturbance in northern high latitude regions is an important factor contributing to ecosystem and landscape change. In permafrost influenced terrain, fire may initiate thermokarst development which impacts hydrology, vegetation, wildlife, carbon storage and infrastructure. In this study we differenced two airborne LiDAR datasets that were acquired in the aftermath of the large and severe Anaktuvuk River tundra fire, which in 2007 burned across a proposed road corridor in Arctic Alaska. The 2009 LiDAR dataset was acquired by the Alaska Department of Transportation in preparation for construction of a gravel road that would connect the Dalton Highway with the logistical camp of Umiat. The 2014 LiDAR dataset was acquired by the USGS to quantify potential post-fire thermokarst development over the first seven years following the tundra fire event. By differencing the two 1 m resolution digital terrain models, we measured permafrost thaw subsidence across 34% of the burned tundra area studied, and observed less than 1% in similar, undisturbed tundra terrain units. Ice-rich, yedoma upland terrain was most susceptible to thermokarst development following the disturbance, accounting for 50% of the areal and volumetric change detected, with some locations subsiding more than six meters over the study period. Calculation of rugosity, or surface roughness, in the two datasets showed a doubling in microtopography on average across the burned portion of the study area, with a 340% increase in yedoma upland terrain. An additional LiDAR dataset was acquired in April 2015 to document the role of thermokarst development on enhanced snow accumulation and subsequent snowmelt runoff within the burn area. Our findings will enable future vulnerability assessments of ice-rich permafrost terrain as a result of shifting disturbance regimes. Such assessments are needed to address questions focused on the impact of permafrost degradation on physical, ecological, and socio

  6. Hot Spots and Hot Times: Wildlife Road Mortality in a Regional Conservation Corridor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrah, Evelyn; Danby, Ryan K; Eberhardt, Ewen; Cunnington, Glenn M; Mitchell, Scott

    2015-10-01

    Strategies to reduce wildlife road mortality have become a significant component of many conservation efforts. However, their success depends on knowledge of the temporal and spatial patterns of mortality. We studied these patterns along the 1000 Islands Parkway in Ontario, Canada, a 37 km road that runs adjacent to the St. Lawrence River and bisects the Algonquin-to-Adirondacks international conservation corridor. Characteristics of all vertebrate road kill were recorded during 209 bicycle surveys conducted from 2008 to 2011. We estimate that over 16,700 vertebrates are killed on the road from April to October each year; most are amphibians, but high numbers of birds, mammals, and reptiles were also found, including six reptiles considered at-risk in Canada. Regression tree analysis was used to assess the importance of seasonality, weather, and traffic on road kill magnitude. All taxa except mammals exhibited distinct temporal peaks corresponding to phases in annual life cycles. Variations in weather and traffic were only important outside these peak times. Getis-Ord analysis was used to identify spatial clusters of mortality. Hot spots were found in all years for all taxa, but locations varied annually. A significant spatial association was found between multiyear hot spots and wetlands. The results underscore the notion that multi-species conservation efforts must account for differences in the seasonality of road mortality among species and that multiple years of data are necessary to identify locations where the greatest conservation good can be achieved. This information can be used to inform mitigation strategies with implications for conservation at regional scales.

  7. Climatic characteristics of spring soaking rain date in Hexi Corridor%河西走廊春季透雨日期的变化特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹玲; 刘明春; 郭小芹; 许蔚生; 蒋菊芳

    2011-01-01

    (city) of Zhangye, Shandai, Yongchang, Wuwei, Minqin, Jintai, Baiyin, Wuwei station being a representative one. The third area is the arid and half arid transition region in the eastern Hexi Corridor, including 8 counties (city) of Sunan, Minle, Gulang, Tianzhu, Yongdeng, Gaolan, Jinyuan, Lanzhou, Yongdeng station being a representative one. The research also indicates that, the big terrain has certain influence on changing in distribution characteristics of the spring soaking rain in the Hexi Corridor, spring soaking rain dates are early in southeast area, late in northwest area, the reason is that the northwestern Hexi Corridor occupies the deeper interior near desert 's edge, with the Qilian Mountains' impeding the water vapor northward intrusion. The precipitation here is scarce, therefore the spring soaking rain dates are late. However, under the different geography conditions, there are differences in the spring soaking rain dates. The Hexi Corridor may approximately divide into 3 areas, the southeast's is early, northwest's is late. In the recent 30-40 years, the spring soaking rain dates assumed the undulation change, the overall tendency is that the 1970s soaking rain dates were postponed; the 1980s soaking rain dates moved up, the 1990s soaking rain dates postponed. After 2001 the soaking rain dates were moved up. There is a transposition change between soaking rain occurrence dates and the amount of spring rainfall. The spring soaking rain dates of the extreme arid climatic region and the arid climatic region assume 9-year periodical change, the spring soaking rain dates of the arid and half arid transition region have the 4-year periodical change.%利用甘肃河西走廊25个测站1971-2007年降水资料,采用EOF、REOF、波谱分析方法,对春季第一场透雨日期的空间特征、时间变化规律进行了诊断分析.结果表明:甘肃河西走廊春季透雨日期在空间场上具有较好的一致性,其第一主分量

  8. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Menard Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Menard Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from remotely...

  9. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) - Iowa Corridor Project Area (Port Louisa NWR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) Summary Report for Iowa Corridor Project Area describes current hydrologic information, provides an assessment of...

  10. Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric, UtilityCorridor, Published in 2008, Millard County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'UtilityCorridor'. Data by...

  11. Taos Smart Growth Implementation Assistance: Concepts for the Paseo del Pueblo Sur Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes a technical assistance project with Taos, NM, to help make development along State Highway 68, the Paseo del Pueblo Sur commercial corridor, economically stronger and more attractive.

  12. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  13. Sensitivity of Occupant Response Subject to Prescribed Corridors for Impact Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Crandall

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A technology to study the sensitivity of impact responses to prescribed test conditions is presented. Motor vehicle impacts are used to illustrate the principles of this sensitivity technology. Impact conditions are regulated by specifying either a corridor for the acceleration time history or other test parameters such as velocity change, static crush distance, and pulse duration. By combining a time domain constrained optimization method and a multirigid body dynamics simulator, the upper and lower bounds of occupant responses subject to the regulated corridors were obtained. It was found that these prescribed corridors may be either so wide as to allow extreme variations in occupant response or so narrow that they are physically unrealizable in the laboratory test environment. A new corridor based on specifications for the test parameters of acceleration, velocity. crush distance, and duration for frontal vehicle impacts is given.

  14. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  15. A Simulation Testbed for Dynamic Air Corridors within the Next Generation Air Transportation System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The key innovation in this effort is the development of a simulation testbed for identifying dynamic air corridors that can increase aircraft throughput in and...

  16. The importance and potentials of X corridor in the European traffic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Branislav P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the network of multimodular corridors, but also in the European traffic system on the whole, corridor X has a very important role more in respect of its position and potentials and less regarding the degree of it valuation. It is particularly so since it represents a section of the intercontinental (land link between Europe and Near and Middle East. At the same time, this corridor is also a dominant axis of development in the majority of SE European countries, as well as a major component of complex spatial-functional transformations that occur within them. That, inter alias, means that the pace of overall development of these parts will depend both on the pace of the overall valuation of potentials this corridors has (and represents, as well as the strengthening of its role as a major element of intra- and inter-regional linking of this part of European continent.

  17. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Village Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Village Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from remotely...

  18. 2006 Multibeam Mapping of along-shelf corridor, between Madison-Swanson and Steamboat Lumps Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This disk or set of disks contain high-resolution multibeam and backscatter maps of a long thin corridor at the shelf edge near he 74-m isobath spanning from...

  19. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Menard Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Menard Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from remotely...

  20. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Menard Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Menard Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from remotely...

  1. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  2. Time-averaged currents in the Northeast Corridor Reserve during November 2013.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2D numerical model, CMS-Flow, was implemented for the Northeast Corridor Reserve (NECR) using a telescoping grid. Tide and wind forcing was provided to the model...

  3. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - MDC_TargetUrbanAreaCorridor

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A polygon feature class of Miami-Dade County, Targeted Urban Area Corridors. This coverage was created for the Office of Community & Economic Development (OCED)...

  4. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Menard Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Menard Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from remotely...

  5. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  6. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Village Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Village Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  7. Roles of a forest corridor between Marojejy, Anjana- haribe-Sud and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    southwestern part of the provisionally protected rainforest corri- dor between .... The climate in COMATSA is tropical and humid with about ..... Lemurs in a complex landscape: mapping spe- ... Are corridors, fragment size and forest structure.

  8. Wild felid species richness affected by a corridor in the Lacandona forest, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil–Fernández, M.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Wild felids are one of the most vulnerable species due to habitat loss caused by fragmentation of ecosystems. We analyzed the effect of a structural corridor, defined as a strip of vegetation connecting two habitat patches, on the richness and habitat occupancy of felids on three sites in Marqués de Comillas, Chiapas, one with two isolated forest patches, the second with a structural corridor, and the third inside the Montes Azules Biosphere Reserve. We found only two species (L. pardalis and H. yagouaroundi in the isolated forest patches, five species in the structural corridor, and four species inside the Reserve. The corridor did not significantly affect occupancy, but due to the low detection rates, further investigation is needed to rule out differences. Our results highlight the need to manage habitat connectivity in the remaining forests in order to preserve the felid community of Marqués de Comillas, Chiapas, México.

  9. The significance of the Danube ecological corridor in the proceedings of implementing ecological networks in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Dejan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the modern processes for exploiting land people have altered the original appearance of areas and created cultural environments. The remaining natural environments, whether protected or not, take up a relatively small portion of space and represent isolated islands which in itself can not be sufficient for the preservation of biodiversity or for the fulfillment of national, regional or international goals and commitments related to their preservation. In order to secure the preservation of biodiversity, the strengthening of integrity and the natural processes, such as animal migrations, succession of vegetation and evolution processes, the communication between natural habitats is imperative. Ecological corridors, as integral elements of ecological networks, ensure the preservation of vital ecological interactions by providing a connection between different habitats or areas. Depending on a range of factors, from the fulfillment of demands of different species to the connecting of regions, corridors of local, sub-regional, regional and international importance are identified. The Danube ecological corridor is one of the most significant corridors of international importance which encompasses a large number of habitats which are part of the natural watercourse of the corridor. There are numerous protected areas in the Danube coastal area on Serbia's territory which present themselves as central areas for forming the ecological network, such as: Gornje Podunavlje, Karađorđevo, Fruška Gora, Titelski Breg hill, Kovalski rit marsh, Dunavski loess bluffs, the Sava mouth, Labudovo okno, Deliblato sands, Đerdap and Mala Vrbica. The diverse and mosaic vegetation of the floodplain, as well as the consistency of the protected areas within the Danube corridor have a direct influence on the quality and functionality of this corridor. The goal of this paper is to show the significance of the Danube ecological corridor in the process of implementing

  10. A Simultaneous Confidence Corridor for Varying Coefficient Regression with Sparse Functional Data

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Lijie; Li WANG; Härdle, Wolfgang Karl; Yang, Lijian

    2014-01-01

    We consider a varying coefficient regression model for sparse functional data, with time varying response variable depending linearly on some time independent covariates with coefficients as functions of time dependent covariates. Based on spline smoothing, we propose data driven simultaneous confidence corridors for the coefficient functions with asymptotically correct confidence level. Such confidence corridors are useful benchmarks for statistical inference on the global shapes of coeffici...

  11. The effects of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor on India-Pakistan relations

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) constitutes one of the largest foreign investments China has made in the framework of the "One Belt, One Road" initiative. The expenditures planned for the coming years in the amount of approximately $46 billion will further intensify relations between China and Pakistan. At the same time, Pakistan will assume a more prominent role in China's foreign policy. But CPEC also affects relations between India and Pakistan. The transport corridor between P...

  12. Rise of Regional Logistics Hubs in Global Trade : Role of Arctic Corridor in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Buyle, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The proposed research concerns the engagement of the Finnish transport network into national, regional, European and global supply chains. The author was interested in studying the role of new transport corridors in trade reactivity and changes in market trends. The main target of the thesis is to understand the role of the Arctic Corridor on the implementation of Finnish development strategies. The mineral industry in Finnish Lapland and the extraction of natural resources in the Barent...

  13. Mixing as a driver of temporal variations in river hydrochemistry: 1. Insights from conservative tracers in the Andes-Amazon transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Mark A.; Baronas, J. Jotautas; Clark, Kathryn E.; Feakins, Sarah J.; West, A. Joshua

    2017-04-01

    The response of hillslope processes to changes in precipitation may drive the observed changes in the solute geochemistry of rivers with discharge. This conjecture is most robust when variations in the key environmental factors that affect hillslope processes (e.g., lithology, erosion rate, and climate) are minimal across a river's catchment area. For rivers with heterogenous catchments, temporal variations in the relative contributions of different tributary subcatchments may modulate variations in solute geochemistry with runoff. In the absence of a dense network of hydrologic gauging stations, alternative approaches are required to distinguish between the different drivers of temporal variability in river solute concentrations. In this contribution, we apportion the water and solute fluxes of a reach of the Madre de Dios River (Peru) between its four major tributary subcatchments during two sampling campaigns (wet and dry seasons) using spatial variations in conservative tracers. Guided by the results of a mixing model, we identify temporal variations in solute concentrations of the main stem Madre de Dios that are due to changes in the relative contributions of each tributary. Our results suggest that variations in tributary mixing are, in part, responsible for the observed concentration-discharge (C-Q) relationships. The implications of these results are further explored by reanalyzing previously published C-Q data from this region, developing a theoretical model of tributary mixing, and, in a companion paper, comparing the C-Q behavior of a suite of major and trace elements in the Madre de Dios River system.

  14. Mapping mountain torrent hazards in the Hexi Corridor using an evidential reasoning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Youhua; Liu, Jinpeng; Tian, Feng; Wang, Dekai

    2017-02-01

    The Hexi Corridor is an important part of the Silk Road Economic Belt and a crucial channel for westward development in China. Many important national engineering projects pass through the corridor, such as highways, railways, and the West-to-East Gas Pipeline. The frequent torrent disasters greatly impact the security of infrastructure and human safety. In this study, an evidential reasoning approach based on Dempster-Shafer theory is proposed for mapping mountain torrent hazards in the Hexi Corridor. A torrent hazard map for the Hexi Corridor was generated by integrating the driving factors of mountain torrent disasters including precipitation, terrain, flow concentration processes, and the vegetation fraction. The results show that the capability of the proposed method is satisfactory. The torrent hazard map shows that there is high potential torrent hazard in the central and southeastern Hexi Corridor. The results are useful for engineering planning support and resource protection in the Hexi Corridor. Further efforts are discussed for improving torrent hazard mapping and prediction.

  15. Factors affecting buccal corridor space in Angle′s Class II Division 1 malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Buccal corridor space has been thought of primarily in terms of maxillary width, but there is also evidence that they are heavily influenced by the antero-posterior position of maxilla. The present study was undertaken with an aim of evaluating and comparing the dental and skeletal factors related to buccal corridor space in individuals having Class I and Class II Division 1 malocclusions. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects of which 40 were males and 40 were females in the age group of 20-30 years were selected as per inclusion criteria and were grouped as Group I having Class I malocclusion and as Group II having Class II malocclusions based on angle ANB. 12 linear and 2 angular cephalometric measurements and 4 study cast measurements were used to correlate with the buccal corridor linear ratio (BCLR, calculated on smile photograph using the Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software (Adobe Systems Inc., San Jose, California, USA. The data obtained was statistically evaluated using independent t-test and multiple linear regression analysis. Result: Buccal corridor space is larger in individuals with Class II Division 1 malocclusion when compared with individuals with Class I malocclusions. There exists a significant difference in buccal corridor space between males and females. Conclusion: The present study helps in establishing the correlation between certain factors and the amount of buccal corridor space in individuals having skeletal Class II pattern.

  16. Monitoring vegetation water uptake in a semiarid riparian corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J.; Ochoa, C. G.; Leonard, J.

    2015-12-01

    With a changing global climate and growing demand for water throughout the world, responsible and sustainable land and water resource management practices are becoming increasingly important. Accounting for the amount of water used by riparian vegetation is a critical element for better managing water resources in arid and semiarid environments. The objective of this study was to determine water uptake by selected riparian vegetative species in a semiarid riparian corridor in North-Central Oregon. Exo-skin sap flow sensors (Dynamax, Houston, TX, U.S.A.) were used to measure sap flux in red alder (Alnus rubra) trees, the dominant overstory vegetation at the field site. Xylem sap flow data was collected from selected trees at the field site and in a greenhouse setting. Transpiration rates were determined based on an energy balance method, which makes it possible to estimate the mass flow of sap by measuring the velocity of electrical heat pulses through the plant stem. Preliminary field results indicate that red alder tree branches of about 1 inch diameter transpire between 2 and 6 kg of water/day. Higher transpiration rates of up to 7.3 kg of water/day were observed under greenhouse conditions. Streamflow and stream water temperature, vegetation characteristics, and meteorological data were analyzed in conjunction with transpiration data. Results of this study provide insight on riparian vegetation water consumption in water scarce ecosystems. This study is part of an overarching project focused on climate-vegetation interactions and ecohydrologic processes in arid and semiarid landscapes.

  17. Renewable Energy Zones for the Africa Clean Energy Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Grace C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Deshmukh, Ranjit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Ndhlukula, Kudakwashe [International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Radojicic, Tijana [International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Reilly, Jessica [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Multi-criteria Analysis for Planning Renewable Energy (MapRE) is a study approach developed by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with the support of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). The approach combines geospatial, statistical, energy engineering, and economic methods to comprehensively identify and value high-quality wind, solar PV, and solar CSP resources for grid integration based on techno-economic criteria, generation profiles (for wind), and socio-environmental impacts. The Renewable Energy Zones for the Africa Clean Energy Corridor study sought to identify and comprehensively value high-quality wind, solar photovoltaic (PV), and concentrating solar power (CSP) resources in 21 countries in the East and Southern Africa Power Pools to support the prioritization of areas for development through a multi-criteria planning process. These countries include Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Djibouti, Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Libya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The study includes the methodology and the key results including renewable energy potential for each region.

  18. 1956-2000年云南红河流域径流的时空分布%Spatial and temporal variation of runoff of Red River Basin in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李运刚; 何大明; 叶长青

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the variation of runoff of Red River Basin and discusses the influence of "corridor-barrier" functions of valleys and mountains on variation of runoff by using GIS and statistic methods based on the monthly precipitation, temperature and evaporation data from 1960 to 2000 at 32 meteorological stations in Red River Basin, and the annual runoff data of Yuanjiang River, Lixian River and Panlong River from 1956 to 2000. The results show out: (1) Under the effect of "corridor-barrier" functions of valleys and mountains in Red River Basin, the patterns of annual precipitation and runoff depth distribution in spatial change a NW-SE direction, which is similar with the trend of the Red River valley and Ailao mountains. (2) In the long temporal scale averaged over years, the most obvious effects of the "corridor-barrier" functions is on runoff variation, and the second is on the precipitation, but not obvious on the temperature. (3) Under the superposed effect of climate changes and the "corridor-barrier" functions of valleys and mountains in Red River Basin, the difference of runoff variation is obvious in the east-west direction: the runoff variation of Yuanjiang River along the Red River Fault present an ascending trend, but the Lixian River on the west side of the Fault and the Panlong River on the east present a descending trend; the annual runoff in Yuanjiang River and Panlong River had a quasi-5a periods, and Panlong River had a quasi-8a periods; the runoff variation are quite inconsistent in different periods among the three river basins.

  19. 75 FR 2885 - Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ..., Woonsocket, RI for the following reasons: 1. Approval of Minutes 2. Chairman's Report 3. Executive Director's Report 4. Financial Budget 5. Public Input It is anticipated that about thirty people will be able to... presentations to the Commission or file written statements. Such requests should be made prior to the meeting...

  20. 75 FR 54378 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement; Stehekin River Corridor Implementation Plan; Lake Chelan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... Summary: Pursuant to Sec. 102(2)(C) of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, the National Park... on how to reduce flooding. While the COE failed to secure funds to do a detailed five-year study, its... flooding. The high monetary and environmental costs of bank protection and flood mitigation measures...

  1. Four Band Multispectral High Resolution Image Mosaic of the Colorado River Corridor, Arizona - Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In May 2013, the Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) of the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Southwest Biological Science Center (SBSC) acquired...

  2. Evaluation of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage for disturbance zonation in urban rivers using multivariate analysis: Implications for river management

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ram Devi Tachamo Shah; Deep Narayan Shah

    2013-08-01

    River pollution has tremendously increased in the major cities of South Asia, where the rivers have become a repository for domestic, agricultural, municipal and industrial wastes. This study presents the evaluation of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage as a means of assessing ecological status, determining different disturbance zones and identifying environmental variables and stressors that deteriorate the river ecosystem. In total, 20 sites in 36-km stretch of the main stem of the Bagmati River and 7 sites on its tributaries were selected for sampling in the post-monsoon and pre-monsoon seasons during the time period 2008–2010. The Ganga River System Biotic Score (GRSbios) index was applied to determine the ecological status. The ecological status of the different Bagmati River stretches ranged from reference, class 1 to class 5 (extremely polluted). We identified three types of disturbance zones along the river, ranging from minimally polluted to extremely polluted. A river corridor survey was conducted to identify any river stressing factors, revealing a sharp deterioration of the river from upstream to downstream with increasing concentrations of chloride and ortho-phosphate phosphorus. Effluents and Activities and Facilities were found to be the major stressing factors to the river ecosystem. The information gained should help water managers find the most time-efficient and cost-effective measures to address river degradation.

