WorldWideScience

Sample records for river comprehensive impact

  1. Data Compendium for the Columbia River comprehensive impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslinger, P.W.; Huesties, L.R.; Maughan, A.D.; Miley, T.B.; Walters, W.H.

    1994-04-01

    The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA). The CRCIA is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The purpose of the CRCIA is to evaluate the current human and ecological risk from the Columbia River attributable to past and present activities on the Hanford Site. Human risk will be addressed for radioactive and hazardous materials over a range of river use options. Ecological risk will be evaluated relative to the health of the current river ecosystem. The initial effort for the CRCIA is the development of a compendium of existing data on Columbia River contamination. This document provides the data compendium. It also includes a discussion of data sources, descriptions of the physical format of the data, and descriptions of the search process used to identify data

  2. Species for the screening assessment. Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, J.M.; Brandt, C.A.; Dauble, D.D.; Maughan, A.D.; O'Neil, T.K.

    1996-03-01

    Because of past nuclear production operations along the Columbia River, there is intense public and tribal interest in assessing any residual Hanford Site related contamination along the river from the Hanford Reach to the Pacific Ocean. The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment was proposed to address these concerns. The assessment of the Columbia River is being conducted in phases. The initial phase is a screening assessment of the risk, which addresses current environmental conditions for a range of potential uses. One component of the screening assessment estimates the risk from contaminants in the Columbia River to the environment. The objective of the ecological risk assessment is to determine whether contaminants from the Columbia River pose a significant threat to selected receptor species that exist in the river and riparian communities of the study area. This report (1) identifies the receptor species selected for the screening assessment of ecological risk and (2) describes the selection process. The species selection process consisted of two tiers. In Tier 1, a master species list was developed that included many plant and animal species known to occur in the aquatic and riparian systems of the Columbia River between Priest Rapids Dam and the Columbia River estuary. This master list was reduced to 368 species that occur in the study area (Priest Rapids Dam to McNary Dam). In Tier 2, the 181 Tier 1 species were qualitatively ranked based on a scoring of their potential exposure and sensitivity to contaminants using a conceptual exposure model for the study area

  3. Species for the screening assessment. Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, J.M.; Brandt, C.A.; Dauble, D.D.; Maughan, A.D.; O`Neil, T.K.

    1996-03-01

    Because of past nuclear production operations along the Columbia River, there is intense public and tribal interest in assessing any residual Hanford Site related contamination along the river from the Hanford Reach to the Pacific Ocean. The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment was proposed to address these concerns. The assessment of the Columbia River is being conducted in phases. The initial phase is a screening assessment of the risk, which addresses current environmental conditions for a range of potential uses. One component of the screening assessment estimates the risk from contaminants in the Columbia River to the environment. The objective of the ecological risk assessment is to determine whether contaminants from the Columbia River pose a significant threat to selected receptor species that exist in the river and riparian communities of the study area. This report (1) identifies the receptor species selected for the screening assessment of ecological risk and (2) describes the selection process. The species selection process consisted of two tiers. In Tier 1, a master species list was developed that included many plant and animal species known to occur in the aquatic and riparian systems of the Columbia River between Priest Rapids Dam and the Columbia River estuary. This master list was reduced to 368 species that occur in the study area (Priest Rapids Dam to McNary Dam). In Tier 2, the 181 Tier 1 species were qualitatively ranked based on a scoring of their potential exposure and sensitivity to contaminants using a conceptual exposure model for the study area.

  4. Identification of contaminants of concern Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.; Batishko, N.C.; Heise-Craff, D.A.; Jarvis, M.F.; Snyder, S.F.

    1995-01-01

    The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA) Project at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is evaluating the current human and ecological risks from contaminants in the Columbia River. The risks to be studied are those attributable to past and present activities on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is located in southcentral Washington State near the town of Richland. Human risk from exposure to radioactive and hazardous materials will be addressed for a range of river use options. Ecological risk will be evaluated relative to the health of the current river ecosystem. The overall purpose of the project is to determine if enough contamination exists in the Columbia River to warrant cleanup actions under applicable environmental regulations. This report documents an initial review, from a risk perspective, of the wealth of historical data concerning current or potential contamination in the Columbia River. Sampling data were examined for over 600 contaminants. A screening analysis was performed to identify those substances present in such quantities that they may pose a significant human or ecological risk. These substances will require a more detailed analysis to assess their impact on humans or the river ecosystem

  5. Screening assessment and requirements for a comprehensive assessment: Volume 1, Draft. Columbia River comprehensive impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    To evaluate the impact to the Columbia River from the Hanford Site-derived contaminants, the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology initiated a study referred to as the Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA). To address concerns about the scope and direction of CRCIA as well as enhance regulator, tribal, stockholder, and public involvement, the CRCIA Management Team was formed in August 1995. The Team agreed to conduct CRCIA using a phased approach. The initial phase, includes two components: 1) a screening assessment to evaluate the potential impact to the river, resulting from current levels of Hanford-derived contaminants in order to support decisions on Interim Remedial Measures, and 2) a definition of the essential work remaining to provide an acceptable comprehensive river impact assessment. The screening assessment is described in Part I of this report. The essential work remaining is Part II of this report. The objective of the screening assessment is to identify areas where the greatest potential exists for adverse effects on humans or the environment. Part I of this report discusses the scope, technical approach, and results of the screening assessment. Part II defines a new paradigm for predecisional participation by those affected by Hanford cleanup decisions.

  6. Screening assessment and requirements for a comprehensive assessment: Volume 1, Draft. Columbia River comprehensive impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    To evaluate the impact to the Columbia River from the Hanford Site-derived contaminants, the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology initiated a study referred to as the Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA). To address concerns about the scope and direction of CRCIA as well as enhance regulator, tribal, stockholder, and public involvement, the CRCIA Management Team was formed in August 1995. The Team agreed to conduct CRCIA using a phased approach. The initial phase, includes two components: 1) a screening assessment to evaluate the potential impact to the river, resulting from current levels of Hanford-derived contaminants in order to support decisions on Interim Remedial Measures, and 2) a definition of the essential work remaining to provide an acceptable comprehensive river impact assessment. The screening assessment is described in Part I of this report. The essential work remaining is Part II of this report. The objective of the screening assessment is to identify areas where the greatest potential exists for adverse effects on humans or the environment. Part I of this report discusses the scope, technical approach, and results of the screening assessment. Part II defines a new paradigm for predecisional participation by those affected by Hanford cleanup decisions

  7. 78 FR 5492 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Merced Wild and Scenic River Comprehensive Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-PWR-PWRO-11522; PX.P0131800B.00.1] Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Merced Wild and Scenic River Comprehensive Management Plan, Yosemite National Park, Madera and Mariposa Counties, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of...

  8. Data for the screening assessment. Volume 1: Text, Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, T.B.; O'Neil, T.K.; Gilbert, R.O.; Klevgard, L.A.; Walters, T.B.

    1996-06-01

    The Columbia River is a critical resource for residents of the Pacific Northwest. This resource drew the Manhattan Project's planners to the site now called Hanford to produce nuclear weapon materials. Production of those materials has left behind a legacy of chemical and radioactive contamination and materials that have, are, and will continue to pose a threat to the Columbia river for the foreseeable future. To evaluate the impact to the river from this Hanford-derived contamination, the US Department of Energy, US Environmental Protection Agency, and State of Washington Department of Ecology (the Tri-Party agencies) initiated a study referred to as the Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA). To address concerns about the scope and direction of CRCIA as well as enhance regulator, stakeholder, tribal, and public involvement, the CRCIA Management Team was formed in August 1995. A major CRCIA Team decision was to organize CRCIA into phases, with additional phases to be identified as warranted after completion of the initial phase. The initial phase is comprised of two parts: (1) a screening assessment to evaluate the current impact to the river resulting from Hanford-derived contamination and (2) identification of requirements considered necessary by the CRCIA Management Team for a comprehensive assessment of impact to the river. The purpose of the screening assessment is to support cleanup decisions. The scope of the screening assessment is to evaluate the current risk to humans and the environment resulting from Hanford-derived contaminants. The screening assessment has the primary components of: identifying contaminants to be assessed; identifying a variety of exposure scenarios to evaluate human contaminant exposure; identifying a variety of other species to evaluate ecological contaminant exposure; and assessing risks posed by exposure of humans and other species to the contaminants

  9. Data for the screening assessment. Volume 2: Appendices, Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, T.B.; O'Neil, T.K.; Gilbert, R.O.; Klevgard, L.A.; Walters, T.B.

    1996-06-01

    The Columbia River is a critical resource for residents of the Pacific Northwest. This resource drew the Manhattan Project's planners to the site now called Hanford to produce nuclear weapon materials. Production of those materials has left behind a legacy of chemical and radioactive contamination and materials that have, are, and will continue to pose a threat to the Columbia river for the foreseeable future. To evaluate the impact to the river from this Hanford-derived contamination, the US Department of Energy, US Environmental Protection Agency, and State of Washington Department of Ecology (the Tri-Party agencies) initiated a study referred to as the Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA). To address concerns about the scope and direction of CRCIA as well as enhance regulator, stakeholder, tribal, and public involvement, the CRCIA Management Team was formed in August 1995. A major CRCIA Team decision was to organize CRCIA into phases, with additional phases to be identified as warranted after completion of the initial phase. The initial phase is comprised of two parts: (1) a screening assessment to evaluate the current impact to the river resulting from Hanford-derived contamination and (2) identification of requirements considered necessary by the CRCIA Management Team for a comprehensive assessment of impact to the river. The purpose of the screening assessment is to support cleanup decisions. The scope of the screening assessment is to evaluate the current risk to humans and the environment resulting from Hanford-derived contaminants. The screening assessment has the primary components of: identifying contaminants to be assessed; identifying a variety of exposure scenarios to evaluate human contaminant exposure; identifying a variety of other species to evaluate ecological contaminant exposure; and assessing risks posed by exposure of humans and other species to the contaminants. This volume compiles the data from this study

  10. Human scenarios for the screening assessment. Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.; Harper, B.L.; Lane, N.K.; Strenge, D.L.; Spivey, R.B.

    1996-03-01

    Because of past nuclear production operations along the Columbia River, there is intense public and tribal interest in assessing any residual Hanford Site related contamination along the river from the Hanford Reach to the Pacific Ocean. The Columbia River Impact Assessment (CRCIA) was proposed to address these concerns. The assessment of the Columbia River is being conducted in phases. The initial phase is a screening assessment of risk, which addresses current environmental conditions for a range of potential uses. One component of the screening assessment estimates the risk from contaminants in the Columbia River to humans. Because humans affected by the Columbia river are involved in a wide range of activities, various scenarios have been developed on which to base the risk assessments. The scenarios illustrate the range of activities possible by members of the public coming in contact with the Columbia River so that the impact of contaminants in the river on human health can be assessed. Each scenario illustrates particular activity patterns by a specific group. Risk will be assessed at the screening level for each scenario. This report defines the scenarios and the exposure factors that will be the basis for estimating the potential range of risk to human health from Hanford-derived radioactive as well as non-radioactive contaminants associated with the Columbia River

  11. Human scenarios for the screening assessment. Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.; Harper, B.L.; Lane, N.K.; Strenge, D.L.; Spivey, R.B.

    1996-03-01

    Because of past nuclear production operations along the Columbia River, there is intense public and tribal interest in assessing any residual Hanford Site related contamination along the river from the Hanford Reach to the Pacific Ocean. The Columbia River Impact Assessment (CRCIA) was proposed to address these concerns. The assessment of the Columbia River is being conducted in phases. The initial phase is a screening assessment of risk, which addresses current environmental conditions for a range of potential uses. One component of the screening assessment estimates the risk from contaminants in the Columbia River to humans. Because humans affected by the Columbia river are involved in a wide range of activities, various scenarios have been developed on which to base the risk assessments. The scenarios illustrate the range of activities possible by members of the public coming in contact with the Columbia River so that the impact of contaminants in the river on human health can be assessed. Each scenario illustrates particular activity patterns by a specific group. Risk will be assessed at the screening level for each scenario. This report defines the scenarios and the exposure factors that will be the basis for estimating the potential range of risk to human health from Hanford-derived radioactive as well as non-radioactive contaminants associated with the Columbia River.

  12. The socioeconomic impacts of the 2004-2008 drought in the Ebro river basin (Spain): A comprehensive and critical assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Mora, N.; Garrido, A.; Gil, M.

    2012-04-01

    Water scarcity and drought are particularly relevant phenomena in Spain, a country with a Mediterranean climate and intense pressure on existing water resources. Spain's drought management policies have evolved significantly over time, and today Spain is at the forefront of drought management and mitigation planning in Europe. However, drought management policies are not informed by comprehensive or accurate estimations of the socioeconomic impacts of drought, nor by the efficiency or efficacy of drought management and mitigation measures. Previous studies attempting to estimate on the impacts of drought are based on direct economic users of water, primarily irrigated agriculture and hydropower. Existing analyses do not take into consideration the impacts on other economic sectors, such as recreational uses, which have a growing importance from a socioeconomic perspective. Additionally, the intangible or non-market impacts (on social welfare and wellbeing and on the environment) are not considered or measured, although they can be significant. This paper presents the mid-point results of the PREEMPT project (Policy relevant assessment of the socioeconomic effects of droughts and floods, ECHO - grant agreement # 070401/2010/579119/SUB/C4), an effort to provide a comprehensive assessment of the socioeconomic impacts of the 2004-2008 drought in the Ebro river basin. The study gathers existing information on direct and indirect economic impacts of drought on different sectors, completing existing gaps and comparing the results of studies that use different methodologies. It also estimates the welfare losses resulting from domestic water use restrictions and environmental degradation as a result of the drought using a value transfer approach from results derived from value choice experiments developed for other Spanish and international river basins. Results indicate that there is a clear need to improve our knowledge of the direct and indirect impacts of drought and to

  13. 78 FR 5490 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Tuolumne Wild and Scenic River Comprehensive Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... achieve NPS goals, while ensuring accessibility, public safety, resource protection, and protection and... throughout the river corridor. The scenic segment below O'Shaughnessy Dam and the Tioga Road corridor east of... interpretation and education at Tuolumne Meadows. Subalpine meadow and riparian areas would be protected from...

  14. Columbia River impact evaluation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    As a result of past practices, four areas of the Hanford Site (the 100, 200, 300, and 1100 Areas) have been included on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980. To accomplish the timely cleanup of the past-practice units, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), was signed by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), EPA, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). To support the Tri-Party Agreement, milestones were adopted. These milestones represent the actions needed to ensure acceptable progress toward Hanford Site compliance with CERCLA, RCRA, and the Washington State Hazardous Waste Management Act of 1976. This report was prepared to fulfill the requirement of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-30-02, which requires a plan to determine cumulative health and environmental impacts to the Columbia River. This plan supplements the CERCLA remedial investigations/feasibility studies (RI/FS) and RCRA facility investigations/corrective measures studies (RFI/CMSs) that will be undertaken in the 100 Area. To support the plan development process, existing information was reviewed and a preliminary impact evaluation based on this information was performed. The purpose of the preliminary impact evaluation was to assess the adequacy of existing data and proposed data collection activities. Based on the results of the evaluation, a plan is proposed to collect additional data or make changes to existing or proposed data collection activities.

  15. Anthropogenic impacts on global organic river pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wen, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Organic pollution of rivers by wastewater discharge from human activities negatively impacts people and ecosystems. Without treatment, pollution control relies on a combination of natural degradation and dilution by natural runoff to reduce downstream effects. To implement integrated water

  16. Comprehensive flood mitigation and management in the Chi River Basin, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Kunitiyawichai, K.; Schultz, B.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Suryadi, F.X.; Corzo, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Severe flooding of the flat downstream area of the Chi River Basin occurs frequently. This flooding is causing catastrophic loss of human lives, damage and economic loss. Effective flood management requires a broad and practical approach. Although flood disasters cannot completely be prevented, major part of potential loss of lives and damages can be reduced by comprehensive mitigation measures. In this paper, the effects of river normalisation, reservoir operation, green river (bypass), and ...

  17. Impacts of Captioned Movies on Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janfaza, Abusaied; Jelyani, Saghar Javidi; Soori, Afshin

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of technology, the implication of authentic multimedia-based teaching materials are using widely in language classrooms. Technology can be in service of teaching different skills such as listening, reading, speaking and writing. Among these skills listening comprehension is a skill in which the learners have problems to master.…

  18. The Impact of Texting on Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal K. M. Ali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the effects of texting on English language comprehension. The authors believe that English used in texting causes a lack of comprehension for English speakers, learners, and texters. Wei, Xian-hai and Jiang (2008:3 declare “In Netspeak, there are some newly-created vocabularies, which people cannot comprehend them either from their partial pronunciation or from their figures.” Crystal (2007:23 claims; “variation causes problems of comprehension and acceptability. If you speak or write differently from the way I do, we may fail to understand each other.”  In this paper, the authors conducted a questionnaire at Aligarh Muslim University to ninety respondents from five different Faculties and four different levels. To measure respondents’ comprehension of English texting, the authors gave the respondents abbreviations used by texters and asked them to write the full forms of the abbreviations. The authors found that many abbreviations were not understood, which suggested that most of the respondents did not understand and did not use these abbreviations.

  19. Impacts of Captioned Movies on Listening Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abusaied Janfaza

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of technology, the implication of authentic multimedia-based teaching materials are using widely in language classrooms. Technology can be in service of teaching different skills such as listening, reading, speaking and writing. Among these skills listening comprehension is a skill in which the learners have problems to master. Regarding this issue, utilizing captions for the education purposes has been a good motivation for conducting some research on the effects of captions of listening skills. However, it seems that there is a gap in the literature whether to use captioned movies in the classroom and whether they are effective in improving listening comprehension. Many studies have been conducted on this issue. However, their findings are conclusive. While some studies refer to the effectiveness of using captions, others revel that they are not so effective for improving the learner’s language skills. Hence, the present study is a review of the effects of captioned movies on the improvement of listening skill. In this case, the findings of this study can clarify the role of using captioned movies in improving the listening skill Keywords: captioned movie, technology, listening comprehension, instruction

  20. Zooplankton abundance in the River Kars, Northeast Turkey: Impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... Turkey: Impact of environmental variables. H. Özbay1* and ... in the river. Key words: River Kars, zooplankton, running water, environmental factors. ..... tergestina (Branchiopoda: Onychopoda) in Guanabara Bay, Brazil. Braz.

  1. Impact of Yangtze river water transfer on the water quality of the Lixia river watershed, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxue Ma

    Full Text Available To improve water quality and reduce the negative impacts of sudden inputs of water pollution in the Lixia River watershed, China, a series of experimental water transfers from the Yangtze River to the Lixia River were conducted from 2 December 2006 to 7 January 2007. Water samples were collected every six days at 55 monitoring sites during this period. Eight water parameters (water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO, chemical oxygen demand (COD, potassium permanganate index (CODMn, ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N, electrical conductivity (EC, and water transparency (WT were analyzed to determine changes in nutrient concentrations during water transfers. The comprehensive pollution index (Pi and single-factor (Si evaluation methods were applied to evaluate spatio-temporal patterns of water quality during water transfers. Water quality parameters displayed different spatial and temporal distribution patterns within the watershed. Water quality was improved significantly by the water transfers, especially for sites closer to water intake points. The degree of improvement is positively related to rates of transfer inflow and drainage outflow. The effects differed for different water quality parameters at each site and at different water transfer times. There were notable decreases in NH4+-N, DO, COD, and CODMn across the entire watershed. However, positive effects on EC and pH were not observed. It is concluded that freshwater transfers from the Yangtze River can be used as an emergency measure to flush pollutants from the Lixia River watershed. Improved understanding of the effects of water transfers on water quality can help the development and implementation of effective strategies to improve water quality within this watershed.

  2. Colorado River basin sensitivity to disturbance impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, K. E.; Urrego-Blanco, J. R.; Jonko, A. K.; Vano, J. A.; Newman, A. J.; Bohn, T. J.; Middleton, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Colorado River basin is an important river for the food-energy-water nexus in the United States and is projected to change under future scenarios of increased CO2emissions and warming. Streamflow estimates to consider climate impacts occurring as a result of this warming are often provided using modeling tools which rely on uncertain inputs—to fully understand impacts on streamflow sensitivity analysis can help determine how models respond under changing disturbances such as climate and vegetation. In this study, we conduct a global sensitivity analysis with a space-filling Latin Hypercube sampling of the model parameter space and statistical emulation of the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model to relate changes in runoff, evapotranspiration, snow water equivalent and soil moisture to model parameters in VIC. Additionally, we examine sensitivities of basin-wide model simulations using an approach that incorporates changes in temperature, precipitation and vegetation to consider impact responses for snow-dominated headwater catchments, low elevation arid basins, and for the upper and lower river basins. We find that for the Colorado River basin, snow-dominated regions are more sensitive to uncertainties. New parameter sensitivities identified include runoff/evapotranspiration sensitivity to albedo, while changes in snow water equivalent are sensitive to canopy fraction and Leaf Area Index (LAI). Basin-wide streamflow sensitivities to precipitation, temperature and vegetation are variable seasonally and also between sub-basins; with the largest sensitivities for smaller, snow-driven headwater systems where forests are dense. For a major headwater basin, a 1ºC of warming equaled a 30% loss of forest cover, while a 10% precipitation loss equaled a 90% forest cover decline. Scenarios utilizing multiple disturbances led to unexpected results where changes could either magnify or diminish extremes, such as low and peak flows and streamflow timing

  3. A comprehensive environmental impact assessment method for shale gas development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renjin Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The great success of US commercial shale gas exploitation stimulates the shale gas development in China, subsequently, the corresponding supporting policies were issued in the 12th Five-Year Plan. But from the experience in the US shale gas development, we know that the resulted environmental threats are always an unavoidable issue, but no uniform and standard evaluation system has yet been set up in China. The comprehensive environment refers to the combination of natural ecological environment and external macro-environment. In view of this, we conducted a series of studies on how to set up a comprehensive environmental impact assessment system as well as the related evaluation methodology and models. First, we made an in-depth investigation into shale gas development procedures and any possible environmental impacts, and then compared, screened and modified environmental impact assessment methods for shale gas development. Also, we established an evaluating system and assessment models according to different status of the above two types of environment: the correlation matrix method was employed to assess the impacts on natural ecological environment and the optimization distance method was modified to evaluate the impacts on external macro-environment. Finally, we substitute the two subindexes into the comprehensive environmental impact assessment model and achieved the final numerical result of environmental impact assessment. This model can be used to evaluate if a shale gas project has any impact on environment, compare the impacts before and after a shale gas development project, or the impacts of different projects.

  4. Draft Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement and Comprehensive Land Use Plan: Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This document analyzes the potential environmental impacts associated with establishing future land-use objectives for the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Impact analysis is performed by examining the consequences (primarily from remediation activities) of the actions determined necessary to achieve a desired future land-use objective. It should be noted that site-specific decisions regarding remediation technologies and remediation activities would not be made by this document, but rather by processes specified in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. To facilitate the establishment of future land-use objectives, the Hanford Site was divided into four geographic areas: (1) Columbia River; (2) reactors on the river; (3) central plateau; (4) all other areas. The future land-use alternatives considered in detail for each of the geographic areas are as follows: Columbia River--unrestricted and restricted; reactors on the river--unrestricted and restricted; central plateau--exclusive; all other areas--restricted. A No-Action Alternative also is included to provide a baseline against which the potential impacts of the proposed action can be assessed

  5. Draft Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement and Comprehensive Land Use Plan: Volume 1 of 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This document analyzes the potential environmental impacts associated with establishing future land-use objectives for the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Impact analysis is performed by examining the consequences (primarily from remediation activities) of the actions determined necessary to achieve a desired future land-use objective. It should be noted that site-specific decisions regarding remediation technologies and remediation activities would not be made by this document, but rather by processes specified in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. To facilitate the establishment of future land-use objectives, the Hanford Site was divided into four geographic areas: (1) Columbia River; (2) reactors on the river; (3) central plateau; (4) all other areas. The future land-use alternatives considered in detail for each of the geographic areas are as follows: Columbia River--unrestricted and restricted; reactors on the river--unrestricted and restricted; central plateau--exclusive; all other areas--restricted. A No-Action Alternative also is included to provide a baseline against which the potential impacts of the proposed action can be assessed

  6. Comprehensive cooling water study annual report. Volume II: introduction and site description, Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladden, J.B.; Lower, M.W.; Mackey, H.E.; Specht, W.L.; Wilde, E.W.

    1985-07-01

    The Comprehensive Cooling Water Study was initiated in 1983 to evaluate the environmental effecs of the intake and release of cooling water on the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems at the Savannah River Plant. This report presents the results from the first year of the two year study and also summarizes results from previous studies on aquatic ecosystems of the Savannah River Plant. Five major program elements are addressed: water quality, radionuclide and heavy metal transport, wetlands ecology, aquatic ecology, and endangered species. 63 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs

  7. Patterns of fish assemblage structure and dynamics in waters of the Savannah River Plant. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aho, J.M.; Anderson, C.S.; Floyd, K.B.; Negus, M.T.; Meador, M.R.

    1986-06-01

    Research conducted as part of the Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) has elucidated many factors that are important to fish population and community dynamics in a variety of habitats on the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Information gained from these studies is useful in predicting fish responses to SRP operations. The overall objective of the CCWS was (1) to determine the environmental effects of SRP cooling water withdrawals and discharges and (2) to determine the significance of the cooling water impacts on the environment. The purpose of this study was to: (1) examine the effects of thermal plumes on anadromous and resident fishes, including overwintering effects, in the SRP swamp and associated tributary streams; (2) assess fish spawning and locate nursery grounds on the SRP; (3) examine the level of use of the SRP by spawning fish from the Savannah River, this objective was shared with the Savannah River Laboratory, E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company; and (4) determine impacts of cooling-water discharges on fish population and community attributes. Five studies were designed to address the above topics. The specific objectives and a summary of the findings of each study are presented.

  8. Anthropogenic impacts on the water quality of Aba River, southeast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anthropogenic impacts on the water quality of Aba River, southeast Nigeria. ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... of Aba River, southeast Nigeria was studied in four stations from November 2014 to August 2015 to identify the major anthropogenic activities and their impact on the water quality.

  9. The Impact of Vocabulary Knowledge Level on EFL Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Kameli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the impact of vocabulary knowledge level on reading comprehension performance among EFL language learners. The ultimate intention was to determine the association between levels of vocabulary knowledge and to clarify the relationship among vocabulary knowledge on reading comprehension performance of EFL Iranian students on subtest of VLT and IELTS. Quantitative data were collected from 220 EFL Iranian adult students at the beginning of second semester of 2011 in private English language institute (BAHAR, Shiraz, Iran. The Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT and Reading Comprehension Test (IELTS were performed in one session as research instruments. The findings indicated that there were positive relationships among different levels of vocabulary test and also test scores on vocabulary size/breadth of vocabulary knowledge, and reading comprehension.

  10. The Impact of Human Encroachment and River Bank Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of human encroachment and river bank Agricultural activities on the habitat of the manatee (Trichechus Senegalensis) was investigated. The method of data collection involved the use of a structured questionnaire administered to farmers and fishermen. Vegetation survey in three selected sites along the river ...

  11. Assessing Human Impacts on the Greater Akaki River, Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We assessed the impacts of human activities on the Greater Akaki River using physicochemical parameters and macroinvertebrate metrics. Physicochemical samples and macroinvertebrates were collected bimonthly from eight sites established on the Greater Akaki River from February 2006 to April 2006. Eleven metrics ...

  12. Comprehensive strategy for corrective actions at the Savannah River Site General Separations Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebra, M.A.; Lewis, C.M.; Amidon, M.B.; McClain, L.K.

    1991-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), operated by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company for the United States Department of Energy, contains a number of waste disposal units that are currently in various stages of corrective action investigations, closures, and postclosure corrective actions. Many of these sites are located within a 40-square-kilometer area called the General Separations Area (GSA). The SRS has proposed to the regulatory agencies, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), that groundwater investigations and corrective actions in this area be conducted under a comprehensive plan. The proposed plan would address the continuous nature of the hydrogeologic regime below the GSA and the potential for multiple sources of contamination. This paper describes the proposed approach

  13. Assessing impact of urbanization on river water quality in the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Tingping; Zhu, Zhaoyu; Kuang, Yaoqiu

    2006-09-01

    The Pearl River Delta Economic Zone is one of the most developed regions in China. It has been undergoing a rapid urbanization since the reformation and opening of China in 1978. This process plays a significant impact on the urban environment, particularly river water quality. The main goal of this present study is to assess the impact of urban activities especially urbanization on river water quality for the study area. Some Landsat TM images from 2000 were used to map the areas for different pollution levels of urban river sections for the study area. In addition, an improved equalized synthetic pollution index method was utilized to assess the field analytical results. The results indicate that there is a positive correlation between the rapidity of urbanization and the pollution levels of urban river water. Compared to the rural river water, urban river water was polluted more seriously. During the urban development process, urbanization and urban activities had a significant negative impact on the river water quality.

  14. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix G: Land use and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. The SOR began in early 1990, prior to the filing of petitions for endangered status for several salmon species under the Endangered Species Act. The comprehensive review of Columbia River operations encompassed by the SOR was prompted by the need for Federal decisions to (1) develop a coordinated system operating strategy (SOS) for managing the multiple uses of the system into the 21st century; (2) provide interested parties with a continuing and increased long-term role in system planning (Columbia River Regional Forum); (3) renegotiate and renew the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA), a contractual arrangement among the region's major hydroelectric-generating utilities and affected Federal agencies to provide for coordinated power generation on the Columbia River system; and (4) renew or develop new Canadian Entitlement Allocation Agreements. The review provides the environmental analysis required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The environmental impact statement (EIS) itself and some of the other appendices present analyses of the alternative approaches to the other three decisions considered as part of the SOR

  15. Shutdown of the River Water System at the Savannah River Site: Draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    This environmental impact statement (EIS) evaluates alternative approaches to and environmental impacts of shutting down the River Water System at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Five production reactors were operated at the site.to support these facilities, the River Water System was constructed to provide cooling water to pass through heat exchangers to absorb heat from the reactor core in each of the five reactor areas (C, K, L, P, and R). The DOE Savannah River Strategic Plan directs the SRS to find ways to reduce operating costs and to determine what site infrastructure it must maintain and what infrastructure is surplus. The River Water System has been identified as a potential surplus facility. Three alternatives to reduce the River Water System operating costs are evaluated in this EIS. In addition to the No-Action Alternative, which consists of continuing to operate the River Water System, this EIS examines one alternative (the Preferred Alternative) to shut down and maintain the River Water System in a standby condition until DOE determines that a standby condition is no longer necessary, and one alternative to shut down and deactivate the River Water System. The document provides background information and introduces the River Water System at the SRS; sets forth the purpose and need for DOE action; describes the alternatives DOE is considering; describes the environment at the SRS and in the surrounding area potentially affected by the alternatives addressed and provides a detailed assessment of the potential environmental impacts of the alternatives; and identifies regulatory requirements and evaluates their applicability to the alternatives considered

  16. Comprehensive model-based prediction of micropollutants from diffuse sources in the Swiss river network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahm, Ivo; Munz, Nicole; Braun, Christian; Gälli, René; Leu, Christian; Stamm, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Water quality in the Swiss river network is affected by many micropollutants from a variety of diffuse sources. This study compares, for the first time, in a comprehensive manner the diffuse sources and the substance groups that contribute the most to water contamination in Swiss streams and highlights the major regions for water pollution. For this a simple but comprehensive model was developed to estimate emission from diffuse sources for the entire Swiss river network of 65 000 km. Based on emission factors the model calculates catchment specific losses to streams for more than 15 diffuse sources (such as crop lands, grassland, vineyards, fruit orchards, roads, railways, facades, roofs, green space in urban areas, landfills, etc.) and more than 130 different substances from 5 different substance groups (pesticides, biocides, heavy metals, human drugs, animal drugs). For more than 180 000 stream sections estimates of mean annual pollutant loads and mean annual concentration levels were modeled. This data was validated with a set of monitoring data and evaluated based on annual average environmental quality standards (AA-EQS). Model validation showed that the estimated mean annual concentration levels are within the range of measured data. Therefore simulations were considered as adequately robust for identifying the major sources of diffuse pollution. The analysis depicted that in Switzerland widespread pollution of streams can be expected. Along more than 18 000 km of the river network one or more simulated substances has a concentration exceeding the AA-EQS. In single stream sections it could be more than 50 different substances. Moreover, the simulations showed that in two-thirds of small streams (Strahler order 1 and 2) at least one AA-EQS is always exceeded. The highest number of substances exceeding the AA-EQS are in areas with large fractions of arable cropping, vineyards and fruit orchards. Urban areas are also of concern even without considering

  17. Human impacts on river water quality- comparative research in the catchment areas of the Tone River and the Mur River-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogure, K.

    2013-12-01

    Human activities in river basin affect river water quality as water discharges into river with pollutant after we use it. By detecting pollutants source, pathway, and influential factor of human activities, it will be possible to consider proper river basin management. In this study, material flow analysis was done first and then nutrient emission modeling by MONERIS was conducted. So as to clarify land use contribution and climate condition, comparison of Japanese and European river basin area has been made. The model MONERIS (MOdelling Nutrient Emissions in RIver Systems; Behrendt et al., 2000) was applied to estimate the nutrient emissions in the Danube river basin by point sources and various diffuse pathways. Work for the Mur River Basin in Austria was already carried out by the Institute of Water Quality, Resources and Waste Management at the Vienna University of Technology. This study treats data collection, modelling for the Tone River in Japan, and comparative analysis for these two river basins. The estimation of the nutrient emissions was carried out for 11 different sub catchment areas covering the Tone River Basin for the time period 2000 to 2006. TN emissions into the Tone river basin were 51 kt/y. 67% was via ground water and dominant for all sub catchments. Urban area was also important emission pathway. Human effect is observed in urban structure and agricultural activity. Water supply and sewer system make urban water cycle with pipeline structure. Excess evapotranspiration in arable land is also influential in water cycle. As share of arable land is 37% and there provides agricultural products, it is thought that N emission from agricultural activity is main pollution source. Assumption case of 10% N surplus was simulated and the result was 99% identical to the actual. Even though N surplus reduction does not show drastic impact on N emission, it is of importance to reduce excess of fertilization and to encourage effective agricultural activity

  18. 78 FR 73559 - Moose-Wilson Corridor Comprehensive Management Plan, Environmental Impact Statement, Grand Teton...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ...-Wilson Corridor Comprehensive Management Plan, Environmental Impact Statement, Grand Teton National Park... is preparing a Comprehensive Management Plan and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Moose...; (2) distinguish the corridor's fundamental and other important resources and values; (3) clearly...

  19. 75 FR 5803 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the New Merced Wild and Scenic River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the New Merced Wild and Scenic River Comprehensive Management Plan Yosemite National Park, Mariposa and Madera Counties, CA ACTION: Notice of second extension of public scoping period. SUMMARY...

  20. Modelling the combined impact of radionuclide discharges reaching rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, J.; Small, S.; Hornby, D.; Scarlett, P.; Harvey, M.; Simmonds, J.; Bexon, A.; Jones, A.

    2003-01-01

    The Agency currently authorises direct and indirect (via sewerage systems) discharges of liquid radioactive wastes to rivers from nuclear sites and other registered users of radioactivity. Discharges are normally authorised on a site-by-site basis, taking into account the radiological assessment. Radiological assessments are normally made using dilution models to estimate radionuclide activities in the effluents themselves and in the receiving rivers. These data are then combined with information on habits and dose factor information to give a dose assessment for individuals exposed to the discharge. For each site the highest radiological impact is expected immediately downstream of the disposal point where concentrations of radionuclides and resulting doses are highest. The concentration and doses are expected to decline with increasing distance downstream of the disposal point. However, if discharges are made into the river from other establishments higher up the catchment, the total dose may be higher. Recent Environment Agency research projects provided evidence of the potential radiological significance of multiple discharges to a single river. In the light of these studies, the Agency require a robust modelling tool to assist in the assessment of the effects of combined discharges to river systems. The aim of this R and D project was to develop and test modelling tools that could be used to make assessments of the impact of multiple radiological discharge into river systems and to trial them on the upper Thames river system

  1. Human impacts on river ice regime in the Carpathian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Katalin; Nagy, Balázs; Kern, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    examples from the Carpathian Basin represent some of the most common human impacts (engineering regulation, hydropower usage, water pollution), disturbing natural river ice regimes of mid-latitude rivers with densely populated or dynamically growing urban areas along their courses. In addition simple tests are also introduced to detect not only the climatic, but also the effect of anthropogenic impacts on river ice regime. As a result of river regulation on River Danube at Budapest a vanishing trend in river ice phenomena could be detected in the Danube records. The average ice-affected season shortened from 40 to 27 days, the average ice-covered season reduced greatly, from 27 to 7 days. In historical times the ice jams on the River Danube caused many times ice floods. The relative frequency of the break-up jam also decreased; moreover no ice flood occurred over the past 50 years. The changes due to hydropower usage are different upstream and downstream to the damming along the river. On Raba River upstream of the Nick dam at Ragyogóhíd, the ice-affected and ice-covered seasons were lengthened by 4 and 9 days, in contrast, downstream of the dam, the length of the ice-covered season was shortened by 7 days, and the number of ice-affected days decreased by 8 days at Árpás. During the observation period at Budapest on Danube River, the temperature requirements for river ice phenomena occurrence changed. Nowadays, much lower temperatures are needed to create the same ice phenomena compared to the start of the observations. For ice appearance, the mean winter air temperature requirements decreased from +2.39 °C to +1.71 °C. This investigation focused on anthropogenic effects on river ice regime, eliminating the impact of climatic conditions. Different forms of anthropogenic effects cause in most cases, a shorter length of ice-affected seasons and decreasing frequency of ice phenomena occurrence. Rising winter temperatures result the same changes in river ice regime

  2. Human impact on the microbiological water quality of the rivers

    OpenAIRE

    P?ll, Em?ke; Niculae, Mihaela; Kiss, Timea; ?andru, Carmen Dana; Sp?nu, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Microbiological contamination is an important water-quality problem worldwide. Human impact on this category of contamination is significant and several human-related activities, and also the population explosion, have affected and are still affecting dramatically the aquatic environment. Extensive industrialization and agriculture have led to increased pollution and hydromorphological changes in many river basins. The Danube river is one of the most affected by these changes where human invo...

  3. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix O: Economic and Social Impact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included.

  4. Columbia River system operation review: Final environmental impact statement. Appendix O, economic and social impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included

  5. Impact of impingement on the Hudson River white perch population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Van Winkle, W.

    1980-01-01

    The impact of power plant impingement on the 1974 and 1975 year classes of the Hudson River white perch population is assessed using a simple model derived from Ricker's theory of fisheries dynamics. The impact of impingement is expressed in the model as the conditional mortality rate, rather than as the more commonly used exploitation rate. Since the calculated impact is sensitive to errors in the estimation of population size and total mortality, ranges of probable values of these quantities are used to compute upper and lower bounds on the fractional reduction in abundance of each year class. Best estimates of abundance and mortality are used to compute the conditional impingement mortality rate separately for each plant and month. The results are used to assess the relative impacts of white perch impingement at six Hudson River power plants and to identify the seasons during which the impact is highest

  6. Impact Of Human Activities On Ecosystem In Rivers State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to assess the percent sample population size of people involved in selected human economic activities and the impact on ecosystem in Rivers State. The data for this study was obtained from a sample size of 1000 respondents who were purposively selected from the study area. Purposive sample was used ...

  7. Appropriate modelling of climate change impacts on river flooding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, Martijn J.

    2002-01-01

    Global climate change is likely to increase temperatures, change precipitation patterns and probably raise the frequency of extreme events. Impacts of climate change on river flooding may be considerable and may cause enormous economical, social and environmental damage and even loss of lives. This

  8. Thermal pollution impacts on rivers and power supply in the Mississippi River watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miara, Ariel; Vörösmarty, Charles J.; Macknick, Jordan E.; Tidwell, Vincent C.; Fekete, Balazs; Corsi, Fabio; Newmark, Robin

    2018-03-01

    Thermal pollution from power plants degrades riverine ecosystems with ramifications beyond the natural environment as it affects power supply. The transport of thermal effluents along river reaches may lead to plant-to-plant interferences by elevating condenser inlet temperatures at downstream locations, which lower thermal efficiencies and trigger regulatory-forced power curtailments. We evaluate thermal pollution impacts on rivers and power supply across 128 plants with once-through cooling technologies in the Mississippi River watershed. By leveraging river network topologies with higher resolutions (0.05°) than previous studies, we reveal the need to address the issue in a more spatially resolved manner, capable of uncovering diverse impacts across individual plants, river reaches and sub-basins. Results show that the use of coarse river network resolutions may lead to substantial overestimations in magnitude and length of impaired river reaches. Overall, there is a modest limitation on power production due to thermal pollution, given existing infrastructure, regulatory and climate conditions. However, tradeoffs between thermal pollution and electricity generation show important implications for the role of alternative cooling technologies and environmental regulation under current and future climates. Recirculating cooling technologies may nearly eliminate thermal pollution and improve power system reliability under stressed climate-water conditions. Regulatory limits also reduce thermal pollution, but at the expense of significant reductions in electricity generation capacity. However, results show several instances when power production capacity rises at individual plants when regulatory limits reduce upstream thermal pollution. These dynamics across energy-water systems highlight the need for high-resolution simulations and the value of coherent planning and optimization across infrastructure with mutual dependencies on natural resources to overcome

  9. Columbia River system operation review. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix C of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on andromous fish and juvenile fish transportation. The principal andromous fish in the Columbia basin include salmonid species (Chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead) and nonsalmoinid andromous species (sturgeon, lamprey, and shad). Major sections in this document include the following: background, scope and process; affected environment for salmon and steelhead, shaded, lamprey, sturgeon; study methods; description of alternatives: qualitative and quantitative findings

  10. Legislative impacts on Savannah River waste management operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Today everyone has to be prepared to meet the challenges presented by new legislative actions. The Savannah River Plant is also impacted by this legislation as the exclusive nature of the Atomic Energy Act slowly erodes. This paper discusses the management of three types of radioactive waste from the production of defense nuclear materials and the impacts of major environmental legislation on the handling of these wastes. The paper briefly discusses the major environmental statutes, covers the statutes impact on the technical processes and, finally, considers the nontechnical impact of the statutes

  11. Columbia River system operation review. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River and its tributaries are the primary water system in the Pacific Northwest, draining some 219,000 square miles in seven states and another 39,500 square miles in British Columbia. Beginning in the 1930's, the Columbia River has been significantly modified by construction of 30 major dams on the river and its tributaries, along with dozens of non-Federal projects. Construction and subsequent operation of these water development projects have contributed to eight primary uses of the river system, including navigation, flood control, irrigation, electric power generation, fish migration, fish and wildlife habitat, recreation, and water supply and quality considerations. Increasing stress on the water development of the Columbia River and its tributaries has led primary Federal agencies to undertake intensive analysis and evaluation of the operation of these projects. These agencies are the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation, who operate the large Federal dams on the river, and the Bonneville Power Administration who sells the power generated at the dams. This review, termed the System Operation Review (SOR), has as its ultimate goal to define a strategy for future operation of the major Columbia River projects which effectively considers the needs of all river uses. This volume, Appendix D: Cultural resources appendix, Technical imput includes the following: Development of geomorphology based framework for cultural resources management, Dworshak Reservoir, Idaho; Impact profiles for SOR reservoirs; comments from the following Native American tribes: Burns Paiute Tribe; Coville Confederated Tribes; Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Indian Reservation; Confederated Tribes and bands of the Yakama Indian Nation (comments); Nez Perce Tribe; Coeur D'Alene Tribe; Spokane Tribe of Indians; The confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation

  12. Revised draft Hanford remedial action environmental impact statement and comprehensive land-use plan: Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This report evaluates the potential environmental impacts associated with implementing a comprehensive land-use plan for the Hanford Site for at least the next 50 years. With the exception of the required No-Action Alternative, each of the six alternatives presented represents a Tribal, Federal, state, or local agency's Preferred Alternative. Each alternative is presented separately. The DOE's Preferred Alternative anticipates multiple uses of the Hanford Site, including: consolidating waste management operations in the Central Plateau, allowing industrial development in the eastern and southern portions of the site, increasing recreational access to the Columbia River, and expanding the Saddle Mountain National Wildlife Refuge to include all of the Wahluke Slope (managed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service). The Hanford Site occupies 1,517 square kilometers (km 2 ) (586 square miles [mi 2 ]) in southeastern Washington. Today, the Hanford Site has diverse missions associated with environmental restoration, waste management, and science and technology. These missions have resulted in the growing need for a comprehensive, long-term approach to planning and development for the Site

  13. Revised draft Hanford remedial action environmental impact statement and comprehensive land-use plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This report evaluates the potential environmental impacts associated with implementing a comprehensive land-use plan for the Hanford Site for at least the next 50 years. With the exception of the required No-Action Alternative, each of the six alternatives presented represents a Tribal, Federal, state, or local agency's Preferred Alternative. Each alternative is presented separately. The DOE's Preferred Alternative anticipates multiple uses of the Hanford Site, including: consolidating waste management operations in the Central Plateau, allowing industrial development in the eastern and southern portions of the site, increasing recreational access to the Columbia River, and expanding the Saddle Mountain National Wildlife Refuge to include all of the Wahluke Slope (managed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service). The Hanford Site occupies 1,517 square kilometers (km 2 ) (586 square miles [mi 2 ]) in southeastern Washington. Today, the Hanford Site has diverse missions associated with environmental restoration, waste management, and science and technology. These missions have resulted in the growing need for a comprehensive, long-term approach to planning and development for the Site

  14. Addressing climate change impacts and trans-boundary agreements on the Columbia River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaddey, S.

    2008-01-01

    Research is showing that climate change could systematically affect hydrologic variability in the Columbia River basin. Changes in winter temperatures and mountain snowpack could result in increased winter flow, earlier peak flows, and decreased spring and summer flow volumes. Model results also show that snowpack in the Canadian portion of the Columbia basin is less sensitive to warming in comparison to portions of the basin in the U.S. and in turn could 'unbalance' current coordination agreements. These hydrologic changes are likely to result in impacts to operation of Columbia River dams that will require ongoing adaptations as warming progresses. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is responsible for management of many hydropower and flood control projects on the Columbia River and its tributaries, and are thus expected to play an integral role in planning for and adapting to climate change in the Basin. USACE has worked closely with the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), resource agencies (USFWS, and NMFS) and tribal interests in dealing with Columbia River operations. Within this collaborative process there have been efforts to look at climate change impacts in operations planning; however, the efforts are just getting underway and they are not strongly coordinated among the various stakeholders. As preparations are being made for renewal of the Columbia River Treaty between Canada and the U.S. it is clear to all participants that a coordinated and comprehensive approach to consider climate impacts is required. This paper argues for and provides a framework for the implementation of a new comprehensive climate impacts program coordinated by stakeholders on the Columbia River. Such a program would address questions such as: What is the current range of predicted changes to streamflow and resulting system power generation? Under what framework would decisions be made as to where and when mitigation or adaptation

  15. Regional economic impacts of Grand Canyon river runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjerpe, Evan E; Kim, Yeon-Su

    2007-10-01

    Economic impact analysis (EIA) of outdoor recreation can provide critical social information concerning the utilization of natural resources. Outdoor recreation and other non-consumptive uses of resources are viewed as environmentally friendly alternatives to extractive-type industries. While outdoor recreation can be an appropriate use of resources, it generates both beneficial and adverse socioeconomic impacts on rural communities. The authors used EIA to assess the regional economic impacts of rafting in Grand Canyon National Park. The Grand Canyon region of northern Arizona represents a rural US economy that is highly dependent upon tourism and recreational expenditures. The purpose of this research is twofold. The first is to ascertain the previously unknown regional economic impacts of Grand Canyon river runners. The second purpose is to examine attributes of these economic impacts in terms of regional multipliers, leakage, and types of employment created. Most of the literature on economic impacts of outdoor recreation has focused strictly on the positive economic impacts, failing to illuminate the coinciding adverse and constraining economic impacts. Examining the attributes of economic impacts can highlight deficiencies and constraints that limit the economic benefits of recreation and tourism. Regional expenditure information was obtained by surveying non-commercial boaters and commercial outfitters. The authors used IMPLAN input-output modeling to assess direct, indirect, and induced effects of Grand Canyon river runners. Multipliers were calculated for output, employment, and income. Over 22,000 people rafted on the Colorado River through Grand Canyon National Park in 2001, resulting in an estimated $21,100,000 of regional expenditures to the greater Grand Canyon economy. However, over 50% of all rafting-related expenditures were not captured by the regional economy and many of the jobs created by the rafting industry are lower-wage and seasonal. Policy

  16. Human impact on the microbiological water quality of the rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páll, Emőke; Niculae, Mihaela; Kiss, Timea; Şandru, Carmen Dana; Spînu, Marina

    2013-11-01

    Microbiological contamination is an important water-quality problem worldwide. Human impact on this category of contamination is significant and several human-related activities, and also the population explosion, have affected and are still affecting dramatically the aquatic environment. Extensive industrialization and agriculture have led to increased pollution and hydromorphological changes in many river basins. The Danube river is one of the most affected by these changes where human involvement is undeniable, and subsequently, the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve became one of the most vulnerable ecosystems. This review is an attempt to analyse the microbiological contamination and to identify the major role human activities play in altering the water quality of the rivers.

  17. Impact of farm dams on river flows; A case study in the Limpopo River basin, Southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.; Querner, E.P.; Boesveld, H.

    2013-01-01

    The study analysed the impact of a farm dam on the river flow in the Limpopo River basin. Two methods are used to calculate the water inflow: one uses the runoff component from the catchment water balance; the other uses the drainage output of the SIMFLOW model. The impact on the flow in a

  18. Columbia River final environmental impact statement. Appendix B: Air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. This appendix consists of eight chapters. Chapter 1 describes the air quality issues that were raised in the SOR scoping process and provides an overview of the study process used to evaluate air quality effects from various system operation alternatives. Chapter 2 describes the Federal, state, and local programs that regulate air quality and discusses the air quality standards that are relevant to the analysis. It also gives an overview of the limatology of the region and the existing air quality in the Columbia River Basin, including areas of non-attainment for relevant air quality standards. Chapter 3 presents the methods this study uses for the analysis of air quality and for the evaluation of human health effects from air pollutants. Chapter 4 provides the study results for the System Operating Strategy (SOS) alternatives and potential mitigation measures. Chapter 5 compares impacts on air quality and human health across alternatives, and discusses mitigation measures and cumulative effects. Chapters 6, 7, and 8 contain the list of preparers, glossary, and references, respectively. Technical exhibits supporting the analysis are also included

  19. Climate change impact on river flows in Chitral watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakir, A.S.; Rehman, H.U.; Ehsan, S.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of climate change has always been very important for water resources in the world. In countries like Pakistan where different weather conditions exist, the effects of climate change can be more crucial. Generally, the climate changes are considered in terms of global warming i.e. increase in the average temperature of earth's near surface air. The global warming can have a strong impact on river flows in Pakistan. This may be due to the melting of snow and glaciers at a higher rate and changes in precipitation patterns. Glaciers in Pakistan cover about 13,680 km/sup 2/, which is 13% of the mountainous regions of the Upper Indus Basin. Glacier and Snow melt water from these glaciers contributes significantly to the river flows in Pakistan. Due to climate change, the changes in temperature and the amount of precipitation could have diversified effects on river flows of arid and semi-arid regions of Pakistan. This paper reviews the existing research studies on climate change impact on water resources of Pakistan. The past trend of river flows in Pakistan has been discussed with respect to the available data. Further, different projections about future climate changes in terms of glacier melting and changes in temperature and precipitation have also been taken into consideration in order to qualitatively assess the future trend of river flows in Pakistan. As a case study, the flows were generated for the Chitral watershed using UBC Watershed Model. Model was calibrated for the year 2002, which is an average flow year. Model results show good agreement between simulated and observed flows. UBC watershed model was applied to a climate change scenario of 1 deg. C increase in temperature and 15% decrease in glaciated area. Results of the study reveal that the flows were decreased by about 4.2 %. (author)

  20. Columbia River system operation review. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    Since the 1930's, the Columbia River has been harnessed for the benefit of the Northwest and the nation. Federal agencies have built 30 major dams on the river and its tributaries. Dozens of non-Federal projects have been developed as well. The dams provide flood control, irrigation, navigation, hydro-electric power generation, recreation, fish and wildlife, and streamflows for wildlife, anadromous fish, resident fish, and water quality. This is Appendix F of the Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System, focusing on irrigation issues and concerns arrising from the Irrigation and Mitigation of impacts (M ampersand I) working Group of the SOR process. Major subheadings include the following: Scope and process of irrigation/M ampersand I studies; Irrigation/M ampersand I in the Columbia Basin Today including overview, irrigated acreage and water rights, Irrigation and M ampersand I issues basin-wide and at specific locations; and the analysis of impacts and alternative for the Environmental Impact Statement

  1. The Impact of Comprehensive Case Management on HIV Client Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Brennan-Ing

    Full Text Available In 1990, New York State instituted Comprehensive Medicaid Case Management, also known as Target Case Management (TCM, for people dealing with multiple comorbid conditions, including HIV. The goal of TCM is to assist clients in navigating the health care system to increase care engagement and treatment adherence for individuals with complex needs. HIV-positive individuals engaged in care are more likely to be virally suppressed, improving clinical outcomes and decreasing chances of HIV transmission. The purpose of this study was to understand the impact of TCM management on outcomes for people with HIV. Data were obtained from Amida Care, which operates not-for-profit managed care Medicaid and Medicare Special Needs Plans (SNPs for HIV clients. Changes in clinical, cost, as well as medical and pharmacy utilization data among TCM clients were examined between January 2011 through September 2012 from the start of case management enrollment through the end of the study period (i.e., up to 6 months after disenrollment. Additionally, CD4 counts were compared between Amida Care TCM clients and non-TCM clients. Notable findings include increased CD4 counts for TCM clients over the one-year study period, achieving parity with non-TCM clients (i.e., Mean CD4 count > 500. When looking exclusively at TCM clients, there were increases in medication costs over time, which were concomitant with increased care engagement. Current findings demonstrate that TCM is able to achieve its goals of improving care engagement and treatment adherence. Subsequent policy changes resulting from the Affordable Care Act and the New York State Medicaid Redesign have made the Health Home the administrator of TCM services. Government entities charged with securing and managing TCM and care coordination for people with HIV should provide thoughtful and reasonable guidance and oversight in order to maintain optimal clinical outcomes for TCM clients and reduce the transmission of

  2. Savannah River Site waste management. Final environmental impact statement - addendum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this environmental impact statement is to help DOE decide how to manage over the next 30 years liquid high-level radioactive, low-level radioactive, mixed, hazardous, and transuranic wastes generated during 40 years of past operations and on-going activities (including management of wastes received from offsite) at Savannah River Site (SRS) in southwestern South Carolina. The wastes are currently stored at SRS. DOE seeks to dispose of the wastes in a cost-effective manner that protects human health and the environment. In this document, DOE assesses the cumulative environmental impacts of storing, treating, and disposing of the wastes, examines the impacts of alternatives, and identifies measures available to reduce adverse impacts. Evaluations of impacts on water quality, air quality, ecological systems, land use, geologic resources, cultural resources, socio-economics, and the health and safety of onsite workers and the public are included in the assessment

  3. Savannah River Site Waste Management Final Environmental Impact Statement Addendum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this environmental impact statement is to help DOE decide how to manage over the next 30 years liquid high-level radioactive, low-level radioactive, mixed, hazardous, and transuranic wastes generated during 40 years of past operations and on-going activities (including management of wastes received from offsite) at Savannah River Site (SRS) in southwestern South Carolina. The wastes are currently stored at SRS. DOE seeks to dispose of the wastes in a cost-effective manner that protects human health and the environment. In this document, DOE assesses the cumulative environmental impacts of storing, treating, and disposing of the wastes, examines the impacts of alternatives, and identifies measures available to reduce adverse impacts. Evaluations of impacts on water quality, air quality, ecological systems, land use, geologic resources, cultural resources, socio-economic, and the health and safety of onsite workers and the public are included in the assessment

  4. Impact of Water Scarcity on the Fenhe River Basin and Mitigation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Shao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study produced a drought map for the Fenhe River basin covering the period from 150 BC to 2012 using regional historical drought records. Based on meteorological and hydrological features, the characteristics and causes of water scarcity in the Fenhe River basin were examined, along with their impact on the national economy and ecological environment. The effects of water scarcity in the basin on the national economy were determined from agricultural, industrial, and domestic perspectives. The impact on aquatic ecosystems was ascertained through an evolution trend analysis of surface water systems, including rivers, wetlands, and slope ecosystems, and subterranean water systems, including groundwater and karst springs. As a result of these analyses, strategies are presented for coping with water scarcity in this basin, including engineering countermeasures, such as the construction of a water network in Shanxi, and the non-engineering approach of groundwater resource preservation. These comprehensive coping strategies are proposed with the aim of assisting the prevention and control of water scarcity in the arid and semi-arid areas of China.

  5. Development and implementation of a comprehensive groundwater protection program at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    The major goals of the groundwater protection program are to evaluate the impact on groundwater quality as a result of Savannah River Plant operations, to take corrective measures as required to restore or protect groundwater quality, and to ensure that future operations do not adversely affect the quality or availability of the groundwater resources at the site. The specific elements of this program include (1) continuation of an extensive groundwater monitoring program, (2) assessment of waste disposal sites for impacts on groundwater quality, (3) implementation of mitigative actions, as required, to restore or protect groundwater quality, (4) incorporation of groundwater protection concepts in the design of new production and waste management facilities, and (5) review of site utilization of groundwater resources to ensure compatibility with regional needs. The major focal points of the groundwater protection program are the assessment of waste disposal sites for impacts on groundwater quality and the implementation of remedial action projects. Many locations at SRP have been used as waste disposal sites for a variety of liquid and solid wastes. Field investigations are ongoing to determine the nature and extent of any contamination in the sediments and groundwater at these waste sites on a priority basis. Remedial action has been initiated. Certain aspects of the groundwater protection program have been identified as key to the success in achieving the desired objectives. Key elements of the program have included early identification of all the potential sources for groundwater contamination, development of an overall strategy for waste site assessment and mitigation, use of a flexible computerized system for data base management, and establishing good relationships with regulatory agencies. 10 references, 6 figures, 4 tables

  6. Assessment of human impact on water quality along Manyame River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirivashe P. Masere

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Human activities such as urbanization, agriculture, sewage treatment and industrialization are affecting water resources both quantitatively and qualitatively. The impact of these activities were studied by measuring and determining the concentration and values of eight selected water quality parameters namely nitrates, phosphates, copper, iron, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, dissolved oxygen (DO, pH and turbidity along Manyame River, in the Manyame Catchment. Thirty five sites were sampled from the source of the river which is at Seke Dam, along Manyame River and on the tributaries (Ruwa, Nyatsime, Mukuvisi and Marimba just before they join the river. The 35 sites were categorized into 5 groups (A, B, C, D and E with group A and E being the upstream and downstream of Manyame. The analysis of results was undertaken using a simple one-way ANOVA with group as the only source of variation. Turbidity values, nitrate and phosphate concentrations were found to be higher than the Zimbabwe National Water Authority (ZINWA maximum permissible standards for surface waters. DO saturation in the downstream groups was less than 75% (ZINWA standard. Agricultural and urban runoff and sewage effluent were responsible of the high nutrient levels and turbidity, which in turn, reduced the dissolved oxygen (DO.

  7. Waterfowl of the Savannah River Plant: Comprehensive cooling water study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, J.J.; Kennamer, R.A.; Hoppe, R.T.

    1986-06-01

    Thirty-one species of waterfowl have been documented on the Savannah River Plant (SPR). The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has been conducting waterfowl research on the site for the past 15 years. This research has included work on waterfowl utilization of the SRP, wood duck reproductive biology, and waterfowl wintering ecology. Results are described.

  8. Impact of the Three Gorges Dam on the Hydrology and Ecology of the Yangtze River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Construction and operation of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD has significantly altered the downstream hydrological regime along the Yangtze River, which has in turn affected the environment, biodiversity and morphological configuration, and human development. The ecological and environmental systems of the middle and lower Yangtze River have been affected adversely, with the ecosystems of Poyang Lake and its deltas being among the most damaged. Besides posing a potential threat to the survival of migrant birds and aquatic species, operation of the TGD has also affected the human population, particularly with respect to water and food security. Though the above mentioned effects have been studied in previous papers, a comprehensive discussion has never been conducted. This paper provides the first ever summary of the impacts of the TGD on the downstream reaches of the Yangtze River. The costs and benefits identified provide a constructive reference that can be used in decision-making for sustainable development of water resources in other nations, especially those in the developing world.

  9. Explore the impacts of river flow and quality on biodiversity for water resources management by AI techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fi-John; Tsai Tsai, Wen-Ping; Chang, Li-Chiu

    2016-04-01

    Water resources development is very challenging in Taiwan due to her diverse geographic environment and climatic conditions. To pursue sustainable water resources development, rationality and integrity is essential for water resources planning. River water quality and flow regimes are closely related to each other and affect river ecosystems simultaneously. This study aims to explore the complex impacts of water quality and flow regimes on fish community in order to comprehend the situations of the eco-hydrological system in the Danshui River of northern Taiwan. To make an effective and comprehensive strategy for sustainable water resources management, this study first models fish diversity through implementing a hybrid artificial neural network (ANN) based on long-term observational heterogeneity data of water quality, stream flow and fish species in the river. Then we use stream flow to estimate the loss of dissolved oxygen based on back-propagation neural networks (BPNNs). Finally, the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) is established for river flow management over the Shihmen Reservoir which is the main reservoir in this study area. In addition to satisfying the water demands of human beings and ecosystems, we also consider water quality for river flow management. The ecosystem requirement takes the form of maximizing fish diversity, which can be estimated by the hybrid ANN. The human requirement is to provide a higher satisfaction degree of water supply while the water quality requirement is to reduce the loss of dissolved oxygen in the river among flow stations. The results demonstrate that the proposed methodology can offer diversified alternative strategies for reservoir operation and improve reservoir operation strategies for producing downstream flows that could better meet both human and ecosystem needs as well as maintain river water quality. Keywords: Artificial intelligence (AI), Artificial neural networks (ANNs), Non

  10. A comprehensive environmental impact assessment method for shale gas development

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Renjin; Wang, Zhenjie

    2015-01-01

    The great success of US commercial shale gas exploitation stimulates the shale gas development in China, subsequently, the corresponding supporting policies were issued in the 12th Five-Year Plan. But from the experience in the US shale gas development, we know that the resulted environmental threats are always an unavoidable issue, but no uniform and standard evaluation system has yet been set up in China. The comprehensive environment refers to the combination of natural ecological environm...

  11. 75 FR 55599 - Little River National Wildlife Refuge, McCurtain County, OK; Revised Comprehensive Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... meetings. You may obtain the schedule from the planning team leader or project leader (see addresses). You... public about the mission of the National Wildlife Refuge System and the role of Little River NWR in...