  3. Integrating occupancy modeling and interview data for corridor identification: A case study for jaguars in Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, K.A.; Nijhawan, S.; Salom-Perez, R.; Potosme, S.H.; Hines, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Corridors are critical elements in the long-term conservation of wide-ranging species like the jaguar (Panthera onca). Jaguar corridors across the range of the species were initially identified using a GIS-based least-cost corridor model. However, due to inherent errors in remotely sensed data and model uncertainties, these corridors warrant field verification before conservation efforts can begin. We developed a novel corridor assessment protocol based on interview data and site occupancy modeling. We divided our pilot study area, in southeastern Nicaragua, into 71, 6. ??. 6 km sampling units and conducted 160 structured interviews with local residents. Interviews were designed to collect data on jaguar and seven prey species so that detection/non-detection matrices could be constructed for each sampling unit. Jaguars were reportedly detected in 57% of the sampling units and had a detection probability of 28%. With the exception of white-lipped peccary, prey species were reportedly detected in 82-100% of the sampling units. Though the use of interview data may violate some assumptions of the occupancy modeling approach for determining 'proportion of area occupied', we countered these shortcomings through study design and interpreting the occupancy parameter, psi, as 'probability of habitat used'. Probability of habitat use was modeled for each target species using single state or multistate models. A combination of the estimated probabilities of habitat use for jaguar and prey was selected to identify the final jaguar corridor. This protocol provides an efficient field methodology for identifying corridors for easily-identifiable species, across large study areas comprised of unprotected, private lands. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. A biomimetic vision-based hovercraft accounts for bees' complex behaviour in various corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubieu, Frédéric L; Serres, Julien R; Colonnier, Fabien; Franceschini, Nicolas; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck

    2014-09-01

    Here we present the first systematic comparison between the visual guidance behaviour of a biomimetic robot and those of honeybees flying in similar environments. We built a miniature hovercraft which can travel safely along corridors with various configurations. For the first time, we implemented on a real physical robot the 'lateral optic flow regulation autopilot', which we previously studied computer simulations. This autopilot inspired by the results of experiments on various species of hymenoptera consists of two intertwined feedback loops, the speed and lateral control loops, each of which has its own optic flow (OF) set-point. A heading-lock system makes the robot move straight ahead as fast as 69 cm s(-1) with a clearance from one wall as small as 31 cm, giving an unusually high translational OF value (125° s(-1)). Our biomimetic robot was found to navigate safely along straight, tapered and bent corridors, and to react appropriately to perturbations such as the lack of texture on one wall, the presence of a tapering or non-stationary section of the corridor and even a sloping terrain equivalent to a wind disturbance. The front end of the visual system consists of only two local motion sensors (LMS), one on each side. This minimalistic visual system measuring the lateral OF suffices to control both the robot's forward speed and its clearance from the walls without ever measuring any speeds or distances. We added two additional LMSs oriented at +/-45° to improve the robot's performances in stiffly tapered corridors. The simple control system accounts for worker bees' ability to navigate safely in six challenging environments: straight corridors, single walls, tapered corridors, straight corridors with part of one wall moving or missing, as well as in the presence of wind.

  5. River restoration: morphological, hydrological, biogeochemical and ecological changes and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schirmer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available River restoration is essential as a means to enhance river dynamics, environmental heterogeneity and biodiversity. The underlying processes governing the dynamic changes need to be understood thoroughly to ensure that restoration projects meet their goals. In particular, we need to understand quantitatively how hydromorphological variability relates to ecosystem functioning and services, biodiversity and (groundwater quality in restored river corridors. Here, we provide a short overview on the literature and present a study of a restored river corridor in Switzerland combining physical, chemical, and biological observations with modeling. The results show complex spatial patterns of bank infiltration, habitat-type, biotic communities and biogeochemical processes. In particular, we found an increase in taxonomic and functional diversity for earthworms, testate amoebae and bacteria in the restored part of the river. This complexity is driven by river hydrology and morphodynamics, which are in turn actively coupled to riparian vegetation processes. Given this complexity and the multiple constraints on the uses and management of floodplains, a multi-disciplinary approach is needed to monitor the success of restoration measures and to make recommendations for future restoration projects.

  6. 78 FR 13748 - Environmental Impact Statement for the East San Fernando Valley Transit Corridor Project, Los...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Angeles, CA 90012. Representatives of Native American tribal governments and of all federal, state... individuals and organizations, public agencies, and Native American tribes to comment on the scope of the DEIS... headways reduced from 10 minutes peak/17.5 minutes off-peak to 6 minutes peak/12 minutes off-peak. In...

  7. Remote sensing methods for power line corridor surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matikainen, Leena; Lehtomäki, Matti; Ahokas, Eero; Hyyppä, Juha; Karjalainen, Mika; Jaakkola, Anttoni; Kukko, Antero; Heinonen, Tero

    2016-09-01

    To secure uninterrupted distribution of electricity, effective monitoring and maintenance of power lines are needed. This literature review article aims to give a wide overview of the possibilities provided by modern remote sensing sensors in power line corridor surveys and to discuss the potential and limitations of different approaches. Monitoring of both power line components and vegetation around them is included. Remotely sensed data sources discussed in the review include synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, optical satellite and aerial images, thermal images, airborne laser scanner (ALS) data, land-based mobile mapping data, and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) data. The review shows that most previous studies have concentrated on the mapping and analysis of network components. In particular, automated extraction of power line conductors has achieved much attention, and promising results have been reported. For example, accuracy levels above 90% have been presented for the extraction of conductors from ALS data or aerial images. However, in many studies datasets have been small and numerical quality analyses have been omitted. Mapping of vegetation near power lines has been a less common research topic than mapping of the components, but several studies have also been carried out in this field, especially using optical aerial and satellite images. Based on the review we conclude that in future research more attention should be given to an integrated use of various data sources to benefit from the various techniques in an optimal way. Knowledge in related fields, such as vegetation monitoring from ALS, SAR and optical image data should be better exploited to develop useful monitoring approaches. Special attention should be given to rapidly developing remote sensing techniques such as UAVs and laser scanning from airborne and land-based platforms. To demonstrate and verify the capabilities of automated monitoring approaches, large tests in various environments

  8. Particulate Matter Concentrations in East Oakland's High Street Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, P.; Jackson, J.; Lewis, R.; Marigny, A.; Mitchell, J. D.; Nguyen, R.; Philips, B.; Randle, D.; Romero, D.; Spears, D.; Telles, C.; Weissman, D.

    2012-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture of small solid pieces and/or liquid droplets in the air. High concentrations of PM can pose a serious health hazard because inhalation can result in breathing problems and/or aggravate asthma. Long term exposure can increase the likelihood of respiratory problems like asthma and emphysema as well as cancer. The smaller the particles, the deeper they can get into the respiratory system. For this reason, the smallest particles, those smaller than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5), are the most dangerous. PM2.5 is largely emitted from motor vehicles burning fuels that don't break down fully. Our research team investigated the levels of PM2.5 as well as particles smaller than 10 micrometers (PM10) and total suspended particulate (TSP) along the northeast-southwest trending High Street Corridor, near Fremont High School in East Oakland, California. Using the Aerocet 531 mass particle counter, team members walked through neighborhoods and along major roads within a 1 mile radius of Fremont High School. The Aerocet 531 recorded two minute average measurements of all the relevant PM sizes, which are reported in mg/m3. Measurements were consistently taken in the morning, between 8:30 and 11:30 am. Preliminary results indicate maximum readings of all PM sizes at sites that are in close proximity to a major freeway (Interstate-880). These results support our initial hypothesis that proximity to major roads and freeways, especially those with high diesel-fuel burning truck traffic, would be the primary factor affecting PM concentration levels. Preliminary median and maximum readings all suggest particulate matter levels below what the EPA would consider unhealthy or risky.

  9. Small mammal populations in a restored stream corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn D. Wike; F. Douglas Martin; Hugh G. Hanlin; Linda S. Paddock

    2000-01-01

    An opportunity to study the response of a small mammal community to restoration of a riparian wetland was provided by the Pen branch project at the Savannah river site (SRS). Live trapping of small mammals was conducted on six transects at Pen branch in 1996 and 1998 and at three transects at Meyers branch, an unimpacted stream at SRS, in 1997 and 1998. Distributions...

  10. Corridors for LIFE; ecological network analysis for Cheshire County (UK)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der T.; Bunce, R.G.H.; Kuipers, H.; Dirksen, J.

    2003-01-01

    This report gives the result of an analysis of the ecological network, designed for the agricultural plains of Cheshire. Five ecosystem types were selected: meres and mosses, heathland, wetland and rivers, woodland, and grassland,. Species were selected which can be considered representative for the

  11. Central Places of Transit Riders: A Visual Story of Brisbane, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses smartcard data to quantify and visualize the most popular destinations (‘central places’ and corridors of transit riders in Brisbane, an emerging global city in Queensland, Australia. It shows that the number and distribution of central places vary significantly across different periods of the day and so are their respective scopes of influence, which are measured by a standard deviational ellipse, and the associated transit corridors, which connect visitors of central places to other locales in the city. As a whole, this study shows the potential of smartcard data in efficiently verifying and even extending existing economic geography theories, models or concepts.

  12. Climate and base-level controlled fluvial system change and incision during the last glacial–interglacial transition, Roer river, the Netherlands – western Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasse, C.; Balen, Van R.T.; Bohncke, S.J.P.; Wallinga, J.; Vreugdenhil, M.

    2016-01-01

    The fluvial development of the Roer river in the southeastern Netherlands and western Germany is presented for the Late Pleniglacial, Late-glacial and Early Holocene periods. Reconstruction of fluvial-style changes is based on geomorphological and sedimentological analysis. Time control comes from c

  13. Corridors restore animal-mediated pollination in fragmented tropical forest landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormann, Urs; Scherber, Christoph; Tscharntke, Teja; Klein, Nadja; Larbig, Manuel; Valente, Jonathon J; Hadley, Adam S; Betts, Matthew G

    2016-01-27

    Tropical biodiversity and associated ecosystem functions have become heavily eroded through habitat loss. Animal-mediated pollination is required in more than 94% of higher tropical plant species and 75% of the world's leading food crops, but it remains unclear if corridors avert deforestation-driven pollination breakdown in fragmented tropical landscapes. Here, we used manipulative resource experiments and field observations to show that corridors functionally connect neotropical forest fragments for forest-associated hummingbirds and increase pollen transfer. Further, corridors boosted forest-associated pollinator availability in fragments by 14.3 times compared with unconnected equivalents, increasing overall pollination success. Plants in patches without corridors showed pollination rates equal to bagged control flowers, indicating pollination failure in isolated fragments. This indicates, for the first time, that corridors benefit tropical forest ecosystems beyond boosting local species richness, by functionally connecting mutualistic network partners. We conclude that small-scale adjustments to landscape configuration safeguard native pollinators and associated pollination services in tropical forest landscapes. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. Engineering monitoring of rockfall hazards along transportation corridors: using mobile terrestrial LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lato

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Geotechnical hazards along linear transportation corridors are challenging to identify and often require constant monitoring. Inspecting corridors using traditional, manual methods requires the engineer to be unnecessarily exposed to the hazard. It also requires closure of the corridor to ensure safety of the worker from passing vehicles. This paper identifies the use of mobile terrestrial LiDAR data as a compliment to traditional field methods. Mobile terrestrial LiDAR is an emerging remote data collection technique capable of generating accurate fully three-dimensional virtual models while driving at speeds up to 100 km/h. Data is collected from a truck that causes no delays to active traffic nor does it impede corridor use. These resultant georeferenced data can be used for geomechanical structural feature identification and kinematic analysis, rockfall path identification and differential monitoring of rock movement or failure over time. Comparisons between mobile terrestrial and static LiDAR data collection and analysis are presented. As well, detailed discussions on workflow procedures for possible implementation are discussed. Future use of mobile terrestrial LiDAR data for corridor analysis will focus on repeated surveys and developing dynamic four-dimensional models, higher resolution data collection. As well, computationally advanced, spatially accurate, geomechanically controlled three-dimensional rockfall simulations should be investigated.

  15. Palaeoenvironments of insular Southeast Asia during the Last Glacial Period: a savanna corridor in Sundaland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Michael I.; Taylor, David; Hunt, Chris

    2005-11-01

    Consideration of a range of evidence from geomorphology, palynology, biogeography and vegetation/climate modelling suggests that a north-south 'savanna corridor' did exist through the continent of Sundaland (modern insular Indonesia and Malaysia) through the Last Glacial Period (LGP) at times of lowered sea-level, as originally proposed by Heaney [1991. Climatic Change 19, 53-61]. A minimal interpretation of the size of this corridor requires a narrow but continuous zone of open 'savanna' vegetation 50-150 km wide, running along the sand-covered divide between the modern South China and Java Seas. This area formed a land bridge between the Malaysian Peninsula and the major islands of Sumatra, Java and Borneo. The savanna corridor connected similar open vegetation types north and south of the equator, and served as a barrier to the dispersal of rainforest-dependent species between Sumatra and Borneo. A maximal interpretation of the available evidence is compatible with the existence of a broad savanna corridor, with forest restricted to refugia primarily in Sumatra, Borneo and the continental shelf beneath the modern South China Sea. This savanna corridor may have provided a convenient route for the rapid early dispersal of modern humans through the region and on into Australasia.

  16. Influence of Smile Arc and Buccal Corridors on Facial Attractiveness: A Cross-sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Shashank; Vaz, Anna C; Singh, Baldeep; Taneja, Lavina; Vinod, KS; Verma, Prateek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Two aspects of the smile: the Smile Arc (SA) and Buccal Corridors (BC) have been the interest of the orthodontist in recent years. Aim The present study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of the smile arc and buccal corridors on facial attractiveness as evaluated by orthodontists, general dentists and laymen. Materials and Methods Two subjects (one male & one female) were selected from the regional population fulfilling the criteria of an ideal smile arc and ideal buccal corridors. Frontal smile view photographs of these subjects were taken and modified by using adobe photoshop 7.0 to create combination of three smile arc variance and three buccal corridors variations respectively which were shown to 25 orthodontists, 25 general dentists & 25 laymen, to rate the facial attractiveness of each image on a rating scale. Results All the three groups (laypersons, dentists and orthodontists) showed significant difference in ratings, indicating that they had different perceptions on the facial attractiveness. Conclusion Orthodontists were more precise in discerning the smile arc and buccal corridors compared to dentists and laypersons. PMID:27790573

  17. Collision risk-capacity tradeoff analysis of an en-route corridor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Bojia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Flow corridors are a new class of trajectory-based airspace which derives from the next generation air transportation system concept of operations. Reducing the airspace complexity and increasing the capacity are the main purposes of the en-route corridor. This paper analyzes the collision risk-capacity tradeoff using a combined discrete–continuous simulation method. A basic two-dimensional en-route flow corridor with performance rules is designed as the operational environment. A second-order system is established by combining the point mass model and the proportional derivative controller together to simulate the self-separation operations of the aircrafts in the corridor and the operation performance parameters from the User Manual for the Base of Aircraft Data are used in this research in order to improve the reliability. Simulation results indicate that the aircrafts can self-separate from each other efficiently by adjusting their velocities, and rationally setting the values of some variables can improve the rate and stability of the corridor with low risks of loss of separation.

  18. Atmospheric pollution in the Tula Industrial Corridor studied using a bio monitor and nuclear analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez C, M. A.; Solis, C.; Andrade, E. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Beltran H, R. I. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, 42184 Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Issac O, K. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Medicina, Paseo Tollocan s/n, esq. Jesus Carranza, 50120 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lucho C, C. A. [Universidad Politecnica de Pachuca, Carretera Pachuca-Cd. Sahagun Km. 20, Hidalgo (Mexico); Lopez R, M. C.; Longoria, L. C. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-02-15

    This study deals with the application of nuclear analytical techniques to analyze trace elements in the biological monitor Tillandsia usneoides. Biological monitors provides an alternative advantageous way of particulate matter sampling in air pollution studies, since there is no need of special sampling devices, accumulation time can be as long as desired. T. usneoides, which occurs naturally throughout Mexico, was used to monitor air quality of Tula-Vito-Apasco (TVA) industrial corridor at central Mexico. This area is considered one of the critical zones of the country because of atmospheric contaminants high concentration. Particulate matter is regulated by Mexican norms, but its chemical composition is not. Plants were transplanted from a clean environment to four sites at the TVA corridor, and exposed for 12 weeks from February to April 2008. Trace element accumulation of plants was determined by particle induced X-ray emission and neutron activation analysis. Results reveal differences in trace elements distribution among sites in the TVA corridor. Furthermore, anthropogenic elements (S, V) and crustal elements (Ca) in T. usneoides exhibit high levels. Highly toxic elements such as Hg, As and Cr although present at trace levels, showed un enrichment relative to the initial values, when transplanted to the TVA corridor. Results show that monitoring with T. usneoides allows a first approximation of air sources to provide insights of the atmospheric pollution in the TVA corridor. (Author)

  19. Climate change and plant dispersal along corridors in fragmented landscapes of Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbach, Pablo A; Locatelli, Bruno; Molina, Luis G; Ciais, Philippe; Leadley, Paul W

    2013-09-01

    Climate change is a threat to biodiversity, and adaptation measures should be considered in biodiversity conservation planning. Protected areas (PA) are expected to be impacted by climate change and improving their connectivity with biological corridors (BC) has been proposed as a potential adaptation measure, although assessing its effectiveness remains a challenge. In Mesoamerica, efforts to preserve the biodiversity have led to the creation of a regional network of PA and, more recently, BC. This study evaluates the role of BC for facilitating plant dispersal between PA under climate change in Mesoamerica. A spatially explicit dynamic model (cellular automaton) was developed to simulate species dispersal under different climate and conservation policy scenarios. Plant functional types (PFT) were defined based on a range of dispersal rates and vegetation types to represent the diversity of species in the region. The impacts of climate change on PA and the role of BC for dispersal were assessed spatially. Results show that most impacted PA are those with low altitudinal range in hot, dry, or high latitude areas. PA with low altitudinal range in high cool areas benefit the most from corridors. The most important corridors cover larger areas and have high altitude gradients. Only the fastest PFT can keep up with the expected change in climate and benefit from corridors for dispersal. We conclude that the spatial assessment of the vulnerability of PA and the role of corridors in facilitating dispersal can help conservation planning under a changing climate.

  20. California air transportation study: A transportation system for the California Corridor of the year 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    To define and solve the problems of transportation in the California Corrider in the year 2010, the 1989 California Polytechnic State University Aeronautical Engineering Senior Design class determined future corridor transportation needs and developed a system to meet the requirements. A market study, which included interpreting travel demand and gauging the future of regional and national air travel in and out of the corridor, allowed the goals of the project to be accurately refined. Comprehensive trade-off studies of several proposed transporation systems were conducted to determine which components would form the final proposed system. Preliminary design and further analysis were performed for each resulting component. The proposed system consists of three vehicles and a special hub or mode mixer, the Corridor Access Port (CAP). The vehicles are: (1) an electric powered aircraft to serve secondary airports and the CAP; (2) a high speed magnetic levitation train running through the CAP and the high population density areas of the corridor; and (3) a vertical takeoff and landing tilt rotor aircraft to serve both intercity and intrametropolitan travelers from the CAP and city vertiports. The CAP is a combination and an extension of the hub, mode mixer, and Wayport concepts. The CAP is an integrated part of the system which meets the travel demands in the corridor, and interfaces with interstate and international travel.

  1. Denitrification in the Mississippi River network controlled by flow through river bedforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Velez, Jesus D.; Harvey, Judson W.; Cardenas, M. Bayani; Kiel, Brian

    2015-12-01

    Increasing nitrogen concentrations in the world's major rivers have led to over-fertilization of sensitive downstream waters. Flow through channel bed and bank sediments acts to remove riverine nitrogen through microbe-mediated denitrification reactions. However, little is understood about where in the channel network this biophysical process is most efficient, why certain channels are more effective nitrogen reactors, and how management practices can enhance the removal of nitrogen in regions where water circulates through sediment and mixes with groundwater--hyporheic zones. Here we present numerical simulations of hyporheic flow and denitrification throughout the Mississippi River network using a hydrogeomorphic model. We find that vertical exchange with sediments beneath the riverbed in hyporheic zones, driven by submerged bedforms, has denitrification potential that far exceeds lateral hyporheic exchange with sediments alongside river channels, driven by river bars and meandering banks. We propose that geomorphic differences along river corridors can explain why denitrification efficiency varies between basins in the Mississippi River network. Our findings suggest that promoting the development of permeable bedforms at the streambed--and thus vertical hyporheic exchange--would be more effective at enhancing river denitrification in large river basins than promoting lateral exchange through induced channel meandering.

  2. It takes more than water: Restoring the Colorado River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Jennifer; Kendy, Eloise; Schlatter, Karen; Hinojosa-Huertaf, Osvel; Flessa, Karl W.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Ramirez-Hernandez, Jorge; Nagler, Pamela L.; Glenn, Edward P.

    2017-01-01

    Environmental flows have become important tools for restoring rivers and associated riparian ecosystems (Arthington, 2012; Glenn et al., 2017). In March 2014, the United States and Mexico initiated a bold effort in restoration, delivering from Morelos Dam a “pulse flow” of water into the Colorado River in its delta for the purpose of learning about its environmental effects (Flessa et al., 2013; Bark et al., 2016). Specifically, scientists evaluated whether the pulse flow, albeit miniscule compared to historical floods, could provide the ecological functions needed to establish native, flood-dependent vegetation to restore natural habitat along the riparian corridor.

  3. River engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, M.

    1993-01-01

    One dimension models - basic eauations, analytical models, numberical models. One dimensional models -suspended load, roughness and resistance of river beds. Solving river problems - tools, flood mitigation, bank protection.

  4. An Optimal Deployment of Wireless Charging Lane for Electric Vehicles on Highway Corridors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yongxi [Clemson University

    2016-01-01

    We propose an integrated modeling framework to optimally locate wireless charging facilities along a highway corridor to provide sufficient in-motion charging. The integrated model consists of a master, Infrastructure Planning Model that determines best locations with integrated two sub-models that explicitly capture energy consumption and charging and the interactions between electric vehicle and wireless charging technologies, geometrics of highway corridors, speed, and auxiliary system. The model is implemented in an illustrative case study of a highway corridor of Interstate 5 in Oregon. We found that the cost of establishing the charging lane is sensitive and increases with the speed to achieve. Through sensitivity analyses, we gain better understanding on the extent of impacts of geometric characteristics of highways and battery capacity on the charging lane design.

  5. Transport corridors as a factor of integration in South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grčić Mirko

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of opening the state borders with the stress on its integration function through the constitution of cross-border regions cannot be achieved without a synchronized transport development. For South Eastern European countries, the top priority project would be the formation of pan-European transport corridors defined on Crete in 1994 and amended later on in Helsinki in 1997. Six of ten corridors pass through the territory of South Eastern Europe. Due to their transport and geographical locations, the capitals of the region should represent the key nodes on the main transport directions. Corridor X with its technical, economic and functional characteristics represents the axis of the entire transport network in SE Europe. Formation of this network has as its ultimate goal the functional inter-regional integration with simplified and accelerated transport lines. This also means the open barriers but at the same time, improved and harmonized transport infrastructures and services.

  6. The role of river drainages in shaping the genetic structure of capybara populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, María Soledad; Quintana, Rubén Darío; Bolkovic, María Luisa; Cassini, Marcelo H; Túnez, Juan Ignacio

    2015-12-01

    The capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, is an herbivorous rodent widely distributed throughout most of South American wetlands that lives closely associated with aquatic environments. In this work, we studied the genetic structure of the capybara throughout part of its geographic range in Argentina using a DNA fragment of the mitochondrial control region. Haplotypes obtained were compared with those available for populations from Paraguay and Venezuela. We found 22 haplotypes in 303 individuals. Hierarchical AMOVAs were performed to evaluate the role of river drainages in shaping the genetic structure of capybara populations at the regional and basin scales. In addition, two landscape genetic models, isolation by distance and isolation by resistance, were used to test whether genetic distance was associated with Euclidean distance (i.e. isolation by distance) or river corridor distance (i.e. isolation by resistance) at the basin scale. At the regional scale, the results of the AMOVA grouping populations by mayor river basins showed significant differences between them. At the basin scale, we also found significant differences between sub-basins in Paraguay, together with a significant correlation between genetic and river corridor distance. For Argentina and Venezuela, results were not significant. These results suggest that in Paraguay, the current genetic structure of capybaras is associated with the lack of dispersion corridors through permanent rivers. In contrast, limited structuring in Argentina and Venezuela is likely the result of periodic flooding facilitating dispersion.