  12. Impacts of Authentic Listening Tasks upon Listening Anxiety and Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanlioglu, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Although listening is the skill mostly used by students in the classrooms, the desired success cannot be attained in teaching listening since this skill is shaped by multiple variables. In this research we focused on listening anxiety, listening comprehension and impact of authentic tasks on both listening anxiety and listening comprehension.…

  13. The Comparative Impacts of Using Lexical Glossing and Inferencing Strategies on Students' Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliana

    2018-01-01

    The study compared the use of the lexical glossing and inferencing strategies that impact toward the students' reading comprehension. The objective of the study was to find out the effective strategy to use for enhancing the students' reading comprehension. The population of the study was 40 Informatics Systems students of Potensi Utama…

  14. Columbia River system operation review. Final environmental impact statement. Appendix J, recreation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix J of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on the recreational activities in the region. Major sections include the following: scope and processes; recreation in the Columbia River Basin today - by type, location, participation, user characteristics, factors which affect usage, and managing agencies; recreation analysis procedures and methodology; and alternatives and their impacts

  15. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix J: Recreation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix J of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on the recreational activities in the region. Major sections include the following: scope and processes; recreation in the Columbia River Basin today - by type, location, participation, user characteristics, factors which affect usage, and managing agencies; recreation analysis procedures and methodology; and alternatives and their impacts.

  16. Towards a comprehensive climate impacts assessment of solar geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Peter J.; Kravitz, Ben; Lawrence, Mark G.; Gerten, Dieter; Caminade, Cyril; Gosling, Simon N.; Hendy, Erica J.; Kassie, Belay T.; Kissling, W. Daniel; Muri, Helene; Oschlies, Andreas; Smith, Steven J.

    2017-01-01

    Despite a growing literature on the climate response to solar geoengineering—proposals to cool the planet by increasing the planetary albedo—there has been little published on the impacts of solar geoengineering on natural and human systems such as agriculture, health, water resources, and ecosystems. An understanding of the impacts of different scenarios of solar geoengineering deployment will be crucial for informing decisions on whether and how to deploy it. Here we review the current state of knowledge about impacts of a solar-geoengineered climate and identify the major research gaps. We suggest that a thorough assessment of the climate impacts of a range of scenarios of solar geoengineering deployment is needed and can be built upon existing frameworks. However, solar geoengineering poses a novel challenge for climate impacts research as the manner of deployment could be tailored to pursue different objectives making possible a wide range of climate outcomes. We present a number of ideas for approaches to extend the survey of climate impacts beyond standard scenarios of solar geoengineering deployment to address this challenge. Reducing the impacts of climate change is the fundamental motivator for emissions reductions and for considering whether and how to deploy solar geoengineering. This means that the active engagement of the climate impacts research community will be important for improving the overall understanding of the opportunities, challenges, and risks presented by solar geoengineering.

  17. Land Use Impacts on Water Quality of Rivers draining from Mulanje ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Land Use Impacts on Water Quality of Rivers draining from Mulanje Mountain: A Case of Ruo River in the Southern Malawi. ... The research recommends an integrated water resources management approach where all users and relevant stakeholders should take an active role in the conservation of Ruo River catchment in ...

  18. DAMPAK LINGKUNGAN PEMANFAATAN ALUR SUNGAI DI KALI BOYONG, KALI KUNING DAN KALI GENDOL (Environmental Impact of Utulization River Courses in Boyong River, Kuning River and Gendol River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmakusuma Darmanto

    2011-07-01

    penambangan material sedimen pasir dan batu serta pemanfaatan lembah alur sungai untuk kegiatan pertanian, kedua hal tersebut menimbulkan dampak negatif yang menghambat pengaliran air sungai dari hulu ke hilir akan tetapi juga mendapatkan dampak positif dari kedua kegiatan tersebut paling tidak untuk tambahan PAD dan untuk kesejahteraan masyarakat sekitar lokasi kegiatan.   ABSTRACT This study is a part of the Doctoral Program (S3, the location is in Boyong, Kuning and Gendol River, where periodically are used to transport the sediment material from Merapi volcano.The problems of study are: (a there will be impact of the Merapi eruption to the fuction of the river channels or courses in storage and delivery for the water in the river, (b the usage of river channels/courses from or sediment material minings, and water and land usages by the people for agriculture so that needed to developed a model to manage the river channel in an active volcano to keep the function of the channel optimal. The methodology are field surveying and laboratory analysis by measuring, observation, taking sediment samples, interviewing respondents in the surrounding area and taking field photoes from the profiling sections of the river. Data are used to analyze the result by using ecology and spatial approach. The result and evaluation conclusions are: (a by using ecological and spatial approach the physical and the biological factors are seems to be similar at Boyong River and Gendol/Opak River compared to Kuning River this was due to an interrivercourse area, and (b the usage of river channel by surroundings people and government makes negative impacts of the water storage and flow of water to downstream, but the mining activity of sand and boulders and agriculture will produce positive impacts to the government and surroundings people

  19. A comprehensive biogeochemical record and annual flux estimates for the Sabaki River (Kenya)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwick, Trent R.; Tamooh, Fredrick; Ogwoka, Bernard; Borges, Alberto V.; Darchambeau, François; Bouillon, Steven

    2018-03-01

    Inland waters impart considerable influence on nutrient cycling and budget estimates across local, regional and global scales, whilst anthropogenic pressures, such as rising populations and the appropriation of land and water resources, are undoubtedly modulating the flux of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) between terrestrial biomes to inland waters, and the subsequent flux of these nutrients to the marine and atmospheric domains. Here, we present a 2-year biogeochemical record (October 2011-December 2013) at biweekly sampling resolution for the lower Sabaki River, Kenya, and provide estimates for suspended sediment and nutrient export fluxes from the lower Sabaki River under pre-dam conditions, and in light of the approved construction of the Thwake Multipurpose Dam on its upper reaches (Athi River). Erratic seasonal variation was typical for most parameters, with generally poor correlation between discharge and material concentrations, and stable isotope values of C (δ13C) and N (δ15N). Although high total suspended matter (TSM) concentrations are reported here (up to ˜ 3.8 g L-1), peak concentrations of TSM rarely coincided with peak discharge. The contribution of particulate organic C (POC) to the TSM pool indicates a wide biannual variation in suspended sediment load from OC poor (0.3 %) to OC rich (14.9 %), with the highest %POC occurring when discharge is Wet season flows (October-December and March-May) carried > 80 % of the total load for TSM (˜ 86 %), POC (˜ 89 %), dissolved organic carbon (DOC; ˜ 81 %), PN (˜ 89 %) and particulate phosphorus (TPP; ˜ 82 %), with > 50 % of each fraction exported during the long wet season (March-May). Our estimated sediment yield (85 Mg km-2 yr-1) is relatively low on the global scale and is considerably less than the recently reported average sediment yield of ˜ 630 Mg km-2 yr-1 for African river basins. Regardless, sediment and OC yields were all at least equivalent or greater than reported yields

  20. IMPACT OF SAND DREDGING AND SILT EXTRACTION ACTIVITY ON RIVER AND ITS CHARACTERISTICS : A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Vishal S. Gholap

    2016-01-01

    The present research work highlights the influences of sand dredging and extensive silt quarrying activity on rivers. The sand dredging activity and its impact on the river processes and other river environment have discussed in the present review paper. It has seen that most of the rivers and their processes are highly degraded and altered due to these activities. In India and almost in the regions of Maharashtra, the ground water is decreasing and such activities also invited the problems ...

  1. A comprehensive biogeochemical record and annual flux estimates for the Sabaki River (Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Marwick

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Inland waters impart considerable influence on nutrient cycling and budget estimates across local, regional and global scales, whilst anthropogenic pressures, such as rising populations and the appropriation of land and water resources, are undoubtedly modulating the flux of carbon (C, nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P between terrestrial biomes to inland waters, and the subsequent flux of these nutrients to the marine and atmospheric domains. Here, we present a 2-year biogeochemical record (October 2011–December 2013 at biweekly sampling resolution for the lower Sabaki River, Kenya, and provide estimates for suspended sediment and nutrient export fluxes from the lower Sabaki River under pre-dam conditions, and in light of the approved construction of the Thwake Multipurpose Dam on its upper reaches (Athi River. Erratic seasonal variation was typical for most parameters, with generally poor correlation between discharge and material concentrations, and stable isotope values of C (δ13C and N (δ15N. Although high total suspended matter (TSM concentrations are reported here (up to ∼ 3.8 g L−1, peak concentrations of TSM rarely coincided with peak discharge. The contribution of particulate organic C (POC to the TSM pool indicates a wide biannual variation in suspended sediment load from OC poor (0.3 % to OC rich (14.9 %, with the highest %POC occurring when discharge is < 100 m3 s−1 and at lower TSM concentrations. The consistent 15N enrichment of the particulate nitrogen (PN pool compared to other river systems indicates anthropogenic N loading is a year-round driver of N export from the Sabaki Basin. The lower Sabaki River was consistently oversaturated in dissolved methane (CH4; from 499 to 135 111 % and nitrous oxide (N2O; 100 to 463 % relative to atmospheric concentrations. Wet season flows (October–December and March–May carried > 80 % of the total load for TSM (∼ 86 %, POC (∼ 89 %, dissolved

  2. Canadian Environmental Assessment Act : A comprehensive study report on the partial diversion of the Sault aux Cochons River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    This report presents the results of an environmental assessment of Hydro-Quebec's proposed project to partially divert the waters of the Sault aux Cochons River to the Pipmuacan Reservoir through the Lionnet River. It also includes the results of public consultations conducted by Hydro-Quebec and of those held by the Bureau d'audience publiques sur l'environnement. The main environmental effects were summarized, including the cumulative effects and the effects caused by accidents and malfunctions that may occur. In addition, the terms and conditions of mitigation measures and follow-up programs were described and the significance of any environmental impacts were assessed. This project will increase the inflow of the Pipmuacan Reservoir, the main reservoir of the Bersimis complex on the Betsiamites River. The diverted water will produce more electricity when it is generated in the two power stations at the Bersimis complex than it does it does currently in the three power stations of the Sault aux Cochons River. Following mitigative measures, an average annual discharge of 6.5 m 3 /s will be diverted from the Sault aux Cochons River to the Lionnet River. A minimum flow of 1 m / s is anticipated. The proposal allows for more water to be diverted to the Pipmuacan reservoir to optimize the operation of existing power generating stations. This report outlined the current use of lands and resources for traditional purposes by Aboriginals. It also discussed the effects of natural events such as flooding, waves and climate that may cause damage to the facilities. It was determined that the project is not likely to cause significant effects on the renewable resources of the forest and the fisheries. The Department of Fisheries and Oceans, after having taking into account proposed mitigation measures, has rendered a preliminary conclusion which states that the project is not likely to have significant negative environmental effects. This decision will be reconsidered after

  3. Comprehensive flood mitigation and management in the Chi River Basin, Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunitiyawichai, K.; Schultz, B.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Suryadi, F.X.; Corzo, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Severe flooding of the flat downstream area of the Chi River Basin occurs frequently. This flooding is causing catastrophic loss of human lives, damage and economic loss. Effective flood management requires a broad and practical approach. Although flood disasters cannot completely be prevented,

  4. Modern comprehensive approach to monitor the morphodynamic evolution of restored river corridors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasquale, N; Perona, P; Schneider, P.; Shrestha, J.; Wombacher, Andreas; Burlando, P

    2011-01-01

    River restoration has become a common measure to repair anthropogenically-induced alteration of fluvial ecosystems. The inherent complexity of ecohydrologic systems leads to limitations in understanding the response of such systems to restoration over time. Therefore, a significant effort has been

  5. Impact of Scotland's comprehensive, smoke-free legislation on stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F Mackay

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported a reduction in acute coronary events following smoke-free legislation. Evidence is lacking on whether stroke is also reduced. The aim was to determine whether the incidence of stroke, overall and by sub-type, fell following introduction of smoke-free legislation across Scotland on 26 March 2006.A negative binomial regression model was used to determine whether the introduction of smoke-free legislation resulted in a step and/or slope change in stroke incidence. The model was adjusted for age-group, sex, socioeconomic deprivation quintile, urban/rural residence and month. Interaction tests were also performed. Routine hospital administrative data and death certificates were used to identify all hospital admissions and pre-hospital deaths due to stroke (ICD10 codes I61, I63 and I64 in Scotland between 2000 and 2010 inclusive. Prior to the legislation, rates of all stroke, intracerebral haemorrhage and unspecified stroke were decreasing, whilst cerebral infarction was increasing at 0.97% per annum. Following the legislation, there was a dramatic fall in cerebral infarctions that persisted for around 20 months. No visible effect was observed for other types of stroke. The model confirmed an 8.90% (95% CI 4.85, 12.77, p<0.001 stepwise reduction in cerebral infarction at the time the legislation was implemented, after adjustment for potential confounders.Following introduction of national, comprehensive smoke-free legislation there was a selective reduction in cerebral infarction that was not apparent in other types of stroke.

  6. Sedimentation Impacts Modeling for the Lower Elwha River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggs, M.; Kosaka, M.; Sigel, A.; Vandermause, R.; Lauer, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    The removal of Glines Canyon and Elwha Dams from the Elwha River, northwest Washington, is intended to restore natural geomorphic and ecological processes to the Elwha River basin. Prior to the start of dam removal, over 16 million cubic meters of sediment had accumulated in the reservoirs above the two dams. As dam removal progresses, a portion of this sediment will erode and then be deposited on the downstream river bed and floodplain. To address uncertainty in downstream response to the project, the United States Bureau of Reclamation is implementing an adaptive management plan that relies upon continuous monitoring of water levels at a set of stream gages along the river. To interpret the monitoring data and allow for rapid assessment of the rate of downstream sedimentation, we developed rating curves at several locations along the lower Elwha River. The curves consider a range of possible sedimentation scenarios, each involving different sedimentation levels and/or locations. One scenario considers sedimentation primarily in the river channel, another considers sedimentation primarily on the floodplain, and a third considers both possibilities in tandem. We modeled these scenarios using two separate approaches. First, we modified the cross sections in an existing U.S. Army Corps of Engineers HEC-RAS model to represent possible changes associated with geomorphic adjustment to the dam removals. In-channel sedimentation was assumed to occur as a constant fraction of the bankfull depth at any given section, thereby focusing geomorphic change in relatively deep pool areas. In the HEC-RAS model, off-channel sedimentation was assumed uniform. The HEC-RAS model showed that both low-flow and flood hydraulics are much more sensitive to plausible levels of in-channel sedimentation than to plausible levels of overbank sedimentation. The wide floodplain, complex secondary channels, and geomorphic evolution since the original cross sections were surveyed raise some

  7. Contamination and comprehensive risk assessment of heavy metals in Liangtan River, Chongqing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Distribution and fraction of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Zn, and Mn in water and sediment in Liangtan River, Chongqing was analyzed using the atomic absorption spectrometry method. Pearson correlation coefficient, bioavailability index, geoaccumulation index and potential ecological risk index were introduced to classify the source and assess the environmental risk of the heavy metal. Pb, Cr, and Zn mainly existed in residual fraction and fraction bounded to Fe–Mn oxides while Mn mainly existed in the fraction bounded to carbonates and the residual fraction. Mn and Pb, Zn and Cr in the sediment were confirmed originating from, separate common sources. Igeo and $E_\\text{r}^{i}$ were both in the order of Pb > Zn > Cr > Mn. Geoaccumulation indexes demonstrated that the Liangtan River has been heavily polluted by Pb and Zn with the class of 2–4 and 2–3, independently. From viewpoint of the whole Liangtan River, the mean RI (45.1 belonged to low risk level.

  8. Draft Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement and Comprehensive Land Use Plan. Volume 4 of 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) is preparing this ''Hanford Site Comprehensive Land Use Plan'' (Comprehensive Plan), Appendix M to address future land uses for the Hanford Site. The DOE has integrated this land-use planning initiative with the development of the HRA-EIS to facilitate and expedite land-use and remediation decision making, reduce time and cost of remediation, and optimize the usefulness of the planning process. The HRA-EIS is being developed to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with remediation, create a remedial baseline for the Environmental Restoration Program, and provide a framework for future uses at the Hanford Site. This Comprehensive Plan identifies current assets and resources related to land-use planning, and provides the analysis and recommendations for future land sues and accompanying restrictions at the Hanford Site over a 50-year period. This Comprehensive Plan relies on the analysis of environmental impacts in the HRA-EIS. The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) Record of Decision (ROD) issued for the HRA-EIS will be the decision process for finalization and adoption of this Comprehensive Plan. The HRA-EIS and this Comprehensive Plan will provide a basis for remediation decisions to be identified and contained in site- and area-specific Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 ROD

  9. Compromised Rivers: Understanding Historical Human Impacts on Rivers in the Context of Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Wohl

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A river that preserves a simplified and attractive form may nevertheless have lost function. Loss of function in these rivers can occur because hydrologic and geomorphic processes no longer create and maintain the habitat and natural disturbance regimes necessary for ecosystem integrity. Recognition of compromised river function is particularly important in the context of river restoration, in which the public perception of a river's condition often drives the decision to undertake restoration as well as the decision about what type of restoration should be attempted. Determining the degree to which a river has been altered from its reference condition requires a knowledge of historical land use and the associated effects on rivers. Rivers of the Front Range of the Colorado Rocky Mountains in the United States are used to illustrate how historical land uses such as beaver trapping, placer mining, tie drives, flow regulation, and the construction of transportation corridors continue to affect contemporary river characteristics. Ignorance of regional land use and river history can lead to restoration that sets unrealistic goals because it is based on incorrect assumptions about a river's reference condition or about the influence of persistent land-use effects.

  10. Analysis of impingement impacts on Hudson River fish populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; van Winkle, W.

    1988-01-01

    Impacts of impingement, expressed as reductions in year-class abundance, were calculated for six Hudson River fish populations. Estimates were made for the 1974 and 1975 year classes of white perch, striped bass, Atlantic tomcod, and American shad, and the 1974 year classes of alewife and blueback herring. The maximum estimated reductions in year-class abundance were less than 5% for all year classes except the 1974 and 1975 white perch year classes and the 1974 striped bass year class. Only for white perch were the estimates greater than 10% per year. For striped bass, the 146,000 fish from the 1974 year class that were killed by impingement could have produced 12,000-16,000 5-year-old fish or 270-300 10-year-olds. Also estimated were the reductions in mortality that could have been achieved had closed-cycle cooling systems been installed at one or more of three power plants (Bowline point, Indian Point, and Roseton) and had the screen-wash systems at Bowline Point and Indian Point been modified to improve the survival of impinged fish. Closed-cycle cooling at all three plants would have reduced impingement impacts on white perch, striped bass, and Atlantic tomcod by 75% or more; installation of closed-cycle cooling at Indian Point alone would have reduced impingement impacts on white perch and Atlantic tomcod by 50%-80%. Modified traveling screens would have been less effective than closed-cycle cooling, but still would have reduced impingement impacts on white perch by roughly 20%. 23 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  11. Modern comprehensive approach to monitor the morphodynamic evolution of a restored river corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Pasquale

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available River restoration has become a common measure to repair anthropogenically-induced alteration of fluvial ecosystems. The inherent complexity of ecohydrologic systems leads to limitations in understanding the response of such systems to restoration over time. Therefore, a significant effort has been dedicated in the recent years worldwide to document the efficiency of restoration actions and to produce new effective guidelines that may help overcoming existing deficiencies. At the same time little attention was paid to illustrate the reasons and the use of certain monitoring and experimental techniques in spite of others, or in relation to the specific ecohydrologic process being investigated. The purpose of this paper is to enrich efforts in this direction by presenting the framework of experimental activities and the related experimental setup that we designed and installed in order to accomplish some of the research tasks of the multidisciplinary scientific project RECORD (Restored Corridor Dynamics. Therein, we studied the morphodynamic evolution of the restored reach of the River Thur near Niederneunforn (Switzerland, also in relation to the role of pioneer vegetation roots in stabilizing the alluvial sediment. In this work we describe the methodology chosen for monitoring the river morphodynamics, the dynamics of riparian and of in-bed vegetation and their mutual interactions, as well as the need of complementing such observations with experiments and with the hydraulic modeling of the site. We also discuss how the designed installation and the experiments integrate with the needs of other research groups within the project, in particular providing data for a number of investigations thereby including surface water and groundwater interactions, soil moisture and vegetation dynamics.

  12. Canadian Environmental Assessment Act : A comprehensive study report on the partial diversion of the Portneuf River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    This report provides the results of an environmental assessment of Hydro-Quebec's proposed project to partially divert the Portneuf River toward the Bersimis Complex in Quebec's North Shore Region. The complex includes the Pipmuacan Reservoir and the Bersimis-1 and Bersimis-2 power plants. The project will involve the construction of a dam between Itomamo and Portneuf Lakes, plus the construction of a control structure at the outflow of Portneuf Lake. Rehabilitation and construction of access roads will also be required. The diverted average annual discharge will be 9.9 m3/s after the application of mitigative measures. Currently the water is turbined in three power stations of the Portneuf River, but it will be more productive when it is turbined in only two power stations of the Bersimis Complex. The annual power generation of the Bersimis Complex would increase to an average of 262 GWH. Average annual generation of the Portneuf River power plant would decrease by about 15 GWH, with a net gain for Hydro-Quebec of 247 GWH. The partial diversion will result in the decline in water levels and in exposure of the riverbed in some locations and will incur a loss of fish habitat productive capacity. Mitigative measures are in place to take corrective action when necessary. This report outlined the current use of lands and resources for traditional purposes by Aboriginals. It also discussed the effects of natural events such as flooding, waves and climate that may cause damage to the facilities. It was determined that the project is not likely to cause significant effects on the renewable resources of the forest and the fisheries. The Department of Fisheries and Oceans, after having taking into account proposed mitigation measures, has rendered a preliminary conclusion which states that the project is not likely to have significant negative environmental effects. This decision will be reconsidered after a public consultation period. 46 refs., 2 appendices

  13. Comprehensive cooling water study annual report. Volume IV: radionuclide and heavy metal transport, Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladden, J.B.; Lower, M.W.; Mackey, H.E.; Specht, W.L.; Wilde, E.W.

    1985-07-01

    The principal sources of tritium, radiocesium, and radiocobalt in the environment at the Savannah River Plant have been reactor area effluent discharges to onsite streams. Radioactive releases began in 1955, with the period of major reactor releases occurring between 1955 and 1968. Since the early 1970s, releases, except for tritium releases, have been substantially reduced. Radioisotope liquid releases resulted specifically from leaching of reactor fuel elements with cladding failures which exposed the underlying fuel to water. The direct sources of these releases were heat exchanger cooling water, spent fuel storage and disassembly basin effluents, and process water from each of the reactor areas. Offsite radiochemical monitoring of water and sediment at upriver and downriver water treatment facilities indicates that SRP contributions of gamma-emitting radionuclide levels present at these facilities are minute. Tritium in water attributable to SRP operations is routinely detected at the downriver facilities; however, total alpha and nonvolatile beta concentrations attributable to SRP liquid releases are not detected at the downriver facilities. The historic material balance calculated for onsite releases of tritium transported to the Savannah River exhibits a high accounting of tritium released. Other radionuclides released to onsite streams have primarily remained in onsite floodplains. Radionuclide releases associated with reactor operations are derived primarily from disassembly basin water releases in the reactor areas and historically have been the major source of radioactivity released to onsite streams. The movement and interaction of these releases have been governed by cooling water discharges. Liquid releases continue to meet DOE concentration guides for the various radioisotopes in onsite streams and in the Savannah River

  14. 76 FR 63945 - White River National Wildlife Refuge, AR; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... unnatural hydrograph. Nuisance beaver control and associated habitat impacts would be eliminated, resulting... work with partners to minimize impacts of threats to natural and cultural resources. We would follow... feral hogs, nutria, and beaver; exotic and invasive terrestrial and aquatic plant species; and nuisance...

  15. Atmospheric Rivers in Europe: impacts, predictability, and future climate scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A. M.; Tome, R.; Sousa, P. M.; Liberato, M. L. R.; Lavers, D.; Trigo, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years a strong relationship has been found between Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) and extreme precipitation and floods across western Europe, with some regions having 8 of their top 10 annual maxima precipitation events related to ARs. In the particular case of the Iberian Peninsula, the association between ARs and extreme precipitation days in the western river basins is noteworthy, while for the eastern and southern basins the impact of ARs is reduced. An automated ARs detection algorithm is used for the North Atlantic Ocean Basin, allowing the identification of major ARs affecting western European coasts in the present climate and under different climate change scenarios. We have used both reanalyzes and six General Circulation models under three climate scenarios (the control simulation, the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios). The western coast of Europe was divided into five domains, namely the Iberian Peninsula, France, UK, Southern Scandinavia and the Netherlands, and Northern Scandinavia. It was found that there is an increase in the vertically integrated horizontal water transport which led to an increase in the AR frequency, a result more visible in the high emission scenarios (RCP8.5) for the 2074-2099 period. Since ARs are associated with high impact weather, it is important to study their predictability. This assessment was performed with the ECMWF ensemble forecasts up to 10 days for winters 2013/14, 2014/15 and 2015/16 for events that made landfall in the Iberian Peninsula. We show the model's potential added value to detect upcoming ARs events, which is particularly useful to predict potential hydrometeorological extremes. AcknowledgementsThis work was supported by the project FORLAND - Hydrogeomorphologic risk in Portugal: driving forces and application for land use planning [PTDC / ATPGEO / 1660/2014] funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT), Portugal. A. M. Ramos was also supported by a FCT postdoctoral grant (FCT

  16. Impacts of reforestation upon sediment load and water outflow in the Lower Yazoo River Watershed, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Ouyang; Theodor D. Leininger; Matt Moran

    2013-01-01

    Among the world’s largest coastal and river basins, the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (LMRAV)is one of the most disturbed by human activities. This study ascertained the impacts of reforestation on water outflow attenuation (i.e., water flow out of the watershed outlet) and sediment load reduction in the Lower Yazoo River Watershed (LYRW) within the LMRAV...

  17. Comprehensive report to Congress Clean Coal Technology Program. Four Rivers Energy Modernization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    One of the five projects selected for funding within the Clean Coal Technology Program is a project proposed by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (APCI) of Allentown, Pennsylvania. APCI requested financial assistance from DOE for the design, construction, and operation of a 95 megawatt-electric (MWe) gross equivalent, second generation, pressurized, circulating fluidized bed (PCFB) combustor cogeneration facility. The project, named the Four Rivers Energy Modernization Project, is co be located adjacent to an existing APCI chemicals manufacturing facility in Calvert City, Kentucky. Four Rivers Energy Partners, L.P. (FREP), will execute the project. The demonstration plant will produce approximately 70 MWe for the utility grid and an average of 310,000 pounds per hour of process steam for the chemicals manufacturing facility. The project, including the demonstration phase, will last 80 months at a total cost of $360,707,500. DOE`s share of the project cost will be 39.5 percent, or $142,460,000. The objective of the proposed project is to demonstrate a second generation PCFB system based on technology being supplied by Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation (FWEC), Westinghouse Electric Corporation (Westinghouse), and LLB Lurgi Lentjes Babcock Energietechnik GmbH (LLB). The integrated performance to be demonstrated will involve all of the process systems, including coal preparation and feed, sorbent feed, carbonizer, char transfer, PCFB combustor, carbonizer and combustor hot-gas filtration, carbonizer and combustor alkali removal, topping combustor, gas turbine-generator, heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), steam turbine-generator, and balance-of-plant systems. The project will utilize Western Kentucky and Southern Illinois bituminous coal.

  18. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix N: Wildlife.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River System is a vast and complex combination of Federal and non-Federal facilities used for many purposes including power production, irrigation, navigation, flood control, recreation, fish and wildlife habitat and municipal and industrial water supply. Each river use competes for the limited water resources in the Columbia River Basin. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The environmental impact statement (EIS) itself and some of the other appendices present analyses of the alternative approaches to the other three decisions considered as part of the SOR. This document is the product of the Wildlife Work Group, focusing on wildlife impacts but not including fishes. Topics covered include the following: scope and process; existing and affected environment, including specific discussion of 18 projects in the Columbia river basin. Analysis, evaluation, and alternatives are presented for all projects. System wide impacts to wildlife are also included.

  19. Columbia River system operation review: Final environmental impact statement. Appendix N, wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River System is a vast and complex combination of Federal and non-Federal facilities used for many purposes including power production, irrigation, navigation, flood control, recreation, fish and wildlife habitat and municipal and industrial water supply. Each river use competes for the limited water resources in the Columbia River Basin. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The environmental impact statement (EIS) itself and some of the other appendices present analyses of the alternative approaches to the other three decisions considered as part of the SOR. This document is the product of the Wildlife Work Group, focusing on wildlife impacts but not including fishes. Topics covered include the following: scope and process; existing and affected environment, including specific discussion of 18 projects in the Columbia river basin. Analysis, evaluation, and alternatives are presented for all projects. System wide impacts to wildlife are also included

  20. Impact of climate change on the streamflow hydrology of the Yangtze River in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuotuo River basin, the source region of the Yangtze River, is the key area, where the impact of climate change has been observed on many of the hydrological processes of this central region of the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we examined six global climate models (GCMs) under three Respectively ...

  1. The Hudson River Plume: Exploring Human Impact on the Coastal Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Janice; Duncan, Ravit; Lichtenwalner, C. Sage; Dunbar, Laura

    2010-01-01

    The Hudson River Watershed contains a variety of geologic, topographic, climatic, and hydrologic features and a diversity of land-use patterns--making it an ideal model for studying human impact on the coastal environment. In this article, the authors present the Hudson River Plume (HRP), a problem-based online module that explores nonpoint-source…

  2. Impact-based integrated real-time control for improvement of the Dommel River water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, J.; Benedetti, L.; Klein, de J.J.M.; Nopens, I.; Amerlinck, Y.; Nieuwenhuijzen, van A.F.; Flameling, T.; Zanten, van O.; Weijers, S.

    2013-01-01

    The KALLISTO project aims at finding cost-efficient sets of measures to meet the Water Framework Directive (WFD) derived goals for the river Dommel. Within the project, both acute and long term impacts of the urban wastewater system on the chemical and ecological quality of the river are studied

  3. Downstream Yangtze River levels impacted by Three Gorges Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jida; Sheng, Yongwei; Gleason, Colin J; Wada, Yoshihide

    2013-01-01

    Changes in the Yangtze River level induced by large-scale human water regulation have profound implications on the inundation dynamics of surrounding lakes/wetlands and the integrity of related ecosystems. Using in situ measurements and hydrological simulation, this study reveals an altered Yangtze level regime downstream from the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) to the Yangtze estuary in the East China Sea as a combined result of (i) TGD’s flow regulation and (ii) Yangtze channel erosion due to reduced sediment load. During the average annual cycle of TGD’s regular flow control in 2009–2012, downstream Yangtze level variations were estimated to have been reduced by 3.9–13.5% at 15 studied gauging stations, manifested as evident level decrease in fall and increase in winter and spring. The impacts on Yangtze levels generally diminished in a longitudinal direction from the TGD to the estuary, with a total time lag of ∼9–12 days. Chronic Yangtze channel erosion since the TGD closure has lowered water levels in relation to flows at most downstream stations, which in turn counteracts the anticipated level increase by nearly or over 50% in winter and spring while reinforcing the anticipated level decrease by over 20% in fall. Continuous downstream channel erosion in the near future may further counteract the benefit of increased Yangtze levels during TGD’s water supplement in winter and accelerate the receding of inundation areas/levels of downstream lakes in fall. (letter)

  4. Quantifying impacts of historical climate change in American River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, R.

    2017-12-01

    There is a near consensus among scientists that climate has been changing for the last few decades in different parts of the world. Some regions are already experiencing the impacts of these changes. Warmer climate can alter the hydrology and water resources around the globe. Historical data shows the temperature has been rising in California and affecting California's water resource by reducing snowfall and snowmelt runoff during spring season. In this study, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model is used to simulate the historical climate in American River basin, a mountainous watershed in California. The results show that warmer climate in the recent decades (1995-2014) have already have affected streamflow characteristics of the watershed. Compared to the 1965-1974, the mean annual streamflow has decreased more than 6% and the peak streamflow has shifted from May to April. Understanding the changes will assist the water resource managers with valuable insight on the effectiveness of mitigation strategies considered as of now.

  5. The Impact of Mobile Learning on Listening Anxiety and Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Mehrak; Soleymani, Elham

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the impact of mobile learning on EFL learners' listening anxiety and listening comprehension. Fifty students of two intermediate English courses were selected and sampled as the experimental (n = 25) and control (n = 25) groups. Students' entry level of listening anxiety was assessed by foreign language listening…

  6. The Impact of Reading for Pleasure on Georgian University EFL Students' Reading Comprehension (IBSU Case)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goctu, Ramazan

    2016-01-01

    Reading is one of the most significant skills, particularly for EFL students. Many students today do not have the reading skills needed to do effective work in their courses. This paper explores reading for pleasure, its importance and impact on reading comprehension. Pleasure reading helps students to communicate, listen and, most importantly, to…

  7. The Impact of Training Metacognitive Strategies on Reading Comprehension among ESL Learner's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibian, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the impact of training metacognitive strategies in reading comprehension and has been conducted among students from University Putra Malaysia. Forty eight subjects majoring in English including both males and females participated in the study. They have been chosen from first level of reading and divided into two…

  8. The Impact of Electronic Mind Maps on Students' Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaidat, Mohammad Mahmoud Talal

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of the electronic mind map (IMindMap) on the development of reading comprehension among the ninth grade students in Jordan. The sample of the study consisted of two ninth grade sections from two public schools in Irbid First Directorate during the academic 2016-2017. Each section consisted of (30)…

  9. A Case Study of the Impact of Guided Reading Groups in Second Grade on Comprehension Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorent Deegan, Chanin E.

    2010-01-01

    This study combined both qualitative and quantitative research to determine the impact of instructional practices on comprehension improvement in second grade Guided Reading groups. Four second grade teachers and their 73 students ages seven through eight years old participated in this study. Additionally, the study examined the effects of Guided…

  10. The Impact of the 2004 Hurricanes on Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test Scores: Implications for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggerly, Jennifer; Ferretti, Larissa K.

    2008-01-01

    What is the impact of natural disasters on students' statewide assessment scores? To answer this question, Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) scores of 55,881 students in grades 4 through 10 were analyzed to determine if there were significant decreases after the 2004 hurricanes. Results reveal that there was statistical but no practical…

  11. Polluted Alamuyo River: Impacts on surrounding wells, microbial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physicochemical analysis and microbial load of polluted Alamuyo River in Ibadan, Nigeria and selected wells along its course were evaluated. Toxic effects of water samples obtained from upstream (A) and down stream (F) of the river were also evaluated using Allium cepa root assay. The result of the analysis revealed ...

  12. Impacts of changing climate and snow cover on the flow regime of Jhelum River, Western Himalayas

    KAUST Repository

    Azmat, Muhammad; Liaqat, Umar Waqas; Qamar, Muhammad Uzair; Awan, Usman Khalid

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the change in climate variables and snow cover dynamics and their impact on the hydrological regime of the Jhelum River basin in Western Himalayas. This study utilized daily streamflow records from Mangla dam, spanning a time

  13. 78 FR 21906 - Six Rivers National Forest, California, Trinity Summit Range Assessment Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ..., wilderness characteristics, water quality, soil productivity, and quality fish and wildlife habitat... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Six Rivers National Forest, California, Trinity Summit Range Assessment Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Intent...

  14. Assessing the impacts of water abstractions on river ecosystem services: an eco-hydraulic modelling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carolli, Mauro, E-mail: mauro.carolli@unitn.it; Geneletti, Davide, E-mail: davide.geneletti@unitn.it; Zolezzi, Guido, E-mail: guido.zolezzi@unitn.it

    2017-03-15

    The provision of important river ecosystem services (ES) is dependent on the flow regime. This requires methods to assess the impacts on ES caused by interventions on rivers that affect flow regime, such as water abstractions. This study proposes a method to i) quantify the provision of a set of river ES, ii) simulate the effects of water abstraction alternatives that differ in location and abstracted flow, and iii) assess the impact of water abstraction alternatives on the selected ES. The method is based on river modelling science, and integrates spatially distributed hydrological, hydraulic and habitat models at different spatial and temporal scales. The method is applied to the hydropeaked upper Noce River (Northern Italy), which is regulated by hydropower operations. We selected locally relevant river ES: habitat suitability for the adult marble trout, white-water rafting suitability, hydroelectricity production from run-of-river (RoR) plants. Our results quantify the seasonality of river ES response variables and their intrinsic non-linearity, which explains why the same abstracted flow can produce different effects on trout habitat and rafting suitability depending on the morphology of the abstracted reach. An economic valuation of the examined river ES suggests that incomes from RoR hydropower plants are of comparable magnitude to touristic revenue losses related to the decrease in rafting suitability.

  15. Assessing the impacts of water abstractions on river ecosystem services: an eco-hydraulic modelling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carolli, Mauro; Geneletti, Davide; Zolezzi, Guido

    2017-01-01

    The provision of important river ecosystem services (ES) is dependent on the flow regime. This requires methods to assess the impacts on ES caused by interventions on rivers that affect flow regime, such as water abstractions. This study proposes a method to i) quantify the provision of a set of river ES, ii) simulate the effects of water abstraction alternatives that differ in location and abstracted flow, and iii) assess the impact of water abstraction alternatives on the selected ES. The method is based on river modelling science, and integrates spatially distributed hydrological, hydraulic and habitat models at different spatial and temporal scales. The method is applied to the hydropeaked upper Noce River (Northern Italy), which is regulated by hydropower operations. We selected locally relevant river ES: habitat suitability for the adult marble trout, white-water rafting suitability, hydroelectricity production from run-of-river (RoR) plants. Our results quantify the seasonality of river ES response variables and their intrinsic non-linearity, which explains why the same abstracted flow can produce different effects on trout habitat and rafting suitability depending on the morphology of the abstracted reach. An economic valuation of the examined river ES suggests that incomes from RoR hydropower plants are of comparable magnitude to touristic revenue losses related to the decrease in rafting suitability.

  16. 77 FR 64541 - Trinity River National Wildlife Refuge, Liberty County, TX; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ...) (40 CFR 1506.6(b)) requirements. We completed a thorough analysis of impacts on the human environment... foundation for the CCP. Background The National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act of 1966 (16 U.S.C... these, we developed and evaluated the following alternatives. C--Optimal habitat A--No-Action B...

  17. Impact of oil shale mine water discharges on phytoplankton community of Purtse catchment rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raetsep, A.; Rull, E.; Liblik, V.

    2002-01-01

    The multivariate relationship between phytoplankton abundance and different factors both natural and generated by oil shale mining in the Purtse catchment rivers (Purtse, Kohtla, and Ojamaa) in Augusts 1996-2000 was studied. Impact of oil shale mine water discharges, causing the input of sulfates and chlorides into the rivers, on phytoplankton abundance in river water was characterized by significant negative linear correlation. The amount of annual precipitation influenced positively the characteristics of phytoplankton abundance in river water. The complex of linear regression formulas was derived for characterising phytoplankton abundance in the lower course of the Purtse River using meteorological, hydrological and hydrogeological as well as geochemical data of water circulation. Closing the Sompa, Tammiku and Kohtla mines in 2000-2001 decreased essentially anthropogenic stress on ecological condition of the Purtse catchment rivers. (author)

  18. Environmental Degradation: A Review on the Potential Impact of River Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awang Ali Awang Nasrizal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available River morphology involves the lateral migration of matters deposited by flowing water in the river channel across its floodplain. This is driven by the erosion along the river banks and point bar deposition over time. This paper presents a review on river morphology studies and its potential impact to the society. The reviewed studies include mathematical models and computer simulation such as FLUVIAL-11 and RVR Meander Package that are significant to illustrate a continuous research development on channel adjustment. The findings also shows that a lot more area can still be explored to aid the fundamental of understanding river morphology and that East Malaysia will provide a good platform for the researchers to investigate the lateral migration of a river due to its diversity environment.

  19. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix A: River Operation Simulation (ROSE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The River Operation Simulation Experts (ROSE) work group is comprised of representatives of the Corps, BPA, Reclamation, NMFS, Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC), and Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC). ROSE was responsible for using computer hydroregulation models to simulate the operation of the river system for all of the alternatives evaluated in screening and full scale analysis in SOR. These models are complex computer programs which sequentially route streamflows through each dam in the system, calculating the streamflows, reservoir elevations, spill, power generation and other information at each project and pertinent locations on the river system. ROSE first reviewed specifications of proposed alternatives to determine whether such alternatives were formulated adequately to be run on hydroregulation models

  20. [Impacts of hydroelectric cascade exploitation on river ecosystem and landscape: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Deng, Xi; Li, Xue-Ling; Wen, Ping

    2011-05-01

    Hydroelectric cascade exploitation, one of the major ways for exploiting water resources and developing hydropower, not only satisfies the needs of various national economic sectors, but also promotes the socio-economic sustainable development of river basin. unavoidable anthropogenic impacts on the entire basin ecosystem. Based on the process of hydroelectric cascade exploitation and the ecological characteristics of river basins, this paper reviewed the major impacts of hydroelectric cascade exploitation on dam-area ecosystems, river reservoirs micro-climate, riparian ecosystems, river aquatic ecosystems, wetlands, and river landscapes. Some prospects for future research were offered, e.g., strengthening the research of chain reactions and cumulative effects of ecological factors affected by hydroelectric cascade exploitation, intensifying the study of positive and negative ecological effects under the dam networks and their joint operations, and improving the research of successional development and stability of basin ecosystems at different temporal and spatial scales.

  1. Impact analysis of satellite rainfall products on flow simulations in the Magdalena River Basin, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Elgamal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Magdalena River is the most important river in Colombia in terms of economic activities and is home to about 77% of the country’s population. The river faces water resources allocation challenges, which require reliable hydrological assessments. However, hydrological analysis and model simulations are hampered by insufficient and uncertain knowledge of the actual rainfall fields. In this research the reliability of groundbased measurements, different satellite products of rainfall and their combinations are tested for their impact on the discharge simulations of the Magdalena River. Two different satellite rainfall products from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM, have been compared and merged with the ground-based measurements and their impact on the Magdalena river flows quantified using the Representative Elementary Watershed (REW distributed hydrological model.

  2. Impacts of the dam-orientated water-sediment regulation scheme on the lower reaches and delta of the Yellow River (Huanghe): A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Houjie; Wu, Xiao; Bi, Naishuang; Li, Song; Yuan, Ping; Wang, Aimei; Syvitski, James P. M.; Saito, Yoshiki; Yang, Zuosheng; Liu, Sumei; Nittrouer, Jeffrey

    2017-10-01

    The water-sediment regulation scheme (WSRS), beginning in 2002, is an unprecedented engineering effort to manage the Yellow River with the aims to mitigate the siltation both in the lower river channel and within the Xiaolangdi Reservoir utilizing the dam-regulated flood water. Ten years after its initial implementation, multi-disciplinary indicators allow us to offer a comprehensive review of this human intervention on a river-coastal system. The WSRS generally achieved its objective, including bed erosion in the lower reaches with increasing capacity for flood discharge and the mitigation of reservoir siltation. However, the WSRS presented unexpected disturbances on the delta and coastal system. Increasing grain size of suspended sediment and decreasing suspended sediment concentration at the river mouth resulted in a regime shift of sediment transport patterns that enhanced the disequilibrium of the delta. The WSRS induced an impulse delivery of nutrients and pollutants within a short period ( 20 days), which together with the altered hydrological cycle, impacted the estuarine and coastal ecosystem. We expect that the sediment yield from the loess region in the future will decrease due to soil-conservation practices, and the lower channel erosion will also decrease as the riverbed armors with coarser sediment. These, in combination with uncertain water discharge concomitant with climate change, increasing water demands and delta subsidence, will put the delta and coastal ocean at high environmental risks. In the context of global change, this work depicts a scenario of human impacts in the river basin that were transferred along the hydrological pathway to the coastal system and remotely transformed the different components of coastal environment. The synthesis review of the WSRS indicates that an integrated management of the river-coast continuum is crucially important for the sustainability of the entire river-delta system. The lessons learned from the WSRS in

  3. Environmental impacts of Ghazi Barotha hydropower project on river Indus and surrounding areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soomro, G.A.; Sufi, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    WAPDA being an esteemed organization of the country is involved in development of Water and Power Sector Projects. Ghazi Barotha Hydropower Project is another huge hydropower generation project in the country after Tarbela. The barrage to feed power channel of Ghazi Barotha Power Station are built over River Indus 7 Km down of Tarbela Dam. The project has been constructed to utilize the hydraulic head for power generation that is available between the tailrace of Tarbela Dam and the confluence of Haro River. In this reach river Indus drops by 76 m in distance of 63 Km. This is solely a power generation project with an installed capacity of 1450 MW. The purpose of this paper is to assess the negative impacts on the River Indus due to the construction of GBHP as Water of river Indus will be diverted to the power channel and the river Indus flows go to its lowest in low flow season. The reduction in river flow may change the ecology of the river - belas and people dependant on river water. In this context a study was made to keep the negative environmental impacts as low as possible and suggest mitigation measures to reduce negative impacts and provide enhancement measure to compensate the losses to be sustained by the area people and maintain the social life along with the ecology of the area less disturbed. The study demonstrated that the project is technically sound, economically viable and has limited environmental and social impacts on the area overall and specific the belas and people dependant on the Indus Water from Tarbela downstream up to confluence of Kabul River. (author)

  4. assessing human impacts on the greater akaki river, ethiopia using

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    physicochemical parameters and macroinvertebrate metrics. Physicochemical ... invertebrates in river water quality studies. For example ..... Frydenborg, R., McCarron, E., White, J.S. and. Bastian, M.L. (1996). A framework for biological criteria ...

  5. Impacts of impervious cover, water withdrawals, and climate change on river flows in the conterminous US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Caldwell

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rivers are essential to aquatic ecosystem and societal sustainability, but are increasingly impacted by water withdrawals, land-use change, and climate change. The relative and cumulative effects of these stressors on continental river flows are relatively unknown. In this study, we used an integrated water balance and flow routing model to evaluate the impacts of impervious cover and water withdrawal on river flow across the conterminous US at the 8-digit Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC watershed scale. We then estimated the impacts of projected change in withdrawals, impervious cover, and climate under the B1 "Low" and A2 "High" emission scenarios on river flows by 2060. Our results suggest that compared to no impervious cover, 2010 levels of impervious cover increased river flows by 9.9% on average with larger impacts in and downstream of major metropolitan areas. In contrast, compared to no water withdrawals, 2005 withdrawals decreased river flows by 1.4% on average with larger impacts in heavily irrigated arid regions of Western US. By 2060, impacts of climate change were predicted to overwhelm the potential gain in river flow due to future changes in impervious cover and add to the potential reduction in river flows from withdrawals, decreasing mean annual river flows from 2010 levels by 16% on average. However, increases in impervious cover by 2060 may offset the impact of climate change during the growing season in some watersheds. Large water withdrawals will aggravate the predicted impact of climate change on river flows, particularly in the Western US. Predicted ecohydrological impacts of land cover, water withdrawal, and climate change will likely include alteration of the terrestrial water balance, stream channel habitat, riparian and aquatic community structure in snow-dominated basins, and fish and mussel extirpations in heavily impacted watersheds. These changes may also require new infrastructure to support increasing anthropogenic

  6. Assessing Impacts of Hydropower Regulation on Salmonid Habitat Connectivity to Guide River Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddendorf, Bas; Geris, Josie; Malcolm, Iain; Wilkinson, Mark; Soulsby, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic activity in riverine ecosystems has led to a substantial divergence from the natural state of many rivers globally. Many of Scotland's rivers have been regulated for hydropower with increasing intensity since the 1890s. At the same time they sustain substantial populations of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.), which have a range of requirements in terms of flow and access to habitat, depending on the different life-stages. River barriers for hydropower regulation can change the spatial and temporal connectivity within river networks, the impacts of which on salmon habitat are not fully understood. Insight into such changes in connectivity, and the link with the distribution and accessibility of suitable habitat and areas of high productivity, are essential to aid restoration and/or conservation efforts. This is because they indicate where such efforts might have a higher chance of being successful in terms of providing suitable habitat and increasing river productivity. In this study we applied a graph theory approach to assess historic (natural) and contemporary (regulated) in-stream habitat connectivity of the River Lyon, an important UK salmon river that is moderately regulated for hydropower. Historic maps and GIS techniques were used to construct the two contrasting river networks (i.e., natural vs. regulated). Subsequently, connectivity metrics were used to assess the impacts of hydropower infrastructure on upstream and downstream migration possibilities for adults and juveniles, respectively. A national juvenile salmon production model was used to weight the importance of reaches for juvenile salmon production. Results indicate that the impact of barriers in the Lyon on the connectivity indices depends on the type of barrier and its location within the network, but is generally low for both adults and juveniles, and that compared to the historic river network the reduction in the amount of suitable habitat and juvenile production is most marked

  7. Developing a Model to Assess the Potential Impact of TUM Hydropower Turbines on Small River Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Yao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Small hydropower is a renewable energy technology that is used for electricity generation worldwide, but still has potential for further development. However, during the installation of small hydropower, the ecological impacts of the power plants need to be thoroughly investigated. In addressing the challenges of energy production and minimizing the environmental impacts of small hydropower installation and operation, this study has applied an ecohydraulic model to investigate river hydrodynamics, hydromorphology, habitat, and the population impacts of small hydropower, and presented the Mum River as a case study. Two scenarios were implemented in this research to simulate the hydrodynamic, sedimentation, habitat, and population status in order to assess the potential effects caused by the TUM plant. At the Mum River, two scenarios were proposed: the TUM plant was not considered in scenario S1, but was considered in scenario S2. The model results for scenario S2 indicated that the habitat was suitable for fish species living in the Mum River, with fish population numbers between 4.6 × 103 and 6.6 × 103. The S2 results indicated that the impacts of the TUM plant were negligible when compared with S1. Although the impact of the TUM plant on the Mum River is relatively large when the discharge is high (19 m3/s, calculations based on stable flow shows that the TUM plant could function well on the river ecosystem when the discharge is low or at normal rates. Therefore, this study shows that the TUM plant would be a good option to meet the needs of energy generation whilst having a minimal impact on river habitats and changes in fish species population in similar small rivers and streams.

  8. Patterns of forest succession and impacts of flood in the Upper Mississippi River floodplain ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Y.; Wu, Y.; Bartell, S.M.; Cosgriff, R.

    2009-01-01

    The widespread loss of oak-hickory forests and the impacts of flood have been major issues of ecological interest concerning forest succession in the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) floodplain. The data analysis from two comprehensive field surveys indicated that Quercus was one of the dominant genera in the UMR floodplain ecosystem prior to the 1993 flood and constituted 14% of the total number of trees and 28% of the total basal area. During the post-flood recovery period through 2006, Quercus demonstrated slower recovery rates in both the number of trees (4%) and basal area (17%). In the same period, Carya recovered greatly from the 1993 flood in terms of the number of trees (11%) and basal area (2%), compared to its minor status before the flood. Further analyses suggested that different species responded to the 1993 flood with varying tolerance and different succession strategies. In this study, the relation of flood-caused mortality rates and DBH, fm(d), can be expressed in negative exponential functions for each species. The results of this research also indicate that the growth functions are different for each species and might also be different between pre- and post-flood time periods. These functions indicate different survival strategies and emergent properties in responding to flood impacts. This research enhances our understanding of forest succession patterns in space and time in the UPR floodplain. And such understanding might be used to predict long-term impacts of floods on UMR floodplain forest dynamics in support of management and restoration. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Comprehensive assessment of soil erosion risk for better land use planning in river basins: Case study of the Upper Blue Nile River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haregeweyn, Nigussie; Tsunekawa, Atsushi; Poesen, Jean; Tsubo, Mitsuru; Meshesha, Derege Tsegaye; Fenta, Ayele Almaw; Nyssen, Jan; Adgo, Enyew

    2017-01-01

    In the drought-prone Upper Blue Nile River (UBNR) basin of Ethiopia, soil erosion by water results in significant consequences that also affect downstream countries. However, there have been limited comprehensive studies of this and other basins with diverse agroecologies. We analyzed the variability of gross soil loss and sediment yield rates under present and expected future conditions using a newly devised methodological framework. The results showed that the basin generates an average soil loss rate of 27.5tha -1 yr -1 and a gross soil loss of ca. 473Mtyr -1 , of which, at least 10% comes from gully erosion and 26.7% leaves Ethiopia. In a factor analysis, variation in agroecology (average factor score=1.32) and slope (1.28) were the two factors most responsible for this high spatial variability. About 39% of the basin area is experiencing severe to very severe (>30tha -1 yr -1 ) soil erosion risk, which is strongly linked to population density. Severe or very severe soil erosion affects the largest proportion of land in three subbasins of the UBNR basin: Blue Nile 4 (53.9%), Blue Nile 3 (45.1%), and Jema Shet (42.5%). If appropriate soil and water conservation practices targeted ca. 77.3% of the area with moderate to severe erosion (>15tha -1 yr -1 ), the total soil loss from the basin could be reduced by ca. 52%. Our methodological framework identified the potential risk for soil erosion in large-scale zones, and with a more sophisticated model and input data of higher spatial and temporal resolution, results could be specified locally within these risk zones. Accurate assessment of soil erosion in the UBNR basin would support sustainable use of the basin's land resources and possibly open up prospects for cooperation in the Eastern Nile region. Copyright © 2016 Office national des forêts. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Bacterial community composition and structure in an Urban River impacted by different pollutant sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibekwe, A Mark; Ma, Jincai; Murinda, Shelton E

    2016-10-01

    Microbial communities in terrestrial fresh water are diverse and dynamic in composition due to different environmental factors. The goal of this study was to undertake a comprehensive analysis of bacterial composition along different rivers and creeks and correlate these to land-use practices and pollutant sources. Here we used 454 pyrosequencing to determine the total bacterial community composition, and bacterial communities that are potentially of fecal origin, and of relevance to water quality assessment. The results were analyzed using UniFrac coupled with principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) to compare diversity, abundance, and community composition. Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) were used to correlate bacterial composition in streams and creeks to different environmental parameters impacting bacterial communities in the sediment and surface water within the watershed. Bacteria were dominated by the phyla Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria, with Bacteroidetes significantly (PPCoA and DCA showed that bacterial composition in sediment and surface water was significantly different (Pmicrobial community compositions were influenced by several environmental factors, and pH, NO2, and NH4 were the major environmental factors driving FIB in surface water based on CCA analysis, while NO3 was the only factor in sediment. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. The impact of global warming on river runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James R.; Russell, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    A global atmospheric model is used to calculate the annual river runoff for 33 of the world's major rivers for the present climate and for a doubled CO2 climate. The model has a horizontal resolution of 4 x 5 deg, but the runoff from each model grid box is quartered and added to the appropriate river drainage basin on a 2 x 2.5 deg resolution. The computed runoff depends on the model's precipitation, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture storage. For the doubled CO2 climate, the runoff increased for 25 of the 33 rivers, and in most cases the increases coincide with increased rainfall within the drainage basins. There were runoff increases in all rivers in high northern latitudes, with a maximum increase of 47 percent. At low latitudes there were both increases and decreases ranging from a 96 increase to a 43 percent decrease. The effect of the simplified model assumptions of land-atmosphere interactions on the results is discussed.

  12. Capturing the Green River -- Multispectral airborne videography to evaluate the environmental impacts of hydropower operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snider, M.A.; Hayse, J.W.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K.E.

    1996-01-01

    The 500-mile long Green River is the largest tributary of the Colorado River. From its origin in the Wind River Range mountains of western Wyoming to its confluence with the Colorado River in southeastern Utah, the Green River is vital to the arid region through which it flows. Large portions of the area remain near-wilderness with the river providing a source of recreation in the form of fishing and rafting, irrigation for farming and ranching, and hydroelectric power. In the late 1950's and early 1960's hydroelectric facilities were built on the river. One of these, Flaming Gorge Dam, is located just south of the Utah-Wyoming border near the town of Dutch John, Utah. Hydropower operations result in hourly and daily fluctuations in the releases of water from the dam that alter the natural stream flow below the dam and affect natural resources in and along the river corridor. In the present study, the authors were interested in evaluating the potential impacts of hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam on the downstream natural resources. Considering the size of the area affected by the daily pattern of water release at the dam as well as the difficult terrain and limited accessibility of many reaches of the river, evaluating these impacts using standard field study methods was virtually impossible. Instead an approach was developed that used multispectral aerial videography to determine changes in the affected parameters at different flows, hydrologic modeling to predict flow conditions for various hydropower operating scenarios, and ecological information on the biological resources of concern to assign impacts

  13. Environmental Impact Assessment: Uri hydroelectric power project on River Jhelum in Kashmir, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, L.

    1995-09-01

    This report is an Initial Aquatic Environmental Impact Assessment of the Uri Hydroelectric Power Project on River Jhelum in Kashmir, India. It includes the Terms of Reference of the assessment, a discussion on biodiversity and threats to it, the environmental indicators used to monitor and predict the impacts, a description of the physical, chemical and biological prerequisites of the River Jhelum ecosystem, a description of the survey sites chosen, and an overview of the present fish and bottom fauna. Finally, there are sections on the potential impacts on biota of the Uri Project and a list of proposals for how mitigating and enhancing measures could be enforced

  14. Environmental characterization to assess potential impacts of thermal discharge to the Columbia River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neitzel, D.A.; Dauble, D.D.; Page, T.L.; Greager, E.M.

    1990-01-01

    Laboratory and field studies were conducted to assess the potential impact of the N-Reactor thermal plume on fish from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. Discharge water temperatures were measured over a range of river flows and reactor operating conditions. Data were mathematically modeled to define spatial and thermal characteristics of the plume. Four species of Columbia River fish were exposed to thermal conditions expected in the plume. Exposed fish were subjected to predators and disease organisms to test for secondary effects from thermal stress. Spatial and temporal distribution of anadromous fish in the river near N-Reactor were also evaluated to define location relative to the plume. Potential thermal exposures were insufficient to kill or injure fish during operation of N-Reactor. These studies demonstrate that characterization of hydrological conditions and thermal tolerance can adequately assess potential impacts of a thermal discharge to fish

  15. Surveying the anthropogenic impact of the Moldau river sediments and nearby soils using magnetic susceptibility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knab, M.; Hoffmann, V.; Petrovský, Eduard; Kapička, Aleš; Jordanova, N.; Appel, E.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 4 (2006), s. 527-535 ISSN 0943-0105 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : Moldau river sediments * magnetic susceptibility * anthropogenic impact Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.610, year: 2006

  16. Impact of calcium and TOC on biological acidification assessment in Norwegian rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Susanne C

    2011-02-15

    Acidification continues to be a major impact in freshwaters of northern Europe, and the biotic response to chemical recovery from acidification is often not a straightforward process. The focus on biological recovery is relevant within the context of the EU Water Framework Directive, where a biological monitoring system is needed that detects differences in fauna and flora compared to undisturbed reference conditions. In order to verify true reference sites for biological analyses, expected river pH is modeled based on Ca and TOC, and 94% of variability in pH at reference sites is explained by Ca alone, while 98% is explained by a combination of Ca and TOC. Based on 59 samples from 28 reference sites, compared to 547 samples from 285 non-reference sites, the impact of calcium and total organic carbon (TOC) on benthic algae species composition, expressed as acidification index periphyton (AIP), is analyzed. Rivers with a high Ca concentration have a naturally higher AIP, and TOC affects reference AIP only at low Ca concentrations. Four biological river types are needed for assessment of river acidification in Norway based on benthic algae: very calcium-poor, humic rivers (CaTOC>2 mg/l); very calcium-poor, clear rivers (CaTOC4 mg/l). A biological assessment system for river acidification in Norway based on benthic algae is presented, following the demands of the Water Framework Directive. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of beaver ponds on river discharge and sediment deposition along the Chevral River, Ardennes, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyssen, Jan; Frankl, Amaury; Pontzeele, Jolien; De Visscher, Maarten; Billi, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    With the recovery of the European beaver (Castor fiber) and their capacity to engineer fluvial landscapes, questions arise as to how they influence river discharge and sediment transport. The Chevral river (Ardennes, Belgium) contains two beaver dam sequences which appeared in 2004 and count now about 30 dams. Flow discharges and sediment fluxes were measured at the in- and outflow of each dam sequence. Volumes of sediment deposited behind the dams were measured. Between 2004 and 2011, peak flows were topped off, and the magnitude of extreme events decreased. 1710 m³ of sediment were deposited behind the beaver dams, with an average sediment thickness of 25 cm. The thickness of the sediment layer is related to the area of the beaver ponds. Along the stream, beaver pond sediment thickness displayed a sinusoidal deposition pattern, in which ponds with thick sediment layers were preceded by a series of ponds with thinner sediment layers. A downstream textural coarsening in the dam sequences was also observed, probably due to dam failures subsequent to surges. Differences in sediment flux between the in- and outflow at the beaver pond sequence were related to the river hydrograph, with deposition taking place during the rising limbs and slight erosion during the falling limbs. The seven-year-old sequences have filtered 190 tons of sediment out of the Chevral river, which is of the same order of magnitude as the 374 tons measured in pond deposits, with the difference between the values corresponding to beaver excavations (60 tons), inflow from small tributaries, and runoff from the valley flanks. Hydrogeomorphic effects of C. fiber and C. canadensis activity are similar in magnitude. The detailed analysis of changes to hydrology in beaver pond sequences confirms the potential of beavers to contribute to river and wetland restoration and catchment management.

  18. Impacts of the 2016 outburst flood on the Bhote Koshi River valley, central Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kristen; Andermann, Christoff; Gimbert, Florent; Hovius, Niels; Adhikari, Basanta

    2017-04-01

    The central Nepal Himalaya is a region of rapid erosion where fluvial processes are largely driven by the annual Indian Summer Monsoon, which delivers up to several meters of precipitation each year. However, the rivers in this region are also subject to rare catastrophic floods caused by the sudden failure of landslide or moraine dams. Because these floods happen rarely, it has been difficult to isolate their impact on the rivers and adjacent hillslopes, and their importance for the long-term evolution of Himalayan rivers is poorly constrained. On the 5th of July, 2016, the Bhote Koshi River in central Nepal was hit by a glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF). The flood passed through a seismic and hydrological observatory installed along the river in June 2015, and we have used the resulting data to constrain the timing, duration, and bedload transport properties of the outburst flood. The impact of the flood on the river can be further observed with hourly time-lapse photographs, daily measurements of suspended sediment load, repeat lidar surveys, and satellite imagery. Overall, our observatory data span two monsoon seasons, allowing us to evaluate the impacts of the outburst flood relative to the annual monsoon flood. The outburst flood affected the river on several timescales. In the short term, it transported large amounts of coarse sediment and restructured the river bed during the hours of the flood pulse itself. Over intermediate timescales it resulted in elevated bedload and suspended load transport for several weeks following the flood. Over longer timescales the flood undercut and destabilized the river banks and hillslopes in a number of locations, leading to bank collapses, slumps, and landslides. We map changes in the channel and associated mass wasting using rapidEye imagery from Oct. 2015 and Oct. 2016. We also use repeat terrestrial lidar scans to quantify the magnitude of change in multiple locations along the river channel and to measure bank

  19. Downstream Yangtze River Levels Impacted by Three Gorges Dam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Sheng, Y.; Gleason, C.J.; Wada, Y.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341387819

    2013-01-01

    Changes in the Yangtze River level induced by large-scale human water regulation have profound implications on the inundation dynamics of surrounding lakes/wetlands and the integrity of related ecosystems. Using in situ measurements and hydrological simulation, this study reveals an altered Yangtze

  20. Environmental impact from inlet of radiocesium in the river Po

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominici, G.; Risposi, L.