  7. Hydroclimatological Processes in the Central American Dry Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, H. G.; Duran-Quesada, A. M.; Amador, J. A.; Alfaro, E. J.; Mora, G.

    2015-12-01

    This work studies the hydroclimatological variability and the climatic precursors of drought in the Central American Dry Corridor (CADC), a subregion located in the Pacific coast of Southern Mexico and Central America. Droughts are frequent in the CADC, which is featured by a higher climatological aridity compared to the highlands and Caribbean coast of Central America. The CADC region presents large social vulnerability to hydroclimatological impacts originated from dry conditions, as there is a large part of population that depends on subsistance agriculture. The influence of large-scale climatic precursors such as ENSO, the Caribbean Low-Level Jet (CLLJ), low frequency signals from the Pacific and Caribbean and some intra-seasonal signals such as the MJO are evaluated. Previous work by the authors identified a connection between the CLLJ and CADC precipitation. This connection is more complex than a simple rain-shadow effect, and instead it was suggested that convection at the exit of the jet in the Costa-Rica and Nicaragua Caribbean coasts and consequent subsidence in the Pacific could be playing a role in this connection. During summer, when the CLLJ is stronger than normal, the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (located mainly in the Pacific) displaces to a more southern position, and vice-versa, suggesting a connection between these two processes that has not been fully explained yet. The role of the Western Hemisphere Warm Pool also needs more research. All this is important, as it suggest a working hypothesis that during summer, the effect of the Caribbean wind strength may be responsible for the dry climate of the CADC. Another previous analysis by the authors was based on downscaled precipitation and temperature from GCMs and the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. The data was later used in a hydrological model. Results showed a negative trend in reanalysis' runoff for 1980-2012 in San José (Costa Rica) and Tegucigalpa (Honduras). This highly significant drying trend

  8. Biogeomorphic feedbacks within riparian corridors: the role of positive interactions between riparian plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corenblit, Dov; Steiger, Johannes; Till-Bottraud, Irène

    2017-04-01

    Riparian vegetation affects hydrogeomorphic processes and leads to the construction of wooded fluvial landforms within riparian corridors. Multiple plants form dense multi- and mono-specific stands that enhance plant resistance as grouped plants are less prone to be uprooted than free-standing individuals. Riparian plants which grow in dense stands also enhance their role as ecosystem engineers through the trapping of sediment, organic matter and nutrients. The wooded biogeomorphic landforms which originate from the effect of vegetation on geomorphology lead in return to an improved capacity of the plants to survive, exploit resources, and reach sexual maturity in the intervals between destructive floods. Thus, these vegetated biogeomorphic landforms likely represent a positive niche construction of riparian plants. The nature and intensity of biotic interactions between riparian plants of different species (inter-specific) or the same species (intra-specific) which form dense stands and construct together the niche remain unclear. We strongly suspect that indirect inter-specific positive interactions (facilitation) occur between plants but that more direct intra-specific interactions, such as cooperation and altruism, also operate during the niche construction process. Our aim is to propose an original theoretical framework of inter and intra-specific positive interactions between riparian plants. We suggest that positive interactions between riparian plants are maximized in river reaches with an intermediate level of hydrogeomorphic disturbance. During establishment, plants that grow within dense stands improve their survival and growth because individuals protect each other from shear stress. In addition to the improved capacity to trap mineral and organic matter, individuals which constitute the dense stand can cooperate to mutually support a mycorrhizal fungi network that will connect plants, soil and ground water and influence nutrient transfer, cycling and

  9. Normative segment-specific axial and coronal angulation corridors of subaxial cervical column in axial rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Stemper, Brian D; Pintar, Frank A; Baisden, Jamie L; Shender, Barry S; Paskoff, Glenn

    2008-03-01

    In contrast to clinical studies wherein loading magnitudes are indeterminate, experiments permit controlled and quantifiable moment applications, record kinematics in multiple planes, and allow derivation of moment-angulation corridors. Axial and coronal moment-angulation corridors were determined at every level of the subaxial cervical spine, expressed as logarithmic functions, and level-specificity of range of motion and neutral zones were evaluated. segmental primary axial and coupled coronal motions do not vary by level. Although it is known that cervical spine responses are coupled, segment-specific corridors of axial and coronal kinematics under axial twisting moments from healthy normal spines are not reported. Ten human cadaver columns (23-44 years, mean: 34 +/- 6.8) were fixed at the ends and targets were inserted to each vertebra to obtain kinematics in axial and coronal planes. The columns were subjected to pure axial twisting moments. Range of motion and neutral zone for primary-axial and coupled-coronal rotation components were determined at each spinal level. Data were analyzed using factorial analysis of variance. Moment-rotation angulations were expressed using logarithmic functions, and mean +/-1 standard deviation corridors were derived at each level for both components. Moment-angulations responses were nonlinear. Each segmental curve for both components was well represented by a logarithmic function (r2 > 0.95). Factorial analysis of variance indicated that the biomechanical metrics are spinal level-specific (P specific responses. The presentation of moment-angulation corridors for both metrics forms a dataset for the normal population. These segment-specific nonlinear corridors may help clinicians assess dysfunction or instability. These data will assist mathematical models of the spine in improved validation and lead to efficacious design of stabilizing systems.

  10. Urban Power Line Corridors as Novel Habitats for Grassland and Alien Plant Species in South-Western Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampinen, Jussi; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Huhta, Ari-Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Regularly managed electric power line corridors may provide habitats for both early-successional grassland plant species and disturbance-dependent alien plant species. These habitats are especially important in urban areas, where they can help conserve native grassland species and communities in urban greenspace. However, they can also provide further footholds for potentially invasive alien species that already characterize urban areas. In order to implement power line corridors into urban conservation, it is important to understand which environmental conditions in the corridors favor grassland species and which alien species. Likewise it is important to know whether similar environmental factors in the corridors control the species composition of the two groups. We conducted a vegetation study in a 43 kilometer long urban power line corridor network in south-western Finland, and used generalized linear models and distance-based redundancy analysis to determine which environmental factors best predict the occurrence and composition of grassland and alien plant species in the corridors. The results imply that old corridors on dry soils and steep slopes characterized by a history as open areas and pastures are especially suitable for grassland species. Corridors suitable for alien species, in turn, are characterized by productive soils and abundant light and are surrounded by a dense urban fabric. Factors controlling species composition in the two groups are somewhat correlated, with the most important factors including light abundance, soil moisture, soil calcium concentration and soil productivity. The results have implications for grassland conservation and invasive alien species control in urban areas.

  11. 76 FR 3624 - Milford Wind Corridor Phase II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Milford Wind Corridor Phase II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding Milford Wind Corridor Phase II, LLC's application for...

  12. 76 FR 78641 - Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC, Milford Wind Corridor Phase I, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC, Milford Wind Corridor Phase I, LLC; Notice of...'s (Commission) June 16, 2011 Order.\\1\\ \\1\\ Cedar Creek Wind Energy, LLC and Milford Wind Corridor...

  13. Composition and abundance of small mammal communities in forest fragments and vegetation corridors in Southern Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa O. Mesquita

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation leads to isolation and reduce habitat areas, in addition to a series of negative effects on natural populations, affecting richness, abundance and distribution of animal species. In such a text, habitat corridors serve as an alternative for connectivity in fragmented landscapes, minimizing the effects of structural isolation of different habitat areas. This study evaluated the richness, composition and abundance of small mammal communities in forest fragments and in the relevant vegetation corridors that connect these fragments, located in Southern Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. Ten sites were sampled (five forest fragments and five vegetation corridors using the capture-mark-recapture method, from April 2007-March 2008. A total sampling effort of 6 300 trapnights resulted in 656 captures of 249 individuals. Across the 10 sites sampled, 11 small mammal species were recorded. Multidimensional scaling (MDS ordinations and ANOSIM based on the composition of small mammal communities within the corridor and fragment revealed a qualitative difference between the two environments. Regarding abundance, there was no significant difference between corridors and fragments. In comparing mean values of abundance per species in each environment, only Cerradomys subflavus showed a significant difference, being more abundant in the corridor environment. Results suggest that the presence of several small mammal species in the corridor environment, in relatively high abundances, could indicate corridors use as habitat, though they might also facilitate and/or allow the movement of individuals using different habitat patches (fragments.

  14. Green corridors and their possible impact on the European supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.; Holte, Even Ambros

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to present the concept of green corridors and analyse their possible impact on the supply chain. The basis of this material is work conducted in the context of the EU SuperGreen project and therefore the geographical setting of the chapter is Europe. The general...... however that the quality of transport and logistics services is also affected by passenger transport competing for route capacity. Aviation is outside the scope of our analysis, as is the use of pipelines for liquid cargoes. In addition, the chapter provides examples of the corridor development approaches...

  15. On sustainable development of agriculture in oasis: a case study of Hexi Corridor, Gansu, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Limin

    2007-01-01

    Hexi Corridor is one of the most potential areas in the China's Western Development in 21s' century.However,the problems - the sustainable development of oasis agriculture,the ecosystem of the oasis edge,the landscape structure,the population density in oasis,water resources and land resources in oasis are deteriorating and have restricted the sustainable development of society and economy in this area.This paper summarizes the problems at present,and puts forward the concept of protecting and constructing the oasis environment and sustainable development for the sustainable development of the oasis agriculture in the Hexi Corridor.

  16. Territoriality by conservation in the Selous-Niassa corridor in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bluwstein, Jevgeniy; Lund, Jens Friis

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we argue that historically emerging frontiers of conservation pave the way for continuous territorialization. Drawing on a concrete case in the Selous-Niassa Corridor in Southern Tanzania, we show how a frontier emerged in form of community-based conservation and decades of consecut......In this paper we argue that historically emerging frontiers of conservation pave the way for continuous territorialization. Drawing on a concrete case in the Selous-Niassa Corridor in Southern Tanzania, we show how a frontier emerged in form of community-based conservation and decades...

  17. Runoff, discharge and flood occurrence in a poorly gauged tropical basin : the Mahakam River, Kalimantan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidayat, H.

    2013-01-01

    Tidal rivers and lowland wetlands present a transition region where the interests of hydrologists and physical oceanographers overlap. Physical oceanographers tend to simplify river hydrology, by often assuming a constant river discharge when studying estuarine dynamics. Hydrologists, in turn, gener

  18. 33 CFR 334.770 - Gulf of Mexico and St. Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted.... Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla... referred to as the “Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor.” (b) The regulations. (1) Military usage of areas...

  19. The impacts of climate change and land cover/use transition on the hydrology in the upper Yellow River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuo, Lan; Zhang, Yongxin; Gao, Yanhong; Hao, Zhenchun; Cairang, Luosang

    2013-10-01

    Observed streamflow over the past decades in the upper Yellow River Basin (UYRB) was examined for changes in hydrological regime. The modified Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model was employed to better understand climate change impact and long-term and recent land cover/use change impact as it relates to the "Grain for Green Project" and "Three Rivers Source Region Reserve" on water resources by examining mechanisms behind observed streamflow changes. UYRB hydrological regimes have undergone changes over the past decades as reflected by a decrease in wet and warm season streamflow, and annual streamflow. Progressively more streamflow has been generated in the early part of the year compared to the latter part, consequently leading to the earlier occurrence of the day representing the midpoint of yearly mass flow. VIC simulations suggest that these changes in observed streamflow were due to the combined effects of changes in precipitation, evapotranspiration, rainfall runoff, and baseflow and were caused primarily by climate change above Tang Nai Hai (TNH) hydrometric station. Below TNH where human activity is relative intense, land cover/use change and reservoir release impacts became important. Changes in snowmelt runoff were negligible over the past decades. Owing to this, snowmelt runoff appeared to play only a modest role in the changing hydrology of the region. The conservation programs were shown to start to exhibit some positive impacts on water resources in the UYRB.

  20. War and wildlife: a post-conflict assessment of Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mishra, C.; Fitzherbert, A.

    2004-01-01

    Prior to the last two decades of conflict, Afghanistan¿s Wakhan Corridor was considered an important area for conservation of the wildlife of high altitudes. We conducted an assessment of the status of large mammals in Wakhan after 22 years of conflict, and also made a preliminary assessment of wild

  1. Lessons Learned during Creation of the I-65 Biofuels Corridor (White Paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-06-01

    A team of Clean Cities coalitions and state agencies worked together to create a biofuels corridor along I-65 between Indiana and Alabama. The team built relationships with stakeholders and learned the value of strong partnerships, good communication, marketing, and preparation.

  2. Weakest link or strongest node? Prospects for inland port development in transnational European corridors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, P.A.; Wiegmans, Bart

    2015-01-01

    In a context of increasing global freight transportation and transnational corridor development, inland ports are becoming more important in enhancing hinterland accessibility of deep-sea ports. At the same time, however, when considering the ‘weakest link’ principle, the increasing reliance on inla

  3. POTENTIAL AREAS FOR THE FORMATION OF ECOLOGICAL CORRIDORS BETWEEN REMNANTS OF ATLANTIC FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Flávio Costa dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In Brazil, the remaining areas of Atlantic Forest are intensely fragmented. The connection of forest fragments through ecological corridors is an important step in biodiversity conservation. Certain areas are more resilient, and in those areas, natural forest regeneration, for example, can be encouraged. The aim of this study was to identify areas of greater resilience in order to support the connection of Atlantic Forest fragments with ecological corridors. Forest fragments in the municipality of Paraíba do Sul, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, were mapped using the supervised maximum likelihood classification of an Operational Land Imager (OLI/Landsat-8 sensor image. Next, we analyzed the influence of terrain attributes (aspect, incident solar radiation, slope, and curvature profile on natural regeneration. The areas with the greatest potential to achieve natural regeneration and to form ecological corridors were indicated through fuzzy membership functions. Within Paraíba do Sul, 31% of the territory is covered by vegetation in different stages of regeneration. Recordings were made of 1,251 forest fragments in a middle or advanced stage of regeneration. These fragments are usually situated in the southeast, south, and southwest aspects, in areas that receive the least amount of global solar radiation (Wh·m-2 per year, and on slopes with an angle of inclination greater than 20%. The adjustment of fuzzy functions identified 17,327.5 ha with a tendency to recover, and which are therefore strategic areas in the development of ecological corridors.

  4. War and wildlife: a post-conflict assessment of Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mishra, C.; Fitzherbert, A.

    2004-01-01

    Prior to the last two decades of conflict, Afghanistan¿s Wakhan Corridor was considered an important area for conservation of the wildlife of high altitudes. We conducted an assessment of the status of large mammals in Wakhan after 22 years of conflict, and also made a preliminary assessment of wild

  5. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 420 - Method for Defining a Flight Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... method, a semi-automated method, or a fully-automated method to plot a flight corridor on maps. A source... Administration, National Ocean Service. (i) Projections for mechanical plotting method. An applicant shall use a... plotting method. An applicant shall use cylindrical, conic, or plane projections for...

  6. Strategic Mobility 21: Smart and Secure E Corridor Stakeholder Evaluation - Savannah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-07

    Global Business Center Mr. Bill Dobbs, GA Dept. of Economic Development Executable Smart Corridor ‘Use Cases’ Information Domain Physical Domain...Investment: Recent Research Trends and Emerging Issues Kent Hindes, Cushman Wakefield Presentation Georgia: A Global Business Center Mr. Bill

  7. 77 FR 29235 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Part 153 RIN 0938-AR07 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards... ] entitled, ``Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors... section 553(b) of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA) (5 U.S.C. 553(b)). However, we can waive...

  8. 75 FR 10332 - In the Matter of: Corridor Communications Corp., International Cosmetics Marketing Co., PNV, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... Communications Corp., International Cosmetics Marketing Co., PNV, Inc., Questron Technology, Inc. (n/k/a Quti... securities of Corridor Communications Corp. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period... current and accurate information concerning the securities of International Cosmetics Marketing...

  9. Customer Satisfaction Perceptions of Dislocated Workers Served by WIN Job Centers in the Mississippi Corridor Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Dava Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions of satisfaction of dislocated workers served by WIN Job Centers in the Mississippi Corridor Consortium. Four WIN Job Centers participated in this study: Northeast Mississippi Community College WIN Job Center in Corinth, Northwest Mississippi Community College WIN Job Center in Oxford,…

  10. Evidence of a southward eddy corridor in the South-West Indian ocean

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ansorge, IJ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available of this eddy corridor appears to be restricted to the deep channel separating the Conrad Rise from the Del Cano and Crozet Plateau. However, while the fate of eddies formed at the SWIR has been widely investigated and the frontal character of this eastward...

  11. Thermal Comfort At The Street Corridor Around Public Places, Case Study Alun-Alun Malang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Winansih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malang as the second largest city in East Java province become crowded recently. The congestion almost happens everyday. The scenery of the street corridor is full of iron stacks. It is said that Malang city is less comfortable and less walkable. The decrease of this environment encourages to conduct the study (Q.S. 16:90, Q.S. 96:1-5, Q.S. 30:41. The study aimed to analyze the thermal comfort at pedestrian ways around Malang city squares, the street corridor of Merdeka Alun-Alun (MAA and the Tugu Alun-Alun (TAA. The temperature and relative humidity were measured by multinorm instrument. The THI (Temperature Humidity Index method was used to analyze the thermal comfort. The results showed that the THI average at TAA (27 were more comfortable than at MAA (27,5. The south side of the MAA corridor became the most comfortable with the THI value of 26,4, which the side covered by trees canopy (Q.S. 7:58. It needs to conduct next research (Q.S. 13:11, because of the change of the activities at these street corridors.

  12. Model-based corridor performance analysis – An application to a European case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2017-01-01

    , to the extent covered by the GreCOR application, the proposed methodology can effectively assess the performance of a freight transport corridor. Combining the model-based approach for the sample construction with the study-based approach for the estimation of chain-level indicators exploits the strengths...

  13. Model-based corridor performance analysis – An application to a European case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2017-01-01

    , to the extent covered by the GreCOR application, the proposed methodology can effectively assess the performance of a freight transport corridor. Combining the model-based approach for the sample construction and the study-based approach for the estimation of chain-level indicators exploits the strengths...

  14. The Corridor Principle and the Near Failure Syndrome: Two Generic Concepts with Practical Value for Entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronstadt, Robert

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author defines the Corridor Principle, which explains how entrepreneurs are able to use knowledge and insight from earlier ventures to see new venture opportunities that they could not have seen and/or pursued had they not started an earlier venture. He discusses its importance to practitioners in allowing them to anticipate…

  15. Working on rail freigt corridors : a trade union manual anticipate - take action - work together

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudswaard, A.; Torre, W. van der; Verbiest, S.

    2013-01-01

    The European Transport Workers Federation (ETF) put in place in 2013 the project “WOC – Working On Rail Freight Corridors” with the objective to on the one hand raise awareness among ETF affiliates about the developments of the European freight corridors and on the other hand to give the tools to an

  16. Customer Satisfaction Perceptions of Dislocated Workers Served by WIN Job Centers in the Mississippi Corridor Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Dava Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions of satisfaction of dislocated workers served by WIN Job Centers in the Mississippi Corridor Consortium. Four WIN Job Centers participated in this study: Northeast Mississippi Community College WIN Job Center in Corinth, Northwest Mississippi Community College WIN Job Center in Oxford,…

  17. Developing infrastructure for electric passenger-cars in the corridor between Southern Scandinavia and Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guasco, Clement; Jespersen, Per Homann; Lohse, Sandrina

    2012-01-01

    and academic institutions. A strategy for the development of infrastructure for electric passenger-cars in the corridor was formed using the “Future Creating” methodology. The workshop was part of the SCANDRIA Action Programme and pointed towards ways for e-mobility in the region. The workshop also provided...

  18. Small mammal distributions relative to corridor edges within intensively managed southern pine plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole L. Constantine; Tyler A. Campbell; William M. Baughman; Timothy B. Harrington; Brian R. Chapman; Karl V. Miller

    2005-01-01

    We characterized small mammal communities in three loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands in the Lower Coastal Plain of South Carolina during June 1998-Aug. 2000 to investigate influence of corridor edges on small mammal distribution. We live-trapped small mammals in three regenerating stands following clearcutting. Harvested stands were bisected by...

  19. Environmental Assessment for Proposed Utility Corridors at Edwards Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Edwards Air Force Base, California CNPS California Native Plant Society CO Carbon monoxide CO2 Carbon dioxide CO2e Carbon dioxide equivalent mass ...corridors include existing easements, north-south and east-west traversing the Base and take into consideration current easements, communication ...73 3.7.3 Wildlife Communities

  20. Restoring habitat corridors in fragmented landscapes using optimization and percolation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin C. Williams; Stephanie A. Snyder

    2005-01-01

    Landscape fragmentation and habitat loss are significant threats to the conservation of biological diversity. Creating and restoring corridors between isolated habitat patches can help mitigate or reverse the impacts of fragmentation. It is important that restoration and protection efforts be undertaken in the most efficient and effective way possible because...

  1. Tracing overhead transmission line corridors with regard to environmental and spatial qualities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Cof

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with possibilities for running the proposed overhead transmission line Okroglo-Italian border. The Slovene and Italian methods are shown as methods enabling consideration of environmental and spatial impact within the process of planning overhead transmission line corridors. The Slovene method consists of analyses of attractiveness and vulnerability, whereby the first considers those functional and economic factors that affect spatial attractiveness for overhead transmission lines. Thus we can assess the level of economic and functional suitability of alternative routes of the proposed 400 kilovolt overhead transmission line from transformation station Okroglo (Slovenia to Srednje, Golo Brdo and Vrtojba, three potential contact points on the Slovene–Italian border. In accordance with stipulations of the Law on spatial management vulnerability models were prepared, which were used to simulate the development’s potential negative environmental effects and to analyse suitability, which implies harmonisation of development and protection demands. Their result is a possible corridor that can be developed without significant conflicts. The Italian procedure was developed to trace the transmission line corridor from the Slovenian border to the transformation station in Udine. It was also applied on the Slovenian side. Three groups of factors were considered in the procedure: exclusion, repulsion, and attraction. The much simpler procedure enables comparisons, since it uses the same or at least similar spatial data. In conclusion a short commentary is added about the corridor concept as a planning tool.