    1991-01-01

    In this report are reported the environmental parameters from which effective dose equivalent and collective effective dose equivalent, due to a letting of 370 GBq of radiocesium, spread uniformly over a period of a year, into the waters of river Po, are computed

  1. Polluted Alamuyo River: Impacts on surrounding wells, microbial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... (A) and down stream (F) of the river were also evaluated using ... pathogens isolated from the wastewater can survive in ... and control were fixed in ethanol- glacial acetic acid (3:1, v/v). The ..... aquatic toixity and characterization of chemical and micro- ... wastewater in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors.

  2. Radiological impact of 2016 operations at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minter, K. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, G. T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Dixon, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-01

    This report presents the environmental dose assessment methods and the estimated potential doses to the offsite public from 2016 Savannah River Site (SRS) air and liquid radioactive releases. Also documented are potential doses from special-case exposure scenarios, such as the consumption of wildlife or goat milk.

  3. The impact of reading expressiveness on the listening comprehension of storybooks by prekindergarten children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, William A; Schwanenflugel, Paula J

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of oral reading expressiveness on the comprehension of storybooks by 4- and 5-year-old prekindergarten children. The possible impact of prosody on listening comprehension was explored. Ninety-two prekindergarten children (M age = 57.26 months, SD = 3.89 months) listened to an expressive or inexpressive recording of 1 of 2 similar stories. Story comprehension was tested using assessments of both free recall and cued recall. Children showed statistically significantly better cued recall for the expressive readings of stories compared to the inexpressive readings of stories. This effect generalized across stories and when story length was controlled across both expressive and inexpressive versions. The effect of expressiveness on children's free recall was not significant. Highly expressive readings resulted in better comprehension of storybooks by prekindergarten children. Further, because recordings were used, this effect might be attributed to the facilitation of language processing rather than to enhanced social interaction between the reader and the child.

  4. Impact of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometry on food analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchida, Peter Q; Purcaro, Giorgia; Maimone, Mariarosa; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometry has been on the separation-science scene for about 15 years. This three-dimensional method has made a great positive impact on various fields of research, and among these that related to food analysis is certainly at the forefront. The present critical review is based on the use of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometry in the untargeted (general qualitative profiling and fingerprinting) and targeted analysis of food volatiles; attention is focused not only on its potential in such applications, but also on how recent advances in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometry will potentially be important for food analysis. Additionally, emphasis is devoted to the many instances in which straightforward gas chromatography with mass spectrometry is a sufficiently-powerful analytical tool. Finally, possible future scenarios in the comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometry food analysis field are discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Impacts of golden alga Prymnesium parvum on fish populations in reservoirs of the upper Colorado River and Brazos River basins, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanLandeghem, Matthew M.; Farooqi, Mukhtar; Farquhar, B.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2013-01-01

    Several reservoirs in the upper Colorado River and Brazos River basins in Texas have experienced toxic blooms of golden alga Prymnesium parvum and associated fish kills since 2001. There is a paucity of information, however, regarding the population-level effects of such kills in large reservoirs, species-specific resistance to or recovery from kills, or potential differences in the patterns of impacts among basins. We used multiple before-after, control-impact analysis to determine whether repeated golden alga blooms have led to declines in the relative abundance and size structure of fish populations. Sustained declines were noted for 9 of 12 fish species surveyed in the upper Colorado River, whereas only one of eight species was impacted by golden alga in the Brazos River. In the upper Colorado River, White Bass Morone chrysops, White Crappie Pomoxis annularis, Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides, Bluegill Lepomis macrochirus, River Carpsucker Carpiodes carpio, Freshwater Drum Aplodinotus grunniens, Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus, Flathead Catfish Pylodictis olivaris, and Blue Catfish I. furcatus exhibited sustained declines in relative abundance, size structure, or both; Gizzard Shad Dorosoma cepedianum, Longnose Gar Lepisosteus osseus, and Common Carp Cyprinus carpio did not exhibit those declines. In the Brazos River, only the relative abundance of Blue Catfish was impacted. Overall, toxic golden alga blooms can negatively impact fish populations over the long-term, but the patterns of impact can vary considerably among river basins and species. In the Brazos River, populations of most fish species appear to be healthy, suggesting a positive angling outlook for this basin. In the upper Colorado River, fish populations have been severely impacted, and angling opportunities have been reduced. Basin-specific management plans aimed at improving water quality and quantity will likely reduce bloom intensity and allow recovery of fish populations to the

  6. The environmental and geomorphological impacts of historical gold mining in the Ohinemuri and Waihou river catchments, Coromandel, New Zealand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alastair, J. H. C.; Nováková, Tereza; Hudson-Edwards, K. A.; Fuller, I. C.; Macklin, M. G.; Fox, E. G.; Zapico, I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 295, OCT 15 2017 (2017), s. 159-175 ISSN 0169-555X Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : mining-contaminated river * floodplain sedimentation * mine tailing discharge * historical gold mining * Ohinemuri River * Waihou River Subject RIV: DO - Wilderness Conservation OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 2.958, year: 2016

  7. Assessment of climate change impact on river flow regimes in The Red River Delta, Vietnam – A case study of the Nhue-Day River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phan Cao Duong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Global warming has caused dramatic changes in regional climate variability, particularly regarding fluctuations in temperature and rainfall. Thus, it is predicted that river flow regimes will be altered accordingly. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of modeling such changes by simulating discharge using the HEC-HMS model. The precipitation was projected using super-high resolution multiple climate models (20 km resolution with newly updated emission scenarios as the input for the HEC-HMS model for flow analysis at the Red River Basin in the northern area of Vietnam. The findings showed that climate change impact on the river flow regimes tend towards a decrease in the dry season and a longer duration of flood flow. A slight runoff reduction is simulated for November while a considerable runoff increase is modeled for July and August amounting to 30% and 25%, respectively. The discharge scenarios serve as a basis for water managers to develop suitable adaptation methods and responses on the river basin scale.

  8. The level of social relations comprehension and its impact on text comprehension in individuals with autistic spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Sotáková

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The study was carried out within the research “Reading comprehension – typical development and its risks”. The article contains data from a component study focused on 4th grade students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD who were incorporated into a group of readers with reading comprehension development risks. The main aim was to establish whether variable results in children’s reading and comprehension tests relate to the level of understanding of social relations. Participants and procedure We tested 20 students with ASD in two phases: T1 and T2. Each phase consisted of 2 individual sessions. Under the leadership of a research assistant, during each of these sessions a student would carry out the test focused on general intellectual skills, language skills, reading, and reading comprehension. For students with autistic spectrum disorder the Strange Stories test was added in order to ascertain the level of social relations understanding. Results The results in reading and reading comprehension tests among students with ASD varied significantly. Based on a correlation analysis it was found that the Strange Stories results substantially correlate with tests focused on reading, text comprehension and language skill levels. Conclusions Our research proved the following: the Strange Stories test results show that the level to which an individual is able to understand social relations and social behavior is significantly related to his/her ability to comprehend a text. Consequently, this can influence his/her learning skills as well as the quality of life in society. Cultivation of social abilities, social communication and understanding of social situations and relations is therefore necessary for compensation of autistic spectrum disorder expressions.

  9. Comprehensive evaluation of impacts of distributed generation integration in distribution network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Sujiang; Zhou, Erbiao; Ji, Fengkun; Cao, Xinhui; Liu, Lingshuang; Liu, Zifa; Wang, Xuyang; Cai, Xiaoyu

    2018-04-01

    All Distributed generation (DG) as the supplement to renewable energy centralized utilization, is becoming the focus of development direction of renewable energy utilization. With the increasing proportion of DG in distribution network, the network power structure, power flow distribution, operation plans and protection are affected to some extent. According to the main impacts of DG, a comprehensive evaluation model of distributed network with DG is proposed in this paper. A comprehensive evaluation index system including 7 aspects, along with their corresponding index calculation method is established for quantitative analysis. The indices under different access capacity of DG in distribution network are calculated based on the IEEE RBTS-Bus 6 system and the evaluation result is calculated by analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The proposed model and method are verified effective and validity through case study.

  10. Bioanalytical characterisation of multiple endocrine- and dioxin-like activities in sediments from reference and impacted small rivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinani, Said, E-mail: said@dcmr.polytechnique.f [Unite d' Ecotoxicologie, Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), BP2, F-60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France); Departement de Chimie des Mecanismes Reactionnels, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Bouchonnet, Stephane, E-mail: stephane.bouchonnet@dcmr.polytechnique.f [Departement de Chimie des Mecanismes Reactionnels, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Creusot, Nicolas [Unite d' Ecotoxicologie, Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), BP2, F-60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France); Bourcier, Sophie [Departement de Chimie des Mecanismes Reactionnels, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Balaguer, Patrick [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), U896, Montpellier, F-34298 (France); Porcher, Jean-Marc [Unite d' Ecotoxicologie, Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), BP2, F-60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France); Ait-Aissa, Selim, E-mail: selim.ait-aissa@ineris.f [Unite d' Ecotoxicologie, Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), BP2, F-60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France)

    2010-01-15

    A comprehensive evaluation of organic contamination was performed in sediments sampled in two reference and three impacted small streams where endocrine disruptive (ED) effects in fish have been evidenced. The approach combined quantitative chemical analyses of more than 50 ED chemicals (EDCs) and a battery of in vitro bioassays allowing the quantification of receptor-mediated activities, namely estrogen (ER), androgen (AR), dioxin (AhR) and pregnane X (PXR) receptors. At the most impacted sites, chemical analyses showed the presence of natural estrogens, organochlorine pesticides, parabens, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (16 PAHs), bisphenol A and alkylphenols, while synthetic steroids, myco-estrogens and phyto-estrogens were not detected. Determination of toxic-equivalent amounts showed that 28-96% of estrogenic activities in bioassays (0.2-6.3 ng/g 17beta-estradiol equivalents) were explained by 17beta-estradiol and estrone. PAHs were major contributors (20-60%) to the total dioxin-like activities. Interestingly, high PXR and (anti)AR activities were detected; however, the targeted analysed compounds could not explain the measured biological activities. This study highlighted the presence of multiple organic EDCs in French river sediments subjected to mixed diffuse pollution, and argues for the need to further identify AR and PXR active compounds in the aquatic environment. - Multiple endocrine disrupting chemicals (ER, AR, AhR and PXR ligands) are detected in French river sediments using a panel of in vitro bioassays and analytical methods.

  11. Simulating floods in the Amazon River Basin: Impacts of new river geomorphic and dynamic flow parameterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, M. T.; Costa, M. H.; Howard, E. A.

    2006-12-01

    In this paper we analyze the hydrology of the Amazon River system for the latter half of the 20th century with our recently completed model of terrestrial hydrology (Terrestrial Hydrology Model with Biogeochemistry, THMB). We evaluate the simulated hydrology of the Central Amazon basin against limited observations of river discharge, floodplain inundation, and water height and analyze the spatial and temporal variability of the hydrology for the period 1939-1998. We compare the simulated discharge and floodplain inundated area to the simulations by Coe et al., 2002 using a previous version of this model. The new model simulates the discharge and flooded area in better agreement with the observations than the previous model. The coefficient of correlation between the simulated and observed discharge for the greater than 27000 monthly observations of discharge at 120 sites throughout the Brazilian Amazon is 0.9874 compared to 0.9744 for the previous model. The coefficient of correlation between the simulated monthly flooded area and the satellite-based estimates by Sippel et al., 1998 exceeds 0.7 for 8 of the 12 mainstem reaches. The seasonal and inter-annual variability of the water height and the river slope compares favorably to the satellite altimetric measurements of height reported by Birkett et al., 2002.

  12. Impacts of climate change on the management of upland waters: the Rhone river case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravard, J.P

    2008-07-01

    The Rhone river watershed covers a surface of 98 000 000 km{sup 2}, including 10 000 km{sup 2} in Switzerland. Most of the discharge originates in the Alps, but a significant contribution is provided by the Jura Mountains and by the western Massif Central. The main river are the Rhone, the Saone, the Isere and the Durance. The total discharge at the sea 1700 m{sup 3}.s{sup -1}. Since 10 years, several models have detailed the General Circulation Model proposed by the IPCC (1996 and 2002) and predicted changes of the natural components of the hydrological cycle, from temperature and precipitation, to ice and snow cover and to river discharge. They anticipate on a decrease of total discharge, a marked decrease of summer discharge, an increase of winter discharges and winter storms, a decrease of ice and snow cover inducing a change in the river regime. However, one of the main characteristics of the Rhone is the high level of economic development which has triggered complex impacts on river and lake hydro systems. High altitude reservoirs have affected the river regimes since at least 50 years, to the detriment of summer discharge, altering the pristine mountain discharges. While the temperature of Geneva Lake increased during the last 20 years for climatic reasons, the temperature of the French river course of the Rhone was affected by the impact of nuclear power plants. These documented changes anticipate on the changes predicted during the 21. century and provide most interesting insights into the the future of aquatic ecosystems. At last, an attempt was made to summarize the possible impacts of climate and river changes on the future uses of water and on humans. Hydro-power and thermal power will be affected, as well as tourism and agriculture through an increase of pressures on the consumptive uses of water. Human health may be affected as well as the level of risks in valley bottoms. (author)

  13. Impacts of climate change on the management of upland waters: the Rhone river case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravard, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    The Rhone river watershed covers a surface of 98 000 000 km 2 , including 10 000 km 2 in Switzerland. Most of the discharge originates in the Alps, but a significant contribution is provided by the Jura Mountains and by the western Massif Central. The main river are the Rhone, the Saone, the Isere and the Durance. The total discharge at the sea 1700 m 3 .s -1 . Since 10 years, several models have detailed the General Circulation Model proposed by the IPCC (1996 and 2002) and predicted changes of the natural components of the hydrological cycle, from temperature and precipitation, to ice and snow cover and to river discharge. They anticipate on a decrease of total discharge, a marked decrease of summer discharge, an increase of winter discharges and winter storms, a decrease of ice and snow cover inducing a change in the river regime. However, one of the main characteristics of the Rhone is the high level of economic development which has triggered complex impacts on river and lake hydro systems. High altitude reservoirs have affected the river regimes since at least 50 years, to the detriment of summer discharge, altering the pristine mountain discharges. While the temperature of Geneva Lake increased during the last 20 years for climatic reasons, the temperature of the French river course of the Rhone was affected by the impact of nuclear power plants. These documented changes anticipate on the changes predicted during the 21. century and provide most interesting insights into the the future of aquatic ecosystems. At last, an attempt was made to summarize the possible impacts of climate and river changes on the future uses of water and on humans. Hydro-power and thermal power will be affected, as well as tourism and agriculture through an increase of pressures on the consumptive uses of water. Human health may be affected as well as the level of risks in valley bottoms. (author)

  14. Island development impacts on the Nile River morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahla Sadek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The greater Cairo area has many islands formed after the Aswan High Dam construction. Ministry of water resources and irrigation is interested in studying the development and evolution of these islands in order to reflect the esthetic aspects and improvement of the environment surrounding the islands. This study focuses on Shubra El-Khaima Island which is located upstream Delta Barrage in the back water curve region. The study aims to propose different alternatives for island development. GSTAR3.0 model is the most recent version of a series of numerical models for simulating flow of water and sediment transport and prediction of morphological changes in alluvial rivers. This model was used to simulate and examine different alternatives for Shubra island development on river morphology according to different discharges scenarios. The optimum alternative was proposed. Also, the future required precautions to mitigate the effects of this development on the stability of watercourse were suggested.

  15. Missouri River Recovery Management Plan and Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-11

    Proficient in hydrologic and hydraulic engineering computer models, particularly ResSim and HEC - RAS ; working experience with large river systems including...Description of the Model and How It Will Be Applied in the Study Approval Status HEC - RAS The function of this model is to conduct one-dimensional hydraulic...calculations for a full network of natural and man- made channels. HEC - RAS is a model central to the forecasting of physical conditions for

  16. Investigating the response of biotite to impact metamorphism: Examples from the Steen River impact structure, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, E. L.; Sharp, T. G.; Hu, J.; Tschauner, O.

    2018-01-01

    Impact metamorphic effects from quartz and feldspar and to a lesser extent olivine and pyroxene have been studied in detail. Comparatively, studies documenting shock effects in other minerals, such as double chain inosilicates, phyllosilicates, carbonates, and sulfates, are lacking. In this study, we investigate impact metamorphism recorded in crystalline basement rocks from the Steen River impact structure (SRIS), a 25 km diameter complex crater in NW Alberta, Canada. An array of advanced analytical techniques was used to characterize the breakdown of biotite in two distinct settings: along the margins of localized regions of shock melting and within granitic target rocks entrained as clasts in a breccia. In response to elevated temperature gradients along shock vein margins, biotite transformed at high pressure to an almandine-Ca/Fe majorite-rich garnet with a density of 4.2 g cm-3. The shock-produced garnets are poikilitic, with oxide and silicate glass inclusions. Areas interstitial to garnets are vesiculated, in support of models for the formation of shock veins via oscillatory slip, with deformation continuing during pressure release. Biotite within granitic clasts entrained within the hot breccia matrix thermally decomposed at ambient pressure to produce a fine-grained mineral assemblage of orthopyroxene + sanidine + titanomagnetite. These minerals are aligned to the (001) cleavage plane of the original crystal. In this and previous work, the transformation of an inosilicate (pargasite) and a phyllosilicate (biotite) to form garnet, an easily identifiable, robust mineral, has been documented. We contend that in deeply eroded astroblemes, high-pressure minerals that form within or in the environs of shock veins may serve as one of the possibly few surviving indicators of impact metamorphism.

  17. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River System Operation Review (SOR) is being conducted jointly by the US Army Corps of Engineers, the Bureau of Reclamation, and the Bonneville Power Administration. This summary of the SOR story begins where the Draft EIS summary left off. It is divided into seven parts, each of which reports some aspect of the study's outcome: Part 1 is a history. The SOR was not a simple study on any level, and to understand the EIS alternatives, some background is necessary. Part 2 reports the major findings of the technical analysis of alternative system operating strategies, and presents the agencies' Preferred Alternative. Part 3 explains actions the agencies may take with respect to the Columbia River Regional Forum, the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement, and the Canadian Entitlement Allocation Agreements. Part 4 presents the Purpose and Need, elements at the core of any Federal EIS. It includes a map showing the Columbia River Basin and information on the affected Federal projects. Part 5 describes the substantial public participation and outreach that occurred during the SOR, and Part 6 summarizes efforts to incorporate the Tribal perspective into the study. Part 7 describes other activities that will be taking place in the next few years, which are related to and build upon the SOR

  18. Impact of river restoration on groundwater - surface water - interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Anne-Marie; Schirmer, Mario

    2014-05-01

    Since the end of the 19th century, flood protection was increasingly based on the construction of impermeable dams and side walls (BWG, 2003). In spite of providing flood protection, these measures also limited the connectivity between the river and the land, restricted the area available for flooding, and hampered the natural flow dynamics of the river. Apart from the debilitating effect on riverine ecosystems due to loss of habitats, these measures also limited bank filtration, inhibited the infiltration of storm water, and affected groundwater-surface water-interactions. This in turn had a profound effect on ecosystem health, as a lack of groundwater-surface water interactions led to decreased cycling of pollutants and nutrients in the hyporheic zone and limited the moderation of the water temperature (EA, 2009). In recent decades, it has become apparent that further damages to riverine ecosystems must be prohibited, as the damages to ecology, economy and society surmount any benefits gained from exploiting them. Nowadays, the restoration of rivers is a globally accepted means to restore ecosystem functioning, protect water resources and amend flood protection (Andrea et al., 2012; Palmer et al., 2005; Wortley et al., 2013). In spite of huge efforts regarding the restoration of rivers over the last 30 years, the question of its effectiveness remains, as river restorations often reconstruct a naturally looking rather than a naturally functioning stream (EA, 2009). We therefore focussed our research on the effectiveness of river restorations, represented by the groundwater-surface water-interactions. Given a sufficiently high groundwater level, a lack of groundwater-surface water-interactions after restoration may indicate that the vertical connectivity in the stream was not fully restored. In order to investigate groundwater-surface water-interactions we determined the thermal signature on the stream bed and in +/- 40 cm depth by using Distributed Temperature

  19. Fluvial sediment inputs to upland gravel bed rivers draining forested catchments: potential ecological impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Marks

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available As identified by the detailed long-term monitoring networks at Plynlimon, increased sediment supply to upland fluvial systems is often associated with forestry land-use and practice. Literature is reviewed, in the light of recent results from Plynlimon sediment studies, to enable identification of the potential ecological impacts of fluvial particulate inputs to upland gravel bed rivers draining forested catchments similar to the headwaters of the River Severn. Both sediment transport and deposition can have significant impacts upon aquatic vertebrates, invertebrates and plants.

  20. Large dams and alluvial rivers in the Anthropocene: The impacts of the Garrison and Oahe Dams on the Upper Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalak, Katherine; Benthem, Adam J.; Schenk, Edward R.; Hupp, Cliff R.; Galloway, Joel M.; Nustad, Rochelle A.; Wiche, Gregg J.

    2013-01-01

    The Missouri River has had a long history of anthropogenic modification with considerable impacts on river and riparian ecology, form, and function. During the 20th century, several large dam-building efforts in the basin served the needs for irrigation, flood control, navigation, and the generation of hydroelectric power. The managed flow provided a range of uses, including recreation, fisheries, and habitat. Fifteen dams impound the main stem of the river, with hundreds more on tributaries. Though the effects of dams and reservoirs are well-documented, their impacts have been studied individually, with relatively little attention paid to their interaction along a river corridor. We examine the morphological and sedimentological changes in the Upper Missouri River between the Garrison Dam in ND (operational in 1953) and Oahe Dam in SD (operational in 1959). Through historical aerial photography, stream gage data, and cross sectional surveys, we demonstrate that the influence of the upstream dam is still a major control of river dynamics when the backwater effects of the downstream reservoir begin. In the “Anthropocene”, dams are ubiquitous on large rivers and often occur in series, similar to the Garrison Dam Segment. We propose a conceptual model of how interacting dams might affect river geomorphology, resulting in distinct and recognizable morphologic sequences that we term “Inter-Dam sequence” characteristic of major rivers in the US.

  1. Floodplain Impact on Riverine Dissolved Carbon Cycling in the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelDuco, E.; Xu, Y. J.

    2017-12-01

    Studies have shown substantial increases in the export of terrestrial carbon by rivers over the past several decades, and have linked these increases to human activity such as changes in land use, urbanization, and intensive agriculture. The Mississippi River (MR) is the largest river in North America, and is among the largest in the world, making its carbon export globally significant. The Atchafalaya River (AR) receives 25% of the Mississippi River's flow before traveling 189 kilometers through the largest bottomland swamp in North America, providing a unique opportunity to study floodplain impacts on dissolved carbon in a large river. The aim of this study was to determine how dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the AR change spatially and seasonally, and to elucidate which processes control carbon cycling in this intricate swamp river system. From May 2015 -May 2016, we conducted monthly river sampling from the river's inflow to its outflow, analyzing samples for DOC and DIC concentrations and δ 13C stable isotope composition. During the study period, the river discharged a total of 5.35 Tg DIC and a total of 2.34 Tg DOC into the Gulf of Mexico. Based on the mass inflow-outflow balance, approximately 0.53 Tg ( 10%) of the total DIC exported was produced within the floodplain, while 0.24 Tg ( 10%) of DOC entering the basin was removed. The AR was consistently saturated with pCO2 above atmospheric pressure, indicating that this swamp-river system acts a large source of DIC to the atmosphere as well as to coastal margins. Largest changes in carbon constituents occurred during periods of greatest inundation of the basin, and corresponded with shifts in isotopic composition that indicated large inputs of DIC from floodplains. This effect was particularly pronounced during initial flood stages. This study demonstrates that a major river with extensive floodplains in its coastal margin can act as an important source of DIC as well

  2. The impact of industries on surface water quality of River Ona and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of water from two rivers (River Ona and River Alaro) in Oluyole ... were higher in the industrial zones than those found in the upstream of both rivers. ... Key words: River Ona, River Alaro, industrial discharges, surface water quality.

  3. Uptake of human pharmaceuticals in bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) inhabiting a wastewater-impacted river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelsleichter, James; Szabo, Nancy J

    2013-07-01

    The presence of human pharmaceuticals in sewage-impacted ecosystems is a growing concern that poses health risks to aquatic wildlife. Despite this, few studies have investigated the uptake of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in aquatic organisms. In this study, the uptake of 9 APIs from human drugs was examined and compared in neonate bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) residing in pristine (Myakka River) and wastewater-impacted (Caloosahatchee River) tributaries of Florida's Charlotte Harbor estuary. The synthetic estrogen used in human contraceptives (17α-ethynylestradiol) and 6 of the selective serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (citalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline, venlafaxine) used in human antidepressants were observed at detectable and, in some cases, quantifiable levels in plasma of Caloosahatchee River sharks. Comparatively, only venlafaxine was detected in the plasma of a single Myakka River shark at a level below the limit of quantitation. These results suggest that sharks residing in wastewater-impacted habitats accumulate APIs, a factor that may pose special risks to C. leucas since it is one of few shark species to regularly occupy freshwater systems. Further research is needed to determine if the low levels of API uptake observed in Caloosahatchee River bull sharks pose health risks to these animals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Finnis River. A natural laboratory of mining impact- past, present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markich, S J; Jeffree, R A [eds.

    2002-03-01

    The Rum Jungle uranium-copper mine in tropical northern Australia has been a source of acid rock drainage contaminants since the 1950s, which have had adverse impacts on the receiving waters of the Finniss River. Mine site remediation began in 1982 followed by long-term monitoring of water quality and flow, based on daily measurements within the Finniss River system. A decade or more after the initiation of these remedial activities, a set of investigations have been completed that have measured the post-remedial ecological status of the Finniss River system, relative to this environmental benchmark. These studies have also been complemented by studies on various other ecological endpoints. Moreover, the Finniss River system has provided unique opportunities for broader scientific goals to be pursued. Because it has been so well-monitored, it can be viewed as a natural laboratory to investigate the impacts of acid rock drainage on tropical freshwater biodiversity. The scientific papers presented at this symposium address a broad spectrum of issues that are directly related to environmental sustainability and mining. The topics range across future contaminant scenarios and their predicted ecological impacts, the various metrics used to assess ecological detriment to biodiversity, the abilities of laminated biological structures to act as archives of pollution history, and also spin-off applications in environmental and wildlife management. Furthermore, the participation of many stakeholders in open discussion during the symposium provided an important set of views and opinions on the needs for future studies in the Finniss River system.

  5. The Finnis River. A natural laboratory of mining impact- past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markich, S.J.; Jeffree, R.A.

    2002-03-01

    The Rum Jungle uranium-copper mine in tropical northern Australia has been a source of acid rock drainage contaminants since the 1950s, which have had adverse impacts on the receiving waters of the Finniss River. Mine site remediation began in 1982 followed by long-term monitoring of water quality and flow, based on daily measurements within the Finniss River system. A decade or more after the initiation of these remedial activities, a set of investigations have been completed that have measured the post-remedial ecological status of the Finniss River system, relative to this environmental benchmark. These studies have also been complemented by studies on various other ecological endpoints. Moreover, the Finniss River system has provided unique opportunities for broader scientific goals to be pursued. Because it has been so well-monitored, it can be viewed as a natural laboratory to investigate the impacts of acid rock drainage on tropical freshwater biodiversity. The scientific papers presented at this symposium address a broad spectrum of issues that are directly related to environmental sustainability and mining. The topics range across future contaminant scenarios and their predicted ecological impacts, the various metrics used to assess ecological detriment to biodiversity, the abilities of laminated biological structures to act as archives of pollution history, and also spin-off applications in environmental and wildlife management. Furthermore, the participation of many stakeholders in open discussion during the symposium provided an important set of views and opinions on the needs for future studies in the Finniss River system

  6. The Impact of Gloss Types on Reading Comprehension, Vocabulary Gain and Vocabulary Retention: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Elekaei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The significance and impact of vocabulary learning in reading comprehension and L2 language learning are apparent to teachers, researchers and language learners. Moreover, glosses are found as one of the most effective strategies regarding vocabulary retention. Therefore, the present study attempted to investigate the effect of different types of glosses on reading comprehension, vocabulary gain and vocabulary retention. To this end, 140 Iranian EFL learners learning English were selected and were divided into four groups (footnote gloss group, interlinear gloss group, marginal gloss group, and glossary group. They were required to read a text and answer four reading comprehension questions. In addition, one immediate vocabulary post-test and one delayed vocabulary post-test were taken in order to investigate learners' vocabulary gain and vocabulary retention. In order to analyze the data, one one-way ANOVA and one MANOVA were run. The results of one-way ANOVA revealed that participants who received interlinear glosses significantly outperformed the other groups regarding comprehending the text. Moreover, the immediate vocabulary post-test was conducted immediately after reading test and the delayed post-test was administered after four weeks. The results of MANOVA indicated that the group which received interlinear glosses outperformed the other groups in both vocabulary gain and vocabulary retention. The present study has implications for teachers and learners. Teachers can find better methods to teach new reading passages as well as vocabulary items. Also, glosses help learners to have a better comprehension of difficult passages and they facilitate learning. Moreover, learners can enhance their vocabulary knowledge with the help of glosses.

  7. GLOBAL CLIMATE MODEL:A COMPREHENSIVE TOOL IN CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmaveer Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing concern, how and to what extent future changes in climate will affect human society and natural environments. Continuous emissions of Green House Gasses (GHGs at or above current rates will cause further warming. This, in turn, may modify global climate system during 21st century that very likely would have larger impacts than those observed during 20th century. At present, Global Climate Models (GCMs are only the most reliable tools available for studying behaviour of the climate system. This paper presents a comprehensive review of GCMs including their development and applications in climate change impacts studies. Following a discussion of the limitations of GCMs at regional and local scales, different approaches of downscaling are discussed in detail.

  8. Impacts of large dams on the complexity of suspended sediment dynamics in the Yangtze River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuankun; Rhoads, Bruce L.; Wang, Dong; Wu, Jichun; Zhang, Xiao

    2018-03-01

    The Yangtze River is one of the largest and most important rivers in the world. Over the past several decades, the natural sediment regime of the Yangtze River has been altered by the construction of dams. This paper uses multi-scale entropy analysis to ascertain the impacts of large dams on the complexity of high-frequency suspended sediment dynamics in the Yangtze River system, especially after impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD). In this study, the complexity of sediment dynamics is quantified by framing it within the context of entropy analysis of time series. Data on daily sediment loads for four stations located in the mainstem are analyzed for the past 60 years. The results indicate that dam construction has reduced the complexity of short-term (1-30 days) variation in sediment dynamics near the structures, but that complexity has actually increased farther downstream. This spatial pattern seems to reflect a filtering effect of the dams on the on the temporal pattern of sediment loads as well as decreased longitudinal connectivity of sediment transfer through the river system, resulting in downstream enhancement of the influence of local sediment inputs by tributaries on sediment dynamics. The TGD has had a substantial impact on the complexity of sediment series in the mainstem of the Yangtze River, especially after it became fully operational. This enhanced impact is attributed to the high trapping efficiency of this dam and its associated large reservoir. The sediment dynamics "signal" becomes more spatially variable after dam construction. This study demonstrates the spatial influence of dams on the high-frequency temporal complexity of sediment regimes and provides valuable information that can be used to guide environmental conservation of the Yangtze River.

  9. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix Q: Regional forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The SOR is currently developing a System Operating Strategy (SOS) that will guide the physical operations of the Columbia River system. The SOR is also addressing the institutional arrangements that must be in place to make needed changes to the SOS in the future, or make interpretations of the strategy in the light of changing water conditions or river needs. For convenience, this future institutional arrangement is referred to as ''The Columbia River Regional Forum,'' or simply ''the Forum,'' even though the nature of this institution is still to be determined. This appendix and the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) identify the Forum as an administrative process that will not result in impacts to the environment and will not require analysis in a NEPA context. The composition of and procedures followed by a decision making body cannot--in and of themselves--be used to predict a particular decision with definable impacts on the environment. Nevertheless, because of the relationship to the other SOR actions, the SOR lead agencies have prepared this Technical Appendix to provide opportunities for review and comment on the Forum alternatives

  10. Draft Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement and Comprehensive Land Use Plan: Volume 2 of 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This appendix discusses the scope of actions addressed in the Draft Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement and Comprehensive Land Use Plan. To address the purpose and need for agency action identified in Chapter 2.0 of the HRA-EIS, the scope includes an evaluation of the potential environmental impacts associated with the remedial actions to be conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the provisions of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) (Ecology et al. 1989). These remedial actions would bring the Hanford Site into compliance with the applicable requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). The DOE program responsible for conducting remedial actions at the Hanford Site is referred to as the Richland Environmental Restoration (ER) Project. The Richland ER Project encompasses the following projects: radiation area remedial actions and underground storage tanks (UST); RCRA closures; single-shell tank (SST) closures; past-practice waste site operable unit (source and groundwater) remedial actions; surplus facility decommissioning; and waste storage and disposal facilities

  11. Urbanization Impacts on Flooding in the Kansas River Basin and Evaluation of Wetlands as a Mitigation Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluates the impacts of future land use changes on flooding in the Kansas River Basin. It also studies the impacts of wetlands on flood reduction. The study presents Hydrologic Engineering Centers-Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS) based runoff modeling and River A...

  12. Impacts on river systems under 2 °C warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaman, A.M.; Molla, M.K.; Pervin, I.A.; Mahbubur Rahman, S.M.; Haider, A.S.; Ludwig, F.; Franssen, W.

    2017-01-01

    Bangladesh is particularly vulnerable due to the combined impacts of sea level rise, rainfall and runoff variability, and changes in cyclone patterns. This paper presents the application of an integrated modelling framework used to investigate climate change impacts when global averaged surface

  13. Electricity vs Ecosystems – understanding and predicting hydropower impact on Swedish river flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Arheimer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The most radical anthropogenic impact on water systems in Sweden originates from the years 1900–1970, when the electricity network was developed in the country and almost all rivers were regulated. The construction of dams and changes in water flow caused problems for ecosystems. Therefore, when implementing the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD hydro-morphological indicators and targets were developed for rivers and lakes to achieve good ecological potential. The hydrological regime is one such indicator. To understand the change in flow regime we quantified the hydropower impact on river flow across Sweden by using the S-HYPE model and observations. The results show that the average redistribution of water during a year due to regulation is 19 % for the total discharge from Sweden. A distinct impact was found in seasonal flow patterns and flow duration curves. Moreover, we quantified the model skills in predicting hydropower impact on flow. The median NSE for simulating change in flow regime was 0.71 for eight dams studied. Results from the spatially distributed model are available for 37 000 sub-basins across the country, and will be used by the Swedish water authorities for reporting hydro-morphological indicators to the EU and for guiding the allocation of river restoration measures.

  14. Ecological impact from large constructions of hydroelectric power plants in Parana River, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonetto, Argentino A.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis over environmental impacts on Parana River as a result of the hydroelectric power plants construction is presented. Hydroelectric dams, also including the planned ones, are showing during the explanation, and biologic aspects are discussed. 30 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Impact analysis of calcium hydroxide on the juveniles of the river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of inorganic chemicals to boost agro production has recently been extended to other environmental purposes. This study thus was carried out to assess the potential lethal impact of calcium hydroxide (Ca (OH)2) on aquatic environment using the brackish river prawn as the indicator organism. The prawns were ...

  16. Economic impacts of guided whitewater rafting: a study of five rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald B.K. English; J. Michael Bowker

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents estimates of the statewide economic impacts of guided whitewater rafting on five rivers in six states: the Nantahala (North Carolina), Gauley (West Virginia), Kennebec (Maine), Middle Fork of the Salmon (Idaho), and Chattooga (Georgia-South Carolina). Except for the Chattooga and Middle Fork, rafting is dependent on upstream dam releases. Guide fees...

  17. Future changes in Mekong River hydrology: impact of climate change and reservoir operation on discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauri, H.; de Moel, H.; Ward, P.J.; Räsänen, T.A.; Keskinen, M.; Kummu, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    The transboundary Mekong River is facing two ongoing changes that are expected to significantly impact its hydrology and the characteristics of its exceptional flood pulse. The rapid economic development of the riparian countries has led to massive plans for hydropower construction, and projected

  18. The Impact of Urban Run-Off on Ogbor River | Atuluegwu | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of urban run-off on Ogbor River in Aba metropolis has been studied. The run-off contains toxic chemical, heavy metals and suspended solids. Water samples were collected from three discharged points in the months of May to September. The results of the analysis of the samples show high-level concentration of ...

  19. Socioeconomic impacts: study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, R.; Taylor, J.; Burnett, K.; Greenberg, B.

    1982-02-01

    This document constitutes a segment of a feasibility study investigating the ramifications of constructing a nuclear energy center (NEC) in an arid western region. In this phase of the study, the impacts on socioeconomic conditions in the surrounding communities and possible ways of financing and mitigating these impacts were examined. The general conclusion reached is that the socioeconomic impacts of a nuclear energy center in the Green River area of Southeastern Utah would not impose an absolute bar to NEC development. The economy of the NEC impact area would be substantially transformed by the NEC. In particular, Green River city itself would change from its current status as a relatively stable rural economy with an agricultural, mining, and recreation base to a major city with over 20,000 permanent relatively high income residents. The NEC, by itself, would provide a tax base more than adequate to finance required expansion of public facilities and public human service provisions

  20. Socioeconomic impacts: study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, R.; Taylor, J.; Burnett, K.; Greenberg, B.

    1982-02-01

    This document constitutes a segment of a feasibility study investigating the ramifications of constructing a nuclear energy center (NEC) in an arid western region. In this phase of the study, the impacts on socioeconomic conditions in the surrounding communities and possible ways of financing and mitigating these impacts were examined. The general conclusion reached is that the socioeconomic impacts of a nuclear energy center in the Green River area of Southeastern Utah would not impose an absolute bar to NEC development. The economy of the NEC impact area would be substantially transformed by the NEC. In particular, Green River city itself would change from its current status as a relatively stable rural economy with an agricultural, mining, and recreation base to a major city with over 20,000 permanent relatively high income residents. The NEC, by itself, would provide a tax base more than adequate to finance required expansion of public facilities and public human service provisions.

  1. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix H: Navigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The Navigation Technical Appendix presents the analysis of the various SOR alternatives in terms of their potential affects on the congressionally authorized navigation system within the Columbia and Snake river waterways. The focus of the study, impacts to the authorized navigation, improvements/developments, reflects on one of the continuing historical missions of the US Army Corps of Engineers: to promote safe commercial navigation of the nation's waterways benefiting the development of commerce within the US. The study and evaluation process involved Scoping, Screening and Full Scale Evaluation. During screening two models were developed; one was used to evaluate the effects of the various alternatives on navigation through the Snake River Projects and the other the effects on the Dworshak Pool. Full Scale Analysis was expanded to included a study of effects throughout the system

  2. Impact of possible climate changes on river runoff under different natural conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Yeugeniy M.; Nasonova, Olga N.; Kovalev, Evgeny E.; Ayzel, Georgy V.

    2018-06-01

    The present study was carried out within the framework of the International Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP) for 11 large river basins located in different continents of the globe under a wide variety of natural conditions. The aim of the study was to investigate possible changes in various characteristics of annual river runoff (mean values, standard deviations, frequency of extreme annual runoff) up to 2100 on the basis of application of the land surface model SWAP and meteorological projections simulated by five General Circulation Models (GCMs) according to four RCP scenarios. Analysis of the obtained results has shown that changes in climatic runoff are different (both in magnitude and sign) for the river basins located in different regions of the planet due to differences in natural (primarily climatic) conditions. The climatic elasticities of river runoff to changes in air temperature and precipitation were estimated that makes it possible, as the first approximation, to project changes in climatic values of annual runoff, using the projected changes in mean annual air temperature and annual precipitation for the river basins. It was found that for most rivers under study, the frequency of occurrence of extreme runoff values increases. This is true both for extremely high runoff (when the projected climatic runoff increases) and for extremely low values (when the projected climatic runoff decreases).

  3. Channel morphology and its impact on flood passage, the Tianjiazhen reach of the middle Yangtze River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yafeng; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Zhongyuan; Jiang, Tong; Wu, Jinglu

    2007-03-01

    The Tianjiazhen reach of the middle Yangtze is about 8 km long, and characterized by a narrow river width of 650 m and local water depth of > 90 m in deep inner troughs, of which about 60 m is below the mean sea level. The troughs in the channel of such a large river are associated with regional tectonics and local lithology. The channel configuration plays a critical role in modifying the height and duration of river floods and erosion of the riverbed. The formation of the troughs in the bed of the Yangtze is considered to be controlled by sets of NW-SE-oriented neotectonic fault zones, in which some segments consist of highly folded thick Triassic limestone crossed by the Yangtze River. Several limestone hills, currently located next to the river channel, serve as nodes that create large vortices in the river, thereby accelerating downcutting on the riverbed composed of limestone highly susceptible to physical corrosion and chemical dissolution. Hydrological records indicate that the nodal hills and channel configuration at Tianjiazhen do not impact on normal flow discharges but discharges > 50,000 m 3s - 1 are slowed down for 2-3 days. Catastrophic floods are held up for even longer periods. These inevitably result in elevated flood stages upstream of prolonged duration, affecting large cities such as Wuhan and a very large number of people.

  4. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix K: Resident fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. In this appendix the Resident Fish Work Group (RFWG) has attempted to characterize and evaluate impacts of dam operation on an extremely complex and diverse integrated resource. Not only is this required under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for SOR, there are resident fish populations that have status under the Federal Endangered Species Act (ESA) or equivalent state regulations (Kootenai River white sturgeon, Snake River white sturgeon, sandroller, shorthead and torrent sculpins, bull trout, westslope cutthroat trout, redband trout, and burbot). The RFWG has also attempted to develop operating alternatives that benefit not only resident fish, but anadromous fish, wildlife, and other human interests as well. The authors have recognized the co-evolution of resident fish, anadromous fish, and other integrated resources in the basin

  5. Impact simulation of shrimp farm effluent on BOD-DO in Setiu River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Michael Sueng Lock; Teh, Su Yean; Koh, Hock Lye

    2017-08-01

    Release of effluent from intensive aquaculture farms into a river can pollute the receiving river and exert negative impacts on the aquatic ecosystem. In this paper, we simulate the effects of effluent released from a marine shrimp aquaculture farm into Sg Setiu, focusing on two critical water quality parameters i.e. DO (dissolved oxygen) and BOD (biochemical oxygen demand). DO is an important constituent in a river in sustaining water quality, with levels of DO below 5 mg/L deemed undesirable. DO levels can be depressed by the presence of BOD and other organics that consume DO. Water quality simulations in conjunction with management of effluent treatment can suggest mitigation measures for reducing the adverse environmental impact. For this purpose, an in-house two-dimensional water quality simulation model codenamed TUNA-WQ will be used for these simulations. TUNA-WQ has been undergoing regular updates and improvements to broaden the applicability and to improve the robustness. Here, the model is calibrated and verified for simulation of DO and BOD dynamics in Setiu River (Sg Setiu). TUNA-WQ simulated DO and BOD in Setiu River due to the discharge from a marine shrimp aquaculture farm will be presented.

  6. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix D: Exhibits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River and its tributaries are the primary water system in the Pacific Northwest, draining some 219,000 square miles in seven states and another 39,500 square miles in British Columbia. Beginning in the 1930`s, the Columbia River has been significantly modified by construction of 30 major dams on the river and its tributaries, along with dozens of non-Federal projects. Construction and subsequent operation of these water development projects have contributed to eight primary uses of the river system, including navigation, flood control, irrigation, electric power generation, fish migration, fish and wildlife habitat, recreation, and water supply and quality considerations. Increasing stress on the water development of the Columbia River and its tributaries has led primary Federal agencies to undertake intensive analysis and evaluation of the operation of these projects. These agencies are the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation, who operate the large Federal dams on the river, and the Bonneville Power Administration who sells the power generated at the dams. This review, termed the System Operation Review (SOR), has as its ultimate goal to define a strategy for future operation of the major Columbia River projects which effectively considers the needs of all river uses. This volume, Appendix D: Cultural resources appendix, Technical imput includes the following: Development of geomorphology based framework for cultural resources management, Dworshak Reservoir, Idaho; Impact profiles for SOR reservoirs; comments from the following Native American tribes: Burns Paiute Tribe; Coville Confederated Tribes; Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Indian Reservation; Confederated Tribes and bands of the Yakama Indian Nation (comments); Nez Perce Tribe; Coeur D`Alene Tribe; Spokane Tribe of Indians; The confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation.

  7. Multi-phase distribution and comprehensive ecological risk assessment of heavy metal pollutants in a river affected by acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jianbo; Ru, Xuan; Xie, Binbin; Zhang, Wanhui; Wu, Haizhen; Wu, Chaofei; Wei, Chaohai

    2017-07-01

    To date, there is a lack of a comprehensive research on heavy metals detection and ecological risk assessment in river water, sediments, pore water (PW) and suspended solids (SS). Here, the concentrations of heavy metals, including Cu, Zn, Mn, Cd, Pb and As, and their distribution between the four phases was studied. Samples for analysis were taken from twelve sites of the Hengshi River, Guangdong Province, China, during the rainy and dry seasons. A new comprehensive ecological risk index (CERI) based on considering metal contents, pollution indices, toxicity coefficients and water categories is offered for prediction of potential risk on aquatic organisms. The results of comprehensive analysis showed that the highest concentrations of Cu, Zn and Mn of 6.42, 87.17 and 98.74mg/L, respectively, in PW were comparable with those in water, while concentrations of Cd, Pb and As of 609.5, 2757 and 96.38μg/L, respectively, were 2-5 times higher. The sum of the exchangeable and carbonate fractions of target metals in sediments followed the order of Cd > Mn > Zn > Pb > Cu > As. The distribution of heavy metals in phases followed the order of sediment > SS > water > PW, having the sum content in water and PW lower than 2% of total. The elevated ecological risk for a single metal and the phase were 34,585 for Cd and 1160 for water, respectively, implied Cd as a priority pollutant in the considered area. According to the CERI, the maximum risk value of 769.3 was smaller than 1160 in water, but higher than those in other phases. Out of considering the water categories and contribution coefficients, the CERI was proved to be more reliable for assessing the pollution of rivers with heavy metals. These results imply that the CERI has a potential of adequate assessment of multi-phase composite metals pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Recreational impacts on Colorado River beaches in Glen Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carothers, Steven W.; Johnson, Robert A.; Dolan, Robert

    1984-07-01

    Recreational impact was measured on eight beaches in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and 15 beaches in Grand Canyon National Park using permanently located transects and plots. Recreational impact indices included densities of human trash and charcoal and a measure of sand discoloration due to charcoal. Significant increases in the indices occurred on several Glen Canyon beaches over a seven-month period. Sand discoloration became significantly higher over all Glen Canyon beaches during the same time period. All indices were significantly higher in Glen Canyon than on similar Grand Canyon beaches. These differences are probably due to differences in: (a) level of impacts tolerated by the respective management regimes and, (b) in the number of user days among the two National Park Service administrative units. Management alternatives are presented for reversing the present trends of recreational impact on Glen Canyon beaches.

  9. The impact of nitrogen contamination and river modification on a Mississippi River floodplain lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karthic, Indu [Box 1099 Environmental Sciences Program, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL 62026 (United States); Brugam, Richard B., E-mail: rbrugam@siue.edu [Box 1651 Department of Biological Sciences, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL 62026 (United States); Retzlaff, William [Box 1099 Environmental Sciences Program, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL 62026 (United States); Johnson, Kevin

    2013-10-01

    Anthropogenic nitrogen contamination has increased in ecosystems around the world (frequently termed the “nitrogen cascade”). Coke production for steel manufacturing is often overlooked as a source of nitrogen to natural ecosystems. We examined sediment cores from a Horseshoe Lake, a floodplain lake located just East of St. Louis Missouri (USA) to test whether a coking plant effluent could be traced using stable isotopes of nitrogen and diatom microfossils. The distribution of δ{sup 15}N values in surface sediment samples from the lake shows the highest values near the coking plant effluent. Stable isotopes of nitrogen from 4 sediment cores using a mixing model showed three sources of nitrogen since 1688 CE. The first source (active between 1688 and 1920 CE) had a calculated δ{sup 15}N value ranging between − 0.4 and 1.1‰ depending on the core. After 1920 a second source with a δ{sup 15}N ranging between 10.6 and 15.4‰ became active. The change in these sources coincides with the construction of a coking plant on the lake shore. A third source with a value approximately 7.0‰ was present at all times and represents background. The diatom microfossil assemblages present from 1688 CE to the late 1800s are dominated by the planktonic species Aulacoseira granulata and periphytic and benthic genera Gomphonema, Cocconeis, and Lyrella. After the late 1800s the diatom assemblages are dominated by Staurosira species indicating a shift of species from high flow riverine environments to epipelic species from a lake environment. Diatom microfossils seem to track the reduction in flooding due to leveeing of the floodplain and the isolation of the lake from the river. Our results show how stable isotopes of nitrogen can be used to track nitrogen inputs from industrial sources. Diatom changes corresponded with changes in connectivity between the Mississippi River and its floodplain. - Highlights: • Effluent from a steel plant increases fixed nitrogen input to a

  10. The impact of nitrogen contamination and river modification on a Mississippi River floodplain lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karthic, Indu; Brugam, Richard B.; Retzlaff, William; Johnson, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic nitrogen contamination has increased in ecosystems around the world (frequently termed the “nitrogen cascade”). Coke production for steel manufacturing is often overlooked as a source of nitrogen to natural ecosystems. We examined sediment cores from a Horseshoe Lake, a floodplain lake located just East of St. Louis Missouri (USA) to test whether a coking plant effluent could be traced using stable isotopes of nitrogen and diatom microfossils. The distribution of δ 15 N values in surface sediment samples from the lake shows the highest values near the coking plant effluent. Stable isotopes of nitrogen from 4 sediment cores using a mixing model showed three sources of nitrogen since 1688 CE. The first source (active between 1688 and 1920 CE) had a calculated δ 15 N value ranging between − 0.4 and 1.1‰ depending on the core. After 1920 a second source with a δ 15 N ranging between 10.6 and 15.4‰ became active. The change in these sources coincides with the construction of a coking plant on the lake shore. A third source with a value approximately 7.0‰ was present at all times and represents background. The diatom microfossil assemblages present from 1688 CE to the late 1800s are dominated by the planktonic species Aulacoseira granulata and periphytic and benthic genera Gomphonema, Cocconeis, and Lyrella. After the late 1800s the diatom assemblages are dominated by Staurosira species indicating a shift of species from high flow riverine environments to epipelic species from a lake environment. Diatom microfossils seem to track the reduction in flooding due to leveeing of the floodplain and the isolation of the lake from the river. Our results show how stable isotopes of nitrogen can be used to track nitrogen inputs from industrial sources. Diatom changes corresponded with changes in connectivity between the Mississippi River and its floodplain. - Highlights: • Effluent from a steel plant increases fixed nitrogen input to a floodplain

  11. Integrated assessment of the impacts of agricultural drainwater in the Salinas River (California, USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, B.S.; Hunt, J.W.; Phillips, B.M.; Nicely, P.A.; Vlaming, V. de; Connor, V.; Richard, N.; Tjeerdema, R.S

    2003-08-01

    Invertebrate mortality was correlated with levels of water and sediment contaminatioin in the Salinas River. - The Salinas River is the largest of the three rivers that drain into the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary in central California. Large areas of this watershed are cultivated year-round in row crops and previous laboratory studies have demonstrated that acute toxicity of agricultural drainwater to Ceriodaphnia dubia is caused by the organophosphate (OP) pesticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon. In the current study, we used a combination of ecotoxicologic tools to investigate incidence of chemical contamination and toxicity in waters and sediments in the river downstream of a previously uncharacterized agricultural drainage creek system. Water column toxicity was investigated using a cladoceran C. dubia while sediment toxicity was investigated using an amphipod Hyalella azteca. Ecological impacts of drainwater were investigated using bioassessments of macroinvertebrate community structure. The results indicated that Salinas River water downstream of the agricultural drain is acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia, and toxicity to this species was highly correlated with combined toxic units (TUs) of chlorpyrifos and diazinon. Laboratory tests were used to demonstrate that sediments in this system were acutely toxic to H. azteca, which is a resident genus. Macroinvertebrate community structure was moderately impacted downstream of the agricultural drain input. While the lowest macroinvertebrate abundances were measured at the station demonstrating the greatest water column and sediment toxicity and the highest concentrations of pesticides, macroinvertebrate metrics were more significantly correlated with bank vegetation cover than any other variable. Results of this study suggest that pesticide pollution is the likely cause of laboratory-measured toxicity in the Salinas River samples and that this factor may interact with other factors to impact the

  12. Integrated assessment of the impacts of agricultural drainwater in the Salinas River (California, USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, B.S.; Hunt, J.W.; Phillips, B.M.; Nicely, P.A.; Vlaming, V. de; Connor, V.; Richard, N.; Tjeerdema, R.S.

    2003-01-01

    Invertebrate mortality was correlated with levels of water and sediment contaminatioin in the Salinas River. - The Salinas River is the largest of the three rivers that drain into the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary in central California. Large areas of this watershed are cultivated year-round in row crops and previous laboratory studies have demonstrated that acute toxicity of agricultural drainwater to Ceriodaphnia dubia is caused by the organophosphate (OP) pesticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon. In the current study, we used a combination of ecotoxicologic tools to investigate incidence of chemical contamination and toxicity in waters and sediments in the river downstream of a previously uncharacterized agricultural drainage creek system. Water column toxicity was investigated using a cladoceran C. dubia while sediment toxicity was investigated using an amphipod Hyalella azteca. Ecological impacts of drainwater were investigated using bioassessments of macroinvertebrate community structure. The results indicated that Salinas River water downstream of the agricultural drain is acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia, and toxicity to this species was highly correlated with combined toxic units (TUs) of chlorpyrifos and diazinon. Laboratory tests were used to demonstrate that sediments in this system were acutely toxic to H. azteca, which is a resident genus. Macroinvertebrate community structure was moderately impacted downstream of the agricultural drain input. While the lowest macroinvertebrate abundances were measured at the station demonstrating the greatest water column and sediment toxicity and the highest concentrations of pesticides, macroinvertebrate metrics were more significantly correlated with bank vegetation cover than any other variable. Results of this study suggest that pesticide pollution is the likely cause of laboratory-measured toxicity in the Salinas River samples and that this factor may interact with other factors to impact the

  13. Sediment discharge of the rivers of Catalonia, NE Spain, and the influence of human impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liquete, Camino; Canals, Miquel; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Arnau, Pedro

    2009-03-01

    SummaryThe environmental and anthropogenic factors controlling sediment delivery to the sea are numerous, intricate and usually difficult to quantify. Mediterranean watersheds are historically amongst the most heavily impacted by human activities in the world. This study analyzes some of these factors for nine river systems from Catalonia, NE Spain, that open into the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, and discusses the results obtained from sediment yield models and sediment concentration data series. General models indicate that the natural suspended sediment yield by individual Catalan rivers ranged within a fork from 94 to 621 t km -2 yr -1. Such a sediment yield would be noticeably reduced (moving the fork to 7-148 t km -2 yr -1) because of lithological factors and direct anthropogenic and, possibly, climatic impacts. Damming, water extraction and urbanization appear as the most important direct anthropogenic impacts in Catalonia. Water discharge and sediment concentration measurements by basin authorities provide much lower sediment yield estimations, from 0.4 to 19.8 t km -2 yr -1, which is probably due to the lack of measured sediment loads during flood events, as it is the case in many other Mediterranean rivers. The Catalan watersheds have some of the smallest runoff values amongst Mediterranean rivers. Of the nine river systems studied, water discharge tends to decrease in two and to increase in one. The other six river systems do not show any clear tendency. Related to climatic parameters, temperature raised in all the watersheds between 1961 and 1990, while precipitation did not show significant trends.

  14. Final Hanford Comprehensive Land-Use Plan Environmental Impact Statement, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-10-01

    This Final ''Hanford Comprehensive Land-Use Plan Environmental Impact Statement'' (HCP EIS) is being used by the Department of Energy (DOE) and its nine cooperating and consulting agencies to develop a comprehensive land-use plan (CLUP) for the Hanford Site. The DOE will use the Final HCP EIS as a basis for a Record of Decision (ROD) on a CLUP for the Hanford Site. While development of the CLUP will be complete with release of the HCP EIS ROD, full implementation of the CLUP is expected to take at least 50 years. Implementation of the CLUP would begin a more detailed planning process for land-use and facility-use decisions at the Hanford Site. The DOE would use the CLUP to screen proposals. Eventually, management of Hanford Site areas would move toward the CLUP land-use goals. This CLUP process could take more than 50 years to fully achieve the land-use goals.

  15. The Impact of Comprehensive School Nursing Services on Students' Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocoglu, Deniz; Emiroglu, Oya Nuran

    2017-03-01

    Introduction: School nursing services should be evaluated through health and academic outcomes of students; however, it is observed that the number of studies in this field is limited. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of comprehensive school nursing services provided to 4th grade primary school students on academic performance of students. Methods: The quasi-experimental study was conducted with 31 students attending a randomly selected school in economic disadvantaged area in Turky. Correlation analysis, repeated measures analyses of variance, multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data with SPSS software. Results: At the end of school nursing practices, an increase was occurred in students' academic achievement grades whereas a decrease was occurred in absenteeism and academic procrastination behaviors. Whilst it was determined that nursing interventions including treatment/ procedure and surveillance was associated to the decrease of absenteeism, it also was discovered that the change in the health status of the student after nursing interventions was related to the increase of the academic achievement grade and the decrease of the academic procrastination behavior score. Conclusion: In this study, the conclusion that comprehensive school nursing services contributed positively to the academic performance of students has been reached. In addition, it can be suggested that effective school nursing services should include services such as acute-chronic disease treatment, first aid, health screening, health improvement-protection, health education, guidance and counseling and case management.

  16. The Impact of Comprehensive School Nursing Services on Students' Academic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Kocoglu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: School nursing services should be evaluated through health and academic outcomes of students; however, it is observed that the number of studies in this field is limited. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of comprehensive school nursing services provided to 4th grade primary school students on academic performance of students. Methods: The quasi-experimental study was conducted with 31 students attending a randomly selected school in economic disadvantaged area in Turky. Correlation analysis, repeated measures analyses of variance, multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data with SPSS software. Results: At the end of school nursing practices, an increase was occurred in students’ academic achievement grades whereas a decrease was occurred in absenteeism and academic procrastination behaviors. Whilst it was determined that nursing interventions including treatment/ procedure and surveillance was associated to the decrease of absenteeism, it also was discovered that the change in the health status of the student after nursing interventions was related to the increase of the academic achievement grade and the decrease of the academic procrastination behavior score. Conclusion: In this study, the conclusion that comprehensive school nursing services contributed positively to the academic performance of students has been reached. In addition, it can be suggested that effective school nursing services should include services such as acute-chronic disease treatment, first aid, health screening, health improvement-protection, health education, guidance and counseling and case management.

  17. Observed Hydrologic Impacts of Landfalling Atmospheric Rivers in the Salt and Verde River Basins of Arizona, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaria, Eleonora M. C.; Dominguez, Francina; Hu, Huancui; von Glinski, Gerd; Robles, Marcos; Skindlov, Jonathan; Walter, James

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs), narrow atmospheric water vapor corridors, can contribute substantially to winter precipitation in the semiarid Southwest U.S., where natural ecosystems and humans compete for over-allocated water resources. We investigate the hydrologic impacts of 122 ARs that occurred in the Salt and Verde river basins in northeastern Arizona during the cold seasons from 1979 to 2009. We focus on the relationship between precipitation, snow water equivalent (SWE), soil moisture, and extreme flooding. During the cold season (October through March) ARs contribute an average of 25%/29% of total seasonal precipitation for the Salt/Verde river basins, respectively. However, they contribute disproportionately to total heavy precipitation and account for 64%/72% of extreme total daily precipitation (exceeding the 98th percentile). Excess precipitation during AR occurrences contributes to snow accumulation; on the other hand, warmer than normal temperatures during AR landfallings are linked to rain-on-snow processes, an increase in the basins' area contributing to runoff generation, and higher melting lines. Although not all AR events are linked to extreme flooding in the basins, they do account for larger runoff coefficients. On average, ARs generate 43% of the annual maximum flows for the period studied, with 25% of the events exceeding the 10 year return period. Our analysis shows that the devastating 1993 flooding event in the region was caused by AR events. These results illustrate the importance of AR activity on the hydrology of inland semiarid regions: ARs are critical for water resources, but they can also lead to extreme flooding that affects infrastructure and human activities.

  18. Analysis of thermal impact in tidal rivers and estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeuser, J.; Eppel, D.; Tanzer, F.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents a far field mathematical model for numerical simulation of transient one or two-dimensional thermal distributions in regions with severe reversing flow conditions. The Eulerian formulation employs the integral form of the conservation principles for mass and thermal energy. The two-dimensional (2 D) solution area is spanned by discrete elements of variable size and shape. The three-dimensional geometry of the flow region is accounted for by spatially intergrating over the enclosure surfaces of the discrete element. The derivation of the two-dimensional depth-averaged temperatur equations includes the constributions of the vertical variations of velocity and temperature. Surface heat transfer as well as turbulent effects are taken into account. Important mathematical and computational features of the model are summarized. There is a discussion of the four main algorithms, necessary to treat flow regions with complex shoreline geometries, viz. (i) specification of the boundary (ii) determination of all discrete element midpoints lying within the (possibly multiconnected) solution area (iii) construction of discrete elements of irregular geometry exactly matching the (curved) boundary, (iv) treatment of boundary condiditons and numerical solution of the resulting mathematical system of weakly coupled, ordinary differential equations derived from the conservation principles. Preliminary results of a computer simulation are compared with the available data for a section of the Lower Elbe river. The calculation of the two-dimensional temperature distribution includes existing power plants and industrial sites. (orig.) [de

  19. Comprehensive Evaluation of dehydration impact on ocular tissue during Ramadan fasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Heravian

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present study aimed to review the effect of dehydration during Ramadan fasting on the health and ocular parameters leading to changes in eye function. Methods: Articles included in the study were taken from Pub Med, Ovid, Web of Science and Google Scholar up to 2014.Related articles were also obtained from scientific journals in fasting and eye. Results: Dehydration and nutrition changes in Ramadan cause an increase in tear osmolarity, ocular aberration, anterior chamber depth, IOL measurement, central corneal thickness, retinal and choroidal thickness. And also a decrease in IOP, tear secretion, and vitreous thickness. Conclusion: Besides many research in relation to effect of dehydration impact on ocular parameters during Ramadan fasting, although the findings reveal it is associated with significant changes on ocular parameters. It seems requisite to have comprehensive study in "fasting and ocular parameters” which will be helpful in making decision and giving plan to the patients.