  2. Identification of priority conservation areas and potential corridors for jaguars in the Caatinga biome, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Gonçalves Morato

    Full Text Available The jaguar, Panthera onca, is a top predator with the extant population found within the Brazilian Caatinga biome now known to be on the brink of extinction. Designing new conservation units and potential corridors are therefore crucial for the long-term survival of the species within the Caatinga biome. Thus, our aims were: 1 to recognize suitable areas for jaguar occurrence, 2 to delineate areas for jaguar conservation (PJCUs, 3 to design corridors among priority areas, and 4 to prioritize PJCUs. A total of 62 points records of jaguar occurrence and 10 potential predictors were analyzed in a GIS environment. A predictive distributional map was obtained using Species Distribution Modeling (SDM as performed by the Maximum Entropy (Maxent algorithm. Areas equal to or higher than the median suitability value of 0.595 were selected as of high suitability for jaguar occurrence and named as Priority Jaguar Conservation Units (PJCU. Ten PJCUs with sizes varying from 23.6 km2 to 4,311.0 km2 were identified. Afterwards, we combined the response curve, as generated by SDM, and expert opinions to create a permeability matrix and to identify least cost corridors and buffer zones between each PJCU pair. Connectivity corridors and buffer zone for jaguar movement included an area of 8.884,26 km2 and the total corridor length is about 160.94 km. Prioritizing criteria indicated the PJCU representing c.a. 68.61% of the total PJCU area (PJCU # 1 as of high priority for conservation and connectivity with others PJCUs (PJCUs # 4, 5 and 7 desirable for the long term survival of the species. In conclusion, by using the jaguar as a focal species and combining SDM and expert opinion we were able to create a valid framework for practical conservation actions at the Caatinga biome. The same approach could be used for the conservation of other carnivores.

  3. Buccal Corridors: A Fact or a Myth in the Eyes of Laymen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhiny, Omnia A.; Harhash, Asmaa Y.

    2016-01-01

    AIM: This study aimed to investigate laymen knowledge of the existence of the buccal corridor and whether it was an important factor for them in judging smile attractiveness and the effect of introducing the knowledge to them on their further judgment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine subjects were randomly selected with variable buccal corridor percentages. They were coached to smile in a posed fashion and full face smile photographs were taken from a standardised distance. The photographs were randomly arranged in a power point presentation and displayed to a panel of thirty-nine randomly selected laymen judges. The judges made their beauty judgment on a visual analogue scale (VAS) and filled a questionnaire. After their education about the buccal corridor, they were asked to make a second judgment on a second sheet with VAS and with a different random sequence of the photographs. RESULTS: Intra-class correlation agreement for all the judges between the first and second scores was 0.713. The Spearman’s rho Correlation coefficient indicated a positive correlation for all the photos. For the male judges, the agreement between the ratings was 0.839, and the correlation was positive for all the photos. For the female judges, the agreement between the ratings was 0.510, and the correlation was positive for all the photographs. Hundred percent of the judges were not familiar with the buccal corridor. Eighty percent of the female judges and 44.4% of the male judges mentioned that it would affect their further judgment. CONCLUSION: Laymen build their esthetic judgments on what we teach them, and modifying treatment plans to include corrections of buccal corridors for esthetic reasons only is a myth. PMID:28028418

  4. Identification of priority conservation areas and potential corridors for jaguars in the Caatinga biome, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morato, Ronaldo Gonçalves; Ferraz, Katia Maria Paschoaletto Micchi de Barros; de Paula, Rogério Cunha; de Campos, Cláudia Bueno

    2014-01-01

    The jaguar, Panthera onca, is a top predator with the extant population found within the Brazilian Caatinga biome now known to be on the brink of extinction. Designing new conservation units and potential corridors are therefore crucial for the long-term survival of the species within the Caatinga biome. Thus, our aims were: 1) to recognize suitable areas for jaguar occurrence, 2) to delineate areas for jaguar conservation (PJCUs), 3) to design corridors among priority areas, and 4) to prioritize PJCUs. A total of 62 points records of jaguar occurrence and 10 potential predictors were analyzed in a GIS environment. A predictive distributional map was obtained using Species Distribution Modeling (SDM) as performed by the Maximum Entropy (Maxent) algorithm. Areas equal to or higher than the median suitability value of 0.595 were selected as of high suitability for jaguar occurrence and named as Priority Jaguar Conservation Units (PJCU). Ten PJCUs with sizes varying from 23.6 km2 to 4,311.0 km2 were identified. Afterwards, we combined the response curve, as generated by SDM, and expert opinions to create a permeability matrix and to identify least cost corridors and buffer zones between each PJCU pair. Connectivity corridors and buffer zone for jaguar movement included an area of 8.884,26 km2 and the total corridor length is about 160.94 km. Prioritizing criteria indicated the PJCU representing c.a. 68.61% of the total PJCU area (PJCU # 1) as of high priority for conservation and connectivity with others PJCUs (PJCUs # 4, 5 and 7) desirable for the long term survival of the species. In conclusion, by using the jaguar as a focal species and combining SDM and expert opinion we were able to create a valid framework for practical conservation actions at the Caatinga biome. The same approach could be used for the conservation of other carnivores.

  5. Comparative landscape genetics of two frugivorous bats in a biological corridor undergoing agricultural intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Katherine A; Waits, Lisette P; Finegan, Bryan

    2017-07-03

    Agricultural intensification in tropical landscapes poses a new threat to the ability of biological corridors to maintain functional connectivity for native species. We use a landscape genetics approach to evaluate impacts of expanding pineapple plantations on two widespread and abundant frugivorous bats in a biological corridor in Costa Rica. We hypothesize that the larger, more mobile Artibeus jamaicensis will be less impacted by pineapple than the smaller Carollia castanea. In 2012 and 2013, we sampled 735 bats in 26 remnant forest patches surrounded by different proportions of forest, pasture, crops and pineapple. We used 10 microsatellite loci for A. jamaicensis and 16 microsatellite loci for C. castanea to estimate genetic diversity and gene flow. Canonical correspondence analyses indicate that land cover type surrounding patches has no impact on genetic diversity of A. jamaicensis. However, for C. castanea, both percentage forest and pineapple surrounding patches explained a significant proportion of the variation in genetic diversity. Least-cost transect analyses (LCTA) and pairwise G″st suggest that for A. jamaicensis, pineapple is more permeable to gene flow than expected, while as expected, forest is the most permeable land cover for gene flow of C. castanea. For both species, LCTA indicate that development may play a role in inhibiting gene flow. The current study answers the call for landscape genetic research focused on tropical and agricultural landscapes, highlights the value of comparative landscape genetics in biological corridor design and management and is one of the few studies of biological corridors in any ecosystem to implement a genetic approach to test corridor efficacy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Landuse/landcover changes in Zhangye oasis of Hexi Corridor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENGJijun; WUXiuqin; LIZhengguo

    2003-01-01

    Taking two false color composite Landsat 5 TM(Thematic Mapper)images of band 4,3,2taken in 1995 and 2000 as data resources,this paper carried out study on LUCC of Zhanye oasis in recent five years by interpretation according to land resources classification system of 1∶00,000 Resources and Environmental Database of the Chinese Academy of sciences.The results show that great changes have taken place in landuse/landcover in Zhangye oasis since 1995:(1)Changes of landuse structure show that cropland and land for urban construction and built-up area increased,on the contrary,water area and grassland decreased.These changes reflect the deterionration of arrangement of water and land resources between the upper and lower reaches of the Heihe River.(2)Regional differences of landuse/landcover are evident,characterized by following aspects:in Sunan County located in Qilian Mountain area,unused land and grassland decreased,but cropland and land for urban construction and built-up area inreased.In Minle and Shandan counties located in foothills,unused land,warer area and cropland decreased,but grassland and land for urban construction and built-up area increased.In Zhangye City,Linze County and Gaotai County located in plain area of the middle reaches of the Heihe River,unused land,warer area and grassland decreased,while woodland,cropland and land for urban construction and buile-up area increased.

  7. Perceptions of brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial individuals with regard to the buccal corridor in different facial types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Melo PITHON

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluate the esthetic perception and attractiveness of the smile with regard to the buccal corridor in different facial types by brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial individuals. Material and Methods: The image of a smiling individual with a mesofacial type of face was changed to create three different facial types with five different buccal corridors (2%, 10%, 15%, 22% and 28%. To achieve this effect, a photo editing software was used (Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Systems Inc, San Francisco, CA, EUA. The images were submitted to evaluators with brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces, who evaluated the degree of esthetic perception and attractiveness by means of a visual analog scale measuring 70 mm. The differences between evaluators were verified by the Mann-Whitney test. All statistics were performed with a confidence level of 95%. Results: Brachyfacial individuals perceived mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces with buccal corridor of 2% as more attractive. Mesofacial individuals perceived mesofacial and dolichofacial types of faces with buccal corridor of 2%, 10% and 15% as more attractive. Dolichofacial individuals perceived the mesofacial type of face with buccal corridor of 2% as more attractive. Evaluators of the female sex generally attributed higher scores than the male evaluators. Conclusion: To achieve an enhanced esthetic smile it is necessary to observe the patient’s facial type. The preference for narrow buccal corridors is an esthetic characteristic preferred by men and women, and wide buccal corridors are less attractive.

  8. Restoring Alternate Bar Sequences in Large Rivers: Flow, Sediment, and Elbow Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trush, W. J.; McBain, S. M.

    2006-12-01

    Large river management must rely on crucial premises that the river channel is a product of its watershed's hydrology and the space within which it moves, and that native plant and animal species have evolved with, and still depend on, the natural annual hydrograph. While interesting academically, these premises may appear to offer very limited utility as management tools, given few large rivers in the Pacific Northwest and elsewhere have escaped major hydrologic and geomorphic change. The opposite, however, is likely true. Without reconstructing and incorporating an historical perspective, large river restoration will fail. Healthy river ecosystems can be achieved without completely restoring the natural unregulated hydrology, sediment supply regime, and original migration corridor. Usually there is little choice. An historical perspective identifies crucial threshold streamflow, sediment, and corridor processes driving a healthy river ecosystem. Alternating point bar sequences are the building blocks of alluvial rivers that also function as the physical template for creating abundant, high quality habitat for fish, amphibians, and riparian plant. While alternating bars can be created with bulldozers, their evolution, longevity, and quality will endure only if key geomorphic and biological threshold processes are provided by naturally variable annual hydrographs. An historical perspective therefore must identify how unregulated annual hydrographs once created and fostered dynamic alternating bar sequences. Restoration practitioners must then devise ways to restore these processes while purposefully cheating Mother Nature of some of her flow, sediment, and corridor width (elbow room). Two commonly prescribed high flow releases, flushing flows and the bankfull discharge, address several geomorphic requirements yet neither, or the two combined, can restore and maintain alternating bar sequences. Higher flood peak magnitudes from winter floods and spring snowmelt

  9. Hydrologic and land-use change influence landscape diversity in the Ebro River (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, A.; Comin, F. A.; Begueria, S.; Trabucchi, M.

    2008-09-01

    The landscape dynamics (1927 2003) of one reach at the Middle Ebro River (NE Spain) was examined using aerial pictures and GIS techniques. Moreover, changes in the natural flow regime and anthropic activities within the river-floodplain system were investigated. Our results indicate that hydrological and landscape patterns have been dramatically changed during the last century as a consequence of human alteration of the fluvial dynamics within the studied reach, as well as the overall basin. The magnitude and variability of river discharge events have decreased, especially since 1981, and flood protection structures have disrupted the river floodplain connectivity. As a result, the succesional pathways of riparian ecotopes have been heavily modified because natural rejuvenation no longer takes place, resulting in decreased landscape diversity. It is apparent from these data that floodplain restoration must be incorporated as a significant factor into river management plans if a more natural functioning wants to be retrieved. The ecotope structure and dynamics of the 1927 1957 should be adopted as the guiding image, whereas hydrologic and landscape (dykes, raised surfaces) patters should be considered. Under the current socio-economic context, the more realistic option seems to create a dynamic river corridor reallocating dykes and lowering floodplain heights. The extent of this river corridor should adapt to the restored flow regime, although periodic economic investments could be an option if the desired self-sustained dynamism is not reached.

  10. A humid corridor across the Sahara for the migration "Out of Africa" of early modern humans 120,000 years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, A. H.; Vance, D.; Rohling, E. J.; Barton, N.; Rogerson, M.; Fello, N.

    2008-12-01

    The climatic history of the Sahara in the Quaternary is likely to have been a key control on the history of human migrations out of Africa. For example, it is widely accepted that modern humans originated in sub- Saharan Africa around 150-200 thousand years ago (ka), but their route of dispersal across the currently hyper-arid Sahara remains controversial. Given that the first modern humans north of the Sahara are found in the Levant around 120-90 ka, northward dispersal likely occurred during the humid episode in the Sahara within Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e (130-117 ka). The obvious dispersal route, the Nile, may be ruled out by notable differences between archaeological finds in the Nile Valley and the Levant at the critical time. Further west, space-born radar images reveal networks of - now buried - fossil river channels that extend across the desert to the Mediterranean coast, which represent alternative dispersal corridors. This would explain scattered findings at desert oases of Middle Stone Age (MSA) Aterian lithic industries with bifacial and tanged points that can be linked with industries further to the east and as far north as the Mediterranean coast. We have previously used neodymium and oxygen isotope data to suggest that there was enhanced Nile outflow to the Levantine Sea during Saharan humid periods in Stage 5e and the Holocene1. Here, however, we present further geochemical data which suggest that the freshwater signal from Africa was much stronger further west in the Ionian Sea. Furthermore, analyses of shell samples retrieved from the Libyan fossil river channels traces the geochemical signature found in the Ionian Sea to the Tibesti Mountains in the southern Sahara. These data demonstrate that water in the fossil river systems of the Sahara derived from the south during wet episodes in general, and penetrated all the way to the Mediterranean during MIS 5e in particular, confirming the existence of an uninterrupted freshwater corridor across

  11. Contested Rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm Hansen, Louise Lyngfeldt

    explores translocal connections through ethnographic fieldwork at a global water conference and preliminary fieldwork at chosen locations on China's Nu River. The Nu River is one of the last undammed rivers in Asia and runs through China close to the Chinese-Burmese border, then flows into the Andaman Sea...

  12. THE ASSESSMENT OF HYDROMORPHOLOGICAL STATUS OF ROMANIAN RIVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TECUCI I.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality protection and improvement of the aquatic ecosystems and achievement of "good status" for all water bodies until 2015, involved integration of key ecosystem principles into water policies and a series of new management elements. Thus, the "health" status of aquatic ecosystems is a new objective for European water policy which is reflected in the structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems, being defined by the biological, morphological and physico-chemical quality components as well as the presence of specific pollutants (synthetic and non-synthetic. In order to achieve good ecological status / good ecological potential for all water bodies (rivers of Romania, the paper presents an innovative approach regarding monitoring of hydromorphological quality component and its integration in the assessment of ecological status of water bodies. In this approach the river system is seen in the context of stream corridor as a complex of ecosystems which includes not only the river, but also the riparian zone with the species of plants and animals that inhabit this space. The river corridor is responsible for shaping the river bad, retaining the water and sediments, and also constitutes the support for creating a variety of habitats / microhabitats for communities of aquatic organisms underlying the assessment of ecological status of rivers. In this context, the paper presents hydromorphological indicators set identified in accordance with the requirements of the WFD and a hydromorphological classification system of rivers in five quality classes which should represent a scientific basis for the water monitoring and evaluation system and assists in a judicious way the decision makers to improve water quality in Romania.

  13. THE APPLICATION OF THE RIVER HABITAT SURVEY METHOD TO THE ASSESSMENT OF THE QUALITY OF THE RIVER WARDYNKA (NORTH-WESTERN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Spieczyński

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the classification of the ecological condition of Wardynka river according to the River Habitat Survey method. The research has been carried out within the project entitled Carrying out the assessment of the condition of natural resources of the reception basin of the river Ina within the project LIFE+: “Building of the blue corridor along the valley of the Ina river and its tributaries” financed from the funds of the European Community financial instrument LIFE+ and the National Fund of Environmental Protection and Water Management. The obtained data facilitated the calculation of two synthetic hydro-morphological indices HQA (Habitat Quality Assessment and HMS (Habitat Modification Score, which constitute the result of many singular basic parameters. The calculated numerical values of the indices HQA amounting to 48 and HMS amounting to 3 proved that the waters of the Wardynka river correspond with the fourth class, which means a moderate environmental condition.

  14. Ecology of invasive Melilotus albus on Alaskan glacial river floodplains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Jeff S.; Werdin-Pfisterer, Nancy R.; Beattie, Katherine L.; Densmore, Roseann V.

    2011-01-01

    Melilotus albus (white sweetclover) has invaded Alaskan glacial river floodplains. We measured cover and density of plant species and environmental variables along transects perpendicular to the Nenana, Matanuska, and Stikine Rivers to study interactions between M. albus and other plant species and to characterize the environment where it establishes. Melilotus albus was a pioneer species on recently disturbed sites and did not persist into closed canopy forests. The relationships between M. albus cover and density and other species were site-specific.Melilotus albus was negatively correlated with native species Elaeagnus commutata at the Nenana River, but not at the Matanuska River. Melilotus albus was positively correlated with the exotic species Crepis tectorumand Taraxacum officinale at the Matanuska River and T. officinale on the upper Stikine River. However, the high density of M. albus at a lower Stikine River site was negatively correlated with T. officinale and several native species including Lathyrus japonicus var. maritimus and Salix alaxensis. Glacial river floodplains in Alaska are highly disturbed and are corridors for exotic plant species movement. Melilotus albus at moderate to low densities may facilitate establishment of exotic species, but at high densities can reduce the cover and density of both exotic and native species.

  15. Recent sea experience in South Africa and national principles: Learning from national scale SEAs for renewable energy and power corridors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lochner, Paul A

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs) for the development of wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) energy and powerline corridors have recently been completed in South Africa, leading to a decision by the South African Cabinet in February 2016...

  16. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced...

  17. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Village Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Village Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  18. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced...

  19. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced...

  20. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced...

  1. Landscape elements and river chemistry as affected by river regulation – a 3-D perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Smedberg

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis whether individual land classes within a river catchment contribute equally to river loading with dissolved constituents or whether some land classes act as "hot spots" to river loading and if so, are these land classes especially affected by hydrological alterations. The amount of land covered by forests and wetlands and the average soil depth of a river catchment explain 58–93% of the variability in total organic carbon (TOC and dissolved silicate (DSi concentrations for 22 river catchments in Northern Sweden. Whereas only 3% of the headwater areas of the Luleälven have been inundated by the creation of reservoirs, some 10% of the soils and aggregated forest and wetland areas have been lost due to damming and further hydrological alteration such as bypassing entire sub-catchments by headrace tunnels. However, looking at individual forest classes, our estimates indicate that some 37% of the deciduous forests have been inundated by the four major reservoirs built in the Luleälven headwaters. These deciduous forest and wetlands formerly growing on top of alluvial deposits along the river corridors forming the riparian zone play a vital role in loading river water with dissolved constituents, especially DSi. A digital elevation model draped with land classes and soil depths which highlights that topography of various land classes acting as hot spots is critical in determining water residence time in soils and biogeochemical fluxes. Thus, headwater areas of the Luleälven appear to be most sensitive to hydrological alterations due to the thin soil cover (on average 2.7–4.5 m and only patchy appearance of forest and wetlands that were significantly perturbed. Moreover, since these headwater areas are characterized often by high specific discharge, this relatively minor change in the landscape when compared to the entire river catchment may indeed explain the significant lower fluxes at the river mouth.

  2. Mixing as a driver of temporal variations in river hydrochemistry: 2. Major and trace element concentration dynamics in the Andes-Amazon transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronas, J. Jotautas; Torres, Mark A.; Clark, Kathryn E.; West, A. Joshua

    2017-04-01

    Variations in riverine solute chemistry with changing runoff are used to interrogate catchment hydrology and to investigate chemical reactions in Earth's critical zone. This approach requires some understanding of how spatial and temporal averaging of solute-generating reactions affect the dissolved load of rivers and streams. In this study, we investigate the concentration-runoff (C-Q) dynamics of a suite of major (Na, Mg, Ca, Si, K, and SO4) and trace (Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ge, Li, Mn, Mo, Nd, Ni, Rb, Sr, U, V, and Zn) elements in nested catchments of variable size, spanning the geomorphic gradient from the Andes Mountains to the Amazon Foreland-floodplain. The major elements exhibit various degrees of dilution with increasing runoff at all sites, whereas the concentrations of most trace elements either increase or show no relationship with increasing runoff in the three larger catchments (160-28,000 km2 area). We show that the observed main stem C-Q dynamics are influenced by variable mixing of tributaries with distinct C-Q relationships. Trace element C-Q relationships are more variable among tributaries relative to major elements, which could be the result of variations in geomorphology, lithology, and hydrology of the subcatchments. Certain trace metals are also lost from solution during in-channel processes (possibly related to colloidal size-partitioning), which may exert an additional control on C-Q dynamics. Overall, we suggest that tributary aggregation effects should be assessed in heterogeneous catchments before C-Q or ratio-Q relationships can be interpreted as reflecting catchment-wide solute generation processes and their relationship to hydrology.

  3. A small mammal community in a forest fragment, vegetation corridor and coffee matrix system in the Brazilian Atlantic forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Ferreira Rocha

    Full Text Available The objective of our work was to verify the value of the vegetation corridor in the conservation of small mammals in fragmented tropical landscapes, using a model system in the southeastern Minas Gerais. We evaluated and compared the composition and structure of small mammals in a vegetation corridor, forest fragments and a coffee matrix. A total of 15 species were recorded, and the highest species richness was observed in the vegetation corridor (13 species, followed by the forest fragments (10 and the coffee matrix (6. The absolute abundance was similar between the vegetation corridor and fragments (F = 22.94; p = 0.064, and the greatest differences occurred between the vegetation corridor and the matrix (F = 22.94; p = 0.001 and the forest fragments and the matrix (F = 22.94; p = 0.007. Six species showed significant habitat preference possibly related to the sensitivity of the species to the forest disturbance. Marmosops incanus was the species most sensitive to disturbance; Akodon montensis, Cerradomys subflavus, Gracilinanus microtarsus and Rhipidomys sp. displayed little sensitivity to disturbance, with a high relative abundance in the vegetation corridor. Calomys sp. was the species least affected by habitat disturbance, displaying a high relative abundance in the coffee matrix. Although the vegetation corridors are narrow (4 m width, our results support the hypothesis in which they work as a forest extension, share most species with the forest fragment and support species richness and abundance closer to forest fragments than to the coffee matrix. Our work highlights the importance and cost-effectiveness of these corridors to biodiversity management in the fragmented Atlantic Forest landscapes and at the regional level.