  20. Impact of entrainment and impingement on fish populations in the Hudson River estuary. Volume I. Entrainment-impact estimates for six fish populations inhabiting the Hudson River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boreman, J.; Barnthouse, L.W.; Vaughn, D.S.; Goodyear, C.P.; Christensen, S.W.; Kumar, K.D.; Kirk, B.L.; Van Winkle, W.

    1982-01-01

    This volume is concerned with the estimation of the direct (or annual) entrainment impact of power plants on populations of striped bass, white perch, Alosa spp. (blueback herring and alewife), American shad, Atlantic tomcod, and bay anchovy in the Hudson River estuary. Entrainment impact results from the killing of fish eggs, larvae, and young juveniles that are contained in the cooling water cycled through a power plant. An Empirical Transport Model (ETM) is presented as the means of estimating a conditional entrainment mortality rate (defined as the fraction of a year class which would be killed due to entrainment in the absence of any other source of mortality). Most of this volume is concerned with the estimation of several parameters required by the ETM: physical input parameters (e.g., power-plant withdrawal flow rates); the longitudinal distribution of ichthyoplankton in time and space; the duration of susceptibility of the vulnerable organisms; the W-factors, which express the ratios of densities of organisms in power plant intakes to densities of organisms in the river; and the entrainment mortality factors (f-factors), which express the probability that an organism will be killed if it is entrained. Once these values are obtained, the ETM is used to estimate entrainment impact for both historical and projected conditions

  1. Seasonal dynamics of phytoplankton in two tropical rivers of varying size and human impact in Southeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okechukwu Idumah Okogwu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton occurrence and dynamics in rivers are mainly shaped by hydrophysical conditions and nutrient availability. Phytoplankton main structuring factors have been poorly studied in West African rivers, and this study was undertaken to identify these conditions in two tropical rivers that vary in size and human impact. For this, environmental variables and phytoplankton monthly samples were collected from the middle reaches of Asu and Cross rivers during an 18 months survey from March 2005-July 2006. Phytoplankton biomass (F=11.87, p=0.003, Shannon-Weiner diversity and species richness (F=5.93, p=0.003 showed significant seasonality in Asu but not in Cross River. Data was analyzed with Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA and showed environmental differences between the two rivers, nitrate in Asu River (5.1-15.5mg/L was significantly higher than Cross River (0.03-1.7mg/L, while PO4 (0.2-0.9mg/L was significantly lower in Asu River compared to Cross River (0.03-2.6mg/L (p<0.05. Eutrophic factors (NO3 determined primarily phytoplankton dynamics in Asu River, especially during the dry season, whereas hydrophysical factors (depth, transparency and temperature shaped phytoplankton in Cross River. Taxa indicative of an eutrophic condition, such as Euglena, Chlorella, Chlorococcus, Ceratium, Peridinium, Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Closterium, Scenedesmus and Pediastrum spp., were frequently encountered in the shallow impounded Asu River, while riverine species, such as Frustulia rhomboids, Gyrosigma sp., Opephora martyr and Surirella splendida dominated Cross River. A succession pattern was observed in the functional groups identified: Na/MP→TB→P (rainy→dry season was observed in Asu River, whereas MP/D predominated in Cross River for both seasons. We concluded that, if nutrients predominate hydrophysical factors in shaping phytoplankton during dry season (half of the year then, they are as important as hydrophysical factors structuring

  2. Environmental impact monitoring of U exploration activity in river water at Kalan Area West Kalimantan 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AS Soediro; A Dedi; A Djuhara; T Wismawati; A Nugroho; S Widarti

    2010-01-01

    U exploration at Kalan (Eko Remaja, Lemajung, Semut) will produce the environment impact of flora, fauna and society. The objective monitoring is to detect and measure the environmental change quality component caused by U exploration activity in river water at Kalan area. The monitoring were done by analyze river water sample were taken at the same place previously year. Analysis river water sample such as Ca, Mg, Fe, Ni, Zn, radioactivity U at Eko Remaja, Lemajung, Semut have shown nearly equal to the result of previous years and still below the limited value. Water quality Kalan (that scale 4.9 for Eko Remaja, Lemajung and 4.8 for Semut, it means, that's safe for environment. (author)

  3. Impacts of Columbia River discharge on salmonid habitat: 2. Changes in shallow-water habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukulka, Tobias; Jay, David A.

    2003-09-01

    This is the second part of an investigation that analyzes human alteration of shallow-water habitat (SWH) available to juvenile salmonids in the tidal Lower Columbia River. Part 2 develops a one-dimensional, subtidal river stage model that explains ˜90% of the stage variance in the tidal river. This model and the tidal model developed in part 1 [, 2003] uncouple the nonlinear interaction of river tides and river stage by referring both to external forcing by river discharge, ocean tides, and atmospheric pressure. Applying the two models, daily high-water levels were predicted for a reach from rkm-50 to rkm-90 during 1974 to 1998, the period of contemporary management. Predicted water levels were related to the bathymetry and topography to determine the changes in shallow-water habitat area (SWHA) caused by flood control dikes and altered flow management. Model results suggest that diking and a >40% reduction of peak flows have reduced SWHA by ˜62% during the crucial spring freshet period during which juvenile salmon use of SWHA is maximal. Taken individually, diking and flow cycle alteration reduced spring freshet SWHA by 52% and 29%, respectively. SWHA has been both displaced to lower elevations and modified in its character because tidal range has increased. Our models of these processes are economical for the very long simulations (seasons to centuries) needed to understand historic changes and climate impacts on SWH. Through analysis of the nonlinear processes controlling surface elevation in a tidal river, we have identified some of the mechanisms that link freshwater discharge to SWH and salmonid survival.

  4. Impacts on river systems under 2 °C warming: Bangladesh Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Zaman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is particularly vulnerable due to the combined impacts of sea level rise, rainfall and runoff variability, and changes in cyclone patterns. This paper presents the application of an integrated modelling framework used to investigate climate change impacts when global averaged surface temperature increases by 2 °C from pre-industrial level. The modelling framework consists of four model types: Regional climate model (RCM, Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM Basin model, Southwest Region Hydrodynamic and Salinity models. Bias corrected climate results (temperature, precipitation and evapotranspiration from SMHI-RCA and CNRM-ARPEGE RCMs for (Representative Concentration Pathway RCP 8.5 scenario were used. The uniqueness of this research study was that the same GCM (General Circulation Model/RCM results were used across the whole modelling chain. In Bagerhat District, it was found that river salinity can increase by about 0.5 to 2 PPT (parts per thousand. Also, the duration of river salinity above 1 PPT can double in some locations. In Kushtia District, in the months of November and December river flows may increase but not sufficiently in other months due to lack of connectivity to the Ganges River. In the flood-prone Shariatpur District, average wet season water level increases up to 0.2 to 0.5 m. Also, duration of flood levels above the established danger level can double in some locations. Finally, this study found that dredging of the mouth of the Gorai River (in Kushtia District is an effective adaptation measure. The dredging ensures connectivity to the Ganges River, which allows freshwater to enter the Southwest region of Bangladesh, which not only alleviates drought conditions in Kushtia Distract but also helps push back saline intrusion.

  5. Trace element fluxes in sediments of an environmentally impacted river from a coastal zone of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Yuri Jacques Agra Bezerra; Cantalice, José Ramon Barros; Singh, Vijay P; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo; Piscoya, Victor Casimiro; Guerra, Sérgio M S

    2015-10-01

    Data regarding trace element concentrations and fluxes in suspended sediments and bedload are scarce. To fill this gap and meet the international need to include polluted rivers in future world estimation of trace element fluxes, this study aimed to determine the trace element fluxes in suspended sediment and bedload of an environmentally impacted river in Brazil. Water, suspended sediment, and bedload from both the upstream and the downstream cross sections were collected. To collect both the suspended sediment and water samples, we used the US DH-48. Bedload measurements were carried out using the US BLH 84 sampler. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined by inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES). As and Hg were determined by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AA-FIAS). The suspended sediments contributed more than 99 % of the trace element flux. By far Pb and to a less extent Zn at the downstream site represents major concerns. The yields of Pb and Zn in suspended sediments were 4.20 and 2.93 kg km(2) year(-1), respectively. These yields were higher than the values reported for Pb and Zn for Tuul River (highly impacted by mining activities), 1.60 and 1.30 kg km(2) year(-1), respectively, as well as the Pb yield (suspended + dissolved) to the sea of some Mediterranean rivers equal to 3.4 kg km(2) year(-1). Therefore, the highest flux and yield of Pb and Zn in Ipojuca River highlighted the importance to include medium and small rivers-often overlooked in global and regional studies-in the future estimation of world trace element fluxes in order to protect estuaries and coastal zones.

  6. Impact of energy development on water resources in the Upper Colorado River Basin. Completion report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flug, M.; Walker, W.R.; Skogerboe, G.V.; Smith, S.W.

    1977-08-01

    The Upper Colorado River Basin contains appreciable amounts of undeveloped coal, oil shale, and uranium resources, which are important in the national energy demand system. A mathematical model, which simulates the salt and water exchange phase of potential fuel conversions, has been developed, based on a subbasin analysis identifying available mineral and water resources. Potential energy developments are evaluated with respect to the resulting impacts upon both the quantity and salinity of the waters in the Colorado River. Model solutions are generated by use of a multilevel minimum cost linear programming algorithm, minimum cost referring to the cost of developing predetermined levels of energy output. Level one in the model analysis represents an aggregation of subbasins along state boundaries and thereby optimizes energy developments over the five states of the Upper Colorado River Basin. In each of the five second level problems, energy developments over a subbasin division within the respective states are optimized. Development policies which use high salinity waters of the Upper Colorado River enable a net salinity reduction to be realized in the Colorado River at Lee Ferry, Arizona

  7. The impact of climate change on river discharges in Eastern Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croitoru, Adina-Eliza; Minea, Ionut

    2014-05-01

    Climate changes imply many changes in different socioeconomic and environmental fields. Among the most important impacts are changes in water resources. Long- and mid-term river discharge flow analysis is essential for the effective management of water resources. In this work, the changes in two climatic parameters (temperature and precipitation) and river discharges and the connections between precipitation and river discharges were investigated. Seasonal and annual climatic and hydrological data collected at six weather stations and 17 hydrological stations were employed. The data sets cover 57 years (1950-2006). The modified Mann-Kendall test was used to calculate trends, and the Bravais-Pearson correlation index was chosen to detect the connections between precipitation and river discharge data series. The main findings are as follows: A general increase was identified in all the three parameters. The air temperature data series showed the highest frequency of statistically significant slopes, mainly in annual and spring series. All data series, except the series for winter, showed an increase in precipitation; in winter, a significant decrease in precipitation was observed at most of the stations. The increase in precipitation is reflected in the upward trends of the river discharge flows, as verified by the good Bravais-Pearson correlations, mainly for annual, summer, and autumn series

  8. The impact of climate changes on rivers discharge in Eastern Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croitoru, Adina-Eliza; Minea, Ionus

    2015-05-01

    Climate changes imply many changes in different socioeconomic and environmental fields. Among the most important impacts are changes in water resources. Long- and mid-term river discharge flow analysis is essential for the effective management of water resources. In this work, the changes in temperature, precipitation, and river discharges as well as the connections between precipitation and river discharges were investigated. Seasonal and annual climatic and hydrological data collected at 6 weather stations and 17 hydrological stations were employed. The data sets cover 57 years (1950-2006). The modified Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope were used to calculate trends and their slopes, whereas the Bravais-Pearson correlation index was chosen to detect the connections between precipitation and river discharge data series. The main findings are as follows: a general increase was identified in all the three variables; the air temperature data series showed the highest frequency of statistically significant slopes, mainly in annual and spring series; all data series, except the series for winter, showed an increase in precipitation, and in winter, a significant decrease in precipitation was observed at most of the stations. The increase in precipitation is reflected in the upward trends of the river discharge flows, as verified by the good Bravais-Pearson correlations, mainly for annual, summer, and autumn series.

  9. Climate Change Impacts on Runoff Regimes at a River Basin Scale in Central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Hoai Nam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Global warming has resulted in significant variability of global climate especially with regard to variation in temperature and precipitation. As a result, it is expected that river flow regimes will be accordingly varied. This study presents a preliminary projection of medium-term and long-term runoff variation caused by climate change at a river basin scale. The large scale precipitation projection at the middle and the end of the 21st century under the A1B scenario simulated by the CGCM model (MRI & JMA, 300 km resolution is statistically downscaled to a basin scale and then used as input for the super-tank model for runoff analysis at the upper Thu Bon River basin in Central Vietnam. Results show that by the middle and the end of this century annual rainfall will increase slightly; together with a rising temperature, potential evapotranspiration is also projected to increase as well. The total annual runoff, as a result, is found to be not distinctly varied relative to the baseline period 1981 - 2000; however, the runoff will decrease in the dry season and increase in the rainy season. The results also indicate the delay tendency of the high river flow period, shifting from Sep-Dec at present to Oct-Jan in the future. The present study demonstrates potential impacts of climate change on streamflow regimes in attempts to propose appropriate adaptation measures and responses at the river basin scales.

  10. The comprehensiveness of environmental management systems: The influence of institutional pressures and the impact on environmental performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Thanh Nguyet; Baird, Kevin

    2015-09-01

    This study contributes to the EMS literature by providing a more detailed insight into the comprehensiveness of environmental management systems (EMSs) by focusing on the intensity of use of environmental management practices. In addition, the study examines the influence of institutional pressures (coercive, mimetic and normative) on the comprehensiveness of environmental management systems (EMSs), and the impact of EMS comprehensiveness on environmental performance. A mail survey questionnaire was used to collect data from a random sample of Australian senior managers across various industries. Both coercive and normative pressures were found to influence the comprehensiveness of EMSs. Specifically, the pressure exerted by the government, through the creation of appropriate regulatory pressures and public incentives, and by employees, customers, professional groups, the media, and community, influenced the comprehensiveness of the EMS. In addition, organisations with more comprehensive EMSs were found to experience higher levels of environmental performance. With more than 300,000 organisations worldwide adopting EMSs (ISO, 2013), the findings provide an important insight into the relevance of EMSs. In particular, it is suggested that organisations should endeavour to implement a more comprehensive EMS and be conscious of the role that coercive and normative pressures play in influencing the comprehensiveness of their EMSs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. People's perception on impacts of hydro-power projects in Bhagirathi river valley, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, G C S; Punetha, Disha

    2017-04-01

    The people's perception on environmental and socio-economic impacts due to three hydro-electric projects (HEPs; commissioned and under construction) were studied in the north-west Indian Himalaya. Surveys among 140 project-affected people (PAPs) using a checklist of impacts indicate that among the negative impacts, decrease in flora/fauna, agriculture, flow of river, aesthetic beauty; and increase in water pollution, river bed quarrying for sand/stone, human settlement on river banks and social evils; and among the positive impacts, increase in standard of living, road connectivity, means of transport, public amenities, tourism and environmental awareness were related with HEPs. The PAPs tend to forget the negative impacts with the age of the HEPs after it becomes functional, and the positive impacts seem to outweigh the negative impacts. Study concludes that it is difficult to separate the compounding impacts due to HEP construction and other anthropogenic and natural factors, and in the absence of cause-and-effect analyses, it is hard to dispel the prevailing notion that HEPs are undesirable in the study area that led to agitations by the environmentalists and stopped construction of one of these HEPs. To overcome the situation, multi-disciplinary scientific studies involving the PAPs need to be carried out in planning and decision-making to make HEPs environment friendly and sustainable in this region. There is also a need to adopt low carbon electric power technologies and promote a decentralized energy strategy through joint ventures between public and private companies utilizing locally available renewable energy resources.

  12. Human pharmaceuticals in Portuguese rivers: The impact of water scarcity in the environmental risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, André M P T; Silva, Liliana J G; Laranjeiro, Célia S M; Meisel, Leonor M; Lino, Celeste M; Pena, Angelina

    2017-12-31

    Pharmaceuticals occurrence and environmental risk assessment were assessed in Portuguese surface waters, evaluating the impact of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and river flow rates. Twenty three pharmaceuticals from 6 therapeutic groups, including metabolites and 1 transformation product, were analysed in 72 samples collected from 20 different sites, upstream and downstream the selected WWTPs, in two different seasons. Analysis was performed by solid phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectroscopy. Pharmaceuticals were detected in 27.8% of the samples. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), anti-inflammatories and antibiotics presented the highest detection frequencies (27.8, 23.6 and 23.6%, respectively) and average concentrations (37.9, 36.1 and 33.5ngL -1 , respectively). When assessing the impact of WWTPs, an increase of 21.4% in the average concentrations was observed in the samples located downstream these facilities, when compared with the upstream samples. Increased detection frequencies and concentrations were observed at lower flow rates, both when comparing summer and winter campaigns and by evaluating the different rivers. Risk quotients (RQs) higher than one were found for two pharmaceuticals, concerning two trophic levels. However, since Iberian rivers are highly influenced by water scarcity, in drought periods, the flow rates in these rivers can decrease at least ten times from the lowest value observed in the sampling campaigns. In these conditions, RQs higher than 1 would be observed for 5 pharmaceuticals, additionally, all the detected pharmaceuticals (11) would present RQs higher than 0.1. These results emphasize that the river flow rate represents an important parameter influencing pharmaceuticals concentrations, highlighting the ecotoxicological pressure, especially due to water scarcity in drought periods. This should be a priority issue in the environmental policies for minimizing its

  13. Management of regional German river catchments (REGFLUD) impact of nitrogen reduction measures on the nitrogen load in the River Ems and the River Rhine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, R; Bogena, H; Goemann, H; Kreins, P; Wendland, F

    2005-01-01

    The REGFLUD-project, commissioned by Germany's Federal Research Ministry (BMBF), addresses the problem of reducing diffuse pollution from agricultural production. The objective of the project is the development and application of multi-criteria scientific methods, which are able to predict diffuse pollution in river basins subject to economic feasibility and social acceptability. The selected river basins (Ems and Rhine basins) cover a variety of landscape units with different hydrological, hydrogeological and socio-economic characteristics. This paper focuses on the analysis of the effects of certain policy measures to reduce diffuse pollution by nitrogen. For this purpose a model system consisting of an agricultural sector model, a water balance model and a residence time/denitrification model was developed and applied. First results indicate a wide range of annual nitrogen surpluses for the rural areas between less than 10 kg N/ha up to 200 kg N/ha or more depending on the type and intensity of farming. Compared to the level of nitrogen surpluses the level of nitrogen inputs into the surface waters is relatively moderate because of degradation processes during transport in soil and groundwater. Policy impact analysis for a nitrogen tax and a limitation of the livestock density stress the importance of regionally tailored measures.

  14. Impact of precipitation and land biophysical variables on the simulated discharge of European and Mediterranean rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczypta, C.; Decharme, B.; Carrer, D.; Calvet, J.-C.; Lafont, S.; Somot, S.; Faroux, S.; Martin, E.

    2012-09-01

    This study investigates the impact on river discharge simulations of errors in the precipitation forcing, together with changes in the representation of vegetation variables and of plant transpiration. The most recent European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts reanalysis (ERA-Interim) is used to drive the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere-Total Runoff Integrating Pathways (ISBA-TRIP) continental hydrological system over Europe and the Mediterranean basin over the 1991-2008 period. As ERA-Interim tends to underestimate precipitation, a number of precipitation corrections are proposed. In particular, the monthly Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) precipitation product is used to bias-correct the 3-hourly ERA-Interim estimates. This correction markedly improves the match between the ISBA-TRIP simulations and the river discharge observations from the Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC), at 150 gauging stations. The impact on TRIP river discharge simulations of various representations of the evapotranspiration in the ISBA land surface model is investigated as well: ISBA is used together with its upgraded carbon flux version (ISBA-A-gs). The latter is either driven by the satellite-derived climatology of the Leaf Area Index (LAI) used by ISBA, or performs prognostic LAI simulations. The ISBA-A-gs model, with or without dynamically simulated LAI, allows a better representation of river discharge at low water levels. On the other hand, ISBA-A-gs does not perform as well as the original ISBA model at springtime.

  15. Climate Change Impacts on Water Availability and Use in the Limpopo River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingju Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the effects of climate change on water availability and use in the Limpopo River Basin of Southern Africa, using a linked modeling system consisting of a semi-distributed global hydrological model and the Water Simulation Module (WSM of the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT. Although the WSM simulates all major water use sectors, the focus of this study is to evaluate the implications of climate change on irrigation water supply in the catchments of the Limpopo River Basin within the four riparian countries: Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa, and Zimbabwe. The analysis found that water resources of the Limpopo River Basin are already stressed under today’s climate conditions. Projected water infrastructure and management interventions are expected to improve the situation by 2050 if current climate conditions continue into the future. However, under the climate change scenarios studied here, water supply availability is expected to worsen considerably by 2050. Assessing hydrological impacts of climate change is crucial given that expansion of irrigated areas has been postulated as a key adaptation strategy for Sub-Saharan Africa. Such expansion will need to take into account future changes in water availability in African river basins.

  16. Impacts of small scale flow regulation on sediment dynamics in an ecologically important upland river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, E; Gibbins, C N; Batalla, R J; Vericat, D

    2015-03-01

    Flow regulation is widely recognized as affecting fluvial processes and river ecosystems. Most impact assessments have focused on large dams and major water transfer schemes, so relatively little is known about the impacts of smaller dams, weirs and water diversions. This paper assesses sediment dynamics in an upland river (the Ehen, NW England) whose flows are regulated by a small weir and tributary diversion. The river is important ecologically due to the presence of the endangered freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera, a species known to be sensitive to sedimentary conditions. Fine sediment yield for the 300-m long study reach was estimated to be 0.057 t km(-2) year(-1), a very low value relative to other upland UK rivers. Mean in-channel storage of fine sediment was also low, estimated at an average of around 40 g m(-2). Although the study period was characterized by frequent high flow events, little movement of coarser bed material was observed. Data therefore indicate an extremely stable fluvial system within the study reach. The implication of this stability for pearl mussels is discussed.

  17. Hydrological impacts of precipitation extremes in the Huaihe River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mangen; Chen, Xing; Cheng, Chad Shouquan

    2016-01-01

    Precipitation extremes play a key role in flooding risks over the Huaihe River Basin, which is important to understand their hydrological impacts. Based on observed daily precipitation and streamflow data from 1958 to 2009, eight precipitation indices and three streamflow indices were calculated for the study of hydrological impacts of precipitation extremes. The results indicate that the wet condition intensified in the summer wet season and the drought condition was getting worse in the autumn dry season in the later years of the past 50 years. The river basin had experienced higher heavy rainfall-related flooding risks in summer and more severe drought in autumn in the later of the period. The extreme precipitation events or consecutive heavy rain day events led to the substantial increases in streamflow extremes, which are the main causes of frequent floods in the Huaihe River Basin. The large inter-annual variation of precipitation anomalies in the upper and central Huaihe River Basin are the major contributor for the regional frequent floods and droughts.

  18. The assessment of eco-design with a comprehensive index incorporating environmental impact and economic profit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuo; Fu, Yun; Wang, Xiuteng; Xu, Bingsheng; Li, Zheng

    2017-11-01

    Eco-design is an advanced design approach which plays an important part in the national innovation project and serves as a key point for the successful transformation of the supply structure. However, the practical implementation of the pro-environmental designs and technologies always faces a dilemma situation, where some processes can effectively control their emissions to protect the environment at relatively high costs, while others pursue the individual interest in making profit by ignoring the possible adverse environmental impacts. Thus, the assessment on the eco-design process must be carried out based on the comprehensive consideration of the economic and environmental aspects. Presently, the assessment systems in China are unable to fully reflect the new environmental technologies regarding their innovative features or performance. Most of the assessment systems adopt scoring method based on the judgments of the experts, which are easy to use but somewhat subjective. The assessment method presented in this paper includes the environmental impact (EI) assessment based on LCA principal and willingness-to-pay theory, and economic profit (EP) assessment mainly based on market price. The results from the assessment are in the form of EI/EP, which evaluate the targeted process from a combined perspective of environmental and economic performance. A case study was carried out upon the utilization process of coal fly ash, which indicates the proposed method can compare different technical processes in an effective and objective manner, and provide explicit and insightful suggestions for decision making.

  19. Presenting a comprehensive market oriented model and evaluating its impact on organization performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taqi Amini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Like other innovative strategies, companies have paid more attention to market oriented strategies in recent years. This has been focused by organizations for improved effectiveness and the organization performance accelerated a lot in business competition. In responding to this fact, organizations are trying to formulate many of the issues familiar to large organizations, which have involved with market oriented strategy planning. This paper reviews key elements in market-oriented strategy planning with regard to competitiveness and performance in large organizations and outlines a comprehensive model for strategy planning in profit organizations. These elements include environment, top management, organization structure and market oriented strategy. Professional question of this study has a particularly important role in formulating relations of this model. These elements are well positioned to evaluate the impact of market-oriented strategy planning on organizations and their expected impacts on organization performance. A well-organized questionnaire to help organizations with their planning is proposed in this survey. Based on the proposed questionnaire, data obtained from Tehran food industry experts and analyzed by using SEM method. Results accepted eight hypotheses and rejected one.

  20. The impact of comprehensive geriatric assessment interventions on tolerance to chemotherapy in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi, T; Babic-Illman, G; Ross, P J; Maisey, N R; Hughes, S; Fields, P; Martin, F C; Wang, Y; Harari, D

    2015-04-28

    Although comorbidities are identified in routine oncology practice, intervention plans for the coexisting needs of older people receiving chemotherapy are rarely made. This study evaluates the impact of geriatrician-delivered comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) interventions on chemotherapy toxicity and tolerance for older people with cancer. Comparative study of two cohorts of older patients (aged 70+ years) undergoing chemotherapy in a London Hospital. The observational control group (N=70, October 2010-July 2012) received standard oncology care. The intervention group (N=65, September 2011-February 2013) underwent risk stratification using a patient-completed screening questionnaire and high-risk patients received CGA. Impact of CGA interventions on chemotherapy tolerance outcomes and grade 3+ toxicity rate were evaluated. Outcomes were adjusted for age, comorbidity, metastatic disease and initial dose reductions. Intervention participants undergoing CGA received mean of 6.2±2.6 (range 0-15) CGA intervention plans each. They were more likely to complete cancer treatment as planned (odds ratio (OR) 4.14 (95% CI: 1.50-11.42), P=0.006) and fewer required treatment modifications (OR 0.34 (95% CI: 0.16-0.73), P=0.006). Overall grade 3+ toxicity rate was 43.8% in the intervention group and 52.9% in the control (P=0.292). Geriatrician-led CGA interventions were associated with improved chemotherapy tolerance. Standard oncology care should shift towards modifying coexisting conditions to optimise chemotherapy outcomes for older people.

  1. Lower Snake River Juvenile Salmon Migration Feasibility Report/Environmental Impact Statement. Appendix D: Natural River Drawdown Engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ... (collectively called the Lower Snake River Project) and their effects on four lower Snake River salmon and steelhead stocks listed for protection under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The U.S...

  2. Impacts of Environmental Variables on a Phytoplankton Community: A Case Study of the Tributaries of a Subtropical River, Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaojiang Hou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The phytoplankton community in the river is closely related to the location of the river and the impact of human activities. To summarize the patterns of phytoplankton community changes in rivers and to analyze the reasons for these patterns and differences, we sampled the three tributaries of the Dongjiang River at different latitudes in the dry and rainy season for three years. The results showed that the three rivers were mesotrophic, lightly eutrophic and moderately eutrophic respectively. From the south to the north, the water temperature and nutrition showed an increasing trend. In two different seasons, the differences in the water temperature and dissolved oxygen were clear. In the dry season, results of the multidimensional scaling (MDS analysis indicated that the phytoplankton community structures in the Li River and Qiuxiang River were similar. Regardless of the number of species, the cell abundance or the dominance index, Bacillariophyta were found to be dominant. Chlorophyta was dominant in the Danshui River. In the rainy season, Bacillariophyta, Bacillariophyta-Chlorophyta and Chlorophyta-Cyanophyta became the dominant types in the Li River, Qiuxiang River and Danshui River, respectively. These different patterns in phytoplankton community variation were affected by both the water quality and temperature.

  3. Columbia River system operation review. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This study attempts to identify and analyze the impacts of the System Operating Strategy (SOS) alternatives on cultural resources. The impacts include effects on Native American traditional cultural values, properties and practices. They also include effects on archeological or historic properties meeting the criteria of the National Register of Historic Places. In addition to responding to the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), this analysis addresses the requirements of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA), the Archeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA), the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), the Native American Religious Freedom Act (NARFA), and other relevant legislation. To meet their legally mandated cultural resources requirements, the SOR agencies will develop agreements and Implementation Plans with the appropriate State Historic Preservation Officers (SHPOs), Tribes, and the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) detailing the measures necessary to best manage the resource. The planning and implementation activities will be staged over a number of years in consultation with affected Tribes

  4. Temporal variations in natural attenuation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons in eutrophic river sediments impacted by a contaminated groundwater plume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamonts, K.; Kuhn, T.; Vos, J.; Maesen, M.; Kalka, H.; Smidt, H.; Springael, D.; Meckenstock, R.U.; Dejonghe, W.

    2012-01-01

    Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) often discharge into rivers as contaminated groundwater base flow. Biotrans formation, sorption and dilution of CAHs in the impacted river sediments have been reported to reduce discharge, but the effect of temporal variations in environmental conditions on

  5. Impact of Argumentation in the Chemistry Laboratory on Conceptual Comprehension of Turkish Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Riza Sekerci

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research is to evaluate the impact of argumentation in the chemistry laboratory on conceptual comprehension of students. This research follows a triangulation design, categorized under mixed-method design variations, which include both qualitative and quantitative research designs. The research is conducted with 91 first grade university students studying in two different classes of the Department of Science Education, Kazım Karabekir Education Faculty at the Ataturk University, located in eastern Turkey. One class was randomly designated as the experimental group, with another as the control group. Research data was collected via a General Chemistry Laboratory Concept Test (GCLCT containing 33 items, a test containing ten open-ended items, a semi-structured interview form, and a written feedback form, all designed by the researchers. Data from the GCLCT were analyzed through predictive statistics method, while data from the open-ended questions, semi-structured interview and written feedback form were analyzed through the descriptive analysis method. It is concluded from this research, that there is statistically significant difference between the GCLC post-test averages of the experimental and control groups. It was found that when compared to the control group, the proportion of experimental group students who answered the GCLC post-test items correctly is higher. In addition to this, the proportion of students who demonstrated misconceptions were higher in the control group students compared to the experimental group. It is concluded by this research, that argumentation provides more effective results in terms of comprehension of fundamental chemistry concepts, when compared to a traditional approach.

  6. Predicting Impact of Climate Change on Water Temperature and Dissolved Oxygen in Tropical Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Amin Danladi Bello

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Predicting the impact of climate change and human activities on river systems is imperative for effective management of aquatic ecosystems. Unique information can be derived that is critical to the survival of aquatic species under dynamic environmental conditions. Therefore, the response of a tropical river system under climate and land-use changes from the aspects of water temperature and dissolved oxygen concentration were evaluated. Nine designed projected climate change scenarios and three future land-use scenarios were integrated into the Hydrological Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF model to determine the impact of climate change and land-use on water temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO concentration using basin-wide simulation of river system in Malaysia. The model performance coefficients showed a good correlation between simulated and observed streamflow, water temperature, and DO concentration in a monthly time step simulation. The Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency for streamflow was 0.88 for the calibration period and 0.82 for validation period. For water temperature and DO concentration, data from three stations were calibrated and the Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency for both water temperature and DO ranged from 0.53 to 0.70. The output of the calibrated model under climate change scenarios show that increased rainfall and air temperature do not affects DO concentration and water temperature as much as the condition of a decrease in rainfall and increase in air temperature. The regression model on changes in streamflow, DO concentration, and water temperature under the climate change scenarios illustrates that scenarios that produce high to moderate streamflow, produce small predicted change in water temperatures and DO concentrations compared with the scenarios that produced a low streamflow. It was observed that climate change slightly affects the relationship between water temperatures and DO concentrations in the tropical rivers that we

  7. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Captive Broodstock Program Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2000-05-24

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund the Tucannon River Spring Chinook Captive Broodstock Program, a small-scale production initiative designed to increase numbers of a weak but potentially recoverable population of spring chinook salmon in the Tucannon River in the State of Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-l326) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  8. An Analytic Equation Partitioning Climate Variation and Human Impacts on River Sediment Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Gao, G.; Fu, B.

    2017-12-01

    Spatial or temporal patterns and process-based equations could co-exist in hydrologic model. Yet, existing approaches quantifying the impacts of those variables on river sediment load (RSL) changes are found to be severely limited, and new ways to evaluate the contribution of these variables are thus needed. Actually, the Newtonian modeling is hardly achievable for this process due to the limitation of both observations and knowledge of mechanisms, whereas laws based on the Darwinian approach could provide one component of a developed hydrologic model. Since that streamflow is the carrier of suspended sediment, sediment load changes are documented in changes of streamflow and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) - water discharge relationships. Consequently, an analytic equation for river sediment load changes are proposed to explicitly quantify the relative contributions of climate variation and direct human impacts on river sediment load changes. Initially, the sediment rating curve, which is of great significance in RSL changes analysis, was decomposed as probability distribution of streamflow and the corresponding SSC - water discharge relationships at equally spaced discharge classes. Furthermore, a proposed segmentation algorithm based on the fractal theory was used to decompose RSL changes attributed to these two portions. Additionally, the water balance framework was utilized and the corresponding elastic parameters were calculated. Finally, changes in climate variables (i.e. precipitation and potential evapotranspiration) and direct human impacts on river sediment load could be figured out. By data simulation, the efficiency of the segmentation algorithm was verified. The analytic equation provides a superior Darwinian approach partitioning climate and human impacts on RSL changes, as only data series of precipitation, potential evapotranspiration and SSC - water discharge are demanded.

  9. Climate Change Impacts on Water Availability and Use in the Limpopo River Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Tingju Zhu; Claudia Ringler

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of climate change on water availability and use in the Limpopo River Basin of Southern Africa, using a linked modeling system consisting of a semi-distributed global hydrological model and the Water Simulation Module (WSM) of the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT). Although the WSM simulates all major water use sectors, the focus of this study is to evaluate the implications of climate change on irrigation wat...

  10. Human impact on the historical change of CO2 degassing flux in River Changjiang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jing

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The impact of water quality changes in River Changjiang (formally known as the Yangtze River on dissolved CO2 and silicate concentrations and seasonal carbon flux in the past several decades (1960s–2000 was evaluated, based on monitoring data from hydrographic gauge. It was found that dissolved CO2 and silicate in Changjiang decreased dramatically during this decades, as opposed to a marked increase in nutrient (e.g. NO3- concentrations. Our analyses revealed that dissolved CO2 in Changjiang was over-saturated with the atmosphere CO2, and its concentration had showed a declining trend since the 1960s, despite that fluvial DIC flux had maintained stable. Analysis results also suggested that the decrease in dissolved CO2 concentration was attributed to changes on the riverine trophic level and river damming activities in the Changjiang drainage basin. Due to the economic innovation (e.g. agriculture and industry development across the Changjiang watershed, fertilizers application and river regulations have significantly altered the original state of the river. Its ecosystem and hydrological condition have been evolving toward the "lacustrine/reservoir" autotrophic type prevailing with plankton. Accordingly, average CO2 diffusing flux to the atmosphere from the river had been reduced by three-fourth from the 1960s to 1990s, with the flux value being down to 14.2 mol.m-2.yr-1 in the 1990s. For a rough estimate, approximately 15.3 Mt of carbon was degassed annually into the atmosphere from the entire Changjiang drainage basin in the 1990s.

  11. Climate change impact on the river runoff: regional study for the Central Asian Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agaitseva, Natalya

    2004-01-01

    The water resources of the Aral Sea Basin are jointly used by the Central Asian states. The river flow is concentrated in the two largest transboundary rivers: the Amudarya and Syrdarya Rivers, which run down from the mountains to the plains, cross the deserts and flow into the Aral Sea. Uzbekistan is the major water consumer in the Aral Sea Basin. In accordance with interstate agreements, on average 43-52 km 2 of water per year as allotted for use by Uzbekistan from the boundary rivers. About 90% of river flow is formed beyond Uzbekistan boundaries. Under current conditions, water resource shortages in Uzbekistan, even a small but stable reduction of these resources presents a drastic problem. The degree of impact of possible climate changes on the regime of mountain rivers of the Central Asia can be evaluated by sufficiently reliable mathematical models of the runoff formation in mountains. The basic mathematical model describes a complete cycle of the runoff formation, reflecting the main factors and processes: precipitation, dynamics of a snow cover, evaporation, contribution of melting and rain water to the catchment, glacial runoff, runoff transformation and losses in basin. The model complex consists of the model Of snow cover formation in the mountains basin, model of glacial runoff and model of snow melt and rainfall water inflow transformation in runoff. Model calculations of snow reserves in the mountains under different climatic scenarios have demonstrated their gradual decrease due to growing aridity of the climate. Contribution of the snow is expected to decrease by 15-30%1 especially for rivers, which are snow-fed. At present, the annual glacial runoff of the rivers of the Syrdarya River basin amounts to 8-15%. Under different prognoses,,, increase in this flow of up to 20% is expected. Contribution of glacial runoff to the rivers of the Amudarya River basin might grow 32-39% under the most 'severe' climatic scenarios. During the cropping season, an

  12. Impact of former uranium mining activities on the floodplains of the Mulde River, Saxony, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bister, S.; Birkhan, J.; Lüllau, T.; Bunka, M.; Solle, A.; Stieghorst, C.; Riebe, B.; Michel, R.; Walther, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Mulde River drains the former uranium mining areas in Saxony (Germany), which has led to a large-scale contamination of the river and the adjacent floodplain soils with radionuclides of the uranium decay series. The objective of the investigation is to quantify the long-term effect of former uranium mining activities on a river system. All of the investigated environmental compartments (water, sediment, soil) still reveal an impact from the former uranium mining and milling activities. The contamination of water has decreased considerably during the last 20 years due to the operation of water treatment facilities. The uranium content of the sediments decreased as well (on average by a factor of 5.6), most likely caused by displacement of contaminated material during flood events. Currently, the impact of the mining activities is most obvious in soils. For some of the plots activity concentrations of >200 Bq/kg of soil were detected for uranium-238. Alluvial soils used as grassland were found to be contaminated to a higher degree than those used as cropland. - Highlights: • Water, sediments, and soils affected by uranium mining were investigated. • All environmental compartments still reveal an impact of former uranium mining. • Contamination of water and sediment has decreased over the past 20 years. • Alluvial soils under pasture are higher contaminated than those from cropland

  13. Impact of impingement on the Hudson River white perch population. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Van Winkle, W.; Kirk, B.L.; Vaughan, D.S.

    1982-02-01

    This report summarizes a series of analyses of the magnitude and biological significance of the impingement of white perch at the Indian Point Nuclear Generating Station and other Hudson River power plants. Included in these analyses were evaluations of: (1) two independent lines of evidence relating to the magnitude of impingement impacts on the Hudson River white perch population; (2) the additional impact caused by entrainment of white perch; (3) data relating to density-dependent growth among young-of-the-year white perch; (4) the feasibility of performing population-level analyses of impingement impacts on the white perch populations of Chesapeake Bay and the Delaware River; and (5) the feasibility of using simple food chain and food web models to evaluate community-level effects of impingement and entrainment. Estimated reductions in the abundances of the 1974 and 1975 white perch year classes, caused by impingement and entrainment, were high enough that the possibility of adverse long-term effects cannot be excluded.

  14. Comprehensive evaluation of the main technology for new sewage treatment plants in small towns along the Duliujian river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiming; Zhou, Beihai; Yuan, Rongfang; Bao, Xiangming; Li, Dongwei

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, water contamination problem has been becoming more and more serious due to increasing wastewater discharge. So our country has accelerated the pace of constructing sewage treatment plant in small towns. But in China it has not been issued any corresponding technical specifications about the choice of treatment technology. So the article is based on the basin of Duliujian river, through field research, data collection and analysis of relevant documentations, preliminarily elects seven kinds of technology: Improved A2/O, Integrated oxidation ditch, Orbal oxidation ditch, CASS, A/O+refined diatomite, BIOLAK and UNITANK as alternatives for Tianjin sewage discharge local standard.Then the article use the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to evaluate the seven kinds of alternatives, finally it is concluded that CASS technology is most suitable for the main technology of new sewage treatment plants in small towns along the Duliujian River basin.

  15. Geochemical Dataset of the Rhone River Delta (Lake Geneva) Sediments - Disentangling Human Impacts from Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T. A.; Girardclos, S.; Loizeau, J. L.

    2016-12-01

    Lake sediment records are often the most complete continental archives. In the last 200 years, in addition to climatic variability, humans have strongly impacted lake watersheds around the world. During the 20th century the Rhone River and its watershed upstream Lake Geneva (Switzerland/France) have been subject to river channelization, dam construction, water flow regulation, water and sediment abstraction as well as various land use changes. Under the scope of the SEDFATE project (Swiss National Science Foundation nº147689) we address human and climatic impact on the sediment transfer from the Rhone River watershed to Lake Geneva. Nineteen short sediment cores were collected in the Rhone River delta area in May 2014. Cores have been scanned with MSCL and XRF, sub-sampled every 1cm and 8 cores were dated by radiometric methods (137Cs and 210Pb). Photographs taken right after core opening were used for lithological description and in addition to MSCL data were used to correlate cores. Core dating shows that mass accumulation rates decreased in the 1964-1986 interval and then increased again in the interval between 1986-2014. XRF elements and ratios, known to indicate detrital sources (Al, Al/Si, Fe, K, Mn, Rb, Si, Ti, Ti/Ca), show that clastic input diminished from 1964 to 1986 and re-increased to the present. Other elemental (Zr/Rb, Zr/K, Si/Ti) and geophysical data (magnetic susceptibility) combined with lithology identify density flow deposits vs hemipelagic sedimentation. Changes in frequency of these event deposits indicate changes in the sedimentation patterns in the Rhone River sublacustrine delta during the last century. From these results we hypothesize that a significant sediment amount was abstracted from the system after the major dam constructions in the 1950's and that, since the 1990's, a contrary signal is due to increased sediment loads that follows glacial melting due to global warming.

  16. Impacts of Declining Mississippi River Sediment Load on Subaqueous Delta Front Sedimentation and Geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, J. M.; Bentley, S. J.; Xu, K.; Georgiou, I. Y.; Miner, M. D.

    2016-02-01

    The Mississippi River delta system is undergoing unprecedented changes due to the effects of climate change and anthropogenic alterations to the river and its delta. Since the 1950s, the suspended sediment load of the Mississippi River has decreased by approximately 50% due to the construction of >50,000 dams in the Mississippi basin. The impact of this decreased sediment load has been observed in subaerial environments, but the impact on sedimentation and geomorphology of the subaqueous delta front has yet to be examined. To identify historic trends in sedimentation patterns, we compiled bathymetric datasets, including historical charts, industry and academic surveys, and NOAA data, collected between 1764 and 2009. Sedimentation rates are variable across the delta front, but are highest near the mouth of Southwest Pass, which carries the largest percentage of Mississippi River flow and sediment into the Gulf of Mexico. The progradation rate of Southwest Pass (measured at the 10 m depth contour) has slowed from 67 m/yr between 1764 and 1940 to 26 m/yr between 1940 and 1979, with evidence of further deceleration from 1979-2009. Decreased rates of progradation are also observed at South Pass and Pass A Loutre, with the 10 m contour retreating at rates >20 m/yr at both passes. Advancement of the delta front also decelerated in deeper water (15-90 m) offshore from Southwest Pass. In this area, from 1940-1979, depth contours advanced seaward 30 m/yr, but rates declined from 1979-2005. Furthermore, over the same area, the sediment accumulation rate decreased by 81% for the same period. The Mississippi River delta front appears to be entering a phase of decline, which will likely be accelerated by future upstream management practices. This decline has implications for offshore ecosystems, biogeochemical cycling, pollutant dispersal, mudflow hazard, and the continued use of the delta as an economic and population center.

  17. Modal Investment Comparison : The Impact of Upper Mississippi River Lock and Dam Shutdowns on State Highway Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-30

    This project reviews southbound agricultural shipments from the Upper Mississippi River originating from the states of Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, and Wisconsin to understand the potential impacts of shifting barge shipments to the parallel ...

  18. Land Use and River Degradation Impact of Sand and Gravel Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syah, Putra Rizal Ichsan; Hartuti, Purnaweni

    2018-02-01

    Sand and gravel mining is aimed at providing materials for infrastructure development, as well as providing economical source to the miners. However, the impacts of sand and gravel mining could also cause disturbances to ecological balance, since it is closely related to land use change and river degradation, besides causing conflicts in the miners, the government, and the private relationship. Therefore the government regulation and proper supervision are needed to preserve the ecological balance and decreasing the negative impacts of this mining, and therefore guarantee sustainable development.

  19. Impact of hydrological alterations on river-groundwater exchange and water quality in a semi-arid area: Nueces River, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgulet, Dorina; Murgulet, Valeriu; Spalt, Nicholas; Douglas, Audrey; Hay, Richard G

    2016-12-01

    There is a lack of understanding and methods for assessing the effects of anthropogenic disruptions, (i.e. river fragmentation due to dam construction) on the extent and degree of groundwater-surface water interaction and geochemical processes affecting the quality of water in semi-arid, coastal catchments. This study applied a novel combination of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and elemental and isotope geochemistry in a coastal river disturbed by extended drought and periodic flooding due to the operation of multiple dams. Geochemical analyses show that the saltwater barrier causes an increase in salinity in surface water in the downstream river as a result of limited freshwater inflows, strong evaporation effects on shallow groundwater and mostly stagnant river water, and is not due to saltwater intrusion by tidal flooding. Discharge from bank storage is dominant (~84%) in the downstream fragment and its contribution could increase salinity levels within the hyporheic zone and surface water. When surface water levels go up due to upstream freshwater releases the river temporarily displaces high salinity water trapped in the hyporheic zone to the underlying aquifer. Geochemical modeling shows a higher contribution of distant and deeper groundwater (~40%) in the upstream river and lower discharge from bank storage (~13%) through the hyporheic zone. Recharge from bank storage is a source of high salt to both upstream and downstream portions of the river but its contribution is higher below the dam. Continuous ERT imaging of the river bed complements geochemistry findings and indicate that while lithologically similar, downstream of the dam, the shallow aquifer is affected by salinization while fresher water saturates the aquifer in the upstream fragment. The relative contribution of flows (i.e. surface water releases or groundwater discharge) as related to the river fragmentation control changes of streamwater chemistry and likely impact the interpretation

  20. Spatial-temporal fluvial morphology analysis in the Quelite river: It's impact on communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Judith; Gracia, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    SummaryDuring 2008 and 2009 heavy rainfall took place around the Mazatlan County in the Sinaloa state, Mexico, with a return period (Tr) between 50 and 100 years. As a result, the region and its infrastructure, such as the railways and highways (designed for a Tr = 20 years) were severely exposed to floods and, as a consequence damage caused by debris and sediments dragged into the channel. One of the highest levels of damage to the infrastructure was observed in the columns of Quelite River railway's bridge. This is catastrophic as the railway is very important for trade within the state and also among other states in Mexico and in the USA. In order to understand the impact of the flooding and to avoid the rail system being damaged it is necessary to analyse how significant the changes in the river channel have been. This analysis looks at the definition of the main channel and its floodplain as a result of the sediment variability, not only at the bridge area, but also upstream and downstream. The Quelite River study considers the integration of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing data to map, recognise and assess the spatio-temporal change channel morphology. This increases the effectiveness of using different types of geospatial data with in situ measurements such as hydrological data. Thus, this paper is an assessment of a 20 years study period carried out using historical Landsat images and aerial photographs as well as recent Spot images. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of local topography and flow volumes were also used. The results show the Quelite River is an active river with a high suspended sediment load and migration of meanders associated to heavy rainfall. The river also has several deep alluvial floodplain channels which modified the geometry and other morphological characteristics of the channel in the downstream direction. After the identification of the channel changes, their causes and solutions to control, the channel

  1. Combined sewer overflows impact on water quality and environmental ecosystem in the Harlem River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) discharge untreated sewage into the Harlem River during wet weather conditions, and it elevated nutrients and pathogen levels. It is not safe for swimming, fishing or boating especially in rainstorms. The Harlem River, a 9.3 mile long natural straight, connects the Hudson and East Rivers in New York City. It had been historically used for swimming, fishing, boating. Anthropogenic impacts have degraded water quality, limiting current aquatic activity in the river. CSOs water samples were collected during rainstorms, and analyzed in the laboratories of the Chemistry and Biology Department, Bronx Community College, City University of New York. Results showed elevated bacteria/pathogen and nutrient levels. Most recent data showed an ammonia concentration of 2.6 mg/L on July 30, 2015 during a heavy afternoon thunderstorm, and an ammonia level 2.7mg/L during tropical storm Arthur on July 2, 2014. Both significantly exceeded the EPA regulation level for NYC waters of 0.23mg/L. Phosphate levels peaked at 0.197 mg/L during a heavy thunderstorm on Apr 28, 2011, which was much higher than regulated level of 0.033 mg/L. Turbidity was 319 FAU during the July 30 2015 heavy thunderstorm, and was 882 FAU during tropical storm Arthur; which was significantly higher than regulation level of 5.25 FAU. CSOs collected during a recent heavy rainstorm on Oct 28, 2015, showed fecal coliform of 1 million MPN/100ml, E.Coli. of 60,000 MPN/100ml, and enterococcus of 65,000 MPN/100ml; which exceeded regulated levels of fecal coliform-200 MPN/100ml, E.Coli.-126 MPN/100ml, enterococcus-104 MPN/100ml. It is critical to reduce CSOs, restore ecosystem and improve water quality of the Harlem River. Green wall, green roof, and wetland had been used to reduce stormwater runoff & CSOs in the Bronx River; these green infrastructures are going to be used along the Harlem River waterfront as well. The goal of this research is to make the Harlem River swimmable and fishable

  2. Laboratory Assessment of Potential Impacts to Dungeness Crabs from Disposal of Dredged Material from the Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vavrinec, John; Pearson, Walter H.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Skalski, J. R.; Lee, Cheegwan; Hall, Kathleen D.; Romano, Brett A.; Miller, Martin C.; Khangaonkar, Tarang P.

    2007-05-07

    Dredging of the Columbia River navigation channel has raised concerns about dredging-related impacts on Dungeness crabs (Cancer magister) in the estuary, mouth of the estuary, and nearshore ocean areas adjacent to the Columbia River. The Portland District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers engaged the Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to review the state of knowledge and conduct studies concerning impacts on Dungeness crabs resulting from disposal during the Columbia River Channel Improvement Project and annual maintenance dredging in the mouth of the Columbia River. The present study concerns potential effects on Dungeness crabs from dredged material disposal specific to the mouth of the Columbia River.

  3. Comprehensive analysis of the carbon impacts of vehicle intelligent speed control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carslaw, David C.; Goodman, Paul S.; Lai, Frank C. H.; Carsten, Oliver M. J.

    2010-07-01

    In recent years sophisticated technologies have been developed to control vehicle speed based on the type of road the vehicle is driven on using Global Positioning Systems and in-car technology that can alter the speed of the vehicle. While reducing the speed of road vehicles is primarily of interest from a safety perspective, vehicle speed is also an important determinant of vehicle emissions and thus these technologies can be expected to have impacts on a range of exhaust emissions. This work analyses the results from a very large, comprehensive field trial that used 20 instrumented vehicles with and without speed control driven almost 500,000 km measuring vehicle speed at 10 Hz. We develop individual vehicle modal emissions models for CO 2 for 30 Euro III and Euro IV cars at a 1-Hz time resolution. Generalized Additive Models were used to describe how emissions from individual vehicles vary depending on their driving conditions, taking account of variable interactions and time-lag effects. We quantify the impact that vehicle speed control has on-vehicle emissions of CO 2 by road type, fuel type and driver behaviour. Savings in CO 2 of ≈6% were found on average for motorway-type roads when mandatory speed control was used compared with base case conditions. For most other types of road, speed control has very little effect on emissions of CO 2 and in some cases can result in increased emissions for low-speed limit urban roads. We also find that there is on average a 20% difference in CO 2 emission between the lowest and highest emitting driver, which highlights the importance of driver behaviour in general as a means of reducing emissions of CO 2.

  4. Developing a Comprehensive Spectral-Biogeochemical Database of Midwestern Rivers for Water Quality Retrieval Using Remote Sensing Data: A Case Study of the Wabash River and Its Tributary, Indiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Tan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive spectral-biogeochemical database was developed for the Wabash River and the Tippecanoe River in Indiana, United States. This database includes spectral measurements of river water, coincident in situ measurements of water quality parameters (chlorophyll (chl, non-algal particles (NAP, and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM, nutrients (total nitrogen (TN, total phosphorus (TP, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC, water-column inherent optical properties (IOPs, water depths, substrate types, and bottom reflectance spectra collected in summer 2014. With this dataset, the temporal variability of water quality observations was first analyzed and studied. Second, radiative transfer models were inverted to retrieve water quality parameters using a look-up table (LUT based spectrum matching methodology. Results found that the temporal variability of water quality parameters and nutrients in the Wabash River was closely associated with hydrologic conditions. Meanwhile, there were no significant correlations found between these parameters and streamflow for the Tippecanoe River, due to the two upstream reservoirs, which increase the settling of sediment and uptake of nutrients. The poor relationship between CDOM and DOC indicates that most DOC in the rivers was from human sources such as wastewater. It was also found that the source of water (surface runoff or combined sewer overflow (CSO, water temperature, and nutrients were important factors controlling instream concentrations of phytoplankton. The LUT retrieved NAP concentrations were in good agreement with field measurements with slope close to 1.0 and the average estimation error was 4.1% of independently obtained lab measurements. The error for chl estimation was larger (37.7%, which is attributed to the fact that the specific absorption spectrum of chl was not well represented in this study. The LUT retrievals for CDOM experienced large variability, probably due to the small data

  5. The impact of semiconductor, electronics and optoelectronic industries on downstream perfluorinated chemical contamination in Taiwanese rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Panchangam, Sri Chandana; Lo, Chao-Chun

    2009-01-01

    This study provides the first evidence on the influence of the semiconductor and electronics industries on perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) contamination in receiving rivers. We have quantified ten PFCs, including perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFASs: PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs: PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFDoA) in semiconductor, electronic, and optoelectronic industrial wastewaters and their receiving water bodies (Taiwan's Keya, Touchien, and Xiaoli rivers). PFOS was found to be the major constituent in semiconductor wastewaters (up to 0.13 mg/L). However, different PFC distributions were found in electronics plant wastewaters; PFOA was the most significant PFC, contributing on average 72% to the effluent water samples, followed by PFOS (16%) and PFDA (9%). The distribution of PFCs in the receiving rivers was greatly impacted by industrial sources. PFOS, PFOA and PFDA were predominant and prevalent in all the river samples, with PFOS detected at the highest concentrations (up to 5.4 μg/L). - The semiconductor, electronics and optoelectronic industries are the primary source of PFC contamination in downstream aqueous environments

  6. Mentum deformities in Chironomidae communities as indicators of anthropogenic impacts in Swartkops River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odume, O. N.; Muller, W. J.; Palmer, C. G.; Arimoro, F. O.

    Swartkops River is located in Eastern Cape of South Africa and drains a heavily industrialised catchment and has suffered deterioration in water quality due to pollution. Water quality impairment in the Swartkops River has impacted on its biota. Deformities in the mouth parts of larval Chironomidae, particularly of the mentum, represent sub-lethal effects of exposure to pollutants, and were therefore employed as indictors of pollution in the Swartkops River. Chironomid larvae were collected using the South African Scoring System version 5 (SASS5) protocol. A total of 4838 larvae, representing 26 taxa from four sampling sites during four seasons were screened for mentum deformities. The community incidences of mentum deformity were consistently higher than 8% at Sites 2-4, indicating pollution stress in the river. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) conducted on arcsine transformed data revealed that the mean community incidence of mentum deformity was significantly higher (p 0.05) between seasons across sites. Severe deformities were consistently higher at Site 3. Strong correlations were found between deformity indices and the concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO), total inorganic nitrogen (TIN), orthophosphate-phosphorus (PO4-P), electrical conductivity (EC) and turbidity.

  7. Cr-isotope fractionation during oxidative weathering of ultramafic rocks and its impact on river waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulukat, Cora Stefanie; Døssing, Lasse Nørbye; Mondal, Sisir K.

    We investigated Cr isotope fractionation during soil formation from Precambrian ultramafic rocks. A soil profile was logged in an active open-cast chromite mine (Sukinda Valley, India). In addition, mine and river waters, as well as seawater were collected to trace the Cr-isotope signal...... values as heavy as +1.33±0.05‰. Where the drainage water merges with the river water, a slightly positively fractionated δ53Cr value (0.03±0.019‰) reflects a mixed isotope signal. With increasing distance from the mine, river water δ53Cr again becomes increasingly positively fractionated, indicating...... into the sea. The aim of the study is to recognize Cr isotope fractionation processes within the mining-area and the impact of the mine runoff on the δ53Cr of the nearby river. The weathering profile shows a distinct upward trend to more negative δ53Cr values. While the well preserved rocks at the base closely...

  8. The impact of semiconductor, electronics and optoelectronic industries on downstream perfluorinated chemical contamination in Taiwanese rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Panchangam, Sri Chandana; Lo, Chao-Chun

    2009-04-01

    This study provides the first evidence on the influence of the semiconductor and electronics industries on perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) contamination in receiving rivers. We have quantified ten PFCs, including perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFASs: PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs: PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFDoA) in semiconductor, electronic, and optoelectronic industrial wastewaters and their receiving water bodies (Taiwan's Keya, Touchien, and Xiaoli rivers). PFOS was found to be the major constituent in semiconductor wastewaters (up to 0.13 mg/L). However, different PFC distributions were found in electronics plant wastewaters; PFOA was the most significant PFC, contributing on average 72% to the effluent water samples, followed by PFOS (16%) and PFDA (9%). The distribution of PFCs in the receiving rivers was greatly impacted by industrial sources. PFOS, PFOA and PFDA were predominant and prevalent in all the river samples, with PFOS detected at the highest concentrations (up to 5.4 microg/L).

  9. The Impact of Differentiated Instructional Materials on English Language Learner (ELL) Students' Comprehension of Science Laboratory Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manavathu, Marian; Zhou, George

    2012-01-01

    Through a qualitative research design, this article investigates the impacts of differentiated laboratory instructional materials on English language learners' (ELLs) laboratory task comprehension. The factors affecting ELLs' science learning experiences are further explored. Data analysis reveals a greater degree of laboratory task comprehension…

  10. The Impact of Interface on ESL Reading Comprehension and Strategy Use: A Comparison of E-Books and Paper Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Sarah A.

    2017-01-01

    The use of e-books in postsecondary education is projected to increase, yet many English as a second language (ESL) institutions have not yet incorporated e-books into their curricula, in part due to a dearth of research regarding their potential impacts on ESL reading comprehension and strategy use. This study fills a gap in the existing research…

  11. The Development of Children's Algebraic Thinking: The Impact of a Comprehensive Early Algebra Intervention in Third Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Maria; Stephens, Ana; Knuth, Eric; Gardiner, Angela Murphy; Isler, Isil; Kim, Jee-Seon

    2015-01-01

    This article reports results from a study investigating the impact of a sustained, comprehensive early algebra intervention in third grade. Participants included 106 students; 39 received the early algebra intervention, and 67 received their district's regularly planned mathematics instruction. We share and discuss students' responses to a written…

  12. Human impacts on sediment in the Yangtze River: A review and new perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H. F.; Yang, S. L.; Xu, K. H.; Milliman, J. D.; Wang, H.; Yang, Z.; Chen, Z.; Zhang, C. Y.

    2018-03-01

    Changes in riverine suspended and riverbed sediments have environmental, ecological and social implications. Here, we provide a holistic review of water and sediment transport and examine the human impacts on the flux, concentration and size of sediment in the Yangtze River in recent decades. We find that most of the fluvial sediment has been trapped in reservoirs, except for the finest portion. Furthermore, soil-conservation since the 1990s has reduced sediment yield. From 1956-1968 (pre-dam period) to 2013-2015 (post-dams and soil-conservation), the sediment discharge from the sub-basins decreased by 91%; in the main river, the sediment flux decreased by 99% at Xiangjiaba (upper reach), 97% at Yichang (transition between upper and middle reaches), 83% at Hankou (middle reach), and 77% at Datong (tidal limit). Because the water discharge was minimally impacted, the suspended sediment concentration decreased to the same extent as the sediment flux. Active erosion of the riverbed and coarsening of surficial sediments were observed in the middle and lower reaches. Fining of suspended sediments was identified along the river, which was counteracted by downstream erosion. Along the 700-km-long Three Gorges Reservoir, which retained 80% of the sediment from upstream, the riverbed gravel or rock was buried by mud because of sedimentation after impoundment. Along with these temporal variations, the striking spatial patterns of riverine suspended and riverbed sediments that were previously exhibited in this large basin were destroyed or reversed. Therefore, we conclude that the human impacts on sediment in the Yangtze River are strong and systematic.