  4. Valuation of travel time savings for intercity travel: The Madrid-Barcelona corridor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roman, Concepcion; Carlos Martin, Juan; Espino, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    We derive values of travel time savings (VOT) for the Madrid-Barcelona corridor, linking the two largest cities in Spain, based on the estimation of discrete choice models among the main public transport services in the corridor: air transport, high speed rail (HSR) and bus. The new HSR alternative...... to provide useful information to quantify users' benefits during the lifespan of a given project. We found, as expected, that HSR and air transport users exhibit substantially higher values for saving travel time than bus travellers. Also as expected, savings of waiting time are more valued than savings...... (which started to operate in February 2008) competes directly with one of the densest airline domestic markets in the world, and its introduction produced substantial improvements in level of service, achieving reductions in travel time of more than 50% over the conventional train. A specifically...

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmospheric dustfall from the industrial corridor in Hubei Province, Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaquan; Qu, Chengkai; Qi, Shihua; Cao, Junji; Zhan, Changlin; Xing, Xinli; Xiao, Yulun; Zheng, Jingru; Xiao, Wensheng

    2015-10-01

    Thirty atmospheric dustfall samples collected from an industrial corridor in Hubei Province, central China, were analyzed for 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to investigate their concentrations, spatial distributions, sources, and health risks. Total PAH concentrations (ΣPAHs) ranged from 1.72 to 13.17 µg/g and averaged 4.91 µg/g. High molecular weight (4-5 rings) PAHs averaged 59.67% of the ΣPAHs. Individual PAH concentrations were not significantly correlated with total organic carbon, possibly due to the semi-continuous inputs from anthropogenic sources. Source identification studies suggest that the PAHs were mainly from motor vehicles and biomass/coal combustion. The incremental lifetime cancer risks associated with exposure to PAHs in the dustfall ranged from 10(-4) to 10(-6); these indicate potentially serious carcinogenic risks for exposed populations in the industrial corridor.

  6. Recent Positioning Techniques for Efficient Port Operations and Development of Suez Canal Corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Elhattab

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current developments in positioning techniques and communication technology have great impact on both construction and operations of ports. The majority of positioning systems for marine traffic are satellite based such as GPS. Virtual Reference Station is one of the recent high precision techniques for GNSS positioning which can be used for smart and efficient port.The advantages of using virtual reference station technique in different port operation and construction have been discussed in this paper. To apply this technique in Suez Canal corridor zone, a design of Continuously Operating Reference Station network has been proposed. This network can be utilized during different construction and operations phases of Suez Canal Corridor project.  

  7. Application of Transaction Costs in Analyzing Transport Corridors Using Multi-Agent-Based Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence E. Henesey

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In analyzing the freight transportation systems, such as thetransport of intermodal containers, often direct monetary costsassociated with transportation are used to evaluate or determinethe choice of transport corridor. In forming decisions ontransport co"idor choice, this paper proposes that transactioncosts can be considered as an additional determinant in conductingtransport corridor analysis. The application of transactioncosts theory in analyzing the organizations and the transactionsthat occur, assists in indicating as to which governancestructure results in higher efficiencies. Efficiency is seen as eitherthe minimisation on costs or the maximisation of customerservice levels. The use of multi-agent based simulation for modellingthe organisational structure and mechanisms provides anovel approach in understanding the relationships in a regionaltransport co"idor.

  8. Tectonics of the Western Betics: the role of E-W strike slip fault corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasca, Gianluca; Gueydan, Frédéric; Brun, Jean-Pierre; Célérier, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    The tectonic origin of the arcuate Betic-Rif orogenic belt that surrounds the Alboran Sea at the western tip of the Mediterranean Sea remains debated. Here, we investigate the tectonic units cropping out in the Western Betics (Malaga region, Southern Spain) with the main goal of reconstructing the Oligo-Miocene evolution of the area. New structural data and geological mapping together with available data allow us to identify the main structural features of the area. Deformation is found to be extremely diffused but two E-W elongated tectonic blocks with different lithological composition are outlined by marked E-W dextral strike-slip corridors ending up in horse-tail splays. These E-W strike slip corridors are responsible for late Miocence tectonics of both the internal and external zones of the Betic Cordillera.

  9. Designing Conservation Corridors in Production Landscapes: Assessment Methods, Implementation Issues, and Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda T. Lombard

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Designing broad-scale conservation corridors has become increasingly common as a way of conducting an assessment for achieving targets for the representation and persistence of nature. However, since many of these corridors must traverse agricultural and other production landscapes, planning and implementation are not trivial tasks. Most approaches to conservation assessments in the dynamic world of production landscapes are data-intensive and analytically complex. However, in the real world, donor and other external requirements impose time and budget constraints, and dictate strong stakeholder involvement in the entire planning process. In order to accommodate this, assessments must be rapid, cheap, and the approach and products must be comprehensible and acceptable to stakeholders. Here we describe such an assessment aimed at identifying and implementing a network of conservation corridors in the Gouritz Initiative project domain of South Africa's Cape Floristic Region hotspot. We used empirical data and expert knowledge to identify a corridor network hypothesized to sustain key ecological and evolutionary processes. We also consulted experts to provide a spatially explicit assessment of the opportunity costs of conservation associated with agriculture, the predominant land use in the region. We used these products to identify categories of land requiring different actions and instruments to achieve conservation goals, thereby moving from the "where" to the "how" of conservation. This information was then fed into the collaborative strategy development process for the Gouritz Initiative. Our discussion emphasizes the lessons that we learnt from undertaking this assessment, particularly lessons regarding the implementation of the planning products. We conclude that at the outset of any planning project, a consensus on the vision must be achieved, a detailed social assessment of appropriate institutions must be undertaken, and a learning

  10. ON THE FORMATION OF «ECONOMIC CORRIDOR SILK ROAD»: STATUS, PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid K. Alimov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the status and prospect of Tajik-Chinese relations in the context of the initiative of the President of the PRC on establishing of an economic corridor the Silk Road. A detailed characteristic of expected challenges and benefits for countries of Central Asia and China is given. Special attention is spent on the possibilities of developing of relations between Tajikistan and China, that have risen to the level of strategic partnership.

  11. Migratory corridors of adult female Kemp’s ridley turtles in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Donna J.; Hart, Kristen M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Rubio, Cynthia; Sartain-Iverson, Autumn R.; Pena, Jaime; Gamez, Daniel Gomez; Gonzales Diaz Miron, Raul de Jesus; Burchfield, Patrick M.; Martinez, Hector J.; Ortiz, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    For many marine species, locations of migratory pathways are not well defined. We used satellite telemetry and switching state-space modeling (SSM) to define the migratory corridor used by Kemp's ridley turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) in the Gulf of Mexico. The turtles were tagged after nesting at Padre Island National Seashore, Texas, USA from 1997 to 2014 (PAIS; n = 80); Rancho Nuevo, Tamaulipas, Mexico from 2010 to 2011 (RN; n = 14); Tecolutla, Veracruz, Mexico from 2012 to 2013 (VC; n = 13); and Gulf Shores, Alabama, USA during 2012 (GS; n = 1). The migratory corridor lies in nearshore Gulf of Mexico waters in the USA and Mexico with mean water depth of 26 m and a mean distance of 20 km from the nearest mainland coast. Migration from the nesting beach is a short phenomenon that occurs from late-May through August, with a peak in June. There was spatial similarity of post-nesting migratory pathways for different turtles over a 16 year period. Thus, our results indicate that these nearshore Gulf waters represent a critical migratory habitat for this species. However, there is a gap in our understanding of the migratory pathways used by this and other species to return from foraging grounds to nesting beaches. Therefore, our results highlight the need for tracking reproductive individuals from foraging grounds to nesting beaches. Continued tracking of adult females from PAIS, RN, and VC nesting beaches will allow further study of environmental and bathymetric components of migratory habitat and threats occurring within our defined corridor. Furthermore, the existence of this migratory corridor in nearshore waters of both the USA and Mexico demonstrates that international cooperation is necessary to protect essential migratory habitat for this imperiled species.

  12. Geometric Context and Orientation Map Combination for Indoor Corridor Modeling Using a Single Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baligh Jahromi, Ali; Sohn, Gunho

    2016-06-01

    Since people spend most of their time indoors, their indoor activities and related issues in health, security and energy consumption have to be understood. Hence, gathering and representing spatial information of indoor spaces in form of 3D models become very important. Considering the available data gathering techniques with respect to the sensors cost and data processing time, single images proved to be one of the reliable sources. Many of the current single image based indoor space modeling methods are defining the scene as a single box primitive. This domain-specific knowledge is usually not applicable in various cases where multiple corridors are joined at one scene. Here, we addressed this issue by hypothesizing-verifying multiple box primitives which represents the indoor corridor layout. Middle-level perceptual organization is the foundation of the proposed method, which relies on finding corridor layout boundaries using both detected line segments and virtual rays created by orthogonal vanishing points. Due to the presence of objects, shadows and occlusions, a comprehensive interpretation of the edge relations is often concealed. This necessitates the utilization of virtual rays to create a physically valid layout hypothesis. Many of the former methods used Orientation Map or Geometric Context to evaluate their proposed layout hypotheses. Orientation map is a map that reveals the local belief of region orientations computed from line segments, and in a segmented image geometric context uses color, texture, edge, and vanishing point cues to estimate the likelihood of each possible label for all super-pixels. Here, the created layout hypotheses are evaluated by an objective function which considers the fusion of orientation map and geometric context with respect to the horizontal viewing angle at each image pixel. Finally, the best indoor corridor layout hypothesis which gets the highest score from the scoring function will be selected and converted to a 3D

  13. Codornices Creek Corridor: Land Use Regulation, Creek Restoration, and their Impacts on the Residents’ Perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Stokenberga, Aiga; Sen, Arijit

    2013-01-01

    The Codornices Creek, an ecological corridor located in the northern part of Berkeley, California, is among the most visible, publicly accessible, and socio-economically diverse creeks in the East Bay. The current study examinesthe comparative influence of individual-level socio-economic conditions, involvementin Creek restoration activities, and the existing Creek-related land useregulations on the area residents’ sense of community and perception of areaecology. Based on the data collected ...

  14. Road-corridor planning in the EIA procedure in Spain. A review of case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loro, Manuel, E-mail: manuel.loro@upm.es [Department of Urban and Regional Planning and Environment, Civil Engineering School, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Prof. Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Transport Research Centre (TRANSyT-UPM) Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, ETSI Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Prof. Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Centro de investigación del transporte, TRANSyT-UPM, ETSI Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Prof. Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Arce, Rosa M., E-mail: rosa.arce.ruiz@upm.es [Department of Urban and Regional Planning and Environment, Civil Engineering School, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Prof. Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Transport Research Centre (TRANSyT-UPM) Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, ETSI Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Prof. Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Centro de investigación del transporte, TRANSyT-UPM, ETSI Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Prof. Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ortega, Emilio, E-mail: e.ortega@upm.es [Transport Research Centre (TRANSyT-UPM) Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, ETSI Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Prof. Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Centro de investigación del transporte, TRANSyT-UPM, ETSI Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Prof. Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Department of Construction and Rural Roads, Forestry Engineering School, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); and others

    2014-01-15

    The assessment of different alternatives in road-corridor planning must be based on a number of well-defined territorial variables that serve as decision making criteria, and this requires a high-quality preliminary environmental assessment study. In Spain the formal specifications for the technical requirements stipulate the constraints that must be considered in the early stages of defining road corridors, but not how they should be analyzed and ranked. As part of the feasibility study of a new road definition, the most common methodology is to establish different levels of Territorial Carrying Capacity (TCC) in the study area in order to summarize the territorial variables on thematic maps and to ease the tracing process of road-corridor layout alternatives. This paper explores the variables used in 22 road-construction projects conducted by the Ministry of Public Works that were subject to the Spanish EIA regulation and published between 2006 and 2008. The aim was to evaluate the quality of the methods applied and the homogeneity and suitability of the variables used for defining the TCC. The variables were clustered into physical, environmental, land-use and cultural constraints for the purpose of comparing the TCC values assigned in the studies reviewed. We found the average quality of the studies to be generally acceptable in terms of the justification of the methodology, the weighting and classification of the variables, and the creation of a synthesis map. Nevertheless, the methods for assessing the TCC are not sufficiently standardized; there is a lack of uniformity in the cartographic information sources and methodologies for the TCC valuation. -- Highlights: • We explore 22 road-corridor planning studies subjected to the Spanish EIA regulation. • We analyze the variables selected for defining territorial carrying capacity. • The quality of the studies is acceptable (methodology, variable weighting, mapping). • There is heterogeneity in the

  15. Blood Parasites of Blue-winged Teal ( Anas discors ) from Two Migratory Corridors, in the Southern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvon, Jason M; Mott, Joanna B; Jacobs, Sandy Serio; Fedynich, Alan M

    2016-07-01

    We collected 180 Blue-winged Teal ( Anas discors ) in September and October 2002 from Florida, US (n=100, representing the eastern migratory corridor) and the Louisiana-Texas, US, border (n=80, representing the western migratory corridor) and examined for blood parasites using thin heart-blood smears. Leucocytozoon simondi, Haemoproteus nettionis, and microfilariae were found in 16, 23, and 27 birds, respectively. Prevalence of L. simondi and H. nettionis did not vary by migratory corridor, but the prevalence of microfilariae was higher in the western corridor (23%) than the eastern corridor (9%). No differences in prevalence of L. simondi, H. nettionis, and microfilariae were observed by host age or sex. The mean density of L. simondi and H. nettionis averaged 1.5±0.3 and 2.3±0.4 (±SE per 3,000 erythrocytes), respectively. Ranked abundance models for main and interactive effects of corridor, age, and sex were not statistically significant for L. simondi or H. nettionis. Low prevalence and abundance of hematozoa in early autumn migrants reflects the likelihood of low exposure probabilities of Blue-winged Teal on the breeding grounds, compared to their congeners.

  16. Role of the future creative universities in the triple helix of science and technology corridors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj nabipour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The science and technology corridor is a complex cluster containing universities, science parks, research centers, high-tech companies, venture capital, institutional and physical infrastructures, and human capital in a defined geography with its unique management and legal structure in association with the business space and knowledge-based products. In fact, the science and technology corridor reflects the concept of development based on the knowledge region (the especial region for science and technology. The knowledge region is clearly a triple helix phenomenon par excellence: universities, governments and businesses combine their efforts to construct a common advantage which they would not be able to offer on their own. The future creative universities in connection with the knowledge city-regions not only will deal with innovation and entrepreneurial training but also produce a competitive, vibrant environment with high indices for quality of life and full of green technologies. In this article, we will present functional interactions of the creative universities in the triple helix, particularly the missions for the Iranian universities of medical sciences. As a theoretical model, the complex interactions of Bushehr University of Medical Sciences and Health Services with Bushehr Science and Technology Corridor will be discussed.

  17. Postglacial viability and colonization in North America’s ice-free corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mikkel W.; Ruter, Anthony; Schweger, Charles; Friebe, Harvey; Staff, Richard A.; Kjeldsen, Kristian K.; Mendoza, Marie L. Z.; Beaudoin, Alwynne B.; Zutter, Cynthia; Larsen, Nicolaj K.; Potter, Ben A.; Nielsen, Rasmus; Rainville, Rebecca A.; Orlando, Ludovic; Meltzer, David J.; Kjær, Kurt H.; Willerslev, Eske

    2016-09-01

    During the Last Glacial Maximum, continental ice sheets isolated Beringia (northeast Siberia and northwest North America) from unglaciated North America. By around 15 to 14 thousand calibrated radiocarbon years before present (cal. kyr BP), glacial retreat opened an approximately 1,500-km-long corridor between the ice sheets. It remains unclear when plants and animals colonized this corridor and it became biologically viable for human migration. We obtained radiocarbon dates, pollen, macrofossils and metagenomic DNA from lake sediment cores in a bottleneck portion of the corridor. We find evidence of steppe vegetation, bison and mammoth by approximately 12.6 cal. kyr BP, followed by open forest, with evidence of moose and elk at about 11.5 cal. kyr BP, and boreal forest approximately 10 cal. kyr BP. Our findings reveal that the first Americans, whether Clovis or earlier groups in unglaciated North America before 12.6 cal. kyr BP, are unlikely to have travelled by this route into the Americas. However, later groups may have used this north-south passageway.

  18. Road network in an agrarian landscape: Potential habitat, corridor or barrier for small mammals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redon (de), Louis; Le Viol, Isabelle; Jiguet, Frédéric; Machon, Nathalie; Scher, Olivier; Kerbiriou, Christian

    2015-01-01

    If the negative effects of road networks on biodiversity are now recognized, their role as barriers, habitats or corridors remain to be clarified in human altered landscapes in which road verges often constitute the few semi-natural habitats where a part of biodiversity important for ecosystem functioning may maintain. In human-dominated landscape, their roles are crucial to precise in comparison to other habitats for small mammal species considered as major natural actors (pests (voles) or biological control agents (shrew)). We studied these roles through the comparison of small mammal abundance captured (418 individuals belonging to 8 species) using non-attractive pitfall traps (n = 813) in 176 sampled sites distributed in marginal zones of road and crop, in natural areas and in fields. We examined the effect of roadside width and isolation of sites. We found the higher small mammal abundances in roadside verges and an effect of width margins for shrews. The significant effect of the distance to the next adjacent natural habitat at the same side of the road on the relative abundance of Sorex coronatus, and the absence of a significant effect of distance to the next natural habitat at the opposite side of road, suggest that highway and road verges could be used as corridor for their dispersal, but have also a barrier effect for shrews. Our results show that in intensive agricultural landscapes roadside and highway verges may often serve as refuge, habitat and corridor for small mammals depending on species and margin characteristics.

  19. Integrated HS and ALS Remote Sensing Data Sources to Develop Green Corridors in Sopron Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    János Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The green corridors are part of the European Union rural landscapes, but the regional increase in size of agricultural parcels had a significant effect on European land use in the 20th century. This effect radically reduced the coverage of natural forest. One ecological problem with the remaining forests is the partial missing of the network connecting the parts with ecological green corridors. Another economical problem is the verifiability for the payment system of agroforestry. Remote sensing methods are currently used to supervise monitoring the arable lands, plantations, natural reserve areas, as well as to help for the European Union payment system. Nowadays the airborne hyperspectral (HS and LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging; ALS remote sensing technologies are becoming of more widespread use. They can be applied especially in spatial decision support system (SDSS, used in decisions about for nature, environment, forests, agriculture protection, conservation and monitoring, as well as for monitoring of biomass production. Our site selection model was the first step towards planning an agroforestry plantation which uses these integrated technologies to connect the parts with green corridors.

  20. Forest corridors maintain historical gene flow in a tiger metapopulation in the highlands of central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sandeep; Dutta, Trishna; Maldonado, Jesús E; Wood, Thomas C; Panwar, Hemendra Singh; Seidensticker, John

    2013-09-22

    Understanding the patterns of gene flow of an endangered species metapopulation occupying a fragmented habitat is crucial for landscape-level conservation planning and devising effective conservation strategies. Tigers (Panthera tigris) are globally endangered and their populations are highly fragmented and exist in a few isolated metapopulations across their range. We used multi-locus genotypic data from 273 individual tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) from four tiger populations of the Satpura-Maikal landscape of central India to determine whether the corridors in this landscape are functional. This 45 000 km(2) landscape contains 17% of India's tiger population and 12% of its tiger habitat. We applied Bayesian and coalescent-based analyses to estimate contemporary and historical gene flow among these populations and to infer their evolutionary history. We found that the tiger metapopulation in central India has high rates of historical and contemporary gene flow. The tests for population history reveal that tigers populated central India about 10 000 years ago. Their population subdivision began about 1000 years ago and accelerated about 200 years ago owing to habitat fragmentation, leading to four spatially separated populations. These four populations have been in migration-drift equilibrium maintained by high gene flow. We found the highest rates of contemporary gene flow in populations that are connected by forest corridors. This information is highly relevant to conservation practitioners and policy makers, because deforestation, road widening and mining are imminent threats to these corridors.

  1. Research on the quality of the wine grapes in corridor area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Cheng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The corridor area of Gansu Province is one of the most important wine grape growing regions in China, and this strip of land results in a significant difference in terms of terroir between its regions. Chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of the main wine grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L. cultivated in the corridor area of Gansu Province in northwest China were compared. Three regions (Zhangye, Wuwei, and Jiayuguan were selected to explain the influence of soil and climate conditions on the quality of wine grapes. This study aims to investigate the effect of different regions on berry composition and antioxidant capacity, providing a general evaluation of red and white wine grapes quality in the corridor area of China. The results showed that ‘Merlot’ grapes grown in Zhangye had the best quality among the different varieties in the three regions of Gansu evaluated. The moderate temperature and nitrogen deficiency were associated with improved fruit quality. It was identified that the most suitable grape variety from Zhangye is ‘Merlot’, and that ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Italian Resling’ are the most suitable varieties from Wuwei and Jiayuguan, respectively.

  2. Usage of Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Along the Corridors between the EV Project Major Cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mindy Kirkpatrick

    2012-05-01

    The report explains how the EVSE are being used along the corridors between the EV Project cities. The EV Project consists of a nationwide collaboration between Idaho National Laboratory (INL), ECOtality North America, Nissan, General Motors, and more than 40 other city, regional and state governments, and electric utilities. The purpose of the EV Project is to demonstrate the deployment and use of approximately 14,000 Level II (208-240V) electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and 300 fast chargers in 16 major cities. This research investigates the usage of all currently installed EV Project commercial EVSE along major interstate corridors. ESRI ArcMap software products are utilized to create geographic EVSE data layers for analysis and visualization of commercial EVSE usage. This research locates the crucial interstate corridors lacking sufficient commercial EVSE and targets locations for future commercial EVSE placement. The results and methods introduced in this research will be used by INL for the duration of the EV Project.

  3. Movements and corridors of African elephants in relation to protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas-Hamilton, I.; Krink, T.; Vollrath, F.

    2005-04-01

    Understanding how mammals satisfy their need for space in fragmenting ecosystems is crucial for ecosystem conservation. Using state-of-the-art global positioning system (GPS) technology we tracked 11 focal African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Kenya at 3-hourly fix intervals and collected between 34 and 406 days per individual. Our recordings gave a high spatio-temporal resolution compared to previous studies and allowed novel insights into range use. The actual ranges of the tracked elephants are smaller than usually represented. Moreover, the ranges in our sample were complex and not confined to officially designated protected areas, except where fenced. All the unfenced elephants in our sample had distinct `home sectors' linked by `travel' corridors. Within each home sector the elephants concentrated in favourite `core zones'. Such core zones tended to lie in protected areas whereas corridors typically crossed unprotected range. Elephants moved significantly faster along corridors than elsewhere in their range, which suggests awareness of danger outside the protected area. We conclude that understanding the complex use of an animal's range is crucial for conservation planning aiming to balance animal interests with those of human beings that co-habit in their range.