  13. Quantifying uncertainty in the impacts of climate change on river discharge in sub-catchments of the Yangtze and Yellow River Basins, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Xu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative evaluations of the impacts of climate change on water resources are primarily constrained by uncertainty in climate projections from GCMs. In this study we assess uncertainty in the impacts of climate change on river discharge in two catchments of the Yangtze and Yellow River Basins that feature contrasting climate regimes (humid and semi-arid. Specifically we quantify uncertainty associated with GCM structure from a subset of CMIP3 AR4 GCMs (HadCM3, HadGEM1, CCSM3.0, IPSL, ECHAM5, CSIRO, CGCM3.1, SRES emissions scenarios (A1B, A2, B1, B2 and prescribed increases in global mean air temperature (1 °C to 6 °C. Climate projections, applied to semi-distributed hydrological models (SWAT 2005 in both catchments, indicate trends toward warmer and wetter conditions. For prescribed warming scenarios of 1 °C to 6 °C, linear increases in mean annual river discharge, relative to baseline (1961–1990, for the River Xiangxi and River Huangfuchuan are +9% and 11% per +1 °C respectively. Intra-annual changes include increases in flood (Q05 discharges for both rivers as well as a shift in the timing of flood discharges from summer to autumn and a rise (24 to 93% in dry season (Q95 discharge for the River Xiangxi. Differences in projections of mean annual river discharge between SRES emission scenarios using HadCM3 are comparatively minor for the River Xiangxi (13 to 17% rise from baseline but substantial (73 to 121% for the River Huangfuchuan. With one minor exception of a slight (−2% decrease in river discharge projected using HadGEM1 for the River Xiangxi, mean annual river discharge is projected to increase in both catchments under both the SRES A1B emission scenario and 2° rise in global mean air temperature using all AR4 GCMs on the CMIP3 subset. For the River Xiangxi, there is substantial uncertainty associated with GCM structure in the magnitude of the rise in flood (Q05 discharges (−1 to 41% under SRES A1B and −3 to 41% under 2

  14. Tracking an atmospheric river in a warmer climate: from water vapor to economic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Francina; Dall'erba, Sandy; Huang, Shuyi; Avelino, Andre; Mehran, Ali; Hu, Huancui; Schmidt, Arthur; Schick, Lawrence; Lettenmaier, Dennis

    2018-03-01

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) account for more than 75 % of heavy precipitation events and nearly all of the extreme flooding events along the Olympic Mountains and western Cascade Mountains of western Washington state. In a warmer climate, ARs in this region are projected to become more frequent and intense, primarily due to increases in atmospheric water vapor. However, it is unclear how the changes in water vapor transport will affect regional flooding and associated economic impacts. In this work we present an integrated modeling system to quantify the atmospheric-hydrologic-hydraulic and economic impacts of the December 2007 AR event that impacted the Chehalis River basin in western Washington. We use the modeling system to project impacts under a hypothetical scenario in which the same December 2007 event occurs in a warmer climate. This method allows us to incorporate different types of uncertainty, including (a) alternative future radiative forcings, (b) different responses of the climate system to future radiative forcings and (c) different responses of the surface hydrologic system. In the warming scenario, AR integrated vapor transport increases; however, these changes do not translate into generalized increases in precipitation throughout the basin. The changes in precipitation translate into spatially heterogeneous changes in sub-basin runoff and increased streamflow along the entire Chehalis main stem. Economic losses due to stock damages increase moderately, but losses in terms of business interruption are significant. Our integrated modeling tool provides communities in the Chehalis region with a range of possible future physical and economic impacts associated with AR flooding.

  15. Sediment impact assessment of check-dam removal strategies on a mountain river in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, W.; Wang, H.; Stark, C. P.

    2011-12-01

    Dam removal is important for reconnecting river habitats and restoring the free flow of water and sediment, so managing accumulated sediments is crucial in dam removal planning as the cost and potential impacts of dam removal can vary substantially depending on local conditions. A key uncertainty in dam removal is the fate of reservoir sediment stored upstream of the dam. Release of impounded sediment could raise downstream bed elevations leading to flooding, increase lateral channel mobility leading to bank erosion, and potentially bury downstream ecologically sensitive habitats if the sediment is fine. The ability to predict the sediment impacts of dam removal in highly sediment-filled systems is thus increasingly important as the number of such dam-removal cases is growing. Due to the safety concerns and the need for habitat restoration for the Formosan landlocked salmon, the Shei-Pa National Park in Taiwan removed the 15m high Chijiawan "No. 1 Check Dam" in late May 2011. During the planning process prior to removal, we conducted field surveys, numerical simulations, and flume experiments to determine sediment impacts and to suggest appropriate dam removal strategies. We collected river-bed topography and sediment bulk samples in 2010 to establish the channel geometry and grain-size distribution for modeling input. The scaled flume experiment was designed to provide insights on how and if the position of a notch location and size would affect the rate and amount of reservoir erosion under particular discharges. Observations indicated that choices of notch location can force the river to migrate differently. For long-term prediction, we used the quasi-two-dimensional numerical model NETSTARS (Network of Stream Tube model for Alluvial River Simulation) to simulate the channel responses. These simulations indicated that high suspended sediment concentrations would be the most likely major concern in the first year, while concerns for downstream sediment deposition

  16. Impacts of glycolate and formate radiolysis and thermolysis on hydrogen generation rate calculations for the Savannah River Site tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-14

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) personnel requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluate available data and determine its applicability to defining the impact of planned glycolate anion additions to Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) on Tank Farm flammability (primarily with regard to H2 production). Flammability evaluations of formate anion, which is already present in SRS waste, were also needed. This report describes the impacts of glycolate and formate radiolysis and thermolysis on Hydrogen Generation Rate (HGR) calculations for the SRS Tank Farm.

  17. Climate Change Impacts on Rivers and Implications for Electricity Generation in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miara, A.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Macknick, J.; Corsi, F.; Cohen, S. M.; Tidwell, V. C.; Newmark, R. L.; Prousevitch, A.

    2015-12-01

    The contemporary power sector in the United States is heavily reliant on water resources to provide cooling water for thermoelectric generation. Efficient thermoelectric plant operations require large volumes of water at sufficiently cool temperatures for their cooling process. The total amount of water that is withdrawn or consumed for cooling and any potential declines in efficiencies are determined by the sector's fuel mix and cooling technologies. As such, the impact of climate change, and the extent of impact, on the power sector is shaped by the choice of electricity generation technologies that will be built over the coming decades. In this study, we model potential changes in river discharge and temperature in the contiguous US under a set of climate scenarios to year 2050 using the Water Balance Model-Thermoelectric Power and Thermal Pollution Model (WBM-TP2M). Together, these models quantify, in high-resolution (3-min), river temperatures, discharge and power plant efficiency losses associated with changes in available cooling water that incorporates climate, hydrology, river network dynamics and multi-plant impacts, on both single power plant and regional scales. Results are used to assess the aptness and vulnerability of contemporary and alternative electricity generation pathways to changes in climate and water availability for cooling purposes, and the concomitant impacts on power plant operating efficiencies. We assess the potential impacts by comparing six regions (Northeast, Southeast, Midwest, Great Plains, Southwest, Northwest as in the National Climate Assessment (2014)) across the US. These experiments allow us to assess tradeoffs among electricity-water-climate to provide useful insight for decision-makers managing regional power production and aquatic environments.

  18. Mapping the social impacts of small dams: The case of Thailand's Ing River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Zali; Pomun, Teerapong; Charles, Katrina J; Kirchherr, Julian

    2018-05-24

    The social impacts of large dams have been studied extensively. However, small dams' social impacts have been largely neglected by the academic community. Our paper addresses this gap. We examine the social impacts of multiple small dams in one upstream and one downstream village in Thailand's Ing River basin. Our research is based on semi-structured interviews with beneficiaries, government and NGOs. We argue that small dams' social impacts are multi-faceted and unequal. The dams were perceived to reduce fish abundance and provide flood mitigation benefits. Furthermore, the dams enabled increased access to irrigation water for upstream farmers, who re-appropriated water via the dams at the expense of those downstream. The small dams thus engendered water allocation conflicts. Many scholars, practitioners and environmentalists argue that small dams are a benign alternative to large dams. However, the results of our research mandate caution regarding this claim.

  19. Future Health and Economic Impact of Comprehensive Tobacco Control in DoD: A Microsimulation Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenya; Zou, Quan; Tan, Eleonora; Watkins, Lachlan; Beronja, Kaleigh; Hogan, Paul F; Elenberg, Kimberly

    2018-01-01

    Tobacco use is a major concern to the Military Health System of the Department of Defense (DoD). The 2011 DoD Health Related Behavior Survey reported that 24.5% of active duty personnel are current smokers, which is higher than the national estimate of 20.6% for the civilian population. Overall, it is estimated that tobacco use costs the DoD $1.6 billion a year through related medical care, increased hospitalization, and lost days of work, among others. This study evaluated future health outcomes of Tricare Prime beneficiaries aged 18-64 yr (N = 3.2 million, including active duty and retired military members and their dependents) and the potential economic impact of initiatives that DoD may take to further its effort to transform the military into a tobacco-free environment. Our analysis simulated the future smoking status, risk of developing 25 smoking-related diseases, and associated medical costs for each individual using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo microsimulation model. Data sources included Tricare administrative data, national data such as Centers for Disease Control and Prevention mortality data and National Cancer Institute's cancer registry data, as well as relative risks of diseases obtained from a literature review. We found that the prevalence of active smoking among the Tricare Prime population will decrease from about 24% in 2015 to 18% in 2020 under a status quo scenario. However, if a comprehensive tobacco control initiative that includes a 5% price increase, a tighter clean air policy, and an intensified media campaign were to be implemented between 2016 and 2020, the prevalence of smoking could further decrease to 16%. The near 2 percentage points reduction in smoking prevalence represents an additional 81,240 quitters and translates to a total lifetime medical cost savings (in 2016 present value) of $968 million, with 39% ($382 million) attributable to Tricare savings. A comprehensive tobacco control policy within the DoD could significantly

  20. The impact of soil amendments on greenhouse gas emissions: a comprehensive life cycle assessment approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLonge, M. S.; Ryals, R.; Silver, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    Soil amendments, such as compost and manure, can be applied to grasslands to improve soil conditions and enhance aboveground net primary productivity. Applying such amendments can also lead to soil carbon (C) sequestration and, when materials are diverted from waste streams (e.g., landfills, manure lagoons), can offset greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, amendment production and application is also associated with GHG emissions, and the net impact of these amendments remains unclear. To investigate the potential for soil amendments to reduce net GHG emissions, we developed a comprehensive, field-scale life cycle assessment (LCA) model. The LCA includes GHG (i.e., CO2, CH4, N2O) emissions of soil amendment production, application, and ecosystem response. Emissions avoided by diverting materials from landfills or manure management systems are also considered. We developed the model using field observations from grazed annual grassland in northern California (e.g., soil C; above- and belowground net primary productivity; C:N ratios; trace gas emissions from soils, manure piles, and composting), CENTURY model simulations (e.g., long-term soil C and trace gas emissions from soils under various land management strategies), and literature values (e.g., GHG emissions from transportation, inorganic fertilizer production, composting, and enteric fermentation). The LCA quantifies and contrasts the potential net GHG impacts of applying compost, manure, and commercial inorganic fertilizer to grazing lands. To estimate the LCA uncertainty, sensitivity tests were performed on the most widely ranging or highly uncertain parameters (e.g., compost materials, landfill emissions, manure management system emissions). Finally, our results are scaled-up to assess the feasibility and potential impacts of large-scale adoption of soil amendment application as a land-management strategy in California. Our base case results indicate that C sinks and emissions offsets associated with

  1. VIDRARU RESERVOIR, ROMANIA. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF THE HYDROTEHNICAL CONSTRUCTIONS ON THE UPPER COURSE OF ARGES RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ana MITITELU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Having an important hydrographic system, with a significant discharge potential and being located in a place that has all the forms of relief, the basin Arges is, at present, one of the most complex hydroelectric facilities from all the rivers with reservoirs in the country. Vidraru reservoir is the biggest of its 11 reservoirs. The information (data about the management of the water in Walachia dates from the year 1576, and the oldest writing about protection against floods is known as the “Ipsilantis canal”, which stated that the big waters of Dambovita river were deviated at Lunguletu in the riverbed of Ciorogarla rivulet and dates from 1774.The effects caused by the hydrotehnical constructions on the environment are numerous and profound, both positive and negative. In this essay, the analysis of the environmental impact of the hydrotehnical facilities on Arges River is made from two perspectives. The first method of analysis is the Water Directive 2000/60 and the second method is basd on a SWOT analysis, a method taken from the economy, but very efficient in establishing the current state, and also the perpective of this environemental impact.

  2. Impact of former uranium mining activities on the floodplains of the Mulde River, Saxony, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bister, S; Birkhan, J; Lüllau, T; Bunka, M; Solle, A; Stieghorst, C; Riebe, B; Michel, R; Walther, C

    2015-06-01

    The Mulde River drains the former uranium mining areas in Saxony (Germany), which has led to a large-scale contamination of the river and the adjacent floodplain soils with radionuclides of the uranium decay series. The objective of the investigation is to quantify the long-term effect of former uranium mining activities on a river system. All of the investigated environmental compartments (water, sediment, soil) still reveal an impact from the former uranium mining and milling activities. The contamination of water has decreased considerably during the last 20 years due to the operation of water treatment facilities. The uranium content of the sediments decreased as well (on average by a factor of 5.6), most likely caused by displacement of contaminated material during flood events. Currently, the impact of the mining activities is most obvious in soils. For some of the plots activity concentrations of >200 Bq/kg of soil were detected for uranium-238. Alluvial soils used as grassland were found to be contaminated to a higher degree than those used as cropland. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hydrological impacts of climate change on the Tejo and Guadiana Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilsby, C. G.; Tellier, S. S.; Fowler, H. J.; Howels, T. R.

    2007-05-01

    A distributed daily rainfall runoff model is applied to the Tejo and Guadiana river basins in Spain and Portugal to simulate the effects of climate change on runoff production, river flows and water resource availability with results aggregated to the monthly level. The model is calibrated, validated and then used for a series of climate change impact assessments for the period 2070 2100. Future scenarios are derived from the HadRM3H regional climate model (RCM) using two techniques: firstly a bias-corrected RCM output, with monthly mean correction factors calculated from observed rainfall records; and, secondly, a circulation-pattern-based stochastic rainfall model. Major reductions in rainfall and streamflow are projected throughout the year; these results differ from those for previous studies where winter increases are projected. Despite uncertainties in the representation of heavily managed river systems, the projected impacts are serious and pose major threats to the maintenance of bipartite water treaties between Spain and Portugal and the supply of water to urban and rural regions of Portugal.

  4. Hydrological impacts of climate change on the Tejo and Guadiana Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A distributed daily rainfall–runoff model is applied to the Tejo and Guadiana river basins in Spain and Portugal to simulate the effects of climate change on runoff production, river flows and water resource availability with results aggregated to the monthly level. The model is calibrated, validated and then used for a series of climate change impact assessments for the period 2070–2100. Future scenarios are derived from the HadRM3H regional climate model (RCM using two techniques: firstly a bias-corrected RCM output, with monthly mean correction factors calculated from observed rainfall records; and, secondly, a circulation-pattern-based stochastic rainfall model. Major reductions in rainfall and streamflow are projected throughout the year; these results differ from those for previous studies where winter increases are projected. Despite uncertainties in the representation of heavily managed river systems, the projected impacts are serious and pose major threats to the maintenance of bipartite water treaties between Spain and Portugal and the supply of water to urban and rural regions of Portugal.

  5. Impact of Ichthyophonus infection on spawning success of Yukon River Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamazaki, Toshihide; Kahler, Eryn; Borba, Bonnie M; Burton, Tamara

    2013-11-06

    We examined the impacts of Ichthyophonus infection on spawning success of Yukon River Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha at spawning grounds of the Chena and Salcha Rivers, Alaska, USA. During the period 2005 to 2006, 1281 salmon carcasses (628 male, 652 female) were collected throughout the spawning season and from the entire spawning reaches of the Chena and Salcha Rivers. For each fish, infection status was determined by culture method and visual inspection of lesions of heart tissue as uninfected (culture negative), infected without lesions (culture positive with no visible lesions), and infected with lesions (culture positive with visible lesions), and spawning status was determined by visually inspecting the percentage of gametes remaining as full-spawned (50%). Among the 3 groups, the proportion of full-spawned (i.e. spawning success) females was lower for those infected without lesions (69%) than those uninfected (87%) and infected with lesions (86%), but this did not apply to males (uninfected 42%, infected without lesions 38%, infected with lesions 41%). At the population level, the combined (infected and uninfected) proportion of female spawning success was 86%, compared to 87% when all females were assumed uninfected. These data suggest that while Ichthyophonus infection slightly reduces spawning success of infected females, its impact on the spawning population as a whole appears minimal.

  6. The response of macroinvertebrate community taxa and functional groups to pollution along a heavily impacted river in Central Europe (Bilina River, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Orendt, C.; Wolfram, G.; Adámek, Zdeněk; Jurajda, Pavel; Schmitt-Jansen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 1 (2012), s. 180-199 ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : community analysis * functional community * taxonomic community * multiple pollution * multi-stress * macroinvertebrates * Central Europe * lower mountain river * EU-WFD Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.506, year: 2012

  7. Why understanding the impacts of the changing environment on river basin hydrology matters in Texas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, H.; Zhao, G.; Lee, K.; Zhang, S.; Shen, X.; Shao, M.; Nickelson, C.

    2017-12-01

    The State of Texas is prone to floods and droughts—both of which are expected to become more frequent, and more intensified, under a changing climate. This has a direct negative effect on agricultural productivity, which is a major revenue source for the state. Meanwhile, with the rapid population growth and economic development, the burden to Texas water resources is exacerbated by the ever increasing demands from users. From a hydrological processes perspective, the direct consequence of the increased impervious area due to urbanization is greater surface runoff and higher flood peaks. Although many reservoirs have been built during the past several decades to regulate river flows and increase water supply, the role of these reservoirs in the context of different future climate change and urbanization scenarios needs to be explored. Furthermore, phytoplankton productivity—an important indicator of coastal ecosystem health— is significantly affected by river discharge. The objective of this presentation is to reveal the importance of understanding the impacts of climate change, urbanization, and flow regulation on Texas river flows, water resources, and coastal water quality. Using state-of-the-art modeling and remote sensing techniques, we will showcase our results over representative Texas river basins and bay areas. A few examples include modeling peak flows in the San Antonio River Basin, evaluating water supply resilience under future drought and urbanization over the Dallas metropolitan area, projecting future crop yields from Texas agricultural lands, and monitoring and forecasting Chlorophyll-a concentrations over Galveston Bay. Results from these studies are expected to provide information relevant to decision making, both with regard to water resources management and to ecosystem protection.

  8. Interim Columbia and Snake rivers flow improvement measures for salmon: Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    Public comments are sought on this final SEIS, which supplements the 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis (OA)/Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The Corps of Engineers, in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation proposes five alternatives to improve flows of water in the lower Columbia-Snake rivers in 1993 and future years to assist the migration of juvenile and adult anadromous fish past eight hydropower dams. These are: (1) Without Project (no action) Alternative, (2) the 1992 Operation, (3) the 1992 Operation with Libby/Hungry Horse Sensitivity, (4) a Modified 1992 Operation with Improvements to Salmon Flows from Dworshak, and (5) a Modified 1992 Operation with Upper Snake Sensitivity. Alternative 4, Modified 1992 Operations, has been identified as the preferred alternative.

  9. When nature frowns: A comprehensive impact assessment of the 2012 Babessi floods on people’s livelihoods in rural Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland A. Balgah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Floods are the most common natural disasters worldwide. Much of the growing literature on the impact of floods, especially in developed countries, and to a lesser extent in rural areas of developing countries, concentrates on economic rather than a comprehensive assessment of combined effects on people’s livelihoods. Holistic floods impact assessments are often done long after the shock, raising problems of data reliability following long recall periods, although post-disaster needs assessments when carried out earlier can facilitate appropriate disaster recovery, relief and reconstruction activities. We applied the sustainable livelihoods framework as a comprehensive approach to assess the impacts of the Babessi floods in 2012 on livelihoods in rural (north western region of Cameroon 6 weeks after the floods. Using a structured questionnaire, data was collected from victims before and after the floods, using recall methods. A matched sample of nonvictims randomly selected from the same village as the victims was used to assess vulnerability to the floods by household type. Floods were found to have serious economic, social, human and food security impacts on victims. Both government and nongovernmental support were jointly crucial for household recovery. Comparatively observed high levels of recovery were attributed to the low loss of human lives. The article concludes with the need for comprehensive approaches to floods impact assessments. The need for combining formal and informal instruments in post-disaster management in rural areas is also emphasised.

  10. The Impact of Cooperative Listening Materials Adaptation on Listening Comprehension Performance of Iranian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi, Mojtaba

    2013-01-01

    Listening comprehension has gained more prominence in EFL/ESL classes. Due to this prominence, scholars have tried to shed light on different ways of improving learners' listening comprehension. One of these ways is using listening strategies. There is still a controversy over the effective role of these strategies in improving listening…

  11. Reading comprehension in deaf children: the impact of the mode of acquisition of word meanings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wauters, L.N.

    2005-01-01

    The present volume reports on research on reading comprehension in deaf children and adolescents in the Netherlands. The average reading comprehension scores of deaf children and adolescents are found to be shockingly low. To find an explanation for these low scores, two central factors in reading

  12. The Potential for Dams to Impact Lowland Meandering River Floodplain Geomorphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M. Marren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the world's floodplains are dammed. Although some implications of dams for riverine ecology and for river channel morphology are well understood, there is less research on the impacts of dams on floodplain geomorphology. We review studies from dammed and undammed rivers and include influences on vertical and lateral accretion, meander migration and cutoff formation, avulsion, and interactions with floodplain vegetation. The results are synthesized into a conceptual model of the effects of dams on the major geomorphic influences on floodplain development. This model is used to assess the likely consequences of eight dam and flow regulation scenarios for floodplain geomorphology. Sediment starvation downstream of dams has perhaps the greatest potential to impact on floodplain development. Such effects will persist further downstream where tributary sediment inputs are relatively low and there is minimal buffering by alluvial sediment stores. We can identify several ways in which floodplains might potentially be affected by dams, with varying degrees of confidence, including a distinction between passive impacts (floodplain disconnection and active impacts (changes in geomorphological processes and functioning. These active processes are likely to have more serious implications for floodplain function and emphasize both the need for future research and the need for an “environmental sediment regime” to operate alongside environmental flows.

  13. The potential for dams to impact lowland meandering river floodplain geomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marren, Philip M; Grove, James R; Webb, J Angus; Stewardson, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The majority of the world's floodplains are dammed. Although some implications of dams for riverine ecology and for river channel morphology are well understood, there is less research on the impacts of dams on floodplain geomorphology. We review studies from dammed and undammed rivers and include influences on vertical and lateral accretion, meander migration and cutoff formation, avulsion, and interactions with floodplain vegetation. The results are synthesized into a conceptual model of the effects of dams on the major geomorphic influences on floodplain development. This model is used to assess the likely consequences of eight dam and flow regulation scenarios for floodplain geomorphology. Sediment starvation downstream of dams has perhaps the greatest potential to impact on floodplain development. Such effects will persist further downstream where tributary sediment inputs are relatively low and there is minimal buffering by alluvial sediment stores. We can identify several ways in which floodplains might potentially be affected by dams, with varying degrees of confidence, including a distinction between passive impacts (floodplain disconnection) and active impacts (changes in geomorphological processes and functioning). These active processes are likely to have more serious implications for floodplain function and emphasize both the need for future research and the need for an "environmental sediment regime" to operate alongside environmental flows.

  14. Global impacts of the meat trade on in-stream organic river pollution: the importance of spatially distributed hydrological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yingrong; Schoups, Gerrit; van de Giesen, Nick

    2018-01-01

    In many regions of the world, intensive livestock farming has become a significant source of organic river pollution. As the international meat trade is growing rapidly, the environmental impacts of meat production within one country can occur either domestically or internationally. The goal of this paper is to quantify the impacts of the international meat trade on global organic river pollution at multiple scales (national, regional and gridded). Using the biological oxygen demand (BOD) as an overall indicator of organic river pollution, we compute the spatially distributed organic pollution in global river networks with and without a meat trade, where the without-trade scenario assumes that meat imports are replaced by local production. Our analysis reveals a reduction in the livestock population and production of organic pollutants at the global scale as a result of the international meat trade. However, the actual environmental impact of trade, as quantified by in-stream BOD concentrations, is negative; i.e. we find a slight increase in polluted river segments. More importantly, our results show large spatial variability in local (grid-scale) impacts that do not correlate with local changes in BOD loading, which illustrates: (1) the significance of accounting for the spatial heterogeneity of hydrological processes along river networks, and (2) the limited value of looking at country-level or global averages when estimating the actual impacts of trade on the environment.

  15. Modeling and Analysis of Sea-level Rise Impacts on Salinity in the Lower St. Johns River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacopoulos, P.

    2015-12-01

    There is deliberate attention being paid to studying sea-level rise impacts on the lower St. Johns River, a drowned coastal plain-type estuary with low topographic drive, located in northeastern Florida. One area of attention is salinity in the river, which influences the entire food web, including sea and marsh grasses, juvenile crustaceans and fishes, wading birds and migratory waterfowl, marine mammals and other predator animals. It is expected that elevated ocean levels will increase the salinity of the estuarine waters, leading to deleterious effects on dependent species of the river biology. The objective of the modeling and analysis was: 1) to establish baseline conditions of salinity for the lower St. Johns River; and 2) to examine future conditions of salinity, as impacted by sea-level rise. Establishing baseline conditions entailed validation of the model for present-day salinity in the lower St. Johns River via comparison to available data. Examining future conditions entailed application of the model for sea-level rise scenarios, with comparison to the baseline conditions, for evaluation of sea-level rise impacts on salinity. While the central focus was on the physics of sea-level rise impacts on salinity, some level of salinity-biological assessment was conducted to identify sea-level rise/salinity thresholds, as related to negatively impacting different species of the river biology.

  16. Distribution and Identification of Sources of Heavy Metals in the Voghji River Basin Impacted by Mining Activities (Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Gabrielyan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to assess the distribution of heavy metals in the waters and sediments of the Voghji River and its tributaries impacted by mining activity and to reveal the real source of each of the heavy metals in the environment for assessing the pollution level of heavy metals. Voghji River with two main tributaries (Geghi and Norashenik drain two mining regions. To identify distribution and pollution sources of heavy metals, the water and sediment samples were collected from eight sampling sites. The results of statistical analysis based on data sets of the period 2014–2016 showed that, after the influence of drainage water and wastewater of mining regions, heavy metal contents in the Voghji River basin dramatically increased. The waters of the Voghji River were highly polluted by Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Mo, Cd, and Pb. The relation of metals content was highly changed due to anthropogenic impact disturbing the geochemical balance of the Voghji River. The water quality based on only heavy metal contents in the source of the Voghji River belongs to “good” chemical status, and in the sources of Geghi and Norashenik Rivers it is “moderate.” The water quality of Voghji and Norashenik Rivers is sharply worsening after the influence of mining activity, becoming “bad” chemical status. The research revealed the pollution sources of each metal.

  17. Factors impacting manganese transport from soils into rivers using data from Shale Hills CZO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, E.; Brantley, S. L.

    2012-12-01

    Many soils are enriched in trace elements due to atmospheric inputs from industrial sources but little is known about how long these contaminants persist in soils or the rates at which they are transferred into rivers. Modeling the movement of contaminants through the environment is complicated by the heterogeneity of soils and the variability of contaminant mobility across spatial scales. In this study, we use soil, water, and vegetation chemistry to compare rates of Mn contaminant mobilization and removal from soils at ridge, hillslope, and catchment-scales in the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (SSHCZO). The SSHCZO is a first-order, forested watershed located within the Susquehanna River Basin (SRB) in Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Studies from the SSHCZO are compared to trends in long-term water quality measurements for the Susquehanna River to evaluate terrestrial inputs to the river system. At SSHCZO, we find that Mn is being removed ~7x more quickly from soils in swales than soils on convex-upward hillslopes; thus, swales are a large source of dissolved Mn to the stream. Release rates of Mn from all soils are dwarfed by rates of uptake into vegetation, consistent with the hypothesis that trees temporarily slow the removal of atmospherically-deposited Mn from the soil by accumulating Mn in plant biomass. However, elevated levels of dissolved organic carbon in soil pore waters may enhance Mn release in the swales; therefore, vegetation may first decrease then increase rates of Mn removal from soils over the long-term. Unlike the major rock-derived elements which exhibit chemostatic behavior, Mn concentrations in the stream vary widely over a large range of stream discharge rates. High Mn fluxes in the stream occur in short pulses that only weakly respond to precipitation events, suggesting that dissolved Mn loads in rivers are not solely driven by the hydrology but are rather strongly impacted by processes in the soil and stream sediments. Current

  18. Impact of Cryosphere Hydrological Changes on the River Runoff in the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Yang, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau is the headwaters of many major rivers in Asia, the change in streamflow is significant for social and economic development and natural ecology in the middle and lower reaches. Located in the alpine region, streamflow in the plateau is mainly affected by the cryosphere hydrological processes. Due to global warming in recent decades, the Tibetan Plateau is experiencing glaciers shrinking and permafrost degradation. Accelerated glacier melt led to the increasing meltwater, thus affecting the streamflow. Permafrost is an important factor in stabilizing the water cycle and streamflow, the ecological degradation and the significant changes of rivers, lakes, swamps, wetlands and other hydrological environment in recent decades in the Tibetan plateau is closely related to permafrost degradation. Therefore, it is important to explore the impact of cryosphere hydrological changes on the streamflow for the future water management. This study uses a method of base flow separation and a stepwise multiple regression model to investigate the reasons for the runoff changes in different regions of the Tibetan Plateau during 1960-2000. The contribution of glacier melt to annual runoff is particularly estimated to explore the possible influences of soil freezing and thawing on annual runoff changes. The results show an increasing trend of the annual runoff in the upstream of Nujiang River, Lancang River and Qilian Mountains, dominated by the increasing of base flow; and a decreasing trend of the runoff in the upper reach of the Yarlung Zangbo River, Yellow River and Yangtze River, dominated by the reduction of quick flow. Change in the amount of runoff was mainly due to change in precipitation. Rising temperature accelerates the melting of glaciers and increases the summer quick flow. In addition, rising temperature may reduce the quick flow and increase the base flow due to change of the active permafrost layers, which leads to the increase of soil water storage

  19. Environmental Impact Assessment of Sand Mining from the Small Catchment Rivers in the Southwestern Coast of India: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreebha, Sreedharan; Padmalal, Damodaran

    2011-01-01

    In the past few decades, the demand for construction grade sand is increasing in many parts of the world due to rapid economic development and subsequent growth of building activities. This, in many of the occasions, has resulted in indiscriminate mining of sand from instream and floodplain areas leading to severe damages to the river basin environment. The case is rather alarming in the small catchment rivers like those draining the southwestern coast of India due to limited sand resources in their alluvial reaches. Moreover, lack of adequate information on the environmental impact of river sand mining is a major lacuna challenging regulatory efforts in many developing countries. Therefore, a scientific assessment is a pre-requisite in formulating management strategies in the sand mining-hit areas. In this context, a study has been made as a case to address the environmental impact of sand mining from the instream and floodplain areas of three important rivers in the southwestern coast of India namely the Chalakudy, Periyar and Muvattupuzha rivers, whose lowlands host one of the fast developing urban-cum-industrial centre, the Kochi city. The study reveals that an amount of 11.527 million ty-1 of sand (8.764 million ty-1 of instream sand and 2.763 million ty-1 of floodplain sand) is being mined from the midland and lowland reaches of these rivers for construction of buildings and other infrastructural facilities in Kochi city and its satellite townships. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) carried out as a part of this investigation shows that the activities associated with mining and processing of sands have not only affected the health of the river ecosystems but also degraded its overbank areas to a large extent. Considering the degree of degradation caused by sand mining from these rivers, no mining scenario may be opted in the deeper zones of the river channels. Also, a set of suggestions are made for the overall improvement of the rivers and its

  20. Impact of comprehensive insurance parity on follow-up care after psychiatric inpatient treatment in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Neal T; McConnell, K John

    2013-10-01

    This study assessed the impact of Oregon's 2007 parity law, which required behavioral health insurance parity, on rates of follow-up care provided within 30 days of psychiatric inpatient care. Data sources were claims (2005-2008) for 737 individuals with inpatient stays for a mental disorder who were continuously enrolled in insurance plans affected by the parity law (intervention group) or in commercial, self-insured plans that were not affected by the law (control group). A difference-in-difference analysis was used to compare rates of follow-up care before and after the parity law between discharges of individuals in the intervention group and the control group and between discharges of individuals in the intervention group who had or had not met preparity quantitative coverage limits during a coverage year. Estimates of the marginal effects of the parity law were adjusted for gender, discharge diagnosis, relationship to policy holder, and calendar quarter of discharge. The study included 353 discharges in the intervention group and 535 discharges in the control group. After the parity law, follow-up rates increased by 11% (p=.042) overall and by 20% for discharges of individuals who had met coverage limits (p=.028). The Oregon parity law was associated with a large increase in the rate of follow-up care, predominantly for discharges of individuals who had met preparity quantitative coverage limits. Given similarities between the law and the 2008 Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act, the results may portend a national effect of more comprehensive parity laws.

  1. Autumn CO2 chemistry in the Japan Sea and the impact of discharges from the Changjiang River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosugi, Naohiro; Sasano, Daisuke; Ishii, Masao; Enyo, Kazutaka; Saito, Shu

    2016-08-01

    We made comprehensive surface water CO2 chemistry observations in the Japan Sea during each autumn from 2010 to 2014. The partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in surface water, 312-329 μatm, was 10-30 μatm lower in the Japan Sea than in the same latitude range of the western North Pacific adjacent to Japan. According to the sensitivity analysis of pCO2, the lower pCO2 in the Japan Sea was primarily attributable to a large seasonal decrease of pCO2 associated with strong cooling in autumn, particularly in the northern Japan Sea. In contrast, the lower pCO2 in relatively warm, freshwater in the southern Japan Sea was attributable to not only the thermodynamic effect of the temperature changes but also high total alkalinity. This alkalinity had its origin in Changjiang River and was transported by Changjiang diluted water (CDW) which seasonally runs into the Japan Sea from the East China Sea. The input of total alkalinity through CDW also elevated the saturation state of calcium carbonate minerals and mitigated the effects of anthropogenic ocean acidification, at least during autumn. These biogeochemical impacts of CDW in the Japan Sea last until November, although the inflow from the East China Sea to the Japan Sea almost ceases by the end of September. The long duration of the high saturation state of calcium carbonate benefits calcareous marine organisms.

  2. The predicted impacts to the groundwater and Columbia River from ammoniated water discharges to the 216-A-36B crib

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.; Conbere, W.; Freshley, M.D.; Hicks, R.J.; Kuhn, W.L.; Lamar, D.A.; Serne, R.J.; Smoot, J.L.

    1988-03-01

    Impact from past and potential future discharges of ammoniated water to the 216-A-36B crib have on groundwater and river concentrations of hazardous chemical constitutents are studied. Until August 1987, the 216-A-36B crib, located in the 200-East Area of the Hanford Site, accepted ammoniated water discharges. Although this study addresses known hazardous chemical constituents associated with such discharges, the primary concern is the discharge of NH 4 OH because of its microbiological conversion to NO 2 /sup /minus// and NO 3 /sup /minus//. As a result of fuel decladding operations, material balance calculations indicate that NH 4 OH has been discharged to the 216-A-36B crib in amounts that exceed reportable quantities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980. Although flow to the crib is relatively constant, the estimated NH 4 OH discharge varies from negligible to a maximum of 10,000 g-molesh. Because these discharges are intermittent, the concentration delivered to the groundwater is a function of soil sorption, microbiological conversion rates of NH 4 + to NO 2 /sup /minus// and NO 3 /sup /minus//, and groundwater dispersion. This report provides results based on the assumptions of maximum, nominal, and discountinued NH 4 OH discharges to the crib. Consequently, the results show maximum and realistic estimates of NH 4 + , NO 2 /sup /minus// and NO 3 /sup /minus// concentrations in the groundwater

  3. Impact of urban WWTP and CSO fluxes on river peak flow extremes under current and future climate conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keupers, Ingrid; Willems, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The impact of urban water fluxes on the river system outflow of the Grote Nete catchment (Belgium) was studied. First the impact of the Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) and the Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) outflows on the river system for the current climatic conditions was determined by simulating the urban fluxes as point sources in a detailed, hydrodynamic river model. Comparison was made of the simulation results on peak flow extremes with and without the urban point sources. In a second step, the impact of climate change scenarios on the urban fluxes and the consequent impacts on the river flow extremes were studied. It is shown that the change in the 10-year return period hourly peak flow discharge due to climate change (-14% to +45%) was in the same order of magnitude as the change due to the urban fluxes (+5%) in current climate conditions. Different climate change scenarios do not change the impact of the urban fluxes much except for the climate scenario that involves a strong increase in rainfall extremes in summer. This scenario leads to a strong increase of the impact of the urban fluxes on the river system.

  4. Solid waste accident analysis in support of the Savannah River Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, W.J.; Crumm, A.T.; Kearnaghan, D.P.; Rabin, M.S.; Rossi, D.E.

    1994-07-01

    The potential for facility accidents and the magnitude of their impacts are important factors in the evaluation of the solid waste management addressed in the Environmental Impact Statement. The purpose of this document is to address the potential solid waste management facility accidents for comparative use in support of the Environmental Impact Statement. This document must not be construed as an Authorization Basis document for any of the SRS waste management facilities. Because of the time constraints placed on preparing this accident impact analysis, all accident information was derived from existing safety documentation that has been prepared for SRS waste management facilities. A list of facilities to include in the accident impact analysis was provided as input by the Savannah River Technology Section. The accident impact analyses include existing SRS waste management facilities as well as proposed facilities. Safety documentation exists for all existing and many of the proposed facilities. Information was extracted from this existing documentation for this impact analysis. There are a few proposed facilities for which safety analyses have not been prepared. However, these facilities have similar processes to existing facilities and will treat, store, or dispose of the same type of material that is in existing facilities; therefore, the accidents can be expected to be similar

  5. Stochastic simulation of climate change impacts on ice road operations, MacKenzie River, Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Mingko; Lonergan, S.

    1990-01-01

    Winter roads constitute an important part of the transportation network in the MacKenzie Delta, the Yellowknife area, and between the MacKenzie Highway and the Canol Road. Climatic changes in the MacKenzie Valley will alter the probabilities of ice cover thickness and duration, impacting on the periods when ice road river crossings are viable. Stochastic models were developed to generate air temperature and precipitation data to analyze climate impacts on when ice road crossing of the MacKenzie River at Norman Wells is feasible. The data were employed to simulate river ice growth and decay. Several general circulation models were employed to determine the impacts of climatic change on the ice regime. For precipitation simulation, the occurrence of wet or dry days was determined from Markov chain transition probabilities. In general, the Goddard Institute of Space Studies (GISS) model predicted the largest increase in monthly precipitation and the Oregon State University (OSU) model predicted the least changes. The various scenarios indicated that the duration for vehicular traffic over ice will be significantly reduced, compared to present day Norman Wells ice crossing operation. For 20 tonne vehicles, the current duration for safe crossing averages 169±14.6 days per year, while for the OSU scenario it will be reduced to 148±14.7 days, is further reduced to 127±24.9 days for the GISS scenario, and drops to 122±21.7 days for the GFDL (General Fluid Dynamics Laboratory) scenario. 5 refs., 1 fig

  6. Human impacts on runoff regime of middle and lower Yellow River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-fang Sang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the 54-year (1950 to 2003 monthly runoff series from February, April, August, and November, as well as the annual runoff series, measured at both Huayuankou and Lijin hydrological stations were chosen as representative data, and the continuous wavelet transform (CWT was applied to analyze the impacts of human activities on the runoff regime of the middle and lower Yellow River. A point of change in 1970 was first determined, and the observed series before 1970 were considered natural runoff while those after 1970 were restored according to linear trends. Then, the CWT was applied to both the observed and restored runoff series to reveal their variations at multi-temporal scales, including the five temporal ranges of 1–4, 6–8, 9–12, 16–22, and 22–30 years, and the trend at the temporal scale of 54 years. These analysis results are compared and discussed in detail. In conclusion, because of the impacts of human activities, there have been significant changes in the runoff regime in the middle and lower Yellow River since 1970. The decaying tendency of annual runoff has become more pronounced, and the inner-annual distribution of runoff has changed, but human activities have had little impact on the periodic characteristics of runoff.

  7. Patterns and comparisons of human-induced changes in river flood impacts in cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Stephanie; Sharma, Ashish; Sisson, Scott A.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, information extracted from the first global urban fluvial flood risk data set (Aqueduct) is investigated and visualized to explore current and projected city-level flood impacts driven by urbanization and climate change. We use a novel adaption of the self-organizing map (SOM) method, an artificial neural network proficient at clustering, pattern extraction, and visualization of large, multi-dimensional data sets. Prevalent patterns of current relationships and anticipated changes over time in the nonlinearly-related environmental and social variables are presented, relating urban river flood impacts to socioeconomic development and changing hydrologic conditions. Comparisons are provided between 98 individual cities. Output visualizations compare baseline and changing trends of city-specific exposures of population and property to river flooding, revealing relationships between the cities based on their relative map placements. Cities experiencing high (or low) baseline flood impacts on population and/or property that are expected to improve (or worsen), as a result of anticipated climate change and development, are identified and compared. This paper condenses and conveys large amounts of information through visual communication to accelerate the understanding of relationships between local urban conditions and global processes.

  8. Assessment of metal contamination in the biota of four rivers experiencing varying degrees of human impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K; Waters, Matthew Neal; Duckworth, Christina G; Patel, Pratik P; Webster, Benjamin Cole; Blocker, Amber; Crummey, Cliff Hunter; Duncan, Aundrea Nicole; Nwokike, Somuayiro Nadia; Picariello, Codie Richard; Ragan, James T; Schumacher, Erika L; Tucker, Rebecca Lea; Tuttle, Elizabeth Ann; Wiggins, Charlie Rufus

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization, agriculture, and other land transformations can affect water quality, decrease species biodiversity, and increase metal and nutrient concentrations in aquatic systems. Metal pollution, in particular, is a reported consequence of elevated anthropogenic inputs, especially from urbanized areas. The objectives of this study were to quantify metal (Cu, Al, Cd, Ni, and Pb) concentrations in the waters and biota of four streams in South Georgia, USA, and relate metal concentrations to land use and abiotic and biotic stream processes. Additionally, macrophytes, invertebrates, and fish were identified to assess biodiversity at each site. Metal concentrations in the three trophic levels differed among sites and species, correlating to differences in land use surrounding the rivers. The highest metal concentrations (except Al) were found in the streams most impacted by urbanization and development. Al concentrations were highest in streams surrounded by land dominated by forested areas. Metal content in macrophytes reflected metal concentrations in the water and was at least three orders of magnitude higher than any other trophic level. Despite metal concentration differences, all four streams contained similar water quality and were healthy based on macroinvertebrate community structure. This study provides insight into the impact of urbanization and the fate and effects of metals in river ecosystems with varying degrees of anthropogenic impact.

  9. Impact of Background Noise and Sentence Complexity on Processing Demands during Sentence Comprehension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Dorothea; Dau, Torsten; Hjortkjær, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Speech comprehension in adverse listening conditions can be effortful even when speech is fully intelligible. Acoustical distortions typically make speech comprehension more effortful, but effort also depends on linguistic aspects of the speech signal, such as its syntactic complexity....... In the present study, pupil dilations, and subjective effort ratings were recorded in 20 normal-hearing participants while performing a sentence comprehension task. The sentences were either syntactically simple (subject-first sentence structure) or complex (object-first sentence structure) and were presented...... and less by syntactic complexity. Conversely, pupil dilations increased with syntactic complexity but only showed a small effect of the noise level. Participants with higher WMC showed increased pupil responses in the higher-level noise condition but rated sentence comprehension as being less effortful...

  10. Small farm dams: impact on river flows and sustainability in a context of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habets, F.; Philippe, E.; Martin, E.; David, C. H.; Leseur, F.

    2014-10-01

    The repetition of droughts in France has led to a growing demand for irrigation water and consequently to an increase in requests for the construction of small farm dams. Although such dams are small, their accumulation in a basin affects river flows, because the water collected in these small farm dams is used for irrigation and thus does not contribute to river flow. In order to gain more insight into their impact on the annual and monthly discharges, especially during dry years, a small farm dam model was built and connected to a hydrometeorological model. Several scenarios with different volume capacities, filling catchment sizes and filling periods were tested for such dams. The results were analysed in a small basin in western France, where the pressure for building such dams is high, and then extended to the entire country. It was found that, due to the hydrometeorological conditions (mainly low precipitation compared to other regions in France), the development of small farm dams in north-western France would result in greater decreases in river flows and less efficient filling of small farm dams than in other regions. Therefore, such dams might not be as efficient as expected in supplying water to farmers when needed. Moreover, the ability to fill small farm dams is projected to decrease in a context of climate change, despite the uncertainty on the evolution of precipitation, thus worsening the situation.

  11. Impact of heated waters on water quality and macroinvertebrate community in the Narew River (Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krolak Elzbieta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of heated waters from coal-burning power stations on the water parameters and the occurrence of macroinvertebrates depends on the individual characteristics of the river to which the heated waters are discharged. The objective of the study was to assess the impact of heated water from the Ostrołęka Power Station on selected water properties and the macroinvertebrate community in the Narew River. Samples were collected in years: 2013-2016 along two river stretches: upstream and downstream of the canal. The water temperature was higher and the oxygen concentrations were lower at the downstream sites compared to the upstream sites of the canal. The values of conductivity, concentrations of nitrates, phosphates, chlorides and calcium were similar at the sampling sites. A total of 33 families of macrozoobenthos were found. The numbers of families were positively correlated with the temperature and conductivity and negatively correlated with oxygen. The heated waters were found to have no effect on the Shannon-Wiener diversity index. The inflow of heated waters increased the percentage of Gammaridae, represented by species Dikerogammarus haemobaphes (Eichwald, 1841 and decreased the percentage of Chironomidae. The presence of the thermophilous bivalve Sinanodonta woodiana (Lea, 1934 was noted downstream of the canal.

  12. Quantifying the impact of the Three Gorges Dam on the thermal dynamics of the Yangtze River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huayang; Piccolroaz, Sebastiano; Huang, Jingzheng; Liu, Zhiyong; Liu, Feng; Toffolon, Marco

    2018-05-01

    This study examines the impact of the world’s largest dam, the Three Gorges Dam (TGD), on the thermal dynamics of the Yangtze River (China). The analysis uses long-term observations of river water temperature (RWT) in four stations and reconstructs the RWT that would have occurred in absence of the TGD. Relative to pre-TGD conditions, RWT consistently warmed in the region due to air temperature (AT) increase. In addition, the analysis demonstrates that the TGD significantly affected RWT in the downstream reach. At the closest downstream station (Yichang) to the TGD, the annual cycle of RWT experienced a damped response to AT and a marked seasonal alteration: warming during all seasons except for spring and early summer which were characterized by cooling. Both effects were a direct consequence of the larger thermal inertia of the massive water volume stored in the TGD reservoir, causing the downstream reach to be more thermally resilient. The approach used here to quantify the separate contributions of climate and human interventions on RWT can be used to set scientific guidelines for river management and conservation planning strategies.

  13. Climate Change Impact Assessment of Dike Safety and Flood Risk in the Vidaa River System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, H.; Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia; Larsen, J.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of climate change on the flood risk and dike safety in the Vidaa River system, a cross-border catchment located in the southern part of Jutland, Denmark and northern Germany, is analysed. The river discharges to the Wadden Sea through a tidal sluice, and extreme water level conditions...... in the river system occur in periods of high sea water levels where the sluice is closed and increased catchment run-off take place. Climate model data from the ENSEMBLES data archive are used to assess the changes in climate variables and the resulting effect on catchment run-off. Extreme catchment run......-off is expected to increase about 8 % in 2050 and 14 % in 2100. The changes in sea water level is assessed considering climate projections of mean sea level rise, isostatic changes, and changes in storm surge statistics. At the Vidaa sluice a mean sea level rise of 0.15–0.39 m in 2050 and 0.41–1.11 m in 2010...

  14. Phase I of the Kissimmee River restoration project, Florida, USA: impacts of construction on water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangelo, David J; Jones, Bradley L

    2005-03-01

    Phase I of the Kissimmee River restoration project included backfilling of 12 km of canal and restoring flow through 24 km of continuous river channel. We quantified the effects of construction activities on four water quality parameters (turbidity, total phosphorus flow-weighted concentration, total phosphorus load and dissolved oxygen concentration). Data were collected at stations upstream and downstream of the construction and at four stations within the construction zone to determine if canal backfilling and construction of 2.4 km of new river channel would negatively impact local and downstream water quality. Turbidity levels at the downstream station were elevated for approximately 2 weeks during the one and a half year construction period, but never exceeded the Florida Department of Environmental Protection construction permit criteria. Turbidity levels at stations within the construction zone were high at certain times. Flow-weighted concentration of total phosphorus at the downstream station was slightly higher than the upstream station during construction, but low discharge limited downstream transport of phosphorus. Total phosphorus loads at the upstream and downstream stations were similar and loading to Lake Okeechobee was not significantly affected by construction. Mean water column dissolved oxygen concentrations at all sampling stations were similar during construction.

  15. Future Climate Change Impact Assessment of River Flows at Two Watersheds of Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, A.; Ishida, K.; Kavvas, M. L.; Chen, Z. R.; Jang, S.; Amin, M. Z. M.; Shaaban, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    Impacts of climate change on the river flows under future climate change conditions were assessed over Muda and Dungun watersheds of Peninsular Malaysia by means of a coupled regional climate model and a physically-based hydrology model utilizing an ensemble of 15 different future climate realizations. Coarse resolution GCMs' future projections covering a wide range of emission scenarios were dynamically downscaled to 6 km resolution over the study area. Hydrologic simulations of the two selected watersheds were carried out at hillslope-scale and at hourly increments.

  16. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Main Report Exhibits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Volume is a part of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Columbia River System. This volume contains technical exhibits of cultural resources and commentary on the (System Operation Review) SOR process. The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation comment is the majority of the material in the volume, in the Consultation Plan, Identification of trust resources; Criteria for the selection of a System Operating Strategy; comment on rights protection and implementation of Federal Trust responsibility; analysis of the draft EIS. Comment by other Native American Tribes and groups is also included: Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation; Kootenai Tribe of Idaho; Spokane Tribe of Indians; Coeur d` Alene tribe.

  17. Impact modelling of water resources development and climate scenarios on Zambezi River discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Kling

    2014-07-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Comparisons between historical and future scenarios show that the biggest changes have already occurred. Construction of Kariba and CahoraBassa dams in the mid 1900s altered the seasonality and flow duration curves. Future irrigation development will cause decreases of a similar magnitude to those caused by current reservoir evaporation losses. The discharge is highly sensitive to small precipitation changes and the two climate models used give different signs for future precipitation change, suggestive of large uncertainty. The river basin model and database are available as anopen-online Decision Support System to facilitate impact assessments of additional climate or development scenarios.

  18. Columbia River system operation review: Final environmental impact statement. Main report exhibits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This Volume is a part of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Columbia River System. This volume contains technical exhibits of cultural resources and commentary on the (System Operation Review) SOR process. The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation comment is the majority of the material in the volume, in the Consultation Plan, Identification of trust resources; Criteria for the selection of a System Operating Strategy; comment on rights protection and implementation of Federal Trust responsibility; analysis of the draft EIS. Comment by other Native American Tribes and groups is also included: Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation; Kootenai Tribe of Idaho; Spokane Tribe of Indians; Coeur d' Alene tribe

  19. Life Cycle Assessment, ExternE and Comprehensive Analysis for an integrated evaluation of the environmental impact of anthropogenic activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietrapertosa, F.; Cosmi, C. [National Research Council, Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis C.N.R.-I.M.A.A. C.da S.Loja, I-85050 Tito Scalo (PZ) (Italy); National Research Council, National Institute for the Physics of Matter, C.N.R.-I.N.F.M. Via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Macchiato, M. [Federico II University, Department of Physical Sciences, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); National Research Council, National Institute for the Physics of Matter, C.N.R.-I.N.F.M. Via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Salvia, M.; Cuomo, V. [National Research Council, Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis C.N.R.-I.M.A.A. C.da S.Loja, I-85050 Tito Scalo (PZ) (Italy)

    2009-06-15

    The implementation of resource management strategies aimed at reducing the impacts of the anthropogenic activities system requires a comprehensive approach to evaluate on the whole the environmental burdens of productive processes and to identify the best recovery strategies from both an environmental and an economic point of view. In this framework, an analytical methodology based on the integration of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), ExternE and Comprehensive Analysis was developed to perform an in-depth investigation of energy systems. The LCA methodology, largely utilised by the international scientific community for the assessment of the environmental performances of technologies, combined with Comprehensive Analysis allows modelling the overall system of anthropogenic activities, as well as sub-systems, the economic consequences of the whole set of environmental damages. Moreover, internalising external costs into partial equilibrium models, as those utilised by Comprehensive Analysis, can be useful to identify the best paths for implementing technology innovation and strategies aimed to a more sustainable energy supply and use. This paper presents an integrated application of these three methodologies to a local scale case study (the Val D'Agri area in Basilicata, Southern Italy), aimed to better characterise the environmental impacts of the energy system, with particular reference to extraction activities. The innovative methodological approach utilised takes advantage from the strength points of each methodology with an added value coming from their integration as emphasised by the main results obtained by the scenario analysis. (author)

  20. Source identification and ecological impact evaluation of PAHs in urban river sediments: A case study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Y T; Ou, J H; Tsang, D C W; Dong, C D; Chen, C W; Kao, C M

    2018-03-01

    The Love River and Ho-Jin River, two major urban rivers in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan, are moderately to heavily polluted because different types of improperly treated wastewaters are discharged into the rivers. In this study, sediment and river water samples were collected from two rivers to investigate the river water quality and accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments. The spatial distribution, composition, and source appointment of PAHs of the sediments were examined. The impacts of PAHs on ecological system were assessed using toxic equivalence quotient (TEQ) of potentially carcinogenic PAHs (TEQ carc ) and sediment quality guidelines. The average PAHs concentrations ranged from 2161 ng/g in Love River sediment to 160 ng/g in Ho-Jin River sediment. This could be due to the fact that Love River Basin had much higher population density and pyrolytic activities. High-ring PAHs (4-6 rings) contributed to 59-90% of the total PAHs concentrations. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) had the highest toxic equivalence quotient (up to 188 ng TEQ/g). Moreover, the downstream sediments contained higher TEQ of total TPHs than midstream and upstream sediment samples. The PAHs were adsorbed onto the fine particles with high organic content. Results from diagnostic ratio analyses indicate that the PAHs in two urban river sediments might originate from oil/coal combustion, traffic-related emissions, and waste combustion (pyrogenic activities). Future pollution prevention and management should target the various industries, incinerators, and transportation emission in this region to reduce the PAHs pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of a wastewater treatment plant on microbial community composition and function in a hyporheic zone of a eutrophic river

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atashgahi, S.; Aydin, R.; Rocha Dimitrov, M.; Sipkema, D.; Hamonts, K.; Lahti, Leo; Maphosa, F.; Kruse, T.; Saccenti, E.; Springael, D.; Dejonghe, W.; Smidt, H.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of the installation of a technologically advanced wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) on the benthic microbial community of a vinyl chloride (VC) impacted eutrophic river was examined two years before, and three and four years after installation of the WWTP. Reduced dissolved organic carbon

  2. Draft environmental impact statement. River Bend Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Federal financing of an undivided ownership interest of River Bend Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 on a 3293-acre site near St. Francisville, Louisiana is proposed in a supplement to the final environmental impact statement of September 1974. The facility would consist of a boiling-water reactor that would produce a maximum of 2894 megawatts (MW) of electrical power. A design level of 3015 MW of electric power could be realized at some time in the future. Exhaust steam would be cooled by mechanical cooling towers using makeup water obtained from and discharged to the Mississippi River. Power generated by the unit would be transmitted via three lines totaling 140 circuit miles traversing portions of the parishes of West Feliciana, East Feliciana, East Baton Rouge, West Baton Rouge, Pointe Coupee, and Iberville. The unit would help the applicant meet the power needs of rural electric consumers in the region, and the applicant would contribute significanlty to area tax base and employment rolls during the life of the unit. Construction related activities would disturb 700 forested acres on the site and 1156 acres along the transmission routes. Of the 60 cubic feet per second (cfs) taken from the river, 48 cfs would evaporate during the cooling process and 12 cfs would return to the river with dissolved solids concentrations increased by 500%. The terrace aquifer would be dewatered for 16 months in order to lower the water table at the building site, and Grants Bayou would be transformed from a lentic to a lotic habitat during this period. Fogging and icing due to evaporation and drift from the cooling towers would increase slightly. During the construction period, farming, hunting, and fishing on the site would be suspended, and the social infractructure would be stressed due to the influx of a maximum of 2200 workers

  3. Columbia River system operation review: Final environmental impact statement. Appendix R, Pacific Northwest Coordination agreement (PNCA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    Currently, the Federal government coordinates the planning and operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) with projects owned and operated by the region's non-Federal hydrogenerating utilities pursuant to the Pacific North-west Coordination Agreement (PNCA). The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), the Corps of Engineers (Corps), and the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) are parties to the PNCA on behalf of the government of the United States. The PNCA is a complex agreement that provides an opportunity for the region's power producers to maximize the power system's reliability and economy while meeting their multiple-use objectives. The PNCA does not dictate the operation of the resources it coordinates. It is essentially an accounting mechanism that exchanges the power produced among the parties in order to improve the reliability of the system and reduce regional power costs. Project owners retain complete autonomy to operate as needed to meet their multiple-use requirements. The PNCA was executed in 1964 as an important component of regional plans to maximize the Northwest's hydro resource capability. Maximization also included the development of storage projects on the Columbia River in Canada pursuant to the terms of the 1964 Columbia River Treaty. Because of the link between power coordination and Treaty issues, the current parties to the PNCA, currently are contemplating entering into a replacement or renewed power coordination agreement. Because the power coordination agreement is a consensual arrangement, its ultimate provisions must be acceptable to all of its signatories. This Appendix R to the Final Environmental Impact Statement of the Columbia River System is a presentation of the Pacific North-west Coordination Agreement

  4. Impact of Water Usage on the Hydrology of Streams in the Mill River Watershed, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, R. M.; Rhodes, A. L.; Pufall, A.; Bradstreet, E.; Katchpole, S.; Mattison, E.; Woods, R.

    2001-05-01

    changes in stage especially during low flow periods. In some cases stage changes of 15 cm are observed in just a few minutes. There is concern that changes in the hydrology of these two streams could be having a negative impact on fauna both within the streams and within the mainstream of the Mill River. The section of the Mill River immediately downstream of the confluence with Roaring Brook contains one of the only populations of Dwarf Wedge Mussel found in Massachusetts. It is clear that one of the impacts of the reservoirs is to increase the base flow concentration of some anthropogenic ions such as chloride and sulfate that are derived from other parts of the Mill River watershed. The reduction in baseflow discharge of these clean tributaries reduces their dilution impact on the main stream.

  5. Tracking an atmospheric river in a warmer climate: from water vapor to economic impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dominguez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric rivers (ARs account for more than 75 % of heavy precipitation events and nearly all of the extreme flooding events along the Olympic Mountains and western Cascade Mountains of western Washington state. In a warmer climate, ARs in this region are projected to become more frequent and intense, primarily due to increases in atmospheric water vapor. However, it is unclear how the changes in water vapor transport will affect regional flooding and associated economic impacts. In this work we present an integrated modeling system to quantify the atmospheric–hydrologic–hydraulic and economic impacts of the December 2007 AR event that impacted the Chehalis River basin in western Washington. We use the modeling system to project impacts under a hypothetical scenario in which the same December 2007 event occurs in a warmer climate. This method allows us to incorporate different types of uncertainty, including (a alternative future radiative forcings, (b different responses of the climate system to future radiative forcings and (c different responses of the surface hydrologic system. In the warming scenario, AR integrated vapor transport increases; however, these changes do not translate into generalized increases in precipitation throughout the basin. The changes in precipitation translate into spatially heterogeneous changes in sub-basin runoff and increased streamflow along the entire Chehalis main stem. Economic losses due to stock damages increase moderately, but losses in terms of business interruption are significant. Our integrated modeling tool provides communities in the Chehalis region with a range of possible future physical and economic impacts associated with AR flooding.

  6. Assessment of potential impacts of climate change on agricultural development in the Lower Benue River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abah, Roland Clement; Petja, Brilliant Mareme

    2016-12-01

    Agriculture in the Lower Benue River Basin faces several challenges which threaten the future of agricultural development. This study was an assessment of potential impacts of climate change on agricultural development in the Lower Benue River Basin. Through analysis of physical and socioeconomic parameters, the study adapted an impact assessment model to rank potential impacts on agricultural development in the study area. Rainfall intensity seemed to be increasing with a gradual reduction in the number of rainy days. The average discharge at Makurdi hydrological station was 3468.24 cubic metres per second (m 3  s -1 ), and the highest peak flow discharge was 16,400 m 3  s -1 . The daily maximum temperature and annual temperature averages for the study area are gradually rising leading to increased heat stress. Physical and chemical analyses showed that the soils are moderately fertile but require effective application of inorganic and organic fertilisers. The main occupational activities in the study area are agricultural based. The identified potential impacts of climate change on agriculture were categorised under atmospheric carbon dioxides and oxides, rainfall intensity, frequency of floods and droughts, temperature intensity and variation, heat stress, surface water trends, and soil quality and fertility. The identified potential impacts related to population dynamics on agriculture were categorised under population growth, rural-urban migration, household income and infectious diseases and HIV and AIDS. Community-level mitigation strategies were proffered. Policy makers are advised to promote irrigation farming, support farmers with farm inputs and credit facilities and establish active agricultural extension services to support the sustainable development of agriculture.

  7. TRANSBOUNDARY IMPACT OF THE CHERNAVODSKA NPP ON TRITIUM POLLUTION OF THE DANUBE RIVER ON THE TERRITORY OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. VIT`KO

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the influence of the Chernavodska nuclear power plant on the aquatic environment of the Danube River in the transboundary context. Data of tritium discharges, dependence of volume activity of tritium in the Danube River, and its inflows from the surrounding areas to its mouth. The average annual volume activities of tritium are provided. Assessments of the impact of the Chernavodska NPP in conditions that are different from the norm have been given.

  8. Evaluating the effect of river restoration techniques on reducing the impacts of outfall on water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mant, Jenny; Janes, Victoria; Terrell, Robert; Allen, Deonie; Arthur, Scott; Yeakley, Alan; Morse, Jennifer; Holman, Ian

    2015-04-01

    Outfalls represent points of discharge to a river and often contain pollutants from urban runoff, such as heavy metals. Additionally, erosion around the outfall site results in increased sediment generation and the release of associated pollutants. Water quality impacts from heavy metals pose risks to the river ecosystem (e.g. toxicity to aquatic habitats). Restoration techniques including establishment of swales, and the re-vegetation and reinforcement of channel banks aim to decrease outfall flow velocities resulting in deposition of pollutants and removal through plant uptake. Within this study the benefits of river restoration techniques for the removal of contaminants associated with outfalls have been quantified within Johnson Creek, Portland, USA as part of the EPSRC funded Blue-Green Cities project. The project aims to develop new strategies for protecting hydrological and ecological values of urban landscapes. A range of outfalls have been selected which span restored and un-restored channel reaches, a variety of upstream land-uses, and both direct and set-back outfalls. River Habitat Surveys were conducted at each of the sites to assess the level of channel modification within the reach. Sediment samples were taken at the outfall location, upstream, and downstream of outfalls for analysis of metals including Nickel, Lead, Zinc, Copper, Iron and Magnesium. These were used to assess the impact of the level of modification at individual sites, and to compare the influence of direct and set-back outfalls. Concentrations of all metals in the sediments found at outfalls generally increased with the level of modification at the site. Sediment in restored sites had lower metal concentrations both at the outfall and downstream compared to unrestored sites, indicating the benefit of these techniques to facilitate the effective removal of pollutants by trapping of sediment and uptake of contaminants by vegetation. However, the impact of restoration measures varied

  9. Assessment of dam construction impact on hydrological regime changes in lowland river – A case of study: the Stare Miasto reservoir located on the Powa River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sojka Mariusz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the presented research is analysis and assessment of the Stare Miasto reservoir impact on the hydrological regime changes of the Powa River. The reservoir was built in 2006 and is located in the central part of Poland. The total area of inundation in normal conditions is 90.68 ha and its capacity is 2.159 mln m3. Hydrological regime alteration of the Powa River is analysed on the basis of daily flows from the Posoka gauge station observed during period 1974–2014. Assessment of hydrological regime changes is carried out on the basis of Range of Variability Approach (RVA method. All calculations are made by means of Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA software version 7.1.0.10. The analysis shows that the Stare Miasto reservoir has a moderate impact on hydrological regime of the Powa River. Construction of the reservoir has positive effect on stability of minimal flows, which are important for protection of river ecosystems. The results obtained indicate that the Stare Miasto reservoir reduces a spring peak flow and enables to moderate control of floods.

  10. Impact of Nursery Rhymes on Iranian EFL Learners’ Listening Comprehension Skill Improvement-A Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Pourkalhor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was an attempt to investigate the effect of nursery rhymes on the young language learners listening comprehension ability. To do so, 30 elementary learners were selected as the potential participants of the study. The learners’ perceptions about using nursery rhymes in teaching listening as well as teachers’ perceptions about teaching listening comprehension through nursery rhymes were taken into account. The listening pre- and post-tests and teachers and learners’ interviews were employed for data collection procedures. Quantitative as well as qualitative methodologies were adapted for data analysis. Findings showed that the young learners could improve their listening comprehension ability as a result of using nursery rhymes. Interview data also indicated that the learners’ perceptions about nursery rhymes were found to be positive since the rhymes provided an interesting atmosphere for the learners to improve their listening comprehension while benefiting from peer interaction and teacher’s support in the listening classroom. Teachers’ perceptions were also realistic regarding using nursery rhymes in teaching listening, especially for young learners. As to the implication side, finding can contribute to the positive application of nursery rhymes in paving the way for young learners to improve their listening comprehension ability.

  11. Analysis of land use and climate change impacts by comparing river flow records for headwaters and lowland reaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Nasim; Torabi Haghighi, Ali; Kløve, Bjørn

    2017-11-01

    The natural flow regime of rivers has been strongly altered world-wide, resulting in ecosystem degradation and lakes drying up, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Determining whether this is due mainly to climate change or to water withdrawal for direct human use (e.g. irrigation) is difficult, particularly for saline lake basins where hydrology data are scarce. In this study, we developed an approach for assessing climate and land use change impacts based on river flow records for headwater and lowland reaches of rivers, using the case of Lake Urmia basin, in north-westen Iran. Flow regimes at upstream and downstream stations were studied before and after major dam construction and irrigation projects. Data from 57 stations were used to establish five different time intervals representing 10 different land use development periods (scenarios) for upstream (not impacted) and downstream (impacted) systems. An existing river impact (RI) index was used to assess changes in three main characteristics of flow (magnitude, timing and, intra-annual variability). The results showed that irrigation was by far the main driving force for river flow regime changes in the lake basin. All stations close to the lake and on adjacent plains showed significantly higher impacts of land use change than headwaters. As headwaters are relatively unaffected by agriculture, the non-significant changes observed in headwater flow regimes indicate a minor effect of climate change on river flows in the region. The benefit of the method developed is clear interpretation of results based on river flow records, which is useful in communicating land use and climate change information to decision makers and lake restoration planners.

  12. Decline of Yangtze River water and sediment discharge: Impact from natural and anthropogenic changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S. L.; Xu, K. H.; Milliman, J. D.; Yang, H. F.; Wu, C. S.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing impact of both climatic change and human activities on global river systems necessitates an increasing need to identify and quantify the various drivers and their impacts on fluvial water and sediment discharge. Here we show that mean Yangtze River water discharge of the first decade after the closing of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) (2003–2012) was 67 km3/yr (7%) lower than that of the previous 50 years (1950–2002), and 126 km3/yr less compared to the relatively wet period of pre-TGD decade (1993–2002). Most (60–70%) of the decline can be attributed to decreased precipitation, the remainder resulting from construction of reservoirs, improved water-soil conservation and increased water consumption. Mean sediment flux decreased by 71% between 1950–1968 and the post-TGD decade, about half of which occurred prior to the pre-TGD decade. Approximately 30% of the total decline and 65% of the decline since 2003 can be attributed to the TGD, 5% and 14% of these declines to precipitation change, and the remaining to other dams and soil conservation within the drainage basin. These findings highlight the degree to which changes in riverine water and sediment discharge can be related with multiple environmental and anthropogenic factors. PMID:26206169

  13. Microbial exoenzymes as bioindicators of acid rock drainage impacts in the Finniss River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammerton, K.M.

    2002-01-01

    Sediment samples were collected from several sites along the East Branch of the Finniss River during the dry season (June, 1999), when the East Branch is drying into a series of ponds. The sites included those upstream from the Rum Jungle mine site (EB8A, EB8B, FCA, FCB), a site receiving acid leachate from the waste rock (WO), sites downstream from the mine that are impacted by acid and metal contamination (EB6, TCP, EB5D, EB4U, EB2) and reference sites not subject to acid rock drainage (HS, EB4S, LFRB). Exoenzyme activities were measured with a spectrofluorometric technique that involved measuring the increase in fluorescence when an artificial fluorogenic substrate (that mimics the natural substrate) is hydrolysed to a highly fluorescent product. The present findings indicate that the acid rock drainage impacted sediments contain acidophilic, heterotrophic microorganisms, bacteria and/or fungi, producing extracellular enzymes adapted to the acid conditions. This study has demonstrated that measurements of extracellular enzyme activities in river sediments provide a rapid, sensitive technique for determining microbial activity and productivity. In aquatic ecosystems some exoenzymes, particularly leucine-aminopeptidase, could be used as bioindicators of pollution from acid rock drainage

  14. Ecosystem services in Mediterranean river basin: climate change impact on water provisioning and erosion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangash, Rubab F; Passuello, Ana; Sanchez-Canales, María; Terrado, Marta; López, Alfredo; Elorza, F Javier; Ziv, Guy; Acuña, Vicenç; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2013-08-01

    The Mediterranean basin is considered one of the most vulnerable regions of the world to climate change and such changes impact the capacity of ecosystems to provide goods and services to human society. The predicted future scenarios for this region present an increased frequency of floods and extended droughts, especially at the Iberian Peninsula. This paper evaluates the impacts of climate change on the water provisioning and erosion control services in the densely populated Mediterranean Llobregat river basin of. The assessment of ecosystem services and their mapping at the basin scale identify the current pressures on the river basin including the source area in the Pyrenees Mountains. Drinking water provisioning is expected to decrease between 3 and 49%, while total hydropower production will decrease between 5 and 43%. Erosion control will be reduced by up to 23%, indicating that costs for dredging the reservoirs as well as for treating drinking water will also increase. Based on these data, the concept for an appropriate quantification and related spatial visualization of ecosystem service is elaborated and discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of Leachate Discharge from Cipayung Landfill on Water Quality of Pesanggrahan River, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noerfitriyani, Eki; Hartono, Djoko M.; Moersidik, Setyo S.; Gusniani, Irma

    2018-03-01

    The landfill operation can cause environmental problems due to solid waste decomposition in the form of leachate. The evaluation of environmental impacts related with solid waste landfilling is needed to ensure that leachate discharge to water bodies does not exceed the standard limit to prevent contamination of the environment. This study aims to analyze the impact of leachate discharge from Cipayung Landfill on water quality of Pesanggrahan River. The data were analyzed based on leachate samples taken from influent and effluent treatment unit, and river water samples taken from upstream, stream at leachate discharge, and downstream. All samples were taken three times under rainy season condition from April to May 2017. The results show the average leachate quality temperature is 34,81 °C, TSS 72.33 mg/L, pH 7.83, BOD 3,959.63 mg/L, COD 6,860 mg/L, TN 373.33 mg/L, Hg 0.0016 mg/L. The BOD5/COD ratio 0.58 indicated that leachate characteristics was biodegradable and resemble intermediate landfill due to the mixing of young leachate and old leachate. The effluent of leachate treatment plant exceeds the leachate standard limit for BOD, COD, and TN parameters. Statistical results from independent T-test showed significant differences (p<0,05) between upstream and downstream influenced with leachate discharge for DO parameter.

  16. Quantifying downstream impacts of impoundment on flow regime and channel planform, lower Trinity River, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmeyer, Jessica L.; Slattery, Michael C.; Phillips, Jonathan D.

    2005-07-01

    As human population worldwide has grown, so has interest in harnessing and manipulating the flow of water for the benefit of humans. The Trinity River of eastern Texas is one such watershed greatly impacted by engineering and urbanization. Draining the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex, just under 30 reservoirs are in operation in the basin, regulating flow while containing public supplies, supporting recreation, and providing flood control. Lake Livingston is the lowest, as well as largest, reservoir in the basin, a mere 95 km above the Trinity's outlet near Galveston Bay. This study seeks to describe and quantify channel activity and flow regime, identifying effects of the 1968 closure of Livingston dam. Using historic daily and peak discharge data from USGS gauging stations, flow duration curves are constructed, identifying pre- and post-dam flow conditions. A digital historic photo archive was also constructed using six sets of aerial photographs spanning from 1938 to 1995, and three measures of channel activity applied using a GIS. Results show no changes in high flow conditions following impoundment, while low flows are elevated. However, the entire post-dam period is characterized by significantly higher rainfall, which may be obscuring the full impact of flow regulation. Channel activity rates do not indicate a more stabilized planform following dam closure; rather they suggest that the Trinity River is adjusting itself to the stress of Livingston dam in a slow, gradual process that may not be apparent in a modern time scale.

  17. Quantifying the Geomorphic Dynamics of the Extensively Impacted Lower Yuba River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrick, J. R.; Pasternack, G. B.; Carley, J. K.; Barker, R.; Massa, D.; Bratovich, P.; Reedy, G.; Johnson, T.

    2010-12-01

    Traditionally it is has been thought that rivers possess the capability of adjusting their attributes to accommodate varying flow and sediment transport regimes so that sediment in- and out-fluxes are balanced and landform conditions are “stable”. In reality, however, geomorphic drivers and boundary conditions are much more independently dynamic than classically envisioned, such that landforms may always be in a state of adjustment that is normal and appropriate. Rather than thinking of landforms as stable, it is more appropriate to think of them, and the ecosystem services with which they are associated, as resilient in response to change. Knowledge of historic, pre-human baseline conditions or regional reference conditions is limited and may not be as applicable in understanding natural geomorphic and ecosystem services as once envisioned. In light of this natural complexity, a geomorphic assessment of conditions after a large dam or other facility is built and operated may not be as simple as documenting geomorphic instability and attributing that to human impacts relative to the presumed stable baseline conditions. Rather than compare anthropogenically-impacted conditions to theoretical baseline or reference conditions, a more effective approach is to deduce the geomorphic processes in a system under different regimes and evaluate the implications for resiliency of ecosystem services. Through a mechanistic understanding of environmental systems, it may be possible to rationally rehabilitate an ecosystem to achieve resiliency in cases where it has been lost or is desirable to instill, even if it was not historically present. This analytic paradigm is being used to assess the history and on-going geomorphic dynamism of the lower Yuba River (LYR) in northern California. Despite a legacy of massive hydraulic mining waste deposition, dredger re-working of the river valley, dam construction, and flow regulation, the river has been described as lacking the

  18. Alleviating dam impacts along the transboundary Se San River in northeast Cambodia : a review of the rapid environmental impact assessment on the Cambodian part of the Se San River due to hydropower development in Vietnam (July 2007 version)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-02-15

    Probe International has reviewed 2 reports regarding the environmental impact assessment (EIA) on the Cambodian part of the Se San River resulting from hydropower development in Vietnam. Both reports were prepared for Electricity of Vietnam (EVN), the project owner and developer. The operation of 3 large hydro dams on the upper Se San River has disrupted flow in downstream Cambodia where more than 28,000 people depend on the river for drinking water, irrigation, fishing, livestock watering and transportation. Probe International's focus is on mitigating and compensating for affected communities in downstream Cambodia. Their review of the EIAs recommends that Electricity of Vietnam consider switching from peaking to base load operations at its upper Se San hydro dams to mitigate the impacts in downstream Cambodia. The downstream impacts of EVN dams on the Se San River include loss of life, property, livelihood and habitat; malnutrition; loss of wet season rice production; reduced fish catches; food security at risk; loss of fish protein; loss of river bank agriculture; reduced availability of plants for food and medicine; river bank erosion; reservoir erosion and downstream turbidity; increased transportation risks; loss of fisheries habitat; increased pressure on upland forests; disrupted riverine ecosystem; and disrupted fish migration. The EIA recommendations include the re-regulation of the Se San 4A reservoir; operational changes to reduce downstream fluctuations and erosion; monitoring impact of operations on water quantity and quality downstream; algal monitoring; establishment of early warning system for spillway release; prolonging the wet season filling of the reservoir; reducing nutrient inputs to the rivers and reservoirs and a fish stocking program. 6 figs., 1 appendix.

  19. River Diversions and Shoaling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Letter, Jr., Joseph V; Pinkard, Jr., C. F; Raphelt, Nolan K

    2008-01-01

    This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note describes the current knowledge of the potential impacts of river diversions on channel morphology, especially induced sedimentation in the river channel...

  20. Biofilm composition in the Olt River (Romania) reservoirs impacted by a chlor-alkali production plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dranguet, P; Cosio, C; Le Faucheur, S; Hug Peter, D; Loizeau, J-L; Ungureanu, V-Gh; Slaveykova, V I

    2017-05-24

    Freshwater biofilms can be useful indicators of water quality and offer the possibility to assess contaminant effects at the community level. The present field study examines the effects of chlor-alkali plant effluents on the community composition of biofilms grown in the Olt River (Romania) reservoirs. The relationship between ambient water quality variables and community composition alterations was explored. Amplicon sequencing revealed a significant modification of the composition of microalgal, bacterial and fungal communities in the biofilms collected in the impacted reservoirs in comparison with those living in the uncontaminated control reservoir. The abundance corrected Simpson index showed lower richness and diversity in biofilms collected in the impacted reservoirs than in the control reservoir. The biofilm bacterial communities of the impacted reservoirs were characterized by the contaminant-tolerant Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes, whereas microalgal communities were predominantly composed of Bacillariophyta and fungal communities of Lecanoromycetes and Paraglomycetes. A principal component analysis revealed that major contaminants present in the waste water of the chlor-alkali production plant, i.e. Na + , Ca 2+ , Cl - and Hg, were correlated with the alteration of biofilm community composition in the impacted reservoirs. However, the biofilm composition was also influenced by water quality variables such as NO 3 - , SO 4 2- , DOC and Zn from unknown sources. The results of the present study imply that, even when below the environmental quality standards, typical contaminants of chlor-alkali plant releases may affect biofilm composition and that their impacts on the microbial biodiversity might be currently overlooked.

  1. Negotiating river ecosystems: Impact assessment and conflict mediation in the cases of hydro-power construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karjalainen, Timo P.; Jaervikoski, Timo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we discuss how the legitimacy of the impact assessment process is a key issue in conflict mediation in environmental impact assessment. We contrast two EIA cases in hydro-power generation plans made for the Ii River, Finland in different decades, and evaluate how impact assessment in these cases has contributed to the creation, mediation and resolution of conflicts. We focus on the elements of distributional and procedural justice that made the former EIA process more legitimate and consensual and the latter more conflictual. The results indicate that it is crucial for conflict mediation to include all the values and interests of the parties in the goal-setting process and in the definition and assessment of alternatives. The analysis also indicates that procedural justice is the most important to help the people and groups involved to accept the legitimacy of the impact assessment process: how different parties and their values and interests are recognized, and how participation and distribution of power are organized in an impact assessment process. It is confirmed in this article that SIA may act as a mediator or a forum providing a process through which competing knowledge claims, various values and interests can be discussed and linked to the proposed alternatives and interventions.

  2. A report on the fisheries resources of the lower Nelson River and the impacts of hydroelectric development, 1988 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, G.M.; Kansas, K.R.; Matkowski, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    Fisheries studies on the lower Nelson River (Manitoba) system have had the goals of gaining an understanding of the fisheries resources present, assessing current and potential impacts of hydroelectric developments, and investigating enhancement or mitigative options. In 1988, a resource inventory of McMillan and 12-Mile Creeks was conducted to increase understanding of brook trout stocks in the Limestone River system. Results indicate that both streams contain self-sustaining populations. Baseline data collection in the Conawapa Forebay of the Nelson River was initiated in 1988. Inventories of fish populations were conducted, focusing on lake sturgeon. Three long-term monitoring projects were continued in 1988, investigating the populations of spawning brook trout, larval brook trout, and anadromy in brook trout. Four major tributaries to the Nelson River were classified on the basis of physical and chemical characteristics in an attempt to understand brook trout distribution patterns. Ten sturgeon were captured in Angling Lake in 1988 and fitted with radio tags to assess the importance of the Angling Lake-Angling River system to Nelson River lake sturgeon. To investigate the feasibility of enhancing brook trout populations in the Nelson River system, baskets of eggs were planted in previously identified spawning areas in three creeks in 1988. The eggs developed and hatched only in CN Creek. The potential for rehabilitating the Kettle River brook trout population by transfer of fish from other rivers was also investigated in 1988. Radio-tagged fish remained in the Kettle River-Long Spruce system throughout the life of the tags and appear to have found suitable summer and winter habitat. 60 refs., 76 figs., 38 tabs

  3. Impacts of climate change under CMIP5 RCP scenarios on the streamflow in the Dinder River and ecosystem habitats in Dinder National Park, Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    A. K. Basheer; H. Lu; A. Omer; A. B. Ali; A. M. S. Abdelgader

    2016-01-01

    The fate of seasonal river ecosystem habitats under climate change essentially depends on the changes in annual recharge of the river, which are related to alterations in precipitation and evaporation over the river basin. Therefore, the change in climate conditions is expected to significantly affect hydrological and ecological components, particularly in fragmented ecosystems. This study aims to assess the impacts of climate change on the streamflow in the Dinder River bas...

  4. The Impact of Scaffolding and Nonscaffolding Strategies on the EFL Learners' Listening Comprehension Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi Safa, Mohammad; Rozati, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on sociocultural theory, and a large number of empirical studies conducted on the effectiveness of scaffolding on second or foreign language learning, the authors investigated the application of different forms of scaffolding to improve listening comprehension of the Iranian intermediate English as a foreign language (EFL) learners. To…

  5. Captions and Reduced Forms Instruction: The Impact on EFL Students' Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie Chi; Chang, Peichin

    2014-01-01

    For many EFL learners, listening poses a grave challenge. The difficulty in segmenting a stream of speech and limited capacity in short-term memory are common weaknesses for language learners. Specifically, reduced forms, which frequently appear in authentic informal conversations, compound the challenges in listening comprehension. Numerous…

  6. Impact of comprehensive psychological training on mental health of recruits in Xinjiang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shi-ying; Zhang, Lan

    2015-04-01

    To examine the effect of comprehensive psychological training on the mental health of recruits and to provide basis for promoting mental health among recruits in Xinjiang. From September to December, 2013, a convenience sampling was used to select 613 recruits from Xinjiang. These recruits were assigned to the training group (n=306) and the control group (n=307). The Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire,the Questionnaire of Armymen's Emotion Regulation Types and the Chinese Military Personnel Social Support Scale were used to evaluate the levels of mental health at the baseline and at the end of comprehensive psychological training. After comprehensive psychological training, the negative coping style score of the training group were significantly lower than the control group (P=0.000), and there were difference in cognitive focus (P=0.000) and behavior restrain (P=0.005); also, there was significant difference in social support scale (Pemotion regulation and all factors (Pappeal and self comfort (Pappeal, behavior restrain, and self comfort (all P<0.05). Comprehensive psychological training is useful in improving the mental health of recruits.

  7. Impacts of Comprehensive Reading Instruction on Diverse Outcomes of Low- and High-Achieving Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, John T.; McRae, Angela; Coddington, Cassandra S.; Klauda, Susan Lutz; Wigfield, Allan; Barbosa, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Low-achieving readers in Grade 5 often lack comprehension strategies, domain knowledge, word recognition skills, fluency, and motivation to read. Students with such multiple reading needs seem likely to benefit from instruction that supports each of these reading processes. The authors tested this expectation experimentally by comparing the…

  8. Impact of Background Noise and Sentence Complexity on Processing Demands during Sentence Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Dorothea; Dau, Torsten; Hjortkjær, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Speech comprehension in adverse listening conditions can be effortful even when speech is fully intelligible. Acoustical distortions typically make speech comprehension more effortful, but effort also depends on linguistic aspects of the speech signal, such as its syntactic complexity. In the present study, pupil dilations, and subjective effort ratings were recorded in 20 normal-hearing participants while performing a sentence comprehension task. The sentences were either syntactically simple (subject-first sentence structure) or complex (object-first sentence structure) and were presented in two levels of background noise both corresponding to high intelligibility. A digit span and a reading span test were used to assess individual differences in the participants' working memory capacity (WMC). The results showed that the subjectively rated effort was mostly affected by the noise level and less by syntactic complexity. Conversely, pupil dilations increased with syntactic complexity but only showed a small effect of the noise level. Participants with higher WMC showed increased pupil responses in the higher-level noise condition but rated sentence comprehension as being less effortful compared to participants with lower WMC. Overall, the results demonstrate that pupil dilations and subjectively rated effort represent different aspects of effort. Furthermore, the results indicate that effort can vary in situations with high speech intelligibility.

  9. Impact of background noise and sentence complexity on processing demands during sentence comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothea eWendt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Speech comprehension in adverse listening conditions can be effortful even when speech is fully intelligible. Acoustical distortions typically make speech comprehension more effortful, but effort also depends on linguistic aspects of the speech signal, such as its syntactic complexity. In the present study, pupil dilations and subjective effort ratings were recorded in 20 normal-hearing participants while performing a sentence comprehension task. The sentences were either syntactically simple (subject-first sentence structure or complex (object-first sentence structure and were presented in two levels of background noise both corresponding to high intelligibility. A digit span and a reading span test were used to assess individual differences in the participants' working memory capacity. The results showed that the subjectively rated effort was mostly affected by the noise level and less by syntactic complexity. Conversely, pupil dilations increased with syntactic complexity but only showed a small effect of the noise level. Participants with higher working memory capacity showed increased pupil responses in the higher-level noise condition but rated sentence comprehension as being less effortful compared to participants with lower working memory capacity. Overall, the results demonstrate that pupil dilations and subjectively rated effort represent different aspects of effort. Furthermore, the results indicate that effort can vary in situations with high speech intelligibility.

  10. The Impact of Race and Socioeconomic Status on the Reading Comprehension Growth Trajectories of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickens, Tyra W.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine features of adolescent reading comprehension trajectories and make within-person and between-person analyses of growth that occurs during the high school grades. Racial and socioeconomic group differences of the adolescent reading trajectories were also investigated and compared. This examination…

  11. The Impact of Comprehension Versus Self-Enhancement Goals on Group Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bos, Arne; Stapel, Diederik A.

    2008-01-01

    In two studies, we tested the hypothesis that the content of group perception is influenced by whether it is driven by a self-enhancement or a comprehension goal. In both studies, we found support for the hypothesis that participants' perception of males and females was more stereotypical when a

  12. The Impact of Note-Taking Strategies on Listening Comprehension of EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayati, A. Majid; Jalilifar, Alireza

    2009-01-01

    The main concern of the present study is to probe the relationship between note-taking strategy and students' listening comprehension (LC) ability. To conduct the study, a language proficiency test was administered to the undergraduate students majoring in English Translation at Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz and sixty students were selected…

  13. Impact of nuclear power plants of the PWR-type on river water quality (case-report of the river Meuse)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masschelein, W.J.; Genot, J.

    1982-01-01

    Five years' experience with data of the TAILFER plant located 48 km downstream of the nuclear power site of CHOOZ is reported so as to provide guidelines for the examination of future nuclear cases. The factors considered are: the reduction in water flow and thermal impacts, the discharge of nuclear active effluents and the physico-chemical impact of enrichment in salts and suspended matter. Primary importance must be given to the proportion of the discharges in terms of added (instantaneous) volume activities. In the case of inland rivers the most active effluents, including the particular isotope tritium, are contained in a reduced volume (1400 m 3 /1000 MWe), and are best evacuated to other sites. Guidelines to check the river water quality are based on the measurement of 3H, total γ, and specifically, Co 60 , Cs 137 , Mn 54 , Co 58 , and Cs 134 . Flow measurement and river transfer modelling must be part of the study of the impact as illustrated by this case-report. (author)

  14. Experimental investigation and modelling approach of the impact of urban wastewater on a tropical river; a case study of the Nhue River, Hanoi, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Trinh Anh; Vachaud, Georges; Bonnet, Marie Paule; Prieur, Nicolas; Loi, Vu Duc; Anh, Le Lan

    2007-02-01

    SummaryAnalyses of water quality and flow regime in combination with laboratory studies and ecological modelling were used to assess the water quality impact of pollution from to To Lich River that drains through Hanoi City and greatly contaminates the Nhue River. With an average discharge of 26.2 m 3/s, the Nhue River receives about 5.8 m 3/s of untreated domestic water from the city's main open-air-sewer - the To Lich River. The studies during 2002-2003 showed high concentrations of BOD (70 mg O 2/l), DOC (15 mg C/l), coliform (2.4e 6 MNP/100 ml), total phosphorus (3.5 mg P/l), and total nitrogen (31.6 mg N/l) in the To Lich, while DO level was less than 1 mg O 2/l. Such high loads of untreated wastewater impacted water quality in the Nhue River where DO decreased at times to as low as 1 mg O 2/l. The accumulation of particulate organic matter and micro-organisms in the sediments of the Nhue represented substantial sources of nutrients and sinks for DO. They are also considerable production of dissolved carbon dioxide at concentrations up to two orders of magnitude higher than pressure. Such pressures ( EpCO 2) are expected in polluted environments, but the results presented here are new for Vietnam and much of developing countries. A number of factors linked to field monitoring and laboratory measurements clearly indicate the importance of autotrophic over heterotrophic biological processes and sediments. An ecological model for management purposes has been developed that reliably estimates of the pollutant loads. An opportunity was taken to examine the changing impacts and processes when the To Lich was diverted from the Nhue. The monitoring and modelling of this opportunity showed low dissolved oxygen levels even if the impact from the To Lich was lessened. Alternatives are proposed to alleviate problems of water quality in the Nhue. It is concluded that the treatment of the To Lich River's water is highly recommended; otherwise a reduction to one third of

  15. A systematic review of the effectiveness of liming to mitigate impacts of river acidification on fish and macro-invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mant, Rebecca C.; Jones, David L.; Reynolds, Brian; Ormerod, Steve J.; Pullin, Andrew S.

    2013-01-01

    The addition of calcium carbonate to catchments or watercourses – liming – has been used widely to mitigate freshwater acidification but the abatement of acidifying emissions has led to questions about its effectiveness and necessity. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of liming streams and rivers on two key groups of river organisms: fish and invertebrates. On average, liming increased the abundance and richness of acid-sensitive invertebrates and increased overall fish abundance, but benefits were variable and not guaranteed in all rivers. Where B-A-C-I designs (before-after-control-impact) were used to reduce bias, there was evidence that liming decreased overall invertebrate abundance. This systematic review indicates that liming has the potential to mitigate the symptoms of acidification in some instances, but effects are mixed. Future studies should use robust designs to isolate recovery due to liming from decreasing acid deposition, and assess factors affecting liming outcomes. -- Highlights: •In a systematic review and meta-analysis, we asked how river liming affected fish and invertebrates. •On average, liming increased fish abundance. •Liming also increased average abundance and richness of acid-sensitive invertebrates. •However, benefits were variable and not guaranteed in all acidified rivers. -- A systematic review showed lime application to acidified rivers increased average fish abundance, and abundance and richness in acid-sensitive invertebrates, but not always

  16. Evaluation of the hurricanes Gustav and Ike impact on healing mud from San Diego River using nuclear and geochemical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Rizo, Oscar; Gelen Rudnikas, Alina Katia; Rodriguez, D'Alessandro; Arado Lopez, Juana O.; Dominguez Rodriguez, Roberto; Gonzalez Hernandez, Patricia; Melian Rodriguez, Clara M.; Suarez Munnoz, Margaret; Fagundo Castillo, Juan R.; Blanco Padilla, Dagoberto

    2011-01-01

    Effects induced by the hurricanes Gustav and Ike on San Diego River mud characteristics have been studied. X-ray fluorescence analysis, gamma spectrometry and measurement of some physico-chemical characteristics in mud samples, collected before and after hurricane impacts, shows that hurricanes induced changes in mud major composition and in some other mud characteristics. The average sedimentation rate determined by gamma spectrometry in San Diego River outlet permitted to estimate that the original mud characteristics will be recovered never before than 5-7 years. Further studies of the influence of mud characteristics changes due the hurricanes impact in mud therapeutic properties are recommended.(author)

  17. Shifts in river-floodplain relationship reveal the impacts of river regulation: A case study of Dongting Lake in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cai; Jia, Yifei; Jing, Lei; Zeng, Qing; Lei, Jialin; Zhang, Shuanghu; Lei, Guangchun; Wen, Li

    2018-04-01

    Better understanding of the dynamics of hydrological connectivity between river and floodplain is essential for the ecological integrity of river systems. In this study, we proposed a regime-switch modelling (RSM) framework, which integrates change point analysis with dynamic linear regression, to detect and date change points in linear regression, and to quantify the relative importance of natural variations and anthropogenic disturbances. The approach was applied to the long-term hydrological time series to investigate the evolution of river-floodplain relation in Dongting Lake in the last five decades, during which the Yangtze River system experienced unprecedented anthropogenic manipulations. Our results suggested that 1) there were five distinct regimes during which the influence of inflows and local climate on lake water level changed significantly. The detected change points were well corresponding to the major events occurred upon the Yangtze; 2) although the importance of inflows from the Yangtze was greater than that of the tributaries flows over the five regimes, the relative contribution gradually decreased from regime 1 to regime 5. The weakening of hydrological forcing from the Yangtze was mainly attributed to the reduction in channel capacity resulting from sedimentation in the outfalls and water level dropping caused by river bed scour in the mainstream; 3) the effects of local climate was much smaller than these of inflows; and 4) since the operation of The Three Gorges Dam in 2006, the river-floodplain relationship entered a new equilibrium in that all investigated variables changed synchronously in terms of direction and magnitude. The results from this study reveal the mechanisms underlying the alternated inundation regime in Dongting Lake. The identified change points, some of which have not been previously reported, will allow a reappraisal of the current dam and reservoir operation strategies not only for flood/drought risk management but

  18. Draft Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement and Comprehensive Land Use Plan. Volume 3 of 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This volume of the Environmental Impact Statement contains ten appendices. These appendices contain the following: the ecological risk assessment methodology and calculations; the strategy for remediation of contaminated ground water; a description of the reference barrier and potential quarry sites that could be used to supply materials for barriers; the methodology for estimating socio-economic impacts; the methodology for evaluation of air quality impacts; an assessment of costs and physical impacts; the calculation of estimated industrial health and safety occupational losses; a floodplains and wetlands impact assessment; information about Hanford waste sites, and US EPA guidance on using land-use decisions in remediation

  19. Assessing climate change impacts on fresh water resources of the Athabasca River Basin, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Narayan Kumar; Du, Xinzhong; Wang, Junye

    2017-12-01

    Proper management of blue and green water resources is important for the sustainability of ecosystems and for the socio-economic development of river basins such as the Athabasca River Basin (ARB) in Canada. For this reason, quantifying climate change impacts on these water resources at a finer temporal and spatial scale is often necessary. In this study, we used a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to assess climate change impacts on fresh water resources, focusing explicitly on the impacts to both blue and green water. We used future climate data generated by the Canadian Center for Climate Modelling and Analysis Regional Climate Model (CanRCM4) with a spatial resolution of 0.22°×0.22° (~25km) for two emission scenarios (RCP 4.5 and 8.5). Results projected the climate of the ARB to be wetter by 21-34% and warmer by 2-5.4°C on an annual time scale. Consequently, the annual average blue and green water flow was projected to increase by 16-54% and 11-34%, respectively, depending on the region, future period, and emission scenario. Furthermore, the annual average green water storage at the boreal region was expected to increase by 30%, while the storage was projected to remain fairly stable or decrease in other regions, especially during the summer season. On average, the fresh water resources in the ARB are likely to increase in the future. However, evidence of temporal and spatial heterogeneity could pose many future challenges to water resource planners and managers. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of Crop Conversions on Runoff and Sediment Output in the Lower Mississippi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momm, H.; Bingner, R. L.; Elkadiri, R.; Yaraser, L.; Porter, W.

    2017-12-01

    Farming management practices influence sediment and agrochemical loads exiting fields and entering downstream water bodies. These practices impact multiple physical processes responsible for sediment and nutrient detachment, transport, and deposition. Recent changes in farming practices in the Southern United States coincide with increased grain production, replacing traditional crops such as cotton with corn and soybeans. To grow these crops in the South, adapted crop management practices are needed (irrigation, fertilizer, etc.). In this study, the impact of grain crop adoption on hydrologic processes and non-point source pollutant production is quantified. A watershed located in the Big Sunflower River drainage basin (14,179 km2) - a part of the greater Lower Mississippi River basin - was selected due to its economic relevance, historical agricultural output, and depiction of recent farming management trends. Estimates of runoff and sediment loads were produced using the U.S. Department of Agriculture supported Annualized Agriculture Non-Point Source Pollution (AnnAGNPS) watershed pollution and management model. Existing physical conditions during a 16-year period (2000-2015) were characterized using 3,992 sub-catchments and 1,602 concentrated flow paths. Algorithms were developed to integrate continuous land use/land cover information, variable spatio-temporal irrigation practices, and crop output yield in order to generate a total of 2,922 unique management practices and corresponding soil-disturbing operations. A simulation representing existing conditions was contrasted with simulations depicting alternatives of management, irrigation practices, and temporal variations in crop yield. Quantification of anthropogenic impacts to water quality and water availability at a watershed scale supports the development of targeted pollution mitigation and custom conservation strategies.

  1. Socio-cultural impacts of construction and regulation of the waterway of Oulujoki river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruotsala, H.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of study was to clarify the socio-cultural impacts of the regulation and construction of Oulujoki river on the everyday life of people. Changes in work and livelihood, living and living satisfaction, and leisure time and recreation are considered as variables. Quantitative and qualitative methods were combined in the study. The principal study material is composed of answers to a questionnaire and of 109 thematic interviews on the topic. The hold of the study is phenomenological-hermeneutical, with the intention to interpret the matter from the viewpoint of the attitudes and requirements of the waterway users. The theoretical frame of reference was culture-ecological point of view and adaptive process. The emphasis of the study is on sociocultural adaptation. The attitude towards waterway construction and regulation was dependent on the background of the person interviewed. The attitude was considered e.g. by various interest groups and professional groups, such as farmers, inhabitants on the shore, recreation users, fishermen, municipal elected officials. Other important variables were age, family stage and sex. Big local differences in the attitudes could also be found. While prevailing values in society and peoples' modes of living are changing, also the attitude towards waterway and changes caused by waterway construction has changed in the region studied. The impacts on the sources of livelihood are minor for the moment, the impacts on living satisfaction and recreations are significant. While leisure time is increasing the recreation value of waterway increases, too. At the construction stage of the river, the economical and productional advantages took priority, and then no attention was paid to recreational use

  2. Methods to assess impacts on Hudson River white perch: report for the period October 1, 1978 to September 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Kirk, B.L.; Kumar, K.D.; Van Winkle, W.; Vaughan, D.S.

    1980-06-01

    This report is a brief description of the work done on the NRC project entitled 'Methods to Assess Impacts on Hudson River White Perch' October 1, 1978 to September 30, 1979. Accounts of special studies of white perch entrainment at Hudson River power plants, of density-dependent growth in the Hudson River white perch population, and of data on the white perch populations of the Delaware and Chesapeake systems were performed. Complete accounts of these special studies are included in this report. During this period, a final draft topical report entitled 'Evaluation of Impingement Losses of White Perch at the Indian Point Nuclear Station and Other Hudson River Power Plants' (NUREG/CR-1100) was completed

  3. Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Crystal River Unit 3 case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, P.A.

    1982-07-01

    This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Crystal River Unit 3 nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  4. Combined Flow Abstraction and Climate Change Impacts on an Aggrading Alpine River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, M.; Costa, A.; Silva, T. A.; Stutenbecker, L.; Girardclos, S.; Loizeau, J.-L.; Molnar, P.; Schlunegger, F.; Lane, S. N.

    2018-01-01

    Recent climatic warming and associated glacial retreat may have a large impact on sediment release and transfer in Alpine river basins. Concurrently, the sediment transport capacity of many European Alpine streams is affected by hydropower exploitation, notably where flow is abstracted but the sediment supply downstream is maintained. Here, we investigate the combined effects of climate change and flow abstraction on morphodynamics and sediment transfer in the Borgne River, Switzerland. From photogrammetrically derived historical Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), we find considerable net aggradation of the braided river bed (up to 5 m) since the onset of flow abstraction in 1963. Reaches responded through bed level steepening which was strongest in the upper most reach. Widespread aggradation however did not commence until the onset of glacier retreat in the late 1980s and the dry and warm years of the early 1990s. Upstream flow intake data shows that this aggradation coincided with an increase in sediment supply, although aggradation accounts for no more than 25% of supplied material. The remainder was transferred through the studied reaches. Estimations of bed load transport capacity indicate that flow abstraction reduces transport capacity by 1-2 orders of magnitude. While residual transport rates vary with morphological evolution, they are in the same order of magnitude as the sediment supply rates, which is why significant transport remains. However, the reduction in transport capacity makes the system more sensitive to short-term (annual) changes in climate-driven hydrological variability and climate-induced changes in intake management and sediment delivery rates.

  5. Deep-sea coral record of human impact on watershed quality in the Mississippi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Nancy G.; Roark, E. Brendan; Koenig, Alan E.; Demopoulos, Amanda W. J.; Batista, Fabian C.; Kocar, Benjamin D.; Selby, David; McCarthy, Matthew D.; Mienis, Furu

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest drivers of historical nutrient and sediment transport into the Gulf of Mexico is the unprecedented scale and intensity of land use change in the Mississippi River Basin. These landscape changes are linked to enhanced fluxes of carbon and nitrogen pollution from the Mississippi River, and persistent eutrophication and hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Increased terrestrial runoff is one hypothesis for recent enrichment in bulk nitrogen isotope (δ15N) values, a tracer for nutrient source, observed in a Gulf of Mexico deep-sea coral record. However, unambiguously linking anthropogenic land use change to whole scale shifts in downstream Gulf of Mexico biogeochemical cycles is difficult. Here we present a novel approach, coupling a new tracer of agro-industrialization to a multiproxy record of nutrient loading in long-lived deep-sea corals collected in the Gulf of Mexico. We found that coral bulk δ15N values are enriched over the last 150–200 years relative to the last millennia, and compound-specific amino acid δ15N data indicate a strong increase in baseline δ15N of nitrate as the primary cause. Coral rhenium (Re) values are also strongly elevated during this period, suggesting that 34% of Re is of anthropogenic origin, consistent with Re enrichment in major world rivers. However, there are no pre-anthropogenic measurements of Re to confirm this observation. For the first time, an unprecedented record of natural and anthropogenic Re variability is documented through coral Re records. Taken together, these novel proxies link upstream changes in water quality to impacts on the deep-sea coral ecosystem.

  6. Deep-sea coral record of human impact on watershed quality in the Mississippi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, N.; Roark, B.; Koenig, A.; Batista, F. C.; Kocar, B. D.; Selby, D. S.; Mccarthy, M. D.; Mienis, F.; Ross, S. W.; Demopoulos, A. W.

    2015-12-01

    One of the greatest drivers of historical nutrient and sediment transport into the Gulf of Mexico is the unprecedented scale and intensity of land use change in the Mississippi River Basin. These landscape changes are linked to enhanced fluxes of carbon and nitrogen pollution from the Mississippi River, and persistent eutrophication and hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Increased terrestrial runoff is one hypothesis for recent enrichment in bulk nitrogen isotope (δ15N) values, a tracer for nutrient source, observed in a Gulf of Mexico deep-sea coral record. However, unambiguously linking anthropogenic land use change to whole scale shifts in downstream Gulf of Mexico biogeochemical cycles is difficult. Here we present a novel approach, coupling a new tracer of agro-industrialization to a multiproxy record of nutrient loading in long-lived deep-sea corals collected in the Gulf of Mexico. We found that coral bulk δ15N values are enriched over the last 150-200 years relative to the last millennia, and compound-specific amino acid δ15N data indicate a strong increase in baseline δ15N of nitrate as the primary cause. Coral rhenium (Re) values are also strongly elevated during this period, suggesting that 34% of Re is of anthropogenic origin, consistent with Re enrichment in major world rivers. However, there are no pre-anthropogenic measurements of Re to confirm this observation. For the first time, an unprecedented record of natural and anthropogenic Re variability is documented through coral Re records. Taken together, these novel proxies link upstream changes in water quality to impacts on the deep-sea coral ecosystem.

  7. Impacting Children’s Health and Academic Performance through Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy A. BRUSSEAU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is associated with numerous academic and health benefits. Furthermore, schools have been identified as an ideal location to promote physical activity as most youth attend school regularly from ages 5-18. Unfortunately, in an effort to increase academic learning time, schools have been eliminating traditional activity opportunities including physical education and recess. To combat physical inactivity in you, numerous organizations are promoting a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program to encourage academic achievement and overall health. Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs include five components and should be centered around 1 quality physical education, 2 physical activity before and after school, 3 physical activity during school (both recess and classroom activity, 4 staff involvement, and 5 family and community engagement.

  8. The Impact of Videos Presenting Speakers’ Gestures and Facial Clues on Iranian EFL Learners’ Listening Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Karbalaie Safarali

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The current research sought to explore the effectiveness of using videos presenting speakers’ gestures and facial clues on Iranian EFL learners’ listening comprehension proficiency. It was carried out at Ayandeh English Institute among 60 advanced female learners with the age range of 17-30 through a quasi-experimental research design. The researcher administered a TOEFL test to determine the homogeneity of the participants regarding both their general English language proficiency level and listening comprehension ability. Participants were randomly assigned into two groups. After coming up with the conclusion that the two groups were homogeneous,  during 10 sessions of treatment, they received two different listening comprehension techniques, i.e. audio-visual group watching the video was equipped with the speaker’s gestures and facial clues, while the audio-only group could just listen to speaker’s voice and no additional clue was presented. Meanwhile, the participants were supposed to answer the questions related to each video. At the end of the treatment, both groups participated in the listening comprehension test of the Longman TOEFL test as the post-test. A t-test was used to compare the mean scores of the two groups, the result of which showed that the learners’ mean score in the audio-visual group was significantly higher than the learners’ mean score in the audio-only group. In conclusion, the result of this study suggests that foreign language pedagogy, especially for adult English learners, would benefit from applying videos presenting speakers’ gestures and facial clues.

  9. The Impact of Note Taking On the Improvement of Listening Comprehension of Iranian EFL Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Zohrabi; Farzaneh Esfandyari

    2014-01-01

    Note taking is a popular and operative strategy which increases the students? ability to remember, comprehend, and keep the material in mind. Nowadays, it is very common for teachers to use the note taking strategy in EFL listening classes due to the fact that taking notes can help students catch the main points easily and in turn promote their listening comprehension effectively. However, it creates areas of concerns for some researchers about whether taking notes is effective for students t...

  10. Identifying primary stressors impacting macroinvertebrates in the Salinas River (California, USA): Relative effects of pesticides and suspended particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, B.S.; Phillips, B.M.; Hunt, J.W.; Connor, V.; Richard, N.; Tjeerdema, R.S.

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory dose-response experiments with organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides, and dose-response experiments with increasing particle loads were used to determine which of these stressors were likely responsible for the toxicity and macroinvertebrate impacts previously observed in the Salinas River. Experiments were conducted with the amphipod Hyalella azteca, the baetid mayfly Procloeon sp., and the midge Chironomus dilutus (Shobanov, formerly Chironomus tentans). The results indicate the primary stressor impacting H. azteca was pesticides, including chlorpyrifos and permethrin. The mayfly Procloeon sp. was sensitive to chlorpyrifos and permethrin within the range of concentrations of these pesticides measured in the river. Chironomus dilutus were sensitive to chlorpyrifos within the ranges of concentrations measured in the river. None of the species tested were affected by turbidity as high as 1000 NTUs. The current study shows that pesticides are more important acute stressors of macroinvertebrates than suspended sediments in the Salinas River. - Pesticides are the primary stressor impacting macroinvertebrates in sections of the lower Salinas River

  11. Identifying primary stressors impacting macroinvertebrates in the Salinas River (California, USA): Relative effects of pesticides and suspended particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, B.S. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)]. E-mail: anderson@ucdavis.edu; Phillips, B.M. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Hunt, J.W. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Connor, V. [Division of Water Quality, State Water Resources Control Board, 1001 I. Street, Sacramento, CA 95814 (United States); Richard, N. [Division of Water Quality, State Water Resources Control Board, 1001 I. Street, Sacramento, CA 95814 (United States); Tjeerdema, R.S. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Laboratory dose-response experiments with organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides, and dose-response experiments with increasing particle loads were used to determine which of these stressors were likely responsible for the toxicity and macroinvertebrate impacts previously observed in the Salinas River. Experiments were conducted with the amphipod Hyalella azteca, the baetid mayfly Procloeon sp., and the midge Chironomus dilutus (Shobanov, formerly Chironomus tentans). The results indicate the primary stressor impacting H. azteca was pesticides, including chlorpyrifos and permethrin. The mayfly Procloeon sp. was sensitive to chlorpyrifos and permethrin within the range of concentrations of these pesticides measured in the river. Chironomus dilutus were sensitive to chlorpyrifos within the ranges of concentrations measured in the river. None of the species tested were affected by turbidity as high as 1000 NTUs. The current study shows that pesticides are more important acute stressors of macroinvertebrates than suspended sediments in the Salinas River. - Pesticides are the primary stressor impacting macroinvertebrates in sections of the lower Salinas River.

  12. THE IMPACT OF GLOSS TYPES ON IRANIAN EFL STUDENTS’ READING COMPREHENSION AND LEXICAL RETENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Farvardin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that the effect of marginal glosses on reading comprehension and vocabulary retention is a controversial issue. The purpose of this study was to investigate this issue among Iranian university EFL students. Three types of glosses were applied in this study: single gloss in participants’ first language (SL1G, single gloss in participants’ second language (SL2G, and multiple-choice gloss (MCG in participants’ second language. One hundred and twenty undergraduate students majoring in English Teaching at Azad University of Najafabad, Iran, read the texts under three conditions: SL1G, SL2G, and MCG. Afterwards, participants answered two vocabulary tests, one administered immediately after the reading test and another three weeks later. One-way repeated measures ANOVA and follow-up post hoc tests (p<.05 showed that MCG facilitated participants’ vocabulary learning while reading the text more than SLGs. The results of One-way ANOVA also revealed that SL2G was the most facilitative gloss type for the participants’ reading comprehension. The study illustrates how different types of textual glosses can affect both reading comprehension and vocabulary retention. Limitations and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  13. Conflicts in River Management: A Conservationist's Perspective on Sacramento River Riparian Habitats—Impacts, Threats, Remedies, Opportunities, and Consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Spotts

    1989-01-01

    The Sacramento River's historic riparian habitats have been reduced by over 98 percent due to cumulative, adverse human activities. These activities continue to jeopardize the remaining riparian habitats. The results of these trends is more endangered species conflicts and listings, coupled with less fish, beautiful scenery, and other resource values. This paper...

  14. Science, law, and Hudson River power plants: A case study in environmental impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Klauda, R.J.; Vaughan, D.S.; Kendall, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Between 1963 and 1980, the Hudson River estuary was the focus of one of the most ambitious environmental research and assessment programs ever performed. The studies supported a series of US federal proceedings involving licenses and discharge permits for two controversial electric power generating facilities: the Cornwall pumped storage facility, and units 2 and 3 of the Indian Point nuclear generating station. Both facilities were to draw large volumes of water from a region of the Hudson used as spawning and nursery habitat by several fish species, including the striped bass. Fishermen and conservationists feared that a major fraction of the striped bass eggs and larvae in the Hudson would be entrained with the pumped water and killed. Additional fish would be killed on trash screens at the intakes. Scientists were asked to aid the utility companies and regulatory agencies in determining the biological importance of entrainment and impingement. This monograph contains both technical papers that present research results and synthesis papers that summarize and interpret the results. The intent was to: (1) summarize the scientific issues and approaches; (2) present the significant results of the Hudson River biological studies; (3) describe the role of the studies in the decision-making process; (4) evaluate the successes and failures of the studies; and (5) present recommendations for future estuarine impact assessments. Separate abstracts are processed for 22 papers for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  15. Potential impact of Dare County landfills on Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winger, P.V.; Lasier, P.J.; Augspurger, T.

    2005-01-01

    Runoff of leachate from East Lake and Dare County Construction and Demolition Debris landfills has the potential to impact wildlife resources at Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge, Dare and Hyde Counties, North Carolina. Sediment quality of samples collected in August 2000 at 14 locations down-gradient from the landfills was assessed by measuring metal and organic contaminants in the sediments, chronic toxicity of solid-phase sediment (28-d static-renewal exposures; survival and growth as test endpoints) and acute toxicity of sediment porewater (96-h static exposures) to Hyalella azteca (Crustacea: Amphipoda). In addition, contaminant bioaccumulation from 4 sediments was determined using 28-d exposures of Lumbriculus variegatus (freshwater oligochaete). Although survival was not impaired, length of H. azteca was significantly reduced in sediments from 5 locations. Pore water from 4 locations was acutely toxic to H. azteca. Metals and a few polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were bioaccumulated by L. variegatus from the sediments. Several metals and PAHs exceeded sediment quality guidelines, and metals in porewater from several sites exceeded water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic wildlife. Runoff of leachate from the landfills has reduced sediment quality and has the potential to adversely affect wildlife resources at Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge.

  16. The Impacts of Climate Change in Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, A.; Trumbull, K.; Loh, C.

    2006-11-01

    Civic Exchange added climate change to their research agenda some time ago, recognising that it is a cross-cutting issue that will have substantial impact, not only on Hong Kong but on the entire Pearl River Delta. The Hong Kong region is the wealthiest part of China. Along with growing material wealth, Hong Kong's ecological footprint and particularly it's greenhouse gas emissions - have increased exponentially. Therefore, there exists a special responsibility to contribute to finding effective mitigation measures that can help to slow the process; as well as a pressing need to find ways to adapt to those effects of climate change that cannot be forestalled. This paper represents a first attempt to pull together the relevant materials, with the aim of providing a broad-brush view of how climate change may affect Hong Kong, Macao and the Pearl River Delta. The key recommendation is that more region-specific research must be carried out. Civic Exchange has also taken note of the recently published Stern Review, which was commissioned by the United Kingdom government, to assess the economics of climate change. The report calls for urgent action. In this respect, this report therefore doubles as a funding proposal

  17. Multimodel Uncertainty Changes in Simulated River Flows Induced by Human Impact Parameterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingcai; Tang, Qiuhong; Cui, Huijuan; Mu, Mengfei; Gerten Dieter; Gosling, Simon; Masaki, Yoshimitsu; Satoh, Yusuke; Wada, Yoshihide

    2017-01-01

    Human impacts increasingly affect the global hydrological cycle and indeed dominate hydrological changes in some regions. Hydrologists have sought to identify the human-impact-induced hydrological variations via parameterizing anthropogenic water uses in global hydrological models (GHMs). The consequently increased model complexity is likely to introduce additional uncertainty among GHMs. Here, using four GHMs, between-model uncertainties are quantified in terms of the ratio of signal to noise (SNR) for average river flow during 1971-2000 simulated in two experiments, with representation of human impacts (VARSOC) and without (NOSOC). It is the first quantitative investigation of between-model uncertainty resulted from the inclusion of human impact parameterizations. Results show that the between-model uncertainties in terms of SNRs in the VARSOC annual flow are larger (about 2 for global and varied magnitude for different basins) than those in the NOSOC, which are particularly significant in most areas of Asia and northern areas to the Mediterranean Sea. The SNR differences are mostly negative (-20 to 5, indicating higher uncertainty) for basin-averaged annual flow. The VARSOC high flow shows slightly lower uncertainties than NOSOC simulations, with SNR differences mostly ranging from -20 to 20. The uncertainty differences between the two experiments are significantly related to the fraction of irrigation areas of basins. The large additional uncertainties in VARSOC simulations introduced by the inclusion of parameterizations of human impacts raise the urgent need of GHMs development regarding a better understanding of human impacts. Differences in the parameterizations of irrigation, reservoir regulation and water withdrawals are discussed towards potential directions of improvements for future GHM development. We also discuss the advantages of statistical approaches to reduce the between-model uncertainties, and the importance of calibration of GHMs for not only

  18. Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Water Allocation in Karkheh River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davtalabsabet, R.; Madani, K.; Massah, A.; Farajzadeh, M.

    2013-12-01

    Rahman Davtalab1, 2, Kaveh Madani2, Alireza Massah3, Manouchehr Farajzadeh1 1Department of Geography, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran 2Department of Civil, Environmental and Construction Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816, USA 3Department of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, College of Abureyhan , University of Tehran, Iran Abstract Karkheh river basin, with an area of 50,000 km2 is located, in southwest Iran. This basin supplies water for major agricultural activities and large hydropower production in five Iranian provinces with the total population of four million people. Due to development and population growth, this large trans-boundary basin is incapable of meeting the water demands of the five riparian provinces, causing water allocation conflicts in the region. The situation has been exacerbated by the frequent droughts and is expected to worsen further by climate change. This study evaluates the impacts of climate change on water supply reliability and allocation in this basin. First, outputs of several General Circulation Models (GCMs) under different emission scenarios for different future time horizons are statistically downscaled. Then multiple river flow time series (RFTS) are generated by feeding GCM outputs into a HEC-HMS model, using the Soil Moisture Accounting (SMA). Given a wide range of variations in GCM outputs and the resulting RFTS, the Ward's method is used to identity different RFTS clusters. Clustering helps with increasing the ability of the modeler to test a range of possible future conditions while reducing the redundancies in input data. Karkheh river basin's ability to meet the growing demand under decreasing flows is evaluated for each RFTS cluster representative. Results indicate that Karkheh river flow might decrease by 50% toward the end of the century. This would decrease the reliability of agricultural water deliveries from 78-95% to less than 50%. While currently hydropower dams can only

  19. Investigating the Impact of Human Activity on Land Use/Cover Change in China’s Lijiang River Basin from the Perspective of Flow and Type of Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Exploring how human activity impacts land use/cover change (LUCC is a hot research topic in the field of geography and sustainability management. Researchers have primarily used socioeconomic variables to measure human activity. However, the human activity indexes mainly based on socioeconomic variables have a spatial resolution that is coarser than traditional LUCC datasets, which hinders a deep and comprehensive analysis. In view of these problems, we selected China’s Lijiang River Basin as our study area and proposed the use of GPS trajectory data for analyzing the impact of human activity on LUCC from two perspectives: (1 Type of population: we used the kernel density estimation method to extract the spatial distribution of activity intensity of local residents and tourists, investigated their correlation with the LUCC result, and found these two populations have different impacts on each land cover; (2 Flow of population: we used the Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN algorithm and a network analysis method to build a flow network of population from raw trajectories, conducted regression analysis with LUCC, and found that the flow of population is an important factor driving LUCC and is sometimes a more important factor than the static distribution of the population. Experimental results validated that the proposed method can be used to uncover the impact mechanism of human activity on LUCC at fine-grained scales and provide more accurate planning and instructions for sustainability management.

  20. Environmental impact assessment of sand mining from the small catchment rivers in the southwestern coast of India: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreebha, Sreedharan; Padmalal, Damodaran

    2011-01-01

    In the past few decades, the demand for construction grade sand is increasing in many parts of the world due to rapid economic development and subsequent growth of building activities. This, in many of the occasions, has resulted in indiscriminate mining of sand from in-stream and floodplain areas leading to severe damages to the river basin environment. The case is rather alarming in the small catchment rivers like those draining the southwestern coast of India due to limited sand resources in their alluvial reaches. Moreover, lack of adequate information on the environmental impact of river sand mining is a major lacuna challenging regulatory efforts in many developing countries. Therefore, a scientific assessment is a pre-requisite in formulating management strategies in the sand mining-hit areas. In this context, a study has been made as a case to address the environmental impact of sand mining from the in-stream and floodplain areas of three important rivers in the southwestern coast of India namely the Chalakudy, Periyar and Muvattupuzha rivers, whose lowlands host one of the fast developing urban-cum-industrial centre, the Kochi city. The study reveals that an amount of 11.527 million ty(-1) of sand (8.764 million ty(-1) of in-stream sand and 2.763 million ty(-1) of floodplain sand) is being mined from the midland and lowland reaches of these rivers for construction of buildings and other infrastructural facilities in Kochi city and its satellite townships. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) carried out as a part of this investigation shows that the activities associated with mining and processing of sands have not only affected the health of the river ecosystems but also degraded its overbank areas to a large extent. Considering the degree of degradation caused by sand mining from these rivers, no mining scenario may be opted in the deeper zones of the river channels. Also, a set of suggestions are made for the overall improvement of the rivers and its

  1. Impact of Renewed Solar Dimming on Hydrology of River Basins in Peninsular India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, R.; Soni, P.; Tripathi, S.

    2017-12-01

    A significant decrease in surface solar radiation (SSR) for the period 1970-2000 has been reported by observational studies over India. This trend has also been observed globally and is termed as solar dimming. A recent study reported a reversal in the SSR trends over India for the period 2001-2010. However, using SSR observations at 12 stations located across India, we found that a much stronger dimming has reappeared during the last decade (2006-2015). To analyse the hydrological impact of this renewed dimming, 28 river basins in peninsular India are studied using a semi-distributed hydrological model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The area of these basins ranges from 1,260 km2 to 40,000 km2. The model was calibrated for the period 2003-2009 and validated for the period 2010-2014 using the daily discharge data. Experiments were performed, based on observed SSR trends and their uncertainties, to quantify their impacts on the water balance of each basin. The results suggest that a 5-10% decrease in SSR over the 9-year period, 2006-2014, resulted in a decrease of about 8% in annual evapotranspiration (ET). Seasonally, ET decreased during wet seasons (monsoon and post-monsoon) leading to increased ground water recharge, but increased during dry seasons (winter and pre-monsoon) resulting in reduced soil moisture. Changes in ET were also affected by the basin characteristics. Forested basins with clay loam soils were found to have higher ET changes than other basins. Annual discharge from the basins increased due to the decrease in annual ET caused by the decrease in SSR. The results suggest that effects of SSR trends on annual runoff are significant over peninsular Indian and should not to be neglected as they can affect river flow projections and freshwater availability.

  2. Impact of deforestation on local precipitation patterns over the Da River basin, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Spartà, Daniele; Castelletti, Andrea; Boschetti, Mirco

    2014-05-01

    Change in land cover, e.g. from forest to bare soil, might severely impact the hydrological cycle at the river basin scale by altering the balance between rainfall and evaporation, ultimately affecting streamflow dynamics. These changes generally occur over decades, but they might be much more rapid in developing countries, where economic growth and growing population may cause abrupt changes in landscape and ecosystem. Detecting, analysing and modelling these changes is an essential step to design mitigation strategies and adaptation plans, balancing economic development and ecosystem protection. In this work we investigate the impact of land cover changes on the water cycle in the Da River basin, Vietnam. More precisely, the objective is to evaluate the interlink between deforestation and precipitation. The case study is particularly interesting because Vietnam is one of the world fastest growing economies and natural resources have been considerably exploited to support after-war development. Vietnam has the second highest rate of deforestation of primary forests in the world, second to only Nigeria (FAO 2005), with associated problems like abrupt change in run-off, erosion, sediment transport and flash floods. We performed land cover evaluation by combining literature information and Remote Sensing techniques, using Landsat images. We then analysed time series of precipitation observed on the period 1960-2011 in several stations located in the catchment area. We used multiple trend detection techniques, both state-of-the-art (e.g., Linear regression and Mann-Kendall) and novel trend detection techniques (Moving Average on Shifting Horizon), to investigate trends in seasonal pattern of precipitation. Results suggest that deforestation may induce a negative trend in the precipitation volume. The effect is mainly recognizable at the beginning and at the end of the monsoon season, when the local mechanisms of precipitation formation prevail over the large scale

  3. Savannah River Site Spent Nuclear Fuel Management Final Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2000-04-14

    The proposed DOE action considered in this environmental impact statement (EIS) is to implement appropriate processes for the safe and efficient management of spent nuclear fuel and targets at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken County, South Carolina, including placing these materials in forms suitable for ultimate disposition. Options to treat, package, and store this material are discussed. The material included in this EIS consists of approximately 68 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) of spent nuclear fuel 20 MTHM of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel at SRS, as much as 28 MTHM of aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel from foreign and domestic research reactors to be shipped to SRS through 2035, and 20 MTHM of stainless-steel or zirconium-clad spent nuclear fuel and some Americium/Curium Targets stored at SRS. Alternatives considered in this EIS encompass a range of new packaging, new processing, and conventional processing technologies, as well as the No Action Alternative. A preferred alternative is identified in which DOE would prepare about 97% by volume (about 60% by mass) of the aluminum-based fuel for disposition using a melt and dilute treatment process. The remaining 3% by volume (about 40% by mass) would be managed using chemical separation. Impacts are assessed primarily in the areas of water resources, air resources, public and worker health, waste management, socioeconomic, and cumulative impacts.

  4. Mapping and environmental impacts of the Alfenas river watershed, Ubá (MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fillipe Tamiozzo Pereira Torres

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the amount and quality of water threaten human survival and other species on the planet. Given this reality and the need for conservation of water bodies, it is important to carry out diagnoses of the conditions of Permanent Preservation Areas of sources in order to establish adequate procedures for its preservation and restoration where appropriate. Thus, the aim of this study is to map and analyze the environmental impact of the headwaters of the stream Alfenas a tributary of the River Uba (MG. The mapping of sources and assess their conditions, and sharpen the impact on each of them, facilitates the formulation of alternatives for the preservation of these sites. According to the methodology used in the study area, no spring fitted into the great class, eighteen were classified as fair or poor, one as bad and two were classified as good. The lack of protection area is the main factor influencing the environmental impact, since it favors the intensification of other parameters especially the anthropic use. Because of the poor condition of quantity and quality of basin waters, specific programs for protection and conservation of springs should be adopted both by the owners and by the supervisory bodies.