  4. Planning for long, wide conservation corridors on private lands in the Oak Ridges Moraine, Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, Graham S; Eagles, Paul F J

    2007-06-01

    We explored the role of conservation biology in the planning of a natural-heritage system that includes long, wide conservation corridors situated primarily on private lands, and established to connect natural core areas in the Oak Ridges Moraine of Ontario, Canada. We based our review on government documents, semi-structured interviews with participants involved in this land-use planning process, and our involvement with the issue from 1990 through 2002. Conservation biology had a major influence on the outcome of the land-use planning process for this moraine. The landform was identified as an area of value by the environmental movement within the context of a number of ongoing government studies that began in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Conservation biologists and planners in government, the environmental movement, and the private sector carried out work related to conservation biology, including inventories and the development and application of criteria for the delineation of core areas and conservation corridors. Once the political timing was favorable (2001-2002), decision makers linked the science of conservation biology to planning policies and law in Ontario. The Oak Ridges Moraine land-use planning process was precedent setting in Canada, and possibly internationally. To our knowledge this is the first time long, wide conservation corridors on private lands were regulated through land-use-planning legislation and led to restrictions on urban development and aggregate resource extraction.

  5. Extreme endurance flights by landbirds crossing the Pacific Ocean: Ecological corridor rather than barrier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, R.E.; Tibbitts, T.L.; Douglas, D.C.; Handel, C.M.; Mulcahy, D.M.; Gottschalck, J.C.; Warnock, N.; McCaffery, B.J.; Battley, Phil F.; Piersma, Theunis

    2009-01-01

    Mountain ranges, deserts, ice fields and oceans generally act as barriers to the movement of land-dependent animals, often profoundly shaping migration routes. We used satellite telemetry to track the southward flights of bar-tailed godwits (Limosa lapponica baueri), shorebirds whose breeding and non-breeding areas are separated by the vast central Pacific Ocean. Seven females with surgically implanted transmitters flew non-stop 8117-11680km (10153??1043 s.d.) directly across the Pacific Ocean; two males with external transmitters flew non-stop along the same corridor for 7008-7390km. Flight duration ranged from 6.0 to 9.4 days (7.8??1.3 s.d.) for birds with implants and 5.0 to 6.6 days for birds with externally attached transmitters. These extraordinary non-stop flights establish new extremes for avian flight performance, have profound implications for understanding the physiological capabilities of vertebrates and how birds navigate, and challenge current physiological paradigms on topics such as sleep, dehydration and phenotypic flexibility. Predicted changes in climatic systems may affect survival rates if weather conditions at their departure hub or along the migration corridor should change. We propose that this transoceanic route may function as an ecological corridor rather than a barrier, providing a wind-assisted passage relatively free of pathogens and predators. ?? 2008 The Royal Society.

  6. Operational performance of a congested corridor with lanes dedicated to autonomous vehicle traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Vander Laan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the operational performance impact of autonomous vehicles (AV on a multi-lane freeway corridor with separate lanes dedicated to AV and non-AV traffic. Autonomous vehicle behavior is modeled at the macroscopic level by modifying the fundamental diagram relating hourly traffic flow and vehicle density, a step that is justified by adjusting a parameter from Newell’s car-following model at the microscopic level and transforming back to a macroscopic representation. The model is applied to the I-95 corridor between Washington, DC and Baltimore, MD during the PM peak period, where the impact of introducing a managed AV-only lane is assessed at varying penetration rates of autonomous vehicles. The results show that the overall corridor performance metrics improve with increasing penetration rates up to 30%, 40% or 50% (depending on the underlying assumptions that govern AV behavior, after which the performance deteriorates drastically. Implications of the results are discussed in light of the per-lane and aggregated metrics, and future directions for research are proposed.

  7. The value of corridor in flat as place attachment in the life of the dwellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifin, Lilianny; Widigdo, Wanda K.; Juniwati, Anik; Mintorogo, Danny

    2017-06-01

    Place attachment has been examined extensively in the behavioral and architecture studies over the past two decades. In the production of housing, designers mainly focus on the quality of the physical components. Place attachment is just the form of connection between a person and the environmental setting. However, it was challenging for this study to grasp the aspects of meanings and attachment, both in the level of personal, community and natural environment contexts, which are not adequately considered in the design process. In this study, three-dimensional model of personal and community attachments to their corridor in the flat was conceptually and empirically examined. The aim is to test an integrated approach to measuring place attachment at the corridor in flat in understanding the values of locations in the life of the dwellers. Sample cases included the examination of attachment to the hallway in three units located in Surabaya, Indonesia. It found out that the value of corridor as a place was affected by the daily experience of the places, social bonding, neighborhood interaction, and landscape values.

  8. Carpathian Shear Corridor - A strike-slip boundary of an extruded crustal segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko, František; Andriessen, Paul A. M.; Tomek, Čestmír; Bezák, Vladimír; Fojtíková, Lucia; Bošanský, Marián; Piovarči, Milan; Reichwalder, Peter

    2017-04-01

    The Carpathian Shear Corridor (CSC), a morphostructurally distinctive ENE-WSW brittle shear zone, is a prominent dynamic interface of crustal fragments shifted during an oblique collision process combined with lateral extrusions in the Late stages of the Western Carpathians tectonic evolution. This tectonics was due to convection in the upper mantle, driven mainly by slab-pull forces related to a subductional process in front of prograding Carpathians. The CSC separates the marginal segment of the Western Carpathians, already firmly attached to the European plate, from the southern still eastwardly moving block. This process led to structural transpositions, anomalous rotation of small blocks and tilting and uplift/subsidence events, resulting in a tectonic style of horst and intramountaine basin alternations within the corridor. Preliminary paleomagnetic data indicate anomalous CCW block rotations within this corridor, and AFT ages indicate Early and Late Miocene (ca 24-22 Ma and ca 10-7 Ma) fault controlled exhumation events triggered by increased shear zone activity. Deep seismic sections, magnetotelluric and gravity data show that CSC follows a frontal ramp of the Western Carpathians thrust over the foreland. The CSC remains an active strike-slip shear zone, and therefore the most important earthquake risk-zone in the Slovakian portion of the Western Carpathians. It presents a lateral ramp transform boundary of eastwardly extruding crustal segment during the Miocene and up to the recent time.

  9. An editorial approach: Mike Nelson’s corridors and The Deliverance and The Patience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Hughes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay contrasts the contemporary British artist Mike Nelson’s approach to constructing his large, multi-room installations with his approach to editing the numerous artist books that he has produced since 2000. This comparison reveals several compositional symmetries between the two, namely pertaining to narrative non-linearity and meta-fictionality. The logic of montage is shown to similarly underscore both the books and the installations. This essay argues that the corridors connecting the different rooms of Nelson’s installations function in a similar way to the logic of montage: they play an integral role as the support that binds the structure of the installation (its multiple rooms together as a whole. This essay argues that the corridor is the primary viewing framework of the installation for the viewer, and that this vantage point is significant because the necessarily partial vision of the installation from the space of the corridor demonstrates the logic of installation art more broadly. I conclude by mapping the key compositional elements of Nelson’s artist books onto his installations, taking the 2001 work The Deliverance and The Patience as a case study, to show that the books do not exemplify the artwork as with traditional exhibition catalogues, but rather parallel it. That is, a structural continuity is established between these two facets of his work.

  10. Ray-Based Statistical Propagation Modeling for Indoor Corridor Scenarios at 15 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the demands for fifth-generation (5G communication systems, high frequency bands (above 6 GHz need to be adopted to provide additional spectrum. This paper investigates the characteristics of indoor corridor channels at 15 GHz. Channel measurements with a vector network analyzer in two corridors were conducted. Based on a ray-optical approach, a deterministic channel model covering both antenna and propagation characteristic is presented. The channel model is evaluated by comparing simulated results of received power and root mean square delay spread with the corresponding measurements. By removing the impact of directional antennas from the transmitter and receiver, a path loss model as well as small-scale fading properties for typical corridors is presented based on the generated samples from the deterministic model. Results show that the standard deviation of path loss variation is related to the Tx height, and placing the Tx closer to the ceiling leads to a smaller fluctuation of path loss.

  11. A Study on Sports Goods Export Status and Countermeasures in Industrial Structure Transition of the Pearl River Delta%产业结构转型期珠三角体育用品出口状况与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢冬兴; 陈泽全

    2015-01-01

    Based on the statistical analysis and on-the-spot investigation of sports goods export data in 9 cities of Pearl River Delta from 2010 to 2012,the main features of sports goods export trade in Pearl River Delta in the tran-sitional period were summarized as follows:①overall export was stable,the link relative ratio of export quotas was down slightly,and the decreasing amplitude became smaller;②regional imbalance appeared,exports accounted for mainly located in Dongguan,Shenzhen,and Guangzhou City;③the market share in Europe and the United States declined,the diversification strategy of export saw little effect,export market was still highly concentrated;④positive growth of feed tooling and negative growth of processing was remarkable, the general trade remained stable, the bonded area increased significantly;⑤industrial transformation spawned the division pattern of“front shop back fac-tory”in the labor intensive sports goods industry;⑥industrial transformation accelerated the polarization of sports goods industry in the Pearl River Delta,forming 3 echelon. Finally,according to the export situation of Pearl River Delta sports,the present study proposed five strategies including“expanding the sports goods market,supporting the transformation and upgrading of enterprises”,“strengthening the protection of sports goods enterprises patent and standardized construction”,“establishing pass financing mode, sport events marketing mode and cloud operation mode”.%通过对20102012年珠三角9市体育用品出口各项数据统计与实地调研发现,转型期珠三角体育用品出口贸易主要特点:①出口总体表现平稳,出口额度环比微降,降幅逐年减小;②存在出口区域严重失衡,出口占比主要集中在东莞、深圳、广州3个市;③欧美市场份额占比有所下降,出口多元化策略见微效,出口市场仍高度集中;④进料加工正增长与来料加工负

  12. Design on Simply-Supported Box Beam in Pearl River Delta Intercity Rail Transit%珠三角城际轨道交通简支箱梁设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯建军; 邓运清

    2012-01-01

    城际轨道交通是联系城市群间的快速铁路客运专线,主要满足经济发达的人口稠密地区中短途旅客运输需要,对景观设计要求较高.珠三角城际轨道交通桥梁形式采用了流线形箱梁,在箱梁外侧设置大圆弧,小曲线的梁端加宽等处理更加体现了城际轨道交通桥梁中景观设计要素.其常用简支箱梁根据线间距变化,设计分为双线箱梁、单线箱梁和组合箱梁3种形式.从箱梁设计的技术标准、桥面布置、截面选型等方面进行介绍.%In developed and populous areas, the intercity rail transit is the rapid passenger-dedicated line of urban agglomeration in order to meet the needs of passenger traffic within middle distance and short distance, with the higher requirements on landscape. So the box beam bridges with streamline shape were employed in Pearl River Delta Intercity Rail Transit, in which the large arc shape was utilized along the lateral surface of the box beam, and the girder ends on sharp curve were widened to reflect more landscape elements of intercity rail transit bridge design. Moreover, in the design, according to the various distances between the track centers, the usual simply-supported box beam s were divided into three types; the box beam with double tracks, box beam with single track, and the composite box beam. The technical standards, bridge deck arrangement, cross-section selection and other aspects in box beam design are introduced in this paper.

  13. Co-creating Understanding in Water Use & Agricultural Resilience in a Multi-scale Natural-human System: Sacramento River Valley--California's Water Heartland in Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, D. H.; Brimlowe, J.; Chaudry, A.; Gray, K.; Greene, T.; Guzley, R.; Hatfield, C.; Houk, E.; Le Page, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Sacramento River Valley (SRV), valued for its $2.5 billion agricultural production and its biodiversity, is the main supplier of California's water, servicing 25 million people. . Despite rapid changes to the region, little is known about the collective motivations and consequences of land and water use decisions, or the social and environmental vulnerability and resilience of the SRV. The overarching research goal is to examine whether the SRV can continue to supply clean water for California and accommodate agricultural production and biodiversity while coping with climate change and population growth. Without understanding these issues, the resources of the SRV face an uncertain future. The defining goal is to construct a framework that integrates cross-disciplinary and diverse stakeholder perspectives in order to develop a comprehensive understanding of how SRV stakeholders make land and water use decisions. Traditional approaches for modeling have failed to take into consideration multi-scale stakeholder input. Currently there is no effective method to facilitate producers and government agencies in developing a shared representation to address the issues that face the region. To address this gap, researchers and stakeholders are working together to collect and consolidate disconnected knowledge held by stakeholder groups (agencies, irrigation districts, and producers) into a holistic conceptual model of how stakeholders view and make decisions with land and water use under various management systems. Our approach integrates a top-down approach (agency stakeholders) for larger scale management decisions with a conceptual co-creation and data gathering bottom-up approach with local agricultural producer stakeholders for input water and landuse decisions. Land use change models that combine a top-down approach with a bottom-up stakeholder approach are rare and yet essential to understanding how the social process of land use change and ecosystem function are

  14. Human uses of forested watersheds and riparian corridors: hazard mitigation as an ecosystem service, with examples from Panama, Puerto Rico, and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    Humans have long favored settlement along rivers for access to water supply for drinking and agriculture, for transport corridors, and for food sources. Additionally, settlement in or near montane forests include benefits such as food sources, wood supply, esthetic values, and high quality water resources derived from watersheds where upstream human disturbance and environmental degradation is generally reduced. However, the advantages afforded by these riparian and montane settings pose episodic risks for communities located there as floods, landslides, and wildfires cause loss of life, destroy infrastructure, and damage or destroy crops. A basic understanding of flood probability and magnitude as well as hillslope stability by residents in these environments can mitigate these risks. Early humans presumably developed some degree of knowledge about these risks by means of their long periods of occupation in these environments and their observations of seasonal and storm rainfall patterns and river discharge, which became more refined as agriculture developed over the past 10,000 years. Modern global urbanization, particularly in regions of rapid economic growth, has resulted in much of this "organic" knowledge being lost, as rural populations move into megacities, many of which encroach on floodplains and mountain fronts. Moreover, the most likely occupants of these hazardous locations are often economically constrained, increasing their vulnerabity. Effective stewardship of river floodplains and upstream montane forests yields a key ecosystem service, which in addition to the well-known services, ie. water, hydroelectric energy, etc., provides a risk mitigation service, by reducing hazard and vulnerability. Puerto Rico, Panama, and Venezuela illustrate a range of practices and results, providing useful examples for planners and land use managers.

  15. River nomads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    River nomads is a movie about people on the move. The documentary film explores the lifestyle of a group of nomadic fishermen whose mobility has been the recipe of success and troubles. Engaged in trade and travel, twice a year the river nomads form impressive convoys of majestic pirogues and set...... and liberated lifestyle and the breath-taking landscapes and vistas offered by the Niger River. River Nomads is also a personal account of the Kebbawa’s way of life and their current struggles as nomadic folk living in a world divided by borders and ruled by bureaucrats....

  16. Fostering a regional vision on river systems by remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzi, S.; Piegay, H.; Demarchi, L.

    2015-12-01

    River classification and the derived knowledge about river systems have been relying until recently on discontinuous field campaigns and visual interpretation of aerial images. For this reason, building a regional vision on river systems based on a systematic and coherent set of hydromorphological indicators was, and still is, a research challenge. Remote sensing data, since some years, offer notable opportunities to shift this paradigm offering an unprecedented amount of spatially distributed data over large scales, such as regional. Here, we have implemented a river characterization framework based on color infrared orthophotos at 40 cm and a LIDAR derived DTM at 5 m acquired simultaneously in 2009-2010 for all Piedmont Region Italy (25400 kmq). 1500 km of river systems have been characterized in terms typology, geometry and topography of hydromorphological features. The framework delineates the valley bottom of each river course, and maps by a semi-automated procedure water channels, unvegetated and vegetated sediment bars, islands, and riparian corridors. Using a range of statistical techniques the river systems have been segmented and classified with an objective, quantitative, and then repeatable approach. Such regional database enhances our ability to address a number of research and management challenges, such as: i) quantify shape and topography of channel forms for different river functional types, and investigate their relationships with potential drivers like hydrology, geology, land use and historical contingency; ii) localize most degraded and better functioning river stretches so to prioritize finer scale monitoring and set quantifiable restoration targets; iii) provide indication for future RS acquisition campaigns so to start monitoring river processes at the regional scale. The Piedmont Region in Italy is here used as a laboratory of concrete examples and analyses to discuss our current ability to answer to these challenges in river science.

  17. Research on the river function regionalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objectives, principles, classification system, zoning method and procedure of river function region-alization were investigated systematically based on the present status of modern river regulation and function requirement. Considering the ecosystem continuity and river function integrality, a river is suggested to be divided into five function zones: ecological protection zone, habitat restoration zone, exploitation and utilization zone, buffer zone,and transition zone, based on the developed intensity and the function characteristics of the river. In this paper, not only the five function zones were described qualitatively, but also the quantitative examination method on how to identify their function zone types was given. A double-criterion partitioning scheme was proposed according to the functional zoning diagram constructed by the evaluation of the social and ecological function of rivers. Finally, the procedures of river function regionalization were shown.

  18. Invasive alien plants and South African rivers: a proposed approach to the prioritisation of control operations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wilgen, BW

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available . (1991) Rapid invasion of Fraxinus ornus L. along the Herault River system in southern France: the importance of seed dispersal by water. Journal of Biogeography, 18, 7–12. Tinley K.L. (1991) Towards harmony with the land: the drainage basin... riparian zones to be more invaded by alien species than other plant communities, and rivers may function as dispersal corridors for the rapid spread of invasive alien plants across landscapes (The´baud & Debussche, 1991; Pyseˇk & Prach, 1994; Planty...

  19. Distribution and circular process of water resources in the arid area of Hexi Corridor%河西走廊干旱区的水资源分布及循环过程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭良才; 岳平; 李红英; 相吉; 葛鹏

    2011-01-01

    The runoff, glacier, hydrological geology and climatological observed data of three inland rivers (Shule River, Hei River and Shiyang River) basins in Hexi corridor from 1955 ~ 2006 were used to analyse systematicaly the law of distribution and its cyclic transformation relations of water resources in these basins. The results indicated that water resources of Hexi Corridor mainly exist with ice-snow, surface and groundwater resources, distributed around the three relatively independent river basins. All together 57 rivers develop in southern Qilian Mountains, and the average annual runoff from the mountain areas totals 72.4 x 108 m3. On the whole, the runoff from the mountain areas is very stable in recent 56 years. Hexi corridor is mainly composed of egiht basins in structural landform, and the ground water of these basins mainly receive river-water from mountain areas and the vertical ground water recharge in the area, these are the repeated manifestation of earth's surface water resources. The average annual recharge of ground water is 42.5 x 10 m . In the years of 1950s ~ 1990s, the ground water recharge in the area reduces by 30% , about 3.5 x 108 m3 every 10 years. Subject to the structural landform, from southern mountain to northern basin, groundwater and river-water form a complete and unified circulatory system of water resources as "ground water in the mountain - surface water - ground water of southern basin - surface water - ground water of northren basin" after undergoing regular and repeated conversion process in 5 different zones.%运用河西走廊3大内陆河流(疏勒河、黑河和石羊河)1955~2006年河流流量、冰川、地质水文和气象实测资料,系统分析了区域内水资源的分布规律及其循环转化关系等.结果表明,河西走廊水资源主要以冰雪水资源、地表水资源与地下水资源的形式存在,分布于3大相对独立的流域水系中;南部祁连山区发育大小河流共计57

  20. Resource pulses in desert river habitats: productivity-biodiversity hotspots, or mirages?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carissa L Free

    Full Text Available Resource pulses in the world's hot deserts are driven largely by rainfall and are highly variable in both time and space. However, run-on areas and drainage lines in arid regions receive more water more often than adjacent habitats, and frequently sustain relatively high levels of primary productivity. These landscape features therefore may support higher biotic diversity than other habitats, and potentially act as refuges for desert vertebrates and other biota during droughts. We used the ephemeral Field River in the Simpson Desert, central Australia, as a case study to quantify how resources and habitat characteristics vary spatially and temporally along the riparian corridor. Levels of moisture and nutrients were greater in the clay-dominated soils of the riverine corridor than in the surrounding sand dunes, as were cover values of trees, annual grasses, other annual plants and litter; these resources and habitat features were also greater near the main catchment area than in the distal reaches where the river channel runs out into extensive dune fields. These observations confirm that the riverine corridor is more productive than the surrounding desert, and support the idea that it may act as a refuge or as a channel for the ingress of peri-desert species. However, the work also demonstrates that species diversity of invertebrates and plants is not higher within the river corridor; rather, it is driven by rainfall and the accompanying increase in annual plants following a rain event. Further research is required to identify the biota that depend upon these resource pulses.

  1. MACROSCOPIC RIVERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDENBERG, IP

    1991-01-01

    We present a mathematical model for the ''river-phenomenon'': striking concentrations of trajectories of ordinary differential equations. This model of ''macroscopic rivers'' is formulated within nonstandard analysis, and stated in terms of macroscopes and singular perturbations. For a subclass, the

  2. Identifying Potential Conservation Corridors Along the Mongolia-Russia Border Using Resource Selection Functions: A Case Study on Argali Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buyanaa Chimeddorj

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The disruption of animal movements is known to affect wildlife populations, particularly large bodied, free-ranging mammals that require large geographic ranges to survive. Corridors commonly connect fragmented wildlife populations and their habitats, yet identifying corridors rarely uses data on habitat selection and movements of target species. New technologies and analytical tools make it possible to better integrate landscape patterns with spatial behavioral data. We show how resource selection functions can describe habitat suitability using continuous and multivariate metrics to determine potential wildlife movement corridors. During 2005–2010, we studied movements of argali sheep ( Ovis ammon near the Mongolia-Russia border using radio-telemetry and modeled their spatial distribution in relation to landscape features to create a spatially explicit habitat suitability surface to identify potential transboundary conservation corridors. Argali sheep habitat selection in western Mongolia positively correlated with elevation, ruggedness index, and distance to border. In other words, argali were tended use areas with higher elevation, rugged topography, and distances farther from the international border. We suggest that these spatial modeling approaches offer ways to design and identify wildlife corridors more objectively and holistically, and can be applied to many other target species.

  3. Bidirectional recovery patterns of Mojave Desert vegetation in an aqueduct pipeline corridor after 36 years: I. Perennial shrubs and grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Kristin H.; Weigand, James F.; Gowan, Timothy A.; Mack, Jeremy S.