  5. Impact assessment and mitigation in existing lake regulation projects in the Oulujoki river system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaatra, K.; Marttunen, M.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the project was to determine how regulation practices and shore zone maintenance and improvement should be developed in order to give more attention to recreational requirements and factors affecting the aquatic environment. The proposals must not, however, cause flooding damage or significant energy economy losses. The effects of four alternative regulation practices on hydrology flooding damage, recreational utilization, the aquatic, environment, fisheries and the hydropower production were compared in lakes Oulujaervi, Kiantajaervi, Vuokkijaervi, Ontojaervi and Sotkamonjaervi. An extensive sub-study was made on the maintenance and improvement of the shore zones of the regulated lakes. Ways of reducing excessive vegetation were studied in Lake Oulujaervi, and experiments testing the feasibility of various plants in protecting and landscaping the littoral zone were conducted in Lake Ontojaervi. Enquiries in to the perceptions of and the needs for mitigating harmful impacts, as experienced by the people living within the area affected by the river development projects, were also included in the analysis. The alternative regulation practices for Lake Oulujaervi were compared using the decision analysis interview method, in which the data acquired through the environmental impact analysis of effects were combined with the values of the local people and interest groups. The impact of alternative regulation practices was also weighed from the viewpoint of sustainability in various scales. Recommendations were made for regulation patterns and maintenance and improvement programmes for individual lakes

  6. Assessment of climate change impact on yield of major crops in the Banas River Basin, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Swatantra Kumar; Sharma, Devesh

    2018-09-01

    Crop growth models like AquaCrop are useful in understanding the impact of climate change on crop production considering the various projections from global circulation models and regional climate models. The present study aims to assess the climate change impact on yield of major crops in the Banas River Basin i.e., wheat, barley and maize. Banas basin is part of the semi-arid region of Rajasthan state in India. AquaCrop model is used to calculate the yield of all the three crops for a historical period of 30years (1981-2010) and then compared with observed yield data. Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) values are calculated to assess the model accuracy in prediction of yield. Further, the calibrated model is used to predict the possible impacts of climate change and CO 2 concentration on crop yield using CORDEX-SA climate projections of three driving climate models (CNRM-CM5, CCSM4 and MPI-ESM-LR) for two different scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) for the future period 2021-2050. RMSE values of simulated yield with respect to observed yield of wheat, barley and maize are 11.99, 16.15 and 19.13, respectively. It is predicted that crop yield of all three crops will increase under the climate change conditions for future period (2021-2050). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The impact of systematic landscape conservation planning on ecosystem: Chen Youlan river watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-ju

    2017-04-01

    Heraclitus said that "no man ever steps in the same river twice." Everything continues to change. Land use change will keep redefine itself and subject the Earth and humankind to collateral changes. Humankind benefits from ecosystem in many ways. The ecosystem provides people with nutrients, enriches soil with sediment, and sustains all living organisms with water; these benefits are known as ecosystem services. In Taiwan, land use change has impacted ecosystem and biodiversity on various levels. Thus, we took six land use scenarios from 1999 to 2005 in Chen Youlan river watershed as our case study, intending to observe the course of ecosystem and biodiversity changes and the cause of it. Systematic Landscape conservation planning (SLCP) framework can be adopted when designing land use policy to safeguard human interests and ecosystem. This study use SLCP to develop ecosystem services and biodiversity protection strategies. Several strategies were designed by using 1999 to 2005 data as provision to protect the intactness of future ecosystem services and biodiversity. This research explores the potential and possible impacts of different land use protection strategies in the future. It is possible to identify the conservation priority of a certain region by using the Zonation meta-algorithm. This study selects the zonation critical protection area (Joint set of Yushan National Park) as strategy A, B and C. Strategy D takes Yushan National Park as a protected area; unstable hot spots in 1999/03 (Joint set of Yushan National Park) are selected as strategy E. Next, we used Kappa statistical method to find the minimal ecosystem services change and biodiversity hotspots change of the five aforementioned strategies and compared with those from 1999/03. By the Kappa statistical method, we further prioritized the important conservation areas by strategy A, B, C, E in the future. The results can not only serve as management reference for government agencies, but also develop

  8. Future changes in Mekong River hydrology: impact of climate change and reservoir operation on discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lauri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The transboundary Mekong River is facing two ongoing changes that are expected to significantly impact its hydrology and the characteristics of its exceptional flood pulse. The rapid economic development of the riparian countries has led to massive plans for hydropower construction, and projected climate change is expected to alter the monsoon patterns and increase temperature in the basin. The aim of this study is to assess the cumulative impact of these factors on the hydrology of the Mekong within next 20–30 yr. We downscaled the output of five general circulation models (GCMs that were found to perform well in the Mekong region. For the simulation of reservoir operation, we used an optimisation approach to estimate the operation of multiple reservoirs, including both existing and planned hydropower reservoirs. For the hydrological assessment, we used a distributed hydrological model, VMod, with a grid resolution of 5 km × 5 km. In terms of climate change's impact on hydrology, we found a high variation in the discharge results depending on which of the GCMs is used as input. The simulated change in discharge at Kratie (Cambodia between the baseline (1982–1992 and projected time period (2032–2042 ranges from −11% to +15% for the wet season and −10% to +13% for the dry season. Our analysis also shows that the changes in discharge due to planned reservoir operations are clearly larger than those simulated due to climate change: 25–160% higher dry season flows and 5–24% lower flood peaks in Kratie. The projected cumulative impacts follow rather closely the reservoir operation impacts, with an envelope around them induced by the different GCMs. Our results thus indicate that within the coming 20–30 yr, the operation of planned hydropower reservoirs is likely to have a larger impact on the Mekong hydrograph than the impacts of climate change, particularly during the dry season. On the other hand, climate change will

  9. Assessing Hydrologic Impacts of Future Land Cover Change Scenarios in the South Platte River Basin (CO, WY, & NE) and the San Pedro River Basin (U.S./Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, J. E.; Burns, I. S.; Guertin, D. P.; Kepner, W. G.; Goodrich, D. C.

    2016-12-01

    Long-term land-use and land cover change and their associated impacts pose critical challenges to sustaining vital hydrological ecosystem services for future generations. In this study, a methodology to characterize hydrologic impacts from future urban growth through time that was developed and applied on the San Pedro River Basin was expanded and utilized on the South Platte River Basin as well. Future urban growth is represented by housing density maps generated in decadal intervals from 2010 to 2100, produced by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Integrated Climate and Land-Use Scenarios (ICLUS) project. ICLUS developed future housing density maps by adapting the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) social, economic, and demographic storylines to the conterminous United States. To characterize hydrologic impacts from future growth, the housing density maps were reclassified to National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2006 land cover classes and used to parameterize the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) using the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) tool. The objectives of this project were to 1) develop and implement a methodology for adapting the ICLUS data for use in AGWA as an approach to evaluate impacts of development on water-quantity and -quality, 2) present, evaluate, and compare results from scenarios for watersheds in two different geographic and climatic regions, 3) determine watershed specific implications of this type of future land cover change analysis.

  10. Comprehensive Assessment of Human Health Impacts and Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables in a LCA Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stylianou, Katerina S.; Fantke, Peter; Fulgoni, Victor L.

    2017-01-01

    Nutritional effects from the 'use stage' of the life cycle of food products can have a substantial effect on human health; yet, they are often not considered in life cycle assessment (LCA). In this study we explore the trade-offs between environmental and nutritional health effects associated wit...... be extended to other human health impacts (e.g. water use) and used in making sustainable diets decisions.[GRAPHICS]...... diet could result in an avoided health impact of 19.0 mu DALY (respective avoided impact for vegetables: 5.25 mu DALY). Overall, adding one fruits serving to the average US diet may lead to substantial health benefits: nutrition-related avoided impact (benefit) is 50 times higher than environmental...... health impacts (Figure 2). The benefit is slightly enhanced when increased fruit intake is substituted by food associated with adverse health outcomes, such as trans-fat and red meat, with the benefit mainly linked to avoided nutritional health impact. Benefits exceed impacts even when considering...

  11. Impact of seasonal variation on Escherichia coli concentrations in the riverbed sediments in the Apies River, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Abia, ALK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available quality of riverbed sediments in the Apies River, Gauteng Province, South Africa, using Escherichia coli as a faecal indicator organism and to investigate the impact of seasonal variation on its abundance. Weekly samples were collected at 10 sampling sites...

  12. Hydrological and Agricultural Impacts of Climate Change in the Vu Gia-Thu Bon River Basin in Central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laux, Patrick; Fink, Manfred; Waongo, Moussa; Pedroso, Rui; Salvini, G.; Hoa Tran, Dang; Quang Thinh, Dang; Cullmann, Johannes; Flügel, Wolfgang-Alvert; Kunstmann, H.

    2017-01-01


    This paper summarizes some of the climate (change) impact modeling activities conducted in the Land useandClimate Changeinteractionsin Central Vietnam (LUCCi)project. The study area is the Vu Gia-Thu Bon (VGTB) river basin in Central Vietnam, which is characterized by recurrent floods during

  13. Assessing Hydrologic Impacts of Future Land Cover Change Scenarios in the South Platte River Basin (CO, WY, & NE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long‐term land‐use and land cover change and their associated impacts pose critical challenges to sustaining vital hydrological ecosystem services for future generations. In this study, a methodology was developed on the San Pedro River Basin to characterize hydrologi...

  14. Hydrologic impacts of climate change on the Nile River basin: Implications of the 2007 IPCC climate scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyene, T.; Lettenmaier, D.P.; Kabat, P.

    2010-01-01

    We assess the potential impacts of climate change on the hydrology and water resources of the Nile River basin using a macroscale hydrology model. Model inputs are bias corrected and spatially downscaled 21st Century simulations from 11 General Circulation Models (GCMs) and two global emissions

  15. Functional and Taxonomic Differentiation of Macrophyte Assemblages Across the Yangtze River Floodplain Under Human Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; García Molinos, Jorge; Zhang, Xiaolin; Xu, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Human activities and the consequent extirpations of species have been changing the composition of species assemblages worldwide. These anthropogenic impacts alter not only the richness of assemblages but also the biological dissimilarity among them. One of the main gaps in the assessment of biodiversity change in freshwater ecosystems is our limited understanding regarding how taxonomic and functional facets of macrophyte assemblages respond to human impacts on regional scales. Here, we assess the temporal (before 1970s against after 2000s) changes in taxonomic and functional richness and compositional dissimilarities, partitioned into its turnover and nestedness components, of freshwater macrophyte assemblages across the floodplain lakes of the Yangtze River in China. We found that functional and taxonomic assemblage differentiation occurred simultaneously under increasing human impact, concomitant to a general decrease in functional and taxonomic richness. However, this effect weakened when the historical level of taxonomic dissimilarity among assemblages was high. Macrophyte species with large dispersal range and submersed life form were significantly more susceptible to extirpation. The impact of human activities on differentiation was complex but habitat loss and fishery intensity were consistently the main drivers of assemblage change in these lakes, whereas water quality (i.e., light pollution and nutrient enrichment) had weaker effects. Further, macrophyte taxonomic and functional differentiation was mainly driven by the nestedness component of dissimilarity, accounting for changes in assemblage composition related to changes in species richness independent of species replacement. This result, markedly different from previous studies on freshwater fish assemblages conducted in these lakes, represents a novel contribution toward achieving a more holistic understanding of how human impacts contribute to shape community assemblages in natural ecosystems.

  16. The Challenges of Listening to Academic Lectures for EAP Learners and the Impact of Metacognition on Academic Lecture Listening Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Rahimirad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Academic listening skill is an indispensable necessity for English for academic purposes (EAP students in English-medium universities and also critical for their future success in comprehending conference lectures. But due to the specific nature of such academic lectures, nonnative students all too often face challenges in getting a full command of this task. This study investigates the challenges of listening to academic lectures and the impact of related metacognitive strategies on academic lecture listening comprehension on a group of Iranian learners in an EAP workshop. Fifteen academic staff who took part in two intact classes at the University of Qom, Iran, were randomly assigned to treatment (N = 8 and control (N = 7 groups. The treatment group received 16 hr of metacognitive strategy instruction based on the models proposed by Vandergrift during academic listening instruction, while the control group was just exposed to academic lectures with no explicit strategy instruction. The academic listening sections of the British International English Language Testing System (IELTS were utilized to measure the listening comprehension of both groups before and after the treatment. The results of the data analysis determined that the experimental group significantly outperformed the control group in the listening posttest. The interviews before and after the treatment revealed details of challenges in academic lecture comprehension and also shed light on the perception of the learners regarding metacognitive strategy instruction and the frequency of main metacognitive strategies used in comprehending academic lectures.

  17. Comprehensive Coach Education Reduces Head Impact Exposure in American Youth Football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y.; Yeargin, Susan W.; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.; Mensch, James; Hayden, Ross; Dompier, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite little evidence that defines a threshold of head impact exposure or that participation in youth sports leads to long-term cognitive impairments, it is prudent to identify methods of reducing the frequency of head impacts. Purpose: To compare the mean number of head impacts between youth football players in practice and games between leagues that implemented the Heads Up Football (HUF) educational program and those that did not (NHUF). Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: During the 2014 season, head impact exposure was measured using xPatch accelerometers from 70 youth football players aged 8 to 15 years from 5 leagues. Data were collected during both games and practices. The NHUF group comprised 32 players from 8 teams within 3 leagues. The HUF group comprised 38 players from 7 teams within 2 leagues. Independent-sample t tests evaluated differences in head impact exposure across groups (ie, HUF and NHUF). Results: Players (mean ± SD: age, 11.7 ± 1.4 years; height, 152.2 ± 10.5 cm; weight, 51.6 ± 9.6 kg) experienced a total of 7478 impacts over 10g, of which 4250 (56.8%) and 3228 (43.2%) occurred in practices and games, respectively. The majority of impacts occurred within the NHUF group (62.0%), followed by the HUF group (38.0%). With a 10g impact threshold, the mean number of impacts during practice per individual event was lower in the HUF group (mean ± SD, 5.6 ± 2.9) than in the NHUF group (mean ± SD, 8.9 ± 3.1; difference, 3.4; 95% CI, 2.9-3.9). This difference was attenuated when the threshold was changed to 20g but remained significant (difference, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.7-1.3). At both the 10g and 20g impact thresholds, no differences were found in games. Conclusion: Players who participated in HUF leagues accumulated fewer head impacts per practice at both the 10g and 20g thresholds. Youth football leagues should consider the HUF educational program, while exploring additional interventions, to help reduce the

  18. Lower Snake River Juvenile Salmon Migration Feasibility Report/Environmental Impact Statement. Appendix I: Economics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ... (collectively called the Lower Snake River Project) and their effects on four lower Snake River salmon and steelhead stocks listed for protection under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The U.S...

  19. Lower Snake River Juvenile Salmon Migration Feasibility Report/Environmental Impact Statement. Appendix C: Water Quality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ... (collectively called the Lower-Snake River Project) and their effects on four lower Snake River salmon and steelhead stocks listed for protection under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The U.S...

  20. Lower Snake River Juvenile Salmon Migration Feasibility Report/Environmental Impact Statement. Appendix K: Real Estate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ... (collectively called the Lower Snake River Project) and their effects-on four lower Snake River salmon and steelhead stocks listed for protection- under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The U.S...

  1. Lower Snake River Juvenile Salmon Migration Feasibility Report/Environmental Impact Statement. Appendix J: Plan Formulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ... (collectively called the Lower Snake River Project) and their effects on four lower Snake River salmon and steelhead stocks listed for protection under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The U.S...

  2. THE IMPACT OF TBILISI USED WATER ON ECOCHEMICAL STATE OF SMALL RIVERS OF THE CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIAM TABATADZE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The centralized sewerage systems and wastewater treatment facilities were constructed in Tbilisi in the middle of the previous century. Nowadays only mechanical treatment stage operates in wastewater treatment facilities of Tbilisi. Moreover, collected wastewater from the sewerage systems often drains without any treatment directly into the small rivers located in Tbilisi area. These rivers feed the main water artery of our capital – river Mtkvari and play an important role in its salt balance. As a result of study of hydro-chemical parameters of Tbilisi small rivers were identified Water Pollution Index (WPI and assessment of small rivers pollution by sewage waters was carried out. It was established that small rivers of Tbilisi belong to the IV and V classes, i.e. less polluted and polluted rivers, while according to the content of fecal matter in the river water they are ranged in the class of polluted and most polluted.

  3. Significant human impact on the flux and δ(34)S of sulfate from the largest river in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, Bryan A; Bao, Huiming

    2015-04-21

    Riverine dissolved sulfate (SO4(2-)) flux and sulfur stable isotope composition (δ(34)S) yield information on the sources and processes affecting sulfur cycling on different spatial and temporal scales. However, because pristine preindustrial natural baselines of riverine SO4(2-) flux and δ(34)S cannot be directly measured, anthropogenic impact remains largely unconstrained. Here we quantify natural and anthropogenic SO4(2-) flux and δ(34)S for North America's largest river, the Mississippi, by means of an exhaustive source compilation and multiyear monitoring. Our data and analysis show that, since before industrialization to the present, Mississippi River SO4(2-) has increased in flux from 7.0 to 27.8 Tg SO4(2-) yr(-1), and in mean δ(34)S from -5.0‰, within 95% confidence limits of -14.8‰ to 4.1‰ (assuming normal distribution for mixing model input parameters), to -2.7 ± 1.6‰, reflecting an impressive footprint of bedrocks particular to this river basin and human activities. Our first-order modern Mississippi River sulfate partition is 25 ± 6% natural and 75% ± 6% anthropogenic sources. Furthermore, anthropogenic coal usage is implicated as the dominant source of modern Mississippi River sulfate, with an estimated 47 ± 5% and 13% of total Mississippi River sulfate due to coal mining and burning, respectively.

  4. Modeling Climate and Management Change Impacts on Water Quality and In-Stream Processes in the Elbe River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Hesse

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eco-hydrological water quality modeling for integrated water resources management of river basins should include all necessary landscape and in-stream nutrient processes as well as possible changes in boundary conditions and driving forces for nutrient behavior in watersheds. The study aims to assess possible impacts of the changing climate (ENSEMBLES climate scenarios and/or land use conditions on resulting river water quantity and quality in the large-scale Elbe river basin by applying a semi-distributed watershed model of intermediate complexity (SWIM with implemented in-stream nutrient (N+P turnover and algal growth processes. The calibration and validation results revealed the ability of SWIM to satisfactorily simulate nutrient behavior at the watershed scale. Analysis of 19 climate scenarios for the whole Elbe river basin showed a projected increase in temperature (+3 °C and precipitation (+57 mm on average until the end of the century, causing diverse changes in river discharge (+20%, nutrient loads (NO3-N: −5%; NH4-N: −24%; PO4-P: +5%, phytoplankton biomass (−4% and dissolved oxygen concentration (−5% in the watershed. In addition, some changes in land use and nutrient management were tested in order to reduce nutrient emissions to the river network.

  5. Accent on communication: the impact of regional and foreign accent on comprehension in adults with aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Carolyn; To, Cinn-Teng; Newton, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    This study explored whether an unfamiliar non-native accent, differing in both segmental and prosodic features was more difficult for individuals with aphasia to understand than an unfamiliar native accent, which differed in segmental features only. Comprehension, which was determined by accuracy judgments on true/false sentences, and speed of response were assessed in the following three conditions: a familiar Southern Standard British English (SSBE) accent, an unfamiliar native Grimsby accent, and an unfamiliar non-native Chinese accent. Thirty-four English speaking adults (17 people with and 17 people without aphasia) served as listeners for this study. All listeners made significantly more errors in the unfamiliar non-native accent, although this difficulty was more marked for those with aphasia. While there was no affect of speaker accent on the response times of listeners with aphasia, listeners without aphasia were significantly slower with the unfamiliar non-native accent. The results indicate that non-native accented speech affects comprehension even on simple tasks in ideal listening conditions. The findings suggest that speaker accent, especially accents varying in both segmental and prosodic features, can be a barrier to successful interactions between non-native accented speakers and native listeners, particularly those with aphasia.

  6. Investigating the impact of land cover change on peak river flow in UK upland peat catchments, based on modelled scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jihui; Holden, Joseph; Kirkby, Mike

    2014-05-01

    Changes to land cover can influence the velocity of overland flow. In headwater peatlands, saturation means that overland flow is a dominant source of runoff, particularly during heavy rainfall events. Human modifications in headwater peatlands may include removal of vegetation (e.g. by erosion processes, fire, pollution, overgrazing) or pro-active revegetation of peat with sedges such as Eriophorum or mosses such as Sphagnum. How these modifications affect the river flow, and in particular the flood peak, in headwater peatlands is a key problem for land management. In particular, the impact of the spatial distribution of land cover change (e.g. different locations and sizes of land cover change area) on river flow is not clear. In this presentation a new fully distributed version of TOPMODEL, which represents the effects of distributed land cover change on river discharge, was employed to investigate land cover change impacts in three UK upland peat catchments (Trout Beck in the North Pennines, the Wye in mid-Wales and the East Dart in southwest England). Land cover scenarios with three typical land covers (i.e. Eriophorum, Sphagnum and bare peat) having different surface roughness in upland peatlands were designed for these catchments to investigate land cover impacts on river flow through simulation runs of the distributed model. As a result of hypothesis testing three land cover principles emerged from the work as follows: Principle (1): Well vegetated buffer strips are important for reducing flow peaks. A wider bare peat strip nearer to the river channel gives a higher flow peak and reduces the delay to peak; conversely, a wider buffer strip with higher density vegetation (e.g. Sphagnum) leads to a lower peak and postpones the peak. In both cases, a narrower buffer strip surrounding upstream and downstream channels has a greater effect than a thicker buffer strip just based around the downstream river network. Principle (2): When the area of change is equal

  7. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix C: Anadromous Fish and Juvenile Fish Transportation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix C of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on andromous fish and juvenile fish transportation. The principal andromous fish in the Columbia basin include salmonid species (Chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead) and nonsalmoinid andromous species (sturgeon, lamprey, and shad). Major sections in this document include the following: background, scope and process; affected environment for salmon and steelhead, shaded, lamprey, sturgeon; study methods; description of alternatives: qualitative and quantitative findings.

  8. Tidal and Seasonal River Stage Fluctuations Impact the Formation of Permeable Natural Reactive Barriers in Riverbank Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, P.; Myers, K.; Knappett, P.; Cardenas, M. B.

    2017-12-01

    River stage fluctuations, induced by ocean tides and rainfall, enhance the exchange between oxic river water and reducing groundwater. When mixing occurs within riverbank aquifers high in dissolved iron (Fe) and arsenic (As), the timing and extent of mixing likely control the accumulation and mobility of arsenic (As) within the hyporheic zone. Here we analyzed the impact of tidal and seasonal water level fluctuations on the formation of a Permeable Natural Reactive Barrier (PNRB) within an aquifer adjacent to the Meghna River, Bangladesh and its impact on As mobility. We found that the periodicity and amplitude of river stage fluctuations strongly control the spatial and temporal distribution of the PNRB, comprised of rapidly precipitated iron oxides, in this riverbank along a relatively straight reach of the Meghna River. The PNRB forms much faster and with higher concentration of Fe-oxide under semi-diurnal (12 hr) tidal fluctuations compared to simulations run assuming only neap-spring tides (14 day). As tidal amplitude increases, a larger contact area between oxic river water and reducing groundwater results which in turn leads to the horizontal expansion of the PNRB into the riverbank. Seasonal fluctuations expand the PNRB up to 60 m horizontally and 5 m vertically. In contrast neap-spring tidal fluctuations result in a smaller PNRB that is 10 and 3 m in the horizontal and vertical dimensions. The predicted changes in the spatial distribution of iron oxides within the riverbank would trap and release As at different times of the year. The PNRB could act as a secondary source of As to drinking water aquifers under sustained groundwater pumping scenarios near the river.

  9. Quantification of the impact of macrophytes on oxygen dynamics and nitrogen retention in a vegetated lowland river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, N. J. S.; Van Belleghem, S.; Seuntjens, P.; Bouma, T. J.; Buis, K.; Meire, P.

    When macrophytes are growing in the river, the vegetation induces substantial changes to the water quality. Some effects are the result of direct interactions, such as photosynthetic activity or nutrient uptake, whereas others may be attributed to indirect effects of the water plants on hydrodynamics and river processes. This research focused on the direct effect of macrophytes on oxygen dynamics and nutrient cycling. Discharge, macrophyte biomass density, basic water quality, dissolved oxygen and nutrient concentrations were in situ monitored throughout the year in a lowland river (Nete catchment, Belgium). In addition, various processes were investigated in more detail in multiple ex situ experiments. The field and aquaria measurement results clearly demonstrated that aquatic plants can exert considerable impact on dissolved oxygen dynamics in a lowland river. When the river was dominated by macrophytes, dissolved oxygen concentrations varied from 5 to 10 mg l -1. Considering nutrient retention, it was shown that the investigated in-stream macrophytes could take up dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) from the water column at rates of 33-50 mg N kgdry matter-1 h. And DIN fluxes towards the vegetation were found to vary from 0.03 to 0.19 g N ha -1 h -1 in spring and summer. Compared to the measured changes in DIN load over the river stretch, it means that about 3-13% of the DIN retention could be attributed to direct nitrogen uptake from the water by macrophytes. Yet, the role of macrophytes in rivers should not be underrated as aquatic vegetation also exerts considerable indirect effects that may have a greater impact than the direct fixation of nutrients into the plant biomass.

  10. Multi-biomarker responses as indication of contaminant effects in Gambusia affinis from impacted rivers by municipal effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guo-Yong; Liu, You-Sheng; Liang, Yan-Qiu; Shi, Wen-Jun; Hu, Li-Xin; Tian, Fei; Chen, Jun; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated toxic effects in mosquitofish from two urban rivers of South China impacted by municipal effluents by using multiple biomarkers including fish morphology, biochemical indicators and transcriptional responses, and explored potential cause-effect relationship with a list of chemicals (metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides). The results showed significant alterations in metallothionein (MT) protein and mRNA expression in mosquitofish collected from the two rivers and a strong association between MT protein and mRNA expression levels and heavy metals in the river water. Both ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity and cytochromes P450 1A (CYP1A) mRNA expression were significantly enhanced in mosquitofish at most sampling sites. There existed a strong correlation between EROD activity and CYP1A mRNA expression levels, but no clear correlations between these responses and PAHs in the river water possibly because of the presence of many other agonists of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in the two rivers. Significant acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition was observed in mosquitofish brain samples. The pesticides in the two rivers showed an influence on the AChE activity, which was also found to be significantly negatively correlated to fipronil concentrations. Moreover, the result also indicates that metals and pesticides present in the two rivers might cause the observed estrogenic and androgenic effects in mosquitofish. The findings from this study clearly showed morphological, biochemical and transcriptional responses in mosquitofish due to chemical contamination of the two urban rivers. This multi-biomarker approach using mosquitofish can be applied to evaluate contamination of riverine environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The impact of home care nurses' numeracy and graph literacy on comprehension of visual display information: implications for dashboard design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowding, Dawn; Merrill, Jacqueline A; Onorato, Nicole; Barrón, Yolanda; Rosati, Robert J; Russell, David

    2018-02-01

    To explore home care nurses' numeracy and graph literacy and their relationship to comprehension of visualized data. A multifactorial experimental design using online survey software. Nurses were recruited from 2 Medicare-certified home health agencies. Numeracy and graph literacy were measured using validated scales. Nurses were randomized to 1 of 4 experimental conditions. Each condition displayed data for 1 of 4 quality indicators, in 1 of 4 different visualized formats (bar graph, line graph, spider graph, table). A mixed linear model measured the impact of numeracy, graph literacy, and display format on data understanding. In all, 195 nurses took part in the study. They were slightly more numerate and graph literate than the general population. Overall, nurses understood information presented in bar graphs most easily (88% correct), followed by tables (81% correct), line graphs (77% correct), and spider graphs (41% correct). Individuals with low numeracy and low graph literacy had poorer comprehension of information displayed across all formats. High graph literacy appeared to enhance comprehension of data regardless of numeracy capabilities. Clinical dashboards are increasingly used to provide information to clinicians in visualized format, under the assumption that visual display reduces cognitive workload. Results of this study suggest that nurses' comprehension of visualized information is influenced by their numeracy, graph literacy, and the display format of the data. Individual differences in numeracy and graph literacy skills need to be taken into account when designing dashboard technology. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. Estimating Error in SRTM Derived Planform of a River in Data-poor Region and Subsequent Impact on Inundation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyian, M. N. M.; Kalyanapu, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate representation of river planform is critical for hydrodynamic modeling. Digital elevation models (DEM) often falls short in accurately representing river planform because they show the ground as it was during data acquisition. But, water bodies (i.e. rivers) change their size and shape over time. River planforms are more dynamic in undisturbed riverine systems (mostly located in data-poor regions) where remote sensing is the most convenient source of data. For many of such regions, Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) is the best available source of DEM. Therefore, the objective of this study is to estimate the error in SRTM derived planform of a river in a data-poor region and estimate the subsequent impact on inundation modeling. Analysis of Landsat image, SRTM DEM and remotely sensed soil data was used to classify the planform activity in an 185 km stretch of the Kushiyara River in Bangladesh. In last 15 years, the river eroded about 4.65 square km and deposited 7.55 square km area. Therefore, current (the year 2017) river planform is significantly different than the SRTM water body data which represents the time of SRTM data acquisition (the year 2000). The rate of planform shifting significantly increased as the river traveled to downstream. Therefore, the study area was divided into three reaches (R1, R2, and R3) from upstream to downstream. Channel slope and meandering ratio changed from 2x10-7 and 1.64 in R1 to 1x10-4 and 1.45 in R3. However, more than 60% erosion-deposition occurred in R3 where a high percentage of Fluvisols (98%) and coarse particles (21%) were present in the vicinity of the river. It indicates errors in SRTM water body data (due to planform shifting) could be correlated with the physical properties (i.e. slope, soil type, meandering ratio etc.) of the riverine system. The correlations would help in zoning activity of a riverine system and determine a timeline to update DEM for a given region. Additionally, to estimate the

  13. Potential impacts of climate change on flow regime and fish habitat in mountain rivers of the south-western Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, Christina; Soulis, Konstantinos; Muñoz-Mas, Rafael; Martinez-Capel, Francisco; Zogaris, Stamatis; Ntoanidis, Lazaros; Dimitriou, Elias

    2016-01-01

    The climate change in the Mediterranean area is expected to have significant impacts on the aquatic ecosystems and particular in the mountain rivers and streams that often host important species such as the Salmo farioides, Karaman 1938. These impacts will most possibly affect the habitat availability for various aquatic species resulting to an essential alteration of the water requirements, either for dams or other water abstractions, in order to maintain the essential levels of ecological flow for the rivers. The main scope of this study was to assess potential climate change impacts on the hydrological patterns and typical biota for a south-western Balkan mountain river, the Acheloos. The altered flow regimes under different emission scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) were estimated using a hydrological model and based on regional climate simulations over the study area. The Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) methodology was then used to assess the potential streamflow alterations in the studied river due to predicted climate change conditions. A fish habitat simulation method integrating univariate habitat suitability curves and hydraulic modeling techniques were used to assess the impacts on the relationships between the aquatic biota and hydrological status utilizing a sentinel species, the West Balkan trout. The most prominent effects of the climate change scenarios depict severe flow reductions that are likely to occur especially during the summer flows, changing the duration and depressing the magnitude of the natural low flow conditions. Weighted Usable Area-flow curves indicated the limitation of suitable habitat for the native trout. Finally, this preliminary application highlighted the potential of science-based hydrological and habitat simulation approaches that are relevant to both biological quality elements (fish) and current EU Water policy to serve as efficient tools for the estimation of possible climate

  14. Simulating climate change and socio-economic change impacts on flows and water quality in the Mahanadi River system, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Li; Whitehead, Paul G; Rodda, Harvey; Macadam, Ian; Sarkar, Sananda

    2018-05-12

    Delta systems formed by the deposition of sediments at the mouths of large catchments are vulnerable to sea level rise and other climate change impacts. Deltas often have some of the highest population densities in the world and the Mahanadi Delta in India is one of these, with a population of 39 million. The Mahanadi River is a major river in East Central India and flows through Chattisgarh and Orissa states before discharging into the Bay of Bengal. This study uses an Integrated Catchment Model (INCA) to simulate flow dynamics and water quality (nitrogen and phosphorus) and to analyze the impacts of climate change and socio-economic drivers in the Mahanadi River system. Future flows affected by large population growth, effluent discharge increases and changes in irrigation water demand from changing land uses are assessed under shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs). Model results indicate a significant increase in monsoon flows under the future climates at 2050s (2041-2060) and 2090s (2079-2098) which greatly enhances flood potential. The water availability under low flow conditions will be worsened because of increased water demand from population growth and increased irrigation in the future. Decreased concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus are expected due to increased flow hence dilution. Socio-economic scenarios have a significant impact on water quality but less impact on the river flow. For example, higher population growth, increased sewage treatment discharges, land use change and enhanced atmospheric deposition would result in the deterioration of water quality, while the upgrade of the sewage treatment works lead to improved water quality. In summary, socio-economic scenarios would change future water quality of the Mahanadi River and alter nutrient fluxes transported into the delta region. This study has serious implications for people's livelihoods in the deltaic area and could impact coastal and Bay of Bengal water ecology. Copyright © 2018

  15. Occurrence and modeling of pharmaceuticals on a sewage-impacted Mediterranean river and their dynamics under different hydrological conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osorio, Victoria [IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, Barcelona (Spain); Marce, Rafael [Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Scientific and Technological Park of the University of Girona, Emili Grahit 101, Girona (Spain); Perez, Sandra [IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, Barcelona (Spain); Ginebreda, Antoni, E-mail: agmqam@idaea.csic.es [IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, Barcelona (Spain); Cortina, Jose Luis [Cetaqua, Water Technology Centre, UPC North Campus, Paseo de los Tilos, 3, Barcelona (Spain); Barcelo, Damia [IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Scientific and Technological Park of the University of Girona, Emili Grahit 101, Girona (Spain)

    2012-12-01

    The occurrence of 73 representative pharmacologically active compounds (PhACs) was assessed in a sewage-impacted section of the Llobregat River (NE Catalonia, Spain). This Mediterranean river is characterized by flow rate fluctuations strongly influenced by seasonal rainfall. River flow variations increase the potential environmental risk posed by organic micro-pollutants as their concentrations may increase substantially under low flow conditions. Little is known about the transport behavior of emerging contaminants in surface waters once they are discharged from waste water treatment plants (WWTP) into rivers. This research aimed to study the presence and fate of emerging contaminants under different hydrological conditions by sampling two different sites along the river in different seasons. The highest levels of pharmaceuticals were determined during cold and dry periods. The impact of the flow changes on the concentration of the pharmaceuticals in the river was assessed with the relative sensitive coefficients. Due to expected dilution effects, the response of pharmaceuticals to river flow was negative. Only in a few cases, positive relationships between drug concentrations and flow were detected, suggesting an important role of other hydrological phenomena like sediment re-suspension as well as the source of pollutants. To evaluate the role of other factors influencing PhAC concentrations, a plug-flow model was applied to obtain disappearance constants 'k' for a set of selected compounds. Erythromycin presented k values of - 0.15 h{sup -1} in both sites being the compound more efficiently removed from the water column. The k values for ibuprofen, furosemide, enrofloxacin, enalapril, acetaminophen, diclofenac and Ketoprofen were between - 0.04 and - 0.10 h{sup -1} showing less disappearance than erythromycin in the water column. However, other compounds presented k values < 0.06, which suggested conservative behavior of these compounds in the water

  16. Occurrence and modeling of pharmaceuticals on a sewage-impacted Mediterranean river and their dynamics under different hydrological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio, Victoria; Marcé, Rafael; Pérez, Sandra; Ginebreda, Antoni; Cortina, Jose Luís; Barceló, Damià

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of 73 representative pharmacologically active compounds (PhACs) was assessed in a sewage-impacted section of the Llobregat River (NE Catalonia, Spain). This Mediterranean river is characterized by flow rate fluctuations strongly influenced by seasonal rainfall. River flow variations increase the potential environmental risk posed by organic micro-pollutants as their concentrations may increase substantially under low flow conditions. Little is known about the transport behavior of emerging contaminants in surface waters once they are discharged from waste water treatment plants (WWTP) into rivers. This research aimed to study the presence and fate of emerging contaminants under different hydrological conditions by sampling two different sites along the river in different seasons. The highest levels of pharmaceuticals were determined during cold and dry periods. The impact of the flow changes on the concentration of the pharmaceuticals in the river was assessed with the relative sensitive coefficients. Due to expected dilution effects, the response of pharmaceuticals to river flow was negative. Only in a few cases, positive relationships between drug concentrations and flow were detected, suggesting an important role of other hydrological phenomena like sediment re-suspension as well as the source of pollutants. To evaluate the role of other factors influencing PhAC concentrations, a plug-flow model was applied to obtain disappearance constants “k” for a set of selected compounds. Erythromycin presented k values of − 0.15 h −1 in both sites being the compound more efficiently removed from the water column. The k values for ibuprofen, furosemide, enrofloxacin, enalapril, acetaminophen, diclofenac and Ketoprofen were between − 0.04 and − 0.10 h −1 showing less disappearance than erythromycin in the water column. However, other compounds presented k values < 0.06, which suggested conservative behavior of these compounds in the water column

  17. Long-term Records of Trace Metal Elements in Core Sediments: Anthropogenic Impacts in The Eure River Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardes, T.; Debret, M.; Copard, Y.; Patault, E.; Deloffre, J.; Marcotte, S.; Develle, A. L.; Sabatier, P.; Chaumillon, E.; Coulombier, T.; Revillon, S.; Nizou, J.; Laberdesque, Y.; Koltalo, F.

    2017-12-01

    The Martot Dam is located in the Eure River Watershed (Normandy, France), few hundred meters upstream the Eure-Seine Rivers confluence. In the context of the European Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC), the French Authorities planned to remove this dam in 2017. Nevertheless, impacts of the removal remain poorly studied. Classically, dam blocked sedimentary transfers downstream, but here, sediments are not blocked behind the dam but stored three hundred meters upstream in a hydraulic annex, called the Martot Pond. Furthermore, this pond is submitted to the tidal flow from the Seine Estuary despite the Martot Dam. The aim of the study is to evaluate the dam removal impacts on sedimentary transfers and re-suspension of contaminated sediments stored in the Martot Pond and the Eure River's channel. Concerning past transfers and sediments accumulation in the Eure River Watershed, sedimentary archives have been cored, before dam removal, at the Martot Pond and the Les Damps Pond (located 10km upstream the latter). Dating of sedimentary cores for both ponds indicates a sedimentation rate around 1 cm y-1. Trace metal elements quantification showed a wide metallic contamination with highest concentrations evidenced during the 1950-1960's (As: 13-22 mg kg-1; Cd: 40-55 mg kg-1; Cr: 170-210 mg kg-1; Cu: 400-490 mg kg-1; Hg: 2.3 mg kg-1; Mn: 1,280-2,200 mg kg-1; Ni: 64-75 mg kg-1; Zn: 905-990 mg kg-1) and the 1990-2000's (Cr: 95-215 mg kg-1; Ni: 100 mg kg-1; Pb: 670-855 mg kg-1). These variations of concentrations along cores can be associated with industrial past of the Eure River Watershed and sources of contamination can be identified. Thereby, Zn, Ni or Hg contamination could be associated with wastes of battery factory released in the Eure River during the economic recovery, while Pb contamination is linked to the activities of a cathode-ray tubes factory. Metals quantification in core materials highlighted anthropogenic impacts in the Eure River Watershed. These

  18. Impact of seasonal variation on Escherichia coli concentrations in the riverbed sediments in the Apies River, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abia, Akebe Luther King; Ubomba-Jaswa, Eunice; Momba, Maggy Ndombo Benteke

    2015-12-15

    Many South Africans living in resource-poor settings with little or no access to pipe-borne water still rely on rivers as alternative water sources for drinking and other purposes. The poor microbial quality of such water bodies calls for appropriate monitoring. However, routine monitoring only takes into consideration the microbial quality of the water column, and does not include monitoring of the riverbed sediments for microbial pollution. This study sought to investigate the microbial quality of riverbed sediments in the Apies River, Gauteng Province, South Africa, using Escherichia coli as a faecal indicator organism and to investigate the impact of seasonal variation on its abundance. Weekly samples were collected at 10 sampling sites on the Apies River between May and August 2013 (dry season) and between January and February 2014 (wet season). E. coli was enumerated using the Colilert®-18 Quanti-Tray® 2000 system. All sites tested positive for E. coli. Wastewater treatment work effluents had the highest negative impact on the river water quality. Seasonal variations had an impact on the concentration of E. coli both in water and sediments with concentrations increasing during the wet season. A strong positive correlation was observed between temperature and the E. coli concentrations. We therefore conclude that the sediments of the Apies River are heavily polluted with faecal indicator bacteria and could also harbour other microorganisms including pathogens. The release of such pathogens into the water column as a result of the resuspension of sediments due to extreme events like floods or human activities could increase the health risk of the populations using the untreated river water for recreation and other household purposes. There is therefore an urgent need to reconsider and review the current South African guidelines for water quality monitoring to include sediments, so as to protect human health and other aquatic lives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  19. "Possible impacts of climate change on the Danube river along the Iron Gate gorge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamovic, M.

    2009-04-01

    The research was dedicated to foreseeing the possible impacts of climate change on water resources in eastern part of Serbia, along the Danube catchment. The Danube basin is in the eastern section of the considered RCM ( Regional climate model). For this purposes, the RCM EBU-POM according to the IPCC scenario A1B, was used in its representation of the hydrological balance over the Danube river basin along Iron Gate gorge, for the time frame 1961-1990 and 2071-2100. The Danube's catchment encompasses continental climate, as it is land-dominated by advection from the surrounding land areas. This part of Danube catchment is greatly affected by the Mediterranean climate, since the Danube runoff gives a relevant contribution of freshwater flux into the Mediterranean sea and it is dependent mostly on precipitated water of Mediterranean origin. On the other, the Dinaric-Balkan mountain chains in the west and the Carpathian mountain bow in the north and east, present distinctive morphological and climatic regions and barriers. The hydrological balance has been computed in two different, but in principle equivalent ways. The first approach, which has a more hydrological nuance, relies on establishing relationships between annual averages of the hydrological balance parameters (E, P, T) in order to get relevant coefficients. The second approach, which is more typically meteorological, relies on the calculation of the E for the time frame 2071-2100 by using the previous coefficients and getting runoff depth (h) and discharge (Q) as the final outputs. The results according to this model, show that the river flow of the Danube, in this part of its basin, will decrease over 50% with a great consequences to the dams Iron Gate I and II, their accumulations and ecosystems. Furthermore, if we take into account predictions made by IPCC which say that the south-east Europe will face temperature growth of 0.2 degrees in the next two decades for the range of SRES scenarios, makes the

  20. Impact of comprehensive day treatment on societal participation for persons with acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malec, J F

    2001-07-01

    To evaluate comprehensive day treatment (CDT) for survivors of brain injury by time since injury and to identify outcome predictors. Before and after. Rehabilitation center. Ninety-six program graduates; 17 dropouts with acquired brain injury. Comprehensive Day Treatment Program: daily group sessions to build cognitive and behavioral skills through a transdisciplinary approach, supportive feedback, and a variety of therapeutic modalities. Obtained outcome measures before and after the program, and at 1-year follow-up. Independent living status, vocational independence scale at program end and 1-year follow-up; and Rasch-analyzed Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (MPAI-22) and goal attainment scaling (GAS) at program end. age, education, severity of initial injury, time since injury, and preadmission MPAI-22. Significant goal achievement on GAS and improvement on MPAI-22; increased societal participation at 1-year follow-up for those treated postacutely and many years after injury: 72% of graduates living independently; 39% working independently, 10% in transitional placements, and 18% in supported or volunteer work. Long-term outcomes were modestly related linearly to preadmission MPAI-22 and nonlinearly to time since injury. CDT improves societal participation even among persons with a long history of limited participation after brain injury. This de facto extended baseline analysis indicates the effectiveness of CDT and paves the way for randomized control trials of active treatment components. Relationships of predictors to outcomes are not sufficiently strong for patient selection. More effective interventions for vocational reintegration are needed for those most severely disabled after brain injury. Copyright 2001 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

  1. Projected impacts of climate change on hydrology, water resource use and adaptation needs for the Chu and Talas cross-border rivers basin, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamil Iliasov, Shamil; Dolgikh, Svetlana; Lipponen, Annukka; Novikov, Viktor

    2014-05-01

    The observed long-term trends, variability and projections of future climate and hydrology of the Chu and Talas transboundary rivers basin were analysed using a common approach for Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan parts of the basin. Historical, current and forecasted demands and main uses of water in the basin were elaborated by the joint effort of both countries. Such cooperative approach combining scientific data, water practitioners' outlook with decision making needs allowed the first time to produce a comprehensive assessment of climate change impacts on water resources in the Chu-Talas transboundary rivers basin, identify future needs and develop the initial set of adaptation measures and recommendations. This work was carried out under the project "Promoting Cooperation to Adapt to Climate Change in the Chu and Talas Transboundary Basin", supported by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Climate change projections, including air temperatures and rainfall in the 21st century were determined with a spatial resolution 0.5 degrees based on the integration of 15 climate change model outputs (derived from IPCC's 4th Assessment Report, and partially 5th Assessment Report) combined with locally-designed hydrology and glacier models. A significant increase in surface air temperatures by 3-6°C may be expected in the basin area, especially in summer and autumn. This change is likely to be accompanied by rainfall increase during the cold season and a decrease in the warm half of the year. As a result, a deterioration of moisture conditions during the summer-autumn period is possible. Furthermore, milder winters and hotter summers can be expected. Mountains will likely receive more liquid precipitation, than snow, while the area and volume of glaciers may significantly reduce. Projected changes in climate and glaciers have implications for river hydrology and different sectors of the economy dependent

  2. Methods to assess impacts on Hudson River striped bass: report for the period October 1, 1977 to September 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Christensen, S.W.; Kirk, B.L.; Kumar, K.D.; Van Winkle, W.

    1980-06-01

    The overall objective of this project is to develop and apply quantitative methods for assessing the effects of power plant entrainment and impingement on the Hudson River striped bass population. During the two years covered in this reporting period, our work dealt with five interrelated aspects of this assessment problem: (1) young-of-the year models, (2) mortality of entrained eggs, larvae, and juveniles, (3) projection of long-term impacts using stock recruitment models, (4) relative contribution of the Hudson River stock to the Atlantic coastal striped bass population, and (5) distribution of entrainable striped bass life stages in the immediate vicinity of power plant intakes

  3. Evaluation of the hurricanes Gustav and Ike impact on mud from San Diego River using nuclear and geochemical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Rizo, O.; Gelen Rudnikas, A.; D'Alessandro Rodriguez, K.; Arado Lopez, J. O.; Dominguez Rodriguez, R.; Gonzalez Hernandez, P.; Melian Rodriguez, C.M.; Suarez Munnoz, M.; Fagundo Castillo, J. R.; Blanco Padilla, D.

    2011-01-01

    Effects induced by the hurricanes Gustav and Ike on San Diego River mud characteristics have been studied. X-ray fluorescence analysis, gamma spectrometry and measurement of some physic-chemical characteristics in mud samples, collected before and after hurricane impacts, shows that hurricanes induced changes in mud major composition and in some other mud characteristics, affecting its properties for therapeutic uses. The average sedimentation rate determined by gamma spectrometry in San Diego River outlet permit to estimate that the original mud characteristics will be recovered never before than 5-7 years. (Author)

  4. Land-use impacts on fatty acid profiles of suspended particulate organic matter along a larger tropical river

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boëchat, Iola; Krüger, Angela; Chavez, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    (SPOM-FAs) as indicators of land-use change in tropical catchments, and at identifying major human impacts on the biochemical composition of SPOM, which represents an important basal energy and organic matter resource for aquatic consumers. River water SPOM and total FA concentrations ranged between 2......Land-use change, such as agricultural expansion and urbanization, can affect riverine biological diversity and ecosystem functioning. Identifying the major stressors associated with catchment land-use change is a prerequisite for devising successful river conservation and restoration strategies...

  5. Defense-Waste-Processing Faclity, Savannah River Plant, Aiken, SC: Draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is to provide environmental input into both the selection of an appropriate strategy for the permanent disposal of the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) currently stored at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) and the subsequent decision to construct and operate a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the SRP site. The SRP is a major US Department of Energy (DOE) installation for the production of nuclear materials for national defense. Approximately 83 x 10 3 m 3 (22 million gal) of HLW currently are stored in tanks at the SRP site. The proposed DWPF would process the liquid HLW generated by SRP operations into a stable form for ultimate disposal. This EIS assesses the effects of the proposed immobilization project on land use, air quality, water quality, ecological systems, health risk, cultural resources, endangered species, wetlands protection, resource depletion, and regional social and economic systems. The radiological and nonradiological risks of transporting the immobilized wastes are assessed. The environmental impacts of disposal alternatives have recently been evaluated in a previous EIS and are therefore only summarized in this EIS

  6. A preliminary look at the impacts of warming on the federal Columbia River power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, N.

    2008-01-01

    Studies have indicated that the precipitation changes resulting from climatic warming are unlikely to be distinguishable from natural variability until late in the 21. century. This study presented scenarios and projected changes for the Federal Columbia River power system that used volume and runoff data in monthly time-steps. A streamflow model of data from the previous 44 years was also used. The region is currently meeting 50 per cent of its loads with clean hydro-generation, and is now examining ways of limiting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as electricity loads continue to grow. The impacts of climate change were compared with projected loads up to the year 2040. Flow targets for regional fish operations peak between April and July. Volume changes in water as a result of hydroelectricity projects in the region have also been simulated. Monitoring tools and meteorological data were presented as well as watershed run-off data from 1929 to 2008. Policies related to climate change continue to be challenged by both legal and political issues as well as a lack of strategic planning. It was concluded that accurate system modelling is needed to avoid the impacts of costly and un-informed decision-making processes. tabs., figs

  7. Container cargo simulation modeling for measuring impacts of infrastructure investment projects in Pearl River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-Qi; Shibasaki, Ryuichi; Li, Bo-Wei

    2010-03-01

    In the Pearl River Delta (PRD), there is severe competition between container ports, particularly those in Hong Kong, Shenzhen, and Guangzhou, for collecting international maritime container cargo. In addition, the second phase of the Nansha terminal in Guangzhou’s port and the first phase of the Da Chang Bay container terminal in Shenzhen opened last year. Under these circumstances, there is an increasing need to quantitatively measure the impact these infrastructure investments have on regional cargo flows. The analysis should include the effects of container terminal construction, berth deepening, and access road construction. The authors have been developing a model for international cargo simulation (MICS) which can simulate the movement of cargo. The volume of origin-destination (OD) container cargo in the East Asian region was used as an input, in order to evaluate the effects of international freight transportation policies. This paper focuses on the PRD area and, by incorporating a more detailed network, evaluates the impact of several infrastructure investment projects on freight movement.

  8. Possible Future Climate Change Impacts on the Hydrological Drought Events in the Weihe River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative evaluation of future climate change impacts on hydrological drought characteristics is one of important measures for implementing sustainable water resources management and effective disaster mitigation in drought-prone regions under the changing environment. In this study, a modeling system for projecting the potential future climate change impacts on hydrological droughts in the Weihe River basin (WRB in North China is presented. This system consists of a large-scale hydrological model driven by climate outputs from three climate models (CMs for future streamflow projections, a probabilistic model for univariate drought assessment, and a copula-based bivariate model for joint drought frequency analysis under historical and future climates. With the observed historical climate data as the inputs, the Variable Infiltration Capacity hydrological model projects an overall runoff reduction in the WRB under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A1B scenario. The univariate drought assessment found that although fewer hydrological drought events would occur under A1B scenario, drought duration and severity tend to increase remarkably. Moreover, the bivariate drought assessment reveals that future droughts in the same return period as the baseline droughts would become more serious. With these trends in the future, the hydrological drought situation in the WRB would be further deteriorated.

  9. Impacts of hydropower operation on water supply from lower Colorado River in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Q.W.

    1993-01-01

    The Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA) of Texas is both a water and energy supplier to a large area of Central Texas. LCRA generates approximately 10 percent of its power from hydroelectric power plants on the six dams in the Highland Lakes system of reservoirs. To improve power production, LCRA has investigated alternative operating procedures to increase the winter scheduling of hydroelectric power generation in the upper reservoirs of the Highland Lakes system without adversely impacting available water supplies. A methodology using both optimization and simulation techniques was developed to evaluate the ability of the hydroelectric facilities to meet weather-related winter peaking requirements. A linear programming procedure determined the hourly power generation schedule, over a 24 hour period, that maximized the total amount of power generated over the six hours of peak power demand. The full installed capacity was found to be available during the peak hours without violating system operating constraints including water storage limits at the individual lakes. Based on statistical simulation of daily winter inflows and releases using a LOTUS 1-2-3 spreadsheet, it was found that the full generating capacity could be supplied to meet the weather-related peak winter power demand with no significant impact on water availability

  10. Impact of Climate Change on Combined Solar and Run-of-River Power in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baptiste François

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Moving towards energy systems with high variable renewable energy shares requires a good understanding of the impacts of climate change on the energy penetration. To do so, most prior impact studies have considered climate projections available from Global Circulation Models (GCMs. Other studies apply sensitivity analyses on the climate variables that drive the system behavior to inform how much the system changes due to climate change. In the present work, we apply the Decision Scaling approach, a framework merging these two approaches, for analyzing a renewables-only scenario for the electric system of Northern Italy where the main renewable sources are solar and hydropower. Decision Scaling explores the system sensibility to a range of future plausible climate states. GCM projections are considered to estimate probabilities of the future climate states. We focus on the likely future energy mix within the region (25% of solar photovoltaic and 75% of hydropower. We also carry out a sensitivity analysis according to the storage capacity. The results show that run-of-the river power generation from this Alpine area is expected to increase although the average inflow decreases under climate change. They also show that the penetration rate is expected to increase for systems with storage capacity less than one month of average load and inversely for higher storage capacity.

  11. Defense Waste Processing Facility: Savannah River Plant, Aiken, SC. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is to provide environmental input into both the selection of an appropriate strategy for the permanent disposal of the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) currently stored at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) and the subsequent decision to construct and operate a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the SRP site. The SRP is a major US Department of Envgy (DOE) installation for the production of nuclear materials for national defense. Approximately 83 x 10 3 m 3 (22 million gal) of HLW currently are stored in tanks at the SRP site. The proposed DWPF would process the liquid HLW generated by SRP operations into a stable form for ultimate disposal. This EIS assesses the effects of the proposed immobilization project on land use, air quality, water quality, ecological systems, health risk, cultural resources, endangered species, wetlands protection, resource depletion, and regional social and economic systems. The radiological and nonradiological risks of transporting the immobilized wastes are assessed. The environmental impacts of disposal alternatives have recently been evaluated in a previous EIS and are therefore only summarized in this EIS

  12. Impacts of biofuels production alternatives on water quantity and quality in the Iowa River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Liu, S.

    2012-01-01

    Corn stover as well as perennial grasses like switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and miscanthus are being considered as candidates for the second generation biofuel feedstocks. However, the challenges to biofuel development are its effects on the environment, especially water quality. This study evaluates the long-term impacts of biofuel production alternatives (e.g., elevated corn stover removal rates and the potential land cover change) on an ecosystem with a focus on biomass production, soil erosion, water quantity and quality, and soil nitrate nitrogen concentration at the watershed scale. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was modified for setting land cover change scenarios and applied to the Iowa River Basin (a tributary of the Upper Mississippi River Basin). Results show that biomass production can be sustained with an increased stover removal rate as long as the crop demand for nutrients is met with appropriate fertilization. Although a drastic increase (4.7–70.6%) in sediment yield due to erosion and a slight decrease (1.2–3.2%) in water yield were estimated with the stover removal rate ranging between 40% and 100%, the nitrate nitrogen load declined about 6–10.1%. In comparison to growing corn, growing either switchgrass or miscanthus can reduce sediment erosion greatly. However, land cover changes from native grass to switchgrass or miscanthus would lead to a decrease in water yield and an increase in nitrate nitrogen load. In contrast to growing switchgrass, growing miscanthus is more productive in generating biomass, but its higher water demand may reduce water availability in the study area.

  13. Comment on 'The Global Impacts of Extreme Sea-Level Rise: A Comprehensive Economic Assessment'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, R.S.J.; Nicholls, R.J.; Brown, S.; Hinkel, J.; Vafeidis, A.T.; Spencer, T.

    2016-01-01

    Pycroft et al. (Environ Resour Econ 1–29, 2015) used incorrect and outdated data to study the economic impact of sea level rise. They misinterpret some of their input data, and fail to exploit the strengths of their computable general equilibrium model and previously developed methods to study

  14. Climate Change Impacts on Stream Temperature in Regulated River Systems: A Case Study in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y.; Niemeyer, R. J.; Zhang, X.; Yearsley, J. R.; Voisin, N.; Nijssen, B.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change and associated changes in air temperature and precipitation are projected to impact natural water resources quantity, quality and timing. In the past century, over 280 major dams were built in the Southeastern United States (SEUS) (GRanD database). Regulation of the river system greatly alters natural streamflow as well as stream temperature. Understanding the impacts of climate change on regulated systems, particularly within the context of the Clean Water Act, can inform stakeholders how to maintain and adapt water operations (e.g. regulation, withdrawals). In this study, we use a new modeling framework to study climate change impacts on stream temperatures of a regulated river system. We simulate runoff with the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macroscale hydrological model, regulated streamflow and reservoir operations with a large-scale river routing-reservoir model (MOSART-WM), and stream temperature using the River Basin Model (RBM). We enhanced RBM with a two-layer thermal stratification reservoir module. This modeling framework captures both the impact of reservoir regulation on streamflow and the reservoir stratification effects on downstream temperatures. We evaluate changes in flow and stream temperatures based on climate projections from two representative concentration pathways (RCPs; RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). We simulate river temperature with meteorological forcings that have been downscaled with the Multivariate Constructed Analogs (MACA) method. We are specifically interested in analyzing extreme periods during which stream temperature exceeds water quality standards. In this study, we focus on identifying whether these extreme temperature periods coincide with low flows, and whether the frequency and duration of these operationally-relevant periods will increase under future climate change.

  15. Assessing the impacts of river regulation on native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) habitats in the upper Flathead River, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Jones, Leslie A.; Kotter, D.; Miller, William J.; Geise, Doran; Tohtz, Joel; Marotz, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Hungry Horse Dam on the South Fork Flathead River, Montana, USA, has modified the natural flow regimen for power generation, flood risk management and flow augmentation for anadromous fish recovery in the Columbia River. Concern over the detrimental effects of dam operations on native resident fishes prompted research to quantify the impacts of alternative flow management strategies on threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) habitats. Seasonal and life‐stage specific habitat suitability criteria were combined with a two‐dimensional hydrodynamic habitat model to assess discharge effects on usable habitats. Telemetry data used to construct seasonal habitat suitability curves revealed that subadult (fish that emigrated from natal streams to the river system) bull trout move to shallow, low‐velocity shoreline areas at night, which are most sensitive to flow fluctuations. Habitat time series analyses comparing the natural flow regimen (predam, 1929–1952) with five postdam flow management strategies (1953–2008) show that the natural flow conditions optimize the critical bull trout habitats and that the current strategy best resembles the natural flow conditions of all postdam periods. Late summer flow augmentation for anadromous fish recovery, however, produces higher discharges than predam conditions, which reduces the availability of usable habitat during this critical growing season. Our results suggest that past flow management policies that created sporadic streamflow fluctuations were likely detrimental to resident salmonids and that natural flow management strategies will likely improve the chances of protecting key ecosystem processes and help to maintain and restore threatened bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout populations in the upper Columbia River Basin.

  16. Anthropogenic influences on the flood of 1997 in the river Rivillas (Badajoz). Land uses changes and geomorphic impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega Becerril, J. A.; Garzon Heydt, M. G.

    2009-01-01

    The Rivillas Stream, a tributary of the Guadiana River, is a small, seasonal watercourse that sporadically floods. The flooding that occurred on the 5th November 1977 was catastrophic; 22 deaths were recorded in the rivers basin plus another 15 in neighbouring basins. The intense transformation of the basin through agriculture and construction near the city of Badajoz have led to this river system becoming very unstable. This is equally true of its flood plain, its main course, its effluents, the slopes around the basin, and the remainder of the basin. The geomorphic impact of these changes only become noticeable when the flash-flood occurred ut to intense rainfall, highlighting the important negative effects of human activity in such sensitive environments. (Author) 7 refs.

  17. Importance of background values in assessing the impact of heavy metals in river ecosystems: case study of Tisza River, Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štrbac, Snežana; Kašanin Grubin, Milica; Vasić, Nebojša

    2017-11-30

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate how a choice of different background values may affect assessing the anthropogenic heavy metal pollution in sediments from Tisza River (Serbia). The second objective of this paper is to underline significance of using geochemical background values when establishing quality criteria for sediment. Enrichment factor (EF), geoaccumulation index (I geo ), pollution load index (PLI), and potential ecological risk index (PERI) were calculated using different background values. Three geochemical (average metal concentrations in continental crust, average metal concentrations in shale, and average metal concentrations in non-contaminated core sediment samples) and two statistical methods (delineation method and principal component analyses) were used for calculating background values. It can be concluded that obtained information of pollution status can be more dependent on the use of background values than the index/factor chosen. The best option to assess the potential river sediment contamination is to compare obtained concentrations of analyzed elements with concentrations of mineralogically and texturally comparable, uncontaminated core sediment samples. Geochemical background values should be taken into account when establishing quality criteria for soils, sediments, and waters. Due to complexity of the local lithology, it is recommended that environmental monitoring and assessment include selection of an appropriate background values to gain understanding of the geochemistry and potential source of pollution in a given environment.

  18. Health literacy in the urgent care setting: What factors impact consumer comprehension of health information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Traci L; Morris, Nancy J

    2017-05-01

    An increasing number of Americans are using urgent care (UC) clinics due to: improved health insurance coverage, the need to decrease cost, primary care offices with limited appointment availability, and a desire for convenient care. Patients are treated by providers they may not know for episodic illness or injuries while in pain or not feeling well. Treatment instructions and follow-up directions are provided quickly. To examine health literacy in the adult UC population and identify patient characteristics associated with health literacy risk. As part of a larger cross-sectional study, UC patients seen between October 2013 and January 2014 completed a demographic questionnaire and the Newest Vital Sign. Descriptive, nonparametric analyses, and a multinomial logistic regression were done to assess health literacy, associated and predictive factors. A total of 57.5% of 285 participants had adequate health literacy. The likelihood of limited health literacy was associated with increased age (p literacy is common in a suburban UC setting, increasing the risk that consumers may not understand vital health information. Clear provider communication and confirmation of comprehension of discharge instructions for self-management is essential to optimize outcomes for UC patients. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  19. Comprehensive Group Therapy of Obesity and Its Impact on Selected Anthropometric and Postural Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horák, Stanislav; Sovová, Eliška; Pastucha, Dalibor; Konečný, Petr; Radová, Lenka; Calabová, Naděžda; Janoutová, Jana; Janout, Vladimír

    2017-12-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial disease. This non-infectious epidemic has reached pandemic proportions in the 21 century. Posture is a dynamic process referring to an active maintenance of body movement segments against the action of external forces. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of comprehensive group therapy for obese persons on selected anthropometric and postural parameters. The study comprised 53 females with a mean age of 44.5 years (range 29–65 years, standard deviation 9.42 years, median 44 years), who completed a controlled weight loss programme. At the beginning and at the end of the programme, anthropometric parameters (Body Mass Index (BMI), weight and waist circumference) were measured and the posturography tests Limits of Stability (LOS) and Motor Control Test (MCT) were performed using the NeuroCom's SMART EquiTest system. The data were statistically analyzed using R software at a level of significance of 0.05. There were positive changes after the controlled weight loss programme in anthropometric parameters (BMI reduction, with pobesity in terms of reductions in waist circumference, body weight and BMI, and thus the overall reduction of both cardiovascular and metabolic risks, as well as improved postural skills (activity and reactions). Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2017

  20. Impact of sugars and sugar taxation on body weight control: A comprehensive literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Sayon-Orea, Carmen; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A

    2016-07-01

    To conduct a comprehensive literature review in the field of added-sugar consumption on weight gain including the effect of fructose-containing caloric sweeteners and sugar taxation. A search of three databases was conducted in the time period from the inception of the databases to August 2015. Sensitive search strategies were used in order to retrieve systematic reviews (SR) of fructose, sucrose, or sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) on weight gain and metabolic adverse effects, conducted on humans and written in English, Spanish, or French. In addition, a review about SSB taxation and weight outcomes was conducted. The search yielded 24 SRs about SSBs and obesity, 23 SRs on fructose or SSBs and metabolic adverse effects, and 24 studies about SSB taxation and weight control. The majority of SRs, especially the most recent ones, with the highest quality and without any disclosed conflict of interest, suggested that the consumption of SSBs is a risk factor for obesity. The effect of fructose-containing caloric sweeteners, on weight gain is mediated by overconsumption of beverages with these sweeteners, leading to an extra provision of energy intake. The tax tool alone on added sugars appears insufficient to curb the obesity epidemic, but it needs to be included in a multicomponent structural strategy. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  1. A Comprehensive Review of the Evidence of the Impact of Surface Water Quality on Property Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Nicholls

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The desirability of living on or close to water is reflected in sometimes substantial property price premiums. Water quality has an important influence on property prices, since it impacts a water body’s appearance, capacity to support wildlife, and recreational potential. As water quality continues to be altered by human use and activity, and in light of new threats posed by projected climate and associated environmental change, understanding the impact of changing quality on property prices, and the associated property tax base, is paramount. This paper reviews the body of evidence on this topic to date. Of the 43 distinct studies represented in the 48 publications reviewed, the expected, statistically significant relationship between water quality and property price was demonstrated in at least one of the models developed in all but two studies. As a whole, they provide convincing evidence that clean water has a positive effect on property values.

  2. The social media manifesto: a comprehensive review of the impact of social media on emergency management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Adam

    2011-02-01

    Over the past five years, social media have impacted emergency management and disaster response in numerous ways. The emergency management professional must begin to accept this impact not as an arbitrary consequence of an uncontrolled disaster, but rather as a tool to help coordinate, manage and facilitate a safe and expected response during emergencies and disasters. This paper will explain the power and purpose of social media as well as how social media systems have equalised capabilities for all levels and sizes of government. Moreover, this paper will also highlight the social media systems that are being used as operational tools as well as what the future holds. Lastly, common implementation challenges will be discussed through a look at systematic approaches to applying social media in emergency management as a positive and valuable tool.

  3. Impact of a realistic river routing in coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations of the Last Glacial Maximum climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkama, Ramdane [IPSL, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Structure et fonctionnement des systemes hydriques continentaux (Sisyphe), Paris (France); Kageyama, M.; Ramstein, G.; Marti, O.; Swingedouw, D. [IPSL, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Ribstein, P. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Structure et fonctionnement des systemes hydriques continentaux (Sisyphe), Paris (France)

    2008-06-15

    The presence of large ice sheets over North America and North Europe at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) strongly impacted Northern hemisphere river pathways. Despite the fact that such changes may significantly alter the freshwater input to the ocean, modified surface hydrology has never been accounted for in coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model simulations of the LGM climate. To reconstruct the LGM river routing, we use the ICE-5G LGM topography. Because of the uncertainties in the extent of the Fennoscandian ice sheet in the Eastern part of the Kara Sea, we consider two more realistic river routing scenarios. The first scenario is characterised by the presence of an ice dammed lake south of the Fennoscandian ice sheet, and corresponds to the ICE-5G topography. This lake is fed by the Ob and Yenisei rivers. In the second scenario, both these rivers flow directly into the Arctic Ocean, which is more consistent with the latest QUEEN ice sheet margin reconstructions. We study the impact of these changes on the LGM climate as simulated by the IPSL{sub C}M4 model and focus on the overturning thermohaline circulation. A comparison with a classical LGM simulation performed using the same model and modern river basins as designed in the PMIP2 exercise leads to the following conclusions: (1) The discharge into the North Atlantic Ocean is increased by 2,000 m{sup 3}/s between 38 and 54 N in both simulations that contain LGM river routing, compared to the classical LGM experiment. (2) The ice dammed lake is shown to have a weak impact, relative to the classical simulation, both in terms of climate and ocean circulation. (3) In contrast, the North Atlantic deep convection and meridional overturning are weaker than during the classical LGM run if the Ob and Yenisei rivers flow directly into the Arctic Ocean. The total discharge into the Arctic Ocean is increased by 31,000 m{sup 3}/s, relative to the classical LGM simulation. Consequentially, northward ocean heat

  4. Modelling the impacts of global change on concentrations of Escherichia coli in an urban river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalliffier-Verne, Isabelle; Leconte, Robert; Huaringa-Alvarez, Uriel; Heniche, Mourad; Madoux-Humery, Anne-Sophie; Autixier, Laurène; Galarneau, Martine; Servais, Pierre; Prévost, Michèle; Dorner, Sarah

    2017-10-01

    Discharges of combined sewer system overflows (CSOs) affect water quality in drinking water sources despite increasing regulation and discharge restrictions. A hydrodynamic model was applied to simulate the transport and dispersion of fecal contaminants from CSO discharges and to quantify the impacts of climate and population changes on the water quality of the river used as a drinking water source in Québec, Canada. The dispersion model was used to quantify Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentrations at drinking water intakes. Extreme flows during high and low water events were based on a frequency analysis in current and future climate scenarios. The increase of the number of discharges was quantified in current and future climate scenarios with regards to the frequency of overflows observed between 2009 and 2012. For future climate scenarios, effects of an increase of population were estimated according to current population growth statistics, independently of local changes in precipitation that are more difficult to predict than changes to regional scale hydrology. Under ;business-as-usual; scenarios restricting increases in CSO discharge frequency, mean E. coli concentrations at downstream drinking water intakes are expected to increase by up to 87% depending on the future climate scenario and could lead to changes in drinking water treatment requirements for the worst case scenarios. The greatest uncertainties are related to future local discharge loads. Climate change adaptation with regards to drinking water quality must focus on characterizing the impacts of global change at a local scale. Source water protection planning must consider the impacts of climate and population change to avoid further degradation of water quality.

  5. ATTITUDES AND THEIR IMPACTS ON UNDERGRADUATE EFL LEARNERS??? READING COMPREHENSION ACHIEVEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Sadik, Andjarwati

    2014-01-01

    Attitudes towards language learning is a paramount important. Learners with positive attitudes, who experience success, will have these attitudes reinforced. In contrast, learners??? negative attitudes may be strengthened by lack of success. Attitudes are learnt, not inherited or generally endowed (Baker, 1988, in Ellis, 2003: 198 - 199). This research aims at exploring: 1. the attitudes of freshmen of English department towards learning English, and 2. their impacts on their Reading Com...

  6. Assessing the additional impact of Process Recovery Communications on Customer Outcomes: A Comprehensive Service Recovery Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Y. VAN VAERENBERGH; B. LARIVIÈRE; I. VERMEIR

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – Services recoveries following service failures not only imply customer recovery opportunities in which customer-company relationships can be restored, they can also result in process improvements (i.e. process recoveries in literature). This paper seeks to identify the additional impact of process recoveries on four customer outcome variables (satisfaction with service recovery, overall satisfaction, repurchase intent and word-of-mouth) by communicating these improvements back to th...

  7. Application of MIKE SHE to study the impact of coal mining on river runoff in Gujiao mining area, Shanxi, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Ping

    Full Text Available Coal mining is one of the core industries that contribute to the economic development of a country but deteriorate the environment. Being the primary source of energy, coal has become essential to meet the energy demand of a country. It is excavated by both opencast and underground mining methods and affects the environment, especially hydrological cycle, by discharging huge amounts of mine water. Natural hydrological processes have been well known to be vulnerable to human activities, especially large scale mining activities, which inevitably generate surface cracks and subsidence. It is therefore valuable to assess the impact of mining on river runoff for the sustainable development of regional economy. In this paper, the impact of coal mining on river runoff is assessed in one of the national key coal mining sites, Gujiao mining area, Shanxi Province, China. The characteristics of water cycle are described, the similarities and differences of runoff formation are analyzed in both coal mining and pre-mining periods. The integrated distributed hydrological model named MIKE SHE is employed to simulate and evaluate the influence of coal mining on river runoff. The study shows that mining one ton of raw coal leads to the reduction of river runoff by 2.87 m3 between 1981 and 2008, of which the surface runoff decreases by 0.24 m3 and the baseflow by 2.63 m3. The reduction degree of river runoff for mining one ton of raw coal shows an increasing trend over years. The current study also reveals that large scale coal mining initiates the formation of surface cracks and subsidence, which intercepts overland flow and enhances precipitation infiltration. Together with mine drainage, the natural hydrological processes and the stream flows have been altered and the river run off has been greatly reduced.

  8. Application of MIKE SHE to study the impact of coal mining on river runoff in Gujiao mining area, Shanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Jianhua; Yan, Shiyan; Gu, Pan; Wu, Zening; Hu, Caihong

    2017-01-01

    Coal mining is one of the core industries that contribute to the economic development of a country but deteriorate the environment. Being the primary source of energy, coal has become essential to meet the energy demand of a country. It is excavated by both opencast and underground mining methods and affects the environment, especially hydrological cycle, by discharging huge amounts of mine water. Natural hydrological processes have been well known to be vulnerable to human activities, especially large scale mining activities, which inevitably generate surface cracks and subsidence. It is therefore valuable to assess the impact of mining on river runoff for the sustainable development of regional economy. In this paper, the impact of coal mining on river runoff is assessed in one of the national key coal mining sites, Gujiao mining area, Shanxi Province, China. The characteristics of water cycle are described, the similarities and differences of runoff formation are analyzed in both coal mining and pre-mining periods. The integrated distributed hydrological model named MIKE SHE is employed to simulate and evaluate the influence of coal mining on river runoff. The study shows that mining one ton of raw coal leads to the reduction of river runoff by 2.87 m3 between 1981 and 2008, of which the surface runoff decreases by 0.24 m3 and the baseflow by 2.63 m3. The reduction degree of river runoff for mining one ton of raw coal shows an increasing trend over years. The current study also reveals that large scale coal mining initiates the formation of surface cracks and subsidence, which intercepts overland flow and enhances precipitation infiltration. Together with mine drainage, the natural hydrological processes and the stream flows have been altered and the river run off has been greatly reduced.

  9. Impact of Gold mining activities on the water quality of the lower pra river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwamena, Offei Samuel K.

    2013-07-01

    This study was conducted to assess the extent of Mercury (THg) contamination at four locations within the Shama-Mporhor Wassa catchment area of the Lower Pra River. Water, fish and sediment samples were taken twice with the longitudinal transect method at Daboase, Beposo, Bokorkope and Shama during the minor rainy season in October and at the apex of the dry season in March. Careful investigation of the Shama-Mporhor Wassa catchment area revealed that two of the locations Daboase and Beposo had been continuously impacted by the activities of Artisanal Gold miners (AGM). From the study, Total Mercury (THg) levels were found to have persisted in River water several kilometers downstream the second Artisanal Gold mining (AGM) location at Shama estuary for both seasons. Ten trace elements Mercury (Hg), Selenium (Se), Copper (Cu), Chromium (Cr), Lead (Pb), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Nickel (Ni), Zinc (Zn) and Cadmium (Cd) were determined in water, fish and sediment samples using the Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) equipped with both Hydride Generation (HGAAS) for Selenium (Se) and Cold Vapour (CVAAS) for Total Mercury (THg). The levels of Total Mercury (THg) were largely above the WHO and USEPA guidelines for drinking water (1μg/L) and sediments (200 μg/Kg) respectively for the four locations investigated. Total Mercury (THg) exceeded the WHO, 2011 guideline value of 0.5 mg/Kg for fish species Clarias submarginatus but was below the guideline value for Xenomystus nigri. Mean concentration of Cd and Fe exceeded the WHO, 2011 guideline values for drinking water for the wet season. The other trace elements Zn, Ni, Cu, Cr, Se, Mn, and Pb had their mean concentration below the WHO, 2011 guideline values for drinking water. Apart from the mean concentration of Cd that exceeded the Canadian Interim Sediment Quality (ISQG) guideline value of 0.6 mg/Kg for the wet season, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni and Pb were below their respective guideline values for both seasons. Statistical

  10. Study on river health and its comprehensive assessment——a case of Wuliehe River in Chengde%河流健康及其综合评价研究——以承德市武烈河为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金鑫; 郝彩莲; 严登华; 王研; 王浩; 张诚

    2012-01-01

    Based on the relevant study achievements at home and abroad, the concept and connotation of river health are analyzed herein, and then the factors such as the river georaorphology, water quantity, water quality, water-sediment, aquatic ecology, riparian zone, socio-economics, etc. Are comprehensively analyzed from the aspects of the fundamental environment of river corridor, eco-support function of and the socio-economic service function of river; from which an index system for the comprehensive assessment on river health is established. Under the consideration of the fuzziness of the concept of river health, the variable fuzzy assessment method is applied to the assessment on the river health, furthermore, an analysis is made by taking the reach from Gaoshilai to Luanhe River Estuary of Wuliehe River as an actual case. The application result shows that the assessment system can not only identify the river health status effectively, but can also provide a technical basis for the river management concerned.%在国内外相关研究成果的基础上,系统剖析了河流健康的概念及内涵;并从河流廊道基本环境、河流生态支撑功能及社会经济服务功能三方面出发,综合分析河道形态结构、水量、水质、水沙、水生态、河岸带、社会经济等因素,构建了河流健康综合评价指标体系.考虑到河流健康概念的模糊性,本文采用可变模糊评价法进行河流健康综合评价,并以武烈河高寺台-入滦河口段为例进行实例分析.应用结果表明,该评价体系及方法能有效识别河流健康状况,可为河流管理提供技术支撑.

  11. How is the impact of climate change on river flow regimes related to the impact on mean annual runoff? A global-scale analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Döll, Petra; Schmied, Hannes Müller

    2012-01-01

    To assess the impact of climate change on freshwater resources, change in mean annual runoff (MAR) is only a first indicator. In addition, it is necessary to analyze changes of river flow regimes, i.e. changes in the temporal dynamics of river discharge, as these are important for the well-being of humans (e.g. with respect to water supply) and freshwater-dependent biota (e.g. with respect to habitat availability). Therefore, we investigated, in a global-scale hydrological modeling study, the relation between climate-induced changes of MAR and changes of a number of river flow regime indicators, including mean river discharge, statistical low and high flows, and mean seasonal discharge. In addition, we identified, for the first time at the global scale, where flow regime shifts from perennial to intermittent flow regimes (or vice versa) may occur due to climate change. Climate-induced changes of all considered river flow regime indicators (except seasonal river flow changes) broadly follow the spatial pattern of MAR changes. The differences among the computed changes of MAR due to the application of the two climate models are larger than the differences between the change of MAR and the change of the diverse river flow indicators for one climate model. At the sub-basin and grid cell scales, however, there are significant differences between the changes of MAR, mean annual river discharge, and low and high flows. Low flows are projected to be more than halved by the 2050s in almost twice the area as compared to MAR. Similarly, northern hemisphere summer flows decrease more strongly than MAR. Differences between the high emissions scenario A2 (with emissions of 25 Gt C yr −1 in the 2050s) and the low emissions scenario B2 (16 Gt C yr −1 ) are generally small as compared to the differences due to the two climate models. The benefits of avoided emissions are, however, significant in those areas where flows are projected to be more than halved due to climate change

  12. Risk Formulations versus Comprehensive Uncertainty Characterizations for Climate Extremes and their Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, E. S.; Ganguly, A. R.

    2009-12-01

    Climate extremes—defined inclusively as extreme hydro-metrological events and regional changes in climate patterns at decadal scales—and their impacts on natural, engineered or human systems, represent among the most significant knowledge-gaps in climate prediction and integrated assessments in a post-AR4 world. Risks and uncertainties are related but distinct concepts. However, their relevance to decision-support tools in the context of climate change is indisputable. The opportunities and challenges are presented with case studies developed for stakeholders and policy makers.

  13. Budget Impact of a Comprehensive Nutrition-Focused Quality Improvement Program for Malnourished Hospitalized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulo, Suela; Feldstein, Josh; Partridge, Jamie; Schwander, Bjoern; Sriram, Krishnan; Summerfelt, Wm Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Nutrition interventions can alleviate the burden of malnutrition by improving patient outcomes; however, evidence on the economic impact of medical nutrition intervention remains limited. A previously published nutrition-focused quality improvement program targeting malnourished hospitalized patients showed that screening patients with a validated screening tool at admission, rapidly administering oral nutritional supplements, and educating patients on supplement adherence result in significant reductions in 30-day unplanned readmissions and hospital length of stay. To assess the potential cost-savings associated with decreased 30-day readmissions and hospital length of stay in malnourished inpatients through a nutrition-focused quality improvement program using a web-based budget impact model, and to demonstrate the clinical and fiscal value of the intervention. The reduction in readmission rate and length of stay for 1269 patients enrolled in the quality improvement program (between October 13, 2014, and April 2, 2015) were compared with the pre-quality improvement program baseline and validation cohorts (4611 patients vs 1319 patients, respectively) to calculate potential cost-savings as well as to inform the design of the budget impact model. Readmission rate and length-of-stay reductions were calculated by determining the change from baseline to post-quality improvement program as well as the difference between the validation cohort and the post-quality improvement program, respectively. As a result of improved health outcomes for the treated patients, the nutrition-focused quality improvement program led to a reduction in 30-day hospital readmissions and length of stay. The avoided hospital readmissions and reduced number of days in the hospital for the patients in the quality improvement program resulted in cost-savings of $1,902,933 versus the pre-quality improvement program baseline cohort, and $4,896,758 versus the pre-quality improvement program in the

  14. A Mixed-Methods Study on the Impact of Socratic Seminars on Eighth Grade Students' Comprehension of Science Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncke, Nancy

    This formative, convergent-mixed methods research study investigated the impact of Socratic Seminars on eighth grade science students' independent comprehension of science texts. The study also highlighted how eighth grade students of varying reading abilities interacted with and comprehended science texts differently during and after the use of Socratic Seminars. In order to document any changes in the students' overall comprehension of science texts, this study compared the experimental and control groups' pre- and post-test performances on the Content Area Reading Assessment (Leslie & Caldwell, 2014) and self-perception surveys on students' scientific reading engagement. Student think-alouds and interviews also captured the students' evolving understandings of the science texts. At the conclusion of this sixteen-week study, the achievement gap between the experimental and control group was closed in five of the seven categories on the Content Area Reading Assessment, including supporting an inference with textual evidence, determining central ideas, explaining why or how, determining word meaning, and summarizing a science text. Students' self-perception surveys were more positive regarding reading science texts after the Socratic Seminars. Finally, the student think-alouds revealed that some students moved from a literal interpretation of the science texts to inquiries that questioned the text and world events.

  15. Turning whine into wine: the fiscal impact of comprehensive documentation and billing for nonoperative pediatric surgical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollin, Gerald; Moores, Donald

    2006-06-01

    Some pediatric surgeons rarely document nonoperative services, believing that the reimbursement provided for such care is negligible. We evaluated the impact of comprehensive documentation and billing for nonoperative, pediatric surgical care. All bills submitted for inpatient, nonoperative care for 1 year were reviewed. Total receipts for documented admissions, consultations, critical care, and daily care were determined. The Evaluation and Management code billed for each service was recorded, and the total and average payments attributable to each Evaluation and Management code were calculated. Fifty-six percent of services were covered by Medicaid and 26% by a commercial insurer. There were 607 billed admission history and physical exams for which reimbursement totaled 43,493 dollars. Critical care services were provided to 49 patients and yielded 8964 dollars in payments. Six hundred thirty-nine inpatient consultations were performed with a reimbursement of 42,830 dollars. Daily care services were billed 1044 times and produced 71,579 dollars in payments. Overall reimbursement for documented, nonoperative services was 166,866 dollars. This represented 16.2% of total, noncontracted income for the practice. Despite a payer mix heavily weighted toward Medicaid, comprehensive documentation and billing for nonoperative services increased total, noncontracted reimbursement by almost 20% over what it would have been had only operative services been billed. The yield from properly documented, nonoperative care can be substantial.

  16. Chemical variability of water and sediment over time and along a mountain river subjected to natural and human impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szarek-Gwiazda Ewa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the variability of physico-chemical parameters in water, and heavy metal contents in water and sediment over time and along the Carpathian Biała Tarnowska River (southern Poland and related them to catchment geology, human impact and the effect of barriers as a side aspect. The river water was well oxygenated, had pH 7.7–9.5 and was characterised by low and average flow. Temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen did not change significantly, while the contents of major ions, NO3−, NH4+, Mn and Fe increased gradually along the river. The major ion contents were negatively, and nitrate, Mn, and Fe positively, correlated with the flow. We recognise correlations between nitrate, Fe and Mn to be good indicators of soil erosion processes in the catchment. River sediment was unpolluted by most of the studied metals (slightly polluted by Ni and Cd. The differences in the values of some parameters (pH and NH4+, PO43−, HCO3−, Mn, Cd and Pb concentrations in the water, and heavy metals in the sediment upstream and downstream of some of the barriers were determined. Spatiotemporal changes in the values of studied parameters and the results of statistical calculation indicate the impact of human activity in the catchment basin (land use, wastewater on the water chemistry.

  17. Impact of treated effluents released from processing of radioactive mineral on the aquatic environment of Periyar river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhakrishnan, Sujata; Haridasan, P.P.; Radhakrishna Pillai, K.; Pillai, P.M.B.; Khan, A.H.

    2005-01-01

    The chemical processing of monazite/ thorium concentrate for the separation of thorium, uranium and rare earths results in the generation of effluents, both acidic and alkaline. Indian Rare Earths Ltd (IREL), Udyogamandal was carrying out processing of monazite for nearly 50 years. Presently (since 2004) Indian Rare Earths Ltd, Udyogamandal is processing earlier stocked thorium hydroxide concentrate retrieved from Silos to produce Thorium Oxalate (along with a small percentage of Rare Earth elements), Nuclear Grade Ammonium Di-Uranate (NGADU), and small quantities of Nuclear Grade Thorium Oxide ('THRUST' Project). The treated effluents after monitoring are discharged to river Periyar. River Periyar is the recipient water body for treated effluents from IREL as well as a host of other chemical industries. Indian Rare Earths Ltd, Udyogamandal had been carrying out chemical processing of monazite for the past 50 years. Recently, from 2004, the plant has shifted from monazite processing to processing of thorium concentrate (THRUST Project). The present paper discusses the characteristics of the effluents generated as per this project, their treatment, monitoring methodology, discharge and impact on the aquatic environment of river Periyar. It has been noted that the impact on the aquatic environment by way of enhancing the natural background radioactivity in the river had been insignificant. (author)

  18. Draft comprehensive conservation plan and environmental impact statement-Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge Complex, consisting of some of the newer properties in the National Wildlife Refuge System, is a work in progress. Offering unique assets to surrounding communities, these lands promise to become some of the premier urban wildlife refuges in the country. At the heart of the refuge complex is the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge: 16,000 acres of shortgrass and mixed-grass prairie that is home to bison, bald eagles, migratory songbirds, prairie dogs, and much more—all within the Denver Metropolitan area.This comprehensive conservation plan will be the first in the country designed to begin implementing the Refuge System’s new Urban Refuge Initiative. To accomplish this, we analyzed a wide range of options on how best to support up to one million visitors per year without compromising our principal purposes to protect and preserve fish and wildlife and their habitats. We are fortunate to have inherited a great deal of infrastructure from the U.S. Army, but we are also constrained by the current condition and layout of these facilities. Some of this infrastructure may be acting as barriers to the public—a condition inconsistent with the purposes of the refuge. Accordingly, we have developed a goal to increase and improve suitable access to the refuge, develop sustainable transportation options, and provide more connections among the units of the refuge complex. This increased access will enable people from all walks of life to visit the refuge. The vision we have developed for the refuge complex calls for the restoration of the refuge’s historical habitats, and the reconnection of people with the natural lands of the refuge and of the region at large using a network consisting of multimodal trails, a far-reaching light-rail system, and the Denver International Airport. This refuge is well positioned to leverage and catalyze early investments to create world-class wildlife habitat and a

  19. Bariatric Surgery Coverage: a Comprehensive Budget Impact Analysis from a Payer Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palli, Swetha R; Rizzo, John A; Heidrich, Natalie

    2018-06-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate a payer's budget impact of bariatric surgery coverage under (1) unrestricted, (2) budget-restricted ($500,000/year), and (3) quantity-restricted (100/year) medical benefit plan scenarios versus non-coverage in general and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) populations over a 10-year period. Using recently published literature and health technology assessment reports, the model evaluated a hypothetical payer population of 100,000 members under current real-world trends: BMI-defined obesity groups (31.3% normal/underweight, 33% overweight, 20.4% obese, 9% severely obese and 6.3% morbidly obese), T2DM prevalence (6.7-27.5%; 100% for the T2DM model), surgery type (LAGB, BPD/DS, VSG, and RYGB), and differential outcomes (T2DM resolution, costs, and reoperation and complications rates). Assuming a surgery election rate of 1.42% among eligible candidates with a 3% discount rate and 10% annual surgery turnover rate, the model calculated the incremental cost per-member-per-month (PMPM) by estimating the difference in total non-T2DM and T2DM-related expected costs and savings. One-way (± 25%) sensitivity analysis was performed. The impact of covering bariatric surgery under multiple scenarios for a general (or T2DM) population ranged from an additional $0.3 to $3.6 (T2DM: $0.3 to $10.5) PMPM in year 1. Incremental costs diminished over time, breaking even between years 5 and 9 (T2DM: 5-6), and by year 10, cost savings were estimated to be between $1.5 and $4.8 (T2DM: $1.2 and $31.8). Providing bariatric surgery coverage may have a modest short-term budget impact increase but would lead to long-term net cost savings in a general population model. The cost savings were much more pronounced in the T2DM model.

  20. Assessment of climate change impact on water resources in the Pungwe river basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Lotta; Samuelsson, Patrick; Kjellstroem, Erik (Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Inst., Norrkoeping (Sweden)), e-mail: lotta.andersson@smhi.se

    2011-01-15

    The Rossby Centre Regional Climate Model (RCA3) and the hydrological model HBV were linked to assess climate change impacts on water resources in the Pungwe basin until 2050. RCA3 was capable of simulating the most important aspects of the climate for a control period at the regional scale. At the subbasin scale, additional scaling was needed. Three climate change experiments using ECHAM4-A2, B2 and CCSM3-B2 as input to RCA3 were carried out. According to the simulations annual rainfall in 2050 would be reduced by approximately 10% with increasing interannual variability of rainfall and dry season river flow and later onset of the rainy season. The ECHAM4-A2 driven experiment did also indicate a slight increase of high flows. If the results indeed reflect the future, they will worsen the already critical situation for water resources, regarding both floods and droughts. Uncertainties, however in the downscaled scenarios make it difficult to prioritize adaptation options. This calls for inclusion of more climate change experiments, in an ensemble of climate scenarios possibly by using a combination of dynamical and statistical downscaling of general circulation models, as well as extending the simulations to 2100 to further ensure robustness of the signal

  1. Analysis of climate and anthropogenic impacts on runoff in the Lower Pra River Basin of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awotwi, Alfred; Anornu, Geophrey Kwame; Quaye-Ballard, Jonathan; Annor, Thompson; Forkuo, Eric Kwabena

    2017-12-01

    The Lower Pra River Basin (LPRB), located in the forest zone of southern Ghana has experienced changes due to variability in precipitation and diverse anthropogenic activities. Therefore, to maintain the functions of the ecosystem for water resources management, planning and sustainable development, it is important to differentiate the impacts of precipitation variability and anthropogenic activities on stream flow changes. We investigated the variability in runoff and quantified the contributions of precipitation and anthropogenic activities on runoff at the LPRB. Analysis of the precipitation-runoff for the period 1970-2010 revealed breakpoints in 1986, 2000, 2004 and 2010 in the LPRB. The periods influenced by anthropogenic activities were categorized into three periods 1987-2000, 2001-2004 and 2005-2010, revealing a decrease in runoff during 1987-2000 and an increase in runoff during 2001-2004 and 2005-2010. Assessment of monthly, seasonal and annual runoff depicted a significant increasing trend in the runoff time series during the dry season. Generally, runoff increased at a rate of 9.98 × 10 7 m 3 yr -1 , with precipitation variability and human activities contributing 17.4% and 82.3% respectively. The dominant small scale alluvial gold mining activity significantly contributes to the net runoff variability in LPRB.

  2. Toxicity and pollutant impact analysis in an urban river due to combined sewer overflows loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadio, A; Maglionico, M; Bolognesi, A; Artina, S

    2010-01-01

    The Navile Channel (Bologna, Italy) is an ancient artificial water course derived from the Reno river. It is the main receiving water body for the urban catchment of Bologna sewer systems and also for the Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) main outlet. The aim of this work is to evaluate the Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs) impact on Navile Channel's water quality. In order to collect Navile flow and water quality data in both dry and wet weather conditions, two measuring and sampling stations were installed, right upstream and downstream the WWTP outflow. The study shows that even in case of low intensity rain events, CSOs have a significant effect on both water quantity and quality, spilling a considerable amount of pollutants into the Navile Channel and presenting also acute toxicity effects. The collected data shown a good correlations between the concentrations of TSS and of chemical compounds analyzed, suggesting that the most part of such substances is attached to suspended solids. Resulting toxicity values are fairly high in both measuring points and seem to confirm synergistic interactions between heavy metals.

  3. Impacts of urban and industrial development on Arctic land surface temperature in Lower Yenisei River Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Shiklomanov, N. I.

    2015-12-01

    Urbanization and industrial development have significant impacts on arctic climate that in turn controls settlement patterns and socio-economic processes. In this study we have analyzed the anthropogenic influences on regional land surface temperature of Lower Yenisei River Region of the Russia Arctic. The study area covers two consecutive Landsat scenes and includes three major cities: Norilsk, Igarka and Dudingka. Norilsk industrial region is the largest producer of nickel and palladium in the world, and Igarka and Dudingka are important ports for shipping. We constructed a spatio-temporal interpolated temperature model by including 1km MODIS LST, field-measured climate, Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), DEM, Landsat NDVI and Landsat Land Cover. Those fore-mentioned spatial data have various resolution and coverage in both time and space. We analyzed their relationships and created a monthly spatio-temporal interpolated surface temperature model at 1km resolution from 1980 to 2010. The temperature model then was used to examine the characteristic seasonal LST signatures, related to several representative assemblages of Arctic urban and industrial infrastructure in order to quantify anthropogenic influence on regional surface temperature.

  4. Climate change impact on soil erosion in the Mandakini River Basin, North India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Deepak; Mondal, Arun; Kundu, Sananda; Mishra, Prabhash Kumar

    2017-09-01

    Correct estimation of soil loss at catchment level helps the land and water resources planners to identify priority areas for soil conservation measures. Soil erosion is one of the major hazards affected by the climate change, particularly the increasing intensity of rainfall resulted in increasing erosion, apart from other factors like landuse change. Changes in climate have an adverse effect with increasing rainfall. It has caused increasing concern for modeling the future rainfall and projecting future soil erosion. In the present study, future rainfall has been generated with the downscaling of GCM (Global Circulation Model) data of Mandakini river basin, a hilly catchment in the state of Uttarakhand, India, to obtain future impact on soil erosion within the basin. The USLE is an erosion prediction model designed to predict the long-term average annual soil loss from specific field slopes in specified landuse and management systems (i.e., crops, rangeland, and recreational areas) using remote sensing and GIS technologies. Future soil erosion has shown increasing trend due to increasing rainfall which has been generated from the statistical-based downscaling method.

  5. Savannah River Site, spent nuclear fuel management, draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    The management of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) has been an integral part of the mission of the Savannah River Site (SRS) for more than 40 years. Until the early 1990s, SNF management consisted primarily of short-term onsite storage and reprocessing in the SRS chemical separation facilities to produce strategic nuclear materials. With the end of the Cold War, the US Department of Energy (DOE) decided to phase out reprocessing of SNF for the production of nuclear weapons materials. Therefore, the management strategy for this fuel has shifted from short-term storage and reprocessing for the recovery of highly-enriched uranium and transuranic isotopes to stabilization, when necessary, and interim storage pending final disposition that includes preparing aluminum-based SNF for placement in a geologic repository. In addition to the fuel already onsite, the SRS will receive SNF from foreign research reactors until 2009 and from domestic research reactors until, potentially, 2035. As a result, the safe and efficient management of SNF will continue to be an important SRS mission. This EIS evaluates the potential environmental impacts of DOE's proposed plans for management SNF assigned to SRS

  6. 75 FR 1806 - Draft General Management Plan and Environmental Impact Statement, New River Gorge National River, WV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... visitor experiences. Management actions would build upon the cultural resource, interpretive, and... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Draft General Management Plan and Environmental... Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability of the Draft General Management Plan and Environmental Impact...

  7. Impact of a Comprehensive Early Clinical Exposure Program for Preclinical Year Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumitra Govindarajan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the impact of an early clinical exposure program designed to provide a wide variety (cognitive, affective and psychomotor of learning experiences for the preclinical year students. Method: One hundred and fifty preclinical students were posted in small groups to selected departments – Transfusion medicine, Catheterization lab, Simulation lab, Radiology, Neurology, Nephrology, Respiratory medicine and General surgery. Each student had atleast ten hours  of clinical exposure under this program. The program was evaluated through a series of pre and post-test questionnaires, which were designed based on the learning objectives of each session. Students who wished to participate in the program evaluation gave informed consent, took up the pre / post test and were also asked to give their written open comments about the program. Results: There was a significant increase in the post-test scores (ranging from 9.14±2.67 to 36.65±6.62 when compared to the pre-test scores (ranging from 7.94±2.31 to 28.69±6.11 for all the sessions (p value <0.001, n=144. Analysis of the open feedback showed that the program had significant impact on the cognitive, psychomotor and affective domains. “Application of basic sciences in clinical practice”, “motivation to learn”, “got familiar with various specialties”, “insight about what the patient undergoes” were the themes identified from the open comments. Conclusion: The innovative use of early clinical exposure program to teach/learn clinical skills like phlebotomy and Basic Life Support had been well appreciated by the students. The present design involving a variety of learning experiences has been successful in introducing the various dimensions of medical profession like scientific, ethical, interpersonal, professional and social to the new entrants in addition to enhancing their motivation to learn. Keywords: Attitude, Learning, Simulation lab, Medical education, Curriculum

  8. Impact of climate change and anthropogenic activities on stream flow and sediment discharge in the Wei River basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Reduced stream flow and increased sediment discharge are a major concern in the Yellow River basin of China, which supplies water for agriculture, industry and the growing populations located along the river. Similar concerns exist in the Wei River basin, which is the largest tributary of the Yellow River basin and comprises the highly eroded Loess Plateau. Better understanding of the drivers of stream flow and sediment discharge dynamics in the Wei River basin is needed for development of effective management strategies for the region and entire Yellow River basin. In this regard we analysed long-term trends for water and sediment discharge during the flood season in the Wei River basin, China. Stream flow and sediment discharge data for 1932 to 2008 from existing hydrological stations located in two subcatchments and at two points in the Wei River were analysed. Precipitation and air temperature data were analysed from corresponding meteorological stations. We identified change-points or transition years for the trends by the Pettitt method and, using double mass curves, we diagnosed whether they were caused by precipitation changes, human intervention, or both. We found significant decreasing trends for stream flow and sediment discharge during the flood season in both subcatchments and in the Wei River itself. Change-point analyses further revealed that transition years existed and that rapid decline in stream flow began in 1968 (P P P P P < 0.05, respectively. The impact of precipitation or human activity on the reduction amount after the transition years was estimated by double mass curves of precipitation vs. stream flow (sediment. For reductions in stream flow and sediment discharge, the contribution rate of human activity was found to be 82.80 and 95.56%, respectively, and was significantly stronger than the contribution rate of precipitation. This evidence clearly suggests that, in the absence of significant decreases in precipitation

  9. Wastewater discharge impact on drinking water sources along the Yangtze River (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuomin; Shao, Dongguo; Westerhoff, Paul

    2017-12-01

    Unplanned indirect (de facto) wastewater reuse occurs when wastewater is discharged into surface waters upstream of potable drinking water treatment plant intakes. This paper aims to predict percentages and trends of de facto reuse throughout the Yangtze River watershed in order to understand the relative contribution of wastewater discharges into the river and its tributaries towards averting water scarcity concerns. The Yangtze River is the third longest in the world and supports more than 1/15 of the world's population, yet the importance of wastewater on the river remains ill-defined. Municipal wastewater produced in the Yangtze River Basin increased by 41% between 1998 and 2014, from 2580m 3 /s to 3646m 3 /s. Under low flow conditions in the Yangtze River near Shanghai, treated wastewater contributions to river flows increased from 8% in 1998 to 14% in 2014. The highest levels of de facto reuse appeared along a major tributary (Han River) of the Yangtze River, where de facto reuse can exceed 20%. While this initial analysis of de facto reuse used water supply and wastewater data from 110 cities in the basin and 11 gauging stations with >50years of historic streamflow data, the outcome was limited by the lack of gauging stations at more locations (i.e., data had to be predicted using digital elevation mapping) and lack of precise geospatial location of drinking water intakes or wastewater discharges. This limited the predictive capability of the model relative to larger datasets available in other countries (e.g., USA). This assessment is the first analysis of de facto wastewater reuse in the Yangtze River Basin. It will help identify sections of the river at higher risk for wastewater-related pollutants due to presence of-and reliance on-wastewater discharge that could be the focus of field studies and model predictions of higher spatial and temporal resolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative modeling analyses of Cs-137 fate in the rivers impacted by Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheleznyak, M.; Kivva, S. [Institute of Environmental Radioactivity, Fukushima University (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    The consequences of two largest nuclear accidents of the last decades - at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) (1986) and at Fukushima Daiichi NPP (FDNPP) (2011) clearly demonstrated that radioactive contamination of water bodies in vicinity of NPP and on the waterways from it, e.g., river- reservoir water after Chernobyl accident and rivers and coastal marine waters after Fukushima accident, in the both cases have been one of the main sources of the public concerns on the accident consequences. The higher weight of water contamination in public perception of the accidents consequences in comparison with the real fraction of doses via aquatic pathways in comparison with other dose components is a specificity of public perception of environmental contamination. This psychological phenomenon that was confirmed after these accidents provides supplementary arguments that the reliable simulation and prediction of the radionuclide dynamics in water and sediments is important part of the post-accidental radioecological research. The purpose of the research is to use the experience of the modeling activities f conducted for the past more than 25 years within the Chernobyl affected Pripyat River and Dnieper River watershed as also data of the new monitoring studies in Japan of Abukuma River (largest in the region - the watershed area is 5400 km{sup 2}), Kuchibuto River, Uta River, Niita River, Natsui River, Same River, as also of the studies on the specific of the 'water-sediment' {sup 137}Cs exchanges in this area to refine the 1-D model RIVTOX and 2-D model COASTOX for the increasing of the predictive power of the modeling technologies. The results of the modeling studies are applied for more accurate prediction of water/sediment radionuclide contamination of rivers and reservoirs in the Fukushima Prefecture and for the comparative analyses of the efficiency of the of the post -accidental measures to diminish the contamination of the water bodies. Document

  11. Future Climate Change Impacts on Streamflows of Two Main West Africa River Basins: Senegal and Gambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansoumana Bodian

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the effect of climate change on the two main river basins of Senegal in West Africa: the Senegal and Gambia River Basins. We used downscaled projected future rainfall and potential evapotranspiration based on projected temperature from six General Circulation Models (CanESM2, CNRM, CSIRO, HadGEM2-CC, HadGEM2-ES, and MIROC5 and two scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 to force the GR4J model. The GR4J model was calibrated and validated using observed daily rainfall, potential evapotranspiration from observed daily temperature, and streamflow data. For the cross-validation, two periods for each river basin were considered: 1961–1982 and 1983–2004 for the Senegal River Basin at Bafing Makana, and 1969–1985 and 1986–2000 for the Gambia River Basin at Mako. Model efficiency is evaluated using a multi-criteria function (Fagg which aggregates Nash and Sutcliffe criteria, cumulative volume error, and mean volume error. Alternating periods of simulation for calibration and validation were used. This process allows us to choose the parameters that best reflect the rainfall-runoff relationship. Once the model was calibrated and validated, we simulated streamflow at Bafing Makana and Mako stations in the near future at a daily scale. The characteristic flow rates were calculated to evaluate their possible evolution under the projected climate scenarios at the 2050 horizon. For the near future (2050 horizon, compared to the 1971–2000 reference period, results showed that for both river basins, multi-model ensemble predicted a decrease of annual streamflow from 8% (Senegal River Basin to 22% (Gambia River Basin under the RCP4.5 scenario. Under the RCP8.5 scenario, the decrease is more pronounced: 16% (Senegal River Basin and 26% (Gambia River Basin. The Gambia River Basin will be more affected by the climate change.

  12. Human impact on sediment fluxes within the Blue Nile and Atbara River basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazar, Vincent; Vanacker, Veerle; Girma, Atkilt; Poesen, Jean; Golla, Semunesh

    2013-01-01

    A regional assessment of the spatial variability in sediment yields allows filling the gap between detailed, process-based understanding of erosion at field scale and empirical sediment flux models at global scale. In this paper, we focus on the intrabasin variability in sediment yield within the Blue Nile and Atbara basins as biophysical and anthropogenic factors are presumably acting together to accelerate soil erosion. The Blue Nile and Atbara River systems are characterized by an important spatial variability in sediment fluxes, with area-specific sediment yield (SSY) values ranging between 4 and 4935 t/km2/y. Statistical analyses show that 41% of the observed variation in SSY can be explained by remote sensing proxy data of surface vegetation cover, rainfall intensity, mean annual temperature, and human impact. The comparison of a locally adapted regression model with global predictive sediment flux models indicates that global flux models such as the ART and BQART models are less suited to capture the spatial variability in area-specific sediment yields (SSY), but they are very efficient to predict absolute sediment yields (SY). We developed a modified version of the BQART model that estimates the human influence on sediment yield based on a high resolution composite measure of local human impact (human footprint index) instead of countrywide estimates of GNP/capita. Our modified version of the BQART is able to explain 80% of the observed variation in SY for the Blue Nile and Atbara basins and thereby performs only slightly less than locally adapted regression models.

  13. Impacts of changing climate and snow cover on the flow regime of Jhelum River, Western Himalayas

    KAUST Repository

    Azmat, Muhammad

    2016-11-17

    This study examines the change in climate variables and snow cover dynamics and their impact on the hydrological regime of the Jhelum River basin in Western Himalayas. This study utilized daily streamflow records from Mangla dam, spanning a time period of 19 years (1995–2013), along with precipitation and temperature data over 52 years (1961–2013) from 12 different climate stations in the catchment. Additionally, moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) remote sensing product MOD10A2 was utilized to analyze the change in snow cover dynamics during 2000–2013. The Pearson and Kendall rank correlation tests were used to scrutinize snow cover trends and correlation between temperature, precipitation, snow cover area (SCA) and streamflows records. Basin-wide trend analysis showed a slightly increasing tendency in temperature (τ = 0.098) and precipitation (τ = 0.094), during the years 1961–2013. The changes in streamflow indicated a positive (r > 0.12) relationship with respect to temperature but variable trends (r = −0.45–0.41) with respect to precipitation during both the winter and monsoon seasons. This indicates that temperature has a significant impact on the hydrological regime of the basin. MODIS data-based investigations suggested an expansion in SCA during 2000–2013. The changes in SCA of high-altitude zones (>2000 m a.s.l.) depicted a stronger positive correlation with climate variables and streamflow compared with those obtained for low-altitude regions (<2000 m a.s.l.). Overall, these results signify that high-altitude areas contribute to the streamflow largely in the form of snow- and glacier-melt during the early summer season. The streamflow is then further augmented by monsoon rainfall in the low-elevation regions during late summer.

  14. Impact of Pharmacist-Conducted Comprehensive Medication Reviews for Older Adult Patients to Reduce Medication Related Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Whitney J; Phillips, Shaun W

    2017-12-31

    Older adults are demanding increased healthcare attention with regards to prescription use due in large part to highly complex medication regimens. As patients age, medications often have a more pronounced effect on older adults, negatively impacting patient safety and increasing healthcare costs. Comprehensive medication reviews (CMRs) optimize medications for elderly patients and help to avoid inappropriate medication use. Previous literature has shown that such CMRs can successfully identify and reduce the number of medication-related problems and improve acute healthcare utilization. The purpose of this pharmacy resident research study is to examine the impact of pharmacist-conducted geriatric medication reviews to reduce medication-related problems within a leading community health system in southwest Michigan. Furthermore, the study examines type of pharmacist interventions made during medication reviews, acute healthcare utilization, and physician assessment of the pharmacist's value. The study was conducted as a retrospective post-hoc analysis on ambulatory patients who received a CMR by a pharmacist at a primary care practice. Inclusion criteria included patients over 65 years of age with concurrent use of at least five medications who were a recent recipient of a CMR. Exclusion criteria included patients with renal failure, or those with multiple providers involved in primary care. The primary outcome was the difference in number of medication-related problems, as defined by the START and STOPP Criteria (Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment/Screening Tool of Older Persons' Prescriptions). Secondary outcomes included hospitalizations, emergency department visits, number and type of pharmacist interventions, acceptance rate of pharmacist recommendations, and assessment of the pharmacist's value by clinic providers. There were a total of 26 patients that received a comprehensive medication review from the pharmacist and were compared to a

  15. Flow dependent water quality impacts of historic coal and oil shale mining in the Almond River catchment, Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haunch, Simon; MacDonald, Alan M.; Brown, Neil; McDermott, Christopher I.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A GIS map of coal and oil shale mining in the Almond basin was constructed. • Water quality data confirms the continued detrimental impact of historic mining. • Oil shale mining is confirmed as a contributor to poor surface water quality. • Surface water flow affects mine contaminant chemistry, behaviour and transport. • River bed iron precipitate is re-suspended and transported downstream at high flow. - Abstract: The Almond River catchment in Central Scotland has experienced extensive coal mining during the last 300 years and also provides an example of enduring pollution associated with historic unconventional hydrocarbon exploitation from oil shale. Detailed spatial analysis of the catchment has identified over 300 abandoned mine and mine waste sites, comprising a significant potential source of mine related contamination. River water quality data, collected over a 15 year period from 1994 to 2008, indicates that both the coal and oil shale mining areas detrimentally impact surface water quality long after mine abandonment, due to the continued release of Fe and SO 4 2- associated with pyrite oxidation at abandoned mine sites. Once in the surface water environment Fe and SO 4 2- display significant concentration-flow dependence: Fe increases at high flows due to the re-suspension of river bed Fe precipitates (Fe(OH) 3 ); SO 4 2- concentrations decrease with higher flow as a result of dilution. Further examination of Fe and SO 4 loading at low flows indicates a close correlation of Fe and SO 4 2- with mined areas; cumulative low flow load calculations indicate that coal and oil shale mining regions contribute 0.21 and 0.31 g/s of Fe, respectively, to the main Almond tributary. Decreases in Fe loading along some river sections demonstrate the deposition and storage of Fe within the river channel. This river bed Fe is re-suspended with increased flow resulting in significant transport of Fe downstream with load values of up to 50 g/s Fe

  16. Impact of Watershed Development on Sediment Transport and Seasonal Flooding in the Main Stream of the Mekong River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameyama, S.; Nohara, S.; Sato, T.; Fujii, Y.; Kudo, K.

    2009-12-01

    The Mekong River watershed is undergoing rapid economic progress and population growth, raising conflicts between watershed development and environmental conservation. A typical conflict is between the benefits of dam construction versus the benefits of watershed ecological services. In developed countries, this conflict is changing to a coordinated search for outcomes that are mutually acceptable to all stakeholders. In the Mekong River, however, government policy gives priority to watershed development for ensuring steady energy supplies. Since the 1990s, a series of dams called “the Mekong Cascade” have been under construction. Dam construction has multiple economic values as electric power supply, irrigation water, flood control, etc. On the other hand, the artificial flow discharge controls of dam moderate seasonal hydrologic patterns of the Asian monsoon region. Dam operations can change the sediment transport regime and river structure. Furthermore, their impacts on watershed ecosystems and traditional economic activities of fisheries and agriculture in downstream areas may be severe. We focus on dam impacts on spatio-temporal patterns of sediment transport and seasonal flood in riparian areas downstream from Mekong River dams. Our study river section is located on 100 km down stream from the Golden Triangle region of Myanmar, Laos, and Thailand. We selected a 10-km section in this main channel to simulate seasonal flooding. We modeled the river hydrology in the years 1991 and 2002, before and after the Manwan dam construction (1986-1993). For this simulation, we adapted three models (distributed runoff model, 1-D hydrological model, and 2-D flood simulation with sediment movement algorithm.) Input data on river structure, water velocity, and flow volume were acquired from field survey data in November 2007 and 2008. In the step of parameter decision, we adopted the shuffled complex evolution method. To validate hydrologic parameters, we used annual

  17. Human impact on erosion patterns and sediment transport in the Yangtze River

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Xilin; Li, Chang'an; Kuiper, K. F.; Zhang, Zengjie; Gao, Jianhua; Wijbrans, J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Sediment load in rivers is an indicator of erosional processes in the upstream river catchments. Understanding the origin and composition of the sediment load can help to assess the influence of natural processes and human activities on erosion. Tectonic uplift, precipitation and run-off, hill

  18. Multi-timescale sediment responses across a human impacted river-estuary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yining; Chen, Nengwang; Li, Yan; Hong, Huasheng

    2018-05-01

    Hydrological processes regulating sediment transport from land to sea have been widely studied. However, anthropogenic factors controlling the river flow-sediment regime and subsequent response of the estuary are still poorly understood. Here we conducted a multi-timescale analysis on flow and sediment discharges during the period 1967-2014 for the two tributaries of the Jiulong River in Southeast China. The long-term flow-sediment relationship remained linear in the North River throughout the period, while the linearity showed a remarkable change after 1995 in the West River, largely due to construction of dams and reservoirs in the upland watershed. Over short timescales, rainstorm events caused the changes of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in the rivers. Regression analysis using synchronous SSC data in a wet season (2009) revealed a delayed response (average 5 days) of the estuary to river input, and a box-model analysis established a quantitative relationship to further describe the response of the estuary to the river sediment input over multiple timescales. The short-term response is determined by both the vertical SSC-salinity changes and the sediment trapping rate in the estuary. However, over the long term, the reduction of riverine sediment yield increased marine sediments trapped into the estuary. The results of this study indicate that human activities (e.g., dams) have substantially altered sediment delivery patterns and river-estuary interactions at multiple timescales.

  19. Impacts of Climate Change under the Threat of Global Warming for an Agricultural Watershed of the Kangsabati River

    OpenAIRE

    Sujana Dhar; Asis Mazumdar

    2009-01-01

    The effects of global warming on India vary from the submergence of low-lying islands and coastal lands to the melting of glaciers in the Indian Himalayas, threatening the volumetric flow rate of many of the most important rivers of India and South Asia. In India, such effects are projected to impact millions of lives. As a result of ongoing climate change, the climate of India has become increasingly volatile over the past several decades; this trend is expected to conti...

  20. Impact of Emissions of Marine Diesel Engines to Air Pollution on the Example of the Yugoslav River Shipping

    OpenAIRE

    Dragan Ljevaja

    2011-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the impact which marine diesel engines have on air pollution. The combustion of fossil fuels for marine diesel engines produces emission of various greenhouse gases; including carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), and sulphur dioxide (SO2). Gas emission calculation is shown on the example of the Yugoslav river shipping with two methods for calculati...

  1. Impacts of manure application on SWAT model outputs in the Xiangxi River watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruimin; Wang, Qingrui; Xu, Fei; Men, Cong; Guo, Lijia

    2017-12-01

    SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model has been widely used to simulate agricultural non-point source (ANPS) pollution; however, the impacts of livestock manure application on SWAT model outputs have not been well studied. The objective of this study was to investigate the environmental effects of livestock manure application based on the SWAT model in the Xiangxi River watershed, which is one of the largest tributaries of the Three Gorges Reservoir in China. Three newly-built manure databases (NB) were created and applied to different subbasins based on the actual livestock manure discharging amount. The calibration and validation values of SWAT model outputs obtained from the NB manure application and the original mixed (OM) manure were compared. The study results are as follows: (1) The livestock industry of Xingshan County developed quickly between 2005 and 2015. The downstream of the Xiangxi River (Huangliang, Shuiyuesi and Xiakou) had the largest livestock amount, and largely accounted for manure, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) production (>50%). (2) The NB manure application resulted in less phosphorus pollution (1686.35 kg for ORGP and 31.70 kg for MINP) than the OM manure application. Compared with the upstream, the downstream was influenced more by the manure application. (3) The SWAT results obtained from the NB manure had a better calibration and validation values than those from the OM manure. For ORGP, R2 and NSE values were 0.77 and 0.65 for the NB manure calibration; and the same values for the OM manure were 0.72 and 0.61, respectively. For MINP, R2 values were 0.65 and 0.62 for the NB manure and the OM manure, and the NSE values were 0.60 and 0.58, respectively. The results indicated that the built-in fertilizer database in SWAT has its limitation because it is set up for the simulation in the USA. Thus, when livestock manure is considered in a SWAT simulation, a newly built fertilizer database needs to be set up to represent

  2. COMPREHENSIVE ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN (CED STUDIO IN TWO ARCHITECTURE SCHOOLS IN KARACHI: EVOLUTION, PROCESS AND IMPACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noman Ahmed

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 1979, a studio module was introduced in the final year studies of Bachelor of Architecture programme at the Dawood College of Engineering and Technology, Karachi which was the only architecture school in the city at that time. A key objective of this studio module was to sensitize the ‘architects in making’ about context of the built environment, the process through which it was shaped and the forces that contributed in its shaping. The students were assigned to study a micro urban area for indepth investigation and analysis. At the conclusion, analytical presentations followed that also included basic proposals for addressing problems that were identified in the studio exercise. Begun in Dawood College, the studio was adopted by many schools of architecture in the country including the NED University, Karachi. This studio had multiple impacts. Understanding the realities behind creation of urban built environment, realization of multiple roles for professional contribution to ongoing metamorphosis and appreciation of diverse fields of studies within the domain of architectural education and practice were some of the vital aspects. The objectives of this paper are to document the evolution and process of CED studio work. The paper also aims to study the affects of CED work on the perception, understandings and professional orientation of architects who graduated from the schools where CED studio was conducted.

  3. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix E: Flood control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The Corps of Engineers, Bonneville Power Administration, and Bureau of Reclamation conducted a scoping process consisting of a series of regionwide public meetings and solicitation of written comments in the summer of 1990. Comments on flood control issues were received from all parts of the Columbia river basin. This appendix includes issues raised in the public scoping process, as well as those brought for consideration by members of the Flood Control Work Group

  4. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix M: Water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. Analysis of water quality begins with an account of the planning and evaluation process, and continues with a description of existing water quality conditions in the Columbia River Basin. This is followed by an explanation how the analysis was conducted. The analysis concludes with an assessment of the effects of SOR alternatives on water quality and a comparison of alternatives

  5. Quantification of Multiple Climate Change and Human Activity Impact Factors on Flood Regimes in the Pearl River Delta of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihan Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coastal flood regimes have been irreversibly altered by both climate change and human activities. This paper aims to quantify the impacts of multiple factors on delta flood. The Pearl River Delta (PRD, with dense river network and population, is one of the most developed coastal areas in China. The recorded extreme water level (m.s.l. in flood season has been heavily interfered with by varied income flood flow, sea-level rise, and dredged riverbeds. A methodology, composed of a numerical model and the index R, has been developed to quantify the impacts of these driving factors in the the PRD. Results show that the flood level varied 4.29%–53.49% from the change of fluvial discharge, 3.35%–38.73% from riverbed dredging, and 0.12%–16.81% from sea-level rise. The variation of flood flow apparently takes the most effect and sea-level rise the least. In particular, dense river network intensifies the impact of income flood change and sea-level rise. Findings from this study help understand the causes of the the PRD flood regimes and provide theoretical support for flood protection in the delta region.

  6. Quantifying human impacts on hydrological drought using a combined modelling approach in a tropical river basin in central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. M. Firoz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological droughts are one of the most damaging disasters in terms of economic loss in central Vietnam and other regions of South-east Asia, severely affecting agricultural production and drinking water supply. Their increasing frequency and severity can be attributed to extended dry spells and increasing water abstractions for e.g. irrigation and hydropower development to meet the demand of dynamic socioeconomic development. Based on hydro-climatic data for the period from 1980 to 2013 and reservoir operation data, the impacts of recent hydropower development and other alterations of the hydrological network on downstream streamflow and drought risk were assessed for a mesoscale basin of steep topography in central Vietnam, the Vu Gia Thu Bon (VGTB River basin. The Just Another Modelling System (JAMS/J2000 was calibrated for the VGTB River basin to simulate reservoir inflow and the naturalized discharge time series for the downstream gauging stations. The HEC-ResSim reservoir operation model simulated reservoir outflow from eight major hydropower stations as well as the reconstructed streamflow for the main river branches Vu Gia and Thu Bon. Drought duration, severity, and frequency were analysed for different timescales for the naturalized and reconstructed streamflow by applying the daily varying threshold method. Efficiency statistics for both models show good results. A strong impact of reservoir operation on downstream discharge at the daily, monthly, seasonal, and annual scales was detected for four discharge stations relevant for downstream water allocation. We found a stronger hydrological drought risk for the Vu Gia river supplying water to the city of Da Nang and large irrigation systems especially in the dry season. We conclude that the calibrated model set-up provides a valuable tool to quantify the different origins of drought to support cross-sectorial water management and planning in a suitable way to be transferred to similar

  7. Quantifying human impacts on hydrological drought using a combined modelling approach in a tropical river basin in central Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoz, A. B. M.; Nauditt, Alexandra; Fink, Manfred; Ribbe, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Hydrological droughts are one of the most damaging disasters in terms of economic loss in central Vietnam and other regions of South-east Asia, severely affecting agricultural production and drinking water supply. Their increasing frequency and severity can be attributed to extended dry spells and increasing water abstractions for e.g. irrigation and hydropower development to meet the demand of dynamic socioeconomic development. Based on hydro-climatic data for the period from 1980 to 2013 and reservoir operation data, the impacts of recent hydropower development and other alterations of the hydrological network on downstream streamflow and drought risk were assessed for a mesoscale basin of steep topography in central Vietnam, the Vu Gia Thu Bon (VGTB) River basin. The Just Another Modelling System (JAMS)/J2000 was calibrated for the VGTB River basin to simulate reservoir inflow and the naturalized discharge time series for the downstream gauging stations. The HEC-ResSim reservoir operation model simulated reservoir outflow from eight major hydropower stations as well as the reconstructed streamflow for the main river branches Vu Gia and Thu Bon. Drought duration, severity, and frequency were analysed for different timescales for the naturalized and reconstructed streamflow by applying the daily varying threshold method. Efficiency statistics for both models show good results. A strong impact of reservoir operation on downstream discharge at the daily, monthly, seasonal, and annual scales was detected for four discharge stations relevant for downstream water allocation. We found a stronger hydrological drought risk for the Vu Gia river supplying water to the city of Da Nang and large irrigation systems especially in the dry season. We conclude that the calibrated model set-up provides a valuable tool to quantify the different origins of drought to support cross-sectorial water management and planning in a suitable way to be transferred to similar river basins.

  8. Impact of a quality-assessment dashboard on the comprehensive review of pharmacist performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Long D; Roach, Erin M; Vogan, Eric D; Lam, Simon W; Eggers, Garrett G

    2017-09-01

    The impact of a quality-assessment dashboard and individualized pharmacist performance feedback on the adherence of order verification was evaluated. A before-and-after study was conducted at a 1,440-bed academic medical center. Adherence of order verification was defined as orders verified according to institution-derived, medication-related guidelines and policies. Formulas were developed to assess the adherence of verified orders to dosing guidelines using patient-specific height, weight, and serum creatinine clearance values from the electronic medical record at the time of pharmacist verification. A total of 5 medications were assessed by the formulas for adherence and displayed on the dashboard: ampicillin-sulbactam, ciprofloxacin, piperacillin-tazobactam, acyclovir, and enoxaparin. Adherence of order verification was assessed before (May 1-July 31, 2015) and after (November 1, 2015-January 31, 2016) individualized performance feedback was given based on trends identified by the quality-assessment dashboard. There was a significant increase in the overall adherence rate postintervention (90.1% versus 91.9%, p = 0.040). Among the 34 pharmacists who participated, the percentage of pharmacists with at least 90% overall adherence increased postintervention (52.9% versus 70.6%, p = 0.103). Time to verification was similar before and after the study intervention (median, 6.0 minutes; interquartile range, 3-13 minutes). The rate of documentation for nonadherent orders increased significantly postintervention (57.1% versus 68.5%, p = 0.019). The implementation of the quality-assessment dashboard, educational sessions, and individualized performance feedback significantly improved pharmacist order-verification adherence to institution-derived, medication-related guidelines and policies and the documentation rate of nonadherent orders. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of targeted and untargeted effects-based monitoring tools to assess impacts of contaminants of emerging concern on fish in the South Platte River, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers in the arid Western United States face increasing influences from anthropogenic contaminants due to population growth, urbanization, and drought. To better understand and more effectively track the impacts of these contaminants, biologically-based monitoring