    2015-01-01

    We studied recovery of 21 perennial plant species along a severely disturbed aqueduct corridor in a Larrea tridentata-Ambrosia dumosa plant alliance in the Mojave Desert 36 years after construction. The 97-m wide corridor contained a central dirt road and buried aqueduct pipeline. We established transects at 0 m (road verge), 20 m and 40 m into the disturbance corridor, and at 100 m in undisturbed habitat (the control). Although total numbers of shrubs per transect did not vary significantly with distance from the verge, canopy cover of shrubs, species richness, and species diversity were higher in the control than at the verge and other distances. Canopy cover of common shrubs (Ericameria nauseosa, Ambrosia salsola, A. dumosa, L. tridentata, Grayia spinosa) and perennial grasses (Elymus elymoides, Poa secunda) also varied significantly by location. Discriminant analysis clearly separated the four distances based on plant composition. Patterns of recovery were bidirectional: secondary succession from the control into the disturbance corridor and inhibition from the verge in the direction of the control. Time estimated for species composition to resemble the control is dependent on location within the disturbance corridor and could be centuries at the road verge. Our findings have applications to other deserts.

  4. Studi Hubungan Budaya dengan Aglomerasi Ekonomi (North-South Corridor Di Jawa Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachmad Kresna Sakti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT   There are two things that commonly identify economic activitivities spacially such as concentration and imbalance.  East Java has two concentration poles of Java economic activities spacially. One of the concentration areas in East Java is in Surabaya, and that concentration activity is called North-South Corridor which is close to temple/ archeological site in East Java. Based on the fact, this research answers some questions like (1 Is there any interaction between culture dimension (the people and economic dimension? (2 How does culture dimension interacts with economic dimension? The aims of the research are (a To know the interaction between culture dimension (the people and economic dimension partially and cumulatively, so there will be North-South Corridor in East Java; (b To know the flow of mechanism from the detail of culture dimension interacting with economic dimension. The research was done outside North-South Corridor  area in East Java. The result of the research shows (1 there is a relationship between culture and economic dimension. It can be showed from the difference of each economic subject both inside and outside North-South Corridor in facing Hofstede Culture; (2 the difference of culture is formed by the environment of area inside and outside North-South Corridor.   Keywords: North-South Corridor, culture, economic concentration   ABSTRAKS   Terdapat dua hal yang seringkali menjadi ciri menonjol dari kegiatan perekonomian secara spasial, yaitu adanya konsentrasi dan ketimpangan. Di Pulau Jawa Terdapat dua kutub konsentrasi kegiatan ekonomi di Jawa secara spasial. Salah satunya wilayah konsentrasi kegiatan ekonomi di Surabaya Jawa Timur. Konsentrasi kegiatan tersebut dikenal dengan koridor utara – selatan. Menariknya koridor Utara-Selatan berhimpit dengan letak situs purbakala/candi di Jawa Timur.  Berpijak pada kesenjangan realita tersebut, penelitan ini berusaha menjawab pertanyaan berikut, (1 apakah

  5. Feeding the hungry river: Fluvial morphodynamics and the entrainment of artificially inserted sediment at the dammed river Isar, Eastern Alps, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, Tobias; Haas, Florian; Abel, Judith; Rimböck, Andreas; Becht, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Dams interrupt the sediment continuum in rivers by retaining the bedload; combined with flow diversion, bedload retention in tributaries and river engineering measures, this causes a bedload deficit leading to changes in river planform and morphodynamics, with potentially detrimental downstream effects. As part of the SedAlp joint project (Sediment management in Alpine basins: integrating sediment continuum, risk mitigation and hydropower), this study investigates changes within a section of the dammed river Isar between the Sylvenstein reservoir and the city of Bad Tölz. We use a multi-method approach on a range of spatial and temporal scales. First, we analysed historical maps and aerial photos to analyse river planform and landcover changes within the river corridor of the whole study area on a temporal scale of over 100 years. Results show that major changes occurred before the construction of the Sylvenstein reservoir, suggesting that present morphodynamics represent the reaction to different disturbances on different time scales. Second, changes in mean bed elevation of cross profiles regularly surveyed by the water authorities are analysed in light of artificial sediment insertion and floods; they are also used to estimate the sediment budget of river reaches between consecutive cross profiles. Results suggest stability and a slight tendency towards incision, especially near the Sylvenstein reservoir; further downstream, the sediment balance was positive. Third, we acquired multitemporal aerial photos using an unmanned aerial vehicle and generated high-resolution digital elevation models to show how sediment artificially inserted in the river corridor is entrained. Depending on the position of the artificial deposits in relation to the channel, the deposits are entrained during floods of different return periods.

  6. Tectonic inversion of compressional structures in the Southern portion of the Paramirim Corridor, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Cerqueira Pereira Cruz

    Full Text Available The Paramirim Corridor represents the maximum inversion zone of the Paramirim Aulacogen. Reverse-to-reverse dextral shear zones and various types of folds dominate such corridor. These structures reflect a stress field that is WSW-ENE oriented, developed in units of Aulacogen basement, as well as in the Lagoa Real Intrusive Suite, of Statherian age, in Espinhaço and São Francisco supergroups, of Statherian-Tonian and Cryogenian ages, respectively, and in the Macaúbas-Santo Onofre Group, of Tonian age at the most. A rich collection of extensional structures truncate compressional structures of the Paramirim Corridor, characterized by normal shear zones and foliation, which is sometimes mylonitic, down-dip stretching lineation, drag folds, traction fractures and S/C structures. In these shear zones, quartz occurs truncated by the foliation, while feldspars are fractured and altered to white mica. Distribution of the quartz c-axes is at a maximum of 14° from the Z-axis. Thus, it suggests that the deformation activated mainly the basal glide planes in the direction. The paleostress study using the Win-Tensor software demonstrated that the regimen ranged between radial and pure distention. The S1 direction oscillated around a vertical trend, while s3 was sub-horizontal, with a predominant N230-050° direction. Ar-Ar ages in biotite obtained from the extensional shear zones ranged from 480 and 490 Ma. Together, data obtained for the structures associated with the late extensional regimen described in the present study suggest that its nucleation is associated with distal and brittle-ductile sectors of the gravitational collapse zone of Araçuaí-West Congo Orogen.

  7. The Effect of the Hayward Corridor Improvement Project on Carbon Monoxide Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfelder, M.; Martinez, E.; Maestas, A.; Peek, A.

    2013-12-01

    In August of 2010, construction began on a stretch of road in Downtown Hayward to address a problem with traffic flow. Known as the Hayward Corridor, the project reshaped the flow of traffic, replacing the two way streets of Foothill, Mission, and A Street with a loop between them. This project began with the initiative of reducing congestion in this area and improving access to businesses for pedestrians. The project was expected to have little environmental impact in most common assessments of degree of effect, including particulate matter, ozone and carbon monoxide levels. This report will discuss the effect of the Hayward Corridor Improvement Project on carbon monoxide emission. Data available to the public in the project's Environmental Impact Report shows that carbon monoxide levels before construction began were at an acceptable level according to federal and state standards. Projections for future concentrations both with and without the project show a decrease in carbon monoxide levels due to technological improvements and the gradual replacement of older, less efficient vehicles. The Environmental Impact Report projected that there would be little difference in carbon monoxide levels whether the project took place or not, at an average of 1.67x102 fewer parts per million per 1 hour period of measurement emitted in the case of the project not taking place. While it is not possible to draw a conclusion on what the current carbon monoxide levels would be if the project had not taken place due to the changes in traffic flow and other surrounding roads as a result of the project, the data gathered in June of 2013 suggested that carbon monoxide levels are higher than the values projected in 2007. This report summarizes both the accuracy of these carbon monoxide level projections and the effect of construction on carbon monoxide levels in the Hayward Corridor and the surrounding area.

  8. Recreational trails as corridors for alien plants in the Rocky Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Floye H.; Lauenroth, William K.; Bradford, John B.

    2012-01-01

    Alien plant species often use areas of heavy human activity for habitat and dispersal. Roads and utility corridors have been shown to harbor more alien species than the surrounding vegetation and are therefore believed to contribute to alien plant persistence and spread. Recreational trails represent another corridor that could harbor alien species and aid their spread. Effective management of invasive species requires understanding how alien plants are distributed at trailheads and trails and how their dispersal may be influenced by native vegetation. Our overall goal was to investigate the distribution of alien plants at trailheads and trails in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado. At trailheads, we found that although the number of alien species was less than the number of native species, alien plant cover ( x̄=50%) did not differ from native plant cover, and we observed a large number of alien seedlings in the soil seed bank, suggesting that alien plants are a large component of trailhead communities and will continue to be so in the future. Along trails, we found higher alien species richness and cover on trail (as opposed to 4 m from the trail) in 3 out of 4 vegetation types, and we observed higher alien richness and cover in meadows than in other vegetation types. Plant communities at both trailheads and trails, as well as seed banks at trailheads, contain substantial diversity and abundance of alien plants. These results suggest that recreational trails in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado may function as corridors that facilitate the spread of alien species into wildlands. Our results suggest that control of alien plants should begin at trailheads where there are large numbers of aliens and that control efforts on trails should be prioritized by vegetation type.

  9. Normalizing and scaling of data to derive human response corridors from impact tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Arun, Mike W J; Pintar, Frank A

    2014-06-01

    It is well known that variability is inherent in any biological experiment. Human cadavers (Post-Mortem Human Subjects, PMHS) are routinely used to determine responses to impact loading for crashworthiness applications including civilian (motor vehicle) and military environments. It is important to transform measured variables from PMHS tests (accelerations, forces and deflections) to a standard or reference population, termed normalization. The transformation process should account for inter-specimen variations with some underlying assumptions used during normalization. Scaling is a process by which normalized responses are converted from one standard to another (example, mid-size adult male to large-male and small-size female adults, and to pediatric populations). These responses are used to derive corridors to assess the biofidelity of anthropomorphic test devices (crash dummies) used to predict injury in impact environments and design injury mitigating devices. This survey examines the pros and cons of different approaches for obtaining normalized and scaled responses and corridors used in biomechanical studies for over four decades. Specifically, the equal-stress equal-velocity and impulse-momentum methods along with their variations are discussed in this review. Methods ranging from subjective to quasi-static loading to different approaches are discussed for deriving temporal mean and plus minus one standard deviation human corridors of time-varying fundamental responses and cross variables (e.g., force-deflection). The survey offers some insights into the potential efficacy of these approaches with examples from recent impact tests and concludes with recommendations for future studies. The importance of considering various parameters during the experimental design of human impact tests is stressed.

  10. Large dams and alluvial rivers in the Anthropocene: The impacts of the Garrison and Oahe Dams on the Upper Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalak, Katherine; Benthem, Adam J.; Schenk, Edward R.; Hupp, Cliff R.; Galloway, Joel M.; Nustad, Rochelle A.; Wiche, Gregg J.

    2013-01-01

    The Missouri River has had a long history of anthropogenic modification with considerable impacts on river and riparian ecology, form, and function. During the 20th century, several large dam-building efforts in the basin served the needs for irrigation, flood control, navigation, and the generation of hydroelectric power. The managed flow provided a range of uses, including recreation, fisheries, and habitat. Fifteen dams impound the main stem of the river, with hundreds more on tributaries. Though the effects of dams and reservoirs are well-documented, their impacts have been studied individually, with relatively little attention paid to their interaction along a river corridor. We examine the morphological and sedimentological changes in the Upper Missouri River between the Garrison Dam in ND (operational in 1953) and Oahe Dam in SD (operational in 1959). Through historical aerial photography, stream gage data, and cross sectional surveys, we demonstrate that the influence of the upstream dam is still a major control of river dynamics when the backwater effects of the downstream reservoir begin. In the “Anthropocene”, dams are ubiquitous on large rivers and often occur in series, similar to the Garrison Dam Segment. We propose a conceptual model of how interacting dams might affect river geomorphology, resulting in distinct and recognizable morphologic sequences that we term “Inter-Dam sequence” characteristic of major rivers in the US.

  11. Urban ventilation corridors mapping using surface morphology data based GIS analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicht, Marzena; Wicht, Andreas; Osińska-Skotak, Katarzyna

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes deriving the most appropriate method for mapping urban ventilation corridors, which, if properly designed, reduce heat stress, air pollution and increase air quality, as well as increase the horizontal wind speed. Urban areas are - in terms of surface texture - recognized as one of the roughest surfaces, which results in wind obstruction and decreased ventilation of densely built up areas. As urban heat islands, private household and traffic emissions or large scale industries occur frequently in many cities, both in temperate and tropical regions. A proper ventilation system has been suggested as an appropriate mitigation mean [1] . Two concepts of morphometric analyses of the urban environment are used on the example of Warsaw, representing a dense, urban environment, located in the temperate zone. The utilized methods include firstly a roughness mapping calculation [2] , which analyses zero plane displacement height (zd) and roughness length (z0) and their distribution for the eight (inter-)cardinal wind directions and secondly a grid-based frontal area index mapping approach [3] , which uses least cost path analysis. Utilizing the advantages and minimizing the disadvantages of those two concepts, we propose a hybrid approach. All concepts are based on a 3D building database obtained from satellite imagery, aided by a cadastral building database. Derived areas (ventilation corridors), that facilitate the ventilation system, should be considered by the local authorities as worth preserving, if not expanding, in order to improve the air quality in the city. The results also include designation of the problematic areas, which greatly obscure the ventilation and might be investigated as to reshape or rebuilt to introduce the air flow in particularly dense areas like city centers. Keywords: roughness mapping; GIS; ventilation corridors; frontal area index Rizwan, A. M., Dennis, L. Y., & Chunho, L. I. U. (2008). A review on the generation

  12. China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, Civil-Military Relations and Democracy in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Siegfried O.

    2016-01-01

    The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), a multibillion-dollar infrastructure investment project, is heralded as a game changer for Pakistan’s economy. It is part of the major development initiative led by China, known as ‘One Belt, One Road’ (OBOR), connecting Asia with Europe, the Middle East and Africa, and for those involved it evokes hopes, a myriad of interests, and it spurs a geopolitical shift (Ze 2015; 2014, October 2014). However, such a megaproject also raises numerous question...

  13. CHINA PAKISTAN ECONOMIC CORRIDOR (CPEC): PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES FOR REGIONAL INTEGERATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Akber

    2015-01-01

    As a flagship of China’s One Belt One Road initiative, China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is pivotal to China’s energy security owing to the growing row in the region of South China Sea among China and other regional and global players. The ongoing contestation between China and other countries in the Asia Pacific has compelled China to look for alternative pathways to meet its increasing energy needs in case of any blockade of the Strait of Malacca as a consequence of any conflict betwe...

  14. Corridor of existence of thermodynamically consistent solution of the Ornstein-Zernike equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorob'ev, V S; Martynov, G A

    2007-07-14

    We obtain the exact equation for a correction to the Ornstein-Zernike (OZ) equation based on the assumption of the uniqueness of thermodynamical functions. We show that this equation is reduced to a differential equation with one arbitrary parameter for the hard sphere model. The compressibility factor within narrow limits of this parameter variation can either coincide with one of the formulas obtained on the basis of analytical solutions of the OZ equation or assume all intermediate values lying in a corridor between these solutions. In particular, we find the value of this parameter when the thermodynamically consistent compressibility factor corresponds to the Carnahan-Stirling formula.

  15. Comparison of serial and parallel simulations of a corridor fire using FDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valasek, L.

    2015-09-01

    Current fire simulators allow to model the course of fire in large areas and its impact on structure and equipment. This paper deals with a comparison of serial and parallel calculations of simulation of a corridor fire by the FDS (Fire Dynamics Simulator) system. In parallel case, the whole computational domain is divided into several computational meshes, the computation on each mesh is considered as a single MPI (Message Passing Interface) process realised on one computational core and communication between MPI processes is provided by MPI. The aim of this paper is to determine the size of error caused by parallelization of computation, which occurs at touches of computational meshes.

  16. Modeling of optimal control for urban freeway corridor under incident conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhu ZHENG; Decun DONG

    2006-01-01

    Traffic control and management are effective measures to solve the problem of traffic congestion. The optimal control model for freeway corridor is developed under incident conditions, which is in the form of minimization of the sum of the square of the difference between traffic demand and capacity at each intersection and on the freeway bottleneck section. The model optimizes control parameters of phase splits at arterial intersections, off-ramp diversion rates at upstream off-ramps and on-ramp diversion rates at downstream on ramps. Finally, the objective function is discussed and it is showed that the optimal control model is simple and practical.

  17. A preliminary study on designing ecological corridors in Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve with 3S techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on the fieldwork in Xishuang-banna Natioanl Nature Reserve in Yunnan Province of China. GPS data of Asian elephants were collected and analyzed with the remote sensing satellite photos of the region to estimate the landform physiognomy of different colors. We also analyzed a series of ecological factors includ-ing altitude, landform, relief, villages and roads which affected the distribution and movement of Asian elephants. The results suggested the possibility of designing and estab-lishing corridors in Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve to protect the population of wild elephants in the region.

  18. Robust analysis of an underwater navigational strategy in electrically heterogeneous corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimble, Kedar D; Ranganathan, Badri N; Keshavan, Jishnu; Humbert, J Sean

    2016-08-01

    Obstacles and other global stimuli provide relevant navigational cues to a weakly electric fish. In this work, robust analysis of a control strategy based on electrolocation for performing obstacle avoidance in electrically heterogeneous corridors is presented and validated. Static output feedback control is shown to achieve the desired goal of reflexive obstacle avoidance in such environments in simulation and experimentation. The proposed approach is computationally inexpensive and readily implementable on a small scale underwater vehicle, making underwater autonomous navigation feasible in real-time.

  19. GEOMETRIC CONTEXT AND ORIENTATION MAP COMBINATION FOR INDOOR CORRIDOR MODELING USING A SINGLE IMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Jahromi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since people spend most of their time indoors, their indoor activities and related issues in health, security and energy consumption have to be understood. Hence, gathering and representing spatial information of indoor spaces in form of 3D models become very important. Considering the available data gathering techniques with respect to the sensors cost and data processing time, single images proved to be one of the reliable sources. Many of the current single image based indoor space modeling methods are defining the scene as a single box primitive. This domain-specific knowledge is usually not applicable in various cases where multiple corridors are joined at one scene. Here, we addressed this issue by hypothesizing-verifying multiple box primitives which represents the indoor corridor layout. Middle-level perceptual organization is the foundation of the proposed method, which relies on finding corridor layout boundaries using both detected line segments and virtual rays created by orthogonal vanishing points. Due to the presence of objects, shadows and occlusions, a comprehensive interpretation of the edge relations is often concealed. This necessitates the utilization of virtual rays to create a physically valid layout hypothesis. Many of the former methods used Orientation Map or Geometric Context to evaluate their proposed layout hypotheses. Orientation map is a map that reveals the local belief of region orientations computed from line segments, and in a segmented image geometric context uses color, texture, edge, and vanishing point cues to estimate the likelihood of each possible label for all super-pixels. Here, the created layout hypotheses are evaluated by an objective function which considers the fusion of orientation map and geometric context with respect to the horizontal viewing angle at each image pixel. Finally, the best indoor corridor layout hypothesis which gets the highest score from the scoring function will be selected

  20. Potential economic corridors between Vietnam and Lao PDR: Roles played by Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Binh Giang

    2012-01-01

    The Third Thai-Lao Friendship over the Mekong officially opened on 11th November 2011 facilitates the cross-border trade along Asian Highway 15 and Asian Highway 131 between Northeast Thailand, Central Lao PDR and North Central Vietnam. Since the establishment of East-West Economic Corridor (EWEC) which based on the Asian Highway 16, the cross-border trade among countries in Greater Mekong Sub-region has been much facilitated. The success of EWEC encourages local governments in the region to...

  1. How do big rivers come to be different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Philip J.; Lewin, John

    2012-08-01

    Big rivers dominate the world's continental surface, yet we are still learning about how they operate and whether they are explicably different, not only from each other, but also from smaller rivers. This paper uses global satellite imagery and ground field-experience to explain and illustrate why and how big rivers are strongly differentiated. At the largest scale, trans-continent sized rivers do not possess unified valley systems created by fluvial erosion but instead involve chains of interlinked domains with contrasted fluvial functions. Alluvial settings are dependent on mainstream and tributary inputs of water and sediment, but big river channel pattern variety is determined by contrasts in sediment feed-rates and differences in the rates and routes of sediment exchange. Four modes of alluvial exchange are recognised: (i) deposition on the floodplain (e.g., levees, infilled palaeochannels and floodbasins), (ii) exchanges involving main channels (e.g., bank erosion and accretion), (iii) deposition within main channels (e.g. bedforms from metres to 10s of kilometres in size), and (iv) material input from tributaries (sediment-rich or sediment-poor). Different combinations of sedimentation activity lead to floodplain morphologies for big rivers that can be classified into four types: (i) lacustrine-dominated, (ii) mainstream-dominated, (iii) tributary or accessory-stream dominated, and (iv) confined or bedrock-dominated. Channel patterning involves a range of main-channel, branch and floodplain styles promoted by variable sediment feeds, complex bed sediment transfers, variable lateral sediment exchanges, plural channel systems and incomplete mineral sedimentation of the hydraulic corridors set by tectonics and prior-valley trenching. In some of the world's largest rivers it is accessory and tributary channels, rather than main-river branches, which determine patterns of floodplain morphology. In some big rivers, but certainly not all, ponded lacustrine

  2. Bridging the gaps: An overview of wood across time and space in diverse rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2017-02-01

    fluctuations in LW load over time intervals greater than a few years. Other knowledge gaps relate to physical and ecological effects of wood, including the magnitude of flow resistance caused by LW; patterns of wood-related sediment storage for diverse river sizes and channel geometry; quantification of channel-floodplain-LW interactions; and potential threshold effects of LW in relation to physical processes and biotic communities. Finally, knowledge gaps are related to management of large wood and river corridors, including understanding the consequences of enormous historical reductions in LW load in rivers through the forested portions of the temperate zone; and how to effectively reintroduce and manage existing LW in river corridors, which includes enhancing public understanding of the importance of LW. Addressing these knowledge gaps requires more case studies from diverse rivers, as well as more syntheses and metadata analyses.

  3. Engineering geology of the Great Bear River area, Northwest Territories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savigny, K.W. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada))

    1989-01-01

    This report represents the results of an engineering geology study of the Great Bear River valley in the Northwest Territories. For most of its length, the river has a steep gradient and is deeply incised in a narrow valley. These topographic characteristics combined with the enormous reservoir capacity of Great Bear Lake make the valley attractive for hydroelectric development. Topographic characteristics and geographic location also make it an obstacle to linear facilities following the Mackenzie Transportation Corridor, such as pipelines, railroads and roads. The valley is incised up to 50 m below the levels of Mackenzie and Great Bear plains. Quaternary sediments are exposed intermittently along the valley slopes. Rocks of Tertiary age are exposed more or less continuously along the lower reach of Great Bear River, and Mesozoic and Paleozoic rocks are exposed where the river crosses McConnell Range at St. Charles Rapids. A single Laurentide till is present and is assumed to represent the Late Wisconsin ice advance. The till generally rests on bedrock, but locally it overlies older alluvial and deltaic sediments. This advance was followed by a lacustrine phase over Mackenzie Plain. The lacustrine phase appears to have ended abruptly with progradation of a deltaic facies. Permafrost is widespread except beneath large lakes, streams and rivers. Postglacial entrenchment by Great Bear River appears to have begun on Mackenzie Plain about 10,000 years ago and approached its present level by approximately 2670 years ago. 38 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Factors of Stream Instability in Urban Centres of Southern Nigeria: Case Study of Port Harcourt City River Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amangabara, G. T.

    2006-05-01

    There are two main drainage rivers in the Port Harcourt Metropolis - The Ntamogba and the Woji creek (Abam, 2004). There are a few other drainage rivers that are equally important e.g. the Nwaja River that drains Rumukalagbor, Elekahia, New GRA Phases IV and V, Presidential Housing Estate and Sun Ray publications Area of Aba Road. These river systems drain the entire Port Harcourt City dividing the City into three major drainage zones. Since the discovery of oil in Nigeria in the 1950s, the country has been suffering the negative environmental consequences of oil development. The growth of the country's oil industry, combined with population explosion and a lack of environmental regulations, led to substantial damage to Nigeria's environment, especially in the Niger Delta region, the center of the country's oil industry. Uncontrolled population movement as well as spontaneous housing development on marginal lands such as stream corridors, has led to the degradation of all major stream channels in the Nation's oil capital - Port Harcourt City. The longitudinal profiles and cross sections of reaches of three major streams (Ntamogba, Nwaja, and Oginigba streams) were investigated. Land use maps of 1979 1999 and 2004 were used. Our result showed that 1). Almost all of the stream corridors have been built up without adequate plan 2). The natural grades have been distorted by channelisation for the purpose of flood evacuation without geomorphic consideration .3). Our research also shows that the interface of saline water and fresh water has extended upstream affecting urban infrastructure. 4) localized damming and sedimentation behind hydraulic structures were common occurrences) our overall result indicate that two episodes of channel incision on Oginigba stream had increased slope reduced sinuosity increased entrenchment and reduce width-depth ratio . Conclusively the factors of the instability of theses urban streams are manly the processes of urbanization which

  5. Geomorphology and River Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GARY BRIERLEY

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Engineering-dominated practices, visible in a "command and control" outlook on natural systems, have induced enormous damage to the environment. Biodiversity losses and declining provision of ecosystem services are testimony to the non-sustainable outcomes brought about by such practices. More environmentally friendly approaches that promote a harmonious relationship between human activities and nature are required. Moves towards an "ecosystem approach" to environmental management require coherent (integrative scientific guidance. Geomorphology, the study of the form of the earth, provides a landscape template with which to ground this process. This way of thinking respects the inherent diversity and complexity of natural systems. Examples of the transition toward such views in environmental practice are demonstrated by the use of science to guide river management, emphasising applications of the River Styles framework.

  6. Historical Maps Potential on the Assessment of the Hydromorphological Changes in Large Rivers: Towards Sustainable Rivers Management under Altered Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriqi, Alban; Rosário Fernandes, M.; Santos, Artur; Ferreira, M. Teresa

    2017-04-01

    Hydromorphological patterns changes in large rivers, result from a long history of human interventions. In this study, we evaluate the causes and effects of hydromorphological alterations in the Iberian Minho River using a planform change analysis. We performed a temporal comparison using historical maps (nineteen century) and contemporaneous maps. The studied river was divided in 2.5 km long river stretches in a total of 25 sampling units. The historical maps were initially georeferenced for the WGS84 coordinate system. We used Geographic Information System (GIS) to extract the hydromorphological features and to store and organised the spatial data. The hydromorphological features (sinuosity index, braiding intensity, river corridor and active channel width, lotic and lentic habitats) were mapped by visual interpretation of the historical and the contemporaneous maps on a scale 1:2500 by applying the same methodology. Also, we analysed certain Indicators of Hydrological Alteration (IHA) based on pre- and post-dam daily streamflow data obtained from the Spanish Water Information System (SIA). The results revealed a significant reduction in the active channel width and all sinuosity indexes representing an overall degradation of river conditions. We also noticed a drastic diminution in the number and total area of lentic habitats causing fish habitat shifts. Changes were less evident in upstream sampling units due to diverse Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) changes combine with some geological constraints. These responses were consistent with reductions in mean annual discharge, flood disturbance decrease and minimum flow increase during the summer season. This work allows to understand the evolutionary trajectory of large fluvial system over more than 100 years and to implement concrete measures for sustainable river management. Keywords: historical maps, large rivers, flow alteration, sinuosity index, lotic and lentic habitats, regulated rivers, river restoration.

  7. The age of formation of the mirabilite and sand wedges in the Hexi Corridor and their paleoclimatic interpretation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Nai'ang; ZHANG Jianming; CHENG Hongyi; GUO Jianying; ZHAO Qiang

    2003-01-01

    Sand wedges in the Hexi Corridor mainly formed in an alluvial gravel stratum of the late Pleistocene and the radiocarbon ages of the eolian sand infilling wedge prove that they were a product of the last ice age. During their period of formation, the mean annual air temperature in the Hexi Corridor was about -5.3℃, i. e. about 13℃ lower than that of the present. This estimated value iscoincident with the decrease in air temperature predicated from mirabilite (Na2SO4·10H2O) sedimentary layer in study area, and also agrees with research on theestimated amplitude of air temperature lowering in middle and high latitudes ofthe Northern Hemisphere during the last glacial period. The annual precipitation in the Western Hexi Corridor at that time was probably about 100-200 mm, i.e.about 100 mm more than at present.

  8. Structure and diversity of phyllostomid bat assemblages on riparian corridors in a human-dominated tropical landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña-Cuéllar, Erika; Benítez-Malvido, Julieta; Avila-Cabadilla, Luis Daniel; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Estrada, Alejandro

    2015-02-01

    Tropical forests around the world have been lost, mainly because of agricultural activities. Linear elements like riparian vegetation in fragmented tropical landscapes help maintain the native flora and fauna. Information about the role of riparian corridors as a reservoir of bat species, however, is scanty. We assessed the value of riparian corridors on the conservation of phyllostomid bat assemblage in an agricultural landscape of southern Mexico. For 2 years (2011-2013), mist-netting at ground level was carried out twice during the dry season (December to May) and twice during the wet season (June to November) in different habitats: (1) riparian corridors in mature forest, (2) riparian corridors in pasture, (3) continuous forest away from riparian vegetation, and (4) open pastures. Each habitat was replicated three times. To determine the influence of vegetation structure on bat assemblages, all trees (≥10 cm dbh) were sampled in all habitats. Overall, 1752 individuals belonging to 28 species of Phyllostomidae were captured with Sternodermatinae being the most rich and abundant subfamily. Riparian corridors in mature forest and pastures had the greatest species richness and shared 65% of all species. Open pastures had the lowest richness and abundance of bats with no Phyllostominae species recorded. Six of the 18 species recorded could be considered as habitat indicators. There was a positive relationship between bat species composition and tree basal area. Our findings suggest that contrary to our expectations, bats with generalist habits and naturally abundant could be useful detector taxa of habitat modification, rather than bats strongly associated with undisturbed forest. Also in human-dominated landscapes, the maintenance of habitat elements such as large trees in riparian corridors can serve as reservoirs for bat species, especially for those that are strongly associated with undisturbed forest.

  9. Landform-Sediment Associations Within `Subglacial Meltwater Corridors' Reflect Channelised Subglacial Hydraulic Conditions During Deglaciation on the Canadian Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiblen, A. M.; Ward, B. C.; Campbell, J. E.; Normandeau, P. X.

    2016-12-01

    Esker networks have traditionally been invoked to represent the channelised subglacial drainage system in shield terrains. However, eskers are only one sediment-landform association found within `subglacial meltwater corridors': tracts where till has been eroded, bedrock is exposed and glaciofluvial sediments have been deposited in a time-transgressive manner. These regularly-spaced corridors parallel deglacial ice flow directions, have up-and-down profiles, and can cross modern drainage divides. Our LiDAR- and field-based mapping in the Slave and South Rae regions of Northwest Territories, west of the Keewatin Ice Divide, reveals that the most common sediment-landform association in many of these subglacial meltwater corridors is not eskers, but mounds and ridges that are up to 30 m high and 300 m wide. These mounds and ridges typically occur in groups of 20 to 200. Eskers have been observed to drape some mounds and ridges, thus, they must form subglacially. These mounds and ridges are commonly cored with diamicton that is similar in composition and structure to regional till. They are occasionally draped with well-sorted, stratified glaciofluvial sediments. The simplest interpretation for the genesis of these landforms is that regional till was eroded during meltwater corridor formation, after which glaciofluvial deposition occurred in some areas. The hydraulic conditions required to create these mounds and ridges are different to those required for esker formation. Thus, subglacial meltwater corridors, not just the eskers that they sometimes contain, should be considered when parameters are developed for numerical models relating to subglacial drainage systems in shield terrains. Determining the genesis of landforms found within meltwater corridors will improve our understanding of hydraulic conditions in the subglacial channelised drainage system during late-stage ice-sheet retreat and decay.

  10. A synthesis of hydrochemistry with an integrated conceptual model for groundwater in the Hexi Corridor, northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liheng; Dong, Yanhui; Xu, Zhifang

    2017-09-01

    Although many studies have investigated the recharge and evolution of groundwater in the Hexi Corridor, northwestern (NW) China, they describe individual sites such as Jinchang, Jiuquan, Dunhuang, and others. Considering the similarity of these sites, a systematic review of the entire Hexi Corridor is lacking. This paper compares and summarizes previous studies in the Hexi Corridor to provide a regional perspective of the isotopic characteristics and hydrochemical composition of groundwater. In unconfined aquifers, groundwater is recharged by snow and ice melt water from the Qilian Mountains; local precipitation can be neglected. Therefore, the groundwater belongs to a unique hydrological cycle model in the Hexi Corridor, referred to as snow and ice melt water-groundwater system. The dominant anion species changes from HCO3- in front of the mountains to SO42- in the middle basin and Cl- at the basin boundary along the groundwater flow direction, and TDS increases gradually owing to evaporation. A major hydrogeochemical process is the dissolution of minerals from the aquifer in the recharge area changing to cation exchange reactions in the discharge area. Confined groundwater was recharged mainly in the late Pleistocene and middle Holocene at colder temperatures than those of modern times; thus, it is non-renewable. In addition to dissolution, the hydrochemical composition of confined groundwater is also affected by cation exchange reactions. The hydrogeochemical categories of the confined groundwater are simple and stable. In the present study, a conceptual model is established on the basis of the analyses presented, which has important implications for water resource management in the Hexi Corridor. The inter-basin water allocation program should continue in order to achieve optimal utilization of water resources, but groundwater exploitation should be limited as much as possible. Additionally, on the basis of the review and integration of previous research, the

  11. Endemic and threatened tetrapods in the restingas of the biodiversity corridors of Serra do Mar and of the central da Mata Atlântica in Eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. D Rocha

    Full Text Available Biodiversity corridors comprise a mosaic of land uses connecting fragments of natural forest across a landscape. Two such corridors have been established along the eastern coast of Brazil: the Serra do Mar and the Central da Mata Atlântica corridors, along which most of the coastal plains are restinga areas. In this study, we analyze the present status of the endemic and endangered terrestrial vertebrates of both corridors. We sampled 10 restingas in both corridors, recording species of amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Some restingas harbor a relatively large number of endemic species, and two main regions of endemism can be identified along the restingas of both corridors: the coastal restingas from northern Espírito Santo State to southern Bahia State (between Linhares, ES, and Trancoso, BA, and the coastal region between the restingas of Maricá and Jurubatiba, Rio de Janeiro State. Six species of terrestrial vertebrates considered threatened with extinction are found in the restingas of Serra do Mar and Central da Mata Atlântica biodiversity corridors (Liolaemus lutzae, Formicivora littoralis, Mimus gilvus, Schistochlamys melanopis, and Trinomys eliasi. The region located between the restinga of Maricá and that of Jurubatiba is of special relevance for the conservation of vertebrate species of the restingas of the corridors because a considerable number of threatened species of terrestrial vertebrates are found there. We strongly recommend efforts to develop checklists of threatened faunas for the States of Espírito Santo and Bahia.

  12. Earthquake scenario and probabilistic ground-shaking hazard maps for the Albuquerque-Belen-Santa Fe, New Mexico, corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, I.; Olig, S.; Dober, M.; Silva, W.; Wright, D.; Thomas, P.; Gregor, N.; Sanford, A.; Lin, K.-W.; Love, D.

    2004-01-01

    New Mexico's population is concentrated along the corridor that extends from Belen in the south to Española in the north and includes Albuquerque and Santa Fe. The Rio Grande rift, which encompasses the corridor, is a major tectonically, volcanically, and seismically active continental rift in the western U.S. Although only one large earthquake (moment magnitude (M) ≥ 6) has possibly occurred in the New Mexico portion of the rift since 1849, paleoseismic data indicate that prehistoric surface-faulting earthquakes of M 6.5 and greater have occurred on aver- age every 400 yrs on many faults throughout the Rio Grande rift.

  13. Retroperitoneal oblique corridor to the L2-S1 intervertebral discs in the lateral position: an anatomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Timothy T; Hynes, Richard A; Fung, Daniel A; Spann, Scott W; MacMillan, Michael; Kwon, Brian; Liu, John; Acosta, Frank; Drochner, Thomas E

    2014-11-01

    Access to the intervertebral discs from L2-S1 in one surgical position can be challenging. The transpsoas minimally invasive surgical (MIS) approach is preferred by many surgeons, but this approach poses potential risk to neural structures of the lumbar plexus as they course through the psoas. The lumbar plexus and iliac crest often restrict the L4-5 disc access, and the L5-S1 level has not been a viable option from a direct lateral approach. The purpose of the present study was to investigate an MIS oblique corridor to the L2-S1 intervertebral disc space in cadaveric specimens while keeping the specimens in a lateral decubitus position with minimal disruption of the psoas and lumbar plexus. Twenty fresh-frozen full-torso cadaveric specimens were dissected, and an oblique anatomical corridor to access the L2-S1 discs was examined. Measurements were taken in a static state and with mild retraction of the psoas. The access corridor was defined at L2-5 as the left lateral border of the aorta (or iliac artery) and the anterior medial border of the psoas. The L5-S1 corridor of access was defined transversely from the midsagittal line of the inferior endplate of L-5 to the medial border of the left common iliac vessel and vertically to the first vascular structure that crosses midline. The mean access corridor diameters in the static state and with mild psoas retraction, respectively, were as follows: at L2-3, 18.60 mm and 25.50 mm; at L3-4, 19.25 mm and 27.05 mm; and at L4-5, 15.00 mm and 24.45 mm. The L5-S1 corridor mean values were 14.75 mm transversely, from midline to the left common iliac vessel and 23.85 mm from the inferior endplate of L-5 cephalad to the first midline vessel. The oblique corridor allows access to the L2-S1 discs while keeping the patient in a lateral decubitus position without a break in the table. Minimal psoas retraction without significant tendon disruption allowed for a generous corridor to the disc space. The L5-S1 disc space can be

  14. Environmental management model for small dairies in the Industrial Corridor of Boyaca (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deháquiz Mejía Janneth Esperanza

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    This research addresses the general objective of environmental issues, focusing on the Environmental Management System model that can be applied to small businesses in the dairy industry in the Industrial Corridor of Boyaca, for which the Environmental Management Model based on the NTC ISO 14000 Standard was created. This is a case study of 10 small dairy companies legally established in the study area. The research results are presented initially with a description of the context and specific means of dairy production activity in the Industrial Corridor of Boyaca; a situational diagnosis was performed for the dairy chain of the department, and likewise the study configured the profile and characterization of the administration and environment of these companies in the study area, using the information collected through a survey of the businesses as the input. With the information obtained in the diagnosis, the Environmental Management Model for these organizations was designed.

  15. Simulation of bidirectional pedestrian flow in transfer station corridor based on multi forces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周雪梅; 纪翔峰; 黄凰; 杨晓光

    2014-01-01

    A good understanding of pedestrian movement in the transfer corridor is vital for the planning and design of the station, especially for efficiency and safety.A multi-force vector grid model was presented to simulate the movement of bidirectional pedestrian flow based on cellular automata and forces between pedestrians. The model improves rule-based characteristics of cellular automata, details forces between pedestrians and solves pedestrian collisions by a several-step updating method to simulate pedestrian movements. Two general scenarios in corridor were simulated. One is bidirectional pedestrian flow simulation with isolation facility, and the other is bidirectional pedestrian flow simulation without isolation facility, where there exists disturbance in the middle. Through simulation, some facts can be seen that pedestrians in the case with isolation facility have the largest speed and pedestrians in the case without isolation facility have the smallest speed; pedestrians in the case of unidirectional flow have the largest volume and pedestrians in the case of without isolation facility have the smallest volume.

  16. Ecology of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Kleber S; Pinto, Israel De S; Leite, Gustavo R; Das Virgens, Thieres M; Dos Santos, Claudiney B; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the fauna composition of anopheline mosquitoes, their ecological aspects and behavior, and influence of climatic variables on their population dynamics can help in understanding the transmission of Plasmodium parasites and thus develop more efficient strategies for the control of malaria. In the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor, southeastern Brazil, foci of introduced malaria have been reported among people returning from the Amazon region, north Brazil. Our objective was to evaluate and compare the anopheline fauna from a preserved environment and an adjacent peridomiciliary modified environment at the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor. We collected anopheline mosquitoes on a monthly basis from June 2004 to May 2006 from both these environments to understand the ecological aspects and their association with the occurrence of malaria. We captured 5,491 anopheline mosquitoes belonging to two subgenera and 11 species and studied the correlations between anopheline mosquito species and climatic variables. We considered Anopheles darlingi (Root) as the principal malaria vector and Anopheles albitarsis s. l. (Arribalzaga) as the secondary vector.

  17. Anthropogenic influences on macro-level mammal occupancy in the Appalachian Trail corridor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter L Erb

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic effects on wildlife are typically assessed at the local level, but it is often difficult to extrapolate to larger spatial extents. Macro-level occupancy studies are one way to assess impacts of multiple disturbance factors that might vary over different geographic extents. Here we assess anthropogenic effects on occupancy and distribution for several mammal species within the Appalachian Trail (AT, a forest corridor that extends across a broad section of the eastern United States. Utilizing camera traps and a large volunteer network of citizen scientists, we were able to sample 447 sites along a 1024 km section of the AT to assess the effects of available habitat, hunting, recreation, and roads on eight mammal species. Occupancy modeling revealed the importance of available forest to all species except opossums (Didelphis virginiana and coyotes (Canis latrans. Hunting on adjoining lands was the second strongest predictor of occupancy for three mammal species, negatively influencing black bears (Ursus americanus and bobcats (Lynx rufus, while positively influencing raccoons (Procyon lotor. Modeling also indicated an avoidance of high trail use areas by bears and proclivity towards high use areas by red fox (Vulpes vulpes. Roads had the lowest predictive power on species occupancy within the corridor and were only significant for deer. The occupancy models stress the importance of compounding direct and indirect anthropogenic influences operating at the regional level. Scientists and managers should consider these human impacts and their potential combined influence on wildlife persistence when assessing optimal habitat or considering management actions.

  18. Making climate change tangible for strategic adaptation planning: The Climate Corridor Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlowsky, Boris; Calanca, Pierluigi; Ali, Irshad; Ali, Jawad; Elguera Hilares, Agustin; Huggel, Christian; Khan, Inamullah; Neukom, Raphael; Nizami, Arjumand; Qazi, Muhammad Abbas; Robledo, Carmenza; Rohrer, Mario; Salzmann, Nadine; Schmidt, Kaspar

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is a global phenomenon and difficult to grasp. Although its importance is generally acknowledged, impacts of (future) climate change on human activities are in many cases not taken into account explicitly, in particular when planning development projects. This is due to technical and conceptual challenges, missing financial and human resources and competing priorities. Neglecting climate change can become problematic, if a proposed activity requires specific climatological conditions under which it becomes feasible, a simple example being crop cultivation that needs certain temperature an d precipitation ranges. Comparing such ``climate corridors'' to future climate projections provides an intuitive and low-cost yet quantitative means for assessing needs for, and viability of, adaptation activities under climate change - a "poor man's approach" to climate suitability analysis. A chief advantage of this approach is its modest demand on data. Three case studies from Pakistan, Peru and Tajikistan show that climate corridor analysis can deliver robust results and can be used to efficiently communicate risks and challenges of climate change to partners and stakeholders in the developing countries.

  19. Noise monitoring and modeling on four lanning of national highways corridor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, P Shiyamala; Rosaline, G Vimala

    2012-10-01

    Noise emitted from traffic contributes to about 55% of total noise pollution in India. This paper is an effort of a research conducted to quantify and analyze the traffic noise emissions along the Salem-Namakkal NH 7 corridor with an ultimate objective of setting up a traffic noise model based on the traffic noise conditions of Indian cities. Noise levels and other variables have been measured in 15 locations to develop a statistical regression model based on A-weighted equivalent noise level for Indian road conditions. The ambient noise levels recorded represent the higher noise levels prevailing along the NH 7 corridor. The Receptor Oriented Technique adopted proves to be helpful in characterizing the ambient noise levels along the study area. The newly developed road traffic noise model can be effectively used as a decision support tool for predicting equivalent noise levels in the cities of India. The present analysis also reveals that the magnitude of noise levels has an increasing trend due to the increased traffic flow and presents the attention needed for minimization. The mitigation measures and the future evaluations are discussed.

  20. Typology of building shading elements on Jalan Sudirman corridor in Pekanbaru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, G.; Aldy, P.

    2016-04-01

    In 2013, temperature in Pekanbaru was between 22.60°C and 34.6°C with humidity 79.14 percent. This condition has increase the concern of energy utilization to building comfort. Buildings have the biggest energy consuming due to the use of air conditioner in Pekanbaru. One effort to reduced energy is shading devices application. Application of air conditioner need huge energy, replaced natural circulation with architecture elements to reduced building thermal. This research study about system and building shading devices types that influence building thermal in Pekanbaru so that knowing characteristics and elements form. This study aims to determine and identify of systems and building elements types in Pekanbaru, which the element forms to conquer in climate condition. Qualitative method with rationalistic-paradigm has used to identify typology of building shading devices on Jalan Sudirman corridor. The research orientation on typology theory, thermal theory, and building shading device to identification of building shading device types on Jalan Sudirman corridor. Based on the survey result, there are 2 type of building shading devices on Jalan Sudirman Pekanbaru which is based on forms and quantity of shading. The types are building shading devices based on shading quantity and building shading devices based on shading forms